Ezeala-Adikaibe, BA; Aneke, E; Orjioke, C; Ezeala-Adikaibe, NP; Mbadiwe, N; Chime, P; Okafor, U
Background: Rapid urbanization and changing lifestyle have modified the profile and pattern of various medical disorders in many Nigerian communities. Surveys of medical admissions into various Nigerian health institutions show an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in our communities. Aim: To determine the profile and pattern of medical cases admitted and their outcome in a new tertiary medical institution in South East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A review of medical admissions into the Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital (ESUTTH), Enugu, Nigeria over 5 years between January 1, 2006 and December 30, 2010 was undertaken. Morbidity and mortality data were obtained from ward registers and subsequently medical record registers. Classifications of medical disorders were grouped using ICD 10 coding system. Results: A total of 3,865 case records were analyzed. Males were 2,312/3,865 (59.6%) and females 1,660/3,865 (40.2%). The age range was 14-105 years with a mean age of 54.3 (18.1) years. The 4 commonest causes of medical ward admissions were neurological disorders-850/3,865 (22%), endocrine disorders-735/3,865 (19.1%), cardiovascular disorders-718/3,865 (18.5%) and infectious diseases-604/3,865 (15.6%). The diseases encountered most were diabetes mellitus-735/3,865 (19.1%), hypertension/congestive cardiac failure-703/3,865 (18.2%), strokes-614/3,865 (15.9%) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS-503 (13.1%). The overall mortality was 766/3,865 (19.8%) men-467/2,312 (20.2%); women-299/2,312 (19.3%). Strokes accounted for most of the deaths-171/766 (22.3%) followed by HIV/AIDS 127/766 (16.6%). Hypertension/cardiac failure and diabetes each accounted for 116/766 (15.1%) of all deaths. Case fatality rates for strokes and HIV/AIDS were the highest (171/614 (27.9%) and 127/503 (25.2%) respectively). Mortality rate was highest in the above 70 years age group. Conclusion: Non-communicable disorders are the commonest causes of medical ward admission in this tertiary institution. Efforts aimed at primary prevention will help to reduce the burden of these disorders in the community. PMID:24971220
Emodi, IJ; Ikefuna, AN; Ujunwa, FA; Chinawa, JM
Background: Non-communicable diseases are increasing worldwide due to rapidly changing lifestyles and socio-economic status. It is contributing significantly to the global burden of diseases. Objective: To determine the pattern of non-communicable diseases in children admitted into the Paediatrics ward in a tertiary health centre in Enugu. Materials and Methods: A review of admissions into the Paediatrics ward of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, between January 1999 and December 2008 was done using the registry of admission and discharge. Results: The age range of patients admitted during the period was 2 months to 18 years (mean 5.27 ± 5.42 years). There were 1173 (59.6%) males and 796 (40.4%) females. Disorders of the haematological system accounted for 514 (23.3%) of the non-communicable diseases among the admissions, malignancies accounted for 424 (19.2%) among the admissions, whereas the renal, central nervous, and cardiovascular systems were involved in 282 (12.8%), 274 (12.4%), and 241 (10.9%) patients, respectively. There were 274 (12.4%) deaths and 1667 (75.5%) discharges while 38 (1.7%) were discharged against medical advice. Data on 221(10.2%) of the patients were reported missing. Malignancies contributed to 75 (27.3%) of the deaths, haematological disorders accounted for 44 (16%) whereas renal disorders and nutritional disorders contributed to 43 (15.7%) and 41 (15%) of the deaths, respectively. Conclusion: Non-communicable diseases affect children in our environment and contribute to morbidity and mortality in children. Strategies to prevent these diseases should be encouraged in order to avert the challenges of double burden of the diseases in children. PMID:25538370
Emmanuel R Ezeome; Agnes N Anarado
BACKGROUND: The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) by cancer patients is very common and varies between populations. The referenced English literature has no local study from Africa on this subject. This study was conducted to define the prevalence, pattern of use, and factors influencing the use of CAM by cancer patients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital
Mezue, Wilfred C; Ohaegbulam, Samuel C; Ndubuisi, Chika C; Chikani, Mark C; Achebe, David S
Introduction: The epidemiology and pathology of meningioma in Nigeria are still evolving and little has been published about this tumor in Nigeria, especially in the southeast region. The aim of this paper is to compare the characteristics of intracranial meningioma managed in our center with the pattern reported in the literature worldwide. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data of patients managed for intracranial meningioma between January 2002 and December 2010 at a Private neurosurgery Hospital in Enugu, Nigeria. We excluded patients whose histology results were inconclusive. Results: Meningiomas constituted 23.8% of all intracranial tumors seen in the period. The male to female ratio was 1:1.1. The peak age range for males and females were in the fifth and sixth decades, respectively. The most common location is the Olfactory groove in 26.5% of patients followed by convexity in 23.5%. Presentation varied with anatomical location of tumor. Patients with olfactory groove meningioma (OGM) mostly presented late with personality changes and evidence of raised ICP. Tuberculum sellar and sphenoid region tumors presented earlier with visual impairment with or without hormonal abnormalities. Seizures occurred in 30.9% of all patients and in 45% of those with convexity meningiomas. Only 57.4% of the patients were managed surgically and there was no gender difference in this group. WHO grade1 tumors were the most common histological types occurring in 84.6%. One patient had atypical meningioma and two had anaplastic tumors. Conclusion: The pattern of meningioma in our area may have geographical differences in location and histology. Childhood meningioma was rare. PMID:23188985
A program of integrated teaching by consultants and general practitioners is described. The teaching took place in the hospitals used for the purpose by the Medical Faculty of the University of Birmingham. (Author)
Berman, Richard A.; And Others
The Medicare prospective payment system does not adequately account for severity of illness. Whether teaching hospitals treat a case mix of patients with more severe illness than do nonteaching hospitals was tested in a study using two severity measures, Horn's severity of illness index and Gonnnella's "disease staging." (Author/MLW)
Green, Alan C.
Planning and design criteria are established for educational facilities in VA hospitals, rendering them more effective for medical education. Rather than developing plans for prototype teaching hospitals, guidelines are presented which may be utilized to meet the needs of a particular situation. Three broad categories of facilities are…
Achigbu, Kingsley I.; Odetunde, Odutola I.; Chinawa, Josephat M.; Achigbu, Eberechukwu O.; Ikefuna, Anthony N.; Emodi, Ifeoma J.; Ibe, Bede C.
Objectives: To determine the pulmonary function indices of children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) attending the pediatric sickle cell clinic at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, south-east Nigeria and to compare these indices with the results obtained from other regions. Methods: A case control study of lung function in children with SCA aged 6-20 years. The study was carried out in the University of Nigeria/University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria between October 2014 and January 2015. Measurements of the peak expiratory flow rate, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were evaluated. Results: A total of 80 subjects were recruited into the study, comprising 40 homozygous HbSS (hemoglobin SS) patients and an equal number of controls. Children with SCA had statistically lower values of FEV1 (1.6±0.52), FVC (1.76±0.95), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) (309.00±82.64) when compared with normal hemoglobin genotype FEV1 (12.01±0.53), FVC (2.12±0.54), and PEFR (364.10±87.85). The mean FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEFR were also higher in the male control group compared with the HbSS male group, but these differences were not statistically significant. Female controls had significantly larger FEV1, FVC, and PEFR values compared with the HbSS females. Conclusion: The lung function indices were significantly lower in children and adolescents with SCA compared with the matched controls with a hemoglobin genotype AA. PMID:26219442
Reves, J G; Smith, Stuart; Greenberg, Ray; Johnson, Donald
Addressing the need for updated teaching hospital facilities is one of the most significant issues that an academic medical center faces. The authors describe the process they underwent in deciding to build a new facility at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC). Initial issues included whether or not the teaching hospital would continue to play a role in clinical education and whether to replace or renovate the existing facility. Once the decision to build was reached, MUSC had to choose between an on-campus or distant site for the new hospital and determine what the function of the old hospital would be. The authors examine these questions and discuss the factors involved in different stages of decision making, in order to provide the academic medicine community guidance in negotiating similar situations. Open communication within MUSC and with the greater community was a key component of the success of the enterprise to date. The authors argue that decisions concerning site, size, and focus of the hospital must be made by developing university-wide and community consensus among many different constituencies. The most important elements in the success at MUSC were having unified leadership, incorporating constituent input, engaging an external consultant, remaining unfazed by unanticipated challenges, and adhering to a realistic, aggressive timetable. The authors share their strategies for identifying and successfully managing these complex and potentially divisive aspects of building a new teaching hospital. PMID:16249296
Onwuekwe, IO; Ekenze, OS; Bzeala-Adikaibe; Ejekwu, JU
Background: Depression is a common psychiatric disorder in epilepsy patients. A bidirectional interaction is thought to be present between epilepsy and depression. There are few studies of this relationship in Nigerian Africans. Objectives: This was a cross-sectional study of the frequency and pattern of depression in a cohort of epilepsy patients in Enugu, South East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Adult patients with epilepsy seen at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, from May to September 2009 were assessed for depression using the Becks Inventory for Depression. Informed consent was obtained from each patient. Clinical data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 15. The hospital's ethical review committee approved the study. Results: I0 n all, 83 subjects were studied (50 males and 33 females). They were aged from 18 to 75 years, with an average of 29.87 years. Most subjects were <25 years of age, single (53, 64%) and had at least secondary school education (65, 78%). Depression was present in 71 (85.5%) subjects – minimal 57 (68.7%), mild 10 (12%), and moderate 4 (4.8%). No case of severe depression was seen. Patients <25 years of age were the most affected. Depression was not significantly associated with age, gender, seizure type, or educational level. Conclusion: A significant proportion of Nigerian African epilepsy patients have depression, which may be easily overlooked, with far-reaching consequences on patients’ quality of life, morbidity, and mortality rates. There is need to regularly assess for and manage epilepsy-related depression in this population. PMID:23209983
Thier, Samuel O; Kelley, William N; Pardes, Herbert; Knight, Amy Wimpey; Wietecha, Mark
Merger has served as a major strategy for the leaders of academic medical centers (i.e., teaching hospitals) who are pursuing health system development for their institutions. Applying hindsight to their personal experience, the authors explore common themes in several mergers that have survived the test of time. Although many elements influence merger outcomes, experience suggests several of unique importance. These include effective leadership in the areas of creating trust, managing uncertainty, ensuring medical staff stability, and bridging cultural divides across the organizations. While a quantitative business case should support any merger, the authors' experiences underscore the importance of successfully assessing and managing organizational and individual dynamics when bringing together major teaching hospitals. PMID:24362373
Background Paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen) is the commonest available analgesic and anti-pyretic. It is readily accessed from pharmacy, patent medicine and provision shops as over the counter drug making it a potential drug of abuse, especially in children. We sought to find its use and/or misuse in children seen at the paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. Objective To determine the dosage, formulation, and frequency of paracetamol administration to children by caregivers and factors associated with its use and/or misuse. Method An observational prospective study involving 231 children and their caregivers seen at the paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku - Ozalla, Enugu between June and November 2011 was undertaken. Data on paracetamol use before presentation to the clinic, in addition to demographic and other data were obtained from the caregivers using a structured questionnaire. Ethical consent for the study was obtained from the Hospital Ethics and Research Committee and informed consent was further obtained from the caregivers of the children. Results A total of 231 children aged six weeks to 16?years and their caregivers participated in this study. The mean ages of the children and their caregivers were 3.8 and 33.9?years, respectively. One hundred and thirty three of the children studied were males while 98 were females. Most of the children (75.6%) received paracetamol at home before presenting. Paracetamol tablet alone or in combination with the syrup was mostly used (60%) and this observation was made across all age groups. The commonest reason for using paracetamol tablet instead of the syrup was that it was more effective. Most caregivers relied on past experience (71.2%) rather than on enclosed information leaflet to decide the appropriate dosage. Half of the children also received other medications, mainly anti-malarials and antibiotics. Conclusions Paracetamol was commonly given to children on “self prescription” basis and the tablet formulation was most frequently used, with the possibility of misuse and overdose. Caregivers need to be educated on age-appropriate formulations which are less likely to lead to overdose. PMID:22812400
Social security can stifle the teaching hospital's development through increasing expenses and budgetary considerations. These problems are discussed in relation to the hospital organization and university structure in Paris, France. (Author/PG)
...Program; Notification of Closure of Teaching Hospitals and Opportunity To Apply for...entitled ``Notification of Closure of Teaching Hospitals and Opportunity to Apply for...of the city in which one of the closed teaching hospitals was located....
Sun, Ziyong; Li, Li; Zhu, Xuhui; Ma, Yue; Li, Jingyun; Shen, Zhengyi; Jin, Shaohong
The distinction of antimicrobial resistance of clinical bacteria isolated from county hospitals and a teaching hospital was investigated. Disc diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance of isolates collected from county hospitals and a teaching hospital. The data was analyzed by WHONET5 and SPSS statistic software. A total of 655 strains and 1682 strains were collected from county hospitals and a teaching hospital, respectively, in the year of 2003. The top ten pathogens were Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), E. coli, Klebsiella spp., S. areus, P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., otherwise Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., Shigella spp. in county hospitals and Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., X. maltophilia in the teaching hospital. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria was 5% (4/86) of methicillin-resistant S. areus (MRSA), 12% (16/133) and 15.8% (9/57) of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing strains of E. coli and Klebsiella spp., respectively, in county hospitals. All of the three rates were lower than that in the teaching hospital and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0. 01). However, the incidence of methicillin-resistant CNS (MRCNS) reached to 70% (109/156) in the two classes of hospitals. Generally, the antimicrobial resistant rates in the county hospitals were lower than those in the teaching hospital, except the resistant rates of ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, SMZco which were similar in the two classes of hospitals. There were differences between county hospitals and the teaching hospital in the distribution of clinical isolates and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. It was the basis of rational use of antimicrobial agents to monitor antimicrobial resistance by each hospital. PMID:16961303
Lyle, Carl B., Jr.; And Others
A cost containment program initiated in 1975 on the medical teaching service of Charlotte Memorial Hospital, a University of North Carolina affiliated hospital, has led to a significant improvement in hospital house staff utilization of facilities and procedures. In the outpatient setting an actual reduction in patient-encounter cost was realized…
Fahimi, Fanak; Abbasi Nazari, Mohammad; Abrishami, Ramin; Sistanizad, Mohammad; Mazidi, Talya; Faghihi, Toktam; Soltani, Rasoul; Baniasadi, Shadi
Medication errors are among the most common medical errors in the hospitals. Transcription error is a specific type of medication errors and is due to data entry error that is commonly made by the human operators. This study was designed to detect transcription errors in a teaching hospital in Tehran. Direct observational method was used in this study. Error was defined as any deviation in transcribing medication order from the previous step (order on the order sheet, administration nursing note and/or cardex, documentation of the order in the pharmacy database). A total of 287 charts with 558 opportunities for error were reviewed. Of those opportunities for error 167 (29.9%) resulted in an error. Omission (the patient did not receive the medication that was ordered) was the highest (52%) transcription error type seen in this study. The evaluation clearly showed that errors at transcription stage were not infrequent. To cut these errors down we suggest implementation of surveillance systems, which might help to decrease medication errors. PMID:19249889
Harris, Donna L; Lloyd, James W; Marrinan, Mike
The Skills, Knowledge, Aptitude, and Attitude (SKA) Subcommittee of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues (NCVEI) has identified the need for veterinary teaching hospitals (VTH) to be at the forefront of progressive business management to serve as a model for both students and practitioners to emulate. To provide a foundation for developing a model, this study reviewed pertinent literature applicable to the management of a VTH. Much of the literature relevant to VTH management relates to work completed for the human side of medicine (academic health centers, or AHCs) or to the private sector. This review explores management practices in strategic planning, financial management, human resource management, marketing, pricing, operations, and legal issues. It is concluded that strategic management is important to provide the foundation for success in the VTH. In addition, periodic financial reports are recommended, as are the development and use of benchmarks for financial management. Establishing positive, motivating human resource practices is also suggested, along with development of a marketing plan based on a clear understanding of VTH core competencies and the market's specific needs. PMID:15510343
Thompson, J D; Fetter, R B; Shin, Y
Major teaching hospitals, because they treat a more complex mix of patients than do nonteaching hospitals, usually show higher costs per patient day or per case. As a result, teaching hospitals are particularly vulnerable to the decisions of those cost control and planning agencies that are unable or unwilling to treat the problem of case mix. Research at Yale University reported here demonstrates the effect of case mix on costs. A methodology is outlined that can be used by teaching hospitals in determining their costs of treating patients with a complex mix of diagnoses. It is not held that case mix alone explains all of the cost differences between teaching and nonteaching hospitals; but until that factor is isolated and identified, the other contributors to cost variation cannot be examined. PMID:633338
A study is presented of 217 adults referred for psychiatric assessment from the wards of a postgraduate teaching hospital. The pattern of referral and the disproportionate importance of disturbed behaviour amongst referrals from non-medical wards are discussed. The main diagnostic groups, namely, affective disorders, organic states, psychogenic somatic symptoms and attempted suicide, are tabulated and discussed. Complex problems of diagnosis and management were common and are considered under five headings: multiple pathology; the effects of intensive treatment procedures; language and cultural differences, and difficulties in follow-up. It is concluded that the problems met in this specialized setting are likely to become general as intensive treatment and diagnostic procedures become more widespread. The importance of organic reactions is stressed and their relative neglect by both psychiatrists and physicians commented on. The frequency of social precipitants of affective disorders and attempted suicide, however, is considered to emphasize the range of activities required of the psychiatrist in even the most technologically advanced centres. PMID:5098915
Ben-David, Amnon; Notzer, Netta
Tel Aviv University uses its associated teaching hospitals for "factory" site visits in occupational health instruction. Medical students visit various departments to observe and evaluate the work environment, later discussing health implications. The visits are well-accepted by students, save time, and contribute to awareness of the hospital…
Ekwochi, Uchenna; Osuorah, D Chidiebere; Ndu, Ikenna K; Ezenwosu, Osita U; Amadi, Ogechukwu F; Nwokoye, Ikenna C; Odetunde, O Israel
Background Neonatal illnesses usually require long hospital stays and specialized care and/or facilities, which usually results in huge medical bills. With more than 70% of people in Nigeria living on less than US$2 per day, these bills are not affordable to many families’ livelihoods. Aim This study aims to determine the average cost of managing neonatal illnesses in Enugu in southeast Nigeria and the proportion of family income spent on these illnesses. It further seeks to ascertain the cost of various components in the management of neonatal diseases. Methods This is a longitudinal and descriptive study involving 106 newborns admitted to the sick baby unit of the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital and the out-of-pocket medical expenditure in the management of their illnesses. Results A hundred and six newborns participated in the study. All (100%) medical bills were out-of-pocket payments, and 103 (97.2%) of these were catastrophic health expenditure (more than 10% of total family monthly income). The average duration of hospital stay and cost of managing a neonatal illness was 12.86±8.81 days and ?36,382±19,389.72 (US$223±119), respectively. This expenditure amounted to 157%, 71%, and 25% of total monthly family income for the low, middle, and upper socioeconomic class families, respectively, with a mean percentage of 85%. Families with a total monthly income of less than ?10,000 (US$61), ?10,000–49,999 (US$61–306), and ?50,000–100,000 (US$306–612) and more than ?100,000 (US$612) on average spent 683%, 108%, 54%, and 20% of their monthly income on their newborn’s illness. Hospital and utility bills compared with bills accruing from drug and laboratory investigations account for a significantly larger proportion of total cost incurred in neonatal sepsis (?23,499±14,987 [US$144±92], P=0.001), low birth weight (?39,863±24,003 [US$224±147], P=0.001), severe anemia (?40,504±13,923 [US$248±85], P=0.001), transient tachypnea of the newborn (?10,083±1,078 [US$62±7], P=0.001), birth asphyxia (?24,398±14,096 [US$149±86], P=0.001), and meningitis (?26,731±7,675 [US$164±47], P=0.001), whereas cost for laboratory investigations was significantly higher for neonatal jaundice (?11,690±3,169 [US$72±19], P=0.001). There was a strong positive correlation between duration of hospital stay and total medical cost incurred (r=0.897, P=0.001). Conclusion Health expenditure on neonatal illness is high and leads to catastrophic expenditure for the majority of households in the state. There is a need for effective health insurance schemes to help subsidize and cushion this disastrous and impoverishing health expenditure on families for improved neonatal survival in Nigeria. PMID:24470764
...Program; Notification of Closure of Teaching Hospitals and Opportunity To Apply for...This notice announces the closure of two teaching hospitals and the initiation of an application...hospitals based upon the FTE resident caps in teaching hospitals that closed ``on or...
Taylor, Ian L.
On Monday, August 29, 2005 Hurricane Katrina passed east of New Orleans causing minimal damage to Tulane's Medical Center. Later that day, levees that protected the city failed and several feet of water entered the hospitals and school buildings. Emergency generators provided power for 36 hours before running out of fuel. Temperatures in the hospitals soared into the upper 90's and conditions were made intolerable by 100% humidity and backed-up sewage. For several days, faculty, residents, nurses and hospital personnel performed heroically, caring for patients in appalling conditions, hand-ventilating critically ill patients in shifts. Approximately 200 patients, and 1500 additional personnel would be evacuated on Wednesday and Thursday from a makeshift heliport on Tulane's parking garage. Current disaster plans may be inadequate should facilities be inaccessible for months because of damage or contamination. Contingency plans also need to be made should outside disaster relief be markedly delayed as was the case with Katrina. PMID:18528490
Goel, Sanjay; Pon, Damira; Bloniarz, Peter; Bangert-Drowns, Robert; Berg, George; Delio, Vince; Iwan, Laura; Hurbanek, Thomas; Schuman, Sandoor P.; Gangolly, Jagdish; Baykal, Adnan; Hobbs, Jon
A novel idea for information security education created by the New York State Center for Information Forensics and Assurance (CIFA) is presented. This new approach incorporates a teaching hospital model originally developed for medical training. In this model, information security problems from industry and government are solved and abstracted…
Relman, Arnold S.
Describes and analyzes past events and present trends in funding medical education in teaching hospitals. Such support mechanisms as research grants and third-party payments intended for patient care are considered. Also suggests a few general guidelines related to the future funding of academic medicine. (JN)
...services furnished to beneficiaries in teaching hospitals. 415.162 Section...PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.162...
...services furnished to beneficiaries in teaching hospitals. 415.162 Section...PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.162...
...payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals. 415.190 Section...PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.190...
...payment: Assistants at surgery in teaching hospitals. 415.190 Section...PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.190...
Karaca, Zeynal; Wong, Herbert S.
Introduction: The sources of racial disparity in duration of patients’ visits to emergency departments (EDs) have not been documented well enough for policymakers to distinguish patient-related factors from hospital- or area-related factors. This study explores the racial disparity in duration of routine visits to EDs at teaching and non-teaching hospitals. Methods: We performed retrospective data analyses and multivariate regression analyses to investigate the racial disparity in duration of routine ED visits at teaching and non-teaching hospitals. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) were used in the analyses. The data include 4.3 million routine ED visits encountered in Arizona, Massachusetts, and Utah during 2008. We computed duration for each visit by taking the difference between admission and discharge times. Results: The mean duration for a routine ED visit was 238 minutes at teaching hospitals and 175 minutes at non-teaching hospitals. There were significant variations in duration of routine ED visits across race groups at teaching and non-teaching hospitals. The risk-adjusted results show that the mean duration of routine ED visits for Black/African American and Asian patients when compared to visits for white patients was shorter by 10.0 and 3.4%, respectively, at teaching hospitals; and longer by 3.6 and 13.8%, respectively, at non-teaching hospitals. Hispanic patients, on average, experienced 8.7% longer ED stays when compared to white patients at non-teaching hospitals. Conclusion: There is significant racial disparity in the duration of routine ED visits, especially in non-teaching hospitals where non-White patients experience longer ED stays compared to white patients. The variation in duration of routine ED visits at teaching hospitals when compared to non-teaching hospitals was smaller across race groups. PMID:24106554
The Martland Hospital Medical Library has for more than a year been conducting a 16mm film program for interns, residents, attending physicians, and nurses as an adjunct to continuing education. It was possible to run this project on a minimal budget because many films are available at little or no cost from governmental agencies, pharmaceutical companies, medical associations, and universities. The program is run on a departmental basis. Films for a department are selected by the chief resident in that department from a list which the librarian has prepared of available films in the specialty involved. The library orders and publicizes the films and transacts all business in connection with them. Films pertinent to clinical practice are preferred. The administration of this program is described in this paper, and a number of film catalogs are evaluated. Criteria for film selection are discussed. PMID:4800293
REZAEE, RITA; MARHAMATI, SAADAT; NABEIEI, PARISA; MARHAMATI, RAHELEH
Introduction: Organization structure and manpower constitute two basic components of anorganization and both are necessary for stablishing an organization. The aim of this survey was to investigate the type of the organization structure (mechanic and organic) from viewpoint of senior and junior managers in Shiraz teaching hospitals and creativity in each of these two structures. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, organization structure and organizational creation questionnaires were filled out by hospital managers. According to the statistical consultation and due to limited target population, the entire study population was considered as sample. Thus, the sample size in this study was 84 (12 hospitals and every hospital, n = 7). For data analysis, SPSS 14 was used and Spearman correlation coefficient and t-test were used. Results: Results showed that there is a negative association between centralization and complexity with organizational creation and its dimensions. Also there was a negative association between formalization and 4 organizational creation dimensions: reception change, accepting ambiguity, abet new view and less control outside (p=0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the creation in hospitals with organic structure is more than that in hospitals with mechanic structure. PMID:25512934
P. Ravi Shankar; P. Mishra; P. Subish; Dinesh K. Upadhyay
The drug information center (DIC) at the Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH), Pokhara, Nepal, was started in November 2003. The DIC provides objective, unbiased information on drugs and therapeutics to health care professionals in the teaching hospital and outside. The DIC is also involved in activities beyond the provision of drug information.The DIC maintains a close liaison with the hospital drug
Wilson, I H; Watters, D A
This article reports on doctors who imported microcomputers to Zambia to use in a teaching hospital. The types of programs utilized and the cost of the programs is provided. Computers are used in both hospital and general practice and are often large, powerful, and expensive models that would be inappropriate in the developing countries. This is particulary true where there is a lack of trained technicians locally to maintain both hardware and software. Recent reductions in the costs of buying and running microcomputers meant that it became possible to consider using them more in medical practice, and user friendly software made them particularly suitable for use in hospitals in developing countries. Personal computers are useful because they enable doctors to teach and write in countries in which medical and administrative manpower is limited. The effectiveness of many doctors in developing could be increased if they had access to microcomputers. The authors promote the use of microcomputers as cost effective and urge any doctors planning to work in a developing country where research or administration will be part of their job to take a computer with them. PMID:3124904
Liu, Li-Lin; Forgione, Dana A; Younis, Mustafa Z
Due to the market turbulence facing the hospital industry, the financial viability of teaching hospitals has been severely threatened. Their missions of education, research, and patient care even strengthen this crisis. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the cost, volume, and profit (CVP) structure between large nonprofit urban teaching hospitals and small for-profit rural/suburban non-teaching hospitals. The following two hypotheses were developed: (1) large nonprofit urban teaching hospitals tend to have higher fixed cost, lower variable cost, lower total revenue adjusted by case mix index (CMI), and lower return on total assets (ROA); and (2) small for-profit rural/suburban non-teaching hospitals tend to have lower fixed cost, higher variable cost, higher total revenue adjusted by CMI, and higher ROA. Using 117 teaching hospitals and 102 non-teaching hospitals selected from the Medicare Cost Report database in 2005, the results from multiple regression indicated that large nonprofit teaching hospitals located in urban areas are more likely to have higher fixed cost and lower variable cost. While such cost structure doesn't necessarily affect their total revenue adjusted by CMI, it does lead to a lower return on hospitals' total assets. The results support our hypotheses in terms of fixed cost percentage, variable cost percentage, and ROA, but not total revenue adjusted by CMI. The results suggest that cost structure is significantly associated with hospitals' performance. Also, as teaching hospitals' portfolios of services and programs increase (e.g., provision of uncompensated care to Medicare and Medicaid patients and doing research), it becomes strategically necessary and critical to manage the allocation of resources or investments into the fixed capital that supports the business. PMID:23155742
Makori, L.; Gikera, M.; Wafula, J.; Chakaya, J.; Edginton, M. E.; Kumar, A. M. V.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Ken-ya, a large referral and teaching hospital. Objective: 1) To document tuberculosis (TB) case notification rates and trends; 2) to describe demographic, clinical and workplace characteristics and treatment outcomes; and 3) to examine associations between demographic and clinical characteristics, HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome) treatment and anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes among hospital workers with TB at KNH during the period 2006–2011. Design: A retrospective cohort study involving a review of medical records. Results: The TB case notification rate among hospital staff ranged between 413 and 901 per 100 000 staff members per year; 51% of all cases were extra-pulmonary TB; 74% of all cases were among medical, paramedical and support staff. The TB-HIV coinfection rate was 60%. Only 75% had a successful treatment outcome. Patients in the retreatment category, those with unknown HIV status and those who were support staff had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes. Conclusion: The TB case rate among hospital workers was unacceptably high compared to that of the general population, and treatment outcomes were poor. Infection control in the hospital and management of staff with TB requires urgent attention.
