Background The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of congenital cardiac disease among children attending UNTH, Enugu, Nigeria. The nature of these abnormalities and the outcome were also considered. The exact etiology is unknown but genetic and environmental factors tend to be implicated. The difference in the pattern obtained worldwide and few studies in Nigeria could be due to genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, or ethnic origin. Methods A retrospective analysis of discharged cases in which a review of the cases of all children attending children outpatient clinics including cardiology clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu over a five year period (January 2007-June 2012) was undertaken. All the children presenting with cardiac anomalies were included in the study and the cases were investigated using ECG, X-ray and echocardiography studies. Results A total of 31,795 children attended the children outpatient clinics of the hospital over the study period. Of these, seventy one (71) had cardiac diseases. The overall prevalence of cardiac disease is 0.22%. The commonest symptoms were breathlessness, failure to thrive and cyanosis. Almost all types of congenital detects were represented, the commonest being isolated ventricular septal detect (VSD), followed by tetralogy of Fallot. One of these cardiac anomalies presented with Downs’s syndrome and another with VACTERAL association. Conclusions The results of this study show that 0.22% per cent of children who attended UNTH in Enugu State had congenital cardiac abnormalities and the commonest forms seen were those with VSD. PMID:24252233
Background: Non-communicable diseases are increasing worldwide due to rapidly changing lifestyles and socio-economic status. It is contributing significantly to the global burden of diseases. Objective: To determine the pattern of non-communicable diseases in children admitted into the Paediatrics ward in a tertiary health centre in Enugu. Materials and Methods: A review of admissions into the Paediatrics ward of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, between January 1999 and December 2008 was done using the registry of admission and discharge. Results: The age range of patients admitted during the period was 2 months to 18 years (mean 5.27 ± 5.42 years). There were 1173 (59.6%) males and 796 (40.4%) females. Disorders of the haematological system accounted for 514 (23.3%) of the non-communicable diseases among the admissions, malignancies accounted for 424 (19.2%) among the admissions, whereas the renal, central nervous, and cardiovascular systems were involved in 282 (12.8%), 274 (12.4%), and 241 (10.9%) patients, respectively. There were 274 (12.4%) deaths and 1667 (75.5%) discharges while 38 (1.7%) were discharged against medical advice. Data on 221(10.2%) of the patients were reported missing. Malignancies contributed to 75 (27.3%) of the deaths, haematological disorders accounted for 44 (16%) whereas renal disorders and nutritional disorders contributed to 43 (15.7%) and 41 (15%) of the deaths, respectively. Conclusion: Non-communicable diseases affect children in our environment and contribute to morbidity and mortality in children. Strategies to prevent these diseases should be encouraged in order to avert the challenges of double burden of the diseases in children.
Emodi, IJ; Ikefuna, AN; Ujunwa, FA; Chinawa, JM
BACKGROUND: The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) by cancer patients is very common and varies between populations. The referenced English literature has no local study from Africa on this subject. This study was conducted to define the prevalence, pattern of use, and factors influencing the use of CAM by cancer patients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital
Emmanuel R Ezeome; Agnes N Anarado
Background Respiratory diseases are one of the causes of childhood morbidity and mortality as well as hospitalization globally. The patterns of different respiratory illnesses in several parts of the world have been reported but there are few on the combined burden of the diseases. Determination of the burden of respiratory diseases as a group will help ascertain their collective impact on the health systems in order to develop intervention measures. Methods Data from case notes of children with respiratory diseases admitted to the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria over a six year period were extracted. Age, gender, admission rates, types of respiratory illness, duration of admission, season of presentation and outcome were analysed. Descriptive and inferential (Chi square) statistics were used to describe the various disease types and ascertain association of the disease outcome, seasonal pattern with the types of diseases. Results Of the total of 8974 children admissions, 2214 (24.7%) were due to respiratory diseases. The mean age of all the children with respiratory diseases was 3.3?years (SD 3.9). Communicable diseases were the common cause of admission cases throughout the seasons, p < 0.001. The highest admission rates were for pneumonia, (34.0%), acute bronchial asthma, (27.7%) and rhinosinusitis (14.6%) p < 0.001. The frequency of respiratory disease decreases with age and children less than five years of age and of low socio-economic status were commonly affected, p?=?0.01. The median duration of hospital stay was two days [range 1 to 8?days], children less than five years old and those of low socio-economic status, spent more than four days (p?=?0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively). The all-cause mortality was 0.5% (11/2214) of which 81.8% (9/11) was due to pneumonia. Conclusions Respiratory diseases constitute a significant burden of childhood illnesses in our centre. Efforts are required to reduce the impact as part of the steps towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:24916799
Background Congenital abnormalities are not uncommon among newborns and contribute to neonatal and infant morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and pattern of presentation vary from place to place. Many a time the exact etiology is unknown but genetic and environmental factors tend to be implicated. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of congenital malformations among newborns admitted in a tertiary hospital in Enugu, the nature of these abnormalities and the outcome/prognosis. For purposes of this study, congenital abnormalities are defined as obvious abnormality of structure or form which is present at birth or noticed within a few days after birth. A cross-sectional retrospective study in which a review of the records of all babies admitted in the Newborn Special Care Unit (NBSCU) of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu over a four year period (January 2007-April 2011) was undertaken. All babies admitted in the unit with the diagnosis of congenital abnormality were included in the study. Information extracted from the records included characteristics of the baby, maternal characteristics, nature/type of abnormalities and outcome. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 13. Rates and proportions were calculated with 95% confidence interval. The proportions were compared using students T-test. Level of significance was set at P?0.05 Results Seventeen (17) out of a total of six hundred and seven newborn babies admitted in the newborn unit of UNTH over the study period (Jan 2007-March 2011) were found to have congenital abnormalities of various types, giving a prevalence of 2.8%. Common abnormalities seen in these babies were mainly surgical birth defects and included cleft lip/cleft palate, neural tube defects (occurring either singly or in combination with other abnormalities), limb abnormalities (often in combination with neural tube defects of various types), omphalocoele, umbilical herniae, ano-rectal malformations and dysmorphism associated with multiple congenital abnormalities. Conclusions The results of this study show that 2.8% of babies admitted to a Newborn Special Care Unit in a teaching hospital in Enugu had congenital abnormalities and that the commonest forms seen were mainly surgical birth defects and includes cleft lip/cleft palate and neural tube defects. PMID:22472067
Three Nigerian African patients (two boys aged 5 and 14 and one woman aged 28) with cancrum oris (noma) were seen over a period of 10 years at the maxillofacial unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. All three were from lower socioeconomic groups, and were treated with penicillin and metronidazole. The few patients that we saw (three in 10 years) contrasts with the much larger number of patients seen at the maxillofacial unit of the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Northern Nigeria (140 in 4 years) and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Western Nigeria (250 in 3 years). Nutritional cultures differ in these areas, and I suggest that the more balanced diet of the Eastern Nigerians may be one of the reasons for this difference. Poverty is the single most important risk factor, and preventive measures are necessary. PMID:12379187
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the technical efficiency of mechanical ventilation nonsurgery (DRG 475) among University Hospital Consortium (UHC) hospitals that consists of volunteer, teaching hospitals across the nation. The data for this study was retrieved from the 1997 UHC database that includes charge and discharge information for 69 hospitals. Data on 7961 patients classified with mechanical ventilation were aggregated to the hospital level. We retained data from a total of 62 hospitals, the other seven hospitals had missing data. The research questions were (1) Do UHC hospitals differ significantly in their efficiencies in the treatment of mechanically ventilated patients? (2) What inputs and outputs contribute most to the inefficiencies associated with mechanical ventilation? Of the 62 hospitals analyzed using data envelopment analysis technique, 10 were considered efficient and 52 were inefficient as compared to their benchmark peers. Efficient and inefficient hospitals did significantly differ between the transferred output variable and between the respiratory, laboratory, and radiology input variables. All inputs demonstrated excessive resource utilization among inefficient hospitals as compared to efficient hospitals. A total reduction of about $19 million dollars in ancillary services would need to occur for inefficient hospitals to approach the frontier of efficient hospitals. This study demonstrates that mechanical ventilation is costly, yet the specified ancillary services are capable of being reduced yielding technical efficiency as demonstrated by 10 efficient hospitals. PMID:12018609
O'Neal, Pamela V; Ozcan, Yasar A; Ma, Yanqiang
OBJECTIVE To analyze the causes of delay in hospital discharge of patients admitted to internal medicine wards. METHODS We reviewed 395 medical records of consecutive patients admitted to internal medicine wards of two public teaching hospitals: Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais and Hospital Odilon Behrens. The Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol was used to define the moment at which notes in the medical records indicated hospital stay was no longer appropriate and patients could be discharged. The interval between this estimated time and actual discharge was defined as the total number of days of delay in hospital discharge. An instrument was used to systematically categorize reasons for delay in hospital discharge and frequencies were analyzed. RESULTS Delays in discharge occurred in 60.0% of 207 hospital admissions in the Hospital das Clínicas and in 58.0% of 188 hospital admissions in the Hospital Odilon Behrens. Mean delay per patient was 4.5 days in the former and 4.1 days in the latter, corresponding to 23.0% and 28.0% of occupancy rates in each hospital, respectively. The main reasons for delay in the two hospitals were, respectively, waiting for complementary tests (30.6% versus 34.7%) or for results of performed tests to be released (22.4% versus 11.9%) and medical-related accountability (36.2% versus 26.1%) which comprised delays in discussing the clinical case and in clinical decision making and difficulties in providing specialized consultation (20.4% versus 9.1%). CONCLUSIONS Both hospitals showed a high percentage of delay in hospital discharge. The delays were mainly related to processes that could be improved by interventions by care teams and managers. The impact on mean length of stay and hospital occupancy rates was significant and troubling in a scenario of relative shortage of beds and long waiting lists for hospital admission. PMID:24897053
da Silva, Soraia Aparecida; Valácio, Reginaldo Aparecido; Botelho, Flávia Carvalho; Amaral, Carlos Faria Santos
Addressing the need for updated teaching hospital facilities is one of the most significant issues that an academic medical center faces. The authors describe the process they underwent in deciding to build a new facility at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC). Initial issues included whether or not the teaching hospital would continue to play a role in clinical education and whether to replace or renovate the existing facility. Once the decision to build was reached, MUSC had to choose between an on-campus or distant site for the new hospital and determine what the function of the old hospital would be. The authors examine these questions and discuss the factors involved in different stages of decision making, in order to provide the academic medicine community guidance in negotiating similar situations. Open communication within MUSC and with the greater community was a key component of the success of the enterprise to date. The authors argue that decisions concerning site, size, and focus of the hospital must be made by developing university-wide and community consensus among many different constituencies. The most important elements in the success at MUSC were having unified leadership, incorporating constituent input, engaging an external consultant, remaining unfazed by unanticipated challenges, and adhering to a realistic, aggressive timetable. The authors share their strategies for identifying and successfully managing these complex and potentially divisive aspects of building a new teaching hospital. PMID:16249296
Reves, J G; Smith, Stuart; Greenberg, Ray; Johnson, Donald
.297.1269 On-call Anesthesia Post-Doc Post-Doctoral Veterinary Teaching Hospital College of Veterinary Medicine (CSU) seeks to fill a flexible after hours position for the Anesthesia service. The individual in this position will be dedicated to providing after hours/ weekend anesthesia coverage. The primary
... Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals. 415.190 ...Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals. (a) Basis...basis for the services of an assistant at surgery in a teaching hospital. This...
... Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals. 415.190 ...Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals. (a) Basis...basis for the services of an assistant at surgery in a teaching hospital. This...
... Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals. 415.190 ...Conditions of payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals. (a) Basis...basis for the services of an assistant at surgery in a teaching hospital. This...
Background More than half of the pregnant women in the world have hemoglobin levels indicative of anemia. Knowledge of the current situation of the condition in our environment is necessary. This knowledge will motivate antenatal caregivers toward early detection and prompt management of anemia in pregnancy. Aims Our aim was to determine the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women at registration for antenatal care at a major tertiary healthcare center in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study of 530 normal pregnant women registered with the antenatal unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, between January 1, 2005 and October 30, 2005. Data on the age, parity, gestational age at booking, interval between last confinement and last menstrual period in the index pregnancy, hemoglobin concentration at booking, and HIV status were obtained and analyzed. Results The mean gestational age at booking was 21.7 ± 7.1 weeks (range, 6–37). Two hundred fourteen (40.4%) of the women were anemic (hemoglobin [Hb] < 11.0 g/dL). The majority (90.7%) of these anemic patients were mildly anemic, whereas 9.3% were moderately anemic. There was no case of severe anemia (Hb < 7.0 g/dL). The prevalence of anemia at booking was significantly higher in those who registered for antenatal care in the third trimester than in those who registered in the second trimester, and in HIV-positive pregnant women than in HIV-negative ones (P = .00). The patients' age, parity, and the interval between the last confinement and the index pregnancy had no significant relationship with the hemoglobin concentration of pregnant women at booking (P > .05). Conclusion The prevalence of anemia in pregnancy at booking is still high in Enugu. Preconception care, including iron and folic acid supplementation, is advocated to reduce this problem. Early antenatal booking and improved antenatal care are also necessary for early diagnosis and treatment of the condition. All would ensure safe motherhood. PMID:18092018
Dim, Cyril C.; Onah, Hyacinth E.
...beneficiaries in teaching hospitals. 415.162 Section...MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...received $25,000 from Hospital X for services as a department head in a teaching hospital. Dr. Smith also...
A novel idea for information security education created by the New York State Center for Information Forensics and Assurance (CIFA) is presented. This new approach incorporates a teaching hospital model originally developed for medical training. In this model, information security problems from industry and government are solved and abstracted…
Goel, Sanjay; Pon, Damira; Bloniarz, Peter; Bangert-Drowns, Robert; Berg, George; Delio, Vince; Iwan, Laura; Hurbanek, Thomas; Schuman, Sandoor P.; Gangolly, Jagdish; Baykal, Adnan; Hobbs, Jon
This paper explores the performance dimensions of Italian teaching hospitals (THs) by considering the multiple constituent model approach, using measures that are subjective and based on individual ideals and preferences. Our research replicates a study of a French TH and deepens it by adjusting it to the context of an Italian TH. The purposes of this research were as follows: to identify emerging views on the performance of teaching hospitals and to analyze how these views vary among hospital stakeholders. We conducted an in-depth case study of a TH using a quantitative survey method. The survey uses a questionnaire based on Parsons' social system action theory, which embraces the major models of organizational performance and covers three groups of internal stakeholders: physicians, caregivers and administrative staff. The questionnaires were distributed between April and September 2011. The results confirm that hospital performance is multifaceted and includes the dimensions of efficiency, effectiveness and quality of care, as well as organizational and human features. There is a high degree of consensus among all observed stakeholder groups about these values, and a shared view of performance is emerging. Our research provides useful information for defining management priorities to improve the performance of THs. PMID:24560230
Mauro, Marianna; Cardamone, Emma; Cavallaro, Giusy; Minvielle, Etienne; Rania, Francesco; Sicotte, Claude; Trotta, Annarita
Introduction: Organization structure and manpower constitute two basic components of anorganization and both are necessary for stablishing an organization. The aim of this survey was to investigate the type of the organization structure (mechanic and organic) from viewpoint of senior and junior managers in Shiraz teaching hospitals and creativity in each of these two structures. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, organization structure and organizational creation questionnaires were filled out by hospital managers. According to the statistical consultation and due to limited target population, the entire study population was considered as sample. Thus, the sample size in this study was 84 (12 hospitals and every hospital, n = 7). For data analysis, SPSS 14 was used and Spearman correlation coefficient and t-test were used. Results: Results showed that there is a negative association between centralization and complexity with organizational creation and its dimensions. Also there was a negative association between formalization and 4 organizational creation dimensions: reception change, accepting ambiguity, abet new view and less control outside (p=0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the creation in hospitals with organic structure is more than that in hospitals with mechanic structure. PMID:25512934
REZAEE, RITA; MARHAMATI, SAADAT; NABEIEI, PARISA; MARHAMATI, RAHELEH
The drug information center (DIC) at the Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH), Pokhara, Nepal, was started in November 2003. The DIC provides objective, unbiased information on drugs and therapeutics to health care professionals in the teaching hospital and outside. The DIC is also involved in activities beyond the provision of drug information.The DIC maintains a close liaison with the hospital drug
P. Ravi Shankar; P. Mishra; P. Subish; Dinesh K. Upadhyay
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the economic costs and the level of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) due to childhood epilepsy. Methods: The study was conducted at the Paediatric Neurology Clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires that were administered to caregivers of the children. The indirect and direct expenditure due to childhood epilepsy were computed. A 40 percent of monthly non-food expenditure was used to estimate CHE. Results: The average annual direct and indirect expenditures were USD 162.6 and USD 82.3, respectively. Most of direct costs were drugs (25.4 percent versus 35.3 percent) and investigations (48.7 percent versus 61.3 percent) for out-patient and in-patient, respectively. CHE was 34.1 percent and 63.6 percent for out-patient and in-patient care, respectively. The total annual costs: (direct and indirect), for childhood epilepsy of USD244.9. Considering the estimated 190,000 epileptic children in Nigeria, it will amount to USD46.53 million annually, approximately 0.018 percent of Nigeria Gross Domestic Product (GDP). All payments were made out-of-pocket with no health insurance for financial risk protection. Conclusions: The cost of treatment of childhood epilepsy is high and catastrophic for many households. There was lack of usage of health financial risk mechanisms. Scale-up use of health financial risk protection mechanisms such as health insurance can reduce the economic burden. PMID:25425239
Ughasoro, Maduka D; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Ojinnaka, Ngozika C
Patients' rights observance is one of the effective measures of patients' satisfaction of health care services. We performed this study at the aim of evaluation of nurses' awareness of patients' rights in a teaching hospital in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010. In this study 156 nurses were randomly selected. Two-part questionnaire was used for data collection. The validity and reliability of questionnaire was determined and then it was distributed between subjects. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 using descriptive and inferential statistics. Our results showed that %58.33, %39.10 and % 2.56 of nurses have good, medium, and poor levels of awareness respectively. We observed a significant relationship between nurses awareness and work experience (P=0.008) and concurrent work in public and private hospitals (P=0.01). The most of the nurses (%95.51) were aware of "right to privacy protection and ensure confidentiality of information" and the least of them (%33.97) were aware of "right to receiving necessary information about the health care providers, the rate of tariff and insurance coverage". According to our survey it is concluded that implementation of Patients' Right Charter in this hospital is accompanied by some limitations which necessitates promotion of the nurses' awareness about patients' rights. Taken together in order to enhance nurses' awareness special measures and strategies should be considered. PMID:23908744
Mohammad Nejad, Esmaeil; Begjani, Jamaloddin; Abotalebi, Ghasem; Salari, Amir; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh
This report presents the results of an annual survey of housestaff stipends, benefits, and funding for physicians at teaching hospitals in 1992. The data, presented in 48 tables and 4 figures, are based on responses from 325 members of the Council of Teaching Hospitals (COTH), an 83 percent response rate to the survey. Chapter I contains stipend…
In a world of continuously changing business environments, organizations have no option; however, to deal with such a big level of transformation in order to adjust the consequential demands. Therefore, many companies need to continually improve and review their processes to maintain their competitive advantages in an uncertain environment. Meeting these challenges requires implementing the most efficient possible business processes, geared to the needs of the industry and market segments that the organization serves globally. In the last 10 years, total quality management, business process reengineering, and business process management (BPM) have been some of the management tools applied by organizations to increase business competiveness. This paper is an original article that presents implementation of “BPM” approach in the healthcare domain that allows an organization to improve and review its critical business processes. This project was performed in “Qaem Teaching Hospital” in Mashhad city, Iran and consists of four distinct steps; (1) identify business processes, (2) document the process, (3) analyze and measure the process, and (4) improve the process. Implementing BPM in Qaem Teaching Hospital changed the nature of management by allowing the organization to avoid the complexity of disparate, soloed systems. BPM instead enabled the organization to focus on business processes at a higher level.
Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Doosty, Farzaneh
Analyzed databases from four U.S. National Clinical Pharmacy Services Studies and the American Hospital Association for trends in hospital involvement in pharmacy education. Detailed findings indicated that clinical pharmacy services within the nation's teaching hospitals are not standardized and that financial pressures impede a full, consistent…
Raehl, Cynthia; Bond, C. A.
Little work has been done on patients’ satisfaction with hospital care in Nigeria. This prospective study was done to identify factors affecting patients’ satisfaction with emergency care in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. This study was carried out among adult patients who had received care at the Accident and Emergency unit of the hospital. We used the priority index (calculated
Kehinde Oluwadiya; Samuel A. Olatoke; Adekunle J. Ariba; Omotola A. Omotosho; Olakunle A. Olakulehin
??To determine the incidence, common indications,appropriateness and outcome of blood transfusions and blood products among adult in-patients admitted to the University teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.… (more)
Siamuyoba, Lawrence S
Dental and Oral Surgery Service Clinician Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital in dentistry and oral surgery. This position will have clinical and teaching responsibilities within the Dentistry and Oral Surgery Service (DOSS). The 12-month appointment will consist of a 40 week clinical
Objective: To study the perceptions on bioethics among patients presenting to family physicians at a teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan Study design: Questionnaire based cross sectional survey Settings: The study was carried out at the family practice center, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi Main outcome measures: Perceptions on the broad principles of bioethics Results: Majority of the respondents were
Waris Qidwai; Hafeez Qureshi; Syed Sohail Ali; Mahboob Alam; Syed Iqbal Azam
To quantify the extent of patient sharing and inpatient care fragmentation among patients discharged from a cohort of Chicago hospitals. Admission and discharge dates and patient ZIP codes from 5 hospitals over 2 years were matched with an encryption algorithm. Admission to more than one hospital was considered fragmented care. The association between fragmentation and socio-economic variables using ZIP-code data from the 2000 US Census was measured. Using validation from one hospital, patient matching using encrypted identifiers had a sensitivity of 99.3 % and specificity of 100 %. The cohort contained 228,151 unique patients and 334,828 admissions. Roughly 2 % of the patients received fragmented care, accounting for 5.8 % of admissions and 6.4 % of hospital days. In 3 of 5 hospitals, and overall, the length of stay of patients with fragmented care was longer than those without. Fragmentation varied by hospital and was associated with the proportion of non-Caucasian persons, the proportion of residents whose income fell in the lowest quartile, and the proportion of residents with more children being raised by mothers alone in the zip code of the patient. Patients receiving fragmented care accounted for 6.4 % of hospital days. This percentage is a low estimate for our region, since not all regional hospitals participated, but high enough to suggest value in creating Health Information Exchange. Fragmentation varied by hospital, per capita income, race and proportion of single mother homes. This secure methodology and fragmentation analysis may prove useful for future analyses. PMID:23381645
Galanter, William L; Applebaum, Andrew; Boddipalli, Viveka; Kho, Abel; Lin, Michael; Meltzer, David; Roberts, Anna; Trick, Bill; Walton, Surrey M; Lambert, Bruce L
Objective To analyze the direct cost of reusable and disposable aprons in a public teaching hospital. Method Cross-sectional study of quantitative approach, focusing on the direct cost of reusable and disposable aprons at a teaching hospital in northern Paraná. The study population consisted of secondary data collected in reports of the cost of services, laundry, materials and supplies division of the institution for the year 2012 Results We identified a lower average cost of using disposable apron when compared to the reusable apron. The direct cost of reusable apron was R$ 3.06, and the steps of preparation and washing were mainly responsible for the high cost, and disposable apron cost was R$ 0.94. Conclusion The results presented are important for hospital managers properly allocate resources and manage costs in hospitals?. PMID:25493497
Pissinati, Paloma de Souza Cavalcante; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Lourenço; Rossaneis, Mariana Ângela; Gil, Roseli Broggi; Belei, Renata Aparecida
Purpose The decline in the use of forceps in operative deliveries over the last two decades raises questions about teaching hospitals' ability to provide trainees with adequate experience in the use of forceps. The authors examined: (1) the number of operative deliveries performed in teaching and nonteaching hospitals, and (2) whether teaching hospitals performed a sufficient number of forceps deliveries for physicians to acquire and maintain competence. Method The authors used State Inpatient Data from nine states to identify all women hospitalized for childbirth in 2008. They divided hospitals into three categories: major teaching, minor teaching, and nonteaching. They calculated delivery volumes (total operative, cesarean, vacuum, forceps, two or more methods) for each hospital and compared data across hospital categories. Results The sample included 1,344,305 childbirths in 835 hospitals. The mean cesarean volumes for major teaching, minor teaching, and nonteaching hospitals were 969.8, 757.8, and 406.9. The mean vacuum volumes were 301.0, 304.2, and 190.4, and the mean forceps volumes were 25.2, 15.3, and 8.9. In 2008, 31 hospitals (3.7% of all hospitals) performed no vacuum extractions, and 320 (38.3%) performed no forceps deliveries. In 2008, 13 (23%) major teaching and 44 (44%) minor teaching hospitals performed five or fewer forceps deliveries. Conclusions Low forceps delivery volumes may preclude many trainees from acquiring adequate experience and proficiency. These findings highlighted broader challenges, faced by many specialties, in ensuring that trainees and practicing physicians acquire and maintain competence in infrequently performed, highly technical procedures. PMID:24280847
Kyser, Kathy L.; Lu, Xin; Santillan, Donna; Santillan, Mark; Caughey, Aaron B.; Wilson, Mark C.; Cram, Peter
The results are reported of a first round of costing by DRG in seven major teaching hospital sites in Sydney using the Yale cost model. These results, when compared between the hospitals and with values of relative costs by DRG from the United States, indicate that the cost modelling procedure has produced credible and potentially useful estimates of casemix costs. The rationale and underlying theory of cost modelling is explained, and the need for further work to improve the method of allocating costs to DRGs, and to improve the cost centre definitions currently used by the hospitals, is emphasised. PMID:10117339
Palmer, G; Aisbett, C; Fetter, R; Winchester, L; Reid, B; Rigby, E
Assistant Professor, Dentistry and Oral Surgery Department of Clinical Sciences, James L. Voss Professor. Description Summary The Dentistry and Oral Surgery Service at the James L. Voss Veterinary Teaching Hospital is looking for a veterinary dentist to join the dentistry team consisting of 2 faculty
Purpose: To present the results of uveal melanomas treated at Nice Teaching Hospital. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 886 consecutive patients referred to our clinic for the treatment of uveal melanomas by proton beam radiotherapy from June 1991 to December 2007. Survival rates were determined by using Kaplan-Meier estimates, and prognostic factors were evaluated using the log-rank test
Jean-Pierre Caujolle; Hamid Mammar; Emmanuel Phar Chamorey; Fabien Pinon; Joël Herault; Pierre Gastaud
A genotypically indistinguishable strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Australian epidemic strain III: AES III) has previously been found in a proportion of adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) in Tasmania, Australia. The aim of this study was to identify a source of these infections within the major tertiary referral hospital for the State of Tasmania, and to determine if this strain could be isolated from settings other than the CF lung. A total of 120 isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from clinical and environmental sources within the hospital and from environmental locations in the hospital vicinity. These isolates were genotyped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute method. Confirmation of similar genotypes identified by RAPD-PCR was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with restriction enzyme SpeI. AES III was not recovered from any source other than the respiratory secretions of CF patients. P. aeruginosa in the non-CF settings was found to be panmictic, and no cross-infection or acquisition of hospital environment strains by patients was observed. PMID:19699556
Bradbury, R S; Champion, A C; Reid, D W
Background: The mortality rate from bacteraemia is one of the highest among infections in hospitals, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recently, an increase in nosocomial bacteraemia caused by gram-negative resistant pathogens has been observed. In this work we review the clinical and laboratory findings of adult patients with Acinetobacter bacteraemia in order to identify risk factors associated with
C Valero; J. D Garc??a Palomo; P Matorras; C Fernández-Mazarrasa; C González Fernández; M. C Fariñas
This paper documents, using a single test as a model, the significant increase in clinical laboratory workload which occurred in a university hospital when strong sections of nephrology, hematology-oncology, and immunology-rheumatology were added to the department of medicine. (Author)
Van Peenen, Hubert J.
Effective clinical teaching rounds are facilitated by adequate and specific orientation, a positive climate, interpersonal rapport, and dynamic discussions. Using fewer and better-quality questions also promotes effective learning and saves valuable time, while providing multiple opportunities for student engagement and for assessing student performance. This paper provides a brief review of these key points and offers tips and examples for clinicians or other team members leading conference room rounds sessions in veterinary settings. PMID:23697541
Lane, India F; Cornell, Karen K
We compared total charges for obstetric care at a major teaching hospital and faculty group practice with those at 3 nonteaching centers in western Washington. The patients were all enrollees of an employee-based health maintenance organization. Charges were used as a proxy for costs and included all outpatient, inpatient, and physician charges. In the teaching system, patients were cared for by faculty and house staff; in the nonteaching settings, they received care from private physicians. No significant differences in total charges were found between the teaching and the nonteaching settings for all deliveries ($4,652 [N = 90] versus $4,530 [N = 335], P greater than .5). In the teaching setting, vaginal deliveries were slightly more expensive ($4,178 [n = 75] versus $3,768 [n = 250], P = .15), as were cesarean deliveries ($7,024 [n = 15] versus $6,771 [n = 85], P greater than .5). The rate of cesarean deliveries was lower in the teaching setting (17% versus 25%, P = .10), partially accounting for the similarity in total charges. The length of stay was similar in the teaching hospital (3.29 versus 3.14 days, P greater than .5). We conclude that the academic medical center as a total system of care can provide obstetric care as cost-effectively as nonteaching systems under the constraints of prepaid care. PMID:1812631
Gordon, G. S.; Sefcik, S. E.; Lo Gerfo, J. P.
We compared total charges for obstetric care at a major teaching hospital and faculty group practice with those at 3 nonteaching centers in western Washington. The patients were all enrollees of an employee-based health maintenance organization. Charges were used as a proxy for costs and included all outpatient, inpatient, and physician charges. In the teaching system, patients were cared for by faculty and house staff; in the nonteaching settings, they received care from private physicians. No significant differences in total charges were found between the teaching and the nonteaching settings for all deliveries ($4,652 [N = 90] versus $4,530 [N = 335], P greater than .5). In the teaching setting, vaginal deliveries were slightly more expensive ($4,178 [n = 75] versus $3,768 [n = 250], P = .15), as were cesarean deliveries ($7,024 [n = 15] versus $6,771 [n = 85], P greater than .5). The rate of cesarean deliveries was lower in the teaching setting (17% versus 25%, P = .10), partially accounting for the similarity in total charges. The length of stay was similar in the teaching hospital (3.29 versus 3.14 days, P greater than .5). We conclude that the academic medical center as a total system of care can provide obstetric care as cost-effectively as nonteaching systems under the constraints of prepaid care. PMID:1812631
Gordon, G S; Sefcik, S E; Lo Gerfo, J P
Strabismus may result in impaired stereopsis, diplopia, undesirable appearance, amblyopia and negative psychological impact. This study provides epidemiological and surgical outcome information about patients attending University College Hospital Galway requiring strabismus surgery. We report a retrospective analysis of 75 consecutive patients, who underwent horizontal strabismus surgery. Sixty-one (81.3%) patients had clinically significant refractive errors, hyperopia being the most common. Thirty-four (45.3%) patients had amblyopia and nine (12%) required further treatment. A cosmetically acceptable result with a post-operative ocular deviation within 25 prism dioptres of straight (grade 2) was achieved in 70/75 (93.3%) of patients. The overall mean change in ocular deviation per mm of muscle operated was 3.25 prism dioptre/mm. The outcomes of strabismus surgery in an Irish hospital compare very favourably with other jurisdictions. This data will help plan service delivery. PMID:24988834
Idrees, Z; Dooley, I; Fahy, G
OBJECTIVES:To estimate the incidence, indications, risk factors, and complications associated with emergency peripartum hysterectomy at a community-based academic medical center.METHODS:We analyzed retrospectively 47 of 48 cases of emergency peripartum hysterectomy performed at Winthrop-University Hospital from 1991 to 1997. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy was defined as one performed for hemorrhage unresponsive to other treatment less than 24 hours after delivery. Fisher exact
Elana S Kastner; Reinaldo Figueroa; David Garry; Dev Maulik
One hundred and twelve primary posterior chamber intraocular lens implants from a series of 560 eyes operated on at the Eye Service of Hospital Salvador in Santiago, Chile, were analyzed to determine the postoperative visual acuity. The follow up time varied between 3 and 26 months. Lenses were implanted by experienced ophthalmologists and residents in training. Visual acuity was 0.5 or better in 79.5% of cases. The postoperative visual acuity varied with age, being worse in patients over 70 years old. PMID:1844754
Jara, R; Charlín, R; Schweikart, A; Stoppel, J; Maul, E
Background: Hospitals are highly resource-dependent settings, which spend a large proportion of healthcare financial resources. The analysis of hospital efficiency can provide insight into how scarce resources are used to create health values. This study examines the Technical Efficiency (TE) of 12 teaching hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) between 1999 and 2011. Methods: The Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) method was applied to estimate the efficiency of TUMS hospitals. A best function, referred to as output and input parameters, was calculated for the hospitals. Number of medical doctors, nurses, and other personnel, active beds, and outpatient admissions were considered as the input variables and number of inpatient admissions as an output variable. Results: The mean level of TE was 59% (ranging from 22 to 81%). During the study period the efficiency increased from 61 to 71%. Outpatient admission, other personnel and medical doctors significantly and positively affected the production (P< 0.05). Concerning the Constant Return to Scale (CRS), an optimal production scale was found, implying that the productions of the hospitals were approximately constant. Conclusion: Findings of this study show a remarkable waste of resources in the TUMS hospital during the decade considered. This warrants policy-makers and top management in TUMS to consider steps to improve the financial management of the university hospitals. PMID:25114947
Goudarzi, Reza; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Askari, Roohollah; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Moghri, Javad
Background Human T-cell lymphotrophic/leukemia virus (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus implicated in transfusion-transmitted infection. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies among blood donors at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Eastern Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on consented participants over 4 months. A total of 300 blood donors were recruited consecutively from the blood bank. The serum of the collected 5 mL of blood obtained from each participant was stored at ?20°C until required for analysis. The serum samples were then analyzed for antibodies to HTLV-1 using a one-step incubation double-antigen sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit. Participants’ demographic characteristics and degree of exposure to the risk factors associated with HTLV-1 infection were captured using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis of results was done using SPSS version 17. Results Of the 300 blood donors, 288 (96%) were male, while 12 (4%) were female. The average age of the blood donors was 26.85±8.52 years. The age group with the highest representation among the blood donors were those aged between 21 and 25 years. Only 22.3% of the blood donors were above 30 years. None of the 300 screened blood donors tested positive to HTLV-1 antibodies. Hence, the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 infection among blood donors was 0%. Of the blood donors, 5% had history of previous sexually transmitted disease, while 34.7% used condoms during sexual intercourse. Conclusion The seroprevalence obtained in this study cannot statistically support the justification of routine screening of blood donors for HTLV-1 infection. More prospective and multicentered studies are required to determine the infectivity of HTLV-1 in blood donors in Nigeria.
Okoye, Augustine Ejike; Ibegbulam, Obike Godswill; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Ugwu, Ngozi Immaculata; Anigbo, Chukwudi Simon; Nonyelu, Charles Emeka
One factor in solving the rural medical workforce shortage is to foster student interest by greater exposure to rural medicine. However, many medical school teachers are concerned that this may cause students to be disadvantaged by missing core lectures, tutorials and ward rounds in the setting of the high quality of teaching hospital medicine. This paper compares the rural specialty experience of 28 fifth-year volunteers with 28 'pairs' who remained in the city teaching hospitals. Rural students saw double the number of medical conditions, assisted in or performed six times as many procedures, and all but three students were sure that they had a better educational experience than their city counterparts. This is a strong academic argument for greater medical student exposure to rural specialty practice. PMID:9437138
Background. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and about 70% of all cancer deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries. The cancer mortality pattern is quite different in Africa compared to other parts of the world. Extensive literature research showed little or no information about the overall deaths attributable to cancer in Nigeria. Aims and Objectives. This study aims at providing data on the patterns of cancer deaths in our center using the hospital and autopsy death registers. Methodology. Demographic, clinical data of patients who died of cancer were extracted from death registers in the wards and mortuary over a period of 14 years (2000–2013). Results. A total of 1436 (4.74%) cancer deaths out of 30287 deaths recorded during the period. The male to female ratio was 1?:?2.2 and the peak age of death was between 51 and 60 years. Overall, breast cancer was responsible for most of the deaths. Conclusion. The study shows that the cancers that accounted for majority of death occurred in organs that were accessible to screening procedures and not necessary for survival. We advise regular screening for precancerous lesions in these organs so as to reduce the mortality rate and burden of cancer. PMID:25628656
Akinde, Olakanmi Ralph; Phillips, Adekoyejo Abiodun; Oguntunde, Olubanji Ajibola; Afolayan, Olatunji Michael
An outbreak of psittacosis in a veterinary teaching hospital was recognized in December 2004. Outbreak management was instituted to evaluate the extent of the outbreak and to determine the avian source. Real-time PCR, serologic testing and sequencing of the ompA gene of Chlamydophila psittaci were performed. Sputum samples from patients, throat-swab samples from exposed students and staff, and faecal specimens
Edou R. Heddema; Hannen van E. J; Birgitta Duim; Jongh de B. M; Jan A. Kaan; Rob van Kessel; Johannes T. Lumeij; Caroline E. Visser
Clinical Trials Support - Research Associate II Animal Cancer Center Oncology Clinical Trials Program - Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital Oncology Clinical Trials Program the daily schedule for the clinical trials rotation o Patient care including, obtaining owner history
Stephens, Graeme L.
Background The duty of a doctor to take care presumes the person who offers medical advice and treatment to unequivocally possess the skills and knowledge to do so. However, a sense of responsibility cannot be guaranteed in the absence of accountability, which in turn requires a comprehensive medical law system to be in place. Such a system is almost non-existent in Pakistan. Keeping the above in mind, we designed this study to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of surgeons regarding malpractice at a tertiary care center in Pakistan. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted during a three month period from 31st March, 2012 to 30th June, 2012 at Civil Hospital, Karachi. Surgeons who were available during the period of our study and had been working in the hospital for at least 6 months were included. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed after seeking informed, written consent. The specialties included were general surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, orthopedic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery and gynecology and obstetrics. The study questionnaire comprised of four sections. The first section was concerned with the demographics of the surgeons. The second section analyzed the knowledge of the respondents regarding professional negligence and malpractice. The third section assessed the attitudes surgeons with regard to malpractice. The last section dealt with the general and specific practices and experiences of surgeons regarding malpractice. Results Of the 319 surgeons interviewed, 68.7% were oblivious of the complete definition of malpractice. Leaving foreign objects inside the patient (79.6%) was the most commonly agreed upon form of malpractice, whereas failure to break news in entirety (43.9%) was most frequently disagreed. In the event of a medical error, majority (67.7%) were ready to disclose their error to the patient. The most common perceived reason for not disclosing the error was threat of a claim or assault (90.9%). Majority (68.3%) believed that malpractice had a negative effect on reputation. Only 13(4.1%) had received at least one legal claim for damages. Only about three-fourths (75.5%) had the habit of frequently obtaining informed consent from the patients. 83(26.0%) expressed reluctance in accepting a case that was deemed to be difficult. Financial gains and liabilities were responsible for biased approach in 8.5% and 12.2% of the respondents respectively. Conclusion There is a dire need of programs aimed at increasing awareness among practicing surgeons in our setup. Proactive measures are required for the formulation of an efficient system of litigation. Physician accountability will not only arouse a greater sense of responsibility in them, but will also augment the confidence placed by patients on the healthcare system. PMID:23126456
This paper reports on five years of experience with computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at Winthrop-University Hospital, a major affiliate of the SUNY at Stony Brook School of Medicine. It compares CAI programs available from Ohio State University and Massachusetts General Hospital (accessed by telephone and modem), and software packages purchased from the Health Sciences Consortium (MED-CAPS) and Scientific American (DISCOTEST). The comparison documents one library's experience of the cost of these programs and the use made of them by medical students, house staff, and attending physicians. It describes the space allocated for necessary equipment, as well as the marketing of CAI. Finally, in view of the decision of the National Board of Medical Examiners to administer the Part III examination on computer (the so-called CBX) starting in 1988, the paper speculates on the future importance of CAI in the community teaching hospital. PMID:3518839
McCorkel, J; Cook, V
Background: Increasing number of reports on medication errors and relevant subsequent damages, especially in medical centers has become a growing concern for patient safety in recent decades. Patient safety and in particular, medication safety is a major concern and challenge for health care professionals around the world. Our prospective study was designed to detect prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, and administering medication errors in two major university hospitals. Materials and Methods: After choosing 20 similar hospital wards in two large teaching hospitals in the city of Isfahan, Iran, the sequence was randomly selected. Diagrams for drug distribution were drawn by the help of pharmacy directors. Direct observation technique was chosen as the method for detecting the errors. A total of 50 doses were studied in each ward to detect prescribing, transcribing and administering errors in each ward. The dispensing error was studied on 1000 doses dispensed in each hospital pharmacy. Results: A total of 8162 number of doses of medications were studied during the four stages, of which 8000 were complete data to be analyzed. 73% of prescribing orders were incomplete and did not have all six parameters (name, dosage form, dose and measuring unit, administration route, and intervals of administration). We found 15% transcribing errors. One-third of administration of medications on average was erroneous in both hospitals. Dispensing errors ranged between 1.4% and 2.2%. Conclusion: Although prescribing and administrating compromise most of the medication errors, improvements are needed in all four stages with regard to medication errors. Clear guidelines must be written and executed in both hospitals to reduce the incidence of medication errors. PMID:25364360
Saghafi, Fatemeh; Zargarzadeh, Amir H
Veterinary nosocomial infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria cause increased morbidity, higher cost and length of treatment and increased zoonotic risk because of the difficulty in treating them. In this study, an individual-based model was developed to investigate the effects of movements of canine patients among ten areas (transmission points) within a veterinary teaching hospital, and the effects of these movements on transmission of antibiotic susceptible and resistant pathogens. The model simulates contamination of transmission points, healthcare workers, and patients as well as the effects of decontamination of transmission points, disinfection of healthcare workers, and antibiotic treatments of canine patients. The model was parameterized using data obtained from hospital records, information obtained by interviews with hospital staff, and the published literature. The model suggested that transmission resulting from contact with healthcare workers was common, and that certain transmission points (housing wards, diagnostics room, and the intensive care unit) presented higher risk for transmission than others (lobby and surgery). Sensitivity analyses using a range of parameter values demonstrated that the risk of acquisition of colonization by resistant pathogens decreased with shorter patient hospital stays (P<0.0001), more frequent decontamination of transmission points and disinfection of healthcare workers (P<0.0001) and better compliance of healthcare workers with hygiene practices (P<0.0001). More frequent decontamination of heavily trafficked transmission points was especially effective at reducing transmission of the model pathogen. PMID:24893006
Suthar, Neeraj; Roy, Sandip; Call, Douglas R.; Besser, Thomas E.; Davis, Margaret A.