Creed, F; Murray, R M
The teaching of 'clinical skills' is generally held to be central to postgraduate training in psychiatry, but the term itself has so far escaped exact definition. In an effort to study some of the component clinical abilities, their inter-relationships, and the factors promoting their transmission, all junior psychiatrists at the Maudsley Hospital were surveyed for their views on the clinical training they had received. Three hundred and seventy three assessement on 43 units were made. Trainees perceived the academic instruction and advice on formulating cases which they had received as being quite unrelated to the quality of help with interview skills and instruction in practical management, but feedback from the consultant to the trainee on the latter's performance was necessary for a high standard of both academic and practical instruction. Encouragement to do research was transmitted independently of other clinical teaching. Over a 3-year period the standard of multi-disciplinary teamwork appeared to improve, but there was a decline in the standard of academic instruction and in encouragement to do research. These overall differences were due to changes in the teaching staff, rather than alterations in teaching methods. Surveys such as this may help to define the goals of postgraduate clinical training, and also monitor the extent to which an institution is achieving these goals. PMID:7267879
Peres, Luiz Cesar; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo
A high autopsy rate allows accurate epidemiological studies and quality control of medical care. This study aims to analyze all autopsies performed in a university teaching hospital in Brazil during 52 consecutive wk. The following data were retrieved from individual autopsy records: gender, age, time of death (hr, day, and month), and the main cause of death. There were 1419 autopsies (79% adults and 21% pediatrics, 60% male and 40% female). Those performed during working days summed up to 67.5%, the remaining 32.5% were performed during weekends or holidays. Autopsies were more frequent during the nocturnal than diurnal period (52.6% vs 47.4%, respectively). The causes of death distributed among the ICD-10 categories were: cardiovascular diseases 21.3%, infectious diseases 19.2%, neoplasms 12.8%, perinatal conditions 10.8%, respiratory diseases 6.6%, gastrointestinal diseases 6.0%, congenital anomalies 4.7%, CNS diseases 3.8%, genitourinary diseases 1.8%, and others 13.0%. There was coexistence of the diseases typical of both industrialized and developing countries, indicating the epidemiological transition in our country. Our data indicate that staff supervision of undergraduate medical students and residents is adequate. Along with a brief discussion of the historical, cultural, and legal factors that allow a high autopsy rate, this study reinforces the importance of the autopsy in a tertiary teaching hospital. PMID:16254253
Mitri, Michael; Davies, Matthew; Kesterson, Joshua; Ural, Serdar; Kunselman, Allen; Harkins, Gerald
Background and Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of a minimally invasive approach for hysterectomy for benign disease at a university teaching hospital. Methods: Five hundred thirty-seven consecutive patients underwent hysterectomy for benign disease at Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center in 2010. No cases were excluded. Minimally invasive approaches included total vaginal hysterectomy, laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, total laparoscopic hysterectomy, and laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy. All surgeries were completed with the resident as the primary surgeon or first assistant. Results: The median age was 45 years, the median body mass index was 30 kg/m2, the median estimated uterine size was 11 cm, and 22% of patients had a prior cesarean section. Of the 537 hysterectomies, 526 (98%) were started with a minimally invasive approach and 517 (96%) were completed in that fashion; thus only 9 conversions (2%) were required. Of the cases in which a minimally invasive approach was used, 16% were vaginal and 84% were laparoscopic. The median operative time was 86 minutes, the median blood loss was 95 mL, the median hospital stay was 1 day, and the median uterine weight was 199 g. For the minimally invasive hysterectomies, there was a 5% major complication rate. Conclusion: Our residency training institution completed 96% of 537 hysterectomies using a minimally invasive approach while maintaining an acceptable operative time, amount of blood loss, hospital stay, and complication rate. Thus our study supports that a minimally invasive approach for hysterectomy for benign disease at an academic resident teaching facility is feasible. PMID:25392620
Mohammad Nejad, Esmaeil; Begjani, Jamaloddin; Abotalebi, Ghasem; Salari, Amir; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh
Patients' rights observance is one of the effective measures of patients' satisfaction of health care services. We performed this study at the aim of evaluation of nurses' awareness of patients' rights in a teaching hospital in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010. In this study 156 nurses were randomly selected. Two-part questionnaire was used for data collection. The validity and reliability of questionnaire was determined and then it was distributed between subjects. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 using descriptive and inferential statistics. Our results showed that %58.33, %39.10 and % 2.56 of nurses have good, medium, and poor levels of awareness respectively. We observed a significant relationship between nurses awareness and work experience (P=0.008) and concurrent work in public and private hospitals (P=0.01). The most of the nurses (%95.51) were aware of "right to privacy protection and ensure confidentiality of information" and the least of them (%33.97) were aware of "right to receiving necessary information about the health care providers, the rate of tariff and insurance coverage". According to our survey it is concluded that implementation of Patients' Right Charter in this hospital is accompanied by some limitations which necessitates promotion of the nurses' awareness about patients' rights. Taken together in order to enhance nurses' awareness special measures and strategies should be considered. PMID:23908744
This report presents the results of an annual survey of housestaff stipends, benefits, and funding for physicians at teaching hospitals in 1992. The data, presented in 48 tables and 4 figures, are based on responses from 325 members of the Council of Teaching Hospitals (COTH), an 83 percent response rate to the survey. Chapter I contains stipend…
Objective: To compare Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis isolates obtained from patients or the environment of a veterinary teaching hospital over a period of 9 years. Design: Retrospective study. Sample Population: 56 S. Infantis isolates obtained from a veterinary teaching hospital from 1996 to...
Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Doosty, Farzaneh
In a world of continuously changing business environments, organizations have no option; however, to deal with such a big level of transformation in order to adjust the consequential demands. Therefore, many companies need to continually improve and review their processes to maintain their competitive advantages in an uncertain environment. Meeting these challenges requires implementing the most efficient possible business processes, geared to the needs of the industry and market segments that the organization serves globally. In the last 10 years, total quality management, business process reengineering, and business process management (BPM) have been some of the management tools applied by organizations to increase business competiveness. This paper is an original article that presents implementation of “BPM” approach in the healthcare domain that allows an organization to improve and review its critical business processes. This project was performed in “Qaem Teaching Hospital” in Mashhad city, Iran and consists of four distinct steps; (1) identify business processes, (2) document the process, (3) analyze and measure the process, and (4) improve the process. Implementing BPM in Qaem Teaching Hospital changed the nature of management by allowing the organization to avoid the complexity of disparate, soloed systems. BPM instead enabled the organization to focus on business processes at a higher level. PMID:25540784
Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H; Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Doosty, Farzaneh
In a world of continuously changing business environments, organizations have no option; however, to deal with such a big level of transformation in order to adjust the consequential demands. Therefore, many companies need to continually improve and review their processes to maintain their competitive advantages in an uncertain environment. Meeting these challenges requires implementing the most efficient possible business processes, geared to the needs of the industry and market segments that the organization serves globally. In the last 10 years, total quality management, business process reengineering, and business process management (BPM) have been some of the management tools applied by organizations to increase business competiveness. This paper is an original article that presents implementation of "BPM" approach in the healthcare domain that allows an organization to improve and review its critical business processes. This project was performed in "Qaem Teaching Hospital" in Mashhad city, Iran and consists of four distinct steps; (1) identify business processes, (2) document the process, (3) analyze and measure the process, and (4) improve the process. Implementing BPM in Qaem Teaching Hospital changed the nature of management by allowing the organization to avoid the complexity of disparate, soloed systems. BPM instead enabled the organization to focus on business processes at a higher level. PMID:25540784
Sasaki, Takashi; Kikuchi, Ken; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Namiko; Kamata, Shinichi; Hiramatsu, Keiichi
We surveyed methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococcus (MRCPS) strains from 57 (26 inpatient and 31 outpatient) dogs and 20 veterinary staff in a veterinary teaching hospital. From the staff, three MRCPS strains were isolated, and two were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In contrast, 18 MRCPS strains were detected in both inpatient (12 of 26 [46.2%]) and outpatient (6 of 31 [19.4%]) dogs. Among them, only one strain was MRSA. Using direct sequencing of sodA and hsp60 genes, the 18 MRCPS strains other than MRSA from a staff and 17 dogs, were finally identified as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, a novel species of Staphylococcus from a cat. All of the methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) strains were multidrug resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin. Most of the MRSP strains showed high-level resistance to oxacillin (>/=128 mug/ml, 15 of 18 [83.3%]), and 10 of 15 (66.7%) high-level oxacillin-resistant MRSP strains carried type III SCCmec. DNA fingerprinting of MRSP strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis yielded eight clusters: clone A with four subtypes, clone B with four subtypes, clone C with three subtypes, and five other different single clones. MRSP strains from the staff and some inpatient and outpatient dogs shared three major clones (clones A, B, and C), but the strains of the other five different clusters were distributed independently among inpatient or outpatient dogs. This genetic diversity suggested that the MRSP strains were not only acquired in this veterinary teaching hospital but also acquired in primary veterinary clinics in the community. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MRSP in dogs and humans in a veterinary institution. PMID:17267624
Raehl, Cynthia; Bond, C. A.
Analyzed databases from four U.S. National Clinical Pharmacy Services Studies and the American Hospital Association for trends in hospital involvement in pharmacy education. Detailed findings indicated that clinical pharmacy services within the nation's teaching hospitals are not standardized and that financial pressures impede a full, consistent…
Kyalo Mutisya, Albanus; KagureKarani, Anna; Kigondu, Christine
Introduction: In the era of evidence based practice (EBP), health care delivery should be grounded on new or validated knowledge and evidence from research. The aim of the study was to assess research utilization by nurses and the influencing factors at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the largest teaching hospital in Kenya. Methods: The study employed a descriptive design that utilized both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. It incorporated the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale. It was conducted in six specialized care areas at KNH. Data was collected using questionnaires, Focus Group Discussion and in-depth interviews. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13 and qualitative data analyzed using themes. Results: The study found that 20.6% of the nurses were participating in research related to their work and 53.6% of these were implementing research findings to practice. Over 2/3 (70.5%) of the respondents were basing their evidence for practice on the knowledge gained during their nursing school. The three greatest barriers to research utilization were that research reports are not readily available (68.7%), unclear implications for practice (66.5%) and inadequate facilities for implementation (66.4%). Conclusion: It is recommended that sensitization trainings on nursing research/ utilization of findings in nursing practice be established to create awareness, motivate and enhance nurses' abilities and also facilities should be provided to enable implementation. PMID:26161364
Harrison, Jeffrey P; Lambiase, Louis R; Zhao, Mei
This study is unique because it uses multiple regression and data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate teaching hospital quality. The results support the premise that teaching hospital leadership through the effective allocation of resources can improve the quality of care. This study has managerial implications by demonstrating the positive correlation between HMO market penetration and improved clinical quality outcomes. This would suggest that improved efficiency caused by limited HMO reimbursement and tight utilization controls encourage hospitals to cut waste as well as improve their clinical care processes. Additionally, our research found that teaching hospitals with higher levels of long-term debt also had improved quality. This shows that increased investments in facilities and advanced technology at teaching hospitals can lead to enhanced quality. PMID:22329326
Aziz, Nousheen; Yousfani, Sajida
Objective: To determine the risk factors, management modalities, fetomaternal outcome of uterine rupture cases at University teaching hospital in Pakistan. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS) for a period of one year from January 1st to December 31st 2012. Main outcome measures were frequency, age, parity, booking status, risk factors, management modalities, fetal and maternal mortality associated with uterine rupture. The data was collected on pre-designed proforma analysed using SPSS Version 16 statistical package. Results: The frequency of ruptured uteri was calculated to be 0.67%, giving a ratio of 1:148 deliveries. Highest incidence was found in age group 25-30 (44.26%) with mean age of 30.36 years. and parity group 2-3 (57.37%) with mean parity 4.08. The risk factors for ruptured uterus include Caesarean section 43(70.49%), injudicious use of oxytocin 33(54.09%), obstructed labour 15 (24.59%) and multiparty 18 (29.50%). Repair of uterus was performed in 47(77.04%) cases. Maternal case fatality was 5(8.19%), while foetal wastage was 51 (83.60%). Conclusion: This study confirms the existence of a serious preventable obstetric problem, with significant maternal mortality and foetal wastage. Integrated efforts include Health education, focused antenatal care, skilled attendance, avoidance of injudicious use of oxytocin, and need of hospital based deliveries in patients with caesarean section which should be intensified to reduce this drastic obstetrical complication.
Gyedu, Adam; Fugar, Setri; Price, Raymond; Bingener, Juliane
Introduction Laparoscopy has become the gold standard for many surgical cases in the developed world. It however, remains a rarity in developing countries for several reasons, a major one being cost. This study aimed to determine the knowledge and attitude of patients attending Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi, Ghana toward laparoscopic surgery and their willingness to pay for it. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients attending specialist clinics at KATH. Results 1070 patients participated. Mean age was 40±15years. 54% were city-dwellers. 14% had salary-paying jobs. None had undergone prior laparoscopic surgery. 3% had knowledge of laparoscopy. 95% preferred laparoscopy to open surgery mainly because of faster recovery and less post-op pain. Age >45years (AOR = 0.53, p = 0.03) and higher education (AOR = 2.00, p = 0.04) were significant predictors of patient choice. Among those preferring laparoscopy, 78% were willing to pay more than the baseline cost of open surgery for laparoscopy. A history of previous abdominal surgery (AOR = 0.67, p = 0.02), having a salaried job compared with being unemployed (AOR = 2.36, p < 0.01) and living in the city compared with the village (AOR = 1.78, p = 0.04) were significant predictors of patients’ willingness to pay more for laparoscopy. Conclusion Knowledge about laparoscopy and its benefits are severely lacking among patients at KATH. Once educated about its benefits, most people prefer laparoscopy even if they needed to pay more for it even in resource-limited countries like Ghana.
Data compiled from the American Hospital Association's annual surveys on the sources of funding for hospital construction are provided. The pattern of financing hospital construction in institutions shifted dramatically during the last decade with the most striking change in the use of debt financing. (MLW)
Manisha Agarwal; Abhishek Sharma
The present study examined the effects of certain hospital workplace factors on job involvement among healthcare employees\\u000a at the paramedical levels and quality of patient care in public hospitals in North India. The sample consisted of paramedical\\u000a healthcare employees (N?=?200), from a medical college affiliated teaching hospital and public hospitals (non-teaching) run by the railway services.\\u000a Data were analyzed statistically
Nuss, Michelle A; Robinson, Ben; Buckley, Peter F
The graduate medical education (GME) system in the United States is in need of reform to ensure that the physician workforce being trained is able to meet the current and future health care needs of the population. However, GME funding to existing teaching hospitals and programs relies heavily on support from Medicare, which was capped in 1997. Thus, new, innovative models to expand GME are needed. To address physician shortages, especially in primary care and general surgery and in rural areas, the state of Georgia implemented a statewide initiative. They increased medical school enrollment by 600 students from 2000 to 2010 and committed to establishing new GME programs at new teaching hospitals to train 400 additional residents by 2018. As increasing the capacity of GME programs likely increases the number of physicians practicing in the state, these efforts aim to encourage trainees to practice in Georgia. Although new teaching hospitals, like these, are eligible for new Medicare funding, this approach to expanding GME also incorporates state funding to cover the start-up costs associated with establishing a new teaching hospital and GME program.In this article, the authors provide background on the current state of GME funding in the United States and on the physician workforce and medical education system in Georgia. They then outline the steps taken to expand GME by establishing new teaching hospitals and programs. They conclude by sharing outcomes to date as well as challenges faced and lessons learned so that others can follow this novel model. PMID:26312605
Okoye, Augustine Ejike; Ibegbulam, Obike Godswill; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Ugwu, Ngozi Immaculata; Anigbo, Chukwudi Simon; Nonyelu, Charles Emeka
Background Human T-cell lymphotrophic/leukemia virus (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus implicated in transfusion-transmitted infection. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies among blood donors at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Eastern Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on consented participants over 4 months. A total of 300 blood donors were recruited consecutively from the blood bank. The serum of the collected 5 mL of blood obtained from each participant was stored at ?20°C until required for analysis. The serum samples were then analyzed for antibodies to HTLV-1 using a one-step incubation double-antigen sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit. Participants’ demographic characteristics and degree of exposure to the risk factors associated with HTLV-1 infection were captured using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis of results was done using SPSS version 17. Results Of the 300 blood donors, 288 (96%) were male, while 12 (4%) were female. The average age of the blood donors was 26.85±8.52 years. The age group with the highest representation among the blood donors were those aged between 21 and 25 years. Only 22.3% of the blood donors were above 30 years. None of the 300 screened blood donors tested positive to HTLV-1 antibodies. Hence, the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 infection among blood donors was 0%. Of the blood donors, 5% had history of previous sexually transmitted disease, while 34.7% used condoms during sexual intercourse. Conclusion The seroprevalence obtained in this study cannot statistically support the justification of routine screening of blood donors for HTLV-1 infection. More prospective and multicentered studies are required to determine the infectivity of HTLV-1 in blood donors in Nigeria. PMID:25632240
Finley Jr., Russell L.
to the University of Michigan. Mott's Childrens Hospital is a level 1 pediatric hospitalOakwood Main Oakwood Main is a major teaching and research hospital and home to three year and sports during our 3rd and 4th year. It is a 145 bed hospital
Jamaazghandi, Alireza; Emadzadeh, Ali; Vakili, Vida; Bazaz, Seyed Mojtaba Mousavi
Background: Bedside teaching is a patient-based teaching method in medical education. The present study has been conducted with the aim of investigating the quality of bedside teaching in the internal wards of Qaem and Imam Reza Educational Hospitals. Methods: This study follows a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach using checklists on educational clinical rounds in Imam Reza and Qaem Hospitals in Mashhad. In the first stage consisting of qualitative study, the parts related to the quality of bedside teaching were recognized and a checklist was designed in three domains of patient comfort (8 questions), targeted teaching (14 questions) and group dynamics (8 questions), and its reliability and validity were verified. In the next step, data were collected and then analyzed using SPSS 16 software through statistical techniques of independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and variance analysis. Results: In total, 113 educational rounds were investigated in this study. Among them, 59 (52.2%) and 54 (47.8%) educational rounds have been investigated in Imam Reza and Qaem Hospitals, respectively. The average total score of bedside teaching was 180.8 out of 300 in the internal wards of both Imam Reza and Qaem Hospitals. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that generally the quality of bedside teaching in Imam Reza and Qaem Hospitals of Mashhad is low according to the qualitative standards considered in this study. Holding educational workshops along with more familiarity of the professors with effective bedside teaching strategies could be effective in improving the quality of educational rounds. PMID:26396735
Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo
This paper explores the cost structure of Swiss hospitals, focusing on differences due to teaching activities and those related to ownership and subsidization types. A stochastic total cost frontier with a Cobb-Douglas functional form has been estimated for a panel of 148 general hospitals over the six-year period from 1998 to 2003. Inpatient cases adjusted by DRG cost weights and ambulatory revenues are considered as two separate outputs. The adopted econometric specification allows for unobserved heterogeneity across hospitals. The results suggest that teaching activities are an important cost-driving factor and hospitals that have a broader range of specialization are relatively more costly. The excess costs of university hospitals can be explained by more extensive teaching activities as well as the relative complexity of the offered medical treatments from a teaching point of view. However, even after controlling for such differences university hospitals have shown a relatively low cost-efficiency especially in the first two or three years of the sample period. The analysis does not provide any evidence of significant efficiency differences across ownership/subsidy categories. PMID:17619236
Dawson, Heather Rose
This paper describes a house-call protocol used to teach family-practice residents the principles of palliative care. The protocol addresses the needs of cancer patients attending a major teaching hospital. The “eligibility criteria”, “agenda in the home”, “patient and family information sheet”, “features of the therapeutic alliance”, and “bereavement follow-up mini-agenda” provide the resident family physician with a framework. The protocol and concept of “successful death” are illustrated with a case history. (The term `we' in reference to a home visit denotes the author and a resident or a member of the hospital nursing staff.) PMID:20469475
Andargachew Mulu; Afework Kassu; Belay Tessema; Gizachew Yismaw; Moges Tiruneh; Feleke Moges; Yared Wondmikun; Takeshi Nishikawa; Fusao Ota
SUMMARY: Ethiopia is one of the countries in which sexually transmitted infections are highly prevalent. However, the data needed to present a realistic picture of the infections are lacking. This study was therefore designed to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis and HIV-1 among pregnant women at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. A prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted between
Kyser, Kathy L.; Lu, Xin; Santillan, Donna; Santillan, Mark; Caughey, Aaron B.; Wilson, Mark C.; Cram, Peter
Purpose The decline in the use of forceps in operative deliveries over the last two decades raises questions about teaching hospitals' ability to provide trainees with adequate experience in the use of forceps. The authors examined: (1) the number of operative deliveries performed in teaching and nonteaching hospitals, and (2) whether teaching hospitals performed a sufficient number of forceps deliveries for physicians to acquire and maintain competence. Method The authors used State Inpatient Data from nine states to identify all women hospitalized for childbirth in 2008. They divided hospitals into three categories: major teaching, minor teaching, and nonteaching. They calculated delivery volumes (total operative, cesarean, vacuum, forceps, two or more methods) for each hospital and compared data across hospital categories. Results The sample included 1,344,305 childbirths in 835 hospitals. The mean cesarean volumes for major teaching, minor teaching, and nonteaching hospitals were 969.8, 757.8, and 406.9. The mean vacuum volumes were 301.0, 304.2, and 190.4, and the mean forceps volumes were 25.2, 15.3, and 8.9. In 2008, 31 hospitals (3.7% of all hospitals) performed no vacuum extractions, and 320 (38.3%) performed no forceps deliveries. In 2008, 13 (23%) major teaching and 44 (44%) minor teaching hospitals performed five or fewer forceps deliveries. Conclusions Low forceps delivery volumes may preclude many trainees from acquiring adequate experience and proficiency. These findings highlighted broader challenges, faced by many specialties, in ensuring that trainees and practicing physicians acquire and maintain competence in infrequently performed, highly technical procedures. PMID:24280847
Harmon, R B; Tratnack, S A
1. Although patient teaching is an important nursing function, minimal research was found related to education of patients with schizophrenia. Teaching psychiatric patients about illness, treatment, and rehabilitation has not received the same attention in psychiatric nursing as it has in other nursing specialties. 2. Eighty percent of the patients who participated in patient education classes would recommend the program to others. Treatment teams reported that some patients asked more questions about their treatment and became more active in ward groups following the classes. 3. The use of nurses as patient educators facilitates professional nursing practice and effectively ensures that patients' general physical health and psychiatric education needs are systematically addressed. PMID:1495001
Palmer, G; Aisbett, C; Fetter, R; Winchester, L; Reid, B; Rigby, E
The results are reported of a first round of costing by DRG in seven major teaching hospital sites in Sydney using the Yale cost model. These results, when compared between the hospitals and with values of relative costs by DRG from the United States, indicate that the cost modelling procedure has produced credible and potentially useful estimates of casemix costs. The rationale and underlying theory of cost modelling is explained, and the need for further work to improve the method of allocating costs to DRGs, and to improve the cost centre definitions currently used by the hospitals, is emphasised. PMID:10117339
Roseline I Ogbimi; Clement A Adebamowo
BACKGROUND: Smooth working relationships between nurses and doctors are necessary for efficient health care delivery. However, previous studies have shown that this is often absent with negative impact on the quality of health care delivery. In 2002, we studied factors that affect nurse-doctor working relationships in University Teaching Hospitals (UTH) in Southern Nigeria in order to characterize it and identify
Kavet, Joel; Luft, Harold S.
The new Peer Review Organizations (PSRO) will review the quality, necessity, and appropriateness of medical care for which payment is made under the terms of the Social Security Act. The many differences between teaching and nonteaching hospitals suggest that it may be inappropriate to evaluate institutional services using a single set of norms of…
The purpose of this study was to compare Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis isolates obtained from patients or the environment of a veterinary teaching hospital over a period of nine years following a nosocomial outbreak to determine whether isolates were epidemiologically related or represented ...
Idrees, Z; Dooley, I; Fahy, G
Strabismus may result in impaired stereopsis, diplopia, undesirable appearance, amblyopia and negative psychological impact. This study provides epidemiological and surgical outcome information about patients attending University College Hospital Galway requiring strabismus surgery. We report a retrospective analysis of 75 consecutive patients, who underwent horizontal strabismus surgery. Sixty-one (81.3%) patients had clinically significant refractive errors, hyperopia being the most common. Thirty-four (45.3%) patients had amblyopia and nine (12%) required further treatment. A cosmetically acceptable result with a post-operative ocular deviation within 25 prism dioptres of straight (grade 2) was achieved in 70/75 (93.3%) of patients. The overall mean change in ocular deviation per mm of muscle operated was 3.25 prism dioptre/mm. The outcomes of strabismus surgery in an Irish hospital compare very favourably with other jurisdictions. This data will help plan service delivery. PMID:24988834
Navathe, Amol S; Silber, Jeffrey H; Small, Dylan S; Rosen, Amy K; Romano, Patrick S; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Wang, Yanli; Zhu, Jingsan; Halenar, Michael J; Volpp, Kevin G
Objective To examine whether hospital financial health was associated with differential changes in outcomes after implementation of 2003 ACGME duty hour regulations. Data Sources/Study Setting Observational study of 3,614,174 Medicare patients admitted to 869 teaching hospitals from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005. Study Design Interrupted time series analysis using logistic regression to adjust for patient comorbidities, secular trends, and hospital site. Outcomes included 30-day mortality, AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), failure-to-rescue (FTR) rates, and prolonged length of stay (PLOS). Principal Findings All eight analyses measuring the impact of duty hour reform on mortality by hospital financial health quartile, in postreform year 1 (“Post 1”) or year 2 (“Post 2”) versus the prereform period, were insignificant: Post 1 OR range 1.00–1.02 and Post 2 OR range 0.99–1.02. For PSIs, all six tests showed clinically insignificant effect sizes. The FTR rate analysis demonstrated nonsignificance in both postreform years (OR 1.00 for both). The PLOS outcomes varied significantly only for the combined surgical sample in Post 2, but this effect was very small, OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.02, 1.04). Conclusions The impact of 2003 ACGME duty hour reform on patient outcomes did not differ by hospital financial health. This finding is somewhat reassuring, given additional financial pressure on teaching hospitals from 2011 duty hour regulations. PMID:22862427
Trotta, Annarita; Cardamone, Emma; Cavallaro, Giusy; Mauro, Marianna
Teaching hospitals (THs) simultaneously serve three different roles: offering medical treatment, teaching future doctors and promoting research. The international literature recognises such organisations as 'peaks of excellence' and highlights their economic function in the health system. In addition, the literature describes the urgent need to manage the complex dynamics and inefficiency issues that threaten the survival of teaching hospitals worldwide. In this context, traditional performance measurement systems that focus only on accounting and financial measures appear to be inadequate. Given that THs are highly specific and complex, a multidimensional system of performance measurement, such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), may be more appropriate because of the multitude of stakeholders, each of whom seek a specific type of accountability. The aim of the paper was twofold: (i) to review the literature on the BSC and its applications in teaching hospitals and (ii) to propose a scorecard framework that is suitable for assessing the performance of THs and serving as a guide for scholars and practitioners. In addition, this research will contribute to the ongoing debate on performance evaluation systems by suggesting a revised BSC framework and proposing specific performance indicators for THs. PMID:23081849
This study aimed to explore the effect of standardized teaching ward rounds in clinical nursing on preventing hospital-acquired infection. The experimental group comprised 120 nursing students from our hospital selected between June 2010 and June 2012. The control group consisted of 120 nursing students selected from May 2008 to May 2010. Traditional teaching ward rounds for nursing education were carried out with the control group, while a standardized teaching ward round was carried out with the experimental group. The comprehensive application of nursing abilities and skills, the mastering of situational infection knowledge, and patient satisfaction were compared between the two groups. The applied knowledge of nursing procedures and the pass rate on comprehensive skill tests were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The rate of mastery of sterilization and hygiene procedures was also higher in the experimental group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The patient satisfaction rate with infection control procedures in the experimental group time period was 98.09%, which was significantly higher than patient satisfaction in the control group time period (93.05%, P < 0.05). Standardized teaching ward rounds for nursing education expanded the knowledge of the nursing staff in controlling hospital-acquired infection and enhanced the ability of comprehensive application and awareness of infection control procedures. PMID:25966144
Ojo, Adebowale I; Popoola, Sunday O
Nowadays, an electronic health information management system (EHIMS) is crucial for patient care in hospitals. This paper explores the aspects and elements that contribute to the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of study comprised 442 health information management personnel in five teaching hospitals that had implemented EHIMS in Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The findings revealed that there is a positive, close relationship between all the identified factors and EHIMS's success: technical factors (r = 0.564, P < 0.05); social factors (r = 0.616, P < 0.05); organizational factors (r = 0.621, P < 0.05); financial factors (r = 0.705, P < 0.05); and political factors (r = 0.589, P < 0.05). We conclude that consideration of all the identified factors was highly significant for the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. PMID:25983557
Wray, J L; Sadowski, S M
The authors present an overview of current graduate medical education (GME) issues, particularly the financial challenges to teaching hospitals resulting from the Balanced Budget and Tax Payer Relief Acts of 1997 and other recent market-driven factors. They describe in detail the nature of Medicare GME payments before and after the 1997 legislation, with specific examples, and explain the negative financial impact of the legislation and aspects of the legislation that are designed to alleviate that impact. Other factors influencing GME program size and composition are also discussed, including oversupplies or shortages of physicians, the concern that teaching hospitals are using public funds to train international medical graduates, changing training requirements, etc. The authors also describe a recent consulting assignment during which they assisted a major teaching hospital to develop a GME strategy that was responsive to the organization's mission and patients and that took into account future GME financing challenges. Detailed explanations are given of how the consultants analyzed the hospital's GME programs and finances, developed and ranked key institution-specific program criteria (strategic, organizational and operational, and financial), and, in consultation with all key stakeholders, formulated a GME strategy specific to the institution's needs. The authors conclude by cautioning that each institution's GME strategy will be different, but that it is important for institutions to develop such strategies to better face future challenges. PMID:9580713
Ojo, Adebowale I; Popoola, Sunday O
Nowadays, an electronic health information management system (EHIMS) is crucial for patient care in hospitals. This paper explores the aspects and elements that contribute to the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of study comprised 442 health information management personnel in five teaching hospitals that had implemented EHIMS in Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The findings revealed that there is a positive, close relationship between all the identified factors and EHIMS’s success: technical factors (r = 0.564, P < 0.05); social factors (r = 0.616, P < 0.05); organizational factors (r = 0.621, P < 0.05); financial factors (r = 0.705, P < 0.05); and political factors (r = 0.589, P < 0.05). We conclude that consideration of all the identified factors was highly significant for the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. PMID:25983557
Kirby, Andrew; Burnside, Girvan; Bretsztajn, Laure; Burke, Dermot
A retrospective case note review of postoperative infections within 30 days of colorectal surgery was completed. Surgical site infections (SSIs) were identified in 22% of patients (84/378), with other infections, e.g. urinary tract infections, identified in 18.3% of patients. SSIs, urinary and respiratory tract infections were all associated with increased durations of hospital admission compared with non-infected patients. Consideration should be given to postoperative surveillance for all infections, using antibiotic consumption as an objective outcome measure. Nine percent of patients developed an organ space SSI. Organ space SSIs were associated with the longest additional duration of hospital admission (15.5 days) and were the only infection associated with an increase in mortality at 1 year; 37% (13/35) mortality with an organ space SSI vs 4% (8/225) without an infection (odds ratio = 16, 95% confidence interval = 6, 43). Further research to prevent and treat organ space SSIs should be prioritized. PMID:26056859
Guimarăes, Valeriana de Castro; Barbosa, Maria Alves
Summary Introduction:?The precocious diagnosis and the intervention in the deafness are of basic importance in the infantile development. The loss auditory and more prevalent than other joined riots to the birth. Objective:?Esteem the prevalence of auditory alterations in just-born in a hospital school. Method:?Prospective transversal study that evaluated 226 just-been born, been born in a public hospital, between May of 2008 the May of 2009. Results:?Of the 226 screened, 46 (20.4%) had presented absence of emissions, having been directed for the second emission. Of the 26 (56.5%) children who had appeared in the retest, 8 (30.8%) had remained with absence and had been directed to the Otolaryngologist. Five (55.5%) had appeared and had been examined by the doctor. Of these, 3 (75.0%) had presented normal otoscopy, being directed for evaluation of the Evoked Potential Auditory of Brainstem (PEATE). Of the total of studied children, 198 (87.6%) had had presence of emissions in one of the tests and, 2 (0.9%) with deafness diagnosis. Conclusion:?The prevalence of auditory alterations in the studied population was of 0,9%. The study it offers given excellent epidemiologists and it presents the first report on the subject, supplying resulted preliminary future implantation and development of a program of neonatal auditory selection. PMID:25991933
Mubuuke, Aloysius Gonzaga; Businge, Francis; Mukule, Emmanuel
Background The relationship between medical schools and teaching hospitals is full of opportunities but also challenges even though they have complementary goals that could enhance each other. Although medical schools and teaching hospitals may face some similar challenges around the world, there could be context-specific observations that differ in resource-rich versus resource-limited settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that are perceived to have influenced the relationship between a medical school and a teaching hospital in Uganda, a resource-limited setting. Methods This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study in which key informant individual interviews were conducted with senior administrators and senior staff members of the Mulago Hospital and Makerere University Medical School. The interviews explored factors perceived to have favoured the working relationship between the two institutions, challenges faced and likely future opportunities. Both quantitative and qualitative data were generated. Thematic analysis was used with the qualitative data. Results Respondents reported a strained relationship between the two institutions, with unfavourable factors far outweighing the favourable factors influencing the relationship. Key negative reported factors included having different administrative set-ups, limited opportunities to share funds and to forge research collaborations, unexploited potential of sharing human resources to address staff shortages, as well as a lack of a memorandum of understanding between the two institutions. Discussion This study identifies barriers in the existing relationship between a teaching hospital and medical college in a resource-poor country. It proposes a collaborative model, rather than competitive model, for the two institutions that may work in both resource-limited and resource-rich settings. PMID:25758388
Nwosu, Jones N; Nnadede, Peter C
Background Nasal hematoma/abscess is an uncommon entity, but capable of leading to serious consequences if not handled meticulously, and with urgency. Objective To present the management, and outcome of nasal septal hematoma/abscess in a Nigerian tertiary institution. Method Consecutive patients diagnosed with nasal septal hematoma/abscess over a 10-year period, treated at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, were prospectively studied. The processes leading to diagnosis, treatment, and outcome were sequentially evaluated. Results Fifty-three patients (37 males and 16 females), age 5–65 years (with mean age of 23.10 years), were included. Surgical drainage of the hematoma/abscess, intranasal packing with insertion of drain was performed with total resolution of problem in all the cases. Conclusion Incision and drainage, and intranasal packing with insertion of drain was effective in treating nasal septal hematoma/abscess. PMID:26251577
Murphy, I; Lavelle, L; Ni Mhurchu, E; McCarthy, R; Heffernan, E
There has been an increase in gun-related crime in Ireland over the last decade to gangland violence, especially in west Dublin. This places a burden on hospital services not previously encountered. The aim of this study was to examine the demographics of gunshot: injuries presenting to a Dublin teaching hospital, and the impact on radiology over a ten year period. A total of 65 gunshot injuries were seen. Mortality for high velocity wounds was much higher (10/23, 43%) than for low-velocity shotgun injuries (2/34, 6%). PMID:25282967
Lewisohn, C; Reynoso, J
Illustrates how the implementation of the internal customer concept has assisted United Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust to establish a culture for quality. Explains the conceptual framework on which the notion of the internal customer is derived. Describes how, from 1992 to date, the Trust's quality management approach was designed to apply these management principles in a large teaching hospital setting. Outlines how this quality management approach has been successful in enabling departmental managers to recognize, develop and improve internal customer/supplier relationships. Concludes by explaining that business process re-engineering is now being applied as a prime quality tool to help deliver a major culture change throughout the organization. PMID:10142012
Adeleke, A. O.; Makan, R. S.; Ibitoye, S. A.
The Nigerian Enugu and Polish Bellview coals were subjected to proximate analysis and Gray-King coke assay type tests. Proximate analysis gave the ash content as 7.57 and 5.56%, the volatile content as 51.76 and 31.06%, respectively for Enugu and Bellview coals. For the Gray-King coke type assay test, the coke types of B and G, the percentage coke yield of 71.70 and 80.40% and percentage tar yield of 23.30 and 11.40%, respectively, were determined for Enugu and Bellview coals. The coke type, the ash content and percentage coke yield confirms Bellview coal as a medium coking coal, suitable for cokemaking but with a volatile content that exceeds the upper limit of 30.3% for cokemaking at Ajaokuta and Enugu coal as a high volatile non-caking coal. However, the higher yield of tar from Enugu coal may be an advantage in its use as a binder in producing formed coke.
Sedlár, Drahomír; Potomková, Jarmila; Rehorová, Jarmila; Seckár, Pavel; Sukopová, Vera
Information explosion and globalization make great demands on keeping pace with the new trends in the healthcare sector. The contemporary level of computer and information literacy among most health care professionals in the Teaching Hospital Olomouc (Czech Republic) is not satisfactory for efficient exploitation of modern information technology in diagnostics, therapy and nursing. The present contribution describes the application of two basic problem solving techniques (brainstorming, SWOT analysis) to develop a project aimed at information literacy enhancement. PMID:15034614
Retchin, Sheldon M.; Blish, Christine S.
A computer generated report (Practice Profile) summarizing epidemiologic, demographic and utilization data from a general internal medicine practice, was developed and implemented in a teaching hospital setting. Using a computerized medical record system, the Profile displays individual and group practice data. It is used for enhancing the physicians' understanding of their ambulatory practices and for raising important quality assurance issues. The Practice Profile is also used for improving educational activities in the residency program and for stimulating research opportunities within the practice.
Background The duty of a doctor to take care presumes the person who offers medical advice and treatment to unequivocally possess the skills and knowledge to do so. However, a sense of responsibility cannot be guaranteed in the absence of accountability, which in turn requires a comprehensive medical law system to be in place. Such a system is almost non-existent in Pakistan. Keeping the above in mind, we designed this study to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of surgeons regarding malpractice at a tertiary care center in Pakistan. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted during a three month period from 31st March, 2012 to 30th June, 2012 at Civil Hospital, Karachi. Surgeons who were available during the period of our study and had been working in the hospital for at least 6 months were included. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed after seeking informed, written consent. The specialties included were general surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, orthopedic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery and gynecology and obstetrics. The study questionnaire comprised of four sections. The first section was concerned with the demographics of the surgeons. The second section analyzed the knowledge of the respondents regarding professional negligence and malpractice. The third section assessed the attitudes surgeons with regard to malpractice. The last section dealt with the general and specific practices and experiences of surgeons regarding malpractice. Results Of the 319 surgeons interviewed, 68.7% were oblivious of the complete definition of malpractice. Leaving foreign objects inside the patient (79.6%) was the most commonly agreed upon form of malpractice, whereas failure to break news in entirety (43.9%) was most frequently disagreed. In the event of a medical error, majority (67.7%) were ready to disclose their error to the patient. The most common perceived reason for not disclosing the error was threat of a claim or assault (90.9%). Majority (68.3%) believed that malpractice had a negative effect on reputation. Only 13(4.1%) had received at least one legal claim for damages. Only about three-fourths (75.5%) had the habit of frequently obtaining informed consent from the patients. 83(26.0%) expressed reluctance in accepting a case that was deemed to be difficult. Financial gains and liabilities were responsible for biased approach in 8.5% and 12.2% of the respondents respectively. Conclusion There is a dire need of programs aimed at increasing awareness among practicing surgeons in our setup. Proactive measures are required for the formulation of an efficient system of litigation. Physician accountability will not only arouse a greater sense of responsibility in them, but will also augment the confidence placed by patients on the healthcare system. PMID:23126456
Hyder, Omar; Sachs, Teviah; Ejaz, Aslam; Spolverato, Gaya
Objective To define the impact of hospital teaching status on length of stay and mortality for patients undergoing complex hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgery in the USA. Methods Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we identified 285,442 patient records that involved a liver resection, pancreatoduodenectomy, other pancreatic resection, or hepaticojejunostomy between years 2000 and 2010. Year-wise distribution of procedures at teaching and non-teaching hospitals was described. The impact of teaching status on in-hospital mortality for operations performed at hospitals in the top tertile of procedure volume was determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results A majority of patients were under 65 years of age (59.6 %), white (74.0 %), admitted on an elective basis (77.3 %), and had a low comorbidity burden (70.5 %). Ninety percent were operated upon at hospitals in the top tertile of yearly procedure volume. Among patients undergoing an operation at a hospital in the top tertile of procedure volume (>25/year), non-teaching status was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death (OR 1.47 [1.3, 1.7]). Other factors associated with increased risk of mortality were older patient age (OR 2.52 [2.3, 2.8]), male gender (OR 1.73 [1.6, 1.9]), higher comorbidity burden (OR 1.49 [1.3, 1.7]), non-elective admission (OR 3.32 [2.9, 4.0]), and having a complication during in-hospital stay (OR 2.53 [2.2, 3.0]), while individuals with private insurance had a lower risk of in-hospital mortality (OR 0.45 [0.4, 0.5]). After controlling for other covariates, undergoing complex HPB surgery at a non-teaching hospital remained independently associated with 32% increased odds of death as (OR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.11–1.58; P <0.001). Conclusions Even among high-volume hospitals, patients undergoing complex HPB have better outcomes at teaching vs. non-teaching hospitals. While procedural volume is an established factor associated with surgical outcomes among patients undergoing complex HPB procedures, other hospital-level factors such as teaching status have an important impact on peri-operative outcomes. PMID:24072683
Schimpff, S C; Rapoport, M I
Under the best of circumstances, the complex decision-making and resource-allocation processes of a state university (and often of a variety of state agencies important to the university) significantly hinder the ability of the university-owned hospital to make changes critical to its financial and, hence, its programmatic success. At worst, as was the case for the University of Maryland Hospital a decade ago, the hospital can become capital-starved and operationally deficient under the bureaucratic mantle of the state and university and find itself unable to respond to the fast-changing market, placing its viability in jeopardy. To remedy this situation at the University of Maryland Hospital, in 1984 the state created a separate not-for-profit corporation, the University of Maryland Medical System ("the Medical system"), governed by its own board of directors, with a mandate to assure sound business practices, outstanding patient care, access to patients from across the state for tertiary care, access for the local disadvantaged community for comprehensive care, and attention to the academic mission of the university and its school of medicine. The results include strong financial performance, the ability to recapitalize outmoded facilities and technology, growth of strong programs, and the recruitment of excellent chairs and faculty. The Medical System's success suggests that university teaching hospitals, which necessarily depend on patient care revenues, may best be served by (1) removing them from university governance, thus allowing them to give primacy to their mission of patient care, and (2) removing them from state ownership, thus allowing them to use sound business practices in the competitive health care environment. The challenge under this arrangement is to ensure that the teaching hospitals can still support the educational and research programs that distinguish them. By establishing its independent, actively involved board of directors, the Medical System has successfully responded to this challenge. PMID:9236467
Okeke, Tochukwu C; Enwereji, Jamike O; Okoro, Onyemaechi S; Iferikigwe, Eric S; Ikeako, Lawrence C; Ezenyeaku, Cyril C; Adiri, Charles O
Background Prenatal gender disclosure is a nonmedical fetal ultrasonography view, which is considered ethically unjustified but has continued to grow in demand due to pregnant women’s requests. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of primigravidae who want prenatal gender disclosure and the reasons for it. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of randomly selected primigravidae seen at Enugu Scan Centre. The women were randomly selected using a table of random numbers. Results Ninety percent (225/250) of 250 primigravidae who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in this study wanted to know the gender of their unborn baby, while 10% (25/250) declined gender disclosure. Furthermore, 62% (155/250) of primigravidae had preference for male children. There was statistically significant desire for male gender (P=0.0001). Statistically significant number of primigravidae who wanted gender disclosure did so to plan for the new baby (P=0.0001), and those that declined gender disclosure “leave it to the will of GOD” (P=0.014). Conclusion Ninety percent of primigravidae wanted gender disclosure because of plans for the new baby, personal curiosity, partner and in-laws’ curiosity; moreover, some women wanted to test the accuracy of the findings at delivery and 62% of primigravidae had preference for male children. In view of these results, gender disclosure could be beneficial in this environment. PMID:25792816
Fazeli, Hossein; Sadighian, Hooman; Esfahani, Bahram Nasr; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is commonly responsible for nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to perform a genotyping analysis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa-resistant isolates by the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method at the university teaching hospital in Iran. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility was analyzed for P. aeruginosa isolates. Ceftazidime-resistant (CAZres) isolates with a positive double-disc synergy test were screened for the presence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-encoding genes. Phenotypic tests to detect the metallo-?-lactamase strains of P. aeruginosa were performed on imipenem-resistant (IMPres) isolates. Selected strains were characterized by MLST. Results: Of 35 P. aeruginosa isolates, 71%, 45% and 45% of isolates were CAZres, IMPres and multidrug resistant (MDR), respectively. Fifty-seven percent of the isolates carried the blaOXAgroup-1. All the five typed isolates were ST235. Isolates of ST235 that were MDR showed a unique resistance pattern. Conclusion: This study shows a high rate of MDR P. aeruginosa isolates at the university teaching hospital in Iran. It seems MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa ST235 with unique resistance pattern disseminated in this hospital. PMID:26380241
Bruce, Suliasnaia P.; Acheampong, Franklin; Kretchy, Irene
Background: The burden of diabetes mellitus, especially Type-2, continues to increase across the world. Medication adherence is considered an integral component in its management. Poor glycemic controls due to medication nonadherence accelerates the development of long-term complications which consequently leads to increased hospitalization and mortality. Objective: This study examined the level of adherence to oral antidiabetic drugs among patients who visited the teaching hospital and explored the probable contributory factors to non-adherence. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study using systematic sampling to collect quantitative data was undertaken. Questionnaires were administered to outpatients of the medical department of a teaching hospital in Ghana. Logistic regression was performed with statistical significance determined at p<0.05. Results: A total of 200 diabetic patients participated in the study. Using the Morisky Medication Adherence scale, the level of adherence determined was 38.5%. There were significant correlations between level of adherence and educational level [(OR)=1.508; (CI 0.805-2.825), P=0.019), and mode of payment [(OR)=1.631; (CI 0.997-2.669), P=0.05). Conclusion: Adherence in diabetic patients was low among respondents and this can be improved through education, counseling and reinforcement of self-care. There were several possible factors that contributed to the low adherence rate which could benefit from further studies. PMID:25883693
Hirschman, S Z; Meyers, B R; Bradbury, K; Mehl, B; Gendelman, S; Kimelblatt, B
A comprehensive control program for utilization of anti-microbial agents in a large tertiary university teaching hospital regulates both dosage and duration of therapy and requires the prior approval of an infectious disease specialist for utilization of restricted antimicrobial agents. Benefits of the program include more cost-effective antimicrobial therapy and increased physician education in the use of these drugs. Gross savings in pharmacy costs for antibiotics during the first year of the program (1985) amounted to +483,032 for an average monthly savings of +40,252. Gross savings for 1986 were +211,786 with monthly savings of +17,648. The control of the use of one agent may lead to overuse of another agent. Antimicrobial prescribing patterns of physicians are quickly influenced by changing regulations of the program. An ongoing surveillance and review program of in-hospital utilization of antimicrobial agents is necessary to maintain effective and flexible controls. PMID:3137907
Vitner, Dana; Machtinger, Ronit; Baum, Micha; Goldenberg, Motti; Schiff, Eyal; Seidman, Daniel S
The success rates of medical termination of pregnancy in two time periods (2000-2001 and 2002-2003) were compared to assess the effectiveness of medical abortion introduction to a large academic tertiary medical center. The success rates were markedly reduced over time (87.0% vs. 79.3%) probably owing to the difficulty in defining clear sonographic criteria for treatment failure and the complexity of a follow-up program implemented at a large teaching hospital by a broad staff with widely varying experience and knowledge of the new procedure. PMID:18675971
Blish, Christi; Proctor, Rita; Fletcher, Suzanne W.; O'Malley, Michael
As part of a new automated ambulatory medical record, a computerized outpatient medication system was developed for a teaching hospital general medicine group practice. Seven months after its implementation, the system was evaluated to determine physician acceptance and approval. Practice physicians were surveyed, and 94% of the respondents approved of the system. Over 90% thought that the computerized system had improved the completeness and accuracy of medication information as well as their own efficiency in prescription writing. Eighteen percent thought it had influenced their prescribing patterns. These perceived improvements in medication information and the prescription process may mean that patient care has improved as a result of the new computerized system.
Tramontina, Mariana Y.; Heineck, Isabela; Dos Santos, Luciana
Objective To characterise the prescription of non-formulary drugs to children and neonates at a Brazilian teaching hospital and identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs), drug interactions, and prescription of potentially hazardous medicines. Methods A prospective exploratory study was carried out between January and May 2011 at the general paediatric wards and paediatric oncology, paediatric intensive care, and neonatal care units of the study hospital. Non-formulary drugs were categorised as approved, off-label, or not approved for use in children according to Brazilian compendia. Electronic health records were actively searched for ADRs and the possibility of moderate to severe interactions between non-formulary drugs and other medicines was determined with the Micromedex® database. Results Overall, 109 children or neonates received non-formulary drugs. Of these drugs, 54% were approved for use in children, 12.2% were used off-label, and 33.8% were not approved for use in children. Non-formulary drugs accounted for 13.4% of total prescriptions; 5.3% of drugs had a potential for interactions and five were possibly associated with ADRs. Conclusions Prescription of non-formulary drugs not approved for use in children was common at the study hospital. Studies such as this provide information on the use of medicines for special indications and permit assessment of the relevance of hospital formularies for the paediatric population. PMID:24155845
Rosenblatt, M; Rabkin, M T; Tosteson, D C
The economic forces that are reshaping the practice of medicine and the funding of medical research will have great impact on clinical education and research in teaching hospitals and their associated medical schools. Changes in the setting of and approach to medical education will need to be made in order to continue to train physicians at the same high level as in the past and to maintain the productivity of our national biomedical research enterprise and its contributions to health. Academic leaders, such as department chiefs who have clinical service responsibilities, are finding it more and more difficult to manage simultaneously the demands of the clinical business, education, and research. In an effort to organize a teaching hospital and a medical school in a manner that would position them to maintain more effectively their common academic mission front and center with the clinical business, Harvard Medical School and the Beth Israel Hospital created a joint venture in 1996. The new nonprofit Institute for Education and Research has education and research as its top (and only) mission. It is designed to provide additional and specific academic leadership and to enable the joint venture to undertake strategic planning for the academic mission. In addition to the challenges it faces from changes in the external environment, the Institute for Education and Research will need to establish a new pattern of interactions internally within the parent institutions. Collaborations with department chairs and faculty are an essential ingredient for its success. It is hoped that this structure will prove to be a useful template for organizing other medical school-hospital collaborations on behalf of the academic mission. PMID:9200578
Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.
Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…
Amadi, Eugenia Ada
This study which investigated parents' and teachers' preferred medium of instruction in primary schools was conducted in Enugu, South East, Nigeria. It employed the descriptive survey research method. 500 respondents were used for the study. 250 teachers were selected through simple random sampling technique. Two researcher-designed questionnaires…
Farahbod, Farzin; Goudarzvand Chegini, Mehrdad; Kouchakinejad Eramsadati, Leila; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra
Social capital is a multi-faceted phenomenon in social sciences that massively affects many social fields. It can be a helpful factor in promoting health. Among the groups with high burnout, nurses have always shown higher levels of burnout. Studies have revealed that social capital can be an important factor affecting burnout. This study aimed to determine the extent of the effect of social capital on burnout in nurses of a trauma referral teaching hospital in Rasht. This was a descriptive correlational study conducted on 214 nurses of a trauma referral teaching hospital. Maslach standard questionnaire and the social capital questionnaire devised by Boyas and colleagues were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, and linear regression analysis to determine the extent of the effect of social capital on burnout. The study showed an inverse association between social capital and burnout. The intensity of the relationship was -0.451 (P<0.0001). Also, the linear regression model of social capital on burnout variable showed that the regression coefficient of social capital equaled -0.34. The determination coefficient of this regression model indicated that social capital explained 20% of burnout changes. The results showed high burnout in emotional exhaustion dimension and an inverse association between social capital and burnout. Thus, attempts should be made to promote social capital dimensions among nurses. Given the inevitability of job stress in a nursing environment, and managers should plan on improving the working conditions and training techniques to deal with such stress. PMID:25871018
Rath, Shakti; Dubey, Debasmita; Sahu, Mahesh C.; Padhy, Rabindra N
Objective To record nosocomial and community-acquired accounts of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains, isolated from clinical samples of a teaching hospital by surveillance, over a period of 39 months (November 2009-January 2013). Methods Clinical samples from nosocomial sources, i.e., wards and cabins, intensive care unit (ICU) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and community (outpatient department, OPD) sources of the hospital, were used for isolating strains of E. coli, which were subjected for testing for production of ‘extended spectrum beta-lactamase’-(ESBL) enzyme as well as determining antibiotic sensitivity pattern with 23 antibiotics. Results Of the total 1642 (100%) isolates, 810 (49.33%) strains were from OPD and 832 (50.66%) were from hospital settings. Occurrence of infectious E. coli strains increased in a mathematical progression in community sources, but in nosocomial infections, such values remained almost constant in each quarter. A total of 395 (24.05%) ESBL strains were isolated from the total 810 isolates of community; of the total of 464 (28.25%) isolates of wards and cabins, 199 (12.11%) were ESBL strains; and among the total of 368 (22.41%) isolates of ICU and NICU, ESBLs were 170 (10.35%); the total nosocomial ESBL isolates, 369 (22.47%) were from the nosocomial total of 832 (50.66%) isolates. Statistically, it was confirmed that ESBL strains were equally distributed in community or hospital units. Antibiogram of 23 antibiotics revealed progressive increases of drug-resistance against each antibiotic with the maximum resistance values were recorded against gentamicin: 92% and 79%, oxacillin: 94% and 69%, ceftriaxone: 85% and 58%, and norfloxacin 97% and 69% resistance, in nosocomial and community isolates, respectively. Conclusions This study revealed the daunting state of occurrence of multidrug resistant E. coli and its infection dynamics in both community and hospital settings.