Objective To characterise the prescription of non-formulary drugs to children and neonates at a Brazilian teaching hospital and identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs), drug interactions, and prescription of potentially hazardous medicines. Methods A prospective exploratory study was carried out between January and May 2011 at the general paediatric wards and paediatric oncology, paediatric intensive care, and neonatal care units of the study hospital. Non-formulary drugs were categorised as approved, off-label, or not approved for use in children according to Brazilian compendia. Electronic health records were actively searched for ADRs and the possibility of moderate to severe interactions between non-formulary drugs and other medicines was determined with the Micromedex® database. Results Overall, 109 children or neonates received non-formulary drugs. Of these drugs, 54% were approved for use in children, 12.2% were used off-label, and 33.8% were not approved for use in children. Non-formulary drugs accounted for 13.4% of total prescriptions; 5.3% of drugs had a potential for interactions and five were possibly associated with ADRs. Conclusions Prescription of non-formulary drugs not approved for use in children was common at the study hospital. Studies such as this provide information on the use of medicines for special indications and permit assessment of the relevance of hospital formularies for the paediatric population. PMID:24155845
Tramontina, Mariana Y.; Heineck, Isabela; Dos Santos, Luciana
Objective: Patients’ attitude towards medical students’ presence during treatment depends on the cultural values of the society. This study was conducted to find out the patients’ receptiveness in our society to be involved in teaching process for medical students during consultation in out patient department of a teaching hospital in Karachi Pakistan. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted in the surgical Out Patient Department (OPD) at Dow University Hospital from May 2012 to June 2012. Four hundred and eleven patients consented for participation through non probability purposive sampling, in which 279 patients were from morning clinics in the presence of students for clinical teaching, while 132 patients participated through evening clinics of surgery, when students were not present for comparison in specific dimensions of care for patients’ satisfaction. Results: Majority of patients 293 (71%) agreed with the teaching of students during consultation and they feel they are contributing in future doctor’s teaching, only 24% patients disagreed. Fifty two percent of patients who disagreed reported interference in privacy, 34% reported interference in consultation and 43% felt it resulted in prolong waiting time due to teaching. Conclusion: Majority of the patients agree to be part of teaching for medical students and this study can be used to assess the educational interventions designed to improve the patient based teaching. PMID:24353555
Laiq-uz-Zaman Khan, Muhammad; Jawaid, Masood; Hafeez, Kamran
BACKGROUND Delays in the care of hospitalized patients may lead to increased length of stay, iatrogenic complications, and costs. No study has characterized delays among general medicine inpatients in the current prospective payment era of care. OBJECTIVE To quantify and characterize delays in care which prolong hospitalizations for general medicine inpatients. DESIGN Prospective survey of senior residents. SETTING Urban tertiary care university-affiliated teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS Sixteen senior residents were surveyed regarding 2,831 patient-days. INTERVENTIONS None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Data were collected on 97.6% (2,762) of patient-days eligible for evaluation. Three hundred seventy-three patient-days (13.5% of all hospital days) were judged unnecessary for acute inpatient care, and occurred because of delays in needed services. Sixty-three percent of these unnecessary days were due to nonmedical service delays and 37% were due to medical service delays. The vast majority of nonmedical service delays (84%) were due to difficulty finding a bed in a skilled nursing facility. Medical service delays were most often due to postponement of procedures (54%) and diagnostic test performance (21%) or interpretation (10%), and were significantly more common on weekend days (relative risk [RR], 1.49; P=.02). Indeed, nearly one fourth of unnecessary patient-days (24% overall, 88 patient-days) involved an inability to access medical services on a weekend day (Saturday or Sunday). CONCLUSIONS At our institution, a substantial number of hospital days were judged unnecessary for acute inpatient care and were attributable to delays in medical and nonmedical services. Future work is needed to develop and investigate measures to decrease delays. PMID:15836542
Carey, Mark R; Sheth, Heena; Scott Braithwaite, R
Objective To record nosocomial and community-acquired accounts of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains, isolated from clinical samples of a teaching hospital by surveillance, over a period of 39 months (November 2009-January 2013). Methods Clinical samples from nosocomial sources, i.e., wards and cabins, intensive care unit (ICU) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and community (outpatient department, OPD) sources of the hospital, were used for isolating strains of E. coli, which were subjected for testing for production of ‘extended spectrum beta-lactamase’-(ESBL) enzyme as well as determining antibiotic sensitivity pattern with 23 antibiotics. Results Of the total 1642 (100%) isolates, 810 (49.33%) strains were from OPD and 832 (50.66%) were from hospital settings. Occurrence of infectious E. coli strains increased in a mathematical progression in community sources, but in nosocomial infections, such values remained almost constant in each quarter. A total of 395 (24.05%) ESBL strains were isolated from the total 810 isolates of community; of the total of 464 (28.25%) isolates of wards and cabins, 199 (12.11%) were ESBL strains; and among the total of 368 (22.41%) isolates of ICU and NICU, ESBLs were 170 (10.35%); the total nosocomial ESBL isolates, 369 (22.47%) were from the nosocomial total of 832 (50.66%) isolates. Statistically, it was confirmed that ESBL strains were equally distributed in community or hospital units. Antibiogram of 23 antibiotics revealed progressive increases of drug-resistance against each antibiotic with the maximum resistance values were recorded against gentamicin: 92% and 79%, oxacillin: 94% and 69%, ceftriaxone: 85% and 58%, and norfloxacin 97% and 69% resistance, in nosocomial and community isolates, respectively. Conclusions This study revealed the daunting state of occurrence of multidrug resistant E. coli and its infection dynamics in both community and hospital settings.
Rath, Shakti; Dubey, Debasmita; Sahu, Mahesh C.; Padhy, Rabindra N
Globalization is impacting on Hong Kong and Australia in different ways, but the experience of the public healthcare systems in both jurisdictions suggests a need for teaching and research hospitals to refocus from the management of international patients to better meet the needs for global health. Traditional globalization suggests a stockpiling of capital--a focus on improving global health suggests dismantling the stockpiles and sharing access to the necessary data, information, knowledge and discoveries to further develop local health expertise. Consistent with its position as a leading healthcare provider, the University Health Network (UHN) has been reflecting on the impact of increasing globalization on hospitals. The goals of the UHN paper on globalization are threefold--to suggest how the external and internal environments of hospitals will change as a result of globalization; to suggest a role for hospitals in a globalized world; and to stimulate discussion and debate. Given our perspective, from the other side of the world, we are pleased to contribute to the discussion and debate but will limit our comments to the future role of teaching and research hospitals based on some of the experiences of Australia and Hong Kong. The citizens of Hong Kong have been acutely aware of the issue of globalization--the excellent deep-water harbour has ensured the position of Hong Kong as a major trading hub. Hong Kong has also had a continually evolving role as a financial centre and gateway to China, and with China's accession to the World Trade Organization the impact of globalization will be even greater. On the other hand, the citizens of Australia have lived with geographic isolation, relatively limited natural resources and a small population, all of which have limited their role in global trade and financial markets. However, both Hong Kong and Australia have seen recent benefits from the increasing speed of communication and information transfer and exchange. While it may still take close to a month for Australian practitioners to receive the hard copy of the journal in the mail, a electronic transfer is instantaneous. The globalization of knowledge and practice is one of the largest impacts of the Internet. With one of the most connected populations in the world, Hong Kong is very active in the sharing of knowledge with international experts. PMID:14660882
Leggat, Sandra G; Tse, Nancy
Objective To study the obstetrical and perinatal outcomes of teenage Omani girls with singleton pregnancies at a tertiary teaching hospital. Methods This is a retrospective case control study. We reviewed obstetric and perinatal outcomes of teenage nulliparous pregnant Omani girls with singleton pregnancies aged 14 to 19 years, delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2013. We compared their outcomes with outcomes of pregnant nulliparous Omani women with singleton pregnancies aged 20 to 25 years old delivered at the same hospital during the same period. Results When compared with pregnant women (n=307), teenage pregnant girls (n=307) were found to have higher proportion of preterm delivery <32 weeks (7% vs. 3%, p=0.040), preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes (PPROM) (19% vs. 11%, p=0.005) and anemia (58% vs. 44%, p=0.005). Cesarean section rate was higher in women than teenager girls (20% vs. 10%, p=0.001). Teenager girls had lighter babies (mean weight ± standard deviation 2,750±690 vs. 2,890±480, p=0.020), incidence of very low birth weight babies (<1,500g) was higher in teenagers (3.9% vs. 0.3%, p=0.003), but perinatal mortality rate was similar in the two groups. Conclusion Teenage pregnant Omani women are at increased risk of preterm delivery before 32 weeks gestation, PPROM, anemia, and delivering very low birth weight babies. PMID:25584155
Al-Haddabi, Rahma; Al-Bash, Majeda; Al-Mabaihsi, Nadia; Al-Maqbali, Najla; Al-Dhughaishi, Tamima; Abu-Heija, Adel
A questioning survey was carried out to determine the acceptability to patients of various aspects of day-case laparoscopy in Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. One hundred consecutive patients were interviewed within 2 weeks after operation. Sources of dissatisfaction include inadequate explanation about the operation and its aftermath, hospital reporting time, the waiting times at various stages of the process, the mechanism for sending patients from the ward to the theatre and the total length of time spent in hospital. Almost half the patients felt they were not well enough to be sent home at the time of discharge. More than half would have preferred overnight stay postoperatively. The main causes of morbidity were dizziness, abdominal pain, shoulder pain, nausea and vomiting. To make day-case laparoscopy more acceptable to patients a dedicated day care surgery unit with formal anaesthetic cover should be established. The operation and its aftermath should be fully explained to patients well before the day of operation. Stricter criteria should be established for patient discharge, and where appropriate, patients should be allowed the option of overnight stay post-operatively. PMID:8937226
Little work has been done on patients' satisfaction with hospital care in Nigeria. This prospective study was done to identify factors affecting patients' satisfaction with emergency care in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. This study was carried out among adult patients who had received care at the Accident and Emergency unit of the hospital. We used the priority index (calculated by combining the mean score on all items and correlated weight) to identify areas of emergency services in need of urgent improvement. There were 250 respondents; 147 males and 103 females. Six (6.4%) patients declined to answer the questionnaire. Time to surgical intervention was the item with the highest priority for change. This was followed by three indicators of caregiver conduct: showing genuine concern by health workers, attitude of nurses, and courtesy by health workers. Females rated all indices of satisfaction lower than males. Surgical and gynecological patients were also less satisfied with their care than their medical and trauma counterparts. The results from this study provided necessary data to guide changes needed to improve patient satisfaction in the A&E. Our findings suggest that improving speed of access to surgery and enhancing interpersonal skills of healthcare givers are areas that need to be prioritized. PMID:20869661
Oluwadiya, Kehinde; Olatoke, Samuel A; Ariba, Adekunle J; Omotosho, Omotola A; Olakulehin, Olakunle A
Drug Utilization Evaluation (DUE) studies are designed to assess drug usage appropriateness. We aim to evaluate the drug utilization of intravenous ciprofloxacin and imipenem, two of the broad spectrum antibiotics that consume a significant proportion of our hospitals’ outlay, in different wards of a teaching hospital in Zabol. During a 5 months period (December 2010 to May 2011), 263 patients who received imipenem or intravenous ciprofloxacin were assigned to this study. Retrospective review of patient’s records was carried out. Data were converted to Defined Daily Dose (DDD) and the ratio of prescribed daily dose per DDD was calculated. Among these records, 100 patients received either imipenem or ciprofloxacin. The ratio of prescribed daily dose to DDD was 1.5 for both antibiotics. Almost all patients received empiric therapy in both groups. Only 13 patients (26%) in ciprofloxacin group and 4 patients (8%) in imipenem group received their antibiotics consistent with American Hospital Formulary System (AHFS) mentioned indication. Baseline Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and serum Creatinine were ordered for only 37 patients (74%) in both groups with 15 abnormal results but dose adjustment performed just in one case with decreased renal function. In conclusion, the majority of courses with both drugs were empirically selected and continued and required lab tests for drug monitoring and dose adjustments were not performed in most cases. Educational interventions, developing a local formulary and a strict antibiotic prescribing policy for example by prior approval by an infectious disease consultant can help significantly to overcome these problems. PMID:24250684
Mousavi, Sarah; Behi, Mehdi; Taghavi, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ziaie, Shadi; Moradi, Mandana
Background The hospitals have evolved from being an isolated sanatorium to a place with five star facilities. Patients and their relatives coming to the hospital not only expect world-class treatment, but also other facilities to make their stay comfortable in the hospital. This change in expectation has come due to tremendous growth of media and its exposure, as well as commercialization and improvement in facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of patient/relatives satisfaction at tertiary care teaching hospital and feedback from them for improvement of the same. Methods The study was conducted by 1. Review of available national and international literature on the subject. 2. Carrying out survey amongst 50 patients and their relatives at one of the surgical unit by using structured questionnaire. 3. By analyzing the data using appropriate statistical methods. Results Eighty two percent people were satisfied with the service at admission counter while 81% were satisfied with room preparation at the time of admission. The nursing services satisfied 80% of people while 92% were satisfied with explanation about disease and treatment by doctor. The behavior of nurses, doctors and orderlies satisfied 92, 92 and 83% of people. The cleanliness of toilets satisfied only 49% while diet services satisfied 78% of people. Conclusion The five major satisfiers were behavior of doctors, explanation about disease and treatment, courtesy of staff at admission counter, behavior and cooperation of nurses. The five major dissatisfiers were cleanliness of toilets, quality of food, explanation about rules and regulation, behavior of orderlies and sanitary attendant and room preparedness.
Mishra, P.H.; Gupta, Shakti
Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) provides nurses a method to use critically appraised and scientifically proven evidence for delivering quality health care and the best decision that leads to quality outcomes. The purpose of this study was to measure the practice, attitude and knowledge/skill of evidence-based practice of nurses in a teaching hospital in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011.The study sample was composed of 195 nurses who were working at the Fatemeh Zahra Hospital affiliated to Bushehr University of Medical Sciences (BPUMS). The survey instrument was a questionnaire based on Upton and Upton study. This tool measures Nurses' perceptions in the three sub-scales of practice, attitude and knowledge/skill of evidence-based practice. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to analyze the data. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between subscales. Results: The overall mean score of the evidence-based practice in this study was 4.48±1.26 from 7, and the three subscales of practice, attitude and knowledge/skill in evidence-based practice were, 4.58±1.24, 4.57±1.35 and 4.39±1.20, respectively. There was a strong relationship between knowledge and performance subscale (r=0.73,p<0.01). Conclusion: Findings of the study indicate that more training and education are required for evidence-based nursing. Successful implementation of evidence-based nursing depends on organizational plans and empowerment programs in hospitals. Hence, hospital managers should formulate a comprehensive strategy for improving EBP.
Shafiei, Ebrahim; Baratimarnani, Ahmad; Goharinezhad, Salime; Kalhor, Rohollah; Azmal, Mohammad
Objective: Clinical pharmacy services are improving in hospitals. For assessing the impact of these services, first it is important to exactly describe them by categorizing into types, severity, resolution, and accuracy. The objective of this study is to provide a detailed analysis of the clinical pharmacists’ services performed on in-patients in a teaching hospital during 28 months. Setting: Masih Daneshvari hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: This is a descriptive study. The authors retrospectively reviewed the notes of all services and entered them in a designed SPSS sheet. Documentation was carried out based on the “findings, assessment, resolution, and monitoring” method. The data were descriptively analyzed. Main outcome measure: Types, subtypes, severities, resolutions, and accuracies of services were defined, documented, and analyzed. Findings: In total 3152 records (2227 interventions and 925 visits with no intervention) were classified and analyzed in this study. Among all types of interventions, “improper medication use” (36.2%) was the most frequent intervention and among categories (subgroups) of “improper medication use,” “untreated indication” was the most frequent (23.7%). From the aspect of severity, 75.4% of interventions were estimated as of minor potential inconvenience to the patient (severity degree 1). Most interventions (78%) were finally recommended to the prescriber and 97.6% of interventions were considered accurate on further evaluation. Conclusion: Clinical pharmacists’ interventions are highly demanded in the hospitals. Based on the results of this study, conditions needing medication to prevent later complications in the course of therapy are sometimes ignored, which emphasizes the positive role of the clinical pharmacists’ involvements in clinical teams to improve outcome. PMID:24991598
Allameh, Zahra; Mehrpooya, Maryam; Baniasadi, Shadi; Fahimi, Fanak
Background: Workplace violence is one of the factors which can strongly reduce job satisfaction and the quality of working life of nurses. The aim of this study was to measure nurses’ exposure to workplace violence in one of the major teaching hospitals in Tehran in 2010. Methods: We surveyed the nurses in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire was adapted from a standardized questionnaire designed collaboratively by the International Labor Office (ILO), the International Health Organization (IHO), the International Council of Nurses (ICN), and the Public Services International (PSI). Finally, in order to analyze the relationships among different variables in the study, T-test and Chi-Square test were used. Results: Three hundred and one nurses responded to the questionnaire (a response rate of 73%). Over 70% of the nurses felt worried about workplace violence. The participants reported exposure to verbal abuse (64% CI: 59-70%), bullying-mobbing (29% CI: 24-34%) and physical violence (12% CI: 9-16%) at least once during the previous year. Relatives of hospital patients were responsible for most of the violence. Nurses working in the emergency department and outpatient clinics were more likely to report having experienced violence. Nurses were unlikely to report violence to hospital managers, and 40% of nurses were unaware of any existing policies within the hospital for reducing violence. Conclusion: We observed a considerable level of nurse exposure to workplace violence. The high rate of reported workplace violence demonstrates that the existing safeguards that aim to protect the staff from abusive patients and relatives are inadequate. PMID:25396205
Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Rashidian, Arash; Arab, Mohammad; Akbari-Sari, Ali; Hakimzadeh, Seyyed Mostafa
For hospital executives and clinicians to improve pain management, organizations must examine the current pain experience of in-patients beyond simply measuring patient satisfaction. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of pain among adult in-patients and the degree of interference pain had on daily activities. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken in a 530 bed tertiary care, teaching hospital in central Canada. A convenience sample (N = 88) of adult medical-surgical patients completed the Short Form-Brief Pain Inventory survey. Pain prevalence was 70.4%. The mean pain severity score was 3.76 (standard deviation, SD = 2.88) and mean pain interference score on daily activities was 4.56 (SD = 3.93). The most frequently identified site of pain was the lower extremities (n = 15, 28%). Women had higher mean scores on pain "right now" compared to men (p < 0.05). The sample majority (n = 81) indicated hospital staff asked about the presence of pain. Seventy-nine percent (n = 57) reported hospital staff "always" did everything they could to help manage pain. Eighty-four percent (n = 61) selected "always" or "usually" to describe their ability to be involved in deciding pain treatments. The mean pain relief score from treatments was 61% (SD = 34.79). Significant positive correlations were found between pain intensity ratings and pain interference on all daily activities (p < 0.001). Pain prevalence remains high with a significant relationship between pain and activities of daily living. The study provides baseline data to direct future initiatives at improving pain management. PMID:25439113
Jabusch, Kimberly M; Lewthwaite, Barbara J; Mandzuk, Lynda L; Schnell-Hoehn, Karen N; Wheeler, Barbara J
Background Unsafe health care provision is a main cause of increased mortality rate amongst hospitalized patients all over the world. A system approach to medical error and its reduction is crucial that is defined by clinical and administrative activities undertaken to identify, evaluate, and reduce the risk of injury. The aim of this study was to develop and implement a risk management system in a large teaching hospital in Iran, especially of the basis of WHO guidelines and patient safety context. Methods WHO draft guideline and patient safety reports from different countries were reviewed for defining acceptable framework of risk management system. Also current situation of mentioned hospital in safety matter and dimensions of patient safety culture was evaluated using HSOPSC questionnaire of AHRQ. With adjustment of guidelines and hospital status, the conceptual framework was developed and next it was validated in expert panel. The members of expert panel were selected according to their role and functions and also their experiences in risk management and patient safety issues. The validated framework consisted of designating a leader and coordinator core, defining communications, and preparing the infrastructure for patient safety education and culture-building. That was developed on the basis of some values and commitments and included reactive and proactive approaches. Results The findings of reporting activities demonstrated that at least 3.6 percent of hospitalized patients have experienced adverse events and 5.3 percent of all deaths in the hospital related with patient safety problems. Beside the average score of 12 dimensions of patient safety culture was 46.2 percent that was considerably low. The “non-punitive responses to error” had lowest positive score with 21.2 percent. Conclusion It is of paramount importance for all health organizations to lay necessary foundations in order to identify safety risks and improve the quality of care. Inadequate participation of staff in education, reporting and analyzing, underreporting and uselessness of aggregated data, limitation of human and financial resources, punitive directions and management challenges for solutions were the main executive problems which could affect the effectiveness of system. PMID:23497710
Objective: To identify patient, institutional, and physician characteristics that predict failure to attend scheduled mammography appointments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design: Retrospective chart review.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting: Medicine clinic at an urban public teaching hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients: All 907 women aged 40 years and more scheduled for mammography from March 1990 to June 1991.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements and main results: The main outcome measure was whether a woman kept
Karen L. Margolis; Nicole Lurie; Paul G. McGovern; Jonathan S. Slater
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the types and nature of traditional eye medications (TEMs), their sources, and the ocular complications that may arise from use in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of consecutive subjects who used TEM before presentation to the Eye Clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria between July 1, 2004 and June 30, 2008. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 113 subjects were evaluated of which 64 were males (56.6%), females (43.4%) were females. There was no significant difference in the number of males and females (P > 0.05). Rural dwellers were more likely to use TEM than urban dwellers (P < 0.0001). The mean age of the subjects was 47.9 ± 22.3 years (range, 4-90 years). The most common traditional medication was derived from plant extracts (54.9%) followed by concoctions (21.2%). Complications occurred in 54.8% of the subjects. Ocular complications included corneal opacities in 13.35% of subjects, staphyloma in 9%, and corneal ulcers in 8%. Other complications were panophthalmitis, endophthalmitis, uveitis, cataract, and bullous keratopathy. Eleven subjects underwent evisceration or enucleation of the affected eye. There was no significant difference in the type of medication used and ocular complications (P = 0.956). Sources of TEM were self-medication in 38.9% of subjects, relatives in 27.4%, and traditional healers in 17.7%. Conclusion: The use of TEM is a common practice that could be harmful and lead to blindness. Proper health education of the public and traditional healers can reduce the prevalence of preventable blindness. PMID:21180431
Ukponmwan, Catherine U.; Momoh, Nanaiashat
Background Injuries are noted to be an important cause of death among adolescents. There is however limited data on the injury related deaths among adolescents in Ghana. Findings Using data from post-mortem records derived from the Department of Pathology of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), Accra Ghana from 2001 to 2003, the causes of injury related deaths among adolescents 10 to 19 years were analyzed by gender and age groups 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years. There were 151 injury-related deaths constituting 17% of the autopsies performed among adolescents in the study period. The male-to-female ratio was 2.1:1. Drowning was the most common cause of death (37%) in the study population. This was followed by road traffic accidents (RTA) (33%). Over 70% of the RTA victims were pedestrians knocked downed by a vehicle. Deaths from electrocution, poisoning, burns, stab/gunshot, hanging and other miscellaneous causes (example blast injury, traumatic injury from falling debris, fall from height) made up the remaining 30% of the injury related mortality. Among males and in both age categories, drowning was the leading cause of death. In females, the highest mortality was from road traffic accidents accounting for almost half (49%) of the deaths; significantly more than that occurring in males (25%, p = .004). Conclusions Findings from Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital post-mortem data on adolescents show that drowning and road traffic accidents are the leading causes of injury-related mortality. Appropriate injury reducing interventions are needed to facilitate a decrease in these preventable deaths. PMID:20444252
Abstract Background. Hyponatraemia, the commonest electrolyte abnormality amongst in-patients, is associated with increased mortality. Until recently, there has been a lack of international consensus management of patients with severe hyponatraemia. Aim. We performed a retrospective study in two teaching hospitals in Yorkshire, UK, to evaluate the management of patients with severe hyponatraemia (serum Na ? 110 mmol/L) and to assess the frequency of complications observed in this group, in particular central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) and death. Methods. Retrospective data collection was performed on all of patients admitted with severe hyponatraemia in a calendar year in two teaching hospitals in Yorkshire. A detailed case note evaluation was conducted to determine the patient clinical characteristics, aetiology, investigations performed, treatment, complications and outcome of patients. Results. We identified 39 patients in total at both sites over a calendar year. There was a notable female predominance (n = 27), with the median (range) age being 65 (45-92) years and median sodium concentration 107 (94-110) mmol/L. Hyponatraemia was classified as acute (onset < 48 h) in six patients, chronic (onset > 48 h) in 20 patients and of unknown duration in 13 patients. Iatrogenic hyponatraemia secondary to drugs, especially thiazides was the most commonly observed aetiology. The mortality rate was 48.7% (n = 19) at the end of one year after admission episode and CPM was seen in 7.6% (n = 3) of patients. Conclusions. Severe hyponatraemia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Drug-induced hyponatraemia was the most common aetiology observed in our group of patients. PMID:25342242
Narayanan, Deepa; Mbagaya, Wycliffe; Aye, Mo; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Barth, Julian H
This study sought to examine the safety of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) before and during the de novo establishment of a transradial (TR) program at a teaching hospital. TR access remains underused in the United States, where cardiology fellowship programs continue to produce cardiologists with little TR experience. The establishment of TR programs at teaching hospitals may affect PCI safety. Starting in July of 2009, a TR program was established at teaching hospital. PCI-related data for the 2008–2009 (Y1) and 2009–2010 (Y2) academic years were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. Of 1,366 PCIs performed over two years, 0.1% in Y1 and 28.7% in Y2 were performed via TR access. No major complications were identified in 194 consecutive patients undergoing TR PCI, and combined bleeding and vascular complication rates were lower in Y2 vs. Y1 (0.7 vs. 2.0%, p = 0.05). Patients treated in Y2 vs. Y1 and by the TR vs. transfemoral approach required slightly more fluoroscopy but similar contrast volumes and had similar procedural durations, lengths of stay, and pre-discharge mortality rates. PCI success rates were 97% in Y1, 97% in Y2, and 98% in TR cases. TR PCIs were performed by 13 cardiology fellows and 9 attending physicians, none of whom routinely performed TR PCI previously. In conclusion, the de novo establishment of a TR program improved PCI safety at a teaching hospital. TR programs are likely to improve PCI safety at other teaching hospitals and should be established in all cardiology fellowship training programs. PMID:22245405
Leonardi, Robert A.; Townsend, Jacob C.; Bonnema, D. Dirk; Patel, Chetan A.; Gibbons, Michael T.; Todoran, Thomas M.; Nielsen, Christopher D.; Powers, Eric R.; Steinberg, Daniel H.
Objectives assess the quality of nursing care, the patients' satisfaction and the correlation between both. Method cross-sectional study, involving 275 patients hospitalized at a teaching hospital in the Central-West of Brazil. The data were collected through the simultaneous application of three instruments. Next, they were included in an electronic database and analyzed in function of the positivity, median value and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Results among the nursing care assessed, only two were considered safe - hygiene and physical comfort; nutrition and hydration - while the remainder were classified as poor. Nevertheless, the patients were satisfied with the care received in the domains assessed: technical-professional, confidence and educational. This can be justified by the weak to moderate correlation that was observed among these variables. Conclusion Despite the quality deficit, the patients' satisfaction level with the nursing care received was high. These results indicate that the institution needs to center its objectives on a continuing evaluation system of the care quality, aiming to attend to the patients' expectations. PMID:25029057
de Freitas, Juliana Santana; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo; Minamisava, Ruth; Bezerra, Ana Lúcia Queiroz; de Sousa, Maiana Regina Gomes
This study examines the determinants of Mission House Delivery among booked patients in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. During the 12 months of the study (1 May 199930 April 2000) 196 booked patients at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife who delivered at mission houses were analysed. All ages and parity groups, educational level and social classes were involved. The majority (73%) were of low socio-economic class. The reasons for mission house delivery included financial constraints (41%), fear of possible caesarean section (46%), industrial action by health-care workers (39%), transport difficulty at night (26%), previous deliveries in mission houses (16%) and communal feud (12%). Four maternal deaths occurred (MMR 978/100 000 births) and 20 perinatal deaths (PNMR 118/1000 total births). Reduction of hospital user fees, provision of transportation and efficient telecommunication facilities at all times, conflict resolution and proper remuneration of health care workers are urgent needs to be addressed. Legislation against delivery in unsafe places and establishment of appropriate facilities by churches interested in maternity services is highly recommended. PMID:12521802
Orji, E O; Dare, F O; Makinde, O N; Fasubaa, O B
Introduction: Empathy is the ability to put one in the place of others and to better understand their feelings and experiences. According to researchers, there is a type of challenge in using this concept in nursing field. In most cases, the term empathy substitutes other concepts. Regarding this point, it seems quite necessary to research and discuss different dimensions of this concept in different studies. This study aimed to determine empathy regarding the nurses' point of view. Methods: In this descriptive study sample size was selected according to study population or in the other hand all the nurses in 3 general hospital was selected because they are the most important teaching hospital in Tabriz. LEP (La Monica Empathy Profile) was used as empathy tool. Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver. 13.0. Results: In nonverbal behavior dimension, touching the patient was considered as the most effective methods. On the other hand, nurses could not always be able to control stress and they could not always being with patients to show their empathy. Many people believe that nurses showed very little feelings while raggedly the reflective enclosure and they occasionally had to change their schedules to talk to patients. Conclusion: In most cases the nurses support nonverbal behavior, such as reflective, close and touching encountering in establishing relationship with the patient. However, to improve this situation, planning for nurses to become familiar with the ways through which they can express their interest to show empathy would be effective PMID:25276746
Parvan, Kobra; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Seyedrasooly, Alehe; Dadkhah, Delavar; Jabarzadeh, Faranak
Aim: To evaluate the use of potentially inappropriate medicines in elderly inpatients in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed for cases of elderly patients admitted between January 2010 and December 2010. Data on age, gender, diagnosis, duration of hospital stay, treatment, and outcome were collected. Prescriptions were assessed for the use of potentially inappropriate medications in geriatric patients by using American Geriatric Society Beer's criteria (2012) and PRISCUS list (2010). Results: A total of 676 geriatric patients (52.12% females) were admitted in the medicine ward. The average age of geriatric patients was 72.69 years. According to Beer's criteria, at least one inappropriate medicine was prescribed in 590 (87.3%) patients. Metoclopramide (54.3%), alprazolam (9%), diazepam (8%), digoxin > 0.125 mg/day (5%), and diclofenac (3.7%) were the commonly used inappropriate medications. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in heart and renal failure patients was the commonly identified drug–disease interaction. According to PRISCUS list, at least one inappropriate medication was prescribed in 210 (31.06%) patients. Conclusion: Use of inappropriate medicines is highly prevalent in elderly patients. PMID:25276629
Jhaveri, Binit N.; Patel, Tejas K.; Barvaliya, Manish J; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu
Background: The choice of radiological investigations in head trauma in Africa is influenced by factors such as cost. Some patients who require computed tomography (CT) scan elsewhere are either managed blindly or do not present for it at the appropriate time. This paper evaluates the CT scan findings as they are obtained in cases of head trauma in a region of Nigeria. Methods: Prospectively recorded data of all head injury patients who presented for CT scan between January 2009 and April 2010 at Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery (MHN), Enugu, Nigeria, were analyzed. Mobile CereTom 8-Slice CT was used in all cases. New and follow-up cases were included. Results: There were 204 CT scans for head trauma (171 new, 33 follow-up), accounting for about 34% of all head CT scans performed with this unit. The male to female ratio was 3.5:1. About 33.9% of the patients were in the third and fourth decades of life. In 19.9% cases, CT was unremarkable, while 80.1% cases had abnormal CT findings. The CT diagnosis was not in keeping with the indication of head trauma in 7%, and 13% had more than one finding. The most common CT findings were: subdural hematoma 30%, cerebral contusions and edema 30.7%, skull fractures 23.4% and extradural hematoma 8.0%. About 64% of the CT findings required surgical interventions. The overall mortality was 11.1%, but amongst the 137 patients who had abnormal CT findings, it was 13.9%. Conclusion: The high yield and diversity of CT scan findings in head trauma patients support the indication for the appropriate use of CT in diagnosis and management of head trauma even in developing countries. PMID:22276236
Ohaegbulam, Samuel C.; Mezue, Wilfred C.; Ndubuisi, Chika A.; Erechukwu, Uwadiegwu A.; Ani, Chinenye O.
One of the main problems in the efficiency and efficacy of an organization is its structural issue. Organizational culture is also considered as an effective factor in the performance of many organizations. The main goal of the present study was to determine the relationship of Centralization and organizational culture and performance indexes in Teaching Hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This correlation study was performed in the year 2007. The population studied consisted of 4408 personnel from 13 hospitals among whom 441 subjects were selected and studied via a class sampling method. Data was compiled using a check list concerning the evaluation status of Centralization and another form concerning performance indexes as well as Robbin's organizational culture questionnaire. Data were obtained from the subjects by self answering and analyzed by using descriptive statistical indexes, T- test and Fisher's exact tests. Among the organizational culture indexes of the hospitals studied, control and organizational identity was better as compared to others (mean=3.32 and 3.30). Concerning the extent of Centralization in the hospitals studied, 53.85 % and 46.15 % were reported to have upper and lower organizational Centralization, respectively. Mean ratio of surgical operations to inpatients was 40%, the mean rate of admissions per active bed was 60.83, mean bed occupancy coefficient was 70.79%, average length of stay was 6.96 days, and mean net death rate was 1.41%. No significant correlation was seen between Centralization degree, organizational culture and performance indexes in teaching hospitals Tehran university of medical sciences. (with 95% confidence interval). Due to the fact that first grade Teaching hospitals use board certified members, expert personnel, and advanced equipments and because of the limitation of patients choice and, the extent of Centralization and many organizational culture components have no significant correlation with performance indexes of these hospitals. Further research regarding structure is suggested in the future. PMID:21287467
Nasirpour, Amir Ashkan; Gohari, Mahmoud Reza; Moradi, Saied
The Zambian Association of Gynecology and Obstetrics is one of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) member societies participating in the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences from the East, Central, and Southern Africa region. The activities included in this country's plan of action were to provide access to safe abortion within the full extent of the law to women receiving care at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, and to increase the proportion of women leaving the hospital with a contraceptive method. Zambian law regarding abortion is liberal, but in general it was not applied until very recently. The proportion of legal terminations of pregnancy among patients receiving abortion care at the hospital increased from 3.2% in 2009 to 7.7% in 2011, while the percentage of women leaving the hospital with a contraceptive method increased from 25.3% to 69.4% over the same period. PMID:24786142
Macha, Swebby; Muyuni, Mutinta; Nkonde, Scholastica; Faúndes, Anibal
Objectives: This study aimed to describe the pattern of hepatobiliary complications among patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and to assess their correlation with age, gender and other risk factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed 106 patients with SCD who were admitted to Al Wahda Teaching Hospital in Aden, Yemen, between January and June 2009. A full history, thorough examination, essential laboratory investigations (including a complete blood count, liver function test and viral markers test) and an abdominal ultrasound were performed on all patients. The clinicopathological characteristics of the hepatobiliary complications were analysed for their correlation to different risk factors such as age and gender. Results: It was found that 46.2% of the patients with SCD had hepatobiliary complications. Of these, 36.7% had viral hepatitis, 26.0% had cholecystitis and 20% had gallstones. A total of 60.4% of the affected patients were male. The mean levels of alanine aminotransferase (59.4 and 56.0 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (40.1 and 38.3 U/L) were significantly elevated in patients with viral hepatitis and cholecystitis, respectively. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen showed higher positivity (10.4%) than anti-hepatitis A and anti-hepatitis C antibodies. Hepatobiliary complications increased significantly with age and were notably higher among those who were often admitted to hospital and/or underwent frequent blood transfusions. Conclusion: This study suggests that hepatobiliary complications are common among SCD patients and the likelihood of developing such complications increases as patients age. Thus, regular clinical follow-ups, abdominal ultrasound studies and periodic liver function tests, as well as serological tests for viral hepatitis, are strongly recommended. These can help in the early detection of these complications and allow opportunities for their management and prevention. PMID:25364561
Qhalib, Hana A.; Zain, Gamal H.
Background: Motorcycle-related injuries lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to determine the pattern and outcome of motorcycle-related injuries at Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Case records of all patients who presented to the accident and emergency department with motorcycle-related injuries between July 2012 and June 2013 were analysed for age, gender, injury host status (i.e. rider, pillion or pedestrian), nature of collision (motorcycle versus other vehicles, motorcycle versus motorcycle, motorcycle versus pedestrian or lone riders), body region injured, injury severity score (ISS) at arrival, length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality. Results: Seventy - nine patients with motorcycle-related injuries were included in the study. They consisted of 63 males (61.8%) and 16 females (15.7%). The age range was 5-65 years with a mean of 32.4 ± 14.0. Motorcycle versus vehicle collisions were the most common mechanism of injury (n = 46, 58.2%). Musculoskeletal injuries constituted the most common injuries sustained (n = 50, 47.6%) and the tibia was the most frequently fractured bone (n = 14, 35.9%). The majority of patients (57.0%) sustained mild/moderate injuries (ISS ? 15). There was no statistically significant difference between the sexes for sustaining mild/moderate injuries or severe/profound injuries (P > 0.05). Mortality rate was 6.3% with head injuries being involved in all cases. Conclusion: Young males were mostly injured in motorcycle-related trauma. Musculoskeletal injuries were the most common injuries sustained and head injuries were involved in all the deaths. Enforcement of motorcycle crash bars and helmet usage is recommended.
Elachi, Itodo C.; Okunola, Benjamin B.; Yongu, Williams T.; Onyemaechi, Ndubuisi OC; Odatuwa-Omagbemi, Odoyoh D.; Ahachi, Chukwukadibia N.; Mue, Daniel D.
Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…
Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.
Background Abdominal surgical site infections are among the most common complications of inpatient admissions and have serious consequences for outcomes and costs. Different risk factors may be involved, including age, sex, nutrition and immunity, prophylactic antibiotics, operation type and duration, type of shaving, and secondary infections. This study aimed to determine the risk factors affecting abdominal surgical site infections and their incidence at Imam Khomeini, a major referral teaching hospital in Iran. Methods Patients (n = 802) who had undergone abdominal surgery were studied and the relationships among variables were analyzed by Student's t and Chi-square tests. The subjects were followed for 30 days and by a 20-item questionnaire. Data were collected through pre- and post-operative examinations and telephone follow-ups. Results Of the 802 patients, 139 suffered from SSI (17.4%). In 40.8% of the cases, the wound was dirty infected. The average age for the patients was 46.7 years. The operations were elective in 75.7% of the cases and 24.7% were urgent. The average duration of the operation was 2.24 hours, the average duration of pre-operative hospital stay 4.31 days and the average length of (pre- and post-operation) hospital stay 11.2 days. Three quarters of the cases were shaved 12 hours before the operation. The increased operation time, increased bed stay, electivity of the operation, septicity of the wound, type of incision, the administration of prophylactic antibiotic, type of operation, background disease, and the increased time lapse between shaving and operation all significantly associated with SSI with a p-value less than 0.001. Conclusion In view of the high rate of SSI reported here (17.4% compared with the 14% quoted in literature), this study suggests that by reducing the average operation time to less than 2 hours, the average preoperative stay to 4 days and the overall stay to less than 11 days, and approximating the timing of shaving to the operation and substituting cefazolin for cefaluthin when prophylactic antibiotic is to be administered, the SSI may be reduced to a more acceptable level. PMID:15733323
Razavi, Seyd Mansour; Ibrahimpoor, Mohammad; Sabouri Kashani, Ahmad; Jafarian, Ali
Objective This study assesses the prevalence of hypoglycemia among patients presenting at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria with cholestasis of infancy. Methods During a period of five years, forty patients aged between 15 days and 12 months who presented with cholestasis of infancy, were admitted and screened for hypoglycemia, using Accutrend glucometer. For patients with low blood glucose values, blood samples were further analyzed, using the standard glucose-oxidase method. Results Of the 2,835 patients admitted over a five-year period, 40 (1.4%) had cholestasis of infancy, giving an incidence of 14 cases per 1000 admissions, with a sex ratio of 2.1: 1 in favour of males. Nine (22.5%) of the 40 infants with cholestasis had at least one blood glucose concentration less than 2.6 mmol/L (hypoglycemia). Of the nine hypoglycemic infants, three (33.3%) had one blood glucose concentration less than 1.6 mmol/L (severe hypoglycemia). Seven (77.8%) of the nine hypoglycemic infants were diagnosed in the first 36 hours of admission. Lethargy and poor feeding were observed in three infants with severe hypoglycemia and three of them died. Six (66.7%) of the hypoglycemic infants were below 3 months of age. Conclusions Hypoglycemia was observed among patients with cholestasis of infancy and the prevalence was higher among infants below 3 months of age. PMID:23071890
Onyiriuka, Alphonsus N.; Adeniran, Kayode A.; Onyiriuka, Eucharia P.A.
The objective of this study was to describe the screening for imported diseases among an immigrant population. This retrospective observational study was of all adult immigrants attended at the Tropical Medicine Unit of the Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital from September of 2007 to March of 2010. The screening strategy was adjusted by symptoms, country of origin, and length of residence in Europe. Overall, 927 patients were included. The median age was 34.5 years, and 42.1% of patients were male. A diagnosis was made in 419 (45.2%) patients. The most frequent diagnoses were Chagas disease, anemia, latent tuberculosis infection, intestinal parasitosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. After screening, more diseases were identified in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa (new diagnoses in 56.6% of patients) than patients from other geographic areas. The geographic origin and length of residence in a developed country determine the prevalence of diseases; hence, screening protocols must be based on this information. PMID:25331805
Bocanegra, Cristina; Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Pahissa, Albert; Molina, Israel
To describe the epidemiological, clinical, and endoscopic aspects of attempted suicides treated in the gastroenterology department of Lome Campus Teaching Hospital. This retrospective study examined data collected over a 5-year period for patients admitted for attempted suicide by consumption of toxic substances (for example, caustics, medications, and insecticides) and who had an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Caustic lesions are described according to Di Costanzo's classification. Of 3075 admissions in the department during the study period, 35 (1.14%) were admitted for attempted suicide. Only 21 of these cases (60%) met our inclusion criteria. The patients' mean age was 25.86 years old, and 71% were female. These attempted suicides were most frequent among high school and college students (52%). The ingested substances were mostly caustic in nature (13 cases). Twenty patients (95%) were admitted less than 12 hours after the suicide attempt. The dominant symptoms at the department were abdominal pain and throat inflammation. Ten patients had an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within 24 hours after the attempt. In the case of caustic ingestion, severe lesions (IIb, III) represented 53% of the cases. An esophageal stricture was noticed on the patient admitted 45 days after a suicide attempt by ingestion of a caustic substance. The frequency of attempted suicides is underestimated here because most patients are admitted to the internal medicine or psychiatric departments. Caustic substances were the main substances used and caused severe lesions. PMID:25466421
Lawson-Ananissoh, L M; Bouglouga, O; Bagny, A; Kaaga, L; Redah, D
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can lead to increased toxicity or reduction in therapeutic efficacy. This study was designed to assess the incidence of potential drug interactions (PDI) and rank their clinical value in post coronary care unit (Post-CCU) of a teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran. In this prospective study, three pharmacists with supervision of a clinical pharmacist actively gathered necessary information for detection of DDIs. Data were tabulated according to the combinations of drugs in treatment chart. Verification of potential drug interactions was carried out using the online Lexi-Interact™ 2011. A total of 203 patients (113 males and 90 females) were enrolled in the study. The mean age of patients was 61 ± 12.55 years (range = 26-93). A total of 90 drugs were prescribed to 203 patients and most prescribed drugs were atorvastatin, clopidogrel and metoprolol. Mean of drugs was 11.22 per patient. A total of 3166 potential drug interactions have been identified by Lexi- Interact™, 149 (4.71%) and 55 (1.73%) of which were categorized as D and X, respectively. The most serious interactions were clopidogrel+omeprazole and metoprolol+salbutamol. Drug interactions leading to serious adverse effects are to be cautiously watched for when multiple drugs are used simultaneously. In settings with multiple drug use attendance of a pharmacist or clinical pharmacist, taking the responsibility for monitoring drug interactions and notifying the physician about potential problems could decrease the harm in patient and increase the patient safety. PMID:24250596
Haji Aghajani, Mohammad; Sistanizad, Mohammad; Abbasinazari, Mohammad; Abiar Ghamsari, Mahdieh; Ayazkhoo, Ladan; Safi, Olia; Kazemi, Katayoon; Kouchek, Mehran
Background: Clinical audit is an important tool to improve patient care and outcomes in health service. A significant proportion of time and economic resources are spent on activities related to clinical audit. Completion of audit cycle is essential to confirm the improvements in healthcare delivery. We aimed this study to evaluate audits carried out within trauma and orthopaedic unit of a teaching hospital over the last 4 years, and establish the proportions which were re-audited as per recommendations. Methods: Data was collected from records of the clinical audit department. All orthopaedic audit projects from 2005 to 2009 were included in this study. The projects were divided in to local, regional and national audits. Data regarding audit lead clinicians, completion and presentation of projects, recommendations and re-audits was recorded. Results: Out of 61 audits commenced during last four years, 19.7% (12) were abandoned, 72.1% (44) were presented and 8.2 % (5) were still ongoing. The audit cycle was completed in only 29% (13) projects. Conclusion: Change of junior doctors every 4~6 months is related to fewer re-audits. Active involvement by supervising consultant, reallocation of the project after one trainee has finished, and full support of audit department may increase the ratio of completion of audit cycles, thereby improving the patient care. PMID:20721318
Iqbal, H.J; Pidikiti, P
Purpose This study evaluates the relative frequency of benign eyelid lesions presented to a teaching hospital in Saudi population. Patients and methods Charts of patients with benign eyelid lesions were retrospectively reviewed from January 2003 to December 2008. Clinical details included demographic data, symptoms and signs, surgical findings, primary diagnosis, and indication for biopsy were analyzed in a histopathologically confirmed benign eyelid lesions. Eyelid lesions were arranged according to their order of frequencies. Results A total of 222 biopsies were evaluated from 181 patients (male 39.2% and female 60.8%). The age of the patient at the time of biopsy ranged from 2 to 87 years old. The most common benign eyelid lesion encountered in our practice was sweat gland hidrocystoma followed by chalazion, skin tag, epidermal cyst, nevus, seborrheic keratosis, xanthelasma, and molluscum contagiosum respectively. Histopathological studies confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 95.9% (213/222) of specimens and was different from the clinical diagnosis in 4.1% (9/222) of the lesions which included seborrheic keratosis (n = 3), pilomatrixoma, steatocystoma, hemangioendothelioma, juvenile xanthogranuloma, calcinosis cutis, and syringocystadenoma papilliferum. No malignant lesion was labeled as benign. Conclusion Epidemiology of benign eyelid lesions in Saudi population is different from Far East or Western populations. Sweat gland hidrocystoma with classical clinical features and straightforward diagnosis is the most frequent lesion in our series which could be due to characteristic dry climate. PMID:23960994
Al-Faky, Yasser H.