Owotade, Foluso J; Ogunbodede, Eyitope O; Sowande, Oladayo A
The objective of the study was to determine the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on surgical practice in a Nigerian teaching hospital. It involved a questionnaire survey of all the doctors practising in the surgical specialties at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, in order to obtain their attitudes and practices toward HIV-positive surgical patients. Sixty-five doctors were interviewed, their ages ranged from 26 years to 62 years with a mean age of 35.1 years. The majority (35.4%) were in general surgery or obstetrics and gynaecology (24.6%). Almost half (47.7%) had operated on known HIV-positive patients and the majority were in support of preoperative HIV screening. Almost all (95.4%) were worried about occupational HIV infection--a significant number of consultants would refuse to be screened if their patient were allowed to know the results (P = 0.014). The cross infection control commonly employed included adequate instrument sterilization, presurgical hand washing and the use of gloves and facemasks. The wearing of eye goggles, double gloving, indirect instrument passing and wearing of water impervious gowns were used less frequently. As HIV/AIDS infected individuals are presenting for surgical procedures in the hospital, there is a need to improve the use of universal infection control measures and to educate all categories of healthcare personnel in order to allay the fears and to prevent discrimination that could militate against effective management of HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:14620429
Al-Haddabi, Rahma; Al-Bash, Majeda; Al-Mabaihsi, Nadia; Al-Maqbali, Najla; Al-Dhughaishi, Tamima; Abu-Heija, Adel
Objective To study the obstetrical and perinatal outcomes of teenage Omani girls with singleton pregnancies at a tertiary teaching hospital. Methods This is a retrospective case control study. We reviewed obstetric and perinatal outcomes of teenage nulliparous pregnant Omani girls with singleton pregnancies aged 14 to 19 years, delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2013. We compared their outcomes with outcomes of pregnant nulliparous Omani women with singleton pregnancies aged 20 to 25 years old delivered at the same hospital during the same period. Results When compared with pregnant women (n=307), teenage pregnant girls (n=307) were found to have higher proportion of preterm delivery <32 weeks (7% vs. 3%, p=0.040), preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes (PPROM) (19% vs. 11%, p=0.005) and anemia (58% vs. 44%, p=0.005). Cesarean section rate was higher in women than teenager girls (20% vs. 10%, p=0.001). Teenager girls had lighter babies (mean weight ± standard deviation 2,750±690 vs. 2,890±480, p=0.020), incidence of very low birth weight babies (<1,500g) was higher in teenagers (3.9% vs. 0.3%, p=0.003), but perinatal mortality rate was similar in the two groups. Conclusion Teenage pregnant Omani women are at increased risk of preterm delivery before 32 weeks gestation, PPROM, anemia, and delivering very low birth weight babies. PMID:25584155
Shafiei, Ebrahim; Baratimarnani, Ahmad; Goharinezhad, Salime; Kalhor, Rohollah; Azmal, Mohammad
Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) provides nurses a method to use critically appraised and scientifically proven evidence for delivering quality health care and the best decision that leads to quality outcomes. The purpose of this study was to measure the practice, attitude and knowledge/skill of evidence-based practice of nurses in a teaching hospital in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011.The study sample was composed of 195 nurses who were working at the Fatemeh Zahra Hospital affiliated to Bushehr University of Medical Sciences (BPUMS). The survey instrument was a questionnaire based on Upton and Upton study. This tool measures Nurses' perceptions in the three sub-scales of practice, attitude and knowledge/skill of evidence-based practice. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to analyze the data. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between subscales. Results: The overall mean score of the evidence-based practice in this study was 4.48±1.26 from 7, and the three subscales of practice, attitude and knowledge/skill in evidence-based practice were, 4.58±1.24, 4.57±1.35 and 4.39±1.20, respectively. There was a strong relationship between knowledge and performance subscale (r=0.73,p<0.01). Conclusion: Findings of the study indicate that more training and education are required for evidence-based nursing. Successful implementation of evidence-based nursing depends on organizational plans and empowerment programs in hospitals. Hence, hospital managers should formulate a comprehensive strategy for improving EBP. PMID:25694993
Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Rashidian, Arash; Arab, Mohammad; Akbari-Sari, Ali; Hakimzadeh, Seyyed Mostafa
Background: Workplace violence is one of the factors which can strongly reduce job satisfaction and the quality of working life of nurses. The aim of this study was to measure nurses’ exposure to workplace violence in one of the major teaching hospitals in Tehran in 2010. Methods: We surveyed the nurses in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire was adapted from a standardized questionnaire designed collaboratively by the International Labor Office (ILO), the International Health Organization (IHO), the International Council of Nurses (ICN), and the Public Services International (PSI). Finally, in order to analyze the relationships among different variables in the study, T-test and Chi-Square test were used. Results: Three hundred and one nurses responded to the questionnaire (a response rate of 73%). Over 70% of the nurses felt worried about workplace violence. The participants reported exposure to verbal abuse (64% CI: 59-70%), bullying-mobbing (29% CI: 24-34%) and physical violence (12% CI: 9-16%) at least once during the previous year. Relatives of hospital patients were responsible for most of the violence. Nurses working in the emergency department and outpatient clinics were more likely to report having experienced violence. Nurses were unlikely to report violence to hospital managers, and 40% of nurses were unaware of any existing policies within the hospital for reducing violence. Conclusion: We observed a considerable level of nurse exposure to workplace violence. The high rate of reported workplace violence demonstrates that the existing safeguards that aim to protect the staff from abusive patients and relatives are inadequate. PMID:25396205
Mishra, P.H.; Gupta, Shakti
Background The hospitals have evolved from being an isolated sanatorium to a place with five star facilities. Patients and their relatives coming to the hospital not only expect world-class treatment, but also other facilities to make their stay comfortable in the hospital. This change in expectation has come due to tremendous growth of media and its exposure, as well as commercialization and improvement in facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of patient/relatives satisfaction at tertiary care teaching hospital and feedback from them for improvement of the same. Methods The study was conducted by 1. Review of available national and international literature on the subject. 2. Carrying out survey amongst 50 patients and their relatives at one of the surgical unit by using structured questionnaire. 3. By analyzing the data using appropriate statistical methods. Results Eighty two percent people were satisfied with the service at admission counter while 81% were satisfied with room preparation at the time of admission. The nursing services satisfied 80% of people while 92% were satisfied with explanation about disease and treatment by doctor. The behavior of nurses, doctors and orderlies satisfied 92, 92 and 83% of people. The cleanliness of toilets satisfied only 49% while diet services satisfied 78% of people. Conclusion The five major satisfiers were behavior of doctors, explanation about disease and treatment, courtesy of staff at admission counter, behavior and cooperation of nurses. The five major dissatisfiers were cleanliness of toilets, quality of food, explanation about rules and regulation, behavior of orderlies and sanitary attendant and room preparedness. PMID:25983455
Emegoakor, Fausta Chioma J; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ezegwui, Hyginus Uzo; Ezugwu, Frank Okechukwu; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu; Ibeagha, Izuchukwu Obumneme
Background Low serum ferritin levels signify low iron stores and this could predispose to iron deficiency anemia. Objective To determine the rate and predictors of low serum ferritin levels during the puerperium in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Study design A hospital-based prospective longitudinal study involving parturient women who delivered singleton fetuses at term. Venous blood samples were collected to determine the serum ferritin concentration at 48 hours and 6 weeks postpartum. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% confidence interval (CI) using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer software version 20.0. Results Two-hundred and two women who carried singleton pregnancies to term were studied. The mean serum ferritin levels at 48 hours and 6 weeks were 27.82±18.41 µg/L and 36.12±21.53 µg/L, respectively. Forty-eight hours postdelivery, 29.2% had low ferritin levels and this decreased to 12.4% at 6 weeks postpartum. There was a significant positive correlation between the serum ferritin level at 48 hours postdelivery and the serum ferritin level at 6 weeks postpartum (r=0.89, P<0.001). Predictors of the low ferritin level at 6 weeks included age <20 years (odds ratio [OR] =0.70, 95% CI =0.53, 0.93), multiparity (OR =63.7, 95% CI =3.18, 127.5), anemia at 48 hours postpartum (OR =61.7, 95% CI =13.27, 116.6), a low ferritin level at 48 hours (OR =78.1, 95% CI =8.8, 108.3), and intake of antenatal hematinics for <3 months (OR =0.04, 95% CI =0.01, 0.20). Conclusion There was a significant occurrence of low ferritin levels during the puerperium in the study centers, and this was associated mainly with pregnancy and delivery factors. Efforts to improve the iron stores in parturient women could benefit from early booking and compliance with antenatal hematinics and optimizing hemoglobin and iron levels before delivery.
Saghaeiannejad-Isfahani, Sakineh; Saeedbakhsh, Saeed; Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Habibi, Mahboobeh
Background: Quality is one of the most important criteria for the success of an information system, which refers to its desirable features of the processing system itself. The aim of this study was the analysis of system quality of hospital information systems (HIS) in teaching hospitals of Isfahan based on the DeLone and McLean model. Materials and Methods: This research was an applied and analytical-descriptive study. It was performed in teaching hospitals of Isfahan in 2010. The research population consisted of the HIS's users, system designers and hospital information technology (IT) authorities who were selected by random sampling method from users’ group (n = 228), and system designers and IT authorities (n = 52) using census method. The data collection tool was two researcher-designed questionnaires. Questionnaires’ reliability was estimated by using Cronbach's alpha was calculated. It was 97.1% for the system designers and IT authorities’ questionnaire and 92.3% for system users’ questionnaire. Results: Findings showed that the mean of system quality score in a variety of HIS and among different hospitals was significantly different and not the same (P value ? 0.05). In general, Kosar (new version) system and Rahavard Rayaneh system have dedicated the highest and the lowest mean scores to themselves. The system quality criterion overall mean was 59.6% for different HIS and 57.5% among different hospitals respectively. Conclusion: According to the results of the research, it can be stated that based on the applied model, the investigated systems were relatively desirable in terms of quality. Thus, in order to achieve a good optimal condition, it is necessary to pay particular attention to the improving factors of system quality, type of activity, type of specialty and hospital ownership type. PMID:25767816
Olufolabi, Adeyemi J; Atito-Narh, Evans; Eshun, Millicent; Ross, Vernon H; Muir, Holly A; Owen, Medge D
Anesthesia providers in low-income countries may infrequently provide regional anesthesia techniques for obstetrics due to insufficient training and supplies, limited manpower, and a lack of perceived need. In 2007, Kybele, Inc. began a 5-year collaboration in Ghana to improve obstetric anesthesia services. A program was designed to teach spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery and spinal labor analgesia at Ridge Regional Hospital, Accra, the second largest obstetric unit in Ghana. The use of spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery increased significantly from 6% in 2006 to 89% in 2009. By 2012, >90% of cesarean deliveries were conducted with spinal anesthesia, despite a doubling of the number performed. A trial of spinal labor analgesia was assessed in a small cohort of parturients with minimal complications; however, protocol deviations were observed. Although subsequent efforts to provide spinal analgesia in the labor ward were hampered by anesthesia provider shortages, spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery proved to be practical and sustainable. PMID:25988637
Coleman, Jerry; Srofenyo, Emmanuel K; Ofori, Eric K; Brakohiapa, Edmund K; Antwi, William K
The study provided baseline data of abruptio placentae in Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), Ghana, and gave recommendations to minimize poor outcomes. A prospective cross sectional study was conducted at the Maternity Department of the KBTH between February 2008 and January 2010. Two hundred women with diagnosis of placental abruption were studied using a pretested standardized structured questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 was used to analyse the data. Fifteen thousand five hundred and ten (15,510) deliveries were recorded during the study period out of which 1.4% abruptio placentae cases were confirmed. The perinatal and maternal mortality rates were 65% and 2% respectively. The key risk factors identified were low socio-economic status, grandmultiparity and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Intrauterine foetal death, (IUFD) and maternal shock were significantly associated with coagulopathy (p=0.001 and 0.004 respectively). Early diagnoses of placental abruption will significantly improve foetal and maternal survival. PMID:25854099
Jamal, W Y; Pal, T; Rotimi, V O; Chugh, T D
Salmonella strains isolated in a teaching-cum-general hospital in Kuwait during 1990-1993 and 1996 were analysed to determine the trend in the prevalence of the serogroups and their changing pattern of susceptibility. The records were reviewed for all the 661 isolates encountered during these periods. The most prevalent serogroup in both children and adults was serogroup B, followed by serogroup C and D. A sizeable proportion of the strains were resistant to first-line drugs. About 39% of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, 17% to co-trimoxazole, 13% to chloramphenicol, and 15% to cephalothin. The majority were, however, susceptible to the other drugs with low to very low resistance rates: 7% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and 0.3% to cefotaxime. All the strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. In all, resistant strains were more prevalent among children than adults. PMID:9919015
Achong, M. R.; Hauser, B. A.; Krusky, J. L.
Parenteral therapy with gentamicin, cloxacillin, ampicillin and cephalothin was surveyed on a surgical, a gynecologic and medical ward of a teaching hospital. During a 3-month period 219 patients (12.9% of the total number admitted to the three wards) received at least one of the four antibiotics parenterally. Ampicillin and gentamicin were used most frequently on the three wards when the indication for therapy was either infection or empirical use. Cephalothin was used most frequently for prophylaxis in the gynecologic and surgical patients; no medical patient received this drug. Overall, therapy was assessed to be irrational in 42.0, 50.0 and 12.0% of the surgical, gynecologic and medical patients, respectively. Prophylaxis was the indication for therapy in 76.9 and 86.8% of the surgical and gynecologic patients, respectively, for whom the therapy was assessed to be irrational. PMID:837302
Traoré, S S; Zida, M; Bonkoungou, G P; Tierno, H; Coulidiati, U; Sano, D
The authors pay in a retrospective study, 95 cases of hyperthyroidism, listed in the teaching hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo of Ouagadougou from January 2000 to June 2005. These hyperthyroidism represent 39% of the thyroid affections, with a female prevalence (97%), 32 years of average age, the urban source of the patients (90% of the cases) and the importance of self medication (73%). They stress the importance of sonography, allowing a classification in diffuse goiter (44%) and multi nodular (56%). They insist on a good preparation of the patient before the intervention and on the interest of the sub total thyroďdectomy. They estimate that a correct binding of the vessels, the dissection of recurring, the visualization and the dissection of parathyroid and their vascular pedicle should make it possible to reduce the post-operative complications: null morbidity and death rate 12.5%. PMID:19102104
How do Supervising Clinicians of a University Hospital and Associated Teaching Hospitals Rate the Relevance of the Key Competencies within the CanMEDS Roles Framework in Respect to Teaching in Clinical Clerkships?
Jilg, Stefanie; Möltner, Andreas; Berberat, Pascal; Fischer, Martin R.; Breckwoldt, Jan
Background and aim: In German-speaking countries, the physicians’ roles framework of the “Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists” (CanMEDS) is increasingly used to conceptualize postgraduate medical education. It is however unclear, whether it may also be applied to the final year of undergraduate education within clinical clerkships, called “Practical Year” (PY). Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore how clinically active physicians at a university hospital and at associated teaching hospitals judge the relevance of the seven CanMEDS roles (and their (role-defining) key competencies) in respect to their clinical work and as learning content for PY training. Furthermore, these physicians were asked whether the key competencies were actually taught during PY training. Methods: 124 physicians from internal medicine and surgery rated the relevance of the 28 key competencies of the CanMEDS framework using a questionnaire. For each competency, following three aspects were rated: “relevance for your personal daily work”, “importance for teaching during PY”, and “implementation into actual PY teaching”. Results: In respect to the main study objective, all questionnaires could be included into analysis. All seven CanMEDS roles were rated as relevant for personal daily work, and also as important for teaching during PY. Furthermore, all roles were stated to be taught during actual PY training. The roles “Communicator”, “Medical Expert”, and “Collaborator” were rated as significantly more important than the other roles, for all three sub-questions. No differences were found between the two disciplines internal medicine and surgery, nor between the university hospital and associated teaching hospitals. Conclusion: Participating physicians rated all key competencies of the CanMEDS model to be relevant for their personal daily work, and for teaching during PY. These findings support the suitability of the CanMEDS framework as a conceptual element of PY training.
JENNIFER C. SEGUIN; ROBERT D. WALKER; JOHN P. CARON; WESLEY E. KLOOS; CAROL G. GEORGE; RICHARD J. HOLLIS; RONALD N. JONES; MICHAEL A. PFALLER
During a 13-month period, 11 equine patients visiting a veterinary teaching hospital for various diagnostic and surgical procedures developed postprocedural infections from which methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were isolated. The S. aureus isolates were identified by conventional methods that included Gram staining, tests for colonial morphology, tests for clumping factor, and tests for coagulase and urease activities and
Pandey, Kishore Raj; Kafle, Phanindra Prasad; Karki, Debendra
by Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital to conduct this research. The services provided by Mrs Bimala Singh as Reserch Assistant and co-operation provided by Mrs Lalita Risal at the Department of Paediatrics and Ms. Sarita Joshi at the Department...
Akinboboye, BO; Akeredolu, PA; Sofola, O; Ogunrinde, BO; Oremosu, OA
Background: Tooth replacement service is generally available in our environment. However, its utilization by the elderly has not been extensively studied. Aim: To determine the utilization of tooth replacement services among the elderly. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 440 patients aged 60 years and above attending the prosthetic out-patient clinics of Lagos University teaching hospital (LUTH) and Lagos state University teaching hospital (LASUTH) from January, 2008 to March, 2010. record books or case records: Age, sex, and number of teeth replaced. Results were collated and analyzed using Epi Info 2004. Values were presented as simple percentages. Results: There were 229/440 (52.0%) males and 211/440 (48.0%) females and were aged 60-90 years with a mean age of 68.9 (6.92). A total number of 4,062 teeth were replaced. Average number of tooth replaced among the patients was 9.45 for LUTH and 8.94 for LASUTH. The maxillary anterior teeth were the most frequently replaced 1422/4062 (35.0%) and the least replaced were the mandibular posterior teeth 812/4062 (20.0%). The average number of tooth replaced generally increased with age in both sexes. A total of 90 complete maxillary and mandibular dentures were fabricated, while six single arch complete dentures were made. The remaining were partial dentures. Conclusion: The most common age of presentation is 60-65 years. Patients that were 90 years and above appear to utilize teeth replacement facilities in this environment less than those in developed countries. Maxillary anterior teeth were the most frequently replaced. PMID:24669332
Melaku, Zenebe; Alemayehu, Mengistu; Oli, Kebede; Tizazu, Getachew
A case-series study of all admissions using patient registers was carried out to analyse patterns of medical admissions into the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) of the Addis Ababa University Teaching Hospital, and evaluate for any changes in that pattern over a study period. All patients admitted to the MICU of a 500-bed Teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa between 1985-2000 were the study subjects. Demographic variables, specific categories of diagnoses and their outcomes were recorded A total of 3548 patients (male to female ratio of 1.4:1, mean age 37.10 +/- 17.29) were admitted from September 1985 to August 2000. Acute infectious and cardiovascular diseases accounted for half of the entire critical care admissions with infectious diseases accounting for 30%. Among specific diagnoses, diabetic ketoacidosis was the leading cause of admission followed by acute myocardial infarction and severe and complicated malaria, each accounting for 10.7, 9.8 and 9.3% of all admissions respectively. Trends of admissions over the sixteen-year period showed steady increase in relative frequency of acute complications of non-communicable diseases consisting of diabetes, acute myocardial infarction and stroke while infectious diseases showed interspersed peaks of admissions coinciding with epidemics. The overall mortality of the MICU was 32%, with proportionally more female deaths, 34.8 versus 29% (P = 0.0002). Severe and complicated malaria was the leading cause of death (10.3%) followed by tetanus (6.4%) and acute myocardial infarction (6.3%). The increase in relative and absolute frequency of acute complications of non-communicable diseases most probably heralds an emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases related to life style changes in the urban well to do in addition to existing problems of infectious diseases of poverty. PMID:17447361
Burns, Jeffrey P.; Sellers, Deborah E.; Meyer, Elaine C.; Lewis-Newby, Mithya; Truog, Robert D.
Objective To determine the epidemiology of death in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) at 5 geographically diverse teaching hospitals across the United States. Design, Setting, and Patients In the PICUs of five teaching hospitals across the United States, we prospectively identified 192 consecutive patients who died prior to PICU discharge. Each site enrolled between 24 and 50 patients. Each PICU had similar organizational and staffing structures. Interventions None Measurements and Main Results The overall mortality rate was 2.39% (range 1.85% to 3.38%). 133 (70%) patients died following the withholding or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments, 30 (16%) were diagnosed as brain dead, and 26 (14%) died following an unsuccessful resuscitation attempt. Fifty-seven percent of all deaths occurred within the first week of admission;these patients, who were more likely to have new onset illnesses or injuries, included the majority of those who died following unsuccessful CPR attempts or brain death diagnoses. Patients who died beyond one week length-of-stay in the PICU were more likely to have pre-existing diagnoses, to be technology dependent prior to admission, and to have died following the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment. Only 64% of the patients who died following the withholding or withdrawing of life support had a formal DNR order in place at the time of their death. Conclusions The mode of death in the PICU is proportionally similar to that reported over the past two decades, while the mortality rate has nearly halved. Death is largely characterized by two fairly distinct profiles that are associated with whether death occurs within or beyond one week length-of-stay. Decisions not to resuscitate are often made in the absence of a formal DNR order. These data have implications for future quality improvement initiatives, especially around palliative care, end-of-life decision making, and organ donation. PMID:24979486
Lloyd, James W; Fingland, Roger; Arighi, Mimi; Thompson, James; de Laforcade, Armelle; McManus, Joseph
Veterinary teaching hospitals (VTHs) are facing more and greater challenges than at any time in the past. Changes in demand, expanding information, improving technology, an evolving workforce, declining state support, and an increasingly diverse consumer base have combined to render many traditional VTH modes of operation obsolete. In pursuit of continued success in achieving their academic mission, VTHs are exploring new business models, including innovative collaborations with the private sector. This report provides details on existing models for public-private collaboration at several colleges and schools of veterinary medicine, including those at Kansas State University, Purdue University, the University of Florida, and Tufts University. Although each of these institutions' models is unique, several commonalities exist, related to expansion of the case load available for teaching, the potential positive impact on recruitment and retention of clinical faculty, and the potential for easing financial pressures on the associated VTH. These new models represent innovative approaches that work to meet many of the key emerging challenges facing VTHs today. PMID:18339955
Orji, E O; Dare, F O; Makinde, O N; Fasubaa, O B
This study examines the determinants of Mission House Delivery among booked patients in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. During the 12 months of the study (1 May 199930 April 2000) 196 booked patients at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife who delivered at mission houses were analysed. All ages and parity groups, educational level and social classes were involved. The majority (73%) were of low socio-economic class. The reasons for mission house delivery included financial constraints (41%), fear of possible caesarean section (46%), industrial action by health-care workers (39%), transport difficulty at night (26%), previous deliveries in mission houses (16%) and communal feud (12%). Four maternal deaths occurred (MMR 978/100 000 births) and 20 perinatal deaths (PNMR 118/1000 total births). Reduction of hospital user fees, provision of transportation and efficient telecommunication facilities at all times, conflict resolution and proper remuneration of health care workers are urgent needs to be addressed. Legislation against delivery in unsafe places and establishment of appropriate facilities by churches interested in maternity services is highly recommended. PMID:12521802
Introduction: Managing postoperative pain efficiently is one important therapeutic challenge in the hospitals. Combination use of analgesics is in vogue, where in drugs from the opioid and non-opioid group are given synergistically. The aim of this study is to audit the use of different analgesics on the first postoperative day. Effort has been made to look into the drug or drug combinations used and other factors associated with their use. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, cross sectional observational study was conducted over a period of 11 months in a tertiary care teaching hospital at Hyderabad with approval from institutional ethics committee. Medical records of 649 patients on the first postoperative day were analysed for analgesics by various indicators. Results: Average number of drugs per encounter was 4.23. Percentage of patients prescribed drugs from national essential drug list/WHO was 81.94%. Most common analgesic (monotherapy) prescribed was tramadol followed by diclofenac and the most common combination drugs prescribed were tramadol+Paracetamol. The most common route of administration was intravenous. All the drugs except piroxicam, were in the lower limit of the recommended daily dose. Conclusion: The present study gives an idea of the overall pattern of analgesic drug use in postoperative patients. The drug combinations used, the most common single use drug can be made out. The health professionals can be encouraged to prescribe by generic name and from the National List of Essential Medicines NLEMs. PMID:26023565
Sehgal, Kriti; Hebbar, Shripad; Nambiar, Jayaram; Bhat, Rajeshwari G.
Objective. Aim of this audit was to analyze indications, complications, and correlation of preoperative diagnosis with final histopathology report of all hysterectomies, performed in a premier teaching hospital. Methods. Present study involved all patients who underwent hysterectomy at a premier university hospital in Southern India, in one year (from 1 January, 2012, to 31 December, 2012). Results. Most common surgical approach was abdominal (74.7%), followed by vaginal (17.8%), and laparoscopic (6.6%) hysterectomy. Most common indication for hysterectomy was symptomatic fibroid uterus (39.9%), followed by uterovaginal prolapse (16.3%). Overall complication rate was 8.5%. Around 84% had the same pathology as suspected preoperatively. Only 6 (5 with preoperative diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding and one with high grade premalignant cervical lesion) had no significant pathology in their hysterectomy specimen. Conclusion. Hysterectomy is used commonly to improve the quality of life; however at times it is a lifesaving procedure. As any surgical procedure is associated with a risk of complications, the indication should be carefully evaluated. With the emergence of many conservative approaches to deal with benign gynecological conditions, it is prudent to discuss available options with the patient before taking a direct decision of surgically removing her uterus. PMID:25763395
Objective To measure the incidence of maternal and early neonatal mortality in women who gave birth at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH) in Kenya and describe clinical and other characteristics and circumstances associated with maternal and neonatal deaths following deliveries at MTRH. Methods A retrospective audit of maternal and neonatal records was conducted with detailed analysis of the most recent 150 maternal deaths and 200 neonatal deaths. Maternal mortality ratios and early neonatal mortality rates were calculated for each year from January 2004 to December 2011. Results Between 2004 and 2011, the overall maternal mortality ratio was 426 per 100,000 live births and the early neonatal mortality rate (<7?days) was 68 per 1000 live births. The Hospital record audit showed that half (51%) of the neonatal mortalities were for young mothers (15–24?years) and 64% of maternal deaths were in women between 25 and 45?years. Most maternal and early neonatal deaths occurred in multiparous women, in referred admissions, when the gestational age was under 37?weeks and in latent stage of labour. Indirect complications accounted for the majority of deaths. Where there were direct obstetric complications associated with the delivery, the leading cause of maternal death was eclampsia and the leading cause of early neonatal death was pre-mature rupture of membranes. Pre-term birth and asphyxia were leading causes of early neonatal deaths. In both sets of records the majority of deliveries were vaginal and performed by midwives. Conclusion This study provides important information about maternal and early neonatal mortality in Kenya’s second largest tertiary hospital. A range of socio demographic, clinical and health system factors are identified as possible contributors to Kenya’s poor progress towards reducing maternal and early neonatal mortality. PMID:23421605
Sharma, Dhruva Kumar; Datta, Supratim; Gupta, Amlan
Objective: Blood transfusions are inherently associated with risks ranging in severity from minor to life-threatening. Continuous monitoring of transfusion related complications can promote understanding of factors contributing to transfusion reactions and help to formulate necessary remedial measures. This study was designed to analyze the frequency and nature of transfusion reactions reported to the blood bank of a remote North East Indian teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: All acute transfusion reactions (ATRs) reported to the blood bank over a period of 20 months (May 2013 to January 2015) were reviewed and analyzed. The risk of transfusion reactions associated with each individual component was assessed. Results: A total of 3455 units of whole blood and component transfusions were carried out of which a total of 32 (0.92%) ATRs were encountered. Packed red blood cells (PRBCs) (n = 15, P = 0.06) and whole blood (WB) (n = 13, P = 0.83) were most commonly implicated. Allergic reaction was the most frequent transfusion reaction encountered (65.6%), seen most commonly with PRBC (risk of 0.76%, P = 0.42), and WB (risk of 0.68%, P = 0.63) transfusions. This was followed by febrile reactions (28.1%), which were seen more commonly with PRBCs (risk of 0.57%, P = 0.016). No reactions were observed with platelet transfusions. Conclusion: The overall incidence of transfusion reactions in this hospital is slightly higher than those having more advanced transfusion facilities in India. The lack of leukoreduction facilities in our hospital could be a likely cause for the same. The use of leukoreduced WB and PRBCs could possibly reduce the overall incidence of ATRs in general and febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions in particular.