Intestinal parasites are a serious problem in developing countries, but should not be underestimated in industrialised countries either. Between January 2006 and December 2011, stool specimens and the scotch tests of 5323 Italian and non Italian patients (adults and children) attending the laboratory of our Infectious Diseases Clinic in a teaching Hospital at Ancona were analyzed specifically for intestinal parasites. The present study shows that, over a six-year period, of a total of 5323 patients 305 harboured at least one species of parasite (5.7%). Among the pathogenic protozoa Giardia lamblia was the most common, the overall prevalence of giardiasis being 1.8 % (99/5323). Helminths were found in 0.9% of the patients (48/5323). In particular, Hymenolepis nana, Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura were most commonly recovered in non-Italian children, suggesting that certain intestinal parasites are restricted to endemic areas in the tropics. Eighteen of the 305 infected patients had more than one parasite in their stools. Our study demonstrates that intestinal parasites must be considered even in industrialised areas and stool examination should be supported by epidemiological data and clinical features. PMID:23524899
Silvestri, Carmela; Greganti, Gianfranco; Arzeni, Daniela; Morciano, Angela; Castelli, Pamela; Barchiesi, Francesco; Cirioni, Oscar; Giacometti, Andrea
Infection of arterial reconstructions is associated with high rates of mortality and limb loss despite optimal treatment.\\u000a Lower extremity revascularization procedures performed at a teaching hospital were reviewed to identify risk factors associated\\u000a with wound infection. Medical records, postoperative infection surveillance forms, and a computerized vascular registry for\\u000a lower extremity revascularizations involving a common femoral or more distal artery during
Jeanette K. Chang; Keith D. Calligaro; Sean Ryan; Debra Runyan; Matthew J. Dougherty; John J. Stern
Objective: Computerized physician documentation (CPD) has been implemented throughout the nation's Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) and is likely to increasingly replace handwritten documentation in other institutions. The use of this technology may affect educational and clinical activities, yet little has been reported in this regard. The authors conducted a qualitative study to determine the perceived impacts of CPD among faculty and housestaff in a VAMC. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted using semistructured interviews with faculty (n = 10) and a group interview with residents (n = 10) at a VAMC teaching hospital. Measurements: Content analysis of field notes and taped transcripts were done by two independent reviewers using a grounded theory approach. Findings were validated using member checking and peer debriefing. Results: Four major themes were identified: (1) improved availability of documentation; (2) changes in work processes and communication; (3) alterations in document structure and content; and (4) mistakes, concerns, and decreased confidence in the data. With a few exceptions, subjects felt documentation was more available, with benefits for education and patient care. Other impacts of CPD were largely seen as detrimental to aspects of clinical practice and education, including documentation quality, workflow, professional communication, and patient care. Conclusion: CPD is perceived to have substantial positive and negative impacts on clinical and educational activities and environments. Care should be taken when designing, implementing, and using such systems to avoid or minimize any harmful impacts. More research is needed to assess the extent of the impacts identified and to determine the best strategies to effectively deal with them. PMID:15064287
Embi, Peter J.; Yackel, Thomas R.; Logan, Judith R.; Bowen, Judith L.; Cooney, Thomas G.; Gorman, Paul N.
Carbapenems such as imipenem and meropenem are first-line agents for the treatment of serious nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. However, resistance to carbapenems has increased dramatically among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from a teaching hospital in Shanghai, China. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. None of the 77 clinical isolates collected from 2002 to 2009 were susceptible to ertapenem and only 6.5 % and 1.3 % of isolates were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem, respectively. Colistin and tigecycline were found to be the most active agents against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates, inhibiting 90 % of isolates at a concentration of 1 µg ml(-1) and 4 µg ml(-1), respectively. The results of PFGE analysis suggested that many of the KPC-2-producing isolates of Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were clonally related. Most of these isolates were isolated from the same ward, namely the neurosurgical ward, suggesting horizontal transfer of the KPC-2-encoding gene in these isolates. Of the 77 isolates, 84.4 % were found, by PCR, to be capable of carbapenemase production. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that 75.3 % (58/77) of the isolates had lost at least one porin protein. Our results suggested that the prompt detection of carbapenemase-producing strains is critical for the containment of nosocomial transmission. As no novel antimicrobials have been identified for use in the treatment of these pan-drug-resistant isolates, further studies should focus on the rational use of available antibiotics, the implementation of active antibiotic resistance surveillance and the strict implementation of infection control measures to avoid the rapid spread or outbreak of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in health-care facilities. PMID:21903823
Hu, Fupin; Chen, Shudan; Xu, Xiaogang; Guo, Yan; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Demei; Zhang, Yingyuan
Background: Currently, in developing countries, there is a paradigm shift in the mortality patterns from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Objective: This study is aimed at providing a broad spectrum on the mortality patterns in elderly within a 5-year-period in a tertiary healthcare provider in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective review of mortality patterns of elderly patients from January 2007 to December 2011 occurring in Irrua specialist teaching hospital, (ISTH), Irrua and its environs. Information derived from the request cards include age, sex, clinical history, diagnosis, duration and cause of death. Results: During this period a total of 3,002 elderly (>65 years) admissions were seen. Of this, 561 patients were confirmed dead. Among this, 317 and 244 cases were elderly male and female patients, respectively. Hence the ratio of male to female was 1.3:1.0. The peak age group was 65-70 years accounting for 147 patients (26.2%). The age range of patients was 65-104 years while the modal and mean ages were 69 years and 74 years ? 4.2 standard deviation (SD), respectively. The most commonly encountered cause of mortality was cerebrovascular accident constituting 141 (25.1%) cases. The 2nd and 3rd majority of mortality cases were malignancies and diabetes mellitus (metabolic disorder) accounting for 85 (15.2%) and 45 (8%) cases, respectively. Others include congestive cardiac failure 35 (6.2%), Septicaemia 29 (5.2%), trauma 26 (4.6%) while chronic renal failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease consist of 22 cases (3.9%) each. Conclusion: Non-communicable diseases particularly cerebrovascular diseases and malignancies were the most commonly encountered cause of elderly mortality in our environment. Notwithstanding a large percentage of mortality patterns also results from communicable diseases with sepsis as the leading cause of mortality. PMID:24249951
Uchendu, O. J.; Forae, G. D.
Purpose: To present the results of uveal melanomas treated at Nice Teaching Hospital. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 886 consecutive patients referred to our clinic for the treatment of uveal melanomas by proton beam radiotherapy from June 1991 to December 2007. Survival rates were determined by using Kaplan-Meier estimates, and prognostic factors were evaluated using the log-rank test or Cox model. Results: The number (percent total) of subjects staged according to the TNM classification system (6th edition) of malignant tumors included 39 stage T1 (4.4%), 420 stage T2 (47.40%), 409 stage T3 (46.16%), and 18 stage T4 (2.03%) patients. The median follow-up was 63.7 months. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate at 5 years according to the sixth edition TNM classification was 92% for T1, 89% for T2, 67% for T3, and 62% for T4; and at 10 years, 86% for T1, 78% for T2, 43% for T3, and 41% for T4. Five factors were found to be associated with an increased death rate: advanced age, tumor thickness, largest tumor basal diameter, tumor volume, and tumor volume-to-eyeball volume ratio. The metastasis-free survival rates were 88.3 % at 5 years and 76.4 % at 10 years. The local control rates were 93.9% at 5 years and 92.1% at 10 years. The ocular conservation rates were 91.1% at 5 years and 87.3% at 10 years. Conclusions: We report the results of a large series of patients treated for uveal melanomas with a very long follow-up. Despite the large tumor volume treated, our results were similar to previously published findings relating to proton beam therapy.
Caujolle, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Roch Hospital, Nice Teaching Hospital, 5 rue Pierre Devoluy, BP 319, 06006 Nice cedex 01 (France); Mammar, Hamid [Department of Radiation Oncology, Protontherapy Center, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, 33 avenue Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 02 (France); Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, 33 avenue Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex, 02 (France); Pinon, Fabien [Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Roch Hospital, Nice Teaching Hospital, 5 rue Pierre Devoluy, BP 319, 06006 Nice cedex 01 (France); Herault, Joel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Protontherapy Center, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, 33 avenue Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 02 (France); Gastaud, Pierre [Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Roch Hospital, Nice Teaching Hospital, 5 rue Pierre Devoluy, BP 319, 06006 Nice cedex 01 (France)
Background: Neurological disorders are a significant cause of morbidity, mortality and adversely affect quality of life among pediatric patients. In India, more than 30% population is under 20 years of age, many of whom present late during the course of illness. Several drugs prescribed to pediatric population suffering from neurological disorders may be off label or unlicensed. Aims and Objectives: To study drug use pattern, identify off-label/unlicensed drug use and to check potential for drug-drug interactions in patients attending outpatient department of pediatric neurology at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methodology: Prescriptions of patients attending pediatric neurology outpatient department were collected prospectively for 8 weeks. They were analyzed for prescribing pattern, WHO core prescribing indicators, off-label/unlicensed drug use and potential for drug-drug interactions. Result: A total of 140 prescriptions were collected, male female ratio being 2:1. Epilepsy was the most common diagnosis (73.57%) followed by breath holding spells, migraine and developmental disorders. Partial seizure was the most common type of epilepsy (52.42%). Average number of drugs prescribed per patient was 1.56. Most commonly prescribed drug was sodium valproate (25.11%) followed by phenytoin (11.41%). About 16% of the prescriptions contained newer antiepileptic drugs. More than 60% of the drugs were prescribed from WHO essential drug list. In 8.57% of cases drugs were prescribed in off-label/unlicensed manner. Twenty-six percent prescriptions showed potential for drug interactions. Conclusion: Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease among children and adolescents. Sodium valproate is the most commonly prescribed drug. A few prescriptions contained off-label/unlicensed drugs. PMID:25278669
Bhatt, Krutika M.; Malhotra, Supriya D.; Patel, Kamlesh P.; Patel, Varsha J.
Background: More than 40 oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been recorded and between 70% and 90% of persons with HIV infection will have at least one oral manifestation at some time during the course of their disease. Oral health-care workers (OHCWs) are therefore, key players in the prevention and management of HIV-infection. Aim: The aim of this study was toassess the perceptions of the OHCWs from a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria toward HIV transmission in dental practice and occupational risk. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. A total of 113 OHCWs comprising students, house officers, resident doctors, dental nurses and consultants participated. Analysis was by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Data analysis included descriptive statistics (frequency distribution and cross tabulation). Results: More than half 64/113 (56%) of the respondents were in the age group 20-30 years and females 68/113 (60%). Though 88% (100/113) of the respondents demonstrated a good knowledge about HIV transmission, 82/113 respondents (72%) disagreed that the risk of HIV transmission in the dental clinic was very low. 82.4% (93/113) did not know that saliva contains anti-HIV activity while 46% (52/113) agreed that pure saliva does not contain the virus except when contaminated by blood. 86.7% (98/113) of the OHCWs disagreed that dental professionals have a lower risk of being infected with HIV compared with other health-care providers. Conclusion: The OHCWs studied manifested some inaccurate perception of occupational risks as regards HIV transmission in dental practice. This could lead to potential stigma and discrimination of people living with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and thus hindering efforts geared at curtailing the spread of the virus. PMID:25184095
Background: The surgical extraction of impacted third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, and it is often associated with complications such as sensory nerve damage, dry socket, pain, swelling, trismus, infection and hemorrhage. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the surgical indications and risk factors for complications of third molar surgery at a Nigerian teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients referred to the Oral Surgery Clinic of our institution for surgical extraction of their impacted mandibular third molars from January 2008 to December 2010 were retrospectively examined. Information on patients’ demography, types of impaction, operative parameters and complications were obtained and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 13), Chicago, IL, USA. A P < 0.0.5 was considered significant. Results: A total of 330 impacted teeth were extracted from 250 patients. Male comprises (104/250 [41.6%]) and female (146/250 [58.4%]). The mesioangular (176/330 [53.4%]) and distoangular (73/330 [22.1%]) impactions were the commonest types. Recurrent pericoronitis (154/330 [46.7%]) was the most common indication for extraction. The complications were delayed healing (19/330 [5.8%]), alveolar, osteitis (9/330 [2.7%]) and injury to alveolar nerve (2/330 [0.6%]). Cigarette smoking (P < 0.001), Oral contraceptives use (P = 0.01), age of the patient (P = 0.03) and the surgeon's experience (P = 0.04) were found to be significantly associated with the development of alveolar osteitis; nerves injuries were significantly associated with the raising of a lingual flap (P < 0.001) and the technique of surgery (P ? 0.001). Conclusion: The age of the patient, cigarette smoking and oral contraceptive use at the time of surgery are some of the factors affecting outcome in third molar surgery. PMID:25506490
Osunde, OD; Saheeb, BD; Bassey, GO
An urban legend that "you will get hurt if you go to hospital at the beginning of the fiscal year" is in circulation, because people in general suppose that inexperienced newcomers start to work at clinical practice during that time period. We tried to determine whether this urban legend was true or not by using data from our operation management system. We retrospectively conducted a study to investigate whether the number of cannulation failures, which was used as an index of patient disadvantages at clinical practice, could be affected by the volume of residents in clinical participation. The number of insertion trials per case was not prominent in the first month of the fiscal year. However, the number of insertion trials per case increased in proportion to the average number of residents per day. It seems that there was no evidence to support the urban legend that "you will get hurt if you go to hospital at the beginning of the fiscal year." However, our results suggest that rather than an urban legend, we are now confronting the fact that patients may suffer from medical disadvantages in the teaching hospitals. PMID:24981561
Inoue, Satoki; Abe, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Yu; Kawaguchi, Masahiko
Background: The safety and protection of patients and health care workers is of paramount importance in dentistry, and this includes students in training who provide clinical care. Given the nature of dental care, adverse incidents can and do occur, exposing health care workers to body fluids and putting them at risk of infection, including contracting a blood-borne virus. The aim of this research was to analyze trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital from 2005 to 2010. Methods: Descriptive analysis of trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital over a six-year period was undertaken in relation to the level of outpatient and day surgery activity. Results: In total, 287 incidents were reported over a six-year period, which amounted to 0.039% of outpatient or day surgery appointments. Nearly three quarters of all the incidents (n = 208, 72%) took place during treatment or whilst clearing away after the appointment. The most frequent incidents were associated with administration of local anesthetic (n = 63, 22%), followed by burs used in dental hand pieces (n = 51, 18%). Conclusion: This research confirms that adverse incidents are a feature of dental hospitals and reports the common sources. The importance of accurate and consistent reporting of data to ensure that these issues are monitored to inform action and reduce risks to staff, students, and patients are highlighted. PMID:23118545
Hughes, A; Davies, L; Hale, R; Gallagher, JE
Background and Aim: Ideally, the period of patients admitting in the Emergency Department (ED) should not exceed 6 hours. Prolonged of the patients admitting time affects the ED overcrowding, quality of patient care and patient satisfaction. To evaluate the efficacy of new programs and suggest new strategies to reduce the overcrowding in a typical overcrowded ED of general teaching hospital in Tehran city. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive case study, charts of patients held over 24 hours, in Imam Hossein Hospital affiliated to the Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, were reviewed from April 21rd on August 23rd, 2008. Results: Of 15,477 patients, 151 (1%) have been held in the ED over 24 hours. Reasons for this long-stay included:lack of available bed in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (125 patients), lack of available bed in related wards (18 patients), poor final decision — making by physician (eight patient) Conclusion: Long-term stay of patients in ED of teaching hospital is a major problem. The most frequent cause is a limitation of inpatient beds. The long stay time had not been affected by paraclinic procedures, multispecialities involvement or the lack of obvious diagnosis. The following solution is proposed: (1) creation of a holding unit, (2) active inter-facility transfer and (3) governing admittance of patients who need ICU care to related wards. PMID:24791047
Talleshi, Z.; Hosseininejad, S. M.; Khatir, Goli; Bozorghi, F.; Gorji, A. M. Heidari; Gorji, M. A. Heidari
Aim: Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is of major concern in patients with complex therapeutic regimens. The involvement of cardiovascular medicines in drug interaction is even higher. However, reports of DDI between these groups of drugs are few. The study aims to identify the potential DDI among hospitalized cardiac patients. Furthermore, we assessed the possible risk factors associated with these interactions. Subjects and Methods: The Type of study prospective observational study was conducted from May 2012 to August 2012 among hospitalized cardiac patients. Cardiac patients who were taking at least two drugs and who had a hospital stay of at least 24 h were enrolled. The medications of the patients were analyzed for possible interactions using the standard drug interaction database - Micromedex -2 (Thomson Reuters) × 2.0. Results: From a total of 150 enrolled patients, at least one interacting drug combination was identified among 32 patients. The incidence of potential DDI was 21.3%. A total of 48 potentially hazardous drug interactions were identified. Atorvastatin/azithromycin (10.4%), enalapril/metformin (10.4%), enalapril/potassium chloride (10.4%), atorvastatin/clarithromycin (8.3%) and furosemide/gentamicin (6.3%) were the most common interacting pairs. Drugs most commonly involved were atorvastatin, enalapril, digoxin, furosemide, clopidogrel and warfarin. Majority of interactions were of moderate severity (62.5%) and pharmacokinetic (58.3%) in nature. Increased number of medicines, prolonged hospital stays and comorbid conditions were the risk factors found associated with the potential DDI. Conclusions: This study highlighted the need of intense monitoring of patients who have identified risk factors to help detect and prevent them from serious health hazards associated with drug interactions. PMID:24741184
Sharma, Sushmita; Chhetri, Himal Paudel; Alam, Kadir
Aim: To determine the types of functional disabilities in adult and paediatric burns survivors, with specific emphasis on potential risk and socio-economic factors of burn disabilities present in Ghana. Patients and Methods: The descriptive study was carried out in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana from May 2011 to April 2012. Burn survivors who came for follow-up visits after been discharged home and had functional disability were the participants of the study. They were physically examined and interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire after their informed consent/or that of their parents (in the cases of paediatrics burns survivors) was sought. Results: A total of 70 participants consented for the study. Their ages ranged from 8/12 – 78 years, with a mean age of 12±1.7 years. Majority (60.0%, N=42) of the participants had third degree burns. The nature of disabilities of participants were mostly scar contractures (42.9%, N=30) of which 36.7% (N=11) had impeded arm elevation; 23.3% (N=7) could not fold the palm or move the digits. From the multiple regression analysis risk factors for burn victim to have disability were paediatric age (OR=11.1, P=0.043), third degree of burn (OR=6.2, P=0.001) and anatomical part affected (OR=18.3, P=0.031). Socio-economic factors that affected burn disability victims were nuclear family compensation (OR=4.2, P=0.021), community mockery/stigmatization (OR=0.1, P=0.052) and caretakers time and finance (OR=5.2, P=0.033). Conclusion: The commonest functional disabilities recorded were scar contractions of the axilla region which had impeded the ability of the patients to lift the arm. Risk factors for burns disability included childhood age, third degree of burn incurred and anatomical part affected. Social factors influencing the lives of burn survivors with disability were good family and negative community interactions. Significant economical factors recorded were caretakers’ time and financial constrains. PMID:23638325
Background Diarrheal diseases are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing world. Understanding the etiologic agents of diarrheal diseases and their association with socio-demographic characteristics of patients would help to design better preventive measures. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria in diarrheic patients. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 384 consecutive diarrheal patients who visited Gondar teaching hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia from October 2006 to March 2007 was conducted. Stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria following standard parasitological and microbiological procedures. Results Intestinal parasites were diagnosed in 36.5% of the patients. The most frequently encountered protozoan parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.3%) followed by Giardia lamblia (5.0%), Cryptosporidium parvum (1.8%) and Isospora belli (1.3%). The dominant helminthic parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (5.5%) followed by Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma mansoni (3.1% each), hookworm infection (1.8%), and Hymenolepis species (1.3%). Multiple infections of intestinal parasites were also observed in 6.3% of the patients. Among the enteropathogenic bacteria Shigella and Salmonella species were isolated from 15.6% and 1.6%, respectively, of the patients. Escherichia coli O57:H7 was not found in any of the stool samples tested. Eighty eight percent and 83.3% of the Shigella and Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more commonly used antibiotics, respectively. Intestinal parasitosis was higher in patients who live in rural area, in patients who were washing their hands after visiting toilet either irregularly with soap and without soap or not at all, in patients who used well and spring water for household consumption, and in patients who had nausea (P < 0.05). Statistically significant associations were also observed between Shigella infections and patients who were using well and spring water for household consumption, and patients who had dysentery and mucoid stool (P < 0.05). Conclusions The high prevalence of intestinal parasites and Shigella species in diarrheic patients calls for institution of appropriate public health intervention measures to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. The rational use of antibiotics should also be practiced. PMID:22041102
Purpose We conducted a prospective survey of 2?663 surgical patients in a Japanese teaching hospital to look for any risk factors\\u000a predisposing to surgical site infection (SSI) other than the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) System risk\\u000a indices; namely, performance status, operative time, wound classification, and endoscopic use.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Our Infection Control Team recorded data for 5 years using the Japanese SSI
Junichi Yoshida; Masahiro Shinohara; Mikimasa Ishikawa; Kenichi Matsuo
Cerebral toxoplasmosis is common opportunistic infections of central nervous system in AIDS. It occurs most often in case of severe immunosuppression. The aim of this study is to investigate the general characteristics of cerebral toxoplasmosis during HIV infection and AIDS in hospital area in Bamako. It is a retrospective study of 5 years (form January 2001 to December 2005), conducted in the infectious diseases department of Point G Teaching Hospital of Bamako. It concerned all patients infected with HIV, hospitalized for cerebral toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was based on clinical, C T and therapeutic arguments. A total of 745 patients investigated, 26 met cerebral toxoplasmosis diagnostic criteria (14 men and 12 women). The rate of cerebral toxoplasmosis in the study population was 3.5%. The average age was 38.1 years (18-58 years). Focused neurological deficit (73.07%), intracranial hypertension signs (69.20%), meningeal syndrome (15.40%), seizures (57.69%) and consciousness disorders (30.80%) were the clinical characteristics. Hypodensity with or without peripheral enhancement images (93.75%) were found on CT. The average rate of CD4 T cells was 98.7cells/mm3 (5-473 cells/mm3). Oropharyngeal candidiasis in 61.53% of cases, intestinal cryptosporidiosis (11.53%), herpes zoster (3.84%) and Pott's disease (3.84%) were the opportunistic infections associated. Cotrimoxazole was used in 88.46% of patients and 3 patients (11.54%) received the standard treatment (Sulfadiazine-Pyrimethamine). Antitoxoplasmic treatment led to a clinical improvement in 84.61% and 4 deaths (15.39%). were recorded. The technical platform for etiological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is not available at the Point-G Teaching Hospital, so in case of encephalitis signs in a HIV positive patient, CT should be urgently perform and a treatment trial must begin without delay. PMID:22765969
Goïta, D; Karambe, M; Dembélé, J P; Sogoba, D; Sidibé, A F; Diaby, S; Cisse, I A; Fongoro, S; Dao, S
BACKGROUNDIn the past 10 years, medication errors have come to be recognised as an important cause of iatrogenic disease in hospital patients.AIMSTo determine the incidence and type of medication errors in a large UK paediatric hospital over a five year period, and to ascertain whether any error prevention programmes had influenced error occurrence.METHODSRetrospective review of medication errors documented in standard
L M Ross; J Wallace; J Y Paton
OBJECTIVES: Several studies have evaluated whether evidence-based medicine (EBM) training courses can improve skills such as literature\\u000a searching and critical appraisal but to date, few data exist on whether teaching EBM skills and providing evidence-based resources\\u000a result in change in behavior or clinical outcomes. This study was conducted to evaluate whether a multifaceted EBM intervention\\u000a consisting of teaching EBM skills
Sharon E. Straus; Chris Ball; Nick Balcombe; Jonathon Sheldon; Finlay A. McAlister
Background Lassa fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa. However, none of the hospitals in the endemic areas of Nigeria has the capacity to perform Lassa virus diagnostics. Case identification and management solely relies on non-specific clinical criteria. The Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH) in the central senatorial district of Edo State struggled with this challenge for many years. Methodology/Principal Findings A laboratory for molecular diagnosis of Lassa fever, complying with basic standards of diagnostic PCR facilities, was established at ISTH in 2008. During 2009 through 2010, samples of 1,650 suspected cases were processed, of which 198 (12%) tested positive by Lassa virus RT-PCR. No remarkable demographic differences were observed between PCR-positive and negative patients. The case fatality rate for Lassa fever was 31%. Nearly two thirds of confirmed cases attended the emergency departments of ISTH. The time window for therapeutic intervention was extremely short, as 50% of the fatal cases died within 2 days of hospitalization—often before ribavirin treatment could be commenced. Fatal Lassa fever cases were older (p?=?0.005), had lower body temperature (p<0.0001), and had higher creatinine (p<0.0001) and blood urea levels (p<0.0001) than survivors. Lassa fever incidence in the hospital followed a seasonal pattern with a peak between November and March. Lassa virus sequences obtained from the patients originating from Edo State formed—within lineage II—a separate clade that could be further subdivided into three clusters. Conclusions/Significance Lassa fever case management was improved at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria through establishment of a laboratory for routine diagnostics of Lassa virus. Data collected in two years of operation demonstrate that Lassa fever is a serious public health problem in Edo State and reveal new insights into the disease in hospitalized patients. PMID:23029594
Hass, Meike; Gabriel, Martin; Ölschläger, Stephan; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Folarin, Onikepe; Phelan, Eric; Ehiane, Philomena E.; Ifeh, Veritas E.; Uyigue, Eghosasere A.; Oladapo, Yemisi T.; Muoebonam, Ekene B.; Osunde, Osagie; Dongo, Andrew; Okokhere, Peter O.; Okogbenin, Sylvanus A.; Momoh, Mojeed; Alikah, Sylvester O.; Akhuemokhan, Odigie C.; Imomeh, Peter; Odike, Maxy A. C.; Gire, Stephen; Andersen, Kristian; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Happi, Christian T.; Akpede, George O.; Günther, Stephan
The impact of a formal compliance testing program has been evaluated three years post-implementation on a major teaching hospital (Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital) with 46 x-ray tubes located throughout 37 rooms. The mandatory program, implemented by the statutory authority in January 1997, called for all medical (including chiropractic and dental) equipment used in human diagnosis to be tested at prescribed frequencies using established protocols. The application of the required test methods demonstrated various non-compliance issues. Notices of non-compliance were received for approximately 60% of the equipment in the hospital following the equipment's first annual test. The reasons for, and the significance of, failure varied according to equipment category, test category, equipment use and equipment age. However, at the end of the third year of testing, approximately 75% of the tested x-ray units satisfied the compliance criteria. The main reasons for non-compliance were found to be design limitations of old technology and the current radiation legislation that makes it difficult for some older equipment to meet the relatively stringent criteria. PMID:12049472
Tuchyna, T; Wilkinson, S; Jacob, C S
The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) is a term that is frequently used for discipline-based studies in higher education, and yet it is not commonly described in hospitality and tourism education. This article presents a case for the use of SoTL in hospitality and tourism education, specifically using student-generated products as sources of evidence or data and via qualitative
Cynthia S. Deale
The College of Veterinary Medicine at Mississippi State University established a not-for-profit corporation (MSU-CVM-COS) to develop and manage private specialty clinics that would enhance teaching and student learning, increase caseload, and generate revenue. The corporation currently operates the Animal Emergency and Referral Center (AERC) and the Veterinary Specialty Center (VSC) as affiliates of Mississippi State University. These privately managed facilities provide access to advanced medical equipment, enhance clinical service and teaching, and promote the College's One Health initiative. PMID:24384387
Tyner, C Lee; Harkness, John; Hoblet, Kent; Zumwalt, Lauren; Templeton, Karen; McLaughlin, Ron
Background: Esophageal cancer has a peculiar geographical distribution and shows marked differences in incidence within a particular geographical region. Presently, as there seems little prospect of early detection of this cancer, an understanding of the etiological factors may suggest opportunities for its primary prevention. Objectives: The present study was carried out to find out the socio-demographic determinants of esophageal cancer in a tertiary care teaching hospital of western Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective hospital record-based study was carried out for the period of five years (2007-2011) in the department of Radiotherapy of Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, western Maharashtra, India. A total of 5879 patients were diagnosed with cancer, of them, 207 (3.52%) patients had esophageal cancer. Data was collected on the basis of the patients’ record in the hospital and analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions whenever appropriate. Results: Out of total 5879 patients who were diagnosed with cancer during the five studied years, 207 (3.52%) patients had esophageal cancer, of which 121 (58.46%) were males and 86 (41.54%) were females, which show predominance of males over females. Most of the patients (28.50%) belonged to lower class, while only 9.66% were from upper class. Majority of the patients (54.14%) had a history of tobacco chewing, followed by smoking (cigarette, bidi, or both) in 36.94% and alcohol in 21.65%. Conclusion: The present study shows that esophageal cancer constitutes 3.52% of cancer cases. There is a need to screen the high-risk group of people, improve socio-economic status, and efforts must be made to introduce a set of preventive measures that have the potential to significantly reduce the burden of disease and to help bridge the gap between research and public awareness. PMID:24665448
Giri, Purushottam A.; Singh, Kailash K.; Phalke, Deepak B.
We reviewed 80 adult cases of measles seen in a Parisian hospital during the French 2010-2011 outbreak. Fifty per cent had at least one complication: pneumonia and hepatitis were the most frequent. Forty per cent of hospitalized cases did not have any complications, suggesting clinically poor tolerance of measles in adults. The outcome was always favourable. Subjects were younger, were more often French nationals and had a higher socio-economic status than the overall population. This report suggests that immunity resulting from natural disease in patients from an area where the disease is endemic is protective in the long term. PMID:24707854
Caseris, M; Houhou, N; Longuet, P; Rioux, C; Lepeule, R; Choquet, C; Yazdanpanah, Y; Yeni, P; Joly, V
Introduction According to a study conducted in1989, Enugu State has an estimated urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 79%. Recently, studies have implicated bacteriuria co-infection in bladder cancer. These bacteria accelerate the multi-stage process of bladder carcinogenesis. Knowledge about the prevalence of this co-infection is not available in Enugu and the information provided by the 1989 study is too old to be used for current decision making. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of primary school children aged5-15years, who were randomly selected through a multi stage sampling method using guidelines recommended by WHO for schistosomiasis surveys. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, socioeconomic variables and clinical presentations. Urine samples were collected between 10.00am and 2.00pm. Each sample was divided into two: (A) for prevalence and intensity using syringe filtration technique and (B) for culture. Intensity was categorized as heavy (>50ova/10mls urine) and light (<50ova/10mls urine). Significant bacteriuria was bacteria count ? 105 colony forming units/ml of urine. Results Of the 842 pupils, 50.6% were females. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was 34.1%. Infection rate was higher(52.8%) among 13-15 years(Prevalence Ratio = 2.45, 95% Confidence Interval 1.63-3.69). Heavy infections wad 62.7% and egg count/10mls urine ranged from 21-1138. Significant bacteriuria among pupils with urinary schistosomiasis was 53.7% compared to 3.6% in the uninfected(PR = 30.8,95% CI 18.91- 52.09). The commonest implicated organism was Escherchia coli. Conclusion We found high prevalence of bacteriuria co-infection among children with urinary schistosomiasis in Enugu State. This underscores the need for concurrent antibiotics administration and follow-up to avert later complications. PMID:25328634
Ossai, Okechukwu Paulinus; Dankoli, Raymond; Nwodo, Chimezie; Tukur, Dahiru; Nsubuga, Peter; Ogbuabor, Daniel; Ekwueme, Osaeloka; Abonyi, Godwin; Ezeanolue, Echezona; Nguku, Patrick; Nwagbo, Douglas; Idris, Suleiman; Eze, George
Thirty-six patients (33 males, 3 females) were screened for HIV antibodies at the Urological clinics, at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra because of chronic diarrhoea, unexplained weight loss, multiple sexual partners, recurrent sexually transmitted diseases, non resolution of symptoms or history of possible exposure to HIV. Ten patients (27.8%) were found to be HIV seropositive; 6 were confirmed as HIV-1, one as HIV-2 and 3 as both HIV-1 and HIV-2. The HIV seropositive patients presented as follows: recurrent cystitis and offensive vaginal discharge in 2 females, non-resolution or recurrence of urological symptoms and signs such as warts (genital, meatal and or urethral) in 4 males and recurrent penile ulcers in 4 males. This report indicates that physicians should be alert and screen high risk patients for both HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. PMID:8312213
Yeboah, E D; Neequaye, A R; Mingle, J A; Asamoah-Adu, A
Background: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Toronto, which began on Mar. 7, 2003, resulted in extraordinary public health and infection control measures. We aimed to describe the psychological and occupational im- pact of this event within a large hospital in the first 4 weeks of the outbreak and the subsequent administrative and mental health response. Methods:
Robert Maunder; Jonathan Hunter; Leslie Vincent; Jocelyn Bennett; Nathalie Peladeau; Molyn Leszcz; Joel Sadavoy; Lieve M. Verhaeghe; Rosalie Steinberg; Tony Mazzulli
During the period 1981 to 1992, 4,473 fecal specimens collected from children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, were examined by electron microscopy. A monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay for enteric adenovirus (EAd) types 40 (Ad40) and 41 (Ad41) was used when adenoviruses were visualized. Fecal samples were positive for adenovirus by both electron microscopy and enzyme immunoassay in 138 patients (3.1%). Ad40 was identified in 19 children (14%), and Ad41 was identified in 119 children (86%). These EAd were identified during each of the 12 years surveyed. EAd were present year-round, but the annual number of hospitalizations was not constant. Yearly prevalence varied from 0.7% (1981) to 6.5% (1985). This was associated with monthly fluctuations in Ad41 activity, with overall peak monthly prevalence in May (late autumn). By contrast, Ad40 numbers remained low and constant year-round. The frequency of Ad41 relative to Ad40 increased from 25% in 1981 to exceed 75% after 1983. Children admitted with EAd infection were more likely to have diarrhea for more than 5 days (P < 0.001) but less likely to be febrile or dehydrated (P < 0.05) than children with rotavirus infection. EAd are responsible for enteric symptoms of only a fraction of hospitalized children with infectious diarrhea but result in a more-protracted illness than rotavirus. Their relationship to persistent diarrhea requires further investigation. PMID:7699028
Grimwood, K; Carzino, R; Barnes, G L; Bishop, R F
Questions under study: Swiss guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were published in 2002. We aimed at assessing adherence to the proposed guidelines by the physicians in charge for all pa- tients referred to our hospital for acute exacerba- tions of COPD over a one year period. Methods: In a prospective observational study, data from a
K. Fritsch; M.-L. Jacot; A. Klarer; F. Wick; P. Bruggmann; M. Krause; R. Thurnheer
to greet hospital clients and make them feel welcome, as well as provide in- formation and assistance. Beth, this is just part of giving back to the community," said Selby."How we live and care for others, well. Bernard puppies, all with their own individually colored leashes, a pair of 21-year-old cats com- ing
Stephens, Graeme L.
Background A gap exists between the best evidence and practice with regards to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention. Awareness of evidence is the first step in knowledge translation. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to 59 general surgeons and 68 residents at University of Toronto teaching hospitals. Five domains pertaining to SSI prevention with questions addressing knowledge of prevention strategies, efficacy of antibiotics, strategies for changing practice and barriers to implementation of SSI prevention strategies were investigated. Results Seventy-six individuals (60%) responded. More than 90% of respondents stated there was evidence for antibiotic prophylaxis and perioperative normothermia and reported use of these strategies. There was a discrepancy in the perceived evidence for and the self-reported use of perioperative hyperoxia, omission of hair removal and bowel preparation. Eighty-three percent of respondents felt that consulting published guidelines is important in making decisions regarding antibiotics. There was also a discrepancy between what respondents felt were important strategies to ensure timely administration of antibiotics and what strategies were in place. Checklists, standardized orders, protocols and formal surveillance programs were rated most highly by 75%–90% of respondents, but less than 50% stated that these strategies were in place at their institutions. Conclusion Broad-reaching initiatives that increase surgeon and trainee awareness and implementation of multifaceted hospital strategies that engage residents and attending surgeons are needed to change practice. PMID:22617541
Eskicioglu, Cagla; Gagliardi, Anna R.; Fenech, Darlene S.; Forbes, Shawn S.; McKenzie, Marg; McLeod, Robin S.; Nathens, Avery B.
This report is a description of a balanced scorecard design and evaluation process conducted for the health information management department at an urban non-teaching hospital in Canada. The creation of the health information management balanced scorecard involved planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of the indicators within the balanced scorecard by the health information management department and required 6 months to complete. Following the evaluation, the majority of members of the health information management department agreed that the balanced scorecard is a useful tool in reporting key performance indicators. These findings support the success of the balanced scorecard development within this setting and will help the department to better align with the hospital's corporate strategy that is linked to the provision of efficient management through the evaluation of key performance indicators. Thus, it appears that the planning and selection process used to determine the key indicators within the study can aid in the development of a balanced scorecard for a health information management department. In addition, it is important to include the health information management department staff in all stages of the balanced scorecard development, implementation, and evaluation phases. PMID:24948412
Nippak, Pria Md; Veracion, Julius Isidro; Muia, Maria; Ikeda-Douglas, Candace J; Isaac, Winston W
This retrospective study reviews the medical records of 301 reptiles with dermatological lesions that were examined at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California at Davis (VMTH-UCD) and the Unité de Dermatologie-Parasitologie-Mycologie, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Nantes (UDPM-ENVN) from 1 January 1992 to 1 July 2008. The most common reptile groups differed between the two hospitals, with lizards being the most common at the VMTH-UCD and chelonians at the UDPM-ENVN. At the VMTH-UCD, boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), ball pythons (Python regius) and other Python species were over-represented, and box turtles (Terrapene carolina) were under-represented in the dermatological lesion caseload. When institutional data were combined, 47% of all reptiles at both institutions with confirmed or suspected cases of sepsis had petechiae, with the highest association seen in chelonians at 82%. Dependent on institution and reptile group, from 29% to 64% of the cases had underlying husbandry issues. Sixty-two per cent of all cases were alive at final status. Veterinarians treating reptiles with skin disease should be aware of the following: (i) that boa constrictors and Python species may be predisposed to dermatological lesions; (ii) that client education is important for proper husbandry; and (iii) that there is a possible association between petechiae and sepsis, especially in chelonians. The conjectural association between certain skin lesions and sepsis remains to be confirmed by systematically derived data that demonstrate a causal relationship between the two. PMID:20887405
White, Stephen D; Bourdeau, Patrick; Bruet, Vincent; Kass, Philip H; Tell, Lisa; Hawkins, Michelle G
HIV infection hampers diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) because many pathogens cause pulmonary infection in HIV people and the load of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is lower in HIV patients. We conducted a literature review and prospectively examined clinical, radiological, and laboratory diagnosis of PTB in 71 HIV-patients (29 inpatients and 42 outpatients) in a teaching hospital in West Java, Indonesia. For both in- and outpatients, signs and symptoms were sensitive but not specific for PTB. Chest X-ray (CXR) was sensitive but less specific. Among hospitalized PTB suspects, 28,8% could not expectorate sputum. Compared to culture, ZN had a sensitivity of 11.1% and 66.7% for in- and outpatients, respectively. From the literature, fluorescence microscopy, liquid culture, and nucleic acid assays can improve diagnosis of PTB in HIV, while IFNg-release assays lack sensitivity, especially in advanced HIV. The current practice of using CXR and microscopy lacks sensitivity for diagnosing PTB in HIV patients. Sputum culture is more sensitive but slow. Fluorescence microscopy might be a quick, relatively sensitive and feasible option in Indonesia. However, because of the frequent absence of sputum, especially in patients with advanced HIV-AIDS patients, there is an urgent need for alternative diagnostic methods using blood or urine. PMID:19920300
Rewata, Lidya; Rutherford, Merrin; Apriani, Lika; Janssen, Willem; Rahmadi, Andri; Parwati, Ida; Yuwono, Arto; van Crevel, Reinout
Introduction: The Laundry Department plays an important role in preventing the spread of infection and continuously supplying clean linen to various departments in any hospital. Objectives of the Study: To identify existing practices and occupational safety and health (OSH) measures in the Laundry Department and to assess the use of personal protective equipments (PPEs) among health care workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a private tertiary care teaching hospital. An observation checklist was developed, which was partially based on occupational hazard checklist of OSHA for Laundry Department. This was field tested and validated for applicability for this study. Results: The potential biological hazards are infections through exposure to aerosols, spills and splashes during various activities, fungal infection due to wet clothes and environment and infections through fomites. The potential physical hazards are injuries due to slips and falls, exposure to heat, humidity, dust, noise, and vibration. The potential chemical hazards are contact dermatitis and allergic asthma due to exposure to detergents, phenyl solution, bleaching powder, and soap oil solution. The potential ergonomic hazards are musculoskeletal diseases and repetitive stress injuries at the shoulder, elbow, and small joints of the hands. PPEs were not used consistently in most areas of the department. PMID:25006311
Kumar, M. Shashi; Goud, B. Ramakrishna; Joseph, Bobby
A previous study in Cairo, Egypt highlighted the need to improve the patient safety culture among health-care providers at Ain Shams University hospitals. This descriptive cross-sectional study assessed healthcare providers' perceptions of patient safety culture within the organization and determined factors that played a role in patient safety culture. A representative sample of 510 physicians, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and labourers in different departments answered an Arabic version of the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality hospital survey for patient safety culture. The highest mean composite positive score among the 12 dimensions was for the organizational learning for continuous improvement (78.2%), followed by teamwork (58.1%). The lowest mean score was for the dimension of non-punitive response to error (19.5%). Patient safety culture still has many areas for improvement that need continuous evaluation and monitoring to attain a safe environment both for patients and health-care providers. PMID:22768700
Aboul-Fotouh, A M; Ismail, N A; Ez Elarab, H S; Wassif, G O
This study aimed to apply the WHO surgical safety checklist in the surgical specialties of a university hospital and to evaluate the opinion of the team regarding the influence of its application on the safety of the surgical process and on the interpersonal communication of the team. It is a descriptive, analytical qualitative field study conducted in the surgical center of a university hospital Data were collected by applying the checklist in a total of 30 surgeries. The researcher conducted its application in three phases, and then members of the surgical team were invited to voluntarily participate in the study, signifying their agreement to participate by signing an informed consent form and answering guiding questions. Bardin's Content Analysis Method was used to organize and analyze the data. The subjects did not notice any changes in their interpersonal communication when using the checklist; however, they gave suggestions and reported that its use provided greater safety to the procedure. PMID:23781726
Pancieri, Ana Paula; Santos, Bruna Pegorer; de Avila, Marla Andréia Garcia; Braga, Eliana Mara
A six-month prospective surveillance study of postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs) was undertaken between January and June 2010 in paediatric patients aged <15 years, in the University Hospital Gabriel Touré, Mali. SSI was documented in 43 out of 352 children (12.2%). SSIs were significantly more common after emergency operations, in patients with a National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (NNISS) score of 2 or 3, and in patients operated on by trainee rather than by experienced surgeons. Children with anaemia or malnutrition were significantly more likely to develop infection postoperatively. Patients' sex, duration of preoperative stay and the number of patients in the hospital room were not considered as risk factors for infection (P>0.05). PMID:21945065
Togo, A; Coulibaly, Y; Dembélé, B T; Togo, B; Keita, M; Kanté, L; Traoré, A; Diakité, I; Ouologuem, H; Diallo, G
Introduction: Torsion of the adnexa is a rare condition which can be potentially lethal for the women. The clinical presentation can be varied and can be seen in any age group. Understanding the clinical and pathological profile of patients suffering from adenexal torsion can guide the clinicians in diagnosing and managing the condition. Objective: To analyze the clinical and pathological profile of adnexal torsion cases in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of hospital records. It included all cases of adnexal torsion that underwent laprotomy between January 2007 to December 2012 in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The study was approved by the Institute’s human Ethics Committee. Results: A total of 18 patients were included in the study. Majority (66.7%) of participants were in the reproductive age group. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom seen in 77.8% of patients. The other symptoms were abdominal distension, back ache and dysuria. Majority of the women belonged to Para 2 (44.4%) and Para 3 (27.8%). The proportion of women with one and two LSCS was 11.1% and 16.7% respectively. Tenderness (38.9%), mass (22.2%) were the common per abdomen findings. Perspeculum findings were normal in majority (88.9%) of the participants. About 39.2% of the patients presented with a mass in either fornices or pouch of Douglas on pervaginal examination. The side of lesion was only on right in 9 (50%) , only left in 7(38.9%) and both sides in 2 (11.1%) of cases. On histopathological examination, of the lesions there were mucinous cystadenoma (33.3%) serous cystadenoma (16.7%) and benign cystic teratoma (16.7%) as most common lesions. Conclusion: Adnexal torsion, though a rare clinical condition can present as an emergency most of the times. High index of suspicion is required for diagnosis, as the clinical presentation can be varied. But the diagnosis can be made certain only on the operating table, either by laparoscopy. Avoiding a delay in operating upon the patient will help prevent complications, and aid in conserving the ovary. PMID:25121032
Reddy, Gopireddy Murali Mohan; Subbiah, Vasantha Nagamma; Sathiya, Saktivel; Arjun, Balasubramanian
Virtual slide telepathology is an important potential tool for providing re-review of surgical pathology cases as part of a quality assurance program. The University of Arizona pathology faculty has implemented a quality assurance program between 2 university hospitals located 6 miles apart. The flagship hospital, University Medical Center (UMC), in Tucson, AZ, handles approximately 20 000 surgical pathology specimens per year. University Physicians Healthcare Hospital (UPHH) at Kino Campus has one tenth the volume of surgical pathology cases. Whereas UMC is staffed by 10 surgical pathologists, UPHH is staffed daily by a single part-time pathologist on a rotating basis. To provide same-day quality assurance re-reviews of cases, a DMetrix DX-40 ultrarapid virtual slide scanner (DMetrix, Inc, Tucson, AZ) was installed at the UPHH in 2005. Since then, glass slides of new cases of cancer and other difficult cases have been scanned the same day the slides are produced by the UPHH histology laboratory. The pathologist at UPHH generates a provisional written report based on light microscopic examination of the glass slides. At 2:00 pm each day, completed cases from UPHH are re-reviewed by staff pathologists, pathology residents, and medical students at the UMC using the DMetrix Iris virtual slide viewer. The virtual slides are viewed on a 50-in plasma monitor. Results are communicated with the UPHH laboratory by fax. We have analyzed the results of the first 329 consecutive quality assurance cases. There was complete concordance with the original UPHH diagnosis in 302 (91.8%) cases. There were 5 (1.5%) major discrepancies, which would have resulted in different therapy and/or management, and 10 (3.0%) minor discrepancies. In 6 cases (1.8%), the diagnosis was deferred for examination of the glass slides by the reviewing pathologists at UMC, and the diagnosis of another 6 (1.8%) cases were deferred pending additional testing, usually immunohistochemistry. Thus, the quality assurance program found a small number of significant diagnostic discrepancies. We also found that implementation of a virtual slide telepathology quality assurance service improved the job satisfaction of academic subspecialty pathologists assigned to cover on-site surgical pathology services at a small, affiliated university hospital on a rotating part-time basis. These findings should be applicable to some community hospital group practices as well. PMID:19540562
Graham, Anna R; Bhattacharyya, Achyut K; Scott, Katherine M; Lian, Fangru; Grasso, Lauren L; Richter, Lynne C; Carpenter, John B; Chiang, Sarah; Henderson, Jeffrey T; Lopez, Ana Maria; Barker, Gail P; Weinstein, Ronald S
Background Malaria treatment policy recommends regular monitoring of drug utilization to generate information for ensuring effective use of anti-malarial drugs in Nigeria. This information is currently limited in the retail sector which constitutes a major source of malaria treatment in Nigeria, but are characterized by significant inappropriate use of drugs. This study analyzed the use pattern of anti-malarial drugs in medicine outlets to assess the current state of compliance to policy on the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Methods A prospective cross-sectional survey of randomly selected medicine outlets in Enugu urban, southeast Nigeria, was conducted between May and August 2013, to determine the types, range, prices, and use pattern of anti-malarial drugs dispensed from pharmacies and patent medicine vendors (PMVs). Data were collected and analyzed for anti-malarial drugs dispensed for self-medication to patients, treatment by retail outlets and prescription from hospitals. Results A total of 1,321 anti-malarial drugs prescriptions were analyzed. ACT accounted for 72.7%, while monotherapy was 27.3%. Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) drugs contributed 33.9% (326/961) of ACT. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL), 668 (50.6%) was the most used anti-malarial drug, followed by monotherapy sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), 248 (18.8%). Median cost of ACT at $2.91 ($0.65-7.42) per dose, is about three times the median cost of monotherapy, $0.97 ($0.19-13.55). Total cost of medication (including co-medications) with ACT averaged $3.64 (95% CI; $3.53-3.75) per prescription, about twice the mean cost of treatment with monotherapy, $1.83 (95% CI; $1.57-2.1). Highest proportion 46.5% (614), of the anti-malarial drugs was dispensed to patients for self-treatment. Treatment by retail outlets accounted for 35.8% while 17.7% of the drugs were dispensed from hospital prescriptions. Self-medication, 82%, accounted for the highest source of monotherapy and a majority of prescriptions, 85.6%, was adults. Conclusion Findings suggest vastly improved use of ACT in the retail sector after eight years of policy change, with significant contributions from AMFm drugs. However the use of monotherapy, particularly through self-medication remains significant with increasing risk of undermining treatment policy, suggesting additional measures to directly target consumers and providers in the sector for improved use of anti-malarial drugs in Nigeria. PMID:24961280
Because of their typically small in-house computer and network staff, non-university hospitals often hesitate to consider picture archiving and communication system (PACS) as a solution to the very demanding financial, clinical, and technological needs of today's Radiology Department. This article presents the experiences of the 3-year process for the design and implementation of the Radiology Electronic Imaging Network (REIN) in the Department of Radiology at The Western Pennsylvania Hospital (WPH). WPH embarked on this project in late 1994 to find a solution to the very pressing demands to reduce operating costs and improve service to primary care clinicians, both on-site and at WPH-affiliated clinics. A five-member committee consisting of in-house medical, administrative, information services, and medical physics staff was formed to design a network that would satisfy specific needs of WPH by using a phased mini-PACS approach and to select the various vendors to implement it. Suppliers for individual mini-PACS were selected to provide modality-specific solutions. For the backbone network, vendors were evaluated based on their technological progress, competence and resources, the commitment of the company to the imaging network business, and their willingness to embark on a mid-sized PACS project such as this. Based on patient volume, workflow patterns, and image quality requirements, the committee produced proposals detailing number and location of workstations, short- and long-term memory requirements, and so on. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, computer radiography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, digital fluoroscopy, and angiography mini-PACS have been implemented over the past 2 years, and most of these are already integrated into the main REIN. This article presents detailed information concerning the design, selection and implementation processes, including storage requirement calculations. This indicates that PACS implementation is achievable for community hospitals with small computer, networking, and physics departments. Also presented are recommendations concerning design and vendor selection, that may be helpful for similar institutions. PMID:9268864
Arreola, M; Neiman, H L; Sugarman, A; Laurenti, L; Forys, R
Viral hepatitis B is one of the major public health problems in all continents. The hepatitis-B virus is transmitted parenterally and mainly sexually. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population composing the active cleaning staff of the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital - UNESP who had received a complete vaccination scheme against hepatitis B, to measure their levels of antibodies against AgHBs (anti-HBs) and to evaluate their relationship with general epidemiological conditions, personal and professional life conditions and risk of infection by the hepatitis-B virus. PMID:20640293
Osti, Cristina; Marcondes-Machado, Jussara
A 602-bed capacity hospital underwent complete renovation from 1999 to 2004. In April 2005, the Infection Control Team was informed of the occurrence of three consecutive cases of Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a ward for patients with hematologic malignancies. A retrospective analysis of patients with Bacillus isolates was initiated. We found more Bacillus cereus isolates from blood samples in 2004 compare to the preceding years. Swab samples were collected in the particular ward from the surface of a working desk, filter unit of the air-conditioners, entrance of air inlet ducts, exit of the air outlet ducts and three-way valves of the particular ward under the consideration of iatrogenic contamination. Towels and gowns used in the ward were examined. Dens dust was noted in the filter of the air-conditioner and inlets/outlets of the air-ventilation system of the ward. Bacillus cereus was isolated from the dust, and from cleaned towels and gowns. PFGE fingerprinting differed among four patients' sample. We considered the present case as an undetected Bacillus cereus pseudo-outbreak that lasted for about one year after the renovation work of the hospital. We also considered that filters of the HVAC-system and towels and gowns were probable sources of the outbreak. PMID:17145080
Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Koyano, Shin; Tachibana, Mineji; Shibukawa, Kiyoko; Kuroki, Masako; Yoshida, Itsuro; Ito, Yoshihisa
This study aimed to determine the autonomy level of nurses in hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 252 subjects were recruited using systematic random sampling method. The data were collected using questionnaire including Dempster Practice Behavior Scale. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and to compare the overall score and its subscales according to the demographic variables, t-test and analysis of variance test were used. The nurses in this study had medium professional autonomy. Statistical tests showed significant differences in the research sample according to age, gender, work experience, working position and place of work. The results of this study revealed that most of the nurses who participated in the study compared with western societies have lower professional autonomy. More studies are needed to determine the factors related to this difference and how we can promote Iranian nurses' autonomy. PMID:24256084
Amini, Kourosh; Negarandeh, Reza; Ramezani-Badr, Farhad; Moosaeifard, Mahdi; Fallah, Ramezan
This study aimed to determine goitre prevalence in pregnant women. Seven hundred pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, were interviewed and examined. The mean age of the subjects was 27.8 years, with mean parity of 2.65. Mean gestation was 28.5 weeks. A total of 97.4% were resident in Ilesa and surrounding towns and villages. Well or stream was the main water supply for nearly all the subjects. Only 7.3% of the subjects showed no thyroid enlargement. Early enlargement (1(a) and 1(b)) occurred in 441 (63%) patients, Grade 2 enlargement in 166 (23.2%) and a grossly enlarged goitre in 40 (5.7%). The goitre rate was correlated with the age and parity of the patients. PMID:12745559
Adesunkanmi, A R K; Makinde, O N
BACKGROUND—In the past 10 years, medication errors have come to be recognised as an important cause of iatrogenic disease in hospital patients.?AIMS—To determine the incidence and type of medication errors in a large UK paediatric hospital over a five year period, and to ascertain whether any error prevention programmes had influenced error occurrence.?METHODS—Retrospective review of medication errors documented in standard reporting forms completed prospectively from April 1994 to August 1999. Main outcome measure was incidence of error reporting, including pre- and post-interventions.?RESULTS—Medication errors occurred in 0.15% of admissions (195 errors; one per 662 admissions). While the highest rate occurred in neonatal intensive care (0.98%), most errors occurred in medical wards. Nurses were responsible for most reported errors (59%). Errors involving the intravenous route were commonest (56%), with antibiotics being the most frequent drug involved (44%). Fifteen (8%) involved a tenfold medication error. Although 18 (9.2%) required active patient intervention, 96% of errors were classified as minor at the time of reporting. Forty eight per cent of parents were not told an error had occurred. The introduction of a policy of double checking all drugs dispensed by pharmacy staff led to a reduction in errors from 9.8 to 6 per year. Changing the error reporting form to make it less punitive increased the error reporting rate from 32.7 to 38 per year.?CONCLUSION—The overall medication error rate was low. Despite this there are clear opportunities to make system changes to reduce error rates further.? PMID:11087283
Ross, L; Wallace, J; Paton, J; STEPHENSON, T.
Our retrospective study presents and evaluates clinical ethics consultations (CECs) in pediatrics as a structure for implementing hospital-wide ethics. We performed a descriptive and statistical analysis of clinical ethics decision making and its implementation in pediatric CECs at Zurich University Children's Hospital. Ninety-five CECs were held over 5 years for 80 patients. The care team reached a consensus treatment recommendation after one session in 75 consultations (89 %) and on 82 of 84 ethical issues (98 %) after two or more sessions (11 repeats). Fifty-seven CECs recommended limited treatment and 23 maximal treatment. Team recommendations were agreed outright by parents and/or patient in 59 of 73 consultations (81 %). Initial dissensus yielded to explanatory discussion or repeat CEC in seven consultations (10 %). In a further seven families (10 %), no solution was found within the CEC framework: five (7 %) required involvement of the child protection service, and in two families, the parents took their child elsewhere. Eventual team-parent/patient consensus was reached in 66 of 73 families (90 %) with documented parental/patient decisions (missing data, n?=?11). Patient preference was assessable in ten CECs. Patient autonomy was part of the ethical dilemma in only three CECs. The Zurich clinical ethics structure produced a 98 % intra-team consensus rate in 95 CECs and reduced initial team-parent dissensus from 21 to 10 %. Success depends closely on a standardized CEC protocol and an underlying institutional clinical ethics framework embodying a comprehensive set of transparently articulated values and opinions, with regular evaluation of decisions and their consequences for care teams and families. PMID:24323344
Streuli, Jürg C; Staubli, Georg; Pfändler-Poletti, Marlis; Baumann-Hölzle, Ruth; Ersch, Jörg
Background Effective health care depends on multidisciplinary collaboration and teamwork, yet little is known about how well medical students and nurses interact in the hospital environment, where physicians-in-training acquire their first experiences as members of the health care team. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of interaction between third-year medical students and nurses during clinical rotations. Methods We surveyed 268 Indiana University medical students and 175 nurses who worked at Indiana University Hospital, the School's chief clinical training site. The students had just completed their third year of training. The survey instrument consisted of 7 items that measured "relational coordination" among members of the health care team, and 9 items that measured psychological distress. Results Sixty-eight medical students (25.4%) and 99 nurses (56.6%) completed the survey. The relational coordination score (ranked 1 to 5, low to high), which provides an overall measure of interaction quality, showed that medical students interacted with residents the best (4.16) and with nurses the worst (2.98; p < 0.01). Conversely, nurses interacted with other nurses the best (4.36) and with medical students the worst (2.68; p < 0.01). Regarding measures of psychological distress (ranked 0 to 4, low to high), the interpersonal sensitivity score of medical students (1.56) was significantly greater than that of nurses (1.03; p < 0.01), whereas the hostility score of nurses (0.59) was significantly greater than that of medical students (0.39; p < 0.01). Conclusion The quality of interaction between medical students and nurses during third-year clinical rotations is poor, which suggests that medical students are not receiving the sorts of educational experiences that promote optimal physician-nurse collaboration. Medical students and nurses experience different levels of psychological distress, which may adversely impact the quality of their interaction. PMID:16638142
Nadolski, Gregory J; Bell, Mary A; Brewer, Barbara B; Frankel, Richard M; Cushing, Herbert E; Brokaw, James J
WHO reports estimate poisoning as one of the most common causes of increased morbidity and mortality rate world-wide. Various agents such as pesticides, drugs have been used for intentional and accidental poisoning in different countries. In the Indian scenario, pesticides are the most commonly used poisoning agents. To assess the prevalence and mortality incidence rate due to various poisoning agents a retrospective and prospective study conducted over a period of nine months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Retrospective data of poisoning cases was collected from the medical records section and the prospective data of poisoning cases was collected from the emergency and causality departments. A total of 1045 poisoning related admissions were identified during the period January 2005 to September 2008. Among them, 68.40% of cases were due to intentional poisoning and 31.60% were due to accidental poisoning. Of the poisoning related admissions, 84.4% of patients recovered, whereas in 7.6% of cases condition did not improve. Mortality rate was observed 4%. Intentional poisoning was observed more in male population (60.2%) in the age group of 18-29 years. Accidental poisoning was seen more in children in the age group of 1-3 years. Incidence of overall poisoning cases were high due to pesticides (39.5%) followed by medicines (26.1%), household products (22.1%), environmental poisoning (12.1%) and heavy metals (0.2%). It was observed that availability of centralised poison information centre and treatment protocols will improvise poison management practices in tertiary care hospitals by the clinicians. PMID:21694990
Jesslin, J.; Adepu, R.; Churi, S.
We examined the placement of anaesthetists in our department over a 2 yr period. Data were collected from an in-theatre system to provide details of caseload and supervision for 34,856 operations. There was wide variation between anaesthetic sub-specialties with overall supervision levels of 35% of cases for senior house officers (SHOs) and 32% for specialist registrars (SpRs). The consultant data showed the size and areas of teaching reserve in the department. We then examined individual logbooks in order to validate our data, and departmental rotas to put these data into perspective with previous attempts to quantify trainee supervision. Supervision data derived from the rota allocations showed that 86% of SHO lists and 62% of SpR lists were scheduled to be supervised. This study has described our training activity and facilitated departmental changes, as well as highlighting the need for great care in interpreting trainee supervision data acquired from different sources, particularly when comparisons are being made. PMID:10844835
McIndoe, A K; Underwood, S M
Background Cut throat injuries though rarely reported in literature pose a great therapeutic challenge because multiple vital structures are vulnerable to injuries in the small, confined unprotected area. A sudden increase in the number of cut throat patients in our centre in recent years prompted the authors to analyze this problem. This study was conducted in our local setting to describe the etiology, patterns and treatment outcome of these injuries. Methods This was a combined retrospective and prospective study of cut throat injury patients who were managed at Bugando Medical Centre between February 2009 and January 2013. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0. Results A total of 98 patients with cut throat injuries were studied. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2.4: 1. The median age of patients was 26 years (range 8 to 78 years). Majority of patients (79.6%) had no employment and most of them (65.3%) came from rural community. Homicide was the commonest (55.1%) cause, followed by suicidal attempts (34.7%) and accidental (10.2%) injuries. Interpersonal conflict (24.4%) was the most common motivating factor for homicidal injury whereas psychiatric illness (16.2%) and road traffic accidents (9.2%) were the most frequent motivating factors of suicidal attempt and accidental injuries respectively. The majority of injuries were in Zone II accounting for 65.3% of cases and most of them had laryngeal (57.1%) injury. Surgical debridement, laryngeal/hypopharynx repair and tracheostomy were the most common surgical procedures performed in 93.9%, 73.5% and 70.4% of patients respectively. Postoperative complication rate was 57.1%, the commonest being surgical site infections in 28.1% of patients and it was significantly associated with late presentation and anatomical zones (P?0.001). The overall median duration of hospitalization was 12 days. Patients who had postoperative complications stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (p?=?0.011). Mortality rate was 11.2% and was significantly associated with co-morbidities, delayed presentation and presence of complications (p?0.001). The follow up of patients was poor. Conclusions Cut throat injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young adult males in our setting. Addressing the root causes of violence such as poverty, unemployment, and substance abuse will reduce the incidence of these injuries in our environment. PMID:24423426
The occupational health hazards among health-care workers in an obstetrics and gynaecology unit were investigated. A total of 78 pretested questionnaires were administered to the doctors, nurses and ward orderlies in the unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The common occupational health hazards were work-related stress (83.3%), needle-stick injuries (75.6%), bloodstains on skin (73.1%), sleep disturbance (42.3%), skin reactions (37.2%) assault from patients (24.3%) and hepatitis (8.9%). Nearly half of the staff used diazepam, lexotan or alcohol to cope with the stress of work. A greater percentage of doctors compared to nurses and ward orderlies used safety precautions such as gloves, facemasks and aprons. All the staff employed regular handwashing after various procedures. However no category of staff adopted regularly proper disposal of needles and sharps into separate puncture-resistant containers. About 59% of the staff recap used needles. The implications of the findings were discussed and recommendations made appropriately. PMID:12521735
Orji, E O; Fasubaa, O B; Onwudiegwu, Uche; Dare, F O; Ogunniyi, S O
Background. Anaemia with an estimated prevalence of 35–75% among pregnant women is a major cause of maternal deaths in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of anaemia, associated sociodemographic factors and red cell morphological pattern among pregnant women during booking at the University Teaching Hospital, Uyo. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional analytical study of 400 women at the booking clinic over a 16-week period. The packed cell volume and red cell morphology of each pregnant woman were determined. Their biodata, obstetric and medical histories, and results of other routine investigations were obtained with questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS Package version 17.0. Results. The mean packed cell volume was 31.8% ±3.2 and 54.5% of the women were anaemic. The commonest blood picture was microcytic hypochromia and normocytic hypochromia suggesting iron deficiency anaemia. Anaemia was significantly and independently related to a history of fever in the index pregnancy (OR = 0.4; P = 0.00; 95% CI = 0.3–0.7), HIV positive status (OR = 0.2; P = 0.01; 95% CI = 0.1–0.6), and low social class (OR = 0.3; P = 0.00; 95% CI = 0.2–0.7). Conclusion. Women need to be economically empowered and every pregnant woman should be encouraged to obtain antenatal care, where haematinics supplementation can be given and appropriate investigations and treatment of causes of fever and management of HIV can be instituted. PMID:24982910
Olatunbosun, Olujimi A.; Abasiattai, Aniekan M.; Bassey, Emem A.; James, Robert S.; Morgan, Anyiekere
Records of two veterinary teaching hospitals from January 1, 1976 to June 1, 1982 were searched for diagnoses of stifle lameness. Forty-two records were found and information was recorded regarding signalment, history and clinical presentation. The following abnormalities were associated with stifle lameness: subchondral bone cyst (18 cases), joint instability (15 cases), degenerative joint disease (12 cases), cranial cruciate ligament injury (9 cases), cytological or bacteriological evidence of sepsis (9 cases), collateral ligament injury (3 cases), femorotibial luxation (2 cases) and intra-articular fracture (2 cases). The duration of lameness presentation ranged from 0.3 to 24 weeks and the mean follow-up period was 20.47 ± 11.44 months (three animals were lost to follow-up). Animals (n = 15) with subchondral bone cysts as the sole association with lameness presented at an early age (range — 6 to 18 months) and apparently regardless of treatment, had a good prognosis as determined by 75% (three lost to follow-up) returning to their intended function. Cattle (n = 9) with septic arthritis were presented at an age ranging from two months to seven years and only 22.2% returned to function. Cattle (n = 15) with joint instability presented at an age varying from nine months to 13 years also did poorly as only 26.6% returned to function. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422551
Ducharme, N. G.; Stanton, M. E.; Ducharme, G. R.
Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common mycosis. However, the information about antifungal susceptibilities of the yeasts causing this infection is scant. We studied 121 yeasts isolated from 118 patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and molecular methods, including four phenotypic methods described to differentiate Candida albicans from C. dubliniensis. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI documents M27A3 and M27S4 using the drugs available as treatment option in the hospital. Diabetes, any antibacterial and amoxicillin treatment were statistically linked with vulvovaginal candidiasis, while oral contraceptives were not considered a risk factor. Previous azole-based over-the-counter antifungal treatment was statistically associated with non-C.albicans yeasts infections. The most common isolated yeast species was C. albicans (85.2 %) followed by C. glabrata (5 %), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3.3 %), and C. dubliniensis (2.5 %). Fluconazole- and itraconazole-reduced susceptibility was observed in ten and in only one C. albicans strains, respectively. All the C. glabrata isolates showed low fluconazole MICs. Clotrimazole showed excellent potency against all but seven isolates (three C. glabrata, two S. cerevisiae, one C. albicans and one Picchia anomala). Any of the strains showed nystatin reduced susceptibility. On the other hand, terbinafine was the less potent drug. Antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon supporting the use of azole antifungals as empirical treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:25005365
Gamarra, Soledad; Morano, Susana; Dudiuk, Catiana; Mancilla, Estefanía; Nardin, María Elena; de Los Angeles Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo
Burns are a significant health problem in Brazil, but there have been few data collected that could shape treatment and prevention programs. To help overcome that knowledge gap, this study looked at the types of accidents and the characteristics of 138 burn patients admitted into the burn unit of the University of São Paulo Hospital in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, between November, 1991, and December, 1993. Patient charts were reviewed to collect data on age, sex, region of the body affected, burn depth and surface affected, agent causing the burn, and circumstances in which the burn happened. Of the 138 cases, 71% occurred in the home. In 50% of all accidents the victims were children. Boiling water was the agent responsible for 59% of the accidents among children younger than 3 years of age; fuel alcohol used in the home for cooking and other purposes caused 57% of the accidents among children between 7 and 11 years, the most affected pediatric group. Among adults, the group between 20 and 39 years of age was the most affected (23%); 84% of the victims in this age group were male. Seventeen percent of all cases involved adult males at work. Women suffered burns in accidents at home (67%) and in suicide-related events (33%). Seventy-five percent of the suicide cases were women. The strategies to reduce the incidence of burn injuries should aim at eliminating environmental risk factors and implementing educational programs disseminated through radio and television. PMID:9924518
Rossi, L A; Barruffini, R de C; Garcia, T R; Chianca, T C
The multidrug-resistant rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae has risen rapidly worldwide. To better understand the multidrug resistance situation and molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a total of 153 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected, and drug susceptibility test was performed to detect its susceptibility patterns to 13 kinds of antibiotics. Phenotypic tests for carbapenemases ESBLs and AmpC enzyme-producing strains were performed to detect the resistance phenotype of the isolates. Then PCR amplification and sequencing analysis were performed for the drug resistance determinants. The results showed that 63 strains harbored blaCTX-M gene, and 14 strains harbored blaDHA gene. Moreover, there were 5 strains carrying blaKPC gene, among which 4 strains carried blaCTX-M, blaDHA and blaKPC genes, and these 4 strains were also resistant to imipenem. Our data indicated that drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were highly prevalent in the hospital. Thus it is warranted that surveillance of epidemiology of those resistant isolates should be a cause for concern, and appropriate drugs should be chosen. PMID:24740167
Liu, Helu; Lü, Dongyue; Liang, Hong; Dou, Yuhong
Over a seven-year period, 136 children and adolescents with hand injuries were prospectively studied at the Accident and Emergency Department of Asir Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, to determine the pattern of hand injury. The male:female ratio was 1.7:1.0, both left and right hands were relatively equally injured. The age group ranged from two months to 16 years (average 5.3 years). The finger most commonly injured was the middle finger (24.6%) followed by the index finger (18.7%). The most common type of hand injury was crush injuries caused by doors at home (52.2%), heavy objects (6.6%) and injuries caused by grinding machines (6.6%). Since youngsters are often unaware of the dangers in their environment it is necessary to redesign the doors of our homes with safety devices to prevent injuries. Application of hydraulic automatic door closures is a simple but useful way of ensuring smooth and safe closing of doors in homes. PMID:11329697
Objectives: To evaluate subjective sleep quality, day-time sleepiness, prevalence of substance use, satisfaction with life among residents at our institute. To evaluate association of sleep qualitywith satisfaction with life and day-time sleepiness. To compare the findings between residents in clinical and para-clinical departments. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four residents filled questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic information and use of substance (s). Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Satisfaction With Life scale (SWLS) were also used. Association between sleep quality and sleepiness and satisfaction with life was evaluated. From the data collected, comparisons were made between the clinical and para-clinical department residents. Results: A significant number of residents belonging to the clinical faculty were poorsleepers; reported high levels of abnormal day-time sleepiness and less satisfaction with life compared to residents in para-clinical faculties. The differences in correlation between sleepiness and satisfaction with life with sleep quality among the two groups were not found to be significant. A larger percentage of clinical residents reported use of at least one substance during the residency period compared to the para-clinical residents. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality is perceived greatly by the resident doctors in our public hospital, especially among clinical faculties. Interventions are thus necessary in order to ensure adequate sleep among them.
Murthy, Vasantmeghna Srinivasa; Nayak, Ajita Sunil
Introduction: The clean bedding and clean clothes installs psychological confidence in the patients and the public and enhances their faith in the services rendered by the hospital. Being an important Component in the management of the patients, a study was carried out to find out the current quality status and its conformity with the known standards and identify the areas of intervention in order to further increase the patient and staff satisfaction regarding the services provided by linen and laundry department Methods: Quality control practised in the Linen and Laundry Service was studied by conducting a prospective study on the concept of Donabedian model of structure, process and outcome. Study was done by pre-designed Proforma along with observation / Interviews / Questionnaire and study of records. The input studied included physical facilities, manpower, materials, equipments and environmental factors. The various elements of manpower studied consisted of number of staff working, their qualification, training, promotion avenues, motivation and job satisfaction. Process was studied by carrying out observations in linen and laundry service through a predesigned flow chart which was supplemented by interviews with different category of staff. Patient satisfaction, staff satisfaction and microbial count of laundered linen (quality dimensions) were studied in the outcome. Results: The current study found that in spite of certain deficiencies in the equipment, manpower and process, the linen and laundry service is providing a satisfactory service to its users. However the services can be further improved by removing the present deficiencies both at structure and process level. PMID:21475509
Singh, Dara; Qadri, GJ; Kotwal, Monica; Syed, AT; Jan, Farooq
Universal or “broad-range” PCR-based ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed on a collection of 58 isolates (n = 30 bacteria + 28 fungi), originating from environmental air from several locations within a busy clinical microbiology laboratory, supporting a university teaching hospital. A total of 10 bacterial genera were identified including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative genera. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 27\\/30 (90%) of total
Yuriko Nagano; Jim Walker; Anne Loughrey; Cherie Millar; Colin Goldsmith; Paul Rooney; Stuart Elborn; John Moore
Background Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are major complications associated with high costs and substantial morbidity. We sought to evaluate hip and knee arthroplasty infection rates at our hospital, compare them in periods before and after implementation of measures to reduce PJIs (1990–2002 and 2003–2007) and identify associated risk factors. Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of patients who received primary hip or knee total joint prostheses at our centre between Jan. 1, 1990, and Dec. 31, 2007, and were readmitted for the treatment of infection related to their surgery. We also reviewed data from a prospective surveillance protocol of total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) infections that started in November 2005. We ascertained the annual rates of deep, superficial and hematogenous infections. Results During the periods studied, 2403 THAs and 1220 TKAs were performed. For THA, the average rates of deep, superficial and hematogenous infections were 2.0%, 0.8% and 0.3%, respectively. For TKA, the rates were 1.6%, 0.7% and 0.2%, respectively. Of 106 infected joints, 84 (79.2%) presented risk factors for infection. Efforts to reduce the infection rate at our institution began in 2003. We achieved a 44% decrease in the deep infection rate for THA (2.5% v. 1.4%, p = 0.06) and a 45% decrease for TKA (2.0% v. 1.1%, p = 0.20) between the periods studied. Conclusion Knowing the actual infection rate associated with different procedures in specific settings is essential to identify unexpected problems and seek solutions to improve patient care. Although we do not know what specific improvements were successful, we were able to decrease our infection rates to levels comparable to those reported by similar care centres. PMID:22992404
Renaud, Alexandre; Lavigne, Martin; Vendittoli, Pascal-André
Burnout as a measure of stress has generated research interest in the past two decades. However, there is a dearth of research on this interesting and important phenomenon in Nigeria. This study compared burnout and its associated factors in various health professionals working at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and sixty health care providers were sampled from 5 main units: Theatre/Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Accident and Emergency (A & E), Oncology, Dentistry and General Outpatients Department (GOP), among others. Included were 104 nurses (40%), 83 doctors (31.9%), 21 pharmacists/pharmacy technicians (8.0%), 10 medical social workers (3.8%) and 42 nursing assistants (16.1%). Outcome measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Core findings indicated that nurses consistently reported higher scores on all measures of burnout: exhaustion (F = 3.60, df = 258, P < .05); accomplishment (F = 3.94, df = 258, P < .05) and depersonalization (F = 4.58, df 258, P < .01) when compared with other health care providers. Significant differences were also noted between nurses and all other care providers in total scores on the General Health Questionnaire (F = 6.54, df 258, P < .01) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (F = 1.91, df 258, P < .05), respectively. These results are discussed in relation to the existing literature on burnout in Nigeria. Further empirical study is highly suggested in view of dearth of studies on the occupational health of health care providers in Nigeria. PMID:15030092
Olley, B O
Clostridium difficile infection control strategies require an understanding of its epidemiology. In this study, we analysed the toxin genotypes of 130 non-duplicate clinical isolates of C. difficile from a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and eBURST analysis were performed for these isolates and nine strains previously analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for six antibiotics, and the bacterial resistance mechanisms were investigated. Ninety-five toxigenic strains (73 %), including seven tcdA-negative, tcdB-positive and cdtA/cdtB-negative strains (A(-)B(+)CDT(-)) and three A(+)B(+)CDT(+) strains, and 35 (27 %) non-toxigenic strains, were classified into 23 and 12 sequence types, respectively. Of these, sequence type (ST)17 (21.8 %) was the most predominant. MLST and eBURST analysis showed that 139 strains belonged to seven groups and singletons, and most A(+)B(+)CDT(-) strains (98 %, 89/91) were classified into group 1. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, vancomycin and meropenem; the ceftriaxone, clindamycin and ciprofloxacin resistance rates were 49, 59 and 99 %, respectively. Resistance rates to ceftriaxone and clindamycin were higher in toxigenic strains than in non-toxigenic strains (P?0.001). All ST17 and ST81 strains were resistant to these antibiotics. The clindamycin- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains carried erm(B) and mutations in GyrA and/or GyrB, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first MLST-based study of the molecular epidemiology of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains in Japan, providing evidence that non-toxigenic and toxigenic strains exhibit high genetic diversity and that toxigenic strains are more likely than non-toxigenic strains to exhibit multidrug resistance. PMID:25471195
Kuwata, Y; Tanimoto, S; Sawabe, E; Shima, M; Takahashi, Y; Ushizawa, H; Fujie, T; Koike, R; Tojo, N; Kubota, T; Saito, R
Background and purpose: The user’s satisfaction with information system in fact denotes the extent the user is satisfied with the system’s achievement in fulfilling his/her information requirements. This study tries to explore the users’ satisfaction with hospital information systems (HISs) based on DeLone and McLean’s model focusing on the medical-teaching hospitals of Isfahan city. Methodology: This study which was applied and descriptive-analytical in nature was carried out in the medical-teaching hospitals of Isfahan city in 2009. Research population consisted of the system users from which a sample was selected using random sampling method. The size of the sample was 228. Data collection instrument was a self-developed questionnaire produced based on the satisfaction criterion in the DeLone and McLean’s model. Its content validity was assessed based on the opinions given by the computer sciences professionals with its estimated Cronbach’s alpha found to be 92.2%. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Findings: As the findings of the study showed, the differences among the mean scores obtained for the satisfaction with different kinds of HISs in use in the hospitals were statistically significant (p value?0.05). Generally, Kowsar System (old version) and Pouya Samaneh Diva system gained the highest and lowest mean scores for the criterion in question, respectively. The overall mean score for the satisfaction was 54.6% for different types of systems and 55.6% among the hospitals. Conclusion: Given the findings of the study, it can be argued that based on the used model, the level of users’ satisfaction with the systems in question was relatively good. However, to achieve the total optimum condition, when designing the system, the factors affecting the enhancement of the users’ satisfaction and the type of hospital activity and specialty must be given special consideration. PMID:25132711
Saghaeiannejad-Isfahani, Sakineh; Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Habibi, Mahboobeh; Mirzaeian, Razieh; Nasirian, Mansoreh; Rad, Javad Sharifi
Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the infections that could lead to chronic kidney disease. Most of the offending isolates are usually Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Adolescent age groups are a special group of individuals who indulge in some risk behavior that could predispose them to urinary tract infections with possible mixed flora. Aim: The aim was to determine the burden of Gram-positive significant bacteriuria among adolescents in Enugu. Subjects and Methods: A survey of 628 adolescents attending secondary schools in Enugu was studied. Information on sociodemographic profile was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Clean-catch urine sample was collected using a sterile boric acid bottle, and this was cultured in both anaerobic and aerobic media. Significant isolates were Gram-stained in order to determine their characteristics. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0.(Chicago Illinois USA). Results: There were 324 females and 304 males. Significant bacteria growth was identified in 61 samples giving a prevalence rate of 9.7% (61/628). Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 77.1% (47/61) of samples, while Gram-negative bacteria were isolated in 22.9% (14/61) of samples. Staphylococcus saprophyticus was the most common Gram-positive organism isolated this consists 38.3% (18/47) while E. coli was the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated comprising 64.2% (9/14). Other Gram-positive bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus auerus, Staphylococcus epididimis. All isolated bacteria were more common in females 44/61 (72.1%) than males 17/61 (27.9%). Conclusion: Gram-positive bacteriuria is prevalent among secondary school adolescents, and S. saprophyticus is the most common Gram-positive organism implicated. Further studies should be undertaken to determine the risk factors and possible sensitivity pattern among the age group. PMID:25328783
Nwokocha, ARC; Ujunwa, FA; Onukwuli, VO; Okafor, HU; Onyemelukwe, N
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as an important zoonotic and nosocomial pathogen in veterinary settings. Even though human risk factors for MRSA infection and colonization are well known, this information in animals is lacking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with MRSA carrier dogs on their arrival at a veterinary teaching hospital. A total of 435 dogs were enrolled in the MRSA active surveillance program at The Ohio State University-Veterinary Medical Center over a 1-year period. Dogs were screened for MRSA on arrival, regardless of health status, sex, breed, or age. In addition, an epidemiological survey and medical history were obtained for each dog to identify potential risk factors up to 1 year prior to the appointment. Of 435 dogs included in the study, 25 (5.7%) were MRSA positive, with 86.5% of the isolates classified staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) type II and USA100. Four of the 25 MRSA carrier dogs were healthy, 20 had health issues unrelated to MRSA, and 1 had an active MRSA infection. MRSA was detected in the nares (72%, 18/25), skin lesions (24%, 6/25), and the perianal area (16%, 4/25). Except for previous surgery <90 days (odds ratio [OR]=4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-17.6; p value 0.01), none of the variables related to the previous medical history, dog's management, home environment, and other potential exposures were associated with the MRSA carrier status. However, the profession of the owner was significantly associated, and dogs owned by veterinary students were 20.5 times (95% CI 4.5-93.6; p value?0.01) more likely to be MRSA positive than dogs owned by clients with different occupations. MRSA-positive dogs were dispersed in different categories, preventing the creation of an epidemiological profile that would allow their early recognition upon arrival to a veterinary hospital. However, the association between veterinary students with MRSA-positive dogs is a concern that deserves further evaluation. PMID:23473222
Hoet, Armando E; van Balen, Joany; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Bateman, Shane; Hillier, Andrew; Dyce, Jonathan; Wittum, Thomas E
Background: Intestinal helminthiasis is associated with malnutrition in children. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the intensity and effect of the common intestinal helminths on the nutritional status of children in Enugu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 460 children conducted in Enugu metropolis, south-east Nigeria between August and September 2003. Their stools were analyzed at the research laboratory of the Federal Ministry of Health, National Arbovirus and Vector Research Center, Enugu. The intensity of the common intestinal helminths was determined using the standard Kato-Katz method of fresh stool samples. The classification intensity of helminthic infestation was according to the World Health Organization classification. Data were analyzed using Statistical Software for Social Sciences version 11.0 (Chicago IL, USA). P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: 452 of 460 children (98.3%) had normal height for age, weight for age and weight for height Z-scores. Six of the 460 children (1.3% were wasted), 1/460 stunted (0.2%) and 1/460 wasted and stunted (0.2%). 150 out of 460 (32.6%) studied were infected with helminths. There was no significant relationship between the intensity of helminth infection and the nutritional status of the children. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of helminthiasis in children in Enugu was high, intensity of helminthiasis in these children was mainly mild. Hence, majority of them had normal weight and height measurements for age and sex. PMID:25184077
Ilechukwu, GC; Ilechukwu, CGA; Ubesie, AC; Onyire, NB; Emechebe, G; Eze, JC
Background: Underreporting of spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a threat to pharmacovigilance. Various factors related with the knowledge and attitudes are responsible for underreporting of ADRs. Aims: The study was aimed at investigating the knowledge and attitudes of doctors to ADR reporting. Materials and Methods: It was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. One hundred and eight questionnaires were administered to doctors working in a teaching hospital with an ADR monitoring center. Statistical Analysis Used: The descriptive statistics were used for responses to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward ADR reporting. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to observe the association of knowledge and attitude with experience and position. Results: The response rate was 62.9%. Spontaneous reporting rate was found to be 19.1%. The major factors found to be responsible for underreporting of ADR include inadequate risk perception about newly marketed drugs (77.9%), fear factor (73.5%), diffidence (67.7%), lack of clarity of information on ADR form about reporting (52.9%), lethargy (42.7%), insufficient training to identify ADRs (41.2%), lack of awareness about existence of pharmacovigilance program (30.9%) and ADR monitoring center in the institute (19.1%), and inadequate risk perception of over-the-counter (OTC) product (20.6%) and herbal medicines (13.2%). Experience and position did not influence the knowledge and attitudes of doctors. Conclusion: The deficiencies in knowledge and attitudes require urgent attention not only to improve the rate of spontaneous reporting, but also for enhanced safety of the patients and society at large. PMID:23633861
Khan, Sarfaraz Alam; Goyal, Chhaya; Chandel, Nitibhushansingh; Rafi, Mohammed
Background Little information on the factors influencing intraoperative cardiac arrest and its outcomes in trauma patients is available. This survey evaluated the associated factors and outcomes of intraoperative cardiac arrest in trauma patients in a Brazilian teaching hospital between 1996 and 2009. Methods Cardiac arrest during anesthesia in trauma patients was identified from an anesthesia database. The data collected included patient demographics, ASA physical status classification, anesthesia provider information, type of surgery, surgical areas and outcome. All intraoperative cardiac arrests and deaths in trauma patients were reviewed and grouped by associated factors and also analyzed as totally anesthesia-related, partially anesthesia-related, totally surgery-related or totally trauma patient condition-related. Findings Fifty–one cardiac arrests and 42 deaths occurred during anesthesia in trauma patients. They were associated with male patients (P<0.001) and young adults (18–35 years) (P?=?0.04) with ASA physical status IV or V (P<0.001) undergoing gastroenterological or multiclinical surgeries (P<0.001). Motor vehicle crashes and violence were the main causes of trauma (P<0.001). Uncontrolled hemorrhage or head injury were the most significant associated factors of intraoperative cardiac arrest and mortality (P<0.001). All cardiac arrests and deaths reported were totally related to trauma patient condition. Conclusions Intraoperative cardiac arrest and mortality incidence was highest in male trauma patients at a younger age with poor clinical condition, mainly related to uncontrolled hemorrhage and head injury, resulted from motor vehicle accidents and violence. PMID:24587237
Carlucci, Marcelo T. O.; Braz, José R. C.; do Nascimento, Paulo; de Carvalho, Lidia R.; Castiglia, Yara M. M.; Braz, Leandro G.