Nasirpour, Amir Ashkan; Gohari, Mahmoud Reza; Moradi, Saied
One of the main problems in the efficiency and efficacy of an organization is its structural issue. Organizational culture is also considered as an effective factor in the performance of many organizations. The main goal of the present study was to determine the relationship of Centralization and organizational culture and performance indexes in Teaching Hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This correlation study was performed in the year 2007. The population studied consisted of 4408 personnel from 13 hospitals among whom 441 subjects were selected and studied via a class sampling method. Data was compiled using a check list concerning the evaluation status of Centralization and another form concerning performance indexes as well as Robbin's organizational culture questionnaire. Data were obtained from the subjects by self answering and analyzed by using descriptive statistical indexes, T- test and Fisher's exact tests. Among the organizational culture indexes of the hospitals studied, control and organizational identity was better as compared to others (mean=3.32 and 3.30). Concerning the extent of Centralization in the hospitals studied, 53.85 % and 46.15 % were reported to have upper and lower organizational Centralization, respectively. Mean ratio of surgical operations to inpatients was 40%, the mean rate of admissions per active bed was 60.83, mean bed occupancy coefficient was 70.79%, average length of stay was 6.96 days, and mean net death rate was 1.41%. No significant correlation was seen between Centralization degree, organizational culture and performance indexes in teaching hospitals Tehran university of medical sciences. (with 95% confidence interval). Due to the fact that first grade Teaching hospitals use board certified members, expert personnel, and advanced equipments and because of the limitation of patients choice and, the extent of Centralization and many organizational culture components have no significant correlation with performance indexes of these hospitals. Further research regarding structure is suggested in the future. PMID:21287467
OBJECTIVES: To determine the nature, extent and costs of injuries to health care workers caused by physical abuse. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Large acute and tertiary care teaching hospital in Winnipeg. PARTICIPANTS: All health care workers at the hospital who filed reports of abuse-related injuries and of verbal abuse and threatening behaviour from Apr. 1, 1991, to Mar. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of physical and verbal abuse of hospital personnel according to job category, type of injury, hours of staff time lost and estimates of costs compensated for abuse-related injuries. RESULTS: Of the 242 reported abuse-related injuries 194 (80.2%) occurred among the nursing personnel. The nurses in the medical units filed most (33.1%) of the reports. Although the psychiatric nurses filed fewer reports (35 [14.5%]) they had the highest rate of injuries per 100,000 paid hours among the nursing staff. Not surprisingly, the security officers were at highest risk, 53.5% having reported an abuse-related injury for a rate of 16.8 such injuries per 100,000 paid hours. Male staff members had a higher injury rate than their female counterparts in all occupational groups. Bruising or crushing was the most frequent type of injury (in 126 cases); the next most frequent were cuts and lacerations (in 47) and human bites and exposures to blood or body fluids (in 23). However, the 36 sprains and strains resulted in the largest amount of time lost. In all, over 8000 hours were lost due to abuse-related injuries, and over $76,000 was paid in workers' compensation benefits. Concurrently, 646 incidents of verbal abuse and threatening behaviour were reported. Only three abuse-related injuries and two incidents of verbal abuse were reported by physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Abuse-related injuries to health care workers in an urban hospital are prevalent, serious and can be costly in terms of time off work and compensation. Underreporting is likely, especially among physicians. PMID:7954175
Doshmangir, Leila; Rashidian, Arash; Ravaghi, Hamid; Takian, Amirhossein; Jafari, Mehdi
Background: In 2004, the health system in Iran initiated an organizational reform aiming to increase the autonomy of teaching hospitals and make them more decentralized. The policy led to the formation of a board of trustees in each hospital and significant modifications in hospitals’ financing. Since the reform aimed to improve its predecessor policy (implementation of hospital autonomy began in 1995), it expected to increase user satisfaction, as well as enhance effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare services in targeted hospitals. However, such expectations were never realized. In this research, we explored the perceptions and views of expert stakeholders as to why the board of trustees’ policy did not achieve its perceived objectives. Methods: We conducted 47 semi-structured face-to-face interviews and two focus group discussions (involving 8 and 10 participants, respectively) with experts at high, middle, and low levels of Iran’s health system, using purposive and snowball sampling. We also collected a comprehensive set of relevant documents. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically, following a mixed inductive-deductive approach. Results: Three main themes emerged from the analysis. The implementation approach (including the processes, views about the policy and the links between the policy components), using research evidence about the policy (local and global), and policy context (health system structure, health insurers capacity, hospitals’ organization and capacity and actors’ interrelationships) affected the policy outcomes. Overall, the implementation of hospital decentralization policies in Iran did not seem to achieve their intended targets as a result of assumed failure to take full consideration of the above factors in policy implementation into account. Conclusion: The implementation of the board of trustees’ policy did not achieve its desired goals in teaching hospitals in Iran. Similar decentralization policies in the past and their outcomes were overlooked, while the context was not prepared appropriately and key stakeholders, particularly the government, did not support the decentralization of Iran’s health system. PMID:25844379
Czarniak, Petra; Bint, Lewis; Favié, Laurent; Parsons, Richard; Hughes, Jeff; Sunderland, Bruce
Purpose To estimate the prevalence of off-label and unlicensed prescribing during 2008 at a major paediatric teaching hospital in Western Australia. Methods A 12-month retrospective study was conducted at Princess Margaret Hospital using medication chart records randomly selected from 145,550 patient encounters from the Emergency Department, Inpatient Wards and Outpatient Clinics. Patient and prescribing data were collected. Drugs were classified as off-label or unlicensed based on Australian registration data. A hierarchical system of age, indication, route of administration and dosage was used. Drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Code. Results A total of 1,037 paediatric patients were selected where 2,654 prescriptions for 330 different drugs were prescribed to 699 patients (67.4%). Most off-label drugs (n = 295; 43.3%) were from the nervous system; a majority of unlicensed drugs were systemic hormonal preparations excluding sex hormones (n = 22, 32.4%). Inpatients were prescribed more off-label drugs than outpatients or Emergency Department patients (p < 0.0001). Most off-label prescribing occurred in infants and children (31.7% and 35.9% respectively) and the highest percentage of unlicensed prescribing (7.2%) occurred in infants (p < 0.0001). There were 25.7% of off-label and 2.6% of unlicensed medications prescribed across all three settings. Common reasons for off-label prescribing were dosage (47.4%) and age (43.2%). Conclusion This study confirmed off-label and unlicensed use of drugs remains common. Further, that prevalence of both is influenced by the clinical setting, which has implications in regards to medication misadventure, and the need to have systems in place to minimise medication errors. Further, there remains a need for changes in the regulatory system in Australia to ensure that manufacturers incorporate, as it becomes available, evidence regarding efficacy and safety of their drugs in children in the official product information. PMID:25756896
Qhalib, Hana A.; Zain, Gamal H.
Objectives: This study aimed to describe the pattern of hepatobiliary complications among patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and to assess their correlation with age, gender and other risk factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed 106 patients with SCD who were admitted to Al Wahda Teaching Hospital in Aden, Yemen, between January and June 2009. A full history, thorough examination, essential laboratory investigations (including a complete blood count, liver function test and viral markers test) and an abdominal ultrasound were performed on all patients. The clinicopathological characteristics of the hepatobiliary complications were analysed for their correlation to different risk factors such as age and gender. Results: It was found that 46.2% of the patients with SCD had hepatobiliary complications. Of these, 36.7% had viral hepatitis, 26.0% had cholecystitis and 20% had gallstones. A total of 60.4% of the affected patients were male. The mean levels of alanine aminotransferase (59.4 and 56.0 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (40.1 and 38.3 U/L) were significantly elevated in patients with viral hepatitis and cholecystitis, respectively. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen showed higher positivity (10.4%) than anti-hepatitis A and anti-hepatitis C antibodies. Hepatobiliary complications increased significantly with age and were notably higher among those who were often admitted to hospital and/or underwent frequent blood transfusions. Conclusion: This study suggests that hepatobiliary complications are common among SCD patients and the likelihood of developing such complications increases as patients age. Thus, regular clinical follow-ups, abdominal ultrasound studies and periodic liver function tests, as well as serological tests for viral hepatitis, are strongly recommended. These can help in the early detection of these complications and allow opportunities for their management and prevention. PMID:25364561
Okpala, Nonso Ejikeme; Umeh, Rich Enujioke; Onwasigwe, Ernest Nnemeka
A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were <15 years in two randomly selected primary schools in the urban area and three randomly selected schools in the rural area were interviewed and examined with Snellen chart, pen torch, head loupe, and direct ophthalmoscope. The findings were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire and the World Health Organization Programme for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) eye examination form. Training on visual acuity measurement was done for each of the class teachers. A total of 1,236 children <15 years of age were studied and analyzed. Slightly more females, 652 (52.8%), than males, 584 (47.2%), constituted the sample population giving a female/male ratio of 1.1:1. A total of 98 (7.93%) children had evidence of injury to the eye or its adnexa. Eyelid scar was the commonest (5.34%) followed by eyebrow scar (2.10%). Canthal scar was the next (0.32%). Two girls had monocular blindness from eye trauma (0.16%). One had leucoma, while the other had a dislocated lens. All the monocular blind children of this study were from the urban area. The home was the commonest environment for an eye injury (69.39%) followed by the school (20.41%). The farm was next in frequency (7.14%), especially among boys in the rural area. The church and the road/street constituted the remainder. Regarding persons causing the injury, the child's playmate was the commonest (55.10%) followed by self (27.55%). Parents and guardians were the next (9.18%). These were injuries associated with corporal punishment. Corporal punishment-related eye injury, according to this study, appears to be common in the rural area and affects boys predominantly. Other human intermediary agents that cause an eye injury include passersby (2.04%), RTA (2.04%), siblings (2.04%), and others (1.02%). The primary agents that caused an eye injury were sticks/wood, 29 (29.60%); stone, 21 (21.43%); pieces of metal, 19 (19.39%); fall, 10 (10.20%); fight/fist blow, 9 (9.918%); plastic, 2 (2.04%); fingernails, 2 (2.04%); farm tools/fruits, 2 (2.04%); and RTA, glass, and headbutt, each 1.02%. Farm implements/fruits as well as fingernails appear to be fairly common primary agents that cause an eye injury in the rural Enugu, Nigeria. In terms of prevalence, there was no significant difference between the urban and rural areas. The findings from this study showed a high prevalence of eye injury among primary school children. In terms of treatment, 58.16% of the children with an eye injury had no form of treatment for it. The children from this study with monocular blindness did not receive adequate medical treatment. Treatment of an eye injury, according to this study, was sought from chemists (19.39%), at hospital/health centers (16.33%), at home (3.06%), and from traditional healers (3.06%). The persons who treated an eye injury, as observed from this study, were doctors (14.29%), nurses (4.08%), chemists (17.35%), and traditional healers and fathers (3.06% each). The frequency of noninjury-related diagnosis made in this study was refractive error, 4.85%; allergic conjunctivitis, 1.94%; oculocutaneous albinism, 0.24%; prepapillary vascular loops, 0.40%; and then ptosis, exotropia, stye, corneal opacity, and retinitis pigmentosa, 0.08% each. The annual incidence of an eye injury according to this study was 3.48%. The majority of the causes of an eye injury, as per this study, were preventable. Appropriate promotion of preventive eye care among children may go a long way in reducing the burden of blindness from eye injuries. PMID:26124686
Okpala, Nonso Ejikeme; Umeh, Rich Enujioke; Onwasigwe, Ernest Nnemeka
A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were <15 years in two randomly selected primary schools in the urban area and three randomly selected schools in the rural area were interviewed and examined with Snellen chart, pen torch, head loupe, and direct ophthalmoscope. The findings were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire and the World Health Organization Programme for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) eye examination form. Training on visual acuity measurement was done for each of the class teachers. A total of 1,236 children <15 years of age were studied and analyzed. Slightly more females, 652 (52.8%), than males, 584 (47.2%), constituted the sample population giving a female/male ratio of 1.1:1. A total of 98 (7.93%) children had evidence of injury to the eye or its adnexa. Eyelid scar was the commonest (5.34%) followed by eyebrow scar (2.10%). Canthal scar was the next (0.32%). Two girls had monocular blindness from eye trauma (0.16%). One had leucoma, while the other had a dislocated lens. All the monocular blind children of this study were from the urban area. The home was the commonest environment for an eye injury (69.39%) followed by the school (20.41%). The farm was next in frequency (7.14%), especially among boys in the rural area. The church and the road/street constituted the remainder. Regarding persons causing the injury, the child’s playmate was the commonest (55.10%) followed by self (27.55%). Parents and guardians were the next (9.18%). These were injuries associated with corporal punishment. Corporal punishment-related eye injury, according to this study, appears to be common in the rural area and affects boys predominantly. Other human intermediary agents that cause an eye injury include passersby (2.04%), RTA (2.04%), siblings (2.04%), and others (1.02%). The primary agents that caused an eye injury were sticks/wood, 29 (29.60%); stone, 21 (21.43%); pieces of metal, 19 (19.39%); fall, 10 (10.20%); fight/fist blow, 9 (9.918%); plastic, 2 (2.04%); fingernails, 2 (2.04%); farm tools/fruits, 2 (2.04%); and RTA, glass, and headbutt, each 1.02%. Farm implements/fruits as well as fingernails appear to be fairly common primary agents that cause an eye injury in the rural Enugu, Nigeria. In terms of prevalence, there was no significant difference between the urban and rural areas. The findings from this study showed a high prevalence of eye injury among primary school children. In terms of treatment, 58.16% of the children with an eye injury had no form of treatment for it. The children from this study with monocular blindness did not receive adequate medical treatment. Treatment of an eye injury, according to this study, was sought from chemists (19.39%), at hospital/health centers (16.33%), at home (3.06%), and from traditional healers (3.06%). The persons who treated an eye injury, as observed from this study, were doctors (14.29%), nurses (4.08%), chemists (17.35%), and traditional healers and fathers (3.06% each). The frequency of noninjury-related diagnosis made in this study was refractive error, 4.85%; allergic conjunctivitis, 1.94%; oculocutaneous albinism, 0.24%; prepapillary vascular loops, 0.40%; and then ptosis, exotropia, stye, corneal opacity, and retinitis pigmentosa, 0.08% each. The annual incidence of an eye injury according to this study was 3.48%. The majority of the causes of an eye injury, as per this study, were preventable. Appropriate promotion of preventive eye care among children may go a long way in reducing the burden of blindness from eye injuries. PMID:26124686
Cummings, Kevin J; Rodriguez-Rivera, Lorraine D; Mitchell, Katharyn J; Hoelzer, Karin; Wiedmann, Martin; McDonough, Patrick L; Altier, Craig; Warnick, Lorin D; Perkins, Gillian A
Nosocomial salmonellosis continues to pose an important threat to veterinary medical teaching hospitals. The objectives of this study were to describe an outbreak of salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg within our hospital and to highlight its unique features, which can be used to help mitigate or prevent nosocomial outbreaks in the future. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients that were fecal culture-positive for Salmonella Oranienburg between January 1, 2006, and June 1, 2011, including historical, clinical, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) data. Salmonella Oranienburg was identified in 20 horses, five alpacas, and three cows during this time frame, with dates of admission spanning the period from August, 2006, through January, 2008. We consider most of these patients to have become infected through either nosocomial or on-farm transmission, as evidenced by molecular subtyping results and supportive epidemiologic data. Interpretation of PFGE results in this outbreak was challenging because of the identification of several closely related Salmonella Oranienburg subtypes. Furthermore, a high percentage of cases were fecal culture-positive for Salmonella Oranienburg within 24 h of admission. These patients initially appeared to represent new introductions of Salmonella into the hospital, but closer inspection of their medical records revealed epidemiologic links to the hospital following the index case. Cessation of this outbreak was observed following efforts to further heighten biosecurity efforts, with no known cases or positive environmental samples after January, 2008. This study demonstrates that a Salmonella-positive culture result within 24 h of admission does not exclude the hospital as the source of infection, and it underscores the important role played by veterinary medical teaching hospitals as nodes of Salmonella infection that can promote transmission outside of the hospital setting. PMID:24902121
Rantala, M; Hölsö, K; Lillas, A; Huovinen, P; Kaartinen, L
A database of the prescriptions of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of common infectious diseases in dogs at the Finnish Veterinary Teaching Hospital was searched to determine to what extent national guidelines were being followed. Twenty-two per cent of 5918 dogs were treated orally with antimicrobial drugs. The most commonly used drugs were beta-lactams (49 per cent) of which cephalexin and amoxycillin-clavulanate were most widely prescribed. The usage of fluoroquinolones was only 2.8 per cent. The prescription of antimicrobials for pyoderma was contrary to Finnish guidelines, but the use of cephalexin or amoxycillin-clavulanate as first-line drugs instead of macrolides or lincosamides or trimethoprim-sulphonamides was acceptable because of the presence of resistance by canine staphylococci. The drug most commonly used to treat acute urinary tract infections was trimethoprim-sulphonamide, in agreement with the guidelines. Antimicrobial drugs were used excessively after surgical procedures, and for treating acute gastrointestinal disturbances and small wounds and traumas. PMID:15461362
John, Lopamudra B.; Nischintha, S.; Ghose, Seetesh
Introduction: The art of forceps delivery though existing for centuries has earned a disreputation due to the possibility of poor maternal and fetal outcome. However, its safe use can reduce the rising cesarean section rates in the present times. This study is to see the outcome of its use in a teaching hospital over a 2 year period. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective observational study, 120 cases of forceps delivery were studied for maternal outcome such as injuries, postpartum hemorrhage, and fetal outcome such as Apgar score at birth, neonatal intensive care unit admissions, injury, and mortality. Results: The most common indication was fetal distress (47.5%). A total of 15 cases (12.5%) of maternal injuries occurred, with 2 uterine ruptures one of which was in a previous lower segment caesarean section case, 4 complete perineal tears and 9 minor cervical and vaginal lacerations. A total of 12 babies (10%) had poor Apgar scores who recovered after resuscitation and one out of them died, which was a case of multiple instrumentation. Conclusion: Forceps is a reasonable option for the obstetrician to reduce the caesarean section rates; however, extreme caution, proper expertise and judicial use of this instrument are required to prevent undue risk to mother and fetus. PMID:24678216
Rashid, Arif; Eyeson, Josiah; Haider, Diana; van Gijn, Daniel; Fan, Kathleen
We retrospectively evaluated mandibular fractures in patients who presented to a London teaching hospital between June 2005 and May 2010. A total of 1261 patients sustained 1994 mandibular fractures (mean 1.6, range 1-5). The incidence of mandibular fracture was higher in male patients (87%) than in females (13%) (male:female ratio 6.6:1), and the peak incidence was during the third decade for both genders. The most common site of fracture was the angle (30%), followed by the parasymphysis (27%), and condyle (27%). Overall, interpersonal violence was the most common cause (72%) followed by falls (18%). In male patients, the most common cause was interpersonal violence (77%); in females it was a fall (46%). The anatomical sites of fracture reflected their cause. Interpersonal violence typically resulted in fractures of the angle (36%) while road traffic accidents and falls resulted in condylar fractures (28% and 53%, respectively). A total of 66 (5%) patients sustained other maxillofacial fractures and 37 (3%) presented with non-maxillofacial fractures. Our findings are consistent with trends reported in other urban centres. PMID:23735734
France, F H; Beguin, C; van Breugel, R; Piret, C
Health records should be readily accessed by authorised persons for diagnosis, treatment and legal security purposes during patient's lifetime and thereafter for research and training purposes. Technology makes difficult the preservation of digital material, because of rapid changes in information media, hardware and software evolution, and because of the multiplicity of its location as well as the complexity of its environment. A committee in a large teaching hospital in Belgium, recommends two complementary approaches: (1) After a patient departure, all his health information should be managed by a unique organisation that would update regularly accesses to all data bases concerned by this patient. Health archives should be formatted using XML (Extensible Mark up Language) software family, and set on supports such as DVD-ROM, to be upgraded or updated when needed. This archive media is fast but not safe. (2) Computer output microfilm (COM) and scanners for non electronic data to be preserved appears to be also needed, as it is storage safe for at least 250 years and readable directly by eye. This archive media is safe but not fast. PMID:11187630
Tandon, Vishal R.; Khajuria, Vijay; Mahajan, Vivek; Sharma, Aman; Gillani, Zahid; Mahajan, Annil
Background & objectives: Drug-induced diseases (DIDs) are well known but least studied. Data on DIDs from India are not available. Hence, this retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken using suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR) data collected form Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI) to evaluate profile of DIDs over two years, in a tertiary care teaching hospital from north India. Methods: The suspected ADRs in the form of DID were evaluated for drug and disease related variables and were classified in terms of causality. Results: DID rate was 38.80 per cent. Mean duration of developing DIDs was 26.05 ± 9.6 days; 25.16 per cent had more than one co-morbid condition. Geriatric population (53.99%) accounted for maximum DIDs followed by adult (37.79%) and paediatric (8.21%). Maximum events were probable (93.98%) followed by possible (6.04%). All DIDs required intervention. Gastritis (7.43%), diarrhoea (5.92%), anaemia (4.79%), hypotension (2.77%), hepatic dysfunction (2.69%), hypertension (1.51%), myalgia (1.05%), and renal dysfunction (1.01%) were some of the DIDs. Anti tubercular treatment (ATT), anti retroviral treatment (ART), ceftriaxone injection, steroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antimicrobials and anticancer drugs were found as commonly offending drugs. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show that DIDs are a significant health problem in our country, which need more attention. PMID:26261164
Al-Faky, Yasser H.
Purpose This study evaluates the relative frequency of benign eyelid lesions presented to a teaching hospital in Saudi population. Patients and methods Charts of patients with benign eyelid lesions were retrospectively reviewed from January 2003 to December 2008. Clinical details included demographic data, symptoms and signs, surgical findings, primary diagnosis, and indication for biopsy were analyzed in a histopathologically confirmed benign eyelid lesions. Eyelid lesions were arranged according to their order of frequencies. Results A total of 222 biopsies were evaluated from 181 patients (male 39.2% and female 60.8%). The age of the patient at the time of biopsy ranged from 2 to 87 years old. The most common benign eyelid lesion encountered in our practice was sweat gland hidrocystoma followed by chalazion, skin tag, epidermal cyst, nevus, seborrheic keratosis, xanthelasma, and molluscum contagiosum respectively. Histopathological studies confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 95.9% (213/222) of specimens and was different from the clinical diagnosis in 4.1% (9/222) of the lesions which included seborrheic keratosis (n = 3), pilomatrixoma, steatocystoma, hemangioendothelioma, juvenile xanthogranuloma, calcinosis cutis, and syringocystadenoma papilliferum. No malignant lesion was labeled as benign. Conclusion Epidemiology of benign eyelid lesions in Saudi population is different from Far East or Western populations. Sweat gland hidrocystoma with classical clinical features and straightforward diagnosis is the most frequent lesion in our series which could be due to characteristic dry climate. PMID:23960994
Jha, Nisha; Rathore, Devendra S; Shankar, P Ravi; Gyawali, Sudesh
Background: Consumer’s knowledge and perception towards adverse drug reactions (ADR) can play an important role in ensuring a healthy lifestyle and proper use of medicines. Aims: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and perception towards pharma covigilance in general and consumer pharmacovigilance in particular among out patients in a teaching hospital of Nepal. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study using qualitative and quantitative methods was carried out from 1st May to 3 June 2013. Methods: Every fifth patient visiting the outpatient pharmacy was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Gender, age, educational qualification, profession and ethnicity were noted. Twenty-three patients were interviewed. Results: There were 10 males and 13 females. The age of the respondents ranged from 11 to 50 years with a mean age of 27.8 (SD = 5.61) years. Seven (30.43%) respondents were students studying in different levels. Thirteen (56.52%) participants were from the Newar community. Majority of the patients (86.95%) knew ADRs may be caused by the medicines they consume and 18 (78.26%) were of the opinion that ADRs should be reported to doctors and other health care professionals including pharmacists. Conclusion: Knowledge and perception were low in certain areas. There is a need for educational interventions for improving the awareness of patients and general public for ensuring medicine safety and promoting rational use of medicines. PMID:24783073
Parkhill, Amy L.; Schlehofer, Deirdre A.; Starr, Matthew J.; Barnett, Steven
Objective To implement a role-reversal exercise to increase first-year pharmacy students' awareness of communication barriers in the health care setting, especially for deaf and hard-of-hearing patients. Design Volunteers from the local deaf community conducted Deaf Strong Hospital, a role-reversal exercise in which students were the “patients.” Students navigated through a reception area, encounter with a physician, and having a prescription filled at a pharmacy without receiving or using any spoken language. Assessment A debriefing session was held in which small groups of students had the opportunity to ask questions of a panel of deaf and hard-of-hearing volunteers. On a survey administered to assess students' learning, 97% agreed or strongly agreed that the experience would likely impact their attitudes and behavior in future interactions with patients who did not speak English. Conclusions The role-reversal exercise was an effective method of teaching students that the delivery of health care is dependent on adequate communication between health care providers and the patient. PMID:21655407
M Eveillard; F Eb; B Tramier; J. L Schmit; F.-X Lescure; M Biendo; B Canarelli; F Daoudi; G Laurans; F Rousseau; D Thomas
From February 1999 to January 2000, a control programme to prevent the spread multi-resistant bacteria (MRB) was implemented in a French teaching hospital. This programme focused on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL), and was based on the application of barrier precautions (washing hands with antiseptic soaps, wearing disposable gloves and gowns, identifying MRB carriers). No
Jacob, Megan E; Hoppin, Jane A; Steers, Nicola; Davis, Jennifer L; Davidson, Gigi; Hansen, Bernie; Lunn, Katharine F; Murphy, K Marcia; Papich, Mark G
Objective-To determine opinions of faculty members with clinical appointments, clinical veterinarians, residents, and interns at a US veterinary teaching hospital regarding antimicrobial use and antimicrobial-resistant infections. Design-Cross-sectional survey. Sample-71 veterinarians. Procedures-An online questionnaire was sent to all veterinarians with clinical service responsibilities at the North Carolina State University veterinary teaching hospital (n = 167). The survey included 23 questions regarding demographic information, educational experiences, current prescribing practices, and personal opinions related to antimicrobial selection, antimicrobial use, restrictions on antimicrobial use, and antimicrobial resistance. Results-Of the 167 veterinarians eligible to participate, 71 (43%) responded. When respondents were asked to rate their level of concern (very concerned = 1; not concerned = 5) about antimicrobial-resistant infections, most (41/70 [59%]) assigned a score of 1, with mean score for all respondents being 1.5. Most survey participants rated their immediate colleagues (mean score, 1.9) as more concerned than other veterinary medical professionals (mean score, 2.3) and their clients (mean score, 3.4). Fifty-nine of 67 (88%) respondents felt that antimicrobials were overprescribed at the hospital, and 32 of 69 (46%) respondents felt uncomfortable prescribing at least one class of antimicrobials (eg, carbapenems or glycopeptides) because of public health concerns. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Findings indicated that veterinarians at this teaching hospital were concerned about antimicrobial resistance, thought antimicrobials were overprescribed, and supported restricting use of certain antimicrobial classes in companion animals. Findings may be useful in educating future veterinarians and altering prescribing habits and antimicrobial distribution systems in veterinary hospitals. PMID:26421407
Wang, J-T; Chen, Y-C; Chang, S-C; Chen, M-L; Pan, H-J; Chang, Y-Y; Sun, C-C; Wang, L-H; Wang, S-H; Lin, H-C; Chien, S-F; Tseng, M-S
In order to prevent transmission of hospital-acquired vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), the infection control team (ICT) of the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH) introduced practical guidelines from January 1997 to June 2000. All patients at NTUH found to be infected or colonized with VRE were placed in strict contact and cohort isolation. Surveillance cultures were obtained from other patients in close proximity in order to determine any spread of VRE. If identified, these patients were also placed in contact and cohort isolation, and their isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. During this period, 20 patients were found to have VRE. Based on typing results, there were three occasions where the same VRE strain had spread between index patients and roommates or patients staying in neighbouring rooms. No further spread occurred after applying strict contact isolation for these patients. The hospital-acquired VRE infection rate was around 0.03 to 0.09 per 1000 discharges during the intervention period. After July 2000, however, members of the ICT did not actively monitor or implement any interventions to control VRE. The rate then increased to 0.20 per 1000 discharges in 2001. This study suggests that interventions for the control of VRE, based on the guidelines from the Hospital Infection Control Practice Advisory Committee, are effective for control of VRE spread. Failure to adhere to these guidelines may result in an increase in hospital-acquired VRE. PMID:15474179
Richmond, D E
Hospital Quality Assurance (QA) programmes by divisions and departments of medicine have developed since the late 1970s. The Continuing Education Unit of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians played a facilitatory role in this development, especially in the first five to six years. A survey of 38 major teaching hospitals in Australia and New Zealand early in 1989 revealed that of the 35 responding all had introduced a formal QA programme in internal medicine between 1976 and 1988. The 'Austin Hospital Method' of review seminars was the most popular format when QA programmes were introduced and 26 hospitals still maintain such a format - at least as a component of their programmes. Most programmes have been subject to modification to suit local needs. There have been no serious problems in maintaining confidentiality of information derived from QA exercises. Despite a formidable array of constraining forces, the majority of continuing QA programmes appeared to be stable. Seventeen hospitals reported that the organising group was recognised as an official committee of their hospital's administration. Although eight programmes have been discontinued in the last four years, nearly as many new ones have been introduced. PMID:2372280
Bezzaoucha, A; El Kebboub, A; Aliche, A
Within the framework of the active information system set up by the department of epidemiology on hospital mortality at the Blida (Algeria) University Teaching Hospital (CHU), a study was carried out to assess the importance and evolution of neonatal mortality recorded at the CHU in the last eight years (1999-2006) as well as the causes of neonatal death. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) was used to encode the nature of the causal disease. Using the software EpiInfo™ in its sixth version performed data entry, monitoring and analysis. On the whole, 2,167 neonatal deaths were recorded at the CHU during the study period, representing a proportional mortality of 25.4%. Early neonatal mortality (0-6 days) accounted for 83.4% of all neonatal mortality. Nearly two thirds of early neonatal deaths occurred in the first three days of life. The monthly evolution of the number of early neonatal deaths revealed a significant rising trend during the study period (P < 0.05) without identification of seasonal effect. The sex ratio was practically the same for early and late neonatal mortality, respectively 1.4 and 1.5. Prematurity accounted for 42.1% of the deaths in early neonatal deaths, followed by respiratory distress syndrome and infection, respectively 17.0 and 14.4%. Infections, with a relative frequency of 36.2%, represented the most common cause for the late neonatal mortality. The rate of early neonatal mortality during the study period, when this one took for denominator the number of newborns admitted in neonatology to express the mortality of service, was 15.6%. Throughout the study period, the rate of early neonatal mortality, without counting the deaths among transferred newborms, could be estimated at 19.2 per 1,000 live births, while the overall neonatal mortality rate could be estimated at 22.3 per 1,000 live births. No significant temporal tendency was pointed out. The CHU of Blida is not characterized by a lower risk of neonatal mortality compared to that recorded at national level. The data of the CHU will contribute to assessing the achievement of objectives set by the National programme on the perinatality. PMID:20084486
Bhatt, Krutika M.; Malhotra, Supriya D.; Patel, Kamlesh P.; Patel, Varsha J.