Meropenem is a restricted, broad spectrum and expensive antibiotic. The major consequences of irrational use of restricted antibiotics are increase drug resistance and drug expenditure. The use of antibiotics, specifically restricted antibiotics, must be monitored continuously to increase its adherence to the standard guidelines to avoid such problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of meropenem use with respect to renal status of patients in a teaching based hospital. A retrospective study was carried out from 1st January 2013 to 30th June 2013 to determine the evaluation of meropenem use in accordance to the criteria developed through national (Infectious disease society of Pakistan) and international guidelines (Health care infection control practices advisory committee). The data was recorded on data collection form by thorough reviewing of patients' medical records. Main outcomes measured were indication, dose, interval, duration, creatinine clearance, complete blood count and culture sensitivity test. Correlation of different variable (side effects and generalized health) was also observed with reference to renal status of patients. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics. A total of 201 cases of meropenem prescription were identified during the study period. The variable, which was most consistent with the criteria was 'indication', in which 97.52% of meropenem prescription was indicated in diseases encouraged by guidelines. However, the use of meropenem as an empirical therapy was the major problem reported in this study as it adhered to in only 43% of the cases. It was also noted that prevalence of side effects increased when meropenem was prescribed in renal compromised patients, and also observed that generalized health of patients decreased with meronem use in renal unstable patients. Thrombocytopenia was the major problem associated with the meropenem use (37.81%). The study detected various areas where use of meropenem was not according to the standards. Strict policies and procedures need to be implemented to use meropenem in line with the standard guidelines. PMID:25176244
Khan, Muhammad Umair; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris
Background: The increased morbidity and mortality associated with nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a matter of serious concern today. Aims: To determine the incidence of nosocomial infections acquired in the ICU, their risk factors, the causative pathogens and the outcome in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted in a 12 bedded combined medical and surgical ICU of a medical college hospital. The study group comprised 242 patients admitted for more than 48 h in the ICU. Data were collected regarding severity of the illness, primary reason for ICU admission, presence of risk factors, presence of infection, infecting agent, length of ICU and hospital stay, and survival status and logistic regression analysis was done. Results: The nosocomial infection rate was 11.98% (95% confidence interval 7.89–16.07%). Pneumonia was the most frequently detected infection (62.07%), followed by urinary tract infections and central venous catheter associated bloodstream infections. Prior antimicrobial therapy, urinary catheterization and length of ICU stay were found to be statistically significant risk factors associated with nosocomial infection. Nosocomial infection resulted in a statistically significant increase in length of ICU and hospital stay, but not in mortality. Conclusion: Nosocomial infections increase morbidity of hospitalized patients. These findings can be utilized for planning nosocomial infection surveillance program in our setting.
Dasgupta, Sugata; Das, Soumi; Chawan, Neeraj S.; Hazra, Avijit
Located in the foothills of the Wasatch Mountains, Primary Children's Hospital is the children's hospital for Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, Nevada, and Montana. Our 289-bed hospital is equipped and staffed to care for children with complex illness and injury. Primary Children's is owned by Intermountain Healthcare and is the pediatric specialty teaching hospital for the University Of Utah School of Medicine.
Objectives To date, experiences of leaders in the implementation of Lean after a Lean Training Programme have not been systematically investigated within teaching hospitals. Existing studies have identified barriers and facilitators only from an improvement programme perspective and have not considered the experiences of leaders themselves. This study aims to bridge this gap. Design Semistructured, indepth interviews. Setting One of largest teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants 31 medical, surgical and nursing professionals with an average of 19.2?years of supervisory experience. All professionals were appointed to a Lean Training Programme and were directly involved in the implementation of Lean. Results The evidence obtained in this study shows that, from the perspectives of participants, leadership management support, a continuous learning environment and cross-departmental cooperation play a significant role in successful Lean implementation. The results suggest that a Lean Training Programme contributed to positive outcomes in personal and professional skills that were evident during the first 4?months after programme completion. Conclusions Implementing Lean in a teaching hospital setting is a challenge because of the ambiguous and complex environment of a highly professionalised organisation. The study found that leadership management support and a continuous learning environment are important facilitators of Lean implementation. To increase the successful outcomes of leadership actions, training should be supplemented with actions to remove perceived barriers. This requires the involvement of all professionals, the crossing of departmental boundaries and a focus on meaning-making processes rather than simply ‘implementing’ facts. Therefore, this research suggests that programme participants, such as staff members and leaders, can mutually explore the meanings of Lean thinking and working for their own contexts. By entering this shared learning process (eg, learning on the job) the ownership of Lean implementation could also increase. PMID:24171938
Aij, Kjeld Harald; Simons, Frederique Elisabeth; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Visse, Merel
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human enzyme deficiencies in the world. It is particularly common in populations living in malaria-endemic areas, affecting more than 400 million people worldwide. This present study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among children visiting the Emergency Paediatric Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital for pediatric-related care. The study included 118 children, made up of 77 (65.3%) males and 41 (34.7%) females aged ?5 years with mean age of 3.26 ± 1.90 years. Randox G6PD quantitative in vitro test screening was used for the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency. Of the 118 children tested, 17 (14.4%) were G6PD-deficient. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency was concentrated predominantly among male children (22.1%). Male sex was significantly correlated with G6PD deficiency among the children studied (r = 7.85, P = 0.01). The highest prevalence occurred among children in the 2- to 5-year age-group. Of the 17 G6PD-deficient children, twelve (70.2%) were moderately deficient, while five (29.4%) were severely deficient. Blood film from G6PD-deficient children indicated the following morphological changes; Heinz bodies, schistocytes, target cells, nucleated red cells, spherocytes, and polychromasia. This present study has shown a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency among children residing in Sokoto in the northwestern geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The study indicated a male sex bias in the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among the children studied. There is a need for the routine screening of children for G6PD deficiency in our environment, to allow for evidence-based management of these children and to ensure the avoidance of food, drugs, and infective agents that can potentially predispose these children to oxidative stress as well as diseases that deplete micronutrients that protect against oxidative stress. There is need to build capacity in our setting among pediatricians to ensure the effective management of children with G6PD deficiency. PMID:23874116
Isaac, Iz; Mainasara, As; Erhabor, Osaro; Omojuyigbe, St; Dallatu, Mk; Bilbis, Ls; Adias, Tc
Background Previous studies of anti-hypertensive medicines utilization pattern in Nigeria showed that Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were often the least prescribed. However, the appropriate use of ACEIs in the black population achieves good blood pressure control and provides additional long term cardio- and renovascular protection benefits. Objective To assess the current utilization pattern of antihypertensive medicines with specific emphasis on identifying possible shift in the frequency of use of ACEIs. Methods A prospective cross-sectional assessment of the current utilization pattern of anti-hypertensive medicines was conducted among 300 randomly selected cohort at a 900-bed premier Teaching Hospital located in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The current utilization pattern was compared with the results of a study conducted at the same site and published 10 years ago. Results Of the 300 random cohorts, a majority (79%) were females (237) with mean age 58.7 years (SD=2.81 years. Stage 2 hypertension was the most frequent diagnosis (54.3%). The utilization of ACEIs and long acting CCB (amlodipine) significantly increased from 8.6% and 21% (Ten years ago) to 29.93% and 36.68% respectively (p < 0.0001). The use of thiazide diuretic and methyldopa declined significantly from 39.4% and 23.3% (Ten years ago) to 16.12% and 9.7% respectively (p < 0.0001). Adverse drug reactions due to ACEIs were documented in 1.5% (3), while laboratory monitoring of serum potassium, urea and creatinine was conducted in only 37% (111) of cohort. Potentially harmful drug-drug interactions were identified in 25% (75) of cohorts, and the most frequent were ACEIs + NSAIDs (53.3%), ACEIs + amiloride / hydrochlorothiazide (22.6%). Conclusions Anti-hypertensive medicines utilization has significantly shifted towards the increased use of ACEIs and long acting dihydropyridine CCBs. The use of thiazides and methyldopa has declined significantly. Physicians appeared more cognizant of the long term cardio- and renovascular benefits inherent in using ACEIs in a high cardiovascular risk group such as black hypertensive. PMID:25035720
Eshiet, Unyime I.; Yusuff, Kazeem B.
Groundwater quality of Enugu metropolis comprising Achara Layout, Abakpa, and Emene settlement areas has been studied and characterized using multivariate statistical techniques. Three principal components (PCs) which explain 77.93 and 88.17% were extracted at Achara Layout and Abakpa, respectively, while two PCs which explain 83.13% were extracted at Emene. PC 1 of all the three areas reflects weathering of the host rock minerals and constitutes the dominant controlling process for all the areas. PC 2 of the three areas and PC 3 of Achara Layout and Abakpa can be attributed to both weathering/leaching of feldspathic minerals of host rocks (giving rise to alkaline earth metals in the groundwater) and anthropogenic activities. Cluster analysis defined groups of groundwater samples with similar hydrochemical characteristics. Two groups in Achara Layout and Emene fell into the high pollution loading class, while only one group in Abakpa fell into this class. The variation in the groundwater quality within each of the three areas may be explained in terms of groundwater flow directions, land use, and well depths. Discriminant analysis showed that the discriminating parameters of the groundwater quality of Achara Layout, Abakpa, and Emene are total dissolved solids, Na and Mg, and Cl, respectively. This study has revealed that the groundwater quality of the areas is controlled by both geogenic and anthropogenic processes and activities. The generated groundwater quality spatial variation models for each area will serve as a tool in the planning and development of groundwater in that region. PMID:24037228
Omonona, O V; Onwuka, O S; Okogbue, C O
ISSUE: Pneumonia associated to depressed consciousness (NADC) is an important problem in large hospitals. In our hospital it accounts for 21% of the reported pneumonia with a crude mortality of 26.7%, 18.1 extra days stay (observed mainly at internal medicine and neurosurgery departments). The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of an interventional program in decreasing the
R. Herrera; L. Peirano
Medicare program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system and fiscal year 2015 rates; quality reporting requirements for specific providers; reasonable compensation equivalents for physician services in excluded hospitals and certain teaching hospitals; provider administrative appeals and judicial review; enforcement provisions for organ transplant centers; and electronic health record (EHR) incentive program. Final rule.
We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, and other legislation. These changes are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. We also are updating the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits are effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2014. We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014. In addition, we discuss our proposals on the interruption of stay policy for LTCHs and on retiring the "5 percent" payment adjustment for collocated LTCHs. While many of the statutory mandates of the Pathway for SGR Reform Act apply to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, others will not begin to apply until 2016 and beyond. In addition, we are making a number of changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education (IME) payments. We are establishing new requirements or revising requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare. We are updating policies relating to the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition (HAC) Reduction Program. In addition, we are making technical corrections to the regulations governing provider administrative appeals and judicial review; updating the reasonable compensation equivalent (RCE) limits, and revising the methodology for determining such limits, for services furnished by physicians to certain teaching hospitals and hospitals excluded from the IPPS; making regulatory revisions to broaden the specified uses of Medicare Advantage (MA) risk adjustment data and to specify the conditions for release of such risk adjustment data to entities outside of CMS; and making changes to the enforcement procedures for organ transplant centers. We are aligning the reporting and submission timelines for clinical quality measures for the Medicare HER Incentive Program for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) with the reporting and submission timelines for the Hospital IQR Program. In addition, we provide guidance and clarification of certain policies for eligible hospitals and CAHs such as our policy for reporting zero denominators on clinical quality measures and our policy for case threshold exemptions. In this document, we are finalizing two interim final rules with comment period relating to criteria for disproportionate share hospital uncompensated care payments and extensions of temporary changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals and of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital (MDH) Program. PMID:25167590
BACKGROUND: As per the “Disaster Management Act, 2005” of India, it is mandatory for government hospitals in India to prepare a disaster plan. This study aimed to prepare a disaster manual of a 1 900 bed tertiary care hospital, in consultation and involvement of all concerned stakeholders. METHODS: A committee of members from hospital administration, clinical, diagnostic and supportive departments worked on an initial document prepared according to the Act and gave their inputs to frame a final disaster manual. RESULTS: The prepared departmental standard operating procedures involved 116 people (doctors and paramedical staff), and were then synchronized, in 12 committee meetings, to produce the final hospital disaster manual. CONCLUSIONS: The present disaster manual is one of the few comprehensive plans prepared by the stakeholders of a government hospital in India, who themselves form a part of the disaster response team. It also helped in co-ordinated conduction of mock drills. PMID:25215145
Talati, Shweta; Bhatia, Prateek; Kumar, Ashok; Gupta, A. K.; Ojha, Col. D
Objective: To study the use of antimicrobial agents in patients on ventilator in ICU. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted at tertiary care teaching hospital Ahmedabad, India. Total 300 patients admitted in ICU and prescribed antimicrobial agents were included in the study. The data were recorded in preformed Case Record Form (CRF) and were analysed by Z and x2 Test. Results: Patients were divided into group A (patients on ventilator support) and group B (patients without ventilator support). In all the patients antimicrobial agents were prescribed empirically and more than two antimicrobial agents were prescribed in both groups. It was observed that above 60% antimicrobial agents were prescribed according to WHO, National and State Essential Medicine List (EML). Restricted antimicrobial agents (according to antimicrobial policy of tertiary care teaching hospital) were prescribed significantly (p<0.05) higher in group A as compared to group B. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Kleibsella shown significantly (p<0.05) higher in group A as compared to group B. Change of antimicrobial therapy after Culture Sensitivity Test (CST) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group A as compared to group B. Conclusion: Number of antimicrobial agents, antimicrobial resistance and change of antimicrobial therapy after CST were higher in patients on ventilator support.
Gandhi, Anuradha M; Patel, Prakruti P
The Republic of Zambia consists of only one veterinary teaching school at the University of Zambia (UNZA) where students and veterinarians are exposed to many bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP). The aim of this study was the characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of eleven SA and 48 SP isolates from the veterinary hospitals' in- and outpatients and the environment. No isolate was resistant to cefoxitin by disk diffusion test and the corresponding resistance gene mecA was not found. In contrast, the resistance rates of SA to penicillin (63.6%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36.4%) and SP to penicillin (52.1%) and tetracycline (25.0%) were the highest. A variety of sequence types (STs) without a predominant type including numerous novel types were determined, especially for SP (39.6%). The spa typing provided a clonal assignment for all SAs (100%) and 24 SPs (50%) with three and two novel types, respectively. This study has provided an overview of SA and SP in the veterinary teaching hospital at UNZA. However, for a better understanding of these species regarding pathogenesis and transmission, further studies on the prevalence and characterization of SA and SP from veterinary staff, pet owners, and farm animals in Zambia is needed. PMID:24480623
Youn, Jung-Ho; Park, Yong Ho; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Sugimoto, Chihiro
Background. Road traffic injuries are a major public health issue. The problem is increasing in Africa. Objective. To assess the incidence of road traffic injury and associated factors among patients visiting the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted. A total of 356 systematically selected study subjects were included in the study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify associated factors with road traffic injury. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance. Results. The incidence of road traffic injury in the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital was 36.8%. Being a farmer (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.06–10.13), conflict with family members (AOR = 7.7; 95% CI = 3.49–8.84), financial problem (AOR = 9.91; 95% CI = 4.79–6.48), psychological problem (AOR = 17.58; 95% CI = 7.70–12.14), and alcohol use (AOR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.61–5.27) were independently associated with road traffic injury. Conclusion and Recommendation. In this study the incidence of road traffic injury was high. Alcohol is one of the most significant factors associated with Road Traffic Injury. Thus urgent education on the effect of alcohol is recommended. PMID:25165583
Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Bifftu, Berhanu Boru
Blood exposure accidents are the source of major risks of contamination of healthcare personnel. The objective of this study was to describe the knowledge of standard precautions, and the attitudes and practices of nursing and midwifery students in relation to this accidental exposure. This cross-sectional survey, conducted in November 2011, was based on voluntary anonymous questionnaires completed by students working in the medical ward of the Bobo-Dioulasso teaching hospital. Of the 275 students asked to participate, 219 (92.8%) completed the questionnaire: 138 (63,0%) were student nurses and 81 (37.0%) student midwives. Their mean age was 27.9 ± 5 years. Among them, 64 (29.1%) acknowledged accidental exposure to blood during treatment performed as part of their hospital work. Only 30 of these 64 cases were reported at the time. The standard precautions for the prevention of these accidents were known to 131 students (59.8%); 58.4% always wore gloves for invasive procedures; 74.9% reported that the syringe container was "always" or "often" used. The needles used were "always" or "often" recapped before disposal in only 39.1% of cases. Only 11.0% were fully vaccinated against hepatitis B. Blood exposure accidents were not uncommon among these students and their knowledge of the standard precautions and actions to take in case of an accident is insufficient. These data show the need for further training and awareness campaigns to improve these hospital practices. PMID:24922618
Zoungrana, J; Yaméogo, T M; Kyelem, C G; Aba, Y T; Sawadogo, A; Millogo, A
Background Hospitals have a role to play in supporting, protecting and promoting breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to describe hospital breastfeeding policy and practices and breastfeeding rates among mothers attending General Paediatric Outpatient Clinic at a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving paediatric nurses and doctors, as well as the mothers who brought their child to the General Paediatric Outpatient Clinic. Two sets of questionnaires, different in content, were administered to doctors and nurses, and to mothers of children aged 6-24 months, to assess hospital policy and breastfeeding rates, respectively. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with duration of breastfeeding. Results Although the hospital had a written breastfeeding policy copies of the policy were not clearly displayed in any of the units in the Paediatric department. Almost half the staff (48%; 60/125) were not aware of the policy. The hospital had no breastfeeding support group. Nearly three quarters (92/125) of the staff had received lactation management training. 36% (112/311) of mothers exclusively breastfed for six months, 42% (129/311) had stopped breastfeeding at the time of the survey. 67% (207/311) of babies were given infant formula, 85% (175/207) before 6 months. Women who had antenatal care in private hospitals and were Christian were more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months. Low maternal education was the only factor associated with breastfeeding longer than 12 months. Conclusion Breastfeeding practices and policy implementation at this outpatient clinic were suboptimal. We have identified a need for interventions to increase knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding and to provide support for its longer term duration. We suggest that BFHI be considered across all facilities concerned with infant and early child health to disseminate appropriate information and promote an increase in exclusive breastfeeding for six months as well as the duration of breastfeeding. PMID:25018776
The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria, on abortion and post-abortion care. It was a cross-sectional study of private medical practitioners in the study area using self-administered structured questionnaires. The results showed that 32.3% of the doctors terminate unwanted pregnancies when requested to do so. The majority of them (51.6%) use D&C in combination with manual vacuum aspiration for the termination of pregnancies in the first trimester. A total of 61 (63.5%) respondents offered various types of post-abortal care (PAC) services, while 42 (43.8%) of them screened women with abortion complications for sexually transmitted infections. For the doctors who do not terminate unwanted pregnancies, their main reasons were religious and moral considerations rather than obedience to the Nigerian abortion laws. We conclude that the majority of private medical practitioners in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria, do not terminate unwanted pregnancies because of their religious beliefs. PMID:19603321
Onah, H E; Ogbuokiri, C M; Obi, S N; Oguanuo, T C
The use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production results in their accumulation in the body tissues and products such as milk and egg. The subsequent accumulation of these drugs and their metabolites in body cells is known as drug residue. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from poultry farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria. Eggs from 25 selected commercial farms and ten retail outlets were screened for the prevalence of antimicrobial residue. Also, structured questionnaires were administered to 25 commercial farms in the state to determine the management practices and the most widely used antimicrobial drugs in farms and possible association between the management practices and the occurrence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from these farms. All the 25 farms surveyed use oxytetracycline. Eggs from nine of the surveyed farms tested positive for antimicrobial residue and three of the ten surveyed farms also tested positive for antimicrobial residue. No association was observed (p?0.05; Fisher's exact test) between the occurrence of antibiotic residues in eggs and farm size, feed source and housing systems. This study was able to demonstrate the presence of antimicrobial residues in eggs destined for human consumption. Drugs like nitrofurans which has been banned for use in food animals are still very much in use in Enugu State, Nigeria. Antibiotics given as feed additives may give rise to drug residues in food animals. PMID:21104128
Ezenduka, Ekene V; Oboegbulem, Steve I; Nwanta, John A; Onunkwo, Joseph I
Background In light of the immense attention given to patient safety, this paper details the findings of a baseline assessment of the patient safety culture in a large hospital in Riyadh and compares results with regional and international studies that utilized the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. This study also aims to explore the association between patient safety culture predictors and outcomes, considering respondent characteristics and facility size. Methods This cross sectional study adopted a customized version of the HSOPSC and targeted hospital staff fitting sampling criteria (physicians, nurses, clinical and non-clinical staff, pharmacy and laboratory staff, dietary and radiology staff, supervisors, and hospital managers). Results 3000 questionnaires were sent and 2572 were returned (response rate of 85.7%). Areas of strength were Organizational Learning and Continuous Improvement and Teamwork within units whereas areas requiring improvement were hospital non-punitive response to error, staffing, and Communication Openness. The comparative analysis noted several areas requiring improvement when results on survey composites were compared with results from Lebanon, and the United States. Regression analysis showed associations between higher patient safety aggregate score and greater age (46 years and above), longer work experience, having a Baccalaureate degree, and being a physician or other health professional. Conclusions Patient safety practices are crucial toward improving overall performance and quality of services in healthcare organizations. Much can be done in the sampled organizations and in the context of KSA in general to improve areas of weakness and further enhance areas of strength. PMID:24621339
Background: Cesarean delivery conducted without medical indication places mothers and infants at risk for adverse outcomes. This study assessed changes in trends of, and factors associated with, cesarean deliveries in Jordan, from 2002 to 2012. Methods: Data for ever-married women ages 15–49 years from the 2002, 2007, and 2012 Jordan Population and Family Health Surveys were used. Analyses were restricted to mothers who responded to a question regarding the hospital-based mode of delivery for their last birth occurring within the 5 years preceding each survey (2002, N?=?3,450; 2007, N?=?6,307; 2012, N?=?6,365). Normal birth weight infants and singleton births were used as markers for births that were potentially low risk for cesarean delivery, because low/high birth weight and multiple births are among the main obstetric variables that have been documented to increase risk of cesareans. Weighted descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted using 4 logistic regression models: (1) among all mothers; and among mothers stratified (2) by place of delivery; (3) by birth weight of infants; and (4) by singleton vs. multiple births. Results: The cesarean delivery rate increased significantly over time, from 18.2% in 2002, to 20.1% in 2007, to 30.3% in 2012. Place of delivery, birth weight, and birth multiplicity were significantly associated with cesarean delivery after adjusting for confounding factors. Between 2002 and 2012, the rate increased by 99% in public hospitals vs. 70% in private hospitals; by 93% among normal birth weight infants vs. 73% among low/high birth weight infants; and by 92% among singleton births vs. 29% among multiple births. The changes were significant across all categories except among multiple births. Further stratification revealed that the cesarean delivery rate was 2.29 times higher in university teaching hospitals (UTHs) than in private hospitals (P< .001), and 2.31 times higher than in government hospitals (P< .001). Moreover, in UTHs, the rate was higher among normal birth weight infants (adjusted OR?=?2.15) and singleton births (adjusted OR?=?2.39). Conclusion: The rising cesarean delivery rate among births that may have been at low risk for cesarean delivery, particularly in UTHs, indicates that many cesarean deliveries may increasingly be performed without any medical indication. More vigilant monitoring of data from routine health information systems is needed to reduce unnecessary cesarean deliveries in apparently low-risk groups. PMID:25276577
Rifai, Rami Al
The objective of the study was to review the implementation of Post Abortion Care and effective linkage to other post abortion services in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria. Data on PAC over a five year period (July, 2004 to June, 2009) were analyzed and a standardized questionnaire was administered to 45 direct PAC service providers. Abortion complications constituted 41.4% of all Gynaecological admissions. Maternal mortality from complications of abortion was 11.5% of all the maternal mortality at the centre. Women aged 19 years and less were 37 (7.1%) and single women were 132, constituting 25.3% of all cases. About 31% of the PAC care providers had formal training for the implementation of the PAC services. Fifteen percent of the care givers were satisfied with the linkage between PAC and the Family Planning services. There is poor integration between emergency post abortion care and other reproductive health services in the centre. PMID:22783674
Kalu, Collins A; Umeora, O U J; Sunday-Adeoye, I
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection or colonization has become a serious emerging condition in equine hospitals. Following the detection of MRSA in asymptomatic hospitalized horses and in two horses with post-operative wound infections, an investigation was conducted. Twelve of 84 horses (14.3%) and 16 of 139 personnel (11.5%) were MRSA carriers. The profile of the dominant MRSA strain common to horses and staff was multi-drug-resistant, spa-type t535, SCCmec type V, pvl-negative. MLST of a representative isolate yielded sequence type (ST) 5. The risk of MRSA carriage among veterinary personnel was greater in equine veterinarians and full-time technicians in comparison to part-time technicians and to other personnel not working with horses. Strict infection control measures were implemented, horses infected or colonized with MRSA were isolated and decolonization of personnel was attempted. Six months after the intervention, the large animal department personnel and hospitalized horses were all MRSA-negative and the decolonization was considered successful. This outbreak, caused by a rare MRSA strain and involving both hospitalized horses and personnel, further demonstrates the ability of MRSA to spread between animals and humans and emphasizes the importance of infection control measures to decrease the risk for MRSA colonization and infection of both horses and personnel. PMID:23265243
Schwaber, Mitchell J; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Masarwa, Samira; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Adler, Amos; Chmelnitsky, Inna; Carmeli, Yehuda; Klement, Eyal; Steinman, Amir
Background Effective clinical communication is critical to providing high-quality patient care. Hospitals have used different types of interventions to improve communication between care teams, but there have been few studies of their effectiveness. Objectives To describe the effects of different communication interventions and their problems. Design Prospective observational case study using a mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting General internal medicine (GIM) inpatient wards at five tertiary care academic teaching hospitals. Participants Clinicians consisting of residents, attending physicians, nurses, and allied health (AH) staff working on the GIM wards. Methods Ethnographic methods and interviews with clinical staff (doctors, nurses, medical students, and AH professionals) were conducted over a 16-month period from 2009 to 2010. Results We identified four categories that described the intended and unintended consequences of communication interventions: impacts on senders, receivers, interprofessional collaboration, and the use of informal communication processes. The use of alphanumeric pagers, smartphones, and web-based communication systems had positive effects for senders and receivers, but unintended consequences were seen with all interventions in all four categories. Conclusions Interventions that aimed to improve clinical communications solved some but not all problems, and unintended effects were seen with all systems. PMID:23355461
Wu, Robert C; Lo, Vivian; Morra, Dante; Wong, Brian M; Sargeant, Robert; Locke, Ken; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo; Quan, Sherman D; Rossos, Peter; Tran, Kim; Cheung, Mark
In this retrospective study, we investigated patient characteristics and fetal and maternal outcomes of placenta praevia and accreta at two tertiary hospitals in Istanbul. A total of 364 pregnancies complicated by placenta praevia with (n = 46) and without (n = 318) placenta accreta managed between January 2005 and December 2010 were reviewed. Among 364 women, 46 (12.6%) had placenta accreta and 318 (87.4%) had placenta praevia without accreta. The rates of curettage history and caesarean delivery were significantly higher in the group with placenta accreta. Furthermore, we found that emergency surgery had negative effects on maternal outcomes in the placenta praevia group. In addition, when accreta was suspected at ultrasound examination in women who had placenta praevia, the mean estimated blood loss during surgery was reduced significantly. If placenta praevia is detected, a careful ultrasound examination should be performed and the patient should undergo elective surgery at a tertiary referral hospital. PMID:24734898
As?c?oglu, O; ?ahbaz, A; Güngördük, K; Yildirim, G; As?c?oglu, B Besimo?lu; Ülker, V
Background: Sex ratio, an important social indicator measuring extent of prevailing equity between males and females in society, is defined as number of females per 1000 males. Changes in sex ratio reflect underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. As per 2011 census sex ratio in India is 914/1000 males, which continues to be significantly adverse towards women. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act among the pregnant women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the antenatal ward of Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai during the period of January to April 2008. A total of 143 women were included and a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to get information regarding socio-demographic details of the pregnant women. They were asked regarding the knowledge and attitude towards the PNDT Act. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0. Results: In the present study, out of 143 women, 105 (73.5%) knew about sex determination. Even out of those who had heard, the correct knowledge regarding PNDT act was very less. Sonography as a technique for sex determination done at private hospital was known to the majority of women. Conclusion: Education of women about gender equality and recommendations under PNDT act in order to improve declining sex ratio in our country must be done. Wide publicization in the media of the Act must be scaled up. PMID:23555139
Shidhaye, Pallavi R.; Giri, Purushottam A.; Nagaonkar, Shashikant N.; Shidhaye, Rahul R.
This article describes the rationale, processes, technology, and results of creating of a paper-based rounds report that is now used by our entire institution for efficient inpatient work rounds and checkout rounds that are routinely done in virtually every hospital, both academic and private, in the US. The results of a survey of clinicians suggests that printed rounds reports have markedly improved rounding efficiency, saved substantial amounts of physician time, standardized checkout processes, and improved patient safety. PMID:25133766
Baba, John; Thompson, Matthew R; Berger, Robert G
Our study objectives were to determine annual cases of the tetanus and to describe its clinical, evolutionary and prognostic aspects. It was a transverse study from data records and medical records of patients aged 15 years and above hospitalized for tetanus in the service of infectious diseases of the Point G CHU from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2009. The tetanus was diagnosed based on clinical (trismus, dysphagia, seizures and point consecutive to an injury) and epidemiological arguments (absence of a correct tetanus immunization, entry way). We collected a total of 119 cases of tetanus out of 1,839 hospitalizations making a prevalence of 6.5%. The hospitalization period was 5 days (73%) for most of the patients. Unskilled laborer and farmers were the most frequent with respectively 30.2 and 21.8% of cases. Tetanus occurred in the course of a traumatic road accident (16%) and from other traumatic causes (48.7%). The clinical form was a generalized type for 94.4% of the cases. A wound was the entry way for 64.7% of the patients. The entry way was located on the lower members 49.6% of the time. The co-morbidity was recorded with infection by Plasmodium falciparum (15 cases, 12.6%) and HIV (1 case). Hospital lethality was 46.2%. The death was statistically linked to clinical severity according to the Dakar score (P = 0.0005) and the Mollaret stage (P = 0.0001). A need for strengthening communication for behaviour change for the gaining of a correct and sustained immunization exists. A strategy based on the capacity building for a rapid tetanus diagnosis and a combined co-morbidities care may reduce the lethality in the context of our limited technical environment. PMID:22228429
Minta, D K; Traoré, A M; Soucko, A K; Dembélé, M; Coulibaly, Y; Dicko, M S; Coulibaly, I; Diany, N; Maboune, N G E; Ba-Sall, B; Traoré, A K; Koné, N; Traoré, H A
In the wake of the devastation Sandy wreaked along the Atlantic Coast, some hospitals were forced to close. But others took on new roles, whether as makeshift phone-charging stations or dealing with healthcare needs patients usually turned to outpatient centers for. "The biggest challenge is making up for the other services that are not available in the community," says Steven Littleson, of Jersey Shore University Medical Center. PMID:23198308
Evans, Melanie; Carlson, Joe; Barr, Paul; Kutscher, Beth; Zigmond, Jessica
Objective To determine the prevalence, clinical significance and the associated risk factors of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at internal medicine ward of University of Gondar (UOG) hospital. Method A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on patients treated in internal medicine ward of UOG hospital from April 29, 2013 to June 2, 2013. Data was collected from medical records and by interviewing the patients face to face. Descriptive analysis was conducted for back ground characteristics and logistic regression was used to determine the associated risk factors. Result In our study, we have identified a total number of 413 potential DDIs and 184 types of interacting combinations with 4.13 potential DDIs per patient. Among 413 potential DDIs most were of moderate interactions 61.2% (n=253) followed by 26% (n=107) of minor interactions and 12.8% (n=53) of major interactions. There was significant association of occurrence of potential DDIs only with taking three or more medications. Conclusion We have recorded a high rate of prevalence of potential DDI in the internal medicine ward of UOG hospital and a high number of clinically significant DDIs which the most prevalent DDI were of moderate severity. Careful selection of drugs and active pharmaceutical care is encouraged in order to avoid negative consequences of these interactions. PMID:25183081
Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Berhanie, Alemayehu; Tigistu, Habtamu; Abraham, Yishak; Getachew, Yosheph; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Unakal, Chandrashekhar
Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers. PMID:23566078
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines recommend the use of 'Track and Trigger' systems to identify early clinical deterioration. The Standardised Early Warning Score (SEWS) is used in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. Previous work, suggested that the frequency and accuracy of SEWS documentation varied throughout the hospital. A prospective study was performed over a 14-night period looking at SEWS documentation in patients causing clinical concern requiring medical review, or triggering a SEWS of 4 (the 'trigger' score). SEWS charts were examined the following morning. In the ward arc, SEWS documentation was correct in only 21% of cases. The most frequent errors were one or more observations omitted (64%), SEWS total not calculated (55%) or incorrectly calculated (21%). Up to five errors per chart were noted. The observations most frequently omitted were respiratory rate, temperature and neurological status. In contrast, SEWS documentation was correct in 68% of patients in the combined assessment unit (CAU). This study demonstrates significant deficiencies in the overnight use of SEWS, particularly on the ward arc. This is particularly concerning as this study was limited only to patients already causing clinical concern, and highlights that basic observations are often incomplete, and the SEWS chart poorly understood and acted upon. SEWS recording and documentation was significantly better in CAU (P < 0.001, FET), where there is a dedicated, ongoing SEWS education programme for nursing and medical staff. We recommend this is rolled out across the hospital. Alternative methods of improving the use of SEWS are considered. PMID:21515526
Gordon, Claire F; Beckett, Daniel J
Background Vancomycin use is considered inappropriate in most hospitals. A particular concern is the recent emergence of S. aureus with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin, making it important to reduce overall exposure to vancomycin to minimize the incidence of VRE (vancomycin-resistant enterococci). The aim of this work was to analyze the use of vancomycin and the risk factors associated with inappropriate treatment. Methods A prospective survey was conducted on all patients receiving vancomycin between 1st March 2002 and 30th September 2002 in a university-school hospital. Appropriateness of vancomycin use was assessed, according to the criteria established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at two time points: first, at the beginning of therapy, and second, continuing after 72 hours. Results A total of 557 patients received vancomycin. Three hundred seventy-four (67.1%) were under 60 years old, 374 (67.1%) had prolonged stays (>two weeks) in hospital, and 455 (81.7%) were in the intensive care unit (ICU). Two hundred sixty-three patients (47.2%) had some invasive device. In 324 (58.2%) patients the duration of vancomycin treatment was up to two weeks. Vancomycin was inappropriately used in 65.7% during the first 24 hours and in 67% at the 72 hours point according to CDC criteria . The inappropriateness of vancomycin use during the first 24 hours was related to: patients aged less than 60 (OR 1.7; CI 95% 1.1–2.5), non-ICU patients (OR 1.5; CI 95% 1.0–2.4) and patients without neutropenia (OR 7.5; CI 95% 2.4–22.7). At 72 hours, the inappropriateness of vancomycin use was related to: patients aged less than 60 (OR 1.5; CI 95% 1.0–2.3), non-ICU patients (OR 1.7; CI 95% 1.1–2.7) and patients without neutropenia (OR 8.0; CI 95% 2.6–24.3). Conclusion Vancomycin was abused. Patients aged less than 60, non-ICU patients and those who did not present neutropenia were the principal groups at risk of inappropriate use. PMID:17678541
Junior, Moacyr S; Correa, Luci; Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Luis FA; Pereira, Carlos AP
An outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenamase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae occurred at our institution. Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa could have acquired this transmissible resistance mechanism, going unnoticed because its phenotypic detection in this species is difficult. We compared P. aeruginosa isolates obtained before and after the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae outbreak. No bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolates obtained before the outbreak, whereas 33/76 (43%) of the isolates obtained after the outbreak harboured the bla(KPC) gene. P. aeruginosa may thus become a reservoir of this transmissible resistance mechanism. It is very important to understand the epidemiology of these multiresistant isolates, in order to achieve early implementation of adequate control measures to contain and reduce their dissemination in the hospital environment. PMID:23831767
García Ramírez, Dolores; Nicola, Federico; Zarate, Soledad; Relloso, Silvia; Smayevsky, Jorgelina; Arduino, Sonia
Objective: To highlight the role of Sutureless Large Incision Cataract Extraction (SLICE) in the United Kingdom for the treatment of cataracts at high risk for intra- or postoperative complications. Setting: Two University Hospitals in the United Kingdom Materials and Methods: Retrospective case note review of planned SLICE performed over a 12-month period. Results: SLICE was performed on 11 eyes of 11 patients (mean age, 79 years) having preoperative vision of hand motions (10 eyes) with very dense or mobile cataracts and high risk for phacoemulsification. Mean follow up was 12 weeks, with no operative or postoperative complications. Nine patients (without ocular or systemic comorbidity) achieved best corrected vision of 0.3 LogMAR (20/40) or better. Conclusions: SLICE is safe and effective for dense or mobile cataracts and can play a role in patients where conventional phacoemulsification carries higher risks of complications. PMID:23439745
Khan, Mohammad I.; Syed, Shamsuzzoha; Subash, Mala; Mearza, Ali; Muhtaseb, Mohammed
Cancrum oris is a gangrenous stomatitis arising from a periodontal infection and leading to severe soft tissue and bone destruction. The pathology involves numerous factors including local thrombosis, vascularitis, necrotizing gingivitis, immunodeficiency, Gram negative and anaerobic infection. It is usually a disease of infants and malnourished children in tropical areas often occurring after a debilitating disease like measles . Burkitt lymphoma is a highly aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma first described by Burkitt in 1958 in African children from areas holoendemic for malaria. It is the first cancer of African child . The association between Burkitt lymphoma and cancrum oris is non common. We report in the present study three cases of this association at the Academic Hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo of Ouagadougou. This association poses a problem of late diagnosis with difficulties in therapeutic management. PMID:24792458
Konsem, T; Millogo, M; Gare, J; Ouedraogo, D; Ouoba, K
Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, often identified only post-marketingly. Improvement in current ADR reporting, including utility of underused or innovative methods, is crucial to improve patient safety and public health. Hospital-based monitoring is one of the methods used to collect data about drug prescriptions and adverse events. The aims of this study were to identify the most frequent ADRs recognized by the attending physicians, study their nature, and to target these ADRs in order to take future preventive measures. A prospective study was conducted over a 7-month period in an internal medicine department using stimulated spontaneous reporting for identifying ADRs. Out of the 254 admissions, 32 ADRs in 37 patients (14.56%) were validated from the total of 36 suspected ADRs in 41 patients. Female predominance was noted over males in case of ADRs. Fifty percent of total ADRs occurred due to multiple drug therapy. Dermatological ADRs were found to be the most frequent (68.75%), followed by respiratory, central nervous system and gastrointestinal ADRs. The drugs most frequently involved were antibiotics, anti-tubercular agents, antigout agents, and NSAIDs. The most commonly reported reactions were itching and rashes. Out of the 32 reported ADRs, 50% of the reactions were probable, 46.87% of the reactions were possible and 3.12% of the reactions were definite. The severity assessment done by using the Hartwig and Seigel scale indicated that the majority of ADRs were ‘Mild’ followed by ‘Moderate’ and ‘Severe’ reactions, respectively. Out of all, 75% of ADRs were recovered. The most potent management of ADRs was found to be drug withdrawal. Our study indicated that hospital based monitoring was a good method to detect links between drug exposure and adverse drug reactions. Adequate training regarding pharmacology and optimization of drug therapy might be helpful to reduce ADR morbidity and mortality. PMID:24170978
Rajput, Mithun S.; Nirmal, Nilesh P.; Savitri, Wenny
Background & objectives: Newly diagnosed HIV patients may be asymptomatic or present with a wide range of symptoms related to opportunistic infections, acute seroconversion illness or other medical illnesses. This study was designed to evaluate the socio-demographic parameters, spectrum of the presenting clinical conditions and concurrent immunological status of newly diagnosed HIV patients and document the WHO clinical stages at the time of HIV diagnosis. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study was undertaken over a 12 month period at a tertiary referral hospital in eastern India. Three hundred sixty consecutive newly diagnosed HIV patients were selected for the study from the HIV clinic and medicine wards of this hospital. Demographic and clinical data and relevant laboratory investigations of the patients were recorded and analyzed. Results: Mean age of patients was 36.38 ± 10.62 yr, while 63.89 per cent were males. The main mode of transmission of HIV for males and females were unprotected exposure to commercial sex (139, 60.44%) and intercourse with HIV seropositive spouses (89, 68.46%), respectively. Fever (104, 28.89%), weight loss (103, 28.61%) and generalized weakness (80, 22.22%) were the predominant symptoms. Overall mean CD4 count was 176.04 ± 163.49 cells/?l (males 142.19 ± 139.33 cells/?l; females 235.92 ± 185.11 cells/?l). Overall, 224 opportunistic infections were documented in 160 patients, opportunistic diarrhoea (44, 12.22%) and pulmonary tuberculosis (39, 10.83%) being the commonest. There were 83 and 133 patients in WHO clinical stages 3 and 4, respectively; 291 (80.83%) patients were eligible for initiation of first-line antiretrovirals at presentation. Interpretation & conclusions: Advanced immunodeficiency and burden of opportunistic infections characterize newly diagnosed HIV patients in eastern India. The physicians should keep in mind that these patients may have more than one clinical condition at presentation. PMID:25109725
Bishnu, Saptarshi; Bandyopadhyay, Dipanjan; Samui, Samiran; Das, Indrani; Mondal, Pradip; Ghosh, Pramit; Roy, Deeptarka; Manna, Sukanta
Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals about pharmacovigilance in Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH), Perambalur (Tamil Nadu), a tertiary care teaching hospital. The second primary objective was to assess the causation of underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as it needs to be well-assessed in India. The secondary objective was to compare the findings of this study with the results of the published studies from India on evaluation of the KAP of pharmacovigilance among healthcare professional. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to assess the KAP regarding pharmacovigilance. The healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, and pharmacists) working in the DSMCH, Perambalur (Tamil Nadu) during the study period were included. Only those who gave their consent to participate were included in the study. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software, version 16. Results: One hundred and fifty pretested questionnaires were distributed among the healthcare professionals and 101 responded. 62.4% healthcare workers gave correct response regarding the definition of pharmacovigilance. 75.2% of healthcare workers were aware regarding the existence of a National Pharmacovigilance Program of India. 69.3% healthcare professional agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation for them. Among the participants, 64.4% have experienced ADRs in patients, but only 22.8% have ever reported ADR to pharmacovigilance center. Unfortunately only 53.5% healthcare workers have been trained for reporting adverse reactions. But, 97% healthcare professionals agreed that reporting of ADR is necessary and 92.1% were of the view that pharmacovigilance should be taught in detail to healthcare professional. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance is gradually improving among healthcare professionals, but unfortunately the actual practice of ADR reporting is still deficient among them.
Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Nayak, Roopa P.; Shivaranjani, R.; Vidyarthi, Surendra Kumar
Cervical cancer is still a major contributor to cancer-related mortality amongst women living in poor, rural communities of developing countries. The objective of this study is to establish the clinical presentation of cervical cancer and the management challenges encountered in Abakaliki, southeast Nigeria, with a view to finding intervention strategies. This study is a retrospective descriptive assessment of cases of clinically diagnosed cervical cancer managed at a state teaching hospital over six years. Of 76 cases managed, 61 (80.3%) cases notes were available for study. The mean age and parity of patients were 53.8 years and 6.8 years, respectively. The majority (75.4%) were illiterate. All had been married, but 42.6% were widowed. The main occupations were farming or petty trading. One patient (1.6%) had had a single Pap smear in her life. The major presenting complaints were abnormal vaginal bleeding (86.9%), offensive vaginal discharge (41.0%), and weight loss. Twenty patients (32.8%) were lost to follow-up prior to staging. Of the remaining 41 patients, 16 (39.0%) had stage III disease and 17.1% stage IV. Fifteen patients (24.6%) with late stage disease accepted referral, and were referred for radiotherapy. Those who declined were discharged home on request, though 4 (9.8%) died in the hospital. There was no feedback from referred patients confirming that they went and benefitted from the referral. The presentation followed known trends. Illiteracy, poverty, early marriages, high parity, widowhood, non-use of screening methods, late presentation, non-acceptance of referral, and lack of communication after referral were some of the major challenges encountered. These underscore the needs for health education and awareness creation, women educational and economic empowerment, legislation against early marriages and in protection of widows, and creation of a well-staffed and well-equipped dedicated gynecologic oncology unit to forestall further referral. PMID:23843724
Eze, Justus N.; Emeka-Irem, Esther N.; Edegbe, Felix O.
Background Bowel obstruction resulting from intestinal tuberculosis has been reported to be more prevalent in developing countries including Tanzania. This study was undertaken to describe the clinicopathological profile, surgical management and outcome of tuberculous intestinal obstruction in our local setting and to identify factors responsible for poor outcome among these patients. Methods This was a prospective descriptive study of patients operated for tuberculous intestinal obstruction at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) in northwestern Tanzania from April 2008 to March 2012. Ethical approval to conduct the study was obtained from relevant authorities. Statistical data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0. Results A total of 118 patients with tuberculous intestinal obstruction were studied. The male to female ratio was 1.8: 1. The median age was 26 years (range 11-67 years). The modal age group was 21-30 years. Thirty-one (26.3%) patients had associated pulmonary tuberculosis and 25 (21.2%) patients were HIV positive with a median CD4+ count of 225 cells /?l. Small bowel strictures were the most common operative findings accounting for 72.9% of cases. The ileo-caecal region was the commonest area of involvement in 68 (57.6%) patients. The right hemicolectomy with ileo-transverse anastomosis was the most frequent surgical procedure performed in 66 (55.9%) patients. Postoperatively all the patients received antituberculous drugs for a period of one year. Postoperative complication rate was 37.3% and surgical site infection (SSI) was the most frequent complication in 42.8% of cases. HIV positivity and low CD4+ count were the main predictors of SSI (p?0.001). The overall median length of hospital stay was 24 days. Patients who had postoperative complications stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (p?=?0.011). Mortality rate was 28.8% and it was significantly associated with co-existing medical illness, delayed presentation, HIV positivity, low CD 4 count (<200 cells/?l), ASA class and presence of complications (p?0.001). The follow up of patients was generally poor as more than fifty percent of patients were lost to follow up. Conclusion Tuberculous bowel obstruction remains rampant in our environment and contributes significantly to high morbidity and mortality. The majority of patients present late when the disease becomes complicated. A high index of suspicion, proper evaluation and therapeutic trial in suspected patients is essential for an early diagnosis and timely definitive treatment, in order to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. PMID:23497503
Background Hirschsprung’s disease (HD) is the commonest cause of functional intestinal obstruction in children and poses challenges to pediatricians and pediatric surgeons practicing in resource-limited countries. This study describes the clinical characteristics and outcome of management of this disease in our setting and highlights challenges associated with the care of these patients and proffer solutions for improved outcome. Methods This was a descriptive prospective study of children aged ? 10 years who were histologically diagnosed and treated for HD at our centre between July 2008 and June 2013. Results A total of 110 patients (M: F ratio= 3.6:1) with a median age of 24 months were studied. Six (5.5%) patients were in the neonatal period. Sixty-four (58.2%) patients had complete intestinal obstruction whereas 42 (38.2%) and 4 (3.6%) patients had chronic intestinal obstruction and intestinal perforation respectively. No patient had enterocolitis. Constipation (94.5%) was the most common complaints. 109 (99.1%) patients had colostomy prior to the definitive pull-through. The median duration of colostomy before definitive pull-through was 4 months. The majority of patients (67.3%) had short segment of aganglionosis localized to the recto-sigmoid region. The definitive pull-through was performed in 94 (85.5%) patients (Swenson’s pull-through 76 (80.9%), Duhamel’s pull-through (12.8%) and Soave’s pull-through 4 (4.3%) patients). Postoperative complication rate was 47.3%. The median length of hospital stay was 26 days. Patients who developed complications stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (p <0.001). Mortality rate was 21.8%. The age < 4 weeks, delayed presentation and surgical site infection were the main predictors of mortality (p < 0.001). During the follow-up period, the results of Swenson’s and Duhamel’s pull through procedures were generally good in 87.8% and 42.9% of patients respectively. The result of Soave’s procedures was generally poor in this study. Conclusion HD remains the commonest cause of functional intestinal obstruction in children and contributes significantly to high morbidity and mortality in our setting. The majority of patients present late when the disease becomes complicated. Early diagnosis and timely definitive pull through procedure are essential in order to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. PMID:24973940
Introduction The purpose of this study was to describe a nosocomial outbreak caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) ST71 SCCmec II-III in dogs and cats at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Helsinki in November 2010 – January 2012, and to determine the risk factors for acquiring MRSP. In addition, measures to control the outbreak and current policy for MRSP prevention are presented. Methods Data of patients were collected from the hospital patient record software. MRSP surveillance data were acquired from the laboratory information system. Risk factors for MRSP acquisition were analyzed from 55 cases and 213 controls using multivariable logistic regression in a case-control study design. Forty-seven MRSP isolates were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and three were further analyzed with multi-locus sequence and SCCmec typing. Results Sixty-three MRSP cases were identified, including 27 infections. MRSPs from the cases shared a specific multi-drug resistant antibiogram and PFGE-pattern indicated clonal spread. Four risk factors were identified; skin lesion (OR?=?6.2; CI95% 2.3–17.0, P?=?0.0003), antimicrobial treatment (OR?=?3.8, CI95% 1.0–13.9, P?=?0.0442), cumulative number of days in the intensive care unit (OR?=?1.3, CI95% 1.1–1.6, P?=?0.0007) or in the surgery ward (OR?=?1.1, CI95% 1.0–1.3, P?=?0.0401). Tracing and screening of contact patients, enhanced hand hygiene, cohorting and barrier nursing, as well as cleaning and disinfection were used to control the outbreak. To avoid future outbreaks and spread of MRSP a search-and-isolate policy was implemented. Currently nearly all new MRSP findings are detected in screening targeted to risk patients on admission. Conclusion Multidrug resistant MRSP is capable of causing a large outbreak difficult to control. Skin lesions, antimicrobial treatment and prolonged hospital stay increase the probability of acquiring MRSP. Rigorous control measures were needed to control the outbreak. We recommend the implementation of a search-and-isolate policy to reduce the burden of MRSP. PMID:25333798
Grönthal, Thomas; Moodley, Arshnee; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Junnila, Jouni; Guardabassi, Luca; Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja
Universal or "broad-range" PCR-based ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed on a collection of 58 isolates (n = 30 bacteria + 28 fungi), originating from environmental air from several locations within a busy clinical microbiology laboratory, supporting a university teaching hospital. A total of 10 bacterial genera were identified including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative genera. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 27/30 (90%) of total bacterial species, consisting of seven genera and included (in descending order of frequency) Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paenibacillus, Arthrobacter, Janibacter and Rothia. Gram-negative organisms were less frequently isolated 3/30 (10%) and comprised three genera, including Moraxella, Psychrobacter and Haloanella. Eight fungal genera were identified among the 28 fungal organisms isolated, including (in descending order of frequency) Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Thanatephorus, Absidia, Eurotium, Paraphaeosphaeria and Tritirachium, with Cladosporium accounting for 10/28 (35.7%) of the total fungal isolates. In conclusion, this study identified the presence of 10 bacterial and eight fungal genera in the air within the laboratory sampled. Although this reflected diversity of the microorganisms present, none of these organisms have been described previously as having an inhalational route of laboratory-acquired infection. Therefore, we believe that the species of organisms identified and the concentration levels of these airborne contaminants determined, do not pose a significant health and safety threat for immunocompotent laboratory personnel and visitors. PMID:20183192
Nagano, Yuriko; Walker, Jim; Loughrey, Anne; Millar, Cherie; Goldsmith, Colin; Rooney, Paul; Elborn, Stuart; Moore, John
This article describes an extensive online criterion-referenced evaluation system for the assessment of veterinary students' achievement during their final year's Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (or equivalent) clinical education. Data are reported for the 2001 to 2009 University of California at Davis veterinary graduates, for a total of more than 1,100 students. These criterion-referenced evaluations extensively document the level of clinical skills attained and demonstrated during the individual clinical rotations that comprise the fourth-year curriculum. On average, in each of the 17,500 clinical rotations undertaken during this time period, student performance was assessed in at least 11 separate areas of skills, knowledge, and professional attributes. This provided more than 200,000 criterion-referenced judgments of the individual clinical attributes of graduates over nine years. The system is based on a previously detailed and validated definition of the skills, knowledge, and professional attributes that students should have demonstrated before graduation. The extensive database that this system has provided has established that this system, termed VOLES (VMTH [Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital] On-Line Evaluation System), is an effective tool to assess the clinical capabilities of veterinary students and their achievement of the "Day One" skills required for entering clinical practice. These expected proficiencies are balanced according to the differing expectations that each area of veterinary clinical practice demands. PMID:22430080
Zeck, Steven; Wall, Judy A; Smith, Bradford P; Wilson, W David; Walsh, Donal A
Infections with bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasing across Africa. This study reports on ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae as significant causes of infections and antibiotic resistance at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. Of 300 isolates examined, 49.3% produced ESBLs. The prevalence of ESBLs was significantly high among isolates from neonates (28 of 43, 65.1%; relative risk = 1.62, 95% confidence interval = 1.33–2.13, P = 0.002) and adult patients > 65 years of age (36 of 51, 70.5%; relative risk = 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.41–2.40, P = 0.001). A marked increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations of ESBL-positive species was noticed compared with those for the other strains. Using these concentrations, we found that 26 (17%) ESBL producers were resistant to two or more antibiotics (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamide, and carbapenems) whereas 5 (3.2%) non–ESBL producers were multidrug resistant. Regular ESBL detection and evaluation of antibiotic resistance may help reduce the spread of ESBLs and antibiotic resistance in Ghana. PMID:24043693
Obeng-Nkrumah, Noah; Twum-Danso, Kingsley; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Newman, Mercy J.
Dysglycaemia (hyper- or hypoglycaemia) in critically ill children has been associated with poor outcome. We compared the clinical outcomes in children admitted to Pediatric Emergency Unit (PEU) at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) for acute medical conditions and presenting with euglycaemia or dysglycaemia. This is a prospective case matching cohort study. Eight hundred subjects aged between 3 and 144 months were screened out of whom 430 (215 with euglycaemia and 215 with dysglycaemia) were enrolled. The median age was 24 months (range: 3–144 months). In the dysglycaemia group, 28 (13%) subjects had hypoglycemia and 187 (87%) had hyperglycemia. Overall, there were 128 complications in 116 subjects. The number of subjects with complications was significantly higher in dysglycaemia group (n = 99, 46%) compared to euglycaemia group (n = 17, 8%) (P < 0.001). Forty subjects died out of whom 30 had dysglycaemia (P = 0.001). Subjects with dysglycaemia were 3 times (95% CI: 1.5–6.0) more likely to die and 4.8 times (95% CI: 3.1–7.5) more likely to develop complications (P = 0.001). Dysglycaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in children with acute medical conditions and should lead to intensive management of the underlying condition. PMID:25614747
Amponsah-Achiano, Kwame; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre
Aim: The rising HIV infection rates among women especially of child bearing age particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa expose children to increased HIV risk even before they are born. Without effective measures or awareness campaigns to deal with mother-to-child transmission, 390 000 out of the global 430 000 children newly infected with HIV during 2008 were from sub-Saharan Africa This study was undertaken to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and risk perception among pregnant women in Tertiary hospital, Southwestern Nigeria Method: The study was carried out using a 43- item self administered questionnaire, pretestd and administered to 403 pregnant women during ante-natal clinic sessions Results: High HIV/AIDS awareness level (97%) was recorded, 77.7% had correct knowledge of the cause of the disease but knowledge on the modes of vertical transmission during pregnancy (57.5%) and prevention during breast-feeding (62.3%) was not encouraging A lot of misconceptions about the cause of the HIV/AIDS, modes of contact, transmission, prevention and anti-retroviral therapy were recorded Conclusion: The survey revealed that a lot needed to be done to improve the knowledge, attitude, perception and behavioral changes among the populace especially in this particular group. This calls for urgent and proper response in order to stem the tide of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24826022
Ojieabu, Winifred Aitalegbe; Femi-Oyewo, M. N.; Eze, Uchenna I.
A cross-sectional study was carried out among 134 antenatal clinic attendees in a Nigerian tertiary hospital to assess pregnancy-related sexual beliefs and changes in sexual frequency and response. Information was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire, and analysed by SPSS. Only 15% of women believed that religious, social or cultural reasons prevented sexual intercourse in pregnancy. Frequency of sexual intercourse decreased in pregnancy in 37.4% of the respondents, remained unaltered in 46.1% and increased in 16.5%. Age, marriage duration and gestational age were not associated with change in the pattern of coital frequency in pregnancy, but education was significantly associated. Sexual responsiveness diminished in approximately half of our respondents in terms of arousal (54.5%), orgasm (48.5%), pleasure (43.7%) and satisfaction (51.4%). The changes were not associated with pregnancy duration. We concluded that sex in pregnancy is well accepted in our environment, and health workers should promote sexual health and well-being in pregnancy. PMID:16368588
Adeyemi, A B; Fatusi, A O; Makinde, O N; Omojuwa, I; Asa, S; Onwudiegwu, U
Globally, breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy in women, and stage at diagnosis is a key determinant of outcome. In low- to middle-income countries, including Nigeria, advanced stage diagnosis and delayed treatment represent a significant problem. That social barriers contribute to delay has been noted in previous research; however, few specific factors have been studied. Using semi-structured interviews, this study identifies social barriers to diagnosis and treatment for patients who presented at University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria. Transcripts from the interviews were coded and analysed thematically. Thirty-one patients and five physicians were interviewed. The median age of patients was 51 (range: 28 to above 80), 83% were Christian and 17% were Muslim. Preliminary analysis showed that delays in diagnosis reflected a lack of education as well as the utilisation of non-physician medical services such as pharmacists. Delays in treatment were often due to fear of unanticipated surgery and cost. The majority of women did not know the cause of their breast cancer, but some believed it was caused by a spiritual affliction. This study suggests that further education and awareness of breast cancer for both patients and providers is needed in order to increase early stage diagnosis. PMID:25443995
Pruitt, Liese; Mumuni, Tolulope; Raikhel, Eugene; Ademola, Adeyinka; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Adenipekun, Adeniyi; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Ojengbede, Oladosu A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I
This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.
Background: Today, the concept of organizational learning has attracted the attention of many managers and researchers in scientific and research circles as well as those in the organization-related studies. Taking the organizational learning into account might offer a means of organizational effectiveness that has gone unnoticed. Thus the present study aimed at investigating the relationship between the organizational learning in each of its four aspects as independent variables and organizational citizen behavior of the staff as constituting the dependent variable of the study. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study with a practical approach conducted in 2010. The sample included 167 staff members working in educational health centers affiliated with Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. The data were collected via both the organizational learning questionnaire and organizational citizen behavior questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS software and Spearman test. Results: The results indicated that the mean of organizational learning indicator was 2.9±0.648 and that of organizational citizen behavior 3.78±0.413. In addition, the spearman correlation coefficient ranging from 0.058 to 0.129 between the elements of the organizational learning and the organizational citizen behavior was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The findings also indicated that the correlation between them was average among the staff of Shahid Raja’ee Educational health center (0.319), thus the relationship between the two sets of variables proved significant (p=0.031). However, the same was not true in other centers. Conclusion: It was concluded that management commitment, open space, transfer of knowledge, and systemic vision could all enhance the level of organizational learning in hospitals which calls for focus on the elements of organizational citizen behavior.
Kiaei, Mohammad Zakaria; Hasanpoor, Edris; Sokhanvar, Mobin; Mohseni, Mohammad; Ziaiifar, Hajarbibi; Moradi, Mahin
This prospective study conducted within 9 months period aimed to determine the frequency of red cell alloimmunization among polytransfused patients of the medical Hematology and oncology ward, and the unit of hemodialysis of the Nephrology ward at the Point-G hospital. Irregular red blood cell antibody screening and identification were performed by gel-filtration method using indirect antiglobulin test and enzymatic treated cells. We did not use saline medium. A total of 78 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 36.78±14.73 years (range: 11 and 77 years). The sex ratio was of 1.11 in favour of the women. The mean blood units transfused were 12.21±9.99 units (range: 4 and 45 units). The Rhesus phenotypes Dccee, DccEe and DCcee were most predominant, with the respective frequencies of 67.9, 15.4 and 10.3%. Kell antigen was found at a frequency of 1.28%. The total rate of red cell alloimmunization was 10.3%. There was no significant difference between the two wards. All the screened agglutinins were warm antibodies belonging to the Rhesus system: anti-E (7.7%), anti-C (1.3%) and anti-D (1.3%). Only Anti-E was present among hematologic patients. We did not find a significant link between the sex, the age, the number of blood units transfused and the positivity of the antibody screening. We conclude that the frequency of post-transfusional alloimmunization is high among polytransfused patients in Mali. A systematic antibody screening among these patients and the selection of red cells with known Rhesus/Kell phenotypes would allow an optimal blood transfusion safety. PMID:20961789
Baby, M; Fongoro, S; Cissé, M; Gakou, Y; Bathily, M; Dembélé, A K; Maïga, M K; Tounkara, A; Diallo, D A
BACKGROUND: Competency in neonatal resuscitation is critical in the delivery rooms, neonatology units and pediatrics intensive care units to ensure the safety and health of neonates. Each year, millions of babies do not breathe immediately at birth, and among them the majority require basic neonatal resuscitation. Perinatal asphyxia is a major contributor to neonatal deaths worldwide in resource-limited settings. Neonatal resuscitation is effective only when health professionals have sufficient knowledge and skills. But malpractices by health professionals are frequent in the resuscitation of neonates. The present study was to assess the knowledge and skills of health professionals about neonatal resuscitation. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in our hospital from February15 to April 30, 2014. All nurses, midwives and residents from obstetrics-gynecology (obs-gyn), midwifery and pediatric departments were included. The mean scores of knowledge and skills were compared for sex, age, type of profession, qualification, year of service and previous place of work of the participants by using Student’s t test and ANOVA with Scheffe’s test. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-five of 150 participants were included in this study with a response rate of 90.0%. The overall mean scores of knowledge and skills of midwives, nurses and residents were 19.9 (SD=3.1) and 6.8 (SD=3.9) respectively. The mean knowledge scores of midwives, nurses, pediatric residents and obs-gyn residents were 19.7 (SD=3.03), 20.2 (SD=2.94), 19.7 (SD=4.4) and 19.6 (SD=3.3) respectively. Whereas the mean scores of skills of midwives, nurses, pediatric residents and obs-gyn residents were 7.1 (SD=4.17), 6.7 (SD=3.75), 5.7 (SD=4.17) and 6.6 (SD=3.97) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge and skills of midwives, nurses and residents about neonatal resuscitation were substandardized. Training of neonatal resuscitation for midwives, nurses and residents should be emphasized. PMID:25225584
Gebreegziabher, Endale; Aregawi, Adugna; Getinet, Habtamu
In order to achieve success in today’s competitive world, organizations should adapt to environmental changes. On the other hand, managers should have a set of values and ethical guidelines for their administrative and organizational functions. This study aimed to investigate the association between work ethics and attitudes towards organizational changes among the administrative, financial and support employees of general teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This was an applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study conducted in 2013. A sample of 124 employees was selected using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. Data were collected using 2 questionnaires measuring the dimensions of employees' work ethics (four dimensions) and attitudes towards organizational changes (three dimensions). The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and statistical tests, including ANOVA, independent samples t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The maximum and minimum score of work ethic dimensions were related to being cooperative (4.60 ± 0.38) and dependable (4.29 ± 0.39) respectively. On the other hand, the maximum and minimum score of attitudes towards the various dimensions of organizational changes were related to the behavioral (3.83 ± 0.70) and the affective (3.55 ± 0.88) dimensions respectively. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between the work ethics and education levels of the employees in this study (P = 0.003). Also, among work s dimensions, only being considerate had a significant association with attitudes towards organizational changes (P = 0.014) and their cognitive dimension (P = 0.005). To improve employees' work ethics and attitudes towards organizational changes, the following suggestions can be offered: training hospitals managers in participative management style and its application, as well as the importance of meeting the employees' needs and expectations based on their characteristics; familiarizing employees with the Islamic work ethic; educating employees on the importance of being considerate towards their colleagues and subordinates in the workplace, and reinforcing this desirable quality; and finally, clarifying the need for changes in the organization for all employees. PMID:25512831
Ravangard, Ramin; Sajjadnia, Zahra; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Shahsavan, Najme; Bahmaie, Jamshid; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim
In order to achieve success in today's competitive world, organizations should adapt to environmental changes. On the other hand, managers should have a set of values and ethical guidelines for their administrative and organizational functions. This study aimed to investigate the association between work ethics and attitudes towards organizational changes among the administrative, financial and support employees of general teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This was an applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study conducted in 2013. A sample of 124 employees was selected using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. Data were collected using 2 questionnaires measuring the dimensions of employees' work ethics (four dimensions) and attitudes towards organizational changes (three dimensions). The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and statistical tests, including ANOVA, independent samples t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The maximum and minimum score of work ethic dimensions were related to being cooperative (4.60 ± 0.38) and dependable (4.29 ± 0.39) respectively. On the other hand, the maximum and minimum score of attitudes towards the various dimensions of organizational changes were related to the behavioral (3.83 ± 0.70) and the affective (3.55 ± 0.88) dimensions respectively. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between the work ethics and education levels of the employees in this study (P = 0.003). Also, among work s dimensions, only being considerate had a significant association with attitudes towards organizational changes (P = 0.014) and their cognitive dimension (P = 0.005). To improve employees' work ethics and attitudes towards organizational changes, the following suggestions can be offered: training hospitals managers in participative management style and its application, as well as the importance of meeting the employees' needs and expectations based on their characteristics; familiarizing employees with the Islamic work ethic; educating employees on the importance of being considerate towards their colleagues and subordinates in the workplace, and reinforcing this desirable quality; and finally, clarifying the need for changes in the organization for all employees. PMID:25512831
Ravangard, Ramin; Sajjadnia, Zahra; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Shahsavan, Najme; Bahmaie, Jamshid; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim
Patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) experience decreased quality of life (QoL) and significantly higher rates of malnutrition, inflammation, hospitalization and mortality when compared with the normal population. The dietary approach in the different phases of chronic renal failure is one of the most important, and yet controversial, topics in the whole history of nephrology, even when dialysis facilities were not easily available. Although much progress has been made in recent years in recognizing the link between malnutrition, different diseases and increased mortality, no consensus has yet been reached concerning the ideal assessment and management of nutritional status in dialysis patients in Iran. In this study, 70 patients on MHD in the teaching hospitals in Urmia were divided into two groups and were requested to fill in the validated SF-36 QoL questionnaire. One group of 35 patients received dietary counseling while the other did not and acted as controls. The SF-36, a short-form QoL scoring system consists of 36 questions that are compressed into eight multi-item scales covering all aspects of QoL. The two groups studied were similar in age, level of education, gender and duration of dialysis treatment; 46.8% of the patients were female and 52% were male. The total SF-36 score was slightly higher in males compared with females, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.05). The scores were higher in the group counseled about diet. Overall, the difference in physical health, in work activities and QoL as a whole, between the two groups, was statistically significant (t = 2.04, df = 34, P = 0.049; t = 2.04, df = 34, P = 0.049; t = 2.28, df = 1.96, P = 0.043, respectively). The QoL was considerably diminished in HD patients, but less so in the group that was educated about their nutrition. Improvement in QoL is achievable in patients if their discomfort is more effectively treated medically. One of the methods for this is education about their nutritional program, which can be used for other chronic diseases too. More research is needed to assess whether interventions help to improve QoL and lower heath risks among patients on HD. PMID:22237214
Aghakhani, Nader; Samadzadeh, Saeei; Mafi, Taher Mohit; Rahbar, Narges
Provided and maintained by the University of Iowa Health Care, the Virtual Hospital is designed as a "medical reference and health promotion tool for health care providers and patients." To that end, the site offers current and authoritative medical information for patients and professional and pedagogical information for health care providers. The former includes patient educational briefs browseable by organ system or by a topical list, a collection of peer-reviewed and annotated Web resources, an internal search engine, and archives of a column offering medical advice to middle-aged users. Resources in the health care provider section include several digital libraries aimed at certain specialties (Pediatrics, Pediatric Radiology, Family Medicine, and Medical Student); multimedia textbooks and teaching files grouped by organ system; lectures and publications; and clinical practice guidelines. Additional resources at the site include links to the Virtual Children's and Virtual Naval Hospitals, an internal search engine, and online continuing education courses.
Background Snake bite is a common problem in the North Central province of Sri Lanka. Common krait (Bungarus careuleus), Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus), Cobra (Naja naja), Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii), Saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) and Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) are the six species of venomous land snakes in Sri Lanka. A significant number of adults and children are bitten by snakes every year. However, the majority of research studies done in Sri Lanka and other countries show adults bitten by snakes and studies describing children bitten by snakes are very sparse. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was performed in the Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka from May 2010 to 2011 May to describe the characteristics associated with cases of snake bite. Results There were 24 males and 20 females. The highest numbers of bites (48%) were in the range of ages 6-12 years. The majority of the bites occurred between 6 pm to 6 am (59%).The foot was the most common bitten site (48%). Out of all the venomous bites, the Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) accounted for the highest number (44%) and Russell’s viper (Daboia ruselii) accounted for the second highest number (27%). A significant number of venomous bites occurred indoors while sleeping (22%). Antivenom serum was given to (39%) of venomous bites. Deaths occurred in (11%) of the venomous bites. Conclusions Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) accounted for the highest number of venomous bites. Majority of the bites occurred between 6 pm and 6 am. Foot was the most common bitten site. A significant number of venomous bites occurred indoor while sleeping. Antivenom serum was given to a significant number of venomous bites. Educating the public on making their houses snake proof and using a torch when going out during night time will help in the prevention of getting bitten by snakes. PMID:25073710
Peripheral arterial disease, being a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis, carries a high risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Secondary medical prevention therapies of same magnitude as that for coronary artery disease are recommended for peripheral arterial disease patients also. Available evidence indicates that this condition commonly remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. There is lack of any report about management of these patients in India. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the atherosclerotic risk factor profile and pattern of drug prescription for patients of peripheral arterial disease at a tertiary care teaching hospital and to compare this management with standard guidelines. Data were collected from prescriptions of patients attending cardiothoracic and vascular surgery outpatient department with diagnosis of atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease from July 2012 to Jun 2013. One hundred twenty prescriptions were analysed. The mean age (±SD) of patients was 53±7.18 years and 23.3% were females. History of smoking, either past or present, was present in 91.6% patients. History of ischemic heart disease was present in 25%, while 26.7% patients were diabetic. Mean number of cardiovascular risk factors was 2.6. The percentage of eligible patients who were receiving a particular drug was 100% for aspirin and statins, 48.3% for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, 46.7% for beta blockers and 66.7% for cilostazol. The vascular surgeons of this centre are using antiplatelet agents and statins adequately for peripheral arterial disease. The prescription of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers and cilostazol is low. Exercise therapy and smoking cessation need more attention.
Aiman, U.; Haseen, M. A.; Beg, M. H.; Khan, R. A.; Siddiqui, F. A.; Alam, I.
Hypertension (HTN) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are lifestyle interrelated diseases of global significance. Interestingly, the prevalence of these diseases in Africa and indeed Nigeria seems to be on the increase. This study, therefore, investigated the socioeconomic status (based on income, education and occupational activity) of 400 subjects (52% female and 48% male) aged 20 years and above who were sampled randomly among the newly diagnosed HTN and/or T2D cases at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, North-West Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the subjects. From the result obtained, most of the respondents who live in towns or city suffer from either HTN or T2D while more town dwellers (28%) suffer from a combination of both diseases. It was also discovered that most respondents who suffer from HTN and from a combination of HTN and T2D belong to the old generation (60-79 years). There is higher prevalence rate of diabetes among the respondents who had no formal education or attended only basic Arabic schools. Most respondents who earn good income (NGN50,000-NGN100,000 and above NGN100,000) suffer HTN, T2D and a combination of both diseases. Those engaged in heavy occupational activities had the lowest prevalence of the disease compared with those of light or moderate occupational activities. These data will be found useful in planning intervention healthcare preventive programs especially on public enlightenment workshops and seminars to educate the populace on the importance of lifestyle modification, healthy diet and regular exercises. PMID:25560354
Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Umar, Ismaila Alhaji; Ibrahim, Sani; Bello, Fatima; Ndidi, Uche Samuel
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of 90%–95% of squamous cell cancers. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV can lead to development of precancerous lesions of the cervix in 5%–10% of infected women, and can progress to invasive cervical cancer 15–20 years later. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HPV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among women of reproductive age attending a reproductive health clinic at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Methods The study was descriptive, cross-sectional, and experimental, combining the use of a structured questionnaire and analysis of serum samples obtained from 350 consecutive consenting women. The serum samples were analyzed for IgG antibodies to HPV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results We found a seroprevalence of 42.9% (150/350) for IgG antibodies to HPV in these women. Women aged 45–49 years and those who had their sexual debut aged 20–23 years had the highest HPV seroprevalence, ie, 50% (57/114) and 51.1% (46/90), respectively. Presence of antibodies varied according to sociodemographic factors, but was significantly associated with educational status, tribe, and religion (P<0.05). Human papillomavirus infection was not significantly associated with the reproductive characteristics and sexual behavior of the women. Antibodies to HPV were detected in 50.0% (9/18) of women with a family history of cervical cancer and in 30.8% (4/13) of those with a history or signs of WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis) syndrome as a genetic disorder (P>0.05). Conclusion Further studies are needed to determine the HPV serotypes and evaluate the risk of natural development of HPV-related malignancies among women in the study area. PMID:24868172
Aminu, M; Gwafan, JZ; Inabo, HI; Oguntayo, AO; Ella, EE; Koledade, AK
Background: Interrupting anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for any number of reasons is an indication of a compromised adherence to ART. Several factors, including the pill burden from other drugs used in treating co-infections in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), may influence ART adherence. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with ART interruption in HIV-1-infected children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study analysing data on 580 children consecutively enrolled on ART between February 2006 and December 2010 at the paediatric HIV clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos. Subjects were children aged 2 months — 15 years diagnosed with HIV-1 infection and on first-line ART. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was usually commenced at diagnosis while awaiting ART commencement. Children diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) were also placed on multiple individual anti-TB drugs. Statistical analysis used: A comparison of the data on children with and without ART interruption was made. Variables associated with ART interruption in a univariate analysis were fit in a multivariate logistic model to determine the factors that were associated with ART interruption. Results: Children on anti-TB drugs were twice more likely to interrupt ART compared to those who were not, (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 1.84 (1.03-3.28); P = 0.04). But children on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis had a 57% reduction in the odds of interrupting ART compared to those who were not, (AOR = 0.43 (0.20-0.93); P = 0.03). Conclusion: Children on ART and also taking multiple individual anti-TB drugs should be monitored closely for ART adherence. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be encouraged in children diagnosed with HIV while awaiting ART commencement as this may prime them for a better ART adherence.
Ebonyi, Augustine O.; Ejeliogu, Emeka U.; Okpe, Sylvanus E.; Shwe, David D.; Yiltok, Esther S.; Ochoga, Martha O.; Oguche, Stephen
Peripheral arterial disease, being a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis, carries a high risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Secondary medical prevention therapies of same magnitude as that for coronary artery disease are recommended for peripheral arterial disease patients also. Available evidence indicates that this condition commonly remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. There is lack of any report about management of these patients in India. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the atherosclerotic risk factor profile and pattern of drug prescription for patients of peripheral arterial disease at a tertiary care teaching hospital and to compare this management with standard guidelines. Data were collected from prescriptions of patients attending cardiothoracic and vascular surgery outpatient department with diagnosis of atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease from July 2012 to Jun 2013. One hundred twenty prescriptions were analysed. The mean age (±SD) of patients was 53±7.18 years and 23.3% were females. History of smoking, either past or present, was present in 91.6% patients. History of ischemic heart disease was present in 25%, while 26.7% patients were diabetic. Mean number of cardiovascular risk factors was 2.6. The percentage of eligible patients who were receiving a particular drug was 100% for aspirin and statins, 48.3% for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, 46.7% for beta blockers and 66.7% for cilostazol. The vascular surgeons of this centre are using antiplatelet agents and statins adequately for peripheral arterial disease. The prescription of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers and cilostazol is low. Exercise therapy and smoking cessation need more attention. PMID:25593383
Aiman, U; Haseen, M A; Beg, M H; Khan, R A; Siddiqui, F A; Alam, I
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is now on the increase. Evidence from studies carried out globally has established that CAM use is very common and varies among populations. This study investigated patterns of CAM use, perceived benefits, and associated harm with CAM use among adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three local government areas of Enugu urban, Southeast Nigeria. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from all consenting adult participants aged between 18 and 65 years. Of the 732 participants interviewed, 62.8% were females while 37.2% were males. Majority (84.7%) of the participants had used CAM at one time or another. The most commonly used CAM product was the biological products, followed by spiritual therapy. The major route of administration for CAM products was oral and about 40% of the participants combined CAM with conventional medicine. Majority (78.6%) of CAM users benefited from CAM products after using them while a few complained of adverse reactions. As CAM is gaining widespread acceptance and use, there is need for clinical trial on the benefits and adverse effects associated with the use of CAM to facilitate proof of efficacy and safety of the products. PMID:24803945
Okoronkwo, Ijeoma; Onyia-pat, Jane-lovena; Okpala, Pat; Agbo, Mary-Ann; Ndu, Afam
Background In many countries midwives act as the main providers of care for women throughout pregnancy, labour and birth. In our large public teaching hospital in Australia we restructured the way midwifery care is offered and introduced caseload midwifery for one third of women booked at the hospital. We then compared the costs and birth outcomes associated with caseload midwifery compared to the two existing models of care, standard hospital care and private obstetric care. Methods We undertook a cross sectional study examining the risk profile, birth outcomes and cost of care for women booked into one of the three available models of care in a tertiary teaching hospital in Australia between July 1st 2009 December 31st 2010. To control for differences in population or case mix we described the outcomes for a cohort of low risk first time mothers known as the 'standard primipara'. Results Amongst the 1,379 women defined as 'standard primipara' there were significant differences in birth outcome. These first time ‘low risk’ mothers who received caseload care were more likely to have a spontaneous onset of labour and an unassisted vaginal birth 58.5% in MGP compared to 48.2% for Standard hospital care and 30.8% with Private obstetric care (p < 0.001). They were also significantly less likely to have an elective caesarean section 1.6% with MGP versus 5.3% with Standard care and 17.2% with private obstetric care (p < 0.001). From the public hospital perspective, over one financial year the average cost of care for the standard primipara in MGP was $3903.78 per woman. This was $1375.45 less per woman than those receiving Private obstetric care and $1590.91 less than Standard hospital care per woman (p < 0.001). Similar differences in cost were found in favour of MGP for all women in the study who received caseload care. Conclusions Cost reduction appears to be achieved through reorganising the way care is delivered in the public hospital system with the introduction of Midwifery Group Practice or caseload care. The study also highlights the unexplained clinical variation that exists between the three models of care in Australia. PMID:24456576
Background Little information is known about factors that influence perioperative and anesthesia-related cardiac arrest (CA) in older patients. This study evaluated the incidence, causes and outcome of intraoperative and anesthesia-related CA in older patients in a Brazilian teaching hospital between 1996 and 2010. Methods During the study, older patients received 18,367 anesthetics. Data collected included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, anesthesia type, medical specialty team and outcome. All CAs were categorized by cause into one of four groups: patient's disease/condition-related, surgery-related, totally anesthesia-related or partially anesthesia-related. Results All intraoperative CAs and deaths rates are shown per 10,000 anesthetics. There were 100 CAs (54.44; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 44.68–64.20) and 68 deaths (37.02; 95% CI: 27.56–46.48). The majority of CAs were patient's disease-/condition-related (43.5; 95% CI: 13.44–73.68). There were six anesthesia-related CAs (3.26; 95% CI: 0.65–5.87) - 1 totally and 5 partially anesthesia-related, and three deaths, all partially anesthesia-related (1.63; 95% CI: 0.0–3.47). ASA I-II physical status patients presented no anesthesia-related CA. Anesthesia-related CA, absent in the last five years of the study, was due to medication-/airway-related causes. ASA physical status was the most important predictor of CA (odds ratio: 14.52; 95% CI: 4.48–47.08; P<0.001) followed by emergency surgery (odds ratio: 8.07; 95% CI: 5.14–12.68; P<0.001). Conclusions The study identified high incidence of intraoperative CAs with high mortality in older patients. The large majority of CAs were caused by factors not anesthesia-related. Anesthesia-related CA and mortality rates were 3.26 and 1.63 per 10,000 anesthetics, with no anesthesia-related CA in the last five years of the study. Major predictors of intraoperative CAs were poorer ASA physical status and emergency surgery. All anesthesia-related CAs were medication-related or airway-related, which is important for prevention strategies. PMID:25117481
Nunes, Juscimar C.; Braz, Jose R. C.; Oliveira, Thais S.; de Carvalho, Lidia R.; Castiglia, Yara M. M.; Braz, Leandro G.
of the global hospitality industry. Academic Offerings HOSPITALITY AND FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT MINOR HOSPITALITY AND FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT MINOR Students pursuing programs in other areas of study may choose a minor Service Operations 4 OR NSD 225 Nutrition in Health 3 12 credits needed: HPM 300 Selected Topics: Advanced
Essays and research reports on the relationship between teaching second languages and teaching culture include: "Teaching Culture as an Integrated Part of Language Teaching: An Introduction" (Chantal Crozet, Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Primary Socialization and Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: Wending Our Way through Semi-Charted…
Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.
This article explores pedagogical approaches to teaching students how to practice hospitality toward the other. Using case examples from the college classroom, the authors discuss the roots of Christian hospitality and educational theory on transformative learning to explore how students experience engaging with others after they have…
Burwell, Rebecca; Huyser, Mackenzi
Purpose To describe the methods preferred for contraception, evaluate preferences and adherence to modern contraceptive methods, and determine the factors associated with contraceptive choices among tertiary students in South East Nigeria. Methods A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of sexual habits, knowledge of contraceptive methods, and patterns of contraceptive choices among a pooled sample of unmarried students from the three largest tertiary educational institutions in Enugu city, Nigeria was done. Statistical analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics at the 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 313 unmarried students were studied (194 males; 119 females). Their mean age was 22.5±5.1 years. Over 98% of males and 85% of females made their contraceptive choices based on information from peers. Preferences for contraceptive methods among female students were 49.2% for traditional methods of contraception, 28% for modern methods, 10% for nonpharmacological agents, and 8% for off-label drugs. Adherence to modern contraceptives among female students was 35%. Among male students, the preference for the male condom was 45.2% and the adherence to condom use was 21.7%. Multivariate analysis showed that receiving information from health personnel/media/workshops (odds ratio 9.54, 95% confidence interval 3.5–26.3), health science-related course of study (odds ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.3–9.6), and previous sexual exposure prior to university admission (odds ratio 3.48, 95% confidence interval 1.5–8.0) all increased the likelihood of adherence to modern contraceptive methods. Conclusion An overwhelming reliance on peers for contraceptive information in the context of poor knowledge of modern methods of contraception among young people could have contributed to the low preferences and adherence to modern contraceptive methods among students in tertiary educational institutions. Programs to reduce risky sexual behavior among these students may need to focus on increasing the content and adequacy of contraceptive information held by people through regular health worker-led, on-campus workshops. PMID:25114515
Iyoke, CA; Ezugwu, FO; Lawani, OL; Ugwu, GO; Ajah, LO; Mba, SG
Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals. PMID:24341115
This special issue contains teaching strategies and suggestions for health-related activities at all educational levels. A few of the topics addressed by the 21 articles are heart disease, testicular cancer, hospital stress, family life, and sexual responsibility. (MT)
Health Education (Washington D.C.), 1986
Background Knowledge and understanding of health service usage are necessary for health resource allocation, planning and monitoring the achievement of universal coverage (UHC). There is limited information on patterns of utilization among adult users of primary health care (PHC) services. Lack of understanding of current and past utilization patterns of health services often hinders the improvement of future Primary Health Care (PHC) delivery in the remote areas of developing countries. This paper presents new knowledge on the patterns of utilization of PHC services among adults in Enugu metropolis southeast Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 PHC facilities of Enugu North Local Government Area (LGA) from June to July 2012. A total of 360 consenting adult users aged 18 years and above were consecutively recruited as they attended the health facilities. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. A modified Likert scale questionnaire was used to analyze data on patterns of utilization. Utilization of PHC services was compared by gender, socio-economic status (SES) and level of education. Results Out of the 360 respondents, (46.9%) utilized PHC services regularly. The components of PHC mostly utilized by respondents were immunization with a mean score of 3.05, treatment of common ailments (2.99) and maternal and child health (2.64). The least poor SES group utilized PHC services the most while the very poor and poor SES groups used PHC services least. There were statistically significant relationships between utilization of PHC services and gender (p?=?0.0084), level of education (p?=?0.0366) and income (p?=?0.0001). Conclusions Most adult users in this study did not utilize the health facilities regularly and there were gender, educational and SES inequities in the use of PHC services. These inequities will negate the achievement of universal health coverage with PHC services and should be remedied using appropriate interventions. PMID:24655898
This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…
Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.
As associate director and then director of the Wabash Center for Teaching and Learning in Theology and Religion, Lucinda Huffaker has been a key factor in the Center's reputation for hospitality. The Center's work presupposes that reflection on teaching improves teaching and learning, and good reflection on one's teaching requires taking risks and…
Placher, William C.
Background. Number of implanted pacemakers is in continuous increase in Maribor General Hospital. The first four pacemakers in 1972 were followed by 50 pace- makers annually in the first 10 years. In 1988 the number first exceeded 100 implanted pacemakers and in the year 2004 achieved number 372. Altogether, till the end of the year 2004 there were 4232 pacemakers
Sugammadex was introduced to Royal Perth Hospital in early 2011 without access restriction. Two departmental audits (26-page online survey and 1-week in-theatre snapshot audit) were undertaken to investigate the change of beliefs and clinical practice related to the use of neuromuscular blocking agents at the Royal Perth Hospital since this introduction. Results were compared with data from 2011. We found that, in the 2.5 years since introduction of Sugammadex, more anesthetists (69.5 versus 38%) utilized neuromuscular monitoring, and aminosteroidal neuromuscular blocking agents were used in 94.3% of cases (versus 77% in 2011). Furthermore, 53% of anesthetists identified with a practice of “deeper and longer” intraoperative paralysis of patients. All 71 patients observed during the 5-day in-theatre audit were reversed with Sugammadex. Since the introduction of Sugammadex, 69% (n = 20) of respondents felt it provided “faster turnover,” less postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade (n = 23; 79%), and higher anesthetist satisfaction (n = 17; 59%). 45% (n = 13) of colleagues reported that they would feel professionally impaired without the unrestricted availability of Sugammadex, and 1 colleague would refuse to work in a hospital without this drug being freely available. In clinical practice Sugammadex was frequently (57%) mildly overdosed, with 200?mg being the most commonly administered dose.
Ledowski, Thomas; Ong, Jing Shen; Flett, Tom
Objective: Gram-negative bacilli are the most important cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs). The production of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is a common mechanism of resistance among these bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of ESBL producing Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTI in a referral hospital as well as their susceptibility pattern to the most commonly used antibiotics. Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study performed over a 6-month period, urinary specimens obtained from hospitalized patients with documented culture-proved nosocomial UTI (age range of 1-87 years). Isolated aerobic Gram-negative bacteria underwent further microbiologic tests for detection of ESBL, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility test using Kirby-Bauer (disk diffusion) and E-test methods. Findings: During the study period, 213 urine samples were detected to have growth of Gram-negative organism. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism (61%). ESBL was detected in 102 isolates including 38.5% of E. coli, 39.5% of Klebsiella pneumonia, 88.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 100% of Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics on E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains. P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii strains showed high resistance to all tested antibiotics. Conclusion: Large numbers of Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTIs produce ESBL with most being multidrug-resistant. Therefore, routine ESBL detection testing and subsequent antibiogram with disk diffusion method could be useful to determine the best treatment options for UTI. PMID:24991629
Soltani, Rasool; Ehsanpoor, Mohsen; Khorvash, Farzin; Shokri, Dariush
Characterisation of acute respiratory infections at a United Kingdom paediatric teaching hospital: observational study assessing the impact of influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) on predominant viral pathogens
Background According to the World Health Organisation, influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) has moved into the post-pandemic phase, but there were still high numbers of infections occurring in the United Kingdom in 2010-11. It is therefore important to examine the burden of acute respiratory infections at a large children’s hospital to determine pathogen prevalence, occurrence of co-infection, prevalence of co-morbidities and diagnostic yield of sampling methods. Methods This was a retrospective study of respiratory virus aetiology in acute admissions to a paediatric teaching hospital in the North West of England between 1st April 2010 and 31st March 2011. Respiratory samples were analysed either with a rapid RSV test if the patient had symptoms suggestive of bronchiolitis, followed by multiplex PCR testing for ten respiratory viruses, or with multiplex PCR testing alone if the patient had suspected other ARI. Patient demographics and data regarding severity of illness, presence of co-morbidities and respiratory virus sampling method were retrieved from case notes. Results 645 patients were admitted during the study period. 82/645 (12.7%) patients were positive for 2009 pdmH1N1, of whom 24 (29.2%) required PICU admission, with 7.3% mortality rate. Viral co-infection occurred in 48/645 (7.4%) patients and was not associated with more severe disease. Co-morbidities were present more frequently in older children, but there was no significant difference in prevalence of co-morbidity between 2009 pdmH1N1 patients and those with other ARI. NPA samples had the highest diagnostic yield with 192/210 (91.4%) samples yielding an organism. Conclusions Influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) is an ongoing cause of occasionally severe disease affecting both healthy children and those with co-morbidities. Surveillance of viral pathogens provides valuable information on patterns of disease. PMID:24948099
The RSNA Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) software is an open-source program that allows users to identify, index, and retrieve images, teaching files, and other radiologic data that share a common underlying structure. The software is being continually improved as new challenges and different needs become apparent. Although version T30 is easily installed on a stand-alone computer, its implementation at healthcare enterprises with complex network architecture may be challenging with respect to security because users cannot log on by using a standard enterprise-wide authentication protocol. Instead, authentication takes place through the local MIRC database, creating security concerns and potential organizational problems. In this setting, the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) can be used to provide a single sign-on environment and increase authentication security. A commercial directory service using LDAP has been successfully integrated with MIRC in a large multifacility enterprise to provide single sign-on capability compatible with the institutional networking policies for password security. PMID:19605651
Prevedello, Luciano M; Andriole, Katherine P; Khorasani, Ryan Roobian Ramin
The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People’s Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1) improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2) complications associated with vascular access; 3) incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4) liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan–do–check–act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety. PMID:24669192
Zhu, Ling-ling; Li, Wei; Song, Ping; Zhou, Quan
Background: According to official data, 60–70% of clinical decisions about hospitalization and discharge are based on laboratory results. Aims: The objective of this study is to examine the frequency of errors before, during, and after analysis in a major medical laboratory. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted throughout 2012 (January–December 2012). Errors are recorded by the Quality Control Committee in a specially designed record. Results: A total of 303,866 samples, 2,430,928 tests were received for analysis. The total number of errors was 153,148 (6.3%) (116,392 for inpatients and 36,756 for outpatients). Analysis of the results revealed that about 65.09% of the errors occur across preanalytical phase, whereas 23.2% and 11.68% are related to analytical and postanalytical phase, respectively. Conclusion: More than half of the laboratory errors are related to preanalytical phase; therefore, proper training and knowledge of intervening factors are essential for reducing errors and optimizing the quality. PMID:24926448
Abdollahi, Alireza; Saffar, Hiva; Saffar, Hana
The objective of the study was to determine the disinfection efficacy of aerosolizing (cold fogging) Virkon S on survival of Stahpylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica on different surfaces. Two experiments were conducted in different locations. Salmonella enterica and S. aureus were grown in broth culture and then seeded into pre-marked areas in each location and allowed to dry. Virkon S (1%) was aerosolized into the rooms (approximately 1L of per 30 m(3)). Samples were collected pre- and post-fogging for quantitative cultures to evaluate the efficacy of aerial disinfection. The reduction of S. enterica or S. aureus counts ranged from 3.40 to 0.95 log(10) (Salmonella) or 4.92 to 0.02 log(10) (Staphylococcus). The greatest reduction was evident in samples collected from non-porous horizontal surfaces, which were not obstructed from the air flow. These results indicate that fogging with Virkon S could be beneficial in routine disinfection of pre-cleaned surfaces. The benefits of routine use of cold fogging with Virkon S in veterinary hospital settings would include its wide-range antimicrobial action and minimal working-men power required to disinfect large areas. Also, fogging would potentially minimize microbial contamination in the hard to reach areas. PMID:15708826
Dunowska, Magdalena; Morley, Paul S; Hyatt, Doreene R
Backround: ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens are hereditary characters and are useful in population genetic studies, in resolving medico-legal issues and more importantly for the immunologic safety of blood during transfusion. Aims: This study is aimed to determine the distribution pattern of the ABO and Rh blood groups among blood donors in Kumaon region of Uttarakhand and compare it with other data from similar studies within the India and all over the world. Design: It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank of Shushila Tewari Hospital of Government Medical College, Haldwani from January 2012 to December 2013. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 12,701 blood donors. ABO and Rh typing was done using slide agglutination method with antisera ABO and Rh (Tulip diagnostics ltd). Doubtful cases were confirmed by tube agglutination method and reverse grouping using known pooled A and B cells. The age group and sex of donors, frequency of ABO and Rh blood groups were reported in simple percentages. Results: The predominant donors belonged to age group between 18-35years (84.28%). Male donors were more than female donors, ratio being 352:1. Replacement donors (99.71%) were much more than voluntary donors (0.91%). The most common blood group was B (32.07%) and least common being AB (10.53%). Blood group ‘O’ and ‘A’ had same frequency. The prevalence of Rhesus positive and negative distribution in the studied population was 94.49% and 5.51% respectively. Blood group frequency with respect to ABO and Rhesus positive was found to be shown by formula B> O>A >AB. The frequency for ABO and Rhesus negative was given by the formula B>A>O>AB. Conclusion: Knowledge of frequencies of the different blood groups is very important for blood banks and transfusion service policies that could contribute significantly to the National Health System. PMID:25653957
Upadhyay, Saloni; Chufal, Sanjay Singh; Hasan, Yuman; Tayal, Ishwer
This sandwich thesis presents the findings of a qualitative nested case study that explored the introduction of medical directives into clinical practice within a southern Ontario teaching hospital. The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the factors influencing the development and implementation of medical directives in the hospital. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample
Kimberley Ann Alvarado
Background Typhoid intestinal perforation is still prevalent in many developing countries. Despite the advances in the management, the outcome in these patients in resource limited countries is still very poor. This study was to review our experiences on the surgical management of typhoid intestinal perforation and to determine the prognostic factors for mortality in our local setting. Methods This was a combined retrospective and prospective study of patients who were operated for typhoid intestinal perforation at Bugando Medical Centre between August 2006 and September 2011. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer software version 15. Results A total of 104 patients were studied representing 8.7% of typhoid fever cases. Males were affected twice more than the females (2.6:1). Their ages ranged from 8 to 76 years with a median age of 18.5 years. The peak age incidence was in the 11-20 years age group. Fever and abdominal pain were the most common presenting symptoms and majority of the patients (80.8%) perforated between within 14 days of illness. Chest and abdominal radiographs revealed pneumoperitonium in 74.7% of cases. Ultrasound showed free peritoneal collection in 85.7% of cases. Nine (10.2%) patients were HIV positive with a median CD4+ count of 261 cells/?l. The perforation-surgery interval was more than 72 hours in 90(86.5%) patients. The majority of patients (84.6%) had single perforations and ileum was the most common part of the bowel affected occurring in 86.2% of cases. Simple closure of the perforations was the most commonly performed procedure accounting for 78.8% of cases. Postoperative complication rate was 39.4% and surgical site infection was the most frequent complication in 55.5% of cases. Mortality rate was 23.1% and it was statistically significantly associated with delayed presentation, inadequate antibiotic treatment prior to admission, shock on admission, HIV positivity, low CD4 count (< 200 cells/?l), high ASA classes (III-V), delayed operation, multiple perforations, severe peritoneal contamination and presence of postoperative complications (P < 0.001). The median overall length of hospital stay was 28 days. Conclusion Typhoid intestinal perforation is still endemic in our setting and carries high morbidity and mortality. This study has attempted to determine the factors that statistically influence mortality in typhoid perforation in our environment. Appropriate measures focusing at these factors are vital in order to deliver optimal care for these patients in this region. PMID:22401289
The Wabash Center for Teaching and Learning in Theology and Religion is a place of hospitality and its staff the epitome of the "good host." This essay explores the meaning of hospitality, including its problematic dimensions, drawing on a number of voices and texts: Jacques Derrida's "Of Hospitality"; Henri M. Nouwen's "Reaching Out: The Three…
Jones, Carolyn M.
HospitalityNet is an industry website that collects articles, news, job opportunities, and educational resources focused on tourism and related subjects. The subjects covered on this website for training and informational purposes varies widely, from financial information to tours of successful hotels and even ideas for advertising and other business implementations. This would be very helpful to a teacher who seeks media with which to teach in class, or for students seeking ideas for projects. This is especially ideal for students who are unsure of what career path to choose, as it provides school appraisals and videos of the requirements involved with hotel management, highlighting the more exciting aspects of the position. The resources here would also be very helpful in designing new businesses or developing Hospitality business models.
Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods--beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri--and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the various food samples. However, this did not differ significantly in the three methods used for the enumeration of coliforms, suggesting that any of the three methods could be validly used for such studies with confidence. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two major coliforms identified among 98 coliform isolates obtained from the various food samples, of which 78 (79.6%) were assumed to be of human origin on account of their ability to grow at 44 degrees C. The level of coliform contamination in the food samples from vendors and restaurants (geometric mean count 7.64-9.21; MPN > or = 50) were above the accepted 10(4) colony-forming unit/g or MPN < or = 10 limits. The results of the study, therefore, call for stringent supervision and implementation of food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors. PMID:22283029
Nkere, Chukwuemeka K; Ibe, Nnenne I; Iroegbu, Christian U
Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods—beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri—and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p<0.05) among the various food samples. However, this did not differ significantly in the three methods used for the enumeration of coliforms, suggesting that any of the three methods could be validly used for such studies with confidence. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two major coliforms identified among 98 coliform isolates obtained from the various food samples, of which 78 (79.6%) were assumed to be of human origin on account of their ability to grow at 44 °C. The level of coliform contamination in the food samples from vendors and restaurants (geometric mean count 7.64-9.21; MPN ?50) were above the accepted 104 colony-forming unit/g or MPN ?10 limits. The results of the study, therefore, call for stringent supervision and implementation of food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors. PMID:22283029
Ibe, Nnenne I.; Iroegbu, Christian U.
Subtitled "a professional development Website for teachers," Teaching Heritage is an impressive collection of information and resources for teaching Australian history and culture. There are eight main sections to the site: four offer teaching resources and four provide teaching units. The resource sections include an examination of different ways of defining heritage, an Australian heritage timeline, discussions of different approaches to teaching heritage through media, and outcomes-based approaches in teaching and assessing heritage coursework. The teaching units deal in depth with issues of citizenship, nationalism, Australian identities, and new cultural values. A Heritage Gallery features images of various culturally significant or representative places in Australia, such as New Italy, the Dundullimal Homestead, Australian Hall, Kelly's Bush, and many more. Obviously, teachers of Civics on the southern continent will find this site extremely useful, but the teaching units -- rich with texts and images -- also offer fascinating introductions for anyone interested in the issues of Australian nation-making.
Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols. PMID:24918827
Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa
This article is a case study of a strategic planning process used by one Edmonton teaching hospital to develop a five-year planning document or role statement. In contrast to hospital role statements that are typically composed in the organization by senior personnel, input was sought from other health care providers, affiliated organizations and community groups. The role statement has since been endorsed by the provincial government and is the primary reference document for future funding strategies. General conclusions and observations are offered regarding role statements and their development. PMID:10112304
services to clientele in northern Colorado. This position will service existing clients and develop new for 4th year veterinary students while providing excellent equine care and strong communication with clients. Responsibilities/Duties: Conduct equine ambulatory appointments with clients in the Northern
with clients and referring veterinarians and must have excellent communication skills. The ideal candidate and follow-up appointments. o Receive patients from and communicate directly with clients, taking an accurate that clients are seen in a timely fashion and keeps the service flowing. Perform, delegate, and supervise
Discusses briefly a practical interdisciplinary educational program which would offer the patient early and continued treatment. The program involves improved and uniform treatment requiring the training and coordination of all deliverers of health care in the community, with the major responsibility resting with professional personnel.…
Truscott, Lionel B.; Keller, Margaret
The authors of "Teaching Writing" draw on their years of teaching and their knowledge of theory and research to present major concepts in teaching L2 writing. These concepts encompass how cultural differences affect the writing class, planning instruction, text-based writing, writing strategies, modeling, and responding to student…
Tomas, Z.; Kostka, I.; Mott-Smith, J. A.
Background During the past decade, survival after in?hospital cardiac arrest has improved markedly. It remains unknown whether the improvement in survival has occurred uniformly at all hospitals or was driven by large improvements at only a few hospitals. Methods and Results We identified 93 342 adults with an in?hospital cardiac arrest at 231 hospitals in the Get With The Guidelines®?Resuscitation registry during 2000–2010. Using hierarchical regression models, we evaluated hospital?level trends in survival to discharge. Mean age was 66 years, 59% were men, and 21% were black. Between 2000 and 2010, there was a significant decrease in age, prevalence of heart failure and myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrests due to shockable rhythms (P<0.001 for all) and an increase in prevalence of sepsis, respiratory insufficiency, renal insufficiency, intensive care unit location, and mechanical ventilation before arrest (P<0.001 for all). After adjustment for temporal trends in baseline characteristics, hospital rates of in?hospital cardiac arrest survival improved by 7% per year (odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.08, P<0.001). Improvement in survival varied markedly and ranged from 3% in the bottom hospital quartile to 11% in the top hospital quartile. Compared with minor teaching hospitals (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.06), hospital rate of survival improvement was greater at major teaching (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.10) and nonteaching hospitals (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.09, P value for interaction=0.03). Conclusion Although in?hospital cardiac arrest survival has improved during the past decade, the magnitude of improvement varied across hospitals. Future studies are needed to identify hospital processes that have led to the largest improvement in survival. PMID:24922627
Girotra, Saket; Cram, Peter; Spertus, John A.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Li, Yan; Jones, Philip G.; Chan, Paul S.
OBJECTIVE--To determine the circumstances, incidence, and outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in British hospitals. DESIGN--Hospitals registered all cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts for 12 months or longer and followed survival to one year. SETTING--12 metropolitan, provincial, teaching, and non-teaching hospitals across Britain. SUBJECTS--3765 patients in whom a resuscitation attempt was performed, including 927 in whom the onset of arrest was outside the hospital.
H. Tunstall-Pedoe; L. Bailey; D. A. Chamberlain; A. K. Marsden; M. E. Ward; D. A. Zideman
The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in collaboration with the University Center for the Advancement of Teaching developed the Chemical Engineering Mentored Teaching Experience. The Mentored Teaching Experience is an elective for Ph.D. students interested in pursuing faculty careers. Participants are…
Heath, Daniel E.; Hoy, Mary; Rathman, James F.; Rohdieck, Stephanie
The Massachusetts General Hospital has organized a School of Psychiatry web site with a wealth of resources. The site is divided into three sections; Parents, Educators and Clinicians. The Educator section provides many useful resources from basic health information and disorder background to helping educators cope with teaching students with mental health issues in the classroom. This site will be a valuable resource for both educators and students in the field of Mental Health.
Forty medical residents from major teaching hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts, participated in small group teaching sessions about caregiver stress. A teaching tool was developed that included a teaching handout, interactive cases, standard instruments for assessing caregiver stress, peer-reviewed articles about caregiving, and a list of…
Famakinwa, Abisola; Fabiny, Anne
Introduction Malaria and hookworm infections are common in sub-Saharan Africa and they increase the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy with resultant poor pregnancy outcomes. This study was carried out to assess the impact of Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm infections on the frequency of anaemia among pregnant women in two rural communities in Enugu, South East Nigeria. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 226 women attending antenatal clinics at two rural Primary Health Centres (PHC) from April 2011 to July 2011(each PHC with 113 subjects). Socio-demographic data were collected through a structured questionnaire. Blood and stool samples were evaluated for haemoglobin estimation and malaria parasites, and stool samples examined for parasitic infection in all the women. Data was analyzed using STATA 10 software statistical analysis package. Student t-test was used for comparing mean values and chi square test for comparing categorical variables and level of significance set at p<0.05 and logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with malaria in pregnancy. Results The mean age of the women was 27years with range 18 - 38years and SD of 5years. Most of the women were housewives and over 50% in their second trimester. 53% of them had malaria parasites while 27% had hookworm infection. About 40% of the women were anaemic (haemoglobin < 0.001). Similar association was found between hookworm infection and anaemia (p <0.001). Though both malaria and hookworm infections greatly increase the odds for anaemia (AOR 18.06, CI 18.15 -39.99, P<0.001) and (AOR 5.28, CI 2.26-12.38, P<0.001) respectively, the odds for having anaemia in pregnancy was higher for malaria than hookworm infections. Conclusion Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm infections have significant impact on the high frequency of anaemia in pregnancy in our rural communities. There is need to strengthen the control program that has been in place with an integrated intervention to combat these parasitic infections in our rural communities, with mass distribution of antihelminthics as one of the included relevant methods, among others. PMID:23503560
Agu, Polycarp Uche; Ogboi, Johnbull Sonny; Akpoigbe, Kesiena; Okeke, Tochukwu; Ezugwu, Euzebus
Background Obstetricians in developing countries appear generally reluctant to conduct vaginal delivery in women with a previous Cesarean because of lack of adequate facilities for optimal fetomaternal monitoring. Objective To describe delivery outcomes among women with one previous Cesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a prospective observational study to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of attempted vaginal birth after Cesarean sections (VBAC) following one previous Cesarean section. Analysis was done with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for Windows using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Results Two thousand six hundred and ten women delivered in the center during the study period, of whom 395 had one previous Cesarean section. A total of 370 women with one previous Cesarean section had nonrecurrent indications, of whom 355 consenting pregnant women with one previous Cesarean section were studied. A majority of the women (320/355, 90.1%) preferred to have vaginal delivery despite the one previous Cesarean section. However, only approximately 54% (190/355) were found suitable for trial of VBAC, out of whom 50% (95/190 had successful VBAC. Ninety-five women (50.0%) had failed attempt at VBAC and were delivered by emergency Cesarean section while 35 women (9.8%) had emergency Cesarean section for other obstetric indications (apart from failed VBAC). There was no case of uterine rupture or neonatal and maternal deaths recorded in any group. Apgar scores of less than 7 in the first minute were significantly more frequent amongst women who had vaginal delivery when compared to those who had elective repeat Cesarean section (P=0.03). Conclusion Most women who had one previous Cesarean delivery chose to undergo trial of VBAC, although only about half were considered suitable for VBAC. The maternal and fetal outcomes of trial of VBAC in selected women with one previous Cesarean delivery for non-recurrent indications were good. Obstetricians in this area should do more to allow VBAC in women with one previous Cesarean section for nonrecurrent indications. PMID:24648774
Ugwu, George O; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onah, Hyacinth E; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ezugwu, Frank O
Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…
Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald
The scientific and technological advances have been surprising, more in the two last decades, but they don't go united with to the ethical values of the medical professional practice, it has been totally escaped, specially when the biological subsistence, the maintenance of the life through apparatuses and the mechanisms that prolong the existence are who undergoes an alteration that until recently time was mortal shortly lapse. It is common listening that exist a crisis in the medical profession, but what really is it of human values, which as soon and taken into nowadays, actually professional account, which gives rise to a dehumanization towards the life, the health, the disease, the suffering and the death. The ideal of the doctor to give to service to the man in its life and health, as well to be conscious that the last biological process that must fulfill is the death, and when it appears, does not have considered as a actually professional failure. It has protect to the patient as the extreme cruelty therapeutic, that it has right a worthy death. It's taking to the birth of the hospital ethics committees, they have like function to analyze, to advise and to think about the ethical dilemmas that appear actually clinical or in the biomedical investigation. In 1982 in the UEA only 1% of its hospitals had a ethics committees; by 1988, it was 67% and the 100% in 2000. In Mexico the process of the formation by these committees begins, only in the Military Central Hospital, to count the ethics committee on 1983, also the Hospital no. 14 of the IMSS in Guadalajara, it works with regularity from 1995, with internal teaching of bioethic. The Secretariat of Health has asked the formation of the bioethical committees in each hospital, and order the it was be coordinated by the National Committee of Bioética. The integration of these committees is indispensable that their members have the knowledge necessary of bioética. The Mexican Society of Ortopedia, conscious of the responsibility that will have these Committees, presents/displays the following article, with the bioética commite and the support to this in other hospitable units. PMID:17937182
Gómez Velásquez, Luis; Gómez Espinosa, Luis Néstor
Multidimensional mathematics teaching, as discussed in this article encourages the use of context in mathematics teaching and learning to help teachers better recognize and build upon the cultural and social resources students bring to the classroom. Such efforts can impact students' performance and can help students make sense of decisions…
Berry, Robert Q., III; Ellis, Mark W.
Ideas to aid the classroom teacher include integration of emphasis on reading into health education; definitions pertinent to contemporary health education; teaching students to read food labels; identification of implications of scientific advances such as test tube reproduction; and a card game to teach food groups to middle school children.…
Middleton, Kathleen, Ed.
"Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…
Day, Richard R.
Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…
Crawford, William J.
. Getting Started Â Project Steering Group Forestry Commission Scotland, NHS Tayside, Dundee City Council and population health and well-being, as well as sustainability and biodiversity4 . Certain natural environments in Scotland. The purpose of the pilot was to demonstrate that by greening hospital grounds you can connect
This webpage features resources associated with the 2008 Educause Learning Initiative annual meeting session on Teaching Metacognition. It includes links to Marsha Lovett's powerpoint slides and a video of her presentation. The presentation describes effective methods of teaching students: (1) that their ability to learn is mutable, (2) how to plan and set goals for their learning, and (3) how to self-monitor their learning and make adjustments when necessary. The presentation also describes gains in student learning resulting from teaching these metacognitive skills in first-year science courses.
Lovett, Marsha; 2008 Educause Learning Initiative annual meeting presentation
The Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Colorado State University has an opening for a position as an Equine Field Service Veterinarian. Equine Field Service provides general medical care, preventive health, herd
care and strong communication with clients. Responsibilities/Duties: Conduct equine ambulatory will service existing clients and develop new clientele in the region. The successful candidate must be able appointments with clients in the Northern Colorado region Teach 4th year veterinary students about
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the medical impact of reactive pharmacy intervention. DESIGN--Analysis of all interventions during 28 days by all 35 pharmacists in hospitals in Nottingham. SETTING--All (six) hospitals in the Nottingham health authority (a teaching district), representing 2530 mainly acute beds, 781 mental illness beds, and 633 mainly health care of the elderly beds. PATIENTS--Hospital inpatients and outpatients. INTERVENTIONS--Recording of every
C J Hawkey; S Hodgson; A Norman; T K Daneshmend; S T Garner
We examined smoking prevalence, smoking behavior, and attitudes toward smoking in hospitals in 1,380 respondents among 1,719 registered nurses in a large urban teaching hospital. In this group, current prevalence of smoking in hospital nurses (22 per cent) was less than women in the general population (29 per cent). Smoking nurses were more likely than nonsmokers to hold attitudes which potentially reduce their efficacy in helping patients to stop smoking. PMID:3777295
Becker, D M; Myers, A H; Sacci, M; Weida, S; Swank, R; Levine, D M; Pearson, T A
This article surveys information resources, contemporary issues and trends, and selected instructional strategies useful in teaching undergraduate criminology. Instructional resources reviewed include textbooks, professional journals, and reference works. Twelve issues and trends are identified and three exemplary learning activities are…
Rogers, Joseph W.
A review of teaching materials, including filmstrips on writing skills, on Hawthorne, Melville, and Poe; and a review of paperback series on Black literature and contemporary literature--all geared primarily to grades seven through twelve. (JB)
Early, Margaret; Searles, John R.
the topic using other techniques. It is important that you know each member. Teaching Techniques Several teaching techniques are available: lecture, illus- trated talk, discussion, question and answer, demonstra- tion, work session or practical exercise... about the various shapes and distinguishing characteristics of insects, sketch them on a large sheet of paper or blackboard or show an actual specimen or picture. When the topic discussed is in the members? guide, you can have them follow along. 3...
Howard, Jeff W.
." The Adult Partial Hospitalization Program is a day treatment program specifically designed for the diagnosisAdult Partial Hospitalization Program JOHN DEMPSEY HOSPITAL CONTACT US For further information.uchc.edu. The Adult Partial Hospitalization Program is available Monday through Friday from 9 a.m. to 2:05 p.m. OUR
Oliver, Douglas L.
Objectives: To describe total and yearly demographic trends relative to aging, dysphagia referral rates and oral feeding status in hospitalized patients from 2000 through 2007. Methods: We evaluated a prospective, consecutive, referred sample of 4,038 hospitalized patients in an urban, tertiary, acute care teaching hospital. Dysphagia referral rates are described according to year, age (decade), sex, admitting diagnostic category, results
Steven B. Leder; Debra M. Suiter
The previous decade witnessed significant advancements in the scholarship of teaching at the levels of both theory building and program development. Notwithstanding these achievements, there remains considerable ambiguity regarding the meaning of the concept. This ambiguity has implications for faculty evaluation. Excellence in teaching, expertise in teaching, and the scholarship of teaching are analyzed according to the nature and sources
Given the pervasiveness and strategic importance of indirectness as a verbal phenomenon, this article presents exercises for language teachers to use to teach pragmatic indirectness. The exercises illustrate some reasons people prefer indirectness to directness: for rapport, defense, power, and selling. (Contains six references.) (LB)
Chew, Phyllis Ghim Lian
It has been 41 years since the late Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson launched the first nationwide grassroots demonstration on behalf of the environment, known as Earth Day. The event was a national "teach-in" about environmental causes, and it is widely considered the spark that ignited the modern environmental education movement. Within months,…
Waters, John K.
Outlines theoretical and practical dimensions of the use of bibliometrics (i.e., the scientific study of recorded discourse) to enhance library school curricula. A proposal for a course at the master's level and future prospects for teaching bibliometrics are included. Twenty-six references and a course syllabus are appended. (EJS)
Schrader, Alvin M.
Presents a variety of journalism classroom techniques, including an editing scavenger hunt, a discovery method for compiling news sources, intense instruction in news technology, criteria for evaluating ad copy, a course combining print and broadcast journalism, use of the Teletext, and teaching ad forms for the new media. (HTH)
Journalism Educator, 1985
Information about nuclear weapons and their effects must be taught without imparting hopelessness and despair. Suggestions for teaching about the arms race from an historical perspective and about alternative security systems--international law, conventional weapons, nonviolent resistance--are given. (PP)
Barnet, Richard J.
If history teachers' aim is to teach students how to think, why not ask: What forms of thought do historians use, and what specific techniques will inculcate these forms? In this article, the author proposes a fundamental shift, from courses with a focus on the mastery of data to courses with a priority on learning the historian's craft. The…
An approach to teaching Nathalie Sarrault's "Tropismes" in second-, third-, and fourth-year French class is outlined. The technique begins with analysis of elements of the tropism, establishing patterns, and requiring students to write a companion tropism to one of the author's. (MSE)
O'Neill, Kevin C.
Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were sorted and weighed, and potential waste reductions from recycling and substituting reusable items were calculated. Business paper, trash liners, diapers, custom surgical packs, paper gowns, plastic suction bottles, and egg-crate pads were among the 20 top items and were analyzed individually. Data from sorted trash documented potential waste reductions through recycling and substitution of 78, 41, and 18 tonnes per year (1 tonne = 1,000 kg = 1.1 tons) from administration, the operating room, and adult wards, respectively (total hospital waste was 939 tonnes per year). We offer specific measures to substantially reduce nonhazardous hospital waste through substitution, minimization, and recycling of select disposable products. Images PMID:1595242
Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J. B.
Objectives Reducing the number of preventable hospitalizations represents a possible source of healthcare savings. However, the current literature lacks a description of the extent of potentially preventable pediatric hospitalizations. The study objectives are to (1) identify the charges and (2) demographic characteristics associated with potentially preventable pediatric hospitalizations. Methods Secondary analysis of the 2006 Kids’ Inpatient Database (weighted N=7,558,812). ICD-9-CM codes for 16 previously validated pediatric ambulatory care-sensitive (ACS) conditions identified potentially preventable hospitalizations; seven additional conditions reflected updated care guidelines. Outcome variables included number of admissions, hospitalization days, and hospital charges. Demographic and diagnostic variables associated with an ACS condition were compared with regression analyses using appropriate person-level weights. Results Pediatric ACS hospitalizations totaled $4.05B in charges and 1,087,570 hospitalization days in 2006. Two respiratory conditions—asthma and bacterial pneumonia—comprised 48.4% of ACS hospital charges and 46.7% of ACS hospitalization days. In multivariate analysis, variables associated with an ACS condition included: male gender (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.07–1.13); race/ethnicity of black (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.16–1.27) or Hispanic (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06–1.18); and emergency department (ED) as admission source (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.27–1.48). Conclusions Respiratory conditions comprised the largest proportion of potentially preventable pediatric hospitalizations, totaling as much as $1.96B in hospital charges. Children hospitalized with an ACS condition tend to be male, non-white, and admitted through the ED. Future research to prevent pediatric hospitalizations should examine targeted interventions in the primary care setting, specifically around respiratory conditions and minority populations. PMID:22922047
Lu, Sam; Kuo, Dennis Z.
The tagline of Teaching Channel is "Great Teaching. Inspiring Classrooms." Educators from kindergarten to college will find hundreds of resources here, including fact sheets, lesson plans, videos, and blogs to help them in the classroom. First-time visitors will need to fill out a short free registration to get started. After this, users can click on left-hand side of the page to browse through Topics that include planning, class culture, behavior, engagement, and assessment. The materials are also arranged by subject and grade level. The Featured Videos area is a delight as well, as it contains dozens of offerings, such as "Carbon Cycling: Create Your Own Biology Lab" and "Reading Like a Historian." Finally, the high-quality blog posts are thoughtful and erudite, including offerings like "Setting Goals for 2012: Where Do You Start?" and "10 Common Core 'Ah-Ha' Moments."
Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…
Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid
Hand hygiene is the mainstay of nosocomial infection prevention. This study was a baseline survey to assess hand hygiene compliance of healthcare workers by direct observation in three major hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. The use of different hand hygiene products was also evaluated. In 3078 potential opportunities hand hygiene products were available on 2653 occasions (86.2%). Overall compliance was 6.4% (teaching hospital: 7.4%; public hospital: 6.2%; private hospital: 1.4%). Nurses (8.4%) had the highest rates of compliance. Poor hand hygiene compliance in Isfahan hospitals necessitates urgent interventions to improve both hospital infrastructure and staff knowledge. PMID:23910401
Ataei, B; Zahraei, S M; Pezeshki, Z; Babak, A; Nokhodian, Z; Mobasherizadeh, S; Hoseini, S G
The traditional view of hospital competition has posited that hospitals compete primarily along 'quality' dimensions, in the form of fancy equipment to attract admitting physicians and pleasant surroundings to entice patients. Price competition among hospitals is thought to be non-existent. This paper estimates the effects of various hospital market characteristics on hospital prices and expenses in an attempt to determine the form of hospital competition. The results suggest that both price and quality competition are greater in markets that are less concentrated, although the net effect of the two on prices is insignificant. It appears, therefore, that, despite important distortions, hospital markets are not immune to standard competitive forces. PMID:10291477
Vulnerable populations, who have difficulty accessing the health care system, primarily receive their medical care from hospitals. Policy makers have struggled to ensure the survival of "safety-net hospitals," hospitals that provide a disproportionate share of care to these patient populations. The objective of this article is to develop measures to guide analysis and policy for urban safety-net hospitals. The authors developed three safety-net measures: the socioeconomic status of hospital service area, Medicaid intensity, and uncompensated care burden and its market share. Cluster analysis was used to identify break points that distinguish a safety-net hospital from a non-safety-net hospital. The measures developed were stable and independent, but a data-driven binary assignment of hospitals to a "safety-net" category was not supported. These analyses call into question the empirical basis for distinguishing a specific group of hospitals as safety-net hospitals. PMID:18640951
Zwanziger, Jack; Khan, Nasreen
The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), which has been conducted annually since 1965, collects data from a sample of approximately 270,000 inpatient records acquired from a national sample of about 500 hospitals. Only hospitals with an average length of stay of fewer than 30 days for all patients, general hospitals, or children's general hospitals are included in the survey. Information collected includes diagnoses, surgical and nonsurgical procedures, prescription and over-the-counter drugs, immunizations, allergy shots, anesthetics, and dietary supplements.
The marketing challenge for rehabilitation centers lies in teaching patients and referring physicians about what rehab is. Siskin Hospital for Physical Rehabilitation has just started a Web site that aims to meet the challenge. PMID:10167486
Community hospitals face increasing organizational and environmental complexities that challenge effective leadership. Hospitals are embracing leadership development programs in efforts to ensure leadership talent. While prior literature has described the intent and availability of these programs, the characteristics and performance of hospitals having such programs and their associated market characteristics have not been fully addressed. This article identifies significant differences in organizational, operational, performance, and market factors that are associated with hospitals offering a leadership development program, compared with those hospitals lacking such a program. The authors used American Hospital Association Survey data for 2008, the Area Resource File, and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid data to identify hospitals with and without leadership development programs and analyzed the differences for a number of organizational, operational, performance, and market variables. Findings indicate that hospitals having leadership development programs were large-bed-size facilities, had not-for-profit ownership, were system affiliated, were located in metropolitan statistical areas, and were teaching affiliated facilities. These hospitals also generated higher patient discharges, had higher occupancy, and had a longer average length of stay, compared with hospitals without such programs. In addition, these hospitals had higher net patient revenue per adjusted discharge and higher total profit margins relative to the comparison group. PMID:23629041
Thompson, Jon M; Kim, Tae Hyun
This guide is designed to be used by teachers as an aid for teaching principles of fossils and past life to elementary school students. The activities and labs provided include topics such as fossilization, sedimentation, trace fossils, the importance of fossils, ancient environments, changes in environments, paleontology as a science, biodiversity, food webs, ecosystems, and human influences. The lessons provide pre- and post-questions, procedures, vocabulary, materials, and field trip ideas. This curriculum guide for paleontology was developed by Fossil Butte National Monument as part of its growing environmental education program.
This research guide provides suggestions for specialists and teachers looking to improve fraction instruction in their classrooms or schools. The guide starts with ideas for introducing fraction concepts in kindergarten and early elementary school and continues with activities and teaching strategies designed to help older students understand fraction magnitudes and computational procedures involving fractions. It then examines ways of helping students use fractions to solve rate, ratio, and proportion problems. Each recommendation includes a brief summary of supporting research and descriptions of classroom activities that can be used to implement the recommendation.
SUMMARY Objectives Although high-volume hospitals have been associated with improved outcomes for radical prostatectomy (RP), the association of residency and/or fellowship teaching institutions and this volume-outcome relationship remains poorly described. We examine the effect of teaching status and hospital volume (HV) on perioperative RP outcomes. Methods and Materials Within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), we focused on RPs performed between 2003 and 2007. We tested the rates of prolonged length of stay (pLOS) beyond the median of 3 days, in-hospital mortality, as well as intraoperative and postoperative complications, stratified according to teaching status. Multivariable logistic regression analyses further adjusted for confounding factors. Results Overall, 47,100 eligible RPs were identified. Of these, 19,193 cases were performed at non-teaching institutions, 24,006 at residency teaching institutions and 3901 at fellowship teaching institutions. Relative to patients treated at non-teaching institutions, patients treated at fellowship teaching institutions were healthier and more likely to hold private insurance. In multivariable analyses, patients treated at residency (OR=0.92, p=0.015) and fellowship (OR=0.82, p=0.011) teaching institutions were less likely to experience a postoperative complication than patients treated at non-teaching institutions. Patients treated at residency (OR=0.73, p<0.001) and fellowship (OR=0.91, p=0.045) teaching institutions were less likely to experience a pLOS. Conclusions More favorable postoperative complication profile and shorter length of stay should be expected at residency and fellowship teaching institutions following RP. Moreover, postoperative complication rates were lower at fellowship teaching than at residency teaching institutions, despite adjustment for potential confounders. PMID:23453659
Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sun, Maxine; Kim, Simon P.; Sammon, Jesse; Kowalczyk, Keith J.; Friedman, Ariella A.; Sukumar, Shyam; Ravi, Praful; Muhletaler, Fred; Agarwal, Piyush K.; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Hu, Jim C.; Menon, Mani; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.
This article provides a brief review of generally accepted ideas about creativity, followed by examples of music teachers teaching creatively and teaching their students to be more creative. Implications for teacher education and policy recommendations for music education are discussed.
Brinkman, David J.
This paper contributes to a Christian hermeneutic of special education by suggesting the biblical concept of hospitality as a necessary characteristic of classroom and school environments in which students with disabilities and other marginalized students can be effectively incorporated into the body of the classroom. Christian hospitality, seen…
Anderson, David W.
Parker Palmer's (1983) often-quoted definition of teaching--"To teach is to create a space in which obedience to truth is practiced"--can be applied productively to work in faculty development. Exploring this notion is enhanced by the theological literature in hospitality, which can be viewed through Amy Oden's (2001) discussion of four movements…
Larson, Marion H.
In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority. PMID:23424818
Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke
C. Roland Christensen's 13 sessions on "Teaching and the Case Method" are discussed. This collection of cases and readings on teaching with the case method in graduate professional programs and in the liberal arts is a statement of the rationale, methods, and recurring problems of the case method. It has much to say, also, about teaching and…
Elmore, Richard F.
Post-exposure rate of tuberculosis infection among health care workers measured with tuberculin skin test conversion after unprotected exposure to patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: 6-year experience in an Italian teaching hospital
Background This study assesses the risk of LTBI at our Hospital among HCWs who have been exposed to TB patients with a delayed diagnosis and respiratory protection measures were not implemented. Methods All HCWs exposed to a patient with cultural confirmed pulmonary TB and respiratory protection measures were not implemented were included. Data on TST results performed in the past (defined as T0) were recorded. TST was performed twice: first, immediately after exposure to an index patient (T1) and three months later (T2). The period of time between T0 and T1 was used to calculate he annual rate of tuberculosis infection (ARTI), while le period of time between T1 and T2 was used to calculate the post exposure annual rate of tuberculosis infection (PEARTI). Results Fourteen index patients were admitted; sputum smear was positive in 7 (58.3%), 4 (28.6%) were non-Italian born patients. 388 HCWs were exposed to index patients, a median of 27 (12-39) HCW per each index patient. One hundred eighty (46.4%) HCWs received BCG in the past. One hundred twenty two HCWs (31%) were TST positive at a previous routine screening and not evaluated in this subset. Among the remaining 255 HCWs with negative TST test in the past, TST at T1 was positive in 11 (4.3%). ARTI was 1.6 (95% CI 0.9-2.9) per 100 PY. TST at T2 was positive in 9 (3.7%) HCWs, that were TST negative at T1. PEARTI was 26 (95% CI 13.6-50) per 100 PY. At univariate analysis, older age was associated with post exposure latent tuberculosis infection (HR 1.12; 95% CI 1.03-1.22, p=0.01). Conclusions PEARTI was considerably higher among HCWs exposed to index patients than ARTI. These data underscore the overwhelming importance of performing a rapid diagnosis, as well as implementing adequate respiratory protection measures when TB is suspected. PMID:24919953
Twentieth-century psychologists have been pessimistic about teaching reasoning, prevailing opinion suggesting that people may possess only domain-specific rules, rather than abstract rules; this would mean that training a rule in one domain would not produce generalization to other domains. Alternatively, it was thought that people might possess abstract rules (such as logical ones) but that these are induced developmentally through self-discovery methods and cannot be trained. Research suggests a much more optimistic view: even brief formal training in inferential rules may enhance their use for reasoning about everyday life events. Previous theorists may have been mistaken about trainability, in part because they misidentified the kind of rules that people use naturally. PMID:3672116
Nisbett, R E; Fong, G T; Lehman, D R; Cheng, P W
This collection of essays, which evolved from the Professional Lecture Series on Teaching and Learning and Instructional Workshops on Teaching and Learning held at the University of Colorado (Boulder), addresses a variety of styles and situations for teaching and learning. The following essays are included: (1) "Teaching as Architecture:…
Shea, Mary Ann, Ed.
This book, celebrating teachers and teaching, contains the artistry and wisdom of 42 teachers who have remained passionate about classroom teaching for many years. Chapter 1, "Beginnings," includes "The First Day of School" (Richard A. Lawson), "Sustaining the Wonder of Teaching" and "Harvest Home," (Bettye T. Spinner), "The Call to Teach,"…
Levine, Sarah L., Ed.; McVay, Scott, Ed.