Background: Neurological disorders are a significant cause of morbidity, mortality and adversely affect quality of life among pediatric patients. In India, more than 30% population is under 20 years of age, many of whom present late during the course of illness. Several drugs prescribed to pediatric population suffering from neurological disorders may be off label or unlicensed. Aims and Objectives: To study drug use pattern, identify off-label/unlicensed drug use and to check potential for drug-drug interactions in patients attending outpatient department of pediatric neurology at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methodology: Prescriptions of patients attending pediatric neurology outpatient department were collected prospectively for 8 weeks. They were analyzed for prescribing pattern, WHO core prescribing indicators, off-label/unlicensed drug use and potential for drug-drug interactions. Result: A total of 140 prescriptions were collected, male female ratio being 2:1. Epilepsy was the most common diagnosis (73.57%) followed by breath holding spells, migraine and developmental disorders. Partial seizure was the most common type of epilepsy (52.42%). Average number of drugs prescribed per patient was 1.56. Most commonly prescribed drug was sodium valproate (25.11%) followed by phenytoin (11.41%). About 16% of the prescriptions contained newer antiepileptic drugs. More than 60% of the drugs were prescribed from WHO essential drug list. In 8.57% of cases drugs were prescribed in off-label/unlicensed manner. Twenty-six percent prescriptions showed potential for drug interactions. Conclusion: Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease among children and adolescents. Sodium valproate is the most commonly prescribed drug. A few prescriptions contained off-label/unlicensed drugs. PMID:25278669
Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ivan, Rahul; Dasari, Ram; Revanker, Megha; Pravina, A.; Kuriakose, Sheetal
Background: Polypharmacy is considered as one of the major risk factors in precipitation of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Patient population at high risk include the elderly and patients with co morbidities as they are usually prescribed with more number of drugs. Critical evaluation of such prescriptions by pharmacist could result in identification and reduction of such problems. Objective: The study aims to assess the prevalence, severity and significance of potential DDI (pDDI) in general medicine wards of South Indian tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Method: A prospective observational study was conducted in a general medicine ward for a period of six months (September 2012 to February 2013). The socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and medication prescribed was documented in a specially designed form. Analysis was carried out to assess the prevalence, severity and significance of identified pDDIs using Micromedex. Descriptive and Univariate analysis were used to report the findings. Results: A total of 404 case records reviewed, 78 (19.3%) patients had pDDIs. A total of 139 (34.4%) pDDIs were reported during the study period. Majority (53.95%, n=75) of the interactions were moderate in intensity and significant in nature (53.23%, n=74). Positive association between number of pDDIs and age was observed. Conclusion: The prevalence of pDDIs was 19.3% which is lesser then previously reported studies from India. Patient with more co-morbidities and elders were observed with more pDDIs. The study highlighted the need to effectively monitor and patients prevent pDDIs to improve patient safety. PMID:25859467
Background Despite education and availability of drugs and vaccines, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still the most common severe liver infection in the world accounting for >1 million annual deaths worldwide. Transfusion of infected blood, unprotected sex and mother to child transmission are 3 key transmission routes of HBV in Ghana. There is high incidence of blood demanding health situations in northern Ghana resulting from anemia, accidents, malnutrition, etc. The higher the demand, the higher the possibility of transmitting HBV through infected blood. The aim of the investigation was to estimate the prevalence of HBV in blood donors which will provide justification for interventions that will help minimize or eliminate HBV infection in Ghana. Findings We investigated the prevalence of HBV infection among blood donors at Tamale Teaching Hospital. The Wondfo HBsAg test kit was used to determine the concentration of HBsAg in 6,462 (576 voluntary and 5,878 replacement) donors as being ?1 ng/ml. 10.79% of voluntary donors and 11.59% of replacement donors were HBsAg+. The 20-29 year group of voluntary donors was >2 times more likely to be HBsAg + than 40-60. Also the 20-29 year category of replacement donors was >4 times as likely to be HBsAg + than 50-69. Conclusions Risk of infection was age, sex and donor type dependent. The 20-29 year category had the highest prevalence of HBsAg + cases, mostly males residing within the metropolis. PMID:22357100
Gates, Maureen C.; Nolan, Thomas J.
The introduction of modern heartworm, flea, and tick preventatives has provided a safe and effective means of controlling companion animal endoparasites, but achieving good owner compliance remains an ongoing challenge for the veterinary profession. Based on a sample of patients from the veterinary teaching hospital at the University of Pennsylvania, this study retrospectively examined factors associated with preventative use and areas of potential weakness in client communication. Between 1999 and 2006, records of 5,276 canine and 1,226 feline patients were searched for signalment, survey results for heartworm, flea, and tick preventative use, date of visit, presenting complaint, vaccination history, and owner zip code. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Overall, only 13 - 23 % of patients were questioned about heartworm, flea, or tick preventative use during routine medical history taking. Patients with a prior history of parasites, younger patients, or those presenting with signs of cardiac disease were no more likely to be questioned about preventative use than healthy animals. Patients presenting to a specialty service were also less likely to be questioned. Approximately 74 - 79% of dogs and 12 – 38 % of cats in the sample were on preventative products at any given time. There was a distinct seasonality to preventative use corresponding to the heartworm transmission season from June through November in the northeastern United States. Only 50% of patients seen for a yearly physical examination in winter were reported to be using preventative products when surveyed later in the year, compared to the roughly 85% on patients in heartworm preventatives when they received their routine physical exam in spring. Month of presentation and neuter status were the only signalment factors significantly (P<0.05) associated with preventative use in the multivariate analysis. Findings from this study emphasize target areas for increasing owner compliance. PMID:19931925
Anderson, T J; Bryant, H E; Church, D L
The usefulness of a rapid latex agglutination method for the detection of Candida antigen (Cand-Tec; Ramco Laboratories. Texas) was retrospectively assessed in a university teaching hospital over a one year period. Patients were enrolled when the managing physician requested Cand-Tec testing for confirmation of possible invasive candidal infection. The majority of patients were critically ill; 56% were in the intensive care unit, and 30% subsequently died. Analyses were available from 79 patients and 125 samples. Thirty-three patients were diagnosed as having either definite invasive candidiasis or a high probability of infection based upon clinical, microbiological and tissue criteria. The sensitivity and specificity of Candida antigen detection was determined for doubling titres ?1:4 to ?1:16. If a titre of ?1:4 was used as the diagnostic cut-off level for definite candidal infection, overall sensitivity and specificity were 77% and 69%, respectively, while the positive predictive value was 48%, and the negative predictive value 89%. When patients with a high probability of invasive candidal infection were included in analyses for a cut-off titre of ?1:4, overall sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 69%, respectively, while the positive predictive value was 68%, and the negative predictive value 71%. The usefulness of the Cand-Tec test was not improved further for any subgroup of patients (including those in the intensive care unit), nor by following serial titres in individual patients. In this experience, the Cand-Tec test did not add enough information to include definitively or exclude invasive candidiasis in this high risk general patient population. PMID:22514365
Caujolle, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Roch Hospital, Nice Teaching Hospital, 5 rue Pierre Devoluy, BP 319, 06006 Nice cedex 01 (France); Mammar, Hamid [Department of Radiation Oncology, Protontherapy Center, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, 33 avenue Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 02 (France); Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, 33 avenue Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex, 02 (France); Pinon, Fabien [Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Roch Hospital, Nice Teaching Hospital, 5 rue Pierre Devoluy, BP 319, 06006 Nice cedex 01 (France); Herault, Joel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Protontherapy Center, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, 33 avenue Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 02 (France); Gastaud, Pierre [Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Roch Hospital, Nice Teaching Hospital, 5 rue Pierre Devoluy, BP 319, 06006 Nice cedex 01 (France)
Purpose: To present the results of uveal melanomas treated at Nice Teaching Hospital. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 886 consecutive patients referred to our clinic for the treatment of uveal melanomas by proton beam radiotherapy from June 1991 to December 2007. Survival rates were determined by using Kaplan-Meier estimates, and prognostic factors were evaluated using the log-rank test or Cox model. Results: The number (percent total) of subjects staged according to the TNM classification system (6th edition) of malignant tumors included 39 stage T1 (4.4%), 420 stage T2 (47.40%), 409 stage T3 (46.16%), and 18 stage T4 (2.03%) patients. The median follow-up was 63.7 months. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate at 5 years according to the sixth edition TNM classification was 92% for T1, 89% for T2, 67% for T3, and 62% for T4; and at 10 years, 86% for T1, 78% for T2, 43% for T3, and 41% for T4. Five factors were found to be associated with an increased death rate: advanced age, tumor thickness, largest tumor basal diameter, tumor volume, and tumor volume-to-eyeball volume ratio. The metastasis-free survival rates were 88.3 % at 5 years and 76.4 % at 10 years. The local control rates were 93.9% at 5 years and 92.1% at 10 years. The ocular conservation rates were 91.1% at 5 years and 87.3% at 10 years. Conclusions: We report the results of a large series of patients treated for uveal melanomas with a very long follow-up. Despite the large tumor volume treated, our results were similar to previously published findings relating to proton beam therapy.
Abdullah, Dellemin Che; Ibrahim, Noor Shufiza; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed
The main aim of this study was to determine the medication errors among geriatrics at the outpatient pharmacy in a teaching hospital in Kelantan and the strategies to minimize the prevalence. A retrospective study was conducted that involved screening of prescription for a one-month period (March 2001). Only 15.35% (1601 prescription) of a total 10,429 prescriptions were for geriatrics. The prescriptions that were found to have medication errors was 403. Therefore, the prevalence of medication errors per day was approximately 20 cases. Generally, the errors between both genders were found to be comparable and to be the highest for Malays and at the age of 60–64 years old. Administrative errors was recorded to be the highest which included patient’s particulars and validity of the prescriptions (70.22%) and drugs that available in HUSM (16.13%). Whereas the total of prescribing errors were low. Under prescribing errors were pharmaceutical error (0.99%) and clinical error (8.68%). Sixteen cases or 3.98% had more than 1 error. The highest prevalence went to geriatrics who received more than nine drugs (32.16%), geriatrics with more than 3 clinical diagnosis (10.06%), geriatrics who visited specialist clinics (37.52%) and treated by the specialists (31.07%). The estimated cost for the 403 medication errors in March was RM9,327 or RM301 per day that included the cost of drugs and humanistic cost. The projected cost of medication errors per year was RM 111,924. In conclusion, it is very clear that the role of pharmacist is very great in preventing and minimizing the medication errors beside the needs of correct prescription writing and other strategies by all of the heath care components. PMID:22973127
Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J
The introduction of modern heartworm, flea, and tick preventatives has provided a safe and effective means of controlling companion animal endoparasites, but achieving good owner compliance remains an ongoing challenge for the veterinary profession. Based on a sample of patients from the veterinary teaching hospital at the University of Pennsylvania, this study retrospectively examined factors associated with preventative use and areas of potential weakness in client communication. Between 1999 and 2006, records of 5276 canine and 1226 feline patients were searched for signalment, survey results for heartworm, flea, and tick preventative use, date of visit, presenting complaint, vaccination history, and owner zip code. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Overall, only 13-23% of patients were questioned about heartworm, flea, or tick preventative use during routine medical history taking. Patients with a prior history of parasites, younger patients, or those presenting with signs of cardiac disease were no more likely to be questioned about preventative use than healthy animals. Patients presenting to a specialty service were also less likely to be questioned. Approximately 74-79% of dogs and 12-38% of cats in the sample were on preventative products at any given time. There was a distinct seasonality to preventative use corresponding to the heartworm transmission season from June through November in the northeastern United States. Only 50% of patients seen for a yearly physical examination in winter were reported to be using preventative products when surveyed later in the year, compared to the roughly 85% on patients in heartworm preventatives when they received their routine physical examination in spring. Month of presentation and neuter status were the only signalment factors significantly (P<0.05) associated with preventative use in the multivariate analysis. Findings from this study emphasize target areas for increasing owner compliance. PMID:19931925
Inoue, Satoki; Abe, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Yu; Kawaguchi, Masahiko
An urban legend that "you will get hurt if you go to hospital at the beginning of the fiscal year" is in circulation, because people in general suppose that inexperienced newcomers start to work at clinical practice during that time period. We tried to determine whether this urban legend was true or not by using data from our operation management system. We retrospectively conducted a study to investigate whether the number of cannulation failures, which was used as an index of patient disadvantages at clinical practice, could be affected by the volume of residents in clinical participation. The number of insertion trials per case was not prominent in the first month of the fiscal year. However, the number of insertion trials per case increased in proportion to the average number of residents per day. It seems that there was no evidence to support the urban legend that "you will get hurt if you go to hospital at the beginning of the fiscal year." However, our results suggest that rather than an urban legend, we are now confronting the fact that patients may suffer from medical disadvantages in the teaching hospitals. PMID:24981561
Büscher, Rainer; Weber, Dominik; Büscher, Anja; Hölscher, Maite; Pohlhuis, Sandra; Groes, Bernhard; Hoyer, Peter F.
Since 1986 medical students at the University Children’s Hospital Essen are trained as peers in a two week intensive course in order to teach basic paediatric examination techniques to younger students. Student peers are employed by the University for one year. Emphasis of the peer teaching program is laid on the mediation of affective and sensomotorical skills e.g. get into contact with parents and children, as well as manual paediatric examination techniques. The aim of this study is to analyse whether student peers are able to impart specific paediatric examination skills as good as an experienced senior paediatric lecturer. 123 students were randomly assigned to a group with either a senior lecturer or a student peer teacher. Following one-hour teaching-sessions in small groups students had to demonstrate the learned skills in a 10 minute modified OSCE. In comparison to a control group consisting of 23 students who never examined a child before, both groups achieved a significantly better result. Medical students taught by student peers almost reached the same examination result as the group taught by paediatric teachers (21,7±4,1 vs. 22,6±3,6 of 36 points, p=0,203). Especially the part of the OSCE where exclusively practical skills where examined revealed no difference between the two groups (7,44±2,15 vs. 7,97±1,87 of a maximum of 16 points, p=0,154). The majority of students (77%) evaluated peer teaching as stimulating and helpful. The results of this quantitative teaching study reveal that peer teaching of selected skills can be a useful addition to classical paediatric teaching classes. PMID:23737922
Talleshi, Z.; Hosseininejad, S. M.; Khatir, Goli; Bozorghi, F.; Gorji, A. M. Heidari; Gorji, M. A. Heidari
Background and Aim: Ideally, the period of patients admitting in the Emergency Department (ED) should not exceed 6 hours. Prolonged of the patients admitting time affects the ED overcrowding, quality of patient care and patient satisfaction. To evaluate the efficacy of new programs and suggest new strategies to reduce the overcrowding in a typical overcrowded ED of general teaching hospital in Tehran city. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive case study, charts of patients held over 24 hours, in Imam Hossein Hospital affiliated to the Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, were reviewed from April 21rd on August 23rd, 2008. Results: Of 15,477 patients, 151 (1%) have been held in the ED over 24 hours. Reasons for this long-stay included:lack of available bed in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (125 patients), lack of available bed in related wards (18 patients), poor final decision — making by physician (eight patient) Conclusion: Long-term stay of patients in ED of teaching hospital is a major problem. The most frequent cause is a limitation of inpatient beds. The long stay time had not been affected by paraclinic procedures, multispecialities involvement or the lack of obvious diagnosis. The following solution is proposed: (1) creation of a holding unit, (2) active inter-facility transfer and (3) governing admittance of patients who need ICU care to related wards. PMID:24791047
Ugwu, Emmanuel O; Odoh, Godwin U; Obi, Samuel N; Ezugwu, Frank O
Background Male factor infertility presents one of the greatest challenges with respect to infertility treatment in Africa. Artificial insemination by donor semen (AID) is a cost-effective option for infertile couples, but its practice may be influenced by sociocultural considerations. The purpose of this study was to determine the awareness and acceptability of AID among infertile couples in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, and identify the sociocultural factors associated with its practices. Methods Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of 200 consecutive infertile couples accessing care at the infertility clinics of two tertiary health institutions in Enugu, Nigeria, between April 1, 2012 and January 31, 2013. Results Among the 384 respondents, the level of awareness and acceptability of AID were 46.6% (179/384) and 43% (77/179), respectively. The acceptability rate was significantly higher among female respondents, women with primary infertility, and those whose infertility had lasted for 5 years and beyond (P<0.05). The major reasons for nonacceptance of AID were religious conviction (34.7%, n=33), cultural concern (17.9%, n=17), fear of contracting an infection (17.9%, n=17), and fear of possibility of failure of the procedure (12.6%, n=12). Conclusion Health education and public enlightenment are advocated to increase awareness and dispel the current misconceptions about AID in our environment. PMID:24611022
Nkwo, Peter O; Lawani, Lucky O; Ubesie, Agozie C; Onodugo, Vincent A; Obu, Herbert A; Chinawa, Josephat M
Background: The Government of Enugu State plans to offer free perinatal services at the primary health care (PHC) centers in order to improve perinatal outcomes in the state, but it was not clear whether there are skilled birth attendants (SBAs) at the PHC level to implement the program. Aims: To determine whether there are sufficient numbers of SBAs in the public PHC system in Enugu State of Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved enumeration of health workers who worked at each public PHC facility in Enugu State and included verification of the qualifications and trainings of each health worker. Data analysis was performed with the help of Stata statistical package version 13 and results were presented in tables and as simple proportions. Results: There were 55 nurses and no midwife or doctor in the 152 PHC clinics studied. This number represents 0.36 nurses per health facility or about 9% (i.e., 55/608) of a minimum of 608 SBAs required for 24-h perinatal services at the 152 PHC clinics. There were 1233 junior community health extension worker/community health extension workers (JCHEW/CHEWs), averaging 8.1 JCHEW/CHEWs per PHC clinic. Conclusions: Enugu State has an acute shortage of SBAs. We recommend employment of qualified SBAs and in-service training of the JCHEW/CHEW and nurses to upgrade their midwifery skills. Incorporation of competency-based midwifery training into the pre-service training curricula of nurses and JCHEW/CHEW would provide a more sustainable supply of SBAs in Enugu state. PMID:25745571
Aim: To determine the types of functional disabilities in adult and paediatric burns survivors, with specific emphasis on potential risk and socio-economic factors of burn disabilities present in Ghana. Patients and Methods: The descriptive study was carried out in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana from May 2011 to April 2012. Burn survivors who came for follow-up visits after been discharged home and had functional disability were the participants of the study. They were physically examined and interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire after their informed consent/or that of their parents (in the cases of paediatrics burns survivors) was sought. Results: A total of 70 participants consented for the study. Their ages ranged from 8/12 – 78 years, with a mean age of 12±1.7 years. Majority (60.0%, N=42) of the participants had third degree burns. The nature of disabilities of participants were mostly scar contractures (42.9%, N=30) of which 36.7% (N=11) had impeded arm elevation; 23.3% (N=7) could not fold the palm or move the digits. From the multiple regression analysis risk factors for burn victim to have disability were paediatric age (OR=11.1, P=0.043), third degree of burn (OR=6.2, P=0.001) and anatomical part affected (OR=18.3, P=0.031). Socio-economic factors that affected burn disability victims were nuclear family compensation (OR=4.2, P=0.021), community mockery/stigmatization (OR=0.1, P=0.052) and caretakers time and finance (OR=5.2, P=0.033). Conclusion: The commonest functional disabilities recorded were scar contractions of the axilla region which had impeded the ability of the patients to lift the arm. Risk factors for burns disability included childhood age, third degree of burn incurred and anatomical part affected. Social factors influencing the lives of burn survivors with disability were good family and negative community interactions. Significant economical factors recorded were caretakers’ time and financial constrains. PMID:23638325
Zhang, XiaoYu; Li, XianPing; Wang, Min; Yue, HeJia; Li, PengLing; Liu, YaPing; Cao, Wei; Yao, DongMei; Liu, Li; Zhou, XiaoLan; Zheng, Rong; Bo, Tao
The emergence and spread of bacteria carrying the bla(NDM-1) gene has become a worldwide concern. Here, we report eight cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae with bla(NDM-1) in the neonatal ward of a teaching hospital in mainland China. Multilocus sequence typing showed that seven isolates were clonally related and confirmed them as sequence type 17 (ST17). One isolate belonged to ST433. These findings suggest continuous spread of bla(NDM-1) in mainland China and emphasize the need for intensive surveillance and precautions. PMID:25941224
Cuhadaroglu, Caglar; Erelel, Mustafa; Tabak, Levent; Kilicaslan, Zeki
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an established occupational disease affecting health care workers (HCWs). Determining the risk of TB among HCWs is important to enable authorites to take preventative measures in health care facilities and protect HCWs. This study was designed to assess the incidence of TB in a teaching hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. This study is retrospective study of health records of HCWs in our hospital from 1991 to 2000. Results The mean workforce of the hospital was 3359 + 33.2 between 1991 and 2000. There were 31 cases (15 male) meeting the diagnostic criteria for TB, comprising eight doctors, one nurse and 22 other health professionals. Mean incidence of TB was 96 per 100,000 for all HCWs (relative risk: 2.71), 79 per 100,000 for doctors (relative risk: 2.2), 14 per 100,000 for nurses and 121 per 100,000 (relative risk: 3.4) for other professionals. The mean incidence of TB in Turkey between 1991 and 2000 was 35.4 per 100,000. Incidence of TB was similar in the Departments of Chest Diseases and Clinical Medicine but there were no TB cases in the Basic Science and Managerial Departments. Conclusion HCWs in Turkey who work in clinics have an increased risk for TB. Post-graduate education and prevention programs reduce the risk of TB. Control programs to prevent nosocomial transmission of TB should be established in hospitals to reduce risk for HCWs. PMID:12144709
Tette, Edem; Yawson, Alfred E.; Tettey, Yao
Background Autopsies can provide a good indication of the quality of patient care, in terms of the accuracy of clinical diagnosis and the quality of treatment given. Designs This was a cross-sectional study among clinicians at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) in 2012. Data were collected with a 69-item, self-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 215 questionnaires were sent out and 119 clinicians responded. Data were collected on the benefits and utility of autopsies for medical practice, care of patients, and management of clinical wards. Survey data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics (i.e. proportions, ratios, and percentages). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Objective This study examined the views of clinicians regarding the utility of autopsies and their influence on clinical practice in a large teaching hospital in Ghana. Results Overall, clinicians in KBTH agreed that autopsy reports are useful in answering clinical questions (55/119; 46.2%), confirming or verifying clinical diagnoses (54/119; 45.4%), providing information on unsuspected diagnoses (40/119; 33.6%), and for medical education (90/119; 75.6%). Overall, 70/119 (58.8%) of clinicians agreed that autopsy findings improve completeness and reliability of death certification and provide information on clinical effectiveness of treatment and patient management. However, only 23/119 (19.3%) of sampled clinicians had personal interactions with a pathologist during autopsy processes and 93/119 (78.2%) had not attended any autopsy demonstrations in the past 6 months. Attendance of pathologists at clinicopathological meetings of clinical departments of KBTH was minimal. Unfortunately, the use of autopsy reports for auditing clinical diagnostic performance was not seen as essential. Conclusion Strengthening the interaction between doctors and pathologists is essential in improving the autopsy process and utilization in the hospital. KBTH should create opportunities for doctors to attend autopsy demonstrations and for pathologists to attend clinicopathological meetings in the hospital. PMID:24499743
Tess, Anjala; Vidyarthi, Arpana; Yang, Julius; Myers, Jennifer S
Integrating the quality and safety mission of teaching hospitals and graduate medical education (GME) is a necessary step to provide the next generation of physicians with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to participate in health system improvement. Although many teaching hospital and health system leaders have made substantial efforts to improve the quality of patient care, few have fully included residents and fellows, who deliver a large portion of that care, in their efforts. Despite expectations related to the engagement of these trainees in health care quality improvement and patient safety outlined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in the Clinical Learning Environment Review program, a structure for approaching this integration has not been described.In this article, the authors present a framework that they hope will assist teaching hospitals in integrating residents and fellows into their quality and safety efforts and in fostering a positive clinical learning environment for education and patient care. The authors define the six essential elements of this framework-organizational culture, teaching hospital-GME alignment, infrastructure, curricular resources, faculty development, and interprofessional collaboration. They then describe the organizational characteristics required for each element and offer concrete strategies to achieve integration. This framework is meant to be a starting point for the development of robust national models of infrastructure, alignment, and collaboration between GME and health care quality and safety leaders at teaching hospitals. PMID:26039138
Radha Ramana Murthy Gokula; John A Hickner; Mindy A Smith
BackgroundAn estimated 4 million patients per year in the United States are subjected to urinary catheterization. Approximately 25% of patients who are hospitalized have an indwelling urinary tract catheter placed at some time during their hospital stay and nosocomial urinary tract infections develop in 5% per day, with associated bacteremia in 4% of patients.
Tettey, Prudence; Badoe, Ebenezer; Adiku, Theophilus; Obodai, Eva; Odoom, John Kofi
Introduction Convulsions associated with fever and acute onset of unknown aetiology with case fatalities have become a long observed medical condition at the Child Health Department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Children admitted to the department with seizures of undetermined origin and fever has been a source of diagnostic confusion. Studies from the Asia Pacific region suggest a link with non-polio enteroviruses. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between non-polio enterovirus and acute encephalopathy causing neurological morbidity in children. Methods One hundred and fifty cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), throat swab and serum samples were collected from participants at the Child Health Department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital for virus isolation and characterization. Samples were cultured on cells and positive culture assayed by microneutralisation. Direct PCR as well as multiplex PCR were used to detect other viral agents present. Results Enterovirus isolation rate was approximately 0.67%. Intratypic differentiation by molecular characterization identified a poliovirus from vaccine origin. Further screening by real-time RT-PCR identified the virus as normal Sabin and not vaccine-derive poliovirus. No arbovirus was however detected. Conclusion Non-polio enteroviruses and chikugunya virus were found not to be the etiologic agent responsible for the convulsion with neurologic morbidity observed in the Ghanaian children. Investigation for other viral agents is recommended. PMID:25426190
Myers, Jennifer S; Nash, David B
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education recently announced its Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) program, which is designed to catalyze and promote the engagement of physician trainees in health care quality and patient safety activities that are essential to the delivery of high-quality patient care in U.S. teaching hospitals. In this Commentary, the authors argue that a strong organizational culture in quality improvement and patient safety is a necessary foundation for resident engagement in these areas. They describe residents' influence via their social networks on the behaviors and attitudes of peers and other health care providers and highlight this as a powerful driver for culture change in teaching hospitals. They also consider some of the potential unintended consequences of the CLER program and offer strategies to avoid them. The authors suggest that the CLER program provides an opportunity for health care and graduate medical education leaders to closely examine organizational quality and safety culture and the degree to which their residents are integrated in these efforts. They highlight the importance of developing collaborative interprofessional strategies to reach common goals to improve patient care. By sharpening the focus on patient safety, supervision, professionalism, patient care transitions, and the overall quality of health care delivery in the clinical learning environment during residents' formative training years, the hope is that the CLER program will inspire a new generation of physicians who possess and value these skills. PMID:25054414
Kooti, Sara; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Sarvari, Jamal
Background: The emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complicates the therapy of the related infections. Hospital isolates of A. baumannii are usually multidrug-resistant. The problem is compounded by increasing resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics including carbapenems. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and distribution of blaOXA-type carbapenemases genes among A. baumannii isolates from hospitalized patients in Shiraz, Southwest Iran. Materials and Methods: Two hundred A. baumannii isolates were recovered from different clinical specimens in four Shiraz teaching hospitals. Isolates were detected as A. baumannii by Microgen kit and PCR with specific primers of blaOXA-51-like gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by disk diffusion method for all the isolates. Multiplex PCR assays were performed for detection of blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like and blaOXA-58-like genes. Results: All the isolates were susceptible to colistin and polymyxin B. Moreover, all of them were resistant to piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ampicillin, ceftazidime, cefoxitin and aztreonam. Eighty (40%) isolates had positive results for blaOXA-23-like, 14 (7%) for blaOXA-24-like and 1 (0.5%) isolate for blaOXA-58-like. The co-existence of studied genes was detected for blaOXA-23-like plus blaOXA-24-like in nine (4.5%) isolates. Conclusions: The prevalence of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii isolates in Shiraz hospitals is high. The blaOXA-23-like gene was the most frequent carbapenemase identified among resistant A. baumannii isolated in Shiraz hospitals. The increasing incidence of A. baumannii is a serious concern, therefore control of this pathogen and taking preventive measures are emphasized.