This volume contains 20 papers providing practical, ready-to-use, research-based information to foster effective college teaching. Four sections group the papers under the following topics: (1) key influences on teaching quality; (2) programs to improve teaching; (3) strategies for teaching improvement; and (4) approaches to nontraditional…
Seldin, Peter; And Others
Study objective: To examine the effects of moderate hypothermia (33° C), induced by surface cooling in the ED and maintained for 12 hours in the ICU, on patients with anoxic brain injury after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods: We conducted the study in a teaching hospital in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Participants were 22 adults who remained unconscious after return of spontaneous
Stephen A Bernard; Bruce Mac C Jones; Malcolm K Horne
A prospective health impact assessment (HIA) was conducted to identify potential health impacts arising from the planned redevelopment of Liver- pool Hospital, a major teaching hospital in New South Wales, Australia. A multidisciplinary team of health professionals oversaw the HIA and a core project team led by population health practitioners conducted the HIA using a structured, stepwise process. Methods used
Michelle Maxwell; Patrick Harris; Sharon Peters; Mark Thornell; Leah D'Souza
Federal and state governments want to decrease payments for medical education, and other payers are trying to restrict payouts to direct and necessary patient care services. Teaching hospitals are increasing tuition and fees, reducing education budgets and, in many instances, closing education programs. Hospital administrators are examining the…
Newborn nursery nursing staff members were surveyed to determine their attitudes and teaching practices regarding breast- and bottle-feeding. Concurrently, mothers using this nursery responded to a structured interview concerning their infant-feeding practices at 14 to 21 days postpartum and possible hospital influences on these practices. The nursing staff strongly advocated breast-feeding and did not favor specific bottle-feeding practices or products. Nursing staff counseling was generally interpreted by mothers as supporting breast-feeding, but this did not deter a large proportion of mothers who stated an initial preference for breast-feeding from introducing formula as a supplementary or exclusive form of infant feeding during the short study period. Almost all mothers doing any amount of bottle-feeding at the time of their interview were using the same formula brand and a ready-to-feed preparation used during their hospital stay. Other influences on mother's infant-feeding patterns are discussed. It is concluded that the hospital staff and routines exerted a stronger influence on mothers' infant-feeding practices by nonverbal teaching (the hospital "modeling" of infant formula products) than by verbal teaching (counseling supporting breast-feeding). Future studies might explore new ways of supporting mothers who desire to breast-feed by designing innovative hospital routines to model breast-feeding rather than feeding by infant formula. PMID:4069855
Reiff, M I; Essock-Vitale, S M
Antibiotic surveillance initiatives are limited in resource-constrained settings. In the present study, a quantitative comparison of antibiotic use rates for suspected infections in 2 hospitals in India was performed using the “focus of infection” approach to identify targets for quality improvement in antibiotic prescription patterns in hospitalized patients.MethodsThis observational study was carried out in one teaching and one nonteaching hospital.
Ashish Pathak; Kalpana Mahadik; Surya Prakesh Dhaneria; Ashish Sharma; Bo Eriksson; Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
Introduction The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. It is associated with impaired job performance. Methods This descriptive study examined 171 physicians for the presence of burnout and its related risk factors. The evaluation of burnout was through Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The participant was considered to meet the study criteria for burnout if he or she got a “high“ score on at least 2 of the three dimensions of MBI. Results In the current study, the prevalence of burnout in hospital physicians (53.9%) was significantly higher than family physicians (41.94%) with (p=0.001). Participants who work in the internal medicine department scored the highest prevalence (69.64%) followed by Surgeons (56.50%) and Emergency doctors (39.39%). On the other hand, Pediatricians got the lowest prevalence (18.75%). Working in the teaching hospital and being married are strong predictors for occurrence of burnout. Conclusion There is a significant difference of burnout between hospital physicians and family physicians among the study subjects. Working in the teaching hospital and being married are strong predictors for occurrence of burnout. PMID:25422682
Kotb, Amany Ali; Mohamed, Khalid Abd-Elmoez; Kamel, Mohammed Hbany; Ismail, Mosleh Abdul Rahman; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed Ahmed
Introduction There has been concern of increased emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) during the months when new residents are orienting to their roles. This so-called “July Effect” has long been thought to increase LOS, and potentially contribute to hospital overcrowding and increased waiting time for patients. The objective of this study is to determine if the average ED LOS at the beginning of the hospital academic year differs for teaching hospitals with residents in the ED, when compared to other months of the year, and as compared to non-teaching hospitals without residents. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of a nationally representative sample of 283,621 ED visits from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), from 2001 to 2008. We stratified the sample by proportion of visits seen by a resident, and compared July to the rest of the year, July to June, and July and August to the remainder of the year. We compared LOS for teaching hospitals to non-teaching hospitals. We used bivariate statistics, and multivariable regression modeling to adjust for covariates. Results Our findings show that at teaching hospitals with residents, there is no significant difference in mean LOS for the month of July (275 minutes) versus the rest of the year (259 min), July and August versus the rest of the year, or July versus June. Non-teaching hospital control samples yielded similar results with no significant difference in LOS for the same time periods. There was a significant difference found in mean LOS at teaching hospitals (260 minutes) as compared to non-teaching hospitals (185 minutes) throughout the year (p<0.0001). Conclusion Teaching hospitals with residents in the ED have slower throughput of patients, no matter what time of year. Thus, the “July Effect” does not appear to a factor in ED LOS. This has implications as overcrowding and patient boarding become more of a concern in our increasingly busy EDs. These results question the need for additional staffing early in the academic year. Teaching hospitals may already institute more robust staffing during this time, preventing any significant increase in LOS. Multiple factors contribute to long stays in the ED. While patients seen by residents stay longer in the ED, there is little variability throughout the academic year. PMID:24578770
Riguzzi, Christine; Hern, H. Gene; Vahidnia, Farnaz; Herring, Andrew; Alter, Harrison
TeachEngineering is a resource for K-12 educators wanting to introduce students to engineering, even if they have no background knowledge of engineering. The project is a collaboration between four engineering colleges and is funded by the National Science Foundation. The resources provided here are intended to help teachers "enhance learning, excite students and stimulate interest in science and math through the use of hands-on engineering." The lessons connect real-world experiences with curricular content already taught in K-12 classrooms and link the content to educational standards. The collection of materials are included in a database that can be searched by keyword, grade level, educational standard or other criteria, or browsed by subject area, curricular units, lessons or activities. Educators are encouraged to submit reviews and create their own area on the website to easily access personal favorites. Only a few sample lessons were posted at the time of this report, but the database is expected to be available sometime in January 2005. Other sections of the website provide information and links to learn more about the field of engineering.
Nosocomial, or hospital-acquired, infections are considered the most common complications affecting hospitalized patients. According to results obtained from studies conducted in the Children Medical Center Hospital, a teaching children's hospital and a tertiary care referral unit in Tehran, Iran, improvements in infection control practices in our hospital seem necessary. The aim of this study was to identify risk management and review potential hospital hazards that may pose a threat to the health as well as safety and welfare of patients in an Iranian referral hospital. Barriers to compliance and poor design of facilities, impractical guidelines and policies, lack of a framework for risk management, failure to apply behavioral-change theory, and insufficient obligation and enforcement by infection control personnel highlight the need of management systems in infection control in our hospital. In addition, surveillance and early reporting of infections, evaluation of risk-based interventions, and production of evidence-based guidelines in our country are recommended. PMID:25379367
Mamishi, Setareh; Pourakbari, Babak; Teymuri, Mostafa; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza; Mahmoudi, Shima
The clinical performance of junior hospital staff concerning the management of patients with acute abdominal pain may be enhanced by placing greater emphasis on teaching clinical decision-making skills during the preintern year. Final year medical students took part in a teaching session in which groups of six to eight rotated through six stations…
Hill, David; And Others
A successful intervention to establish independent eating behaviors in a developmentally handicapped, autistic-like three-year-old involved teaching appropriate behavior in a hospital setting (where he was being treated for dehydration and malnutrition) and then teaching his mother to implement the strategies at home. Skills were maintained at…
MacArthur, Judy; And Others
The report investigates production and the cost effects of teaching within hospital departments. Models of primary production show that the cost effects of teaching are determined by the salaries paid to students (including residents, interns, medical students, and technical trainees) and physicians, by the levels of student inputs used in…
Massell, Adele P.; Hosek, James R.
This TEACH Chemical Summary is a compilation of information derived primarily from U.S. EPA and ATSDR resources, and the TEACH Database. The TEACH Database contains summaries of research studies pertaining to developmental exposure and/or health effects for each chemical or chemical group. TEACH does not perform any evaluation of the validity or quality of these research studies. Research studies that are specific for adults are not included in the TEACH Database, and typically are not described in the TEACH Chemical Summary. I.
U. S. Epa; Exposure Assessment
Babies born with Pompe disease require life-long treatment with enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT). Despite the human origin of the therapy, recombinant human lysosomal acid ? glucosidase (GAA, rhGAA), ERT unfortunately leads to the development of high titers of anti-rhGAA antibody, decreased effectiveness of ERT, and a fatal outcome for a significant number of children who have Pompe disease. The severity of disease, anti-drug antibody (ADA) development, and the consequences thereof are directly related to the degree of the enzyme deficiency. Babies born with a complete deficiency GAA are said to have cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM)–negative Pompe disease and are highly likely to develop GAA ADA. Less frequently, GAA ADA develop in CRIM-positive individuals. Currently, GAA-ADA sero-positive babies are treated with a combination of immunosuppressive drugs to induce immunological tolerance to ERT, but the long-term effect of these regimens is unknown. Alternative approaches that might redirect the immune response toward antigen-specific tolerance without immunosuppressive agents are needed. Methods leading to the induction of antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs), using peptides such as Tregitopes (T regulatory cell epitopes) are under consideration for the future treatment of CRIM-negative Pompe disease. Tregitopes are natural T cell epitopes derived from immunoglobulin G (IgG) that cause the expansion and activation of regulatory T cells (Treg). Teaching the immune system to tolerate GAA by co-delivering GAA with Tregitope peptides might dramatically improve the lives of CRIM-negative babies and could be applied to other enzyme replacement therapies to which ADA have been induced. PMID:23095864
Cousens, Leslie P.; Mingozzi, Federico; van der Marel, Sander; Su, Yan; Garman, Richard; Ferreira, Valerie; Martin, William; Scott, David W.; De Groot, Anne S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate university faculty's perceptions of teaching support and their teaching efficacy in Taiwan. In addition, the relationship of perceived teaching support to faculty' teaching efficacy was examined. Questionnaires measuring three dimensions of teaching support and six dimensions of teaching efficacy were…
Chang, Te-Sheng; McKeachie, Wilbert; Lin, Yi-Guang
Background This study was designed to assess the motivations of senior medical clinicians to teach medical students. This understanding could improve the recruitment and retention of important clinical teachers. Methods The study group was 101 senior medical clinicians registered on a teaching list for a medical school teaching hospital (The Canberra Hospital, ACT, Australia). Their motivations to teach medical students were assessed applying Q methodology. Results Of the 75 participants, 18 (24%) were female and 57 (76%) were male. The age distribution was as follows: 30–40 years = 16 participants (21.3%), 41–55 years = 46 participants (61.3%) and >55 years = 13 participants (17.3%). Most participants (n = 48, 64%) were staff specialists and 27 (36%) were visiting medical officers. Half of the participants were internists (n = 39, 52%), 12 (16%) were surgeons, and 24 (32%) were other sub-specialists. Of the 26 senior clinicians that did not participate, two were women; 15 were visiting medical officers and 11 were staff specialists; 16 were internists, 9 were surgeons and there was one other sub-specialist. The majority of these non-participating clinicians fell in the 41–55 year age group. The participating clinicians were moderately homogenous in their responses. Factor analysis produced 4 factors: one summarising positive motivations for teaching and three capturing impediments for teaching. The main factors influencing motivation to teach medical students were intrinsic issues such as altruism, intellectual satisfaction, personal skills and truth seeking. The reasons for not teaching included no strong involvement in course design, a heavy clinical load or feeling it was a waste of time. Conclusion This study provides some insights into factors that may be utilised in the design of teaching programs that meet teacher motivations and ultimately enhance the effectiveness of the medical teaching workforce. PMID:16022738
Dahlstrom, Jane; Dorai-Raj, Anna; McGill, Darryl; Owen, Cathy; Tymms, Kathleen; Watson, D Ashley R
This program from the University of Colorado is designed to honor and reward faculty who have excelled in teaching, scholarship, and research and to endorse teaching excellence throughout the university.
Colorado, University O.
The author discusses other writings on effective college teaching and then presents his list of necessary characteristics for the effective teacher, stressing the interpersonal dimension of the teaching-learning situation. (MF)
Caraway, James E.
This website features links to teaching tips and articles, organized by subject. Topics include assessment, the first day, syllabus and lesson plan preparation, teaching techniques, course design and many more.
Honolulu Community College
This article suggests: ways to teach algebraic properties; a way to prove the Pythagorean Theorem using transformational geometry; a method of packaging and carrying AC-powered calculators; and a method for teaching standard formulas. (MK)
Mathematics Teacher, 1979
Suggests using a court trial as an activity for teaching drama to English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students. Describes use of a court trial for teaching Macbeth to EFL students in Jordan. (Author/VWL)
The importance of the public hospital system to medical education is often absent from the debate about its value. Best known as a core provider of services to the underserved, the safety net hospital system also plays a critical role in the education of future physicians. Particular strengths include its ability to imbue physicians in training with core professional values, to reveal through the enormous range of clinical experience provided many of the social forces shaping health, and to foster interest in and commitment to advancing population health. Faculty teaching in the public hospital system has unusual opportunities to reveal to learners the broader meanings of their diverse and rich experiences. Now, as an alarming array of pressures bearing down on the safety net system threaten its stability, the potential negative impact on medical education, were it to shrink or be forced to change its essential mission, must be considered. As advocates of the safety net system marshal forces to rationalize its funding and support, its tremendous contribution to the training of physicians and other health care professionals must be clearly set forth to ensure that support for the public hospital system’s health is appropriately broad based. PMID:18575982
Malaspina, Dolores; Weitzman, Michael; Goldfrank, Lewis R.
Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)
As online learning opportunities increase in today's society, librarians need to consider additional ways to design online instruction effectively. Developing the strategies necessary to teach and learn online successfully requires an understanding of learning styles and how they may be best addressed in the online environment. As is the case in a face-to-face classroom, the use of a specific teaching
Barbara A. Burd; Lori E. Buchanan
This article presents an interview with Richard Hahlo, a Teaching Artist, trainer of Teaching Artists, actor, director and author who has worked around the globe in a variety of settings. In Germany, England, Japan, Poland, South Africa and the United States, he has brought his unique vision and skill to a wide range of students, teachers,…
Moore, Christopher; Hahlo, Richard
As much as Catholic social teaching is sometimes referred to as "our best kept secret" (Henriot, DeBerri, and Schultheris 1987), in recent years it has been gaining a renewed emphasis in Catholic higher education. This "renaissance" of Catholic social teaching integrates well with the self-evaluation of Catholic higher education over the past…
Burke, John Francis
Educator Bell Hooks acknowledged the fundamental truth that teaching, caring, and transformation are closely linked, that is, that true teaching must be accompanied by a deep level of care in order for learning to take place. No matter how young or old, no matter the subject matter, and no matter where teaching and learning take place--a…
The 14 articles included in this collection touch on several aspects of the teaching of history. The articles are: (1) "Observations on University Teaching and Research" (N. Graebner); (2) "Teaching History: A Changing Clientele and an Affirmation of Goals" (E. Burns); (3) "History for Citizens" (W. McNeill); (4) "Reflections on the History of…
Bausum, Henry S., Ed.
The UK Professional Standards Framework for teaching and supporting learning in higher education Standards Framework for Teaching and Supporting Learning in Higher Education. The idea of a framework for professional standards for teaching and supporting learning in higher education was proposed in the White Paper
Mumby, Peter J.
Animals cannot teach as humans do. Therefore, we lack the experimental support of animal studies that are so important to understand the evolution of our basic learning skills but are useless to explore the development of the teaching skills, unique to humans. And most important: children teach! We have at least two new challenges in our Mind,…
Battro, Antonio M.
Tomlinson and Germundson compare teaching well to playing jazz well. Excellent teaching involves a blend of techniques and theory; expressiveness; syncopation; call and response, and, frequently, improvisation. Weaving in analogies to jazz, the authors delineate four elements of such teaching: curriculum that helps students connect to big ideas,…
Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Germundson, Amy
In this article, the author shares his thoughts about who he is as a teacher and what his goals as a teacher turn out to be. The author describes his role as researcher, teacher, and educator. He begins with his take on mathematics teaching and learning, because the question of which mathematics educators teach and how they teach it is really…
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
Discusses the objectives of the science curriculum and the teacher's responsibility of passing through not only the required material, but also skills. Suggests that in order to improve teaching and learning skills, new strategies, such as teaching and learning through research must be utilized. Presents four examples of teaching and learning…
Hugerat, Muhamad; Zidani, Saleem; Kurtam, Naji
Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…
Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.
This illustrated guide provides basic knowledge that will enable parents to teach their children to swim, starting from the first visit to the pool up to the development of higher water skills. All the main swimming strokes are dealt with, and the appropriate teaching stages are described. The teaching of starts and turns for each stroke and other…
Hospital fire dangers are real, widespread, and ever present, the article demonstrates, spelling out the locations, conditions, and ignition potentials which exist in such a setting. Knowledge of codes and standards, good maintenance practices, and frequent drills in fire prevention and suppression are among the practices recommended for keeping a hospital fire from becoming a disaster, the author says. PMID:20873506
de Richemond, Albert L
This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.
This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present status The earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals. Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925
Krishnamurthy, K.; Venugopal, D.; Alimchandani, A.K.
Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…
Prynne, T. A.
This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.
The Pediatric Psychology Program at Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) consists of outpatient and inpatient hospital-based services that provide therapeutic support and intervention to children and families. The pediatric psychology postdoctoral fellows will participate in varied clinical activities with child and adolescent patients and their families.
Learning theories, which suggest that experienced faculty use collaborative teaching styles, are reflected in qualitative studies of learners in hospital settings. However, little research has used resident focus groups to explore characteristics of successful teachers in outpatient clinics. Therefore, focus group discussions with first through…
Kisiel, John B.; Bundrick, John B.; Beckman, Thomas J.
To explore the method of identifying nursing-related patient safety events, types, contributing factors and evaluate consequences of these events in hospitals of China, incident report program was established and implemented in 15 patient units in two teaching hospitals of China to get the relevant information. Among 2935 hospitalized patients, 141 nursing-related patient safety events were reported by nurses. Theses events were categorized into 15 types. Various factors contributed to the events and the consequence varied from no harm to patient death. Most of the events were preventable. It is concluded that incident reporting can provide more information about patient safety, and establishment of a program of voluntary incident reporting in hospitals of China is not only urgent but also feasible. PMID:19399419
Liu, Yilan; Zhao, Guanghong; Li, Fen; Huang, Xingzhi; Hu, Deying; Xu, Juan; Yao, Shanglong; Zhang, Liang
Private insurers pay widely varying prices for inpatient care across hospitals. Previous research indicates that certain hospitals use market clout to obtain higher payment rates, but there have been few in-depth examinations of the relationship between hospital characteristics and pricing power. This study used private insurance claims data to identify hospitals receiving inpatient prices significantly higher or lower than the median in their market. High-price hospitals, compared to other hospitals, tend to be larger; be major teaching hospitals; belong to systems with large market shares; and provide specialized services, such as heart transplants and Level I trauma care. High-price hospitals also receive significant revenues from nonpatient sources, such as state Medicaid disproportionate-share hospital funds, and they enjoy healthy total financial margins. Quality indicators for high-price hospitals were mixed: High-price hospitals fared much better than low-price hospitals did in U.S. News & World Report rankings, which are largely based on reputation, while generally scoring worse on objective measures of quality, such as postsurgical mortality rates. Thus, insurers may face resistance if they attempt to steer patients away from high-price hospitals because these facilities have good reputations and offer specialized services that may be unique in their markets. PMID:24476706
White, Chapin; Reschovsky, James D; Bond, Amelia M
Despite the obvious benefits of directed mechanisms that facilitate the efficient transfer of skills, there is little critical evidence for teaching in nonhuman animals. Using observational and experimental data, we show that wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) teach pups prey-handling skills by providing them with opportunities to interact with live prey. In response to changing pup begging calls, helpers alter their prey-provisioning methods as pups grow older, thus accelerating learning without the use of complex cognition. The lack of evidence for teaching in species other than humans may reflect problems in producing unequivocal support for the occurrence of teaching, rather than the absence of teaching. PMID:16840701
Thornton, Alex; McAuliffe, Katherine
Hysterectomy, the most common gynecological surgery, provides a definitive cure to various diseases like DUB (dysfunctional uterine bleeding), leiomyoma, adenomyosis, chronic pelvic pain, prolapse, and malignancy. However, with advent of effective medical and conservative treatment modalities for nononcological causes it is now posing question mark on justification of hysterectomy. Therefore, an audit is required to assess the correlation between preoperative diagnosis and histopathological examination of specimen for justification of the procedure. In this study over period of one year (April 2013 to March 2014) 373 hysterectomies specimens were received in the department of pathology for nononcological causes. The age of patients ranged from 22 to 85 years with mean 45 ± 9.2 years. All cases were divided into five categories on the basis of age and audit was done. In this study the most common finding was leiomyoma (43.7%) followed by adenomyosis (19.3%). Almost 50% of hysterectomies causes were justified as preoperative diagnosis matched with histopathology. Cohen kappa statistics were used to measure agreement between preoperative and postoperative histopathological diagnosis which was found to be fair with ? value being 0.36. This study highlights that regular audit of surgeries can help improve quality of health care services and provide safe conservative option to patients. PMID:25295217
Tiwana, Kanwardeep Kaur; Nibhoria, Sarita; Monga, Tanvi; Phutela, Richa
Physicians are likely to encounter a wide gamut of disorders related to drug and alcohol abuse and will need specialized knowledge and skills to treat the affected population effectively. The development and implementation of a program to meet these needs at the Medical College of Virginia is described. (MLW)
Lerner, William D.; And Others
This mixed method study examines the prevalence of restraint usage; perception of nurses and doctors about the practice and whether they were trained to apply physical restraints. The physical restraint prevalence tools were used to observe 172 adult patients and conduct 47 chart audits in the medical-surgical wards and a psychiatric unit in November 2011. Focus group discussions with nurses and doctors were conducted. Quantitative data were analyzed using the SPSS and focus group discussions thematically analyzed. The prevalence of physical restraints between the medical-surgical wards was 75%. Nurses and medical doctors were not formally trained to apply restraint, and had learnt from peer observation. They expressed sadness, guilt, and fear when restraints are used and identified that inadequate institutional support existed. Restraint usage was high, and nurses and doctors experienced moral dilemma when they perceived that lack of formal training and inadequate institutional support may contribute to patient injury. PMID:23814174
Barton-Gooden, Antoinette; Dawkins, Pauline E; Bennett, Joanna
Twenty-six patients (12 males and 14 females) between two days and 41 years old with temporomandibular joint ankylosis were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-three joints were involved; 19 unilateral and six bilateral. The aetiologies were trauma, 69.2%; infection, 15.4%; unknown, 11.5% and congenital, 3.9. The majority, 31 were intracapsular while the remaining two joints were extracapsular 51.6% were limited to the condyle, 32.2% extended to the coronoid process and the zygomatic, 9.7% extended to the sigmoid notch while the remaining 6.5% had maxillomandibular fusion. Tracheostomy (48%) was the most common mode of intubation. Gap arthroplasty was carried out in 20 joints while 11 joints had interposition arthroplasty. Postoperative complications were seven anterior open bite, three facial nerve weakness, three infections and two recurrences. PMID:21942122
Ajike, S O; Omisakin, O O
Background. Fournier's gangrene is uncommon but increasingly being seen over the last two decades probably due to increasing socioeconomic problems including an upsurge in HIV infection especially in the tropics. Patients and Methods. The study retrospectively reviewed all patients with Fournier's gangrene managed in UMTH between January 2007 and December 2012. Results. Thirty-eight males aged 2 weeks to 80 years (mean 37.82) were reviewed, with most aged 30–39 years (13 (34.21%)). Clinical features were scrotal pain and swelling, 36 (94.74%), fever, 19 (50.00%), and discharging scrotal wound, 19 (50.00%). The predisposing conditions were UTI secondary to obstructive uropathy in 11 (28.95%), perianal suppuration, and HIV, in 8 (21.05%) patients each. Wound biopsy culture revealed mixed organisms in 27 (71.05%). Twenty-six (68.42%) had blood transfusions. Thirty-seven (97.37%) patients had wound debridement. Twenty (52.63%) had flap rotation for skin cover. There were 6 (15.79%) mortalities, of which 4 (10.53%) were HIV positive, 1 (2.63%) was diabetic, and 1 (2.63%) was both diabetic and HIV positive. Conclusion. Fournier's gangrene is a fulminant synergistic necrotising fasciitis of the perineum and genitalia with poor prognosis especially when associated with HIV and diabetes, requiringprompt and aggressive management for good outcome. PMID:23997966
Aliyu, S.; Ibrahim, A. G.; Ali, N.; Waziri, A. M.
This award-winning site from the Humanities Computing Unit at Oxford University uses online postings of original manuscripts and other documents of World War I poets to teach critical reading skills. The site is organized around four online seminars: an introduction to World War I poetry, Isaac Rosenberg's "Break of Day in the Trenches," Manuscript studies, and An Introduction to Text Analysis. Among the primary documents available at this Website are all of Wilfred Owen's war poetry manuscripts; interviews with war veterans; photographs; letters; video clips; a complete run of The Hydra, the Journal of the Patients at the Craglockhart War Hospital; propaganda pamphlets; forces's newspapers; postcards; and more. An annotated directory of other World War I and poetry links is also posted.
The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, alumni, peer, and self-assessment. The task force identifies important considerations that colleges and schools must address when establishing teaching recognition programs including the purpose, criteria, number and mix of awards, frequency, type of award, and method of nominating and determining awardees. The report concludes with recommendations for the academy to consider when establishing and revising teaching award programs. PMID:21301598
Piascik, Peggy; Medina, Melissa; Pittenger, Amy; Rose, Renee; Creekmore, Freddy; Soltis, Robert; Bouldin, Alicia; Schwarz, Lindsay; Scott, Steven
The University of Nottingham, in the United Kingdom, has an innovative online program called Teaching at Nottingham that "offers both a window onto the University's teaching culture and a space for the critical evaluation of teaching practice". The tab "Teaching & Learning Themes" is definitely worth a visitor's time. The link "Student Perspectives On...Teaching, Learning and Assessment" are particularly interesting, as in each category has synopses of studies that were done with the aim of quantifying the students' perspectives in classes at Nottingham. Visitors can read about one such study in the Learning category titled "The good, the bad and the ugly: [pharmacy] students' experiences of group projects", which found that most students believed that group projects were good learning experiences for working as a team in their future careers, but preferred solo or two-person projects. The "Focus On..." link offers, among other categories, "Visual Learning", "Peer Teaching" and "Academic Tutoring" which focus on research about teaching.
Many species are known to acquire valuable life skills and information from others, but until recently it was widely believed that animals did not actively facilitate learning in others. Teaching was regarded as a uniquely human faculty. However, recent studies suggest that teaching might be more common in animals than previously thought. Teaching is present in bees, ants, babblers, meerkats and other carnivores but is absent in chimpanzees, a bizarre taxonomic distribution that makes sense if teaching is treated as a form of altruism. Drawing on both mechanistic and functional arguments, we integrate teaching with the broader field of animal social learning, and show how this aids understanding of how and why teaching evolved, and the diversity of teaching mechanisms. PMID:18657877
Hoppitt, William J E; Brown, Gillian R; Kendal, Rachel; Rendell, Luke; Thornton, Alex; Webster, Mike M; Laland, Kevin N
The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, alumni, peer, and self-assessment. The task force identifies important considerations that colleges and schools must address when establishing teaching recognition programs including the purpose, criteria, number and mix of awards, frequency, type of award, and method of nominating and determining awardees. The report concludes with recommendations for the academy to consider when establishing and revising teaching award programs. PMID:21301598
Hammer, Dana; Piascik, Peggy; Medina, Melissa; Pittenger, Amy; Rose, Renee; Creekmore, Freddy; Soltis, Robert; Bouldin, Alicia; Schwarz, Lindsay; Scott, Steven
Children's Hospital and Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System requires each individual user Hospital and Clinics, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital And Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System December 2010 Last revision August 23, 2012
Kay, Mark A.
Introduction This paper reports my experience as a teacher of clinical ultrasound (US) in an African hospital. While US in tropical countries has received some attention and a few papers – though possibly fewer than deserved by this issue-are available in the medical literature on this subject, very little has been done in terms of assessment of teaching. Materials and methods Given the increasing number of groups, NGOs and volunteers that go to Africa and other resource limited settings to do this, I thought that sharing my experience with those who have walked or are thinking of walking the same path could be mutually beneficial. Results The first section of the article presents the situation where I've been working in the past 13 years, the second section details our teaching programme. Discussion This report describes the rationale for the implementation of ultrasound training programmes in rural areas of Africa and lessons learnt with 13 years experience from the UK with recommendations for the way forward. PMID:23459240
Objective: To assess hospital waste management in nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on the staffs of nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow from September 2012 to March 2013. A total of eight hospitals were chosen as the study sample size. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of the nonteaching hospitals. A pre-structured and pre-tested interview questionnaire was used to collect necessary information regarding the hospitals and biomedical waste (BMW) management of the hospitals. The general information about the selected hospitals/employees of the hospitals was collected. Results: Mean hospital waste generated in the eight nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow was 0.56 kg/bed/day. About 50.5% of the hospitals did not have BMW department and colored dustbins. In 37.5% of the hospitals, there were no BMW records and segregation at source. Incinerator was used only by hospital A for treatment of BMW. Hospital G and hospital H had no facilities for BMW treatment. Conclusion: There is a need for appropriate training of staffs, strict implementation of rules, and continuous surveillance of the hospitals of Lucknow to improve the BMW management and handling practices. PMID:25657950
Manar, Manish Kumar; Sahu, Krishna Kumar; Singh, Shivendra Kumar
Hospital managers may find it difficult to admit their investments have been suboptimal, but such investments often lead to poor returns and less future cash. Inappropriate use of free cash flow produces large transaction costs of exit. The relative efficiency of investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals in the product market for hospital services is examined as the free cash flow theory is used to explore capital-market conditions of hospitals. Hypotheses concerning the current competitive conditions in the industry are set forth, and the implications of free cash flow for risk, capital-market efficiency, and the cost of capital to tax-exempt institution is compared to capital-market norms. PMID:1743965
Kauer, R T; Silvers, J B
... products that are not commonly stocked in hospital pharmacies. Examples include: Salagen ® , Evoxac®, and Restasis® Eye drops, ... prescription and OTC medications/products in their labeled pharmacy container or packaging. This is important in case ...
Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Emergency Department Visits in Kentucky, 2000 - 2012 #12; Kentucky Injury Preven on and Research Center Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitaliza ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Drug overdose deaths, 20002012
Created by the Cornell University Center for Hospitality Research and managed by Sage Publications, this e-journal provides Ã¢ÂÂapplied research theories about important industry trends and timely topics in lodging, restaurant, and tourism management.Ã¢ÂÂ Though most articles are only available through a paid subscription, each quarter editors select a featured article, all of which are available on this site after a brief, free registration. Article topics include wine selection, revenue management, customer satisfaction measurement, hotel pricing, and computer simulation in hospitality education. This is an excellent resource for soon-to-be hospitality managers and administrators as well as for educators to keep informed of current trends in hospitality education.
In December 2011 marked 80 years of the founding of the Ryazan garrison hospital, originally housed in two buildings: "Redut housed"--a monument of architecture of the XVIII century and the former almshouses room "for the maimed in the war", was built in 1884 now Ryazan garrison hospital (from 2010--Branch No 6 FSI "in 1586 the district military hospital in the Western Military District", the Defense Ministry of Russia)--a multi-field medical preventive institution on the basis of which soldiers, military retirees, family members and military retirees from Ryazan, Moscow, Tambov regions are treated. Every year more than 7 thousand patients get treatment here. During the counterterrorism operations in Chechnya over 800 wounded were brought to the hospital from the battle area. PMID:22558855
Klimov, A S; Gromov, M F
Hospital leaders should consider four factors in determining whether to fast track a hospital construction project: Expectations of project length, quality, and cost. Whether decisions can be made quickly as issues arise. Their own time commitment to the project, as well as that of architects, engineers, construction managers, and others. The extent to which they are willing to share with the design and construction teams how and why decisions are being made. PMID:23513759
This column is designed to provide a nursing perspective on new hospital quality measurements. Future articles will cover the various quality indicators hospitals face and the role of the nurse in meeting mandated benchmarks. Reader responses to this column are welcome and will help to make it more useful to nurses in meeting the challenges posed by health care reform and changing Medicare reimbursement programs. PMID:25545534
Brooks, Jo Ann
Objective To determine the patient and hospital characteristics associated with severe manifestations of ‘poor glycemic control’—a ‘no-pay’ hospital-acquired condition defined by the US Medicare program based on hospital claims related to severe complications of diabetes. Design A nested case–control study. Setting California acute care hospitals from 2005 to 2006. Participants All cases (n= 261) with manifestations of poor glycemic control not present on admission admitted to California acute care hospitals from 2005 to 2006 and 261 controls were matched (1:1) using administrative data for age, sex, major diagnostic category and severity of illness. Main Outcome Measure(s) The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for experiencing poor glycemic control. Results Deaths (16 vs. 9%, P= 0.01) and total costs ($26 125 vs. $18 233, P= 0.026) were significantly higher among poor glycemic control cases. Risk-adjusted conditional logistic regression revealed that each additional chronic condition increased the odds of poor glycemic control by 12% (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04–1.22). The interaction of registered nurse staffing and hospital teaching status suggested that in non-teaching hospitals, each additional nursing hour per adjusted patient day significantly reduced the odds of poor glycemic control by 16% (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73–0.96). Nurse staffing was not significant in teaching hospitals (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.88–1.11). Conclusions Severe poor glycemic control complications are relatively rare but meaningful events with disproportionately high costs and mortality. Increasing nurse staffing may be an effective strategy in reducing poor glycemic control complications particularly in non-teaching hospitals. PMID:21084321
Mchugh, Matthew D.; Shang, Jingjing; Sloane, Douglas M.; Aiken, Linda H.
Background Over 12,000 hospital admissions in the UK result from substance misuse, therefore issues surrounding this need to be addressed early on in a doctor’s training to facilitate their interaction with this client group. Currently, undergraduate medical education includes teaching substance misuse issues, yet how this is formally integrated into the curriculum remains unclear. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 17 key members of staff responsible for the whole or part of the undergraduate medical curriculum were conducted to identify the methods used to teach substance misuse. Using a previously devised toolkit, 19 curriculum co-ordinators then mapped the actual teaching sessions that addressed substance misuse learning objectives. Results Substance misuse teaching was delivered primarily in psychiatry modules but learning objectives were also found in other areas such as primary care placements and problem-based learning. On average, 53 teaching sessions per medical school focused on bio-psycho-social models of addiction whereas only 23 sessions per medical school focused on professionalism, fitness to practice and students’ own health in relation to substance misuse. Many sessions addressed specific learning objectives relating to the clinical features of substance dependence whereas few focused on iatrogenic addiction. Conclusions Substance misuse teaching is now inter-disciplinary and the frequent focus on clinical, psychological and social effects of substance misuse emphasises the bio-psycho-social approach underlying clinical practice. Some areas however are not frequently taught in the formal curriculum and these need to be addressed in future changes to medical education. PMID:24533849
More and more schools are offering online courses in the sciences, and the geophysical sciences are no exception. Carleton College is deservedly well known for their "Cutting Edge" website of geoscience teaching resources, and here they present some helpful materials for those wishing to teach geoscience online. The resources were developed as part of their 2010 workshop titled "Teaching Geoscience Online". Visitors can scroll through the list of resources, which are divided into sections that include "pedagogy" and "online activities and courses". The materials include titles like "Student Motivation and Engagement in Online Courses", "Using Data to Teach Geology in College-Level Online Classes", and "Course Platforms for Teaching Online". A number of these resources could be used by anyone teaching online courses, not just those in the field of geoscience.
We study the consequences of hospital competition for Medicare beneficiaries' heart attack care from 1985 to 1994. We examine how relatively exogenous determinants of hospital choice such as travel distances influence the competitiveness of hospital markets, and how hospital competition interacts with the influence of managed-care organizations to affect the key determinants of social welfare-expenditures on treatment and patient health
Daniel P. Kessler; Mark B. McClellan
Provides a chart comparing state and national objectives. Assesses student understanding of photosynthesis and explains the process of teaching students producer-consumer relationships. (Contains 14 references.) (YDS)
Smith, Deborah C.; Wesley, Ann
??This study described the mathematical understanding, exhibited by graduate teaching assistants in a Department of Mathematics (GTA-Ms), that is useful for teaching trigonometry. The following… (more)
Kim, Hee Jung
Examined teaching assistants' perceptions of various instructional issues and explored whether their perceptions were affected by nationality, gender, and academic discipline. Found significant predictors of teaching assistants' instructional roles, teaching style, instructional methods, communication strategies, and potential problems. (EV)
Luo, Jiali; Grady, Marilyn L.; Bellows, Laurie H.
Reports on the replication of a study of teaching styles from the 1970s. Explores possible relationships between class size and the quality of teaching in 60 classrooms. Suggests some reasons for teachers choosing teaching strategies that are ineffective. (DDR)
Rowe, Michael; Hacker, Roger
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has been the stalwart of research funding at universities and academic teaching hospitals. However, since the start of the last decade NIH funding has contracted in real terms. ...
Truesdell, John A., Jr. (John Alan)
At present there arise many problems in higher vocational English teaching. In the face of the vigorous development of vocational education, English language teaching must carry out corresponding reforms. Aiming at the present problems in higher vocational English teaching, English teachers must carry out teaching reforms in the field of teaching philosophy, teaching models, teaching methods and teaching tools, etc.
Li Liu; Wenbai Chen
Given the shortage of nurse educators, we sought to better understand teaching excellence because it is crucial for developing the next generation of nurses. A grounded theory approach was used. The sample included 17 respondents, thought to be excellent teachers, from universities across the United States. Consenting respondents were asked, "What do you do to bring nursing to life with your students?" Using line-by-line coding and the constant comparative method, five major themes emerged: (a) engagement, (b) relevance, (c) student centeredness, (d) facilitation of learning, and (e) dynamic process of becoming an excellent nursing educator. We found that the core category, engagement, included the faculty being (a) current and knowledgeable, (b) being clear in communication of objectives/outcomes, (c) being student centered, (d) being able to draw all students into active questioning and learning so that the process of discovery is enjoyable, and (e) using multiple strategies in teaching the content. The process of becoming an excellent teacher involved "change from 'instiller' to 'facilitator' and laid the foundation for continued development of my teaching self." Those beginning to teach or seeking to improve their teaching may find the results enlightening. PMID:19751930
Johnson-Farmer, Barbara; Frenn, Marilyn
O Método Mãe Canguru em hospitais públicos do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise do processo de implantação Kangaroo Mother Care in public hospitals in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: an analysis of the implementation process
This study analyzed the implementation of the Kangaroo Mother method in 28 different São Paulo State public hospitals. Teaching hospi- tals, Baby-Friendly Hospitals, hospitals with human milk banks, and those with more than 12 trained health professionals showed higher implementation scores. Because of staff resis- tance to family participation in neonatal care, the Kangaroo Mother method is basically ap- plied
Ana Júlia Colameo; Marina Ferreira Rea
In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1991677
Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A
Discusses the necessity of keeping the business education curriculum current. Covers teaching shorthand, teaching typewriting on typewriters, administrative support courses, and business communication. (JOW)
Ward, Edna C.; Kilpatrick, Retha H.
Hospitalized children have multiple risk factors for fragility fractures, related to disease pathophysiology, treatments, nutritional status and immobilization. Recognition and treatment of these risk factors are important to prevent morbidity associated with fractures and to promote current and future bone health. Many knowledge gaps remain regarding the ideal nutrition, physical activity, and medication regimens needed to optimize bone health and reduce the risk of fractures over the life course. This article reviews the pathogenesis, risk factors, treatment and prevention strategies for fractures in hospitalized infants and children. PMID:22959479
Huh, Susanna Y; Gordon, Catherine M
This newsletter is designed to serve as a clearinghouse for the exchange of ideas and information on new strategies of teaching and instructional resources about population in colleges and universities. The first article discusses some of the contemporary problems faced in teaching population studies to undergraduates. The second article outlines…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Center for International Programs and Cooperative Services.
Presents a rationale for utilizing trivia to teach conversation. Shows how trivia-based materials fit into communicative language teaching approaches and provides examples of trivia-based activities and explains how to use them in the classroom. (Author/VWL)
Crawford, Michael J.
This theme issue of the "Virginia English Bulletin" focuses on "Literature and Its Teaching." The 15 major articles are: "Response to Literature" (Robert C. Small and Ruth Fisher); "The Power of a Good Book" (Gayle Sterrett); "Some Plain Truths about Teaching English" (Coalition of English Associations); "Introducing High School Students to…
McLeod, Alan M., Ed.
Discusses teaching students literary appreciation and how to teach the appreciation of other media. Suggests comparing a book and video version of the same story and includes a literary review unit guide for middle school or junior high school students, as well as a sample lesson on comparing stories in two mediums. (LRW)
Pappas, Marjorie L.
A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)
Forte, David F.
Most people think of a teacher leader as someone who takes on additional roles outside the classroom. But in this article, Michelle Collay argues that all effective teaching requires leadership. Using examples from classroom teachers with whom she has worked, Collay describes four dimensions of powerful classroom-based leadership: (1) teaching…
Teaching in Northern Uganda is challenging considering the numerous obstacles and constraints that teachers must face on a daily basis, let alone the fact that they live in a war zone, constantly at risk of cross-fire. In this article, the author shares his experience working in Northern Uganda. He relates the life and teaching experiences of…
The Image Processing for Teaching project provides a powerful medium to excite students about science and mathematics, especially children from minority groups and others whose needs have not been met by traditional teaching. Using professional-quality software on microcomputers, students explore a variety of scientific data sets, including…
Greenberg, R.; And Others
It's obvious that technology is reshaping students' reading and writing practices, with or without educators' intervention. The challenge is to teach students to be truly literate in two languages--those of the pre- and post-digital worlds. So how can teachers teach to two literacies at once? They must approach this task with three mind-sets.…
In physical education, playful teaching practices are essential to relationship building and creating "connections" for successful group dynamics. Perhaps most importantly, playful teachers develop positive attitudes in their students and help students understand that learning can be fun and joyful. Playful teaching practices also greatly enhance…
Provides a brief rationale for teaching about torts and describes 5 activities designed to help teach them. The activities help students (1) define what torts are and identify different types of acts which may result in a tort, (2) differentiate crimes from intentional torts and unintentional torts, and (3) explore defenses commonly used in tort…
Bjorklun, Eugene C.
This web collection will help undergraduate faculty and students use a new approach to teaching and learning oceanography. Here we consider the use of models, datasets and visualizations in teaching. By integrating these emerging techniques into the classroom, students will be able to benefit from new developments in this exciting field.
Teachers can use "built teaching aids" or elements of the school building itself to expand teaching and enhance learning. Possibilities include bulletin boards, display cases, murals painted by local artists, permanent information panels, interior windows to classrooms, flags, and bas-reliefs on building exteriors. Playground pavement can become a…
The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…
DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas
This article articulates a theory of "presence" in teaching and seeks to establish a theoretical foundation for presence that can serve as a platform for further research. It seeks to address the current educational climate that sees teaching as a check list of behaviors, dispositions, measures, and standards, and to articulate the essential but…
Rodgers, Carol R.; Raider-Roth, Miriam B.
Kenneth E. Brashier, Mark S. Lewine, Alexei V. Filippenko, and Donna C. Boyd were the four professors who won the Professors of the Year for 2006. They were chosen from nearly 300 candidates nominated by their institutions for their "outstanding commitment to teaching undergraduate students and their influence on teaching." The annual competition…
As all educators realize at some point in their careers, the best way to learn something is to teach it. This is also an excellent way to demonstrate a sound understanding of a topic. So, when the authors' physics students spent time teaching at local ele
Moffat, Ann G.; Schmidt, Ryan
Reviews methods of teaching preventive medicine in pediatrics and highlights innovative programs. Methods of teaching prevention in pediatrics include patient interactions, self-directed learning, case-based learning, small-group learning, standardized patients, computer-assisted instruction, the Internet, student-centered learning, and lectures.…
Cheng, Tina L.; Greenberg, Larrie; Loeser, Helen; Keller, David
This journal issue gathers together several articles on teaching with technology, with special focus on teaching of gifted students in California. "Computers and Creativity: Tools, Tasks, and Possibilities" (Bernard J. Dodge) discusses how teachers can establish an environment that will nurture creativity through use of computers. "Technology…
Hoctor, Marge, Ed.
Described is a workshop for graduate students and faculty members that focused on improvement of teaching methods. Topics included were: common weaknesses of inexperienced lecturers, diagnosing teaching weaknesses, elements of a good lecture, creating an atmosphere of participation, Piaget's developmental psychology, behavioral objectives,…