Behamdouni, Genefer; Millar, Kathy
As the complexity of healthcare and expectations of comprehensive and transparent public accountability heighten, so too must a hospital's approach to assessing and managing risk. Over a period of two years, the area of patient safety and risk at our hospital has moved from a traditional focus on clinical risk management to an enterprise-wide risk management approach. One of the first community hospitals to embrace enterprise risk management (ERM), St. Joseph's Health Centre, in Toronto, Ontario, has seen early benefits in this transformational journey. This article discusses our approach to the development of an ERM program, tools used and lessons learned. PMID:20104041
Aim To monitor the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) caused by antihypertensive medicines prescribed in a university teaching hospital. Methods The present work was an open, non-comparative, observational study conducted on hypertensive patients attending the Medicine OPD of Majeedia Hospital, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India by conducting patient interviews and recording the data on ADR monitoring form as recommended by Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO), Government of India. Results A total of 21 adverse drug reactions were observed in 192 hypertensive patients. Incidence of adverse drug reactions was found to be higher in patients more than 40?years in age, and females experienced more ADRs (n = 14, 7.29%) than males, 7 (3.64%). Combination therapy was associated with more number of adverse drug reactions (66.7%) as against monotherapy (33.3%). Calcium channel blockers were found to be the most frequently associated drugs with adverse drug reactions (n = 7), followed by diuretics (n = 5), and ?-blockers (n = 4). Among individual drugs, amlodipine was found to be the commonest drug associated with adverse drug reactions (n = 7), followed by torasemide (n = 3). Adverse drug reactions associated with central nervous system were found to be the most frequent (42.8%) followed by musculo-skeletal complaints (23.8%) and gastro-intestinal disorders (14.3%). Conclusions The present pharmacovigilance study represents the adverse drug reaction profile of the antihypertensive medicines prescribed in our university teaching hospital. The above findings would be useful for physicians in rational prescribing. Calcium channel blockers were found to be the most frequently associated drugs with adverse drug reactions. PMID:23351598
Swapna, Mary A; Parvathy, Mohan
This study aims to determine the level of knowledge among staff nurses on Narcotic policy and ascertain their knowledge by structured teaching programme with pre-test, post-test method The study attempted to assess the knowledge on Narcotic policy among staff nurses before and after structured teaching programme; evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on narcotic policy among staff nurses; and to find out the association between post level of knowledge among staff nurses on narcotic policy and selected demographic variables. A quasi-experimental study was carried out with 60 staff nurses from BGS & Jeevani Sarvodaya Hospital, Bangalore. A structured knowledge questionnaire was used to evaluate the knowledge level on narcotic policy before & after an STP. Data were analysed with chi-square and t test. The result showed that there was a significant difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge scores as assessed by the paired t-test value at 36.766 (HS p = 0.001). There was significant association between knowledge and the selected demographic variables (age, area of experience and years of experience (p ? 0.05). Thus for this study one can conclude that STP could be an effective strategy to improve the knowledge of staff nurses on narcotic policy. PMID:26182822
Suzuki, Hiromichi; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Shichi, Daisuke; Hitomi, Shigemi; Ishikawa, Hiroichi; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Nakamura, Hidenori
Panipenem/betamipron (PAPM/BP) may be highly effective for life-threatening Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. However, the efficacy of PAPM/BP for S. pneumoniae infections has not been compared with that of other antimicrobial agents. We retrospectively compared PAPM/BP with other carbapenems for treatment of life-threatening infections in newly hospitalized adults with pneumococcal bacteremia. Clinical information for cases of pneumococcal bacteremia was collected from three teaching hospitals in Japan from January 2003 to December 2010. In total, 17 patients who received PAPM/BP therapy and 34 treated with other carbapenems (27 with meropenem, 4 with imipenem/cilastatin, and 3 with biapenem) were identified. The mean age (71 vs. 70 years old), sex distribution (women, 29 vs. 21 %), Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) (1.5 vs. 1.6), and rates of septic shock (29 vs. 38 %), and meningitis (5.9 vs. 8.8 %) did not differ significantly between the two groups. The inpatient mortality rates were lower in the PAPM/BP group (12 vs. 44 %, p = 0.03). Multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, CCI, and severe sepsis/septic shock showed that use of other carbapenems was associated with higher in-hospital mortality, with an odds ratio of 6.922 (95 % CI, 1.171-40.92) compared to PAPM/BP therapy. Initial PAPM/BP therapy might have a therapeutic advantage over other carbapenems in treatment of severe Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. PMID:23203218
Ikeako, LC; Ekwueme, OC; Ezegwui, HU; Okeke, TOC
Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major public health concern and enigma. A comprehensive knowledge of the modes of transmission is necessary to evolve an effective preventive strategy. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the vulnerability, knowledge and prevention of STIs among female traders of reproductive age in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on female traders aged 15-49 years at Ogbete Main Market, Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info 2000 version 3.3.1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta USA) was used to analyze the data and results were presented in tabular form. Results: A total of 200 female traders of reproductive age participated in the study. The mean (standard deviation) age was 26 (7.4) years. 16% (32/200) were adolescents. Knowledge of specific STIs was highest for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome 90% (130/200). Parents were poor sources of information as only 28.5% (57/200) respondents heard about STIs from their parents compared with 46% (92/200) from friends and peers. Risk factors identified were multiple sexual partners 75.5% (151/200), non-use of condoms 62% (124/200) and early debut 58% (116/200). Majority 67.5% (135/200) were aware that STIs could be treated by a visit to the doctor while 21.5% (43/200) preferred traditional/herbal healers. Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools’ curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before embarking on any vocation out-of-school is advocated. PMID:24669343
Rhatigan, Ronald M.
The study compared the diagnoses determined by 200 adult autopsies performed in 1968 and 200 autopsies 20 years later. Analysis indicated few changes in variety of case material despite declining autopsy rates and a changing racial mix of patients. Recommendations for maximizing the teaching impact of each autopsy are offered. (Author/DB)
Silva, Kesia Esther; Cayô, Rodrigo; Carvalhaes, Cecilia Godoy; Patussi Correia Sacchi, Flávia; Rodrigues-Costa, Fernanda; Ramos da Silva, Ana Carolina; Croda, Julio; Gales, Ana Cristina; Simionatto, Simone
We describe an outbreak caused by KPC-2- and IMP-10-producing Serratia marcescens isolates in a Brazilian teaching hospital. Tigecycline was the only active antimicrobial agent tested. The blaIMP-10 gene was located in a new class 1 integron, named In990, carried by a nonconjugative plasmid, in contrast to blaKPC-2. PMID:25878341
Jesus J. Pena; Melvin Cohen; Bernard Rosen; James E. Ramseur; Daniel Donohue
The hospital as an institution is both a place where ailing people seek and receive care and a common pathway for.the clinical education of medical students, nurses-and virtually the whole spectrum of health professionals. It provides continuing education for the practicing physician and increasingly serves the function of an institution of higher learning for whole neighborhoods, communities, and regions. This
Tan, Kar Way; Shankararaman, Venky
It was 2:35 am on a Saturday morning. Wiki Lim, process specialist from the Process Innovation Centre (PIC) of Hippi Care Hospital (HCH), desperately doodling on her notepad for ideas to improve service delivery at HCH's Emergency Department (ED). HCH has committed to the public that its ED would meet the service quality criterion of serving 90%…
Russe, Henry P.; And Others
The rising cost of medical care is seen in large part due to hospital costs, which many planners feel need to be curbed to bring the health care system under control. An Association of American Medical Colleges' survey of medical schools regarding cost containment educational activities is described. (Author/MLW)
Robert Maunder; Jonathan Hunter; Leslie Vincent; Jocelyn Bennett; Nathalie Peladeau; Molyn Leszcz; Joel Sadavoy; Lieve M. Verhaeghe; Rosalie Steinberg; Tony Mazzulli
Background: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Toronto, which began on Mar. 7, 2003, resulted in extraordinary public health and infection control measures. We aimed to describe the psychological and occupational im- pact of this event within a large hospital in the first 4 weeks of the outbreak and the subsequent administrative and mental health response. Methods:
Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Abdelrahim, Hisham Elhag Ahmed; Ab Rahman, Ab Fatah
Background Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) makes use of serum drug concentrations as an adjunct to decision-making. Preliminary data in our hospital showed that approximately one-fifth of all drugs monitored by TDM service were gentamicin. Objective In this study, we evaluated the costs associated with providing the service in patients with bronchopneumonia and treated with gentamicin. Methods We retrospectively collected data from medical records of patients admitted to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over a 5-year period. These patients were diagnosed with bronchopneumonia and were on gentamicin as part of their treatment. Five hospitalisation costs were calculated; (i) cost of laboratory and clinical investigations, (ii) cost associated with each gentamicin dose, (iii) fixed and operating costs of TDM service, (iv) cost of providing medical care, and (v) cost of hospital stay during gentamicin treatment. Results There were 1920 patients admitted with bronchopneumonia of which 67 (3.5%) had TDM service for gentamicin. Seventy-three percent (49/67) patients were eligible for final analysis. The duration of gentamicin therapy ranged from 3 to 15 days. The cost of providing one gentamicin assay was MYR25, and the average cost of TDM service for each patient was MYR104. The average total hospitalisation cost during gentamicin treatment for each patient was MYR442 (1EUR approx. MYR4.02). Conclusions Based on the hospital perspective, in patients with bronchopneumonia and treated with gentamicin, the provision of TDM service contributes to less than 25% of the total cost of hospitalization. PMID:24644520
Eveillard, M; Eb, F; Tramier, B; Schmit, J L; Lescure, F X; Biendo, M; Canarelli, B; Daoudi, F; Laurans, G; Rousseau, F; Thomas, D
From February 1999 to January 2000, a control programme to prevent the spread multi-resistant bacteria (MRB) was implemented in a French teaching hospital. This programme focused on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), and was based on the application of barrier precautions (washing hands with antiseptic soaps, wearing disposable gloves and gowns, identifying MRB carriers). No changes in antibiotic policy occurred during the year. Our aim was to conduct an evaluation of this programme by measuring incidence rates. Concurrently, the effect of barrier precautions was estimated in an indirect way, by documenting the availability of barrier precautions in MRB carriers' rooms and by analysing the monthly correlation between the supply of such material and the theoretical cumulated length of MRB carriers' isolation in six randomized wards. All MRB isolated in hospitalized patients were recorded, and differentiated between acquisition in our hospital or from elsewhere. For the analysis of trends, the year was divided in three periods of four months. Over the year, the global MRB incidence was 1.26 per 1000 patient-days (PD) [95% confidence interval (95%CI)=1.16-1.36]. The MRSA incidence was 0.89 per 1000 PD (95%CI=0.81- 0.97) and the ESBL incidence was 0.38 per 1000 PD (95% CI=0.33-0.43). The MRB incidence decreased significantly in all types of specialties except for surgical wards. The incidence decreased by 17.9% for MRSA, 54.9% for ESBL and 34.8% for both MRB. Concurrently, the proportion of strains acquired in our hospital decreased for MRSA (P for trend > or = 0.05) and ESBL (P for trend > or = 0.01), whereas the incidence of imported strains increased slightly. The proportion of multiresistant strains in S. aureus (36.8%) and Enterobacter aerogenes (37.0%) remained similar throughout the year. Thus, the decrease of the incidence concerned both resistant and susceptible strains. The availability of antiseptic soaps increased significantly (P for trend > or = 0.01). The amount of antiseptic soap ordered and the theoretical lengths of isolation were correlated on a monthly basis (Spearman coefficient = 0.72; P > or = 0.02). These results shows the efficacy of such a programme of MRB containment in a large hospital, provided barrier nursing is instigated, together with the availability of such material as antiseptic soap, to allow implementation. PMID:11170775
White, Stephen D; Bourdeau, Patrick; Bruet, Vincent; Kass, Philip H; Tell, Lisa; Hawkins, Michelle G
This retrospective study reviews the medical records of 301 reptiles with dermatological lesions that were examined at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California at Davis (VMTH-UCD) and the Unité de Dermatologie-Parasitologie-Mycologie, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Nantes (UDPM-ENVN) from 1 January 1992 to 1 July 2008. The most common reptile groups differed between the two hospitals, with lizards being the most common at the VMTH-UCD and chelonians at the UDPM-ENVN. At the VMTH-UCD, boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), ball pythons (Python regius) and other Python species were over-represented, and box turtles (Terrapene carolina) were under-represented in the dermatological lesion caseload. When institutional data were combined, 47% of all reptiles at both institutions with confirmed or suspected cases of sepsis had petechiae, with the highest association seen in chelonians at 82%. Dependent on institution and reptile group, from 29% to 64% of the cases had underlying husbandry issues. Sixty-two per cent of all cases were alive at final status. Veterinarians treating reptiles with skin disease should be aware of the following: (i) that boa constrictors and Python species may be predisposed to dermatological lesions; (ii) that client education is important for proper husbandry; and (iii) that there is a possible association between petechiae and sepsis, especially in chelonians. The conjectural association between certain skin lesions and sepsis remains to be confirmed by systematically derived data that demonstrate a causal relationship between the two. PMID:20887405
Nippak, Pria Md; Veracion, Julius Isidro; Muia, Maria; Ikeda-Douglas, Candace J; Isaac, Winston W
This report is a description of a balanced scorecard design and evaluation process conducted for the health information management department at an urban non-teaching hospital in Canada. The creation of the health information management balanced scorecard involved planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of the indicators within the balanced scorecard by the health information management department and required 6 months to complete. Following the evaluation, the majority of members of the health information management department agreed that the balanced scorecard is a useful tool in reporting key performance indicators. These findings support the success of the balanced scorecard development within this setting and will help the department to better align with the hospital's corporate strategy that is linked to the provision of efficient management through the evaluation of key performance indicators. Thus, it appears that the planning and selection process used to determine the key indicators within the study can aid in the development of a balanced scorecard for a health information management department. In addition, it is important to include the health information management department staff in all stages of the balanced scorecard development, implementation, and evaluation phases. PMID:24948412
Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Roozbeh, Fatemeh; Behmanesh, Farzaneh; Alavi, Leila
Background: Despite the effectiveness of prophylactic antimicrobials to prevent surgical site infection the use of antibiotic prophylaxis is often inappropriate. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the pattern of prophylactic antibiotic use in a teaching hospital affiliated to Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Patients and Methods: The current descriptive study included 8586 patients who received prophylactic antibiotics before surgery from April 2011 to March 2012, in Razi Hospital affiliated to Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Indications for antibiotic use, proper or inappropriate antibiotics, an antibiotic or combination of antibiotics, dosage and length of treatment for each patient based on the infectious disease textbook (Mandel's Principle and practice of infectious diseases) definitions were administrated. Results: Of the total 8586 patients who took antibiotics for preventive purposes, 4815 (56%) required antimicrobial prophylaxis, and 3771 (44%) patients did not. Of the 4815 patients who received prophylaxis, 86.9% received it appropriately, 13.1% received it inappropriately; 8.2% received inappropriate dosage, and 9.5% received antibiotic longer than 24 hours. Conclusions: The current study revealed that 44% of those who received prophylaxis did not need it. In the patients who received antibiotics, the most common mistakes were antibiotic selection followed by prolonged prophylaxis (> 24 hours) and excess dose. PMID:25774270
Benziane, H; Karfo, R; Siah, S; Taoufik, J
Infection has long been the main cause of mortality in severely burned patients. The aim of this work is to assess the prescription of antibiotics in our Burns and Plastic Surgery Department in relation to the recommendations of the manufacturers. A summary is provided of the specific features of these products. Patients hospitalized in the Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital, Rabat, Morocco, during the period January 2008/May 2009 and treated with antibiotics were considered. This retrospective study concerned 227 nominal medical prescriptions of antibiotics to 41 patients: 70% of the prescriptions were nondocumented. The commonest method of administration was by injection (89%). Various groups of therapeutic drugs were used: betalactamines (65%), glycopeptides (10.5%), aminosides (9%), quinolones (7%), and colistin (4.3%), plus 4.2% from other groups (metronidazole 500 mg, perfusion; fluconazol 100 mg/50 ml, injection; rifampicin 600 mg, perfusion; silver sulphadiazine, 2% fusidic acid cream). A total of 227 nominal medical prescriptions were analysed: the dosages and counter-indications were correctly respected. Three drug interactions were recorded (fluconazol-rifampicin, fluconazol-Saccharomyces boulardii, amikacin-vancomycin). This study shows the importance of the pharmaceutical analysis of prescriptions for antibiotics used in a burns unit, which are active but therefore very toxic. PMID:22396670
Jombo, G T A; Jonah, P; Ayeni, J A
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium that is often encountered in urinary tract infection (UTI) worldwide and has shown varied antibiotic susceptibility patterns. This study was therefore designed to ascertain the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the organism in Jos. Data on antimicrobial susceptibility of P. aeruginosa generated from urine samples by the Microbiology laboratory of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) was compiled for a period of three years (July 2001-June 2004). Additional information was obtained from the records department of the hospital. Samples were collected, stored and processed using standard laboratory procedures. The rate of isolation of P. aeruginosa from urine samples was found to be 4.6% (n=127) from 12,458 samples. From male population 34% (n=43) were isolated and 66 % (n=84) were recovered from females population with a significant (P < 0.05) gender difference. All the 100 % isolates of P. aeruginosa were resistant to penicillin, cloxacillin, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin and nalidixic acid. while 67% were sensitive to augmentin, sensitivity to ofloxacin was 92%, ciprofloxacin 92% and cefuroxime (86%). The resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa from urine against antibiotics was extremely high. Prophylactic antibiotic medication against UTI should be carefully weighed against this undesirable possible outcome (resistance). Susceptibility testing should be adopted as a basic routine laboratory procedure in hospitals and clinics in order to guide appropriately on the right choice of antibiotics. Finally, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and cefuroxime should be considered on isolation of P. aeruginosa from UTI, especially in the absence of a sensitivity report as well as for prophylactic options. PMID:19434224
Yang, Dagan; Zhou, Yunxian; Yang, Chunwei
Context As a patient safety measure, laboratories are required to have a critical values policy by regulatory agencies. Unfortunately, little information is available on repeat critical values for the same analyte(s) on the same patient. Objective To investigate the occurrence and distribution of repeat critical values and the relationship between the frequency of such values and patient outcome to provide information for hospitals on improving reporting policies. Methods Eleven laboratory critical value lists, including chemistry and hematology analytes, were selected from a tertiary hospital in China in the year 2010. The distribution and interval time for each repeat critical value were calculated. Serum potassium and platelet count were used as examples to illustrate the relationship between the frequency of the repeat critical values and patient outcome. Results All test items on the critical value list were prone to the occurrence of repeat critical values. On average, each patient who experienced critical values had 2.10 occurrences. The median interval time for each repeat critical value varied, with most being longer than 8 hours. For those patients who had repeat critical values of serum potassium and platelet count, along with the increased frequency, the patients had a longer hospital stay and a generally worse outcome. Conclusions Patient can have a number of repeat critical values and the frequency of these values is closely related to patient outcome. A careful evaluation is warranted if a laboratory chooses to adopt a policy of not reporting each repeat critical value. PMID:23516637
Akaji, EA; Ashiwaju, MO
Background: The aim of this study is to determine the oral health status of a sample of prisoners at the Federal Prison in Enugu. The health status of inmates in the prison system needs to be incorporated into data and reports that summarize the state of the nation's health; this will encourage the provision of health care to prisoners and foster development of the nation's health. Subjects and Methods: The study involved 230 inmates of the Federal Prison in Enugu. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather data on the demographic characteristics of the participants, social habits, methods and frequency of cleaning the mouth. Intraoral examination was carried out to determine caries and periodontal statuses employing decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index and community periodontal index of treatment needs respectively. The proportions of participants with other soft and hard tissue conditions were also recorded. Frequency distribution tables with mean values were generated for categorical variables and non-parametric test was used to relate DMFT values with frequency of cleaning the mouth. Results: Among the participants, 67.0% (154/230) had decayed teeth or tooth missing due to caries. None of the decayed teeth was restored yielding a 0.0% (0/230) index of restorative provision. Spearman correlation (rho) between ranks of DMFT and frequency of cleaning the mouth was -0.32 (95%CI=-0.43 to -0.19). 5.2% (12/230) participants had community periodontal index (CPI) score of 0 and 94.8% (218/230) had CPI of 1, 2, 3 or 4. Also, 56.1% (129/230) had extrinsic stains on their teeth and 17.3% (40/230) presented with fractured teeth. Conclusion: More than half of the participants were affected by dental caries and periodontal health was compromised in the majority of them. Measures to improve their oral health and the establishment of dental health-care facility in the institution are strongly encouraged. PMID:25221723
Viale, P; Tumietto, F; Giannella, M; Bartoletti, M; Tedeschi, S; Ambretti, S; Cristini, F; Gibertoni, C; Venturi, S; Cavalli, M; De Palma, A; Puggioli, M C; Mosci, D; Callea, E; Masina, R; Moro, M L; Lewis, R E
We performed a quasi-experimental study of a multifaceted infection control programme for reducing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) transmission and bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a 1420-bed university-affiliated teaching hospital during 2010-2014, with 30 months of follow-up. The programme consisted of the following: (a) rectal swab cultures were performed in all patients admitted to high-risk units (intensive-care units, transplantation, and haematology) to screen for CRE carriage, or for any room-mates of CRE-positive patients in other units; (b) cohorting of carriers, managed with strict contact precautions; (c) intensification of education, cleaning and hand-washing programmes; and (d) promotion of an antibiotic stewardship programme carbapenem-sparing regimen. The 30-month incidence rates of CRE-positive rectal cultures and BSIs were analysed with Poisson regression. Following the intervention, the incidence rate of CRE BSI (risk reduction 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p 0.03) and CRE colonization (risk reduction 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.97, p <0.0001) significantly decreased over a period of 30 months. After accounting for changes in monthly census and percentage of externally acquired cases (positive at ?72 h), the average institutional monthly rate of compliance with CRE screening procedures was the only independent variable associated with a declining monthly incidence of CRE colonization (p 0.002). The monthly incidence of CRE carriage was predictive of BSI (p 0.01). Targeted screening and cohorting of CRE carriers and infections, combined with cleaning, education, and antimicrobial stewardship measures, significantly decreased the institutional incidence of CRE BSI and colonization, despite endemically high CRE carriage rates in the region. PMID:25658534
Dufresne, Francois; Simmons, Bonnie; Vlachostergios, Panagiotis J.; Fleischner, Zachary; Joudeh, Ramsey; Blakeway, Jill
Abstract Background: Energy medicine (EM) derives from the theory that a subtle biologic energy can be influenced for therapeutic effect. EM practitioners may be trained within a specific tradition or work solo. Few studies have investigated the feasibility of solo-practitioner EM in hospitals. Objective: This study investigated the feasibility of EM as provided by a solo practitioner in inpatient and emergent settings. Design: Feasibility study, including a prospective case series. Settings: Inpatient units and emergency department. Outcome measures: To investigate the feasibility of EM, acceptability, demand, implementation, and practicality were assessed. Short-term clinical changes were documented by treating physicians. Participants: Patients, employees, and family members were enrolled in the study only if study physicians expected no or slow improvement in specific symptoms. Those with secondary gains or who could not communicate perception of symptom change were excluded. Results: EM was found to have acceptability and demand, and implementation was smooth because study procedures dovetailed with conventional clinical practice. Practicality was acceptable within the study but was low upon further application of EM because of cost of program administration. Twenty-four of 32 patients requested relief from pain. Of 50 reports of pain, 5 (10%) showed no improvement; 4 (8%), slight improvement; 3 (6%), moderate improvement; and 38 (76%), marked improvement. Twenty-one patients had issues other than pain. Of 29 non–pain-related problems, 3 (10%) showed no, 2 (7%) showed slight, 1 (4%) showed moderate, and 23 (79%) showed marked improvement. Changes during EM sessions were usually immediate. Conclusions: This study successfully implemented EM provided by a solo practitioner in inpatient and emergent hospital settings and found that acceptability and demand justified its presence. Most patients experienced marked, immediate improvement of symptoms associated with their chief complaint. Substantial practicality issues must be addressed to implement EM clinically in a hospital, however. PMID:26035025
Enosolease, M E; Imarengiaye, C O; Awodu, O A
Banked blood is a limited resource in Nigeria. We sought to evaluate factors that may further limit the effective utilisation of donor blood in a tertiary hospital in Benin City. The records of the blood transfusion unit of the hospital were studied to identify the methods of blood procurement and utilisation from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2002. A total of 11,021 units of blood were received in the blood transfusion unit within this period out of which 1491 (13.5%) donor blood samples were found unfit for transfusion and, hence, discarded. Commercial blood donation accounted for 95.3%, compared to 4.7% from replacement and volunteer donors. Commercial blood donation was a major risk factor for likely disposal of donor blood (chi2 = 74.3, p < 0.0001, OR = 21.1. 95% CI = 7.8-56.7). Expired units of blood with low PCV were discarded for lack of infrastructure to fractionate and store them. Over 0.8million naira (US$6000.00) is wasted annually on discarded units of donor blood mainly from commercial donors. A policy on blood procurement to include subgroup selection of donors and improved funding of blood banking services may enhance efficient and effective utilisation of donor blood. PMID:15623119
Chi, H; Sun, W; Chan, W T; Lee, H C; Fang, S B
In order to understand the childhood Salmonella enterocolitis in Taitung, we retrospectively collected the patients with the diagnosis of acute enterocolitis who were admitted to the pediatric wards of Taitung branch of Mackay Memorial Hospital from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1998. Salmonella enterocolitis accounted for 16.8% of the total cases of acute enterocolitis. The mean age of the patients was 14.6 +/- 14.1 months old. Seventy-nine patients were male and 78 patients were female. Eighty-two patients lived in the urban area and 75 patients lived in the suburbs. The mean duration from onset of illness to admission was 2.6 +/- 1.9 days. The mean duration of hospitalization was 6.6 +/- 4.8 days. The peak incidence was in August and September. The most common clinical manifestations were fever (74.5%) and blood stool (46.5%). In 157 patients, Salmonella serogroup B was isolated from stool in 115 patients. The rate of bacteremia was 4.5%. Serogroup D accounted for 28.6% of the bacteremia. Two patients developed meningitis and one patient had osteomyelitis. Of 88 patients examined for rotavirus, 12 had positive results. There was neither bowel perforation nor mortality recorded in our study. PMID:11729707
Obi, Okey Francis; Ugwuishiwu, Boniface O; Adeboye, Busayo S
In developed countries, large amount of anthropometric data are available for reference purposes; however, anthropometric data of Nigerian populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. A total of 377 rural agricultural workers within the age limit of 18-45 years, who are involved in different agricultural activities, were selected from six rural agriculture-based communities in Enugu state. Thirty-six anthropometric body dimensions were measured including age and body weight. A comparison between the male and female data indicated that data obtained from male agricultural workers were higher than that obtained from their female counterparts in all body dimensions except chest (bust) depth, abdominal breadth and hip breadth (sitting). In terms of design parameters, it was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India. Practitioner Summary. Anthropometric data of Nigeria populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. It was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India. PMID:25588899
Igwe, O; Omonona, O V; Onwuka, O S; Nnebedum, O D
This study investigated the impacts of asbestos wastes on soils in Emene-Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, generated by the activities of a major asbestos products manufacturing company in southeastern Nigeria. The methods of investigation included vertical electrical sounding (VES), 2-D horizontal resistivity profiling (HRP), induced polarization (IP) survey, chemical analysis of plant tissues and standard penetration tests of soil samples. The 2-D HRP and IP identified six closed waste pits alongside the two active pits. The VES revealed four geoelectrical layers in the area: from bottom to top; the inferred lithologies included dark shale, clay, gravel and recent sands. The geochemical data results revealed that Cd concentration of the soils of the waste pits is above the contaminated land exposure assessment soil guideline value for residential and allotment land uses. The geochemical pollution indices classified the soils as "unpolluted" to "extremely polluted". Bioconcentration factor of Pb in plant tissues was found to be above recommended limits of 0.045. The geotechnical parameters indices revealed that the soils varied from "very soft" to "stiff" and "very loose" to "medium". Soils of the active pits have very low strength and bearing capacity while closed pits have high strength and bearing capacity. It may be safe, therefore, to conclude that as the wastes are completely turned into soils, they will assume geotechnical properties similar to those of natural soils. PMID:25098901
Ahuja, Rajeev B; Goswami, Prasenjit
There is an extreme paucity of studies examining cost of burn care in the developing world when over 85% of burns take place in low and middle income countries. Modern burn care is perceived as an expensive, resource intensive endeavour, requiring specialized equipment, personnel and facilities to provide optimum care. If 'burn burden' of low and middle income countries (LMICs) is to be tackled deftly then besides prevention and education we need to have burn centres where 'reasonable' burn care can be delivered in face of resource constraints. This manuscript calculates the cost of providing inpatient burn management at a large, high volume, tertiary burn care facility of North India by estimating all cost drivers. In this one year study (1st February to 31st January 2012), in a 50 bedded burn unit, demographic parameters like age, gender, burn aetiology, % TBSA burns, duration of hospital stay and mortality were recorded for all patients. Cost drivers included in estimation were all medications and consumables, dressing material, investigations, blood products, dietary costs, and salaries of all personnel. Capital costs, utility costs and maintenance expenditure were excluded. The burn unit is constrained to provide conservative management, by and large, and is serviced by a large team of doctors and nurses. Entire treatment cost is borne by the hospital for all patients. 797 patients (208 <12 years old) with acute burn were admitted with a mean age of 23.04 years (range 18 days to 83 years). The mean BSA burn was 42.26% (ranging from 2% to 100%). 378/797 patients (47.43%) sustained up to 30% BSA burns, 216 patients (27.1%) had between 31 and 60% BSA and 203 patients (25.47%) had >60% BSA burns. 258/797 patients died (32.37%). Of these deaths 16, 68 and 174 patients were from 0 to 30%, 31 to 60% and >60% BSA groups, respectively. The mean length of hospitalization for all admissions was 7.86 days (ranging from 1 to 62 days) and for survivors it was 8.9 days. There were 299 operations carried out in the dedicated burns theatre. The total expenditure for the study period was Indian Rupees (Rs) 46,488,067 or US$ 845,237. At 1 US$=Rs 55 it makes the cost per patient to be US$ 1060.5. Almost 70% of cost of burn management resulted from salaries, followed by investigations (11.56%) and dressings (8.24%). The mean cost of investigations per patient was Rs 6742.46 (US$ 122.59). Only 147/797 patients received 322 units of blood. Thus, the average cost of blood transfusion for all admissions was Rs 521.17 (US$ 9.47). Our study is evidence to direct costs of providing burn care in a tertiary centre of a low income country, and the large number of patients in our study while averaging the costs also validates the estimates. The 'reasonability' of care being delivered is defined by adequate resuscitation, daily topical dressings, appropriate surgery (escharotomy, debridement, and skin grafting), adequate nutrition and physical therapy. The 'reasonability' of outcomes can be measured by mortality figures. The bottom line of management is strict observation by burn staff. The low mean hospital stay also reflects our admission and discharge policy which is to benefit the maximum number of patients who require resuscitative/intensive care, and who have extensive and deep wounds, or injury of critical nature. We conclude that providing burn care based on our model can be emulated in other LICs as the costing is driven by 'necessity of expense' rather than 'ability to spend'. PMID:23523069
Adesunkanmi, A R K; Makinde, O N
This study aimed to determine goitre prevalence in pregnant women. Seven hundred pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, were interviewed and examined. The mean age of the subjects was 27.8 years, with mean parity of 2.65. Mean gestation was 28.5 weeks. A total of 97.4% were resident in Ilesa and surrounding towns and villages. Well or stream was the main water supply for nearly all the subjects. Only 7.3% of the subjects showed no thyroid enlargement. Early enlargement (1(a) and 1(b)) occurred in 441 (63%) patients, Grade 2 enlargement in 166 (23.2%) and a grossly enlarged goitre in 40 (5.7%). The goitre rate was correlated with the age and parity of the patients. PMID:12745559
Bronsard, N; Chignon Sicard, B; Amoretti, N; Rottier, H; Ertz, P; de Peretti, F
Digital imaging is a daily practice in traumatology. Such photographs should remain confidential. However, there is a need for objectivity concerning the circumstances and clinical follow-up for trauma patients. This paper describes how to conserve these photographs within the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) safely as regards identity and confidentiality. A computer converts the photographs into DICOM files. The DICOM image is associated to a reconciliation layer, validated by the physician in charge, and then included in the hospital PACS. This improves transmission from one medical team to another, both initially and after the accident if an expert medical opinion is required. The literature has demonstrated the value of photographs in modern medicine, but the technical and legal challenges are many. They enhance the computerized medical records. Identification, confidentiality and integration in the PACS are obstacles that we have now overcome. PMID:25817905
Weigel, Charlene; Suen, Winnie; Gupte, Gouri
The overall objective of this initiative was to develop a quality improvement (QI) curriculum using Lean methodology for internal medicine residents at Boston Medical Center, a safety net academic hospital. A total of 90 residents and 8 School of Public Health students participated in a series of four, 60- to 90-minute interactive and hands-on QI sessions. Seventeen QI project plans were created and conducted over a 4-month period. The curriculum facilitated internal medicine residents' learning about QI and development of positive attitudes toward QI (assessed using pre- and post-attitude surveys) and exposed them to an interprofessional team structure that duplicates future working relationships. This QI curriculum can be an educational model of how health care trainees can work collaboratively to improve health care quality. PMID:23382452
Ohnishi, Tsukasa; Adachi, Mitsuru
In January 2004, 20 patients and 19 staff in one ward became ill in an outbreak of norovirus-related gastroenteritis over a 12-day period. The epidemic curve indicated person-to-person transmission. Infection control measures were instituted in consultation with the government health authorities. A prompt rigorous response may have prevented spread to other wards. In March 2004, 54 staff and 1 member of a patient's family became ill in an outbreak of gastroenteritis. The source of norovirus contamination was associated with food served at the hospital restaurant. Secondary infection was prevented because the outbreak was recognized early and staff members with gastroenteritis symptoms were asked to stay home. Immediate control measures, such as identification and announcement of the outbreak, isolation of symptomatic individuals from others, personal protection, helped control the infection. PMID:18095467
Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Ugwu, George Onyemaechi; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Ezugwu, Euzebus Chinonye; Onah, Paul; Onwuka, Chidinma Ifechi
Background Interdisciplinary team working could facilitate the efficient provision and coordination of increasingly diverse health services, thereby improving the quality of patient care. The purpose of this study was to describe knowledge of interdisciplinary team working among obstetricians and gynecologists in two teaching hospitals in South East Nigeria and to determine their attitude toward an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to patient care in these institutions. Methods This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 17.0 for Windows. Results In total, 116 doctors participated in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9±7.0 (range 22–51) years. Approximately 74% of respondents were aware of the concept of interdisciplinary team working. Approximately 15% of respondents who were aware of the concept of interdisciplinary team working had very good knowledge of it; 52% had good knowledge and 33% had poor knowledge. Twenty-nine percent of knowledgeable respondents reported ever receiving formal teaching/training on interdisciplinary team working in the course of their professional development. About 78% of those aware of team working believed that interdisciplinary teams would be useful in obstetrics and gynecology practice in Nigeria, with 89% stating that it would be very useful. Approximately 77% of those aware of team working would support establishment and implementation of interdisciplinary teams at their centers. Conclusion There was a high degree of knowledge of the concept and a positive attitude toward interdisciplinary team working among obstetricians and gynecologists in the study centers. This suggests that the attitude of physicians may not be an impediment to implementation of a collaborative interdisciplinary approach to clinical care in the study centers. PMID:26064058
Mohajjel-Aghdam, Alireza; Hassankhani, Hadi; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Khameneh, Saied; Moghaddam, Sara
Introduction: Nursing profession requires knowledge of ethics to guide performance. The nature of this profession necessitates ethical care more than routine care. Today, worldwide definition of professional ethic code has been done based on human and ethical issues in the communication between nurse and patient. To improve all dimensions of nursing, we need to respect ethic codes. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge and performance about nursing ethic codes from nurses' and patients' perspective. Methods: A descriptive study Conducted upon 345 nurses and 500 inpatients in six teaching hospitals of Tabriz, 2012. To investigate nurses' knowledge and performance, data were collected by using structured questionnaires. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive and analytic statistics, independent t-test and ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient, in SPSS13. Results: Most of the nurses were female, married, educated at BS degree and 86.4% of them were aware of Ethic codes also 91.9% of nurses and 41.8% of patients represented nurses respect ethic codes. Nurses' and patients' perspective about ethic codes differed significantly. Significant relationship was found between nurses' knowledge of ethic codes and job satisfaction and complaint of ethical performance. Conclusion: According to the results, consideration to teaching ethic codes in nursing curriculum for student and continuous education for staff is proposed, on the other hand recognizing failures of the health system, optimizing nursing care, attempt to inform patients about Nursing ethic codes, promote patient rights and achieve patient satisfaction can minimize the differences between the two perspectives. PMID:25276730
Mohebbifar, Rafat; Zakaria Kiaei, Mohammad; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Mohseni, Mohammad
Recognition of career motivators and understanding of managers and employees in prioritizing them, in order to plan incentives for this understanding, can play an important role in increasing productivity and creating harmony between the goals of the organization and staff. This study was done to survey the importance of career motivating factors from perspective of employees and managers in educational hospitals of Iran. In this study 269 from a total of 1843 employees of educational hospitals in Qazvin province of Iran were selected through Quota-Random sampling and studied along with all 49 Managers. Lawrence Lindale questionnaire with 10 factors where used in order to determine motivational priorities. The results indicated that among the 10 studied motivational factors, from employees' viewpoint; "Good wages", "Good Working Conditions" and "Job Security" have the greatest roles in motivating employees. In the context of perspective agreement amongst employees and managers, the results showed 20 percent agreement. In this study, results of "Independent T" test showed a significant difference in comparison, between prioritizing employees' view and prediction of managers in the factors of "Job Security" (p = 0/031) and "Interesting Work" (p = 0/001). With respect to increase disagreement in the views of managers and employees as compared to previous studies, Managers need to pay more attention to cognition of motivational factors and make their viewpoints closer to actual motivational need of their employees. Attention to this fact can be a great help to the growth and productivity of the organization, making the organizational and individual goals closer and also keeping managers safe from execution of constant and undue motivational patterns. PMID:25363113
Di Gregorio, Sabrina; Perazzi, Beatriz; Ordońez, Andrea Martinez; De Gregorio, Stella; Foccoli, Monica; Lasala, María Beatriz; García, Susana; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Angela
The emergence of vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous VISA (hVISA) is of major concern worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the prevalence, phenotypic and molecular features of hVISA strains isolated from bacteremic patients and to determine the clinical significance of the hVISA phenotype in patients with bacteremia. A total of 104 S. aureus blood isolates were collected from a teaching hospital of Argentina between August 2009 and November 2010. No VISA isolate was recovered, and 3 out of 92 patients (3.3%) were infected with hVISA, 2 of them methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (4.5% of MRSA). Macro Etest and prediffusion method detected 3/3 and 2/3 hVISA respectively. Considering the type of bacteremia, the three cases were distributed as follows: two patients had suffered multiple episodes of bacteremia (both hVISA strains recovered in the second episode), while only one patient had suffered a single episode of bacteremia with hVISA infection. MRSA bloodstream isolates exhibiting the hVISA phenotype were related to HA-MRSA Cordobes clone (ST5-SCCmec I-spa t149) and MRSA Argentinean pediatric clone (ST100-SCCmec IVNV-spa t002), but not to CA-MRSA-ST30-SCCmec IV-spa t019 clone that was one of the most frequent in our country. Although still relatively infrequent in our hospital, hVISA strains were significantly associated with multiple episodes of bacteremia (p=0.037) and genetically unrelated. PMID:25535825
Shweta, Kumari; Kumar, Sachin; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Jindal, Surinder Kumar; Kumar, Ashok
Background: There is a paucity of cost analytical studies from resource constrained developing countries defining intensive care costs and their containment. Objective: Economic analysis of costs in a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of a tertiary care teaching hospital in northern India. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 74 patients admitted in the RICU. Costs were segregated into fixed and variable costs. Total and categorized costs averaged per day and costs incurred on the first day of the RICU stay were calculated. Correlation of the costs was performed with the length of stay, length of mechanical ventilation, survival, and therapeutic intervention scoring system-28 (TISS-28). Results: The total cost per day was Indian rupees (INR) 10,364 (US $ 222). 46.4% of the total cost was borne by hospital and rest by patients. The mean cost represented 36.8% of the total cost and 69.8% of the variable cost. Expenditure on personnel salary constituted 37% of the total costs and 86% of the fixed cost. Length of stay in RICU was significantly higher in nonsurvivors (14.73 ± 13.6 days) vs. survivors (8.3 ± 7.8 days) (P < 0.05). The TISS-28 score points in survivors was 30.6 vs. nonsurvivors 69.2 per nurse (P < 0.05) correlating strongly with the total cost (r = 0.91). Conclusion: Although considerably less expensive than in economically developed countries, intensive care in India remains expensive relative to the cost of living. The cost block methodology provides a framework for cost estimation, aids resource allocation and allows international comparisons of economic models. PMID:23983411
Saghaeiannejad-Isfahani, Sakineh; Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Habibi, Mahboobeh; Mirzaeian, Razieh; Nasirian, Mansoreh; Rad, Javad Sharifi
Background and purpose: The user’s satisfaction with information system in fact denotes the extent the user is satisfied with the system’s achievement in fulfilling his/her information requirements. This study tries to explore the users’ satisfaction with hospital information systems (HISs) based on DeLone and McLean’s model focusing on the medical-teaching hospitals of Isfahan city. Methodology: This study which was applied and descriptive-analytical in nature was carried out in the medical-teaching hospitals of Isfahan city in 2009. Research population consisted of the system users from which a sample was selected using random sampling method. The size of the sample was 228. Data collection instrument was a self-developed questionnaire produced based on the satisfaction criterion in the DeLone and McLean’s model. Its content validity was assessed based on the opinions given by the computer sciences professionals with its estimated Cronbach’s alpha found to be 92.2%. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Findings: As the findings of the study showed, the differences among the mean scores obtained for the satisfaction with different kinds of HISs in use in the hospitals were statistically significant (p value?0.05). Generally, Kowsar System (old version) and Pouya Samaneh Diva system gained the highest and lowest mean scores for the criterion in question, respectively. The overall mean score for the satisfaction was 54.6% for different types of systems and 55.6% among the hospitals. Conclusion: Given the findings of the study, it can be argued that based on the used model, the level of users’ satisfaction with the systems in question was relatively good. However, to achieve the total optimum condition, when designing the system, the factors affecting the enhancement of the users’ satisfaction and the type of hospital activity and specialty must be given special consideration. PMID:25132711
Background Uterine rupture is one of the most devastating complications of labour that exposes the mother and foetus to grave danger hence contributing to the high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity in Uganda. Every year, 6000 women die due to complications of pregnancy and childbirth, uterine rupture accounts for about 8% of all maternal deaths. The objective of this study was to establish the incidence of uterine rupture, predisposing factors, maternal and fetal outcomes and modes of management at a regional referral university hospital in South-western Uganda. Methods Case–control design of women with uterine rupture during 2005–2006. Controls were women who had spontaneous vaginal delivery or were delivered by caesarean section without uterine rupture as a complication. For every case, three consecutive in-patient chart numbers were picked and retrieved as controls. All available case files, labour ward and theater records were reviewed. Results A total of 83 cases of uterine rupture out of 10940 deliveries were recorded giving an incidence of uterine rupture of 1 in 131 deliveries. Predisposing factors for uterine rupture were previous cesarean section delivery(OR 5.3 95% CI 2.7-10.2), attending?4 antenatal visits (OR 3.3 95% CI 1.6-6.9), parity???5(OR 3.67 95% CI 2.0-6.72), no formal education (OR 2.0 95% CI 1.0-3.9), use of herbs (OR15.2 95% CI 6.2-37.0), self referral (OR 6.1 95% CI 3.3-11.2) and living in a distance >5 km from the facility (OR 10.86 95% CI 1.46-81.03). There were 106 maternal deaths during the study period giving a facility maternal mortality ratio of 1034 /100,000 live births, there were 10 maternal deaths due to uterine rupture giving a case fatality rate of 12%. Conclusion Uterine rupture still remains one of the major causes of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality in Mbarara Regional referral Hospital in Western Uganda. Promotion of skilled attendance at birth, use of family planning among those at high risk, avoiding use of herbs during pregnancy and labour, correct use of partograph and preventing un necesarry c-sections are essential in reducing the occurences of uterine repture. PMID:23718798
Background Cut throat injuries though rarely reported in literature pose a great therapeutic challenge because multiple vital structures are vulnerable to injuries in the small, confined unprotected area. A sudden increase in the number of cut throat patients in our centre in recent years prompted the authors to analyze this problem. This study was conducted in our local setting to describe the etiology, patterns and treatment outcome of these injuries. Methods This was a combined retrospective and prospective study of cut throat injury patients who were managed at Bugando Medical Centre between February 2009 and January 2013. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0. Results A total of 98 patients with cut throat injuries were studied. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2.4: 1. The median age of patients was 26 years (range 8 to 78 years). Majority of patients (79.6%) had no employment and most of them (65.3%) came from rural community. Homicide was the commonest (55.1%) cause, followed by suicidal attempts (34.7%) and accidental (10.2%) injuries. Interpersonal conflict (24.4%) was the most common motivating factor for homicidal injury whereas psychiatric illness (16.2%) and road traffic accidents (9.2%) were the most frequent motivating factors of suicidal attempt and accidental injuries respectively. The majority of injuries were in Zone II accounting for 65.3% of cases and most of them had laryngeal (57.1%) injury. Surgical debridement, laryngeal/hypopharynx repair and tracheostomy were the most common surgical procedures performed in 93.9%, 73.5% and 70.4% of patients respectively. Postoperative complication rate was 57.1%, the commonest being surgical site infections in 28.1% of patients and it was significantly associated with late presentation and anatomical zones (P?0.001). The overall median duration of hospitalization was 12 days. Patients who had postoperative complications stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (p?=?0.011). Mortality rate was 11.2% and was significantly associated with co-morbidities, delayed presentation and presence of complications (p?0.001). The follow up of patients was poor. Conclusions Cut throat injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young adult males in our setting. Addressing the root causes of violence such as poverty, unemployment, and substance abuse will reduce the incidence of these injuries in our environment. PMID:24423426
Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p < 0.001); 43.2% in auxiliaries, 26.1% in nurses, 18.9% among physicians, and 34.7% among other non-health professionals (p = 0.024). The findings showed a very high level of agreement with smoking bans, even among smokers, despite the fact that 70.3% of the smokers smoked on the premises and 76% of staff reported being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). In addition 42.8% reported that SHS was unpleasant and 28.3% admitted complaining. MLR showed that smoking behaviour was the most important predictor of TC attitudes. Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change. PMID:21943400
Chen, Hongbin; Wang, Zhanwei; Li, Henan; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Chunjiang; He, Wenqiang; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui
To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of biapenem, arbekacin, and cefminox against different gram-negative bacterial isolates in China, a total of 100 non-duplicated Escherichia coli, 100 Acinetobacter baumannii, 100 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 99 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected from 6 teaching hospitals in China in 2012. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of biapenem, arbekacin, cefminox and 13 other antibiotics were determined by the broth microdilution method. The carbapenems (biapenem, meropenem, and imipenem) exhibited high antimicrobial activity against E. coli (98%) and K. pneumoniae (?95%), followed by colistin and amikacin. The MIC50 and MIC90 of biapenem against E. coli were ?0.06 mg/L and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. For K. pneumoniae, the MIC50 and MIC90 of biapenem were 0.25 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 of cefminox against E. coli were 1.0 mg/L and 4.0 mg/L, respectively. The resistance rates of A. baumannii to most of the antibiotics were more than 50%, except for colistin. Amikacin was the most active antibiotic against P. aeruginosa (97%), followed by colistin (93%). The MIC50 and MIC90 of arbekacin against P. aeruginosa were 2.0 mg/L and 8.0 mg/L, respectively. In conclusion, carbapenems, colistin, amikacin, and arbekacin exhibited high antimicrobial activities against gram-negative bacteria, except A. baumannii. PMID:25672407
Ankrah, T C; Roberts, M A; Antwi, P; Atubrah, M P; Bawuah, P P; Kotoh, S; Acheampong, J W; Wood, J G; Boateng, K A; Mingle, J A
In 914 consecutive medical admissions to Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, the prevalence of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus type I (HIV-I) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 2 (HIV-2) was 12.6%. The prevalence in females was twice that found in males. The infection rate was maximum in the age group 25-29 years for females (45%) and 30-34 years for males (29%). There were 7 cases infected with HIV-2 alone, 55 cases infected with HIV-I alone and 53 cases with dual infection. The cases with HIV-2 infection tended to be older than those with HIV-I infection. For detecting HIV seropositivity in our patients the World Health Organization recommended case definition for AIDS in Africa gave a sensitivity of 32%, a specificity of 93% and a positive predictive value of 42%. The case definition gave the highest specificity and positive predictive values when cases of tuberculosis were not included in the analysis. PMID:7803336
Afhami, Sh; Hadadi, A; Khorami, E; Seifi, A; Bazaz, N Esmailpour
Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common health-care-associated infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and computer-assisted diagnosis and surveillance is called for. The frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was assessed prospectively during a 6-month period in the ICUs of a teaching hospital in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. To determine the accuracy of the Iranian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (INIS) system, patient data were input to the software and compared with physicians' judgement. The frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was 21.6%, or 9.96 episodes per 1000 ventilator days. The duration of admission to the ICU, duration of mechanical ventilator and number of re-intubations were significantly higher in patients who developed pneumonia. The INIS system identified 100% of cases, with no false-positive or false-negative results. Compared with developed countries, the frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was high in our ICUs, and INIS software was accurate in diagnosing nosocomial infection. PMID:24313153
Boretti, Vanessa Stolf; Corręa, Renata Nunes; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leăo, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Silva, Célia Regina Gonçalves e
Objective: To evaluate the presence of microorganisms of the genus Staphylococcus and Streptococcus on toys in the playroom of a teaching hospital, as well to as analyze the antimicrobial resistance from isolated strains. Methods: Samples were collected from 60 toys, using wet swabs, soon after being used by the children. The samples were inoculated in enriched and selective agar for isolation and later identification of the microorganisms. Antibiogram testing was performed by agar diffusion technique. Results: The genus Staphylococcus was present in 87.0% (52/60) of the toys. Seventy-three strains were isolated, with 29.0% (21/73) coagulase-positive and 71.0% (52/73) coagulasenegative. Among the coagulase-negative strains, 90.4% were resistant to penicillin, 65.4% to oxacillin, 28.8% to clarithromycin, 61.5% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. Among the coagulase-positive strains, 76.2% were resistant to penicillin, 23.8% to oxacillin, 23.8% to clarithromycin, 47.6% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. The genus Streptococcus was not detected in any of the evaluated toys. Conclusions: Toys can be contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria with antimicrobial resistance, representing a possible source of nosocomial infection for patients who are already debilitated. PMID:25479842
Philip, Keir E J; Pack, Emma; Cambiano, Valentina; Rollmann, Hannah; Weil, Simon; O'Beirne, James
Respiratory rate (RR) is one of the most sensitive markers of a patient condition and a core aspect of multiple clinical assessment tools. Doctors use a number of methods to assess RR, including formal measurement, and 'spot' assessments, although this is not recommended. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of the methods of RR measurement being used by doctors. A cross-sectional study assessing the accuracy (range, bias, and imprecision) of doctors' 'spot' and 'formal' respiratory rate assessments, using videos of mock patients. 54 doctors in a London teaching hospital participated. Both methods showed high levels of inaccuracy, though formal methods were more accurate than 'spot' assessments. 52 and 19 % of doctors did not identify the respiratory rates shown as abnormal, using 'spot' and formal assessment methods respectively. We observed a trend towards decreasing accuracy of 'spot' assessments with increasing clinical experience (p = 0.0490). Current methods of RR assessment by doctors are inaccurate. This may be significantly delaying appropriate clinical care, or even misguiding treatment. PMID:25273624
Olatunbosun, Olujimi A.; Abasiattai, Aniekan M.; Bassey, Emem A.; James, Robert S.; Morgan, Anyiekere
Background. Anaemia with an estimated prevalence of 35–75% among pregnant women is a major cause of maternal deaths in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of anaemia, associated sociodemographic factors and red cell morphological pattern among pregnant women during booking at the University Teaching Hospital, Uyo. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional analytical study of 400 women at the booking clinic over a 16-week period. The packed cell volume and red cell morphology of each pregnant woman were determined. Their biodata, obstetric and medical histories, and results of other routine investigations were obtained with questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS Package version 17.0. Results. The mean packed cell volume was 31.8% ±3.2 and 54.5% of the women were anaemic. The commonest blood picture was microcytic hypochromia and normocytic hypochromia suggesting iron deficiency anaemia. Anaemia was significantly and independently related to a history of fever in the index pregnancy (OR = 0.4; P = 0.00; 95% CI = 0.3–0.7), HIV positive status (OR = 0.2; P = 0.01; 95% CI = 0.1–0.6), and low social class (OR = 0.3; P = 0.00; 95% CI = 0.2–0.7). Conclusion. Women need to be economically empowered and every pregnant woman should be encouraged to obtain antenatal care, where haematinics supplementation can be given and appropriate investigations and treatment of causes of fever and management of HIV can be instituted. PMID:24982910
Obisesan, Oluranti J.; Olowe, Olugbenga A.; Taiwo, Samuel S.
The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31–45 and 16–30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere. PMID:26064140
Jenkins, Randall Carter; Lemak, Christy Harris
In this article we describe a case study of a learning exercise for healthcare management students to more effectively understand how the legal process impacts healthcare organizations and healthcare professionals. Through a semester-long mock trial, we illustrate how healthcare executives can better understand and prepare their employees, their organization, and fellow administrators for the financial, emotional, and time investment that a lawsuit requires. Students participate as a member of the plaintiff team, defendant team, or juror in a simulated lawsuit brought by a patient against a hospital. We explain how students who participate in the simulated lawsuit gain a better understanding of difficult legal principles discussed throughout the course. We further indicate how the mock trial simulation may support achievement of current Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education (CAMHE) criteria. Next, we highlight how the mock trial allowed students to put into practice many of the health law principles discussed in class through role playing the different stages of medical malpractice trial. The article concludes with examples of how a simulated mock trial may also provide similar interdisciplinary educational, performance improvement, and cost saving benefits to healthcare professionals and their organizations. PMID:17847866
Kaplan, F J; Levitt, N S; De Villiers, J C; Soule, S G
A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the long-term outcome of surgery, by a single pituitary surgeon and radiotherapy for acromegaly at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, using modern criteria for the definition of cure. Seventy-two patients (F/M ratio 1.3:1), aged 16-74 years, were eligible for inclusion. The mean follow-up period was 8.3 years. Macroadenomas were present in 79%, microadenomas in 15% and tumour size was not documented in 6%. Pretreatment GH levels were, > or = 40 m U/l in 56 patients. Postoperatively, 21% of patients were cured, 40% controlled and 40% had hypopituitarism. After radiotherapy (mean follow-up 8.7 years) 43% were cured, 66% controlled and 78% had hypopituitarism. At follow-up 37% of patients traced had died. The most common cause of death was vascular disease. The poor surgical results may be attributed to late presentation in the developing world setting, as evidenced by tumour size and invasiveness, and the degree of GH elevation. Emphasis on early diagnosis of non-invasive tumours is necessary to improve the cure rate and reduce mortality, PMID:11303656
Chang, Yaowen; Luan, Guangxin; Xu, Ying; Wang, Yanhong; Shen, Min; Zhang, Chi; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Jinwei; Yang, Jingni; Jia, Xu; Ling, Baodong
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) presents a serious therapeutic and infection control challenge. In this study, we investigated the epidemiological and molecular differences of CRAB and the threatening factors for contributing to increased CRAB infections at a hospital in western China. A total of 110 clinical isolates of A. baumannii, collected in a recent 2-year period, were tested for carbapenem antibiotic susceptibility, followed by a molecular analysis of carbapenemase genes. Genetic relatedness of the isolates was characterized by multilocus sequence typing. Sixty-seven of the 110 isolates (60.9%) were resistant to carbapenems, 80.60% (54/67) of which carried the blaOXA-23 gene. Most of these CRAB isolates (77.62%) were classified as clone complex 92 (CC92), and sequence type (ST) 92 was the most prevalent STs, followed by ST195, ST136, ST843, and ST75. One CRAB isolate of ST195 harbored plasmid pAB52 from a Chinese patient without travel history. This plasmid contains toxin–antitoxin elements related to adaptation for growth, which might have emerged as a common vehicle indirectly mediating the spread of OXA-23 in CRAB. Thus, CC92 A. baumannii carrying OXA-23 is a major drug-resistant strain spreading in China. Our findings indicate that rational application of antibiotics is indispensable for minimizing widespread of drug resistance. PMID:26388854
Liu, Helu; Lü, Dongyue; Liang, Hong; Dou, Yuhong
The multidrug-resistant rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae has risen rapidly worldwide. To better understand the multidrug resistance situation and molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a total of 153 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected, and drug susceptibility test was performed to detect its susceptibility patterns to 13 kinds of antibiotics. Phenotypic tests for carbapenemases ESBLs and AmpC enzyme-producing strains were performed to detect the resistance phenotype of the isolates. Then PCR amplification and sequencing analysis were performed for the drug resistance determinants. The results showed that 63 strains harbored blaCTX-M gene, and 14 strains harbored blaDHA gene. Moreover, there were 5 strains carrying blaKPC gene, among which 4 strains carried blaCTX-M, blaDHA and blaKPC genes, and these 4 strains were also resistant to imipenem. Our data indicated that drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were highly prevalent in the hospital. Thus it is warranted that surveillance of epidemiology of those resistant isolates should be a cause for concern, and appropriate drugs should be chosen. PMID:24740167
Khwaja, Nadeem; Sharma, Saroj; Wong, Julian; Murray, David; Ghosh, Jonathan; Murphy, Michael O; Halka, Anastassi T; Walker, Michael G
INTRODUCTION Being able to communicate effectively with patients is essential not only from a medicolegal standpoint but more importantly from clinical governance perspectives. Issues such as informed consent and patient choice within the NHS are currently being highlighted; for these to be available to patients, their language requirements are paramount. PATIENTS AND METHODS An audit was performed by the Linkworkers office at the Central Manchester & Manchester Children's Hospital NHS (CMMC) Trust on the total number of attendances and refusals per language in the period 1998–2003. RESULTS In the CMMC Trust, Urdu/Punjabi, Bengali, Cantonese, Somali, Arabic and French represent the majority of the workload, comprising almost 80% of cases in 2003. In the same year, an increase in demand for languages of Eastern European countries became evident. Finding interpreters for these languages even via agencies can be extremely difficult. CONCLUSIONS If the current trend continues, requirement for these services will increase exponentially. For this demand to be met adequately these issues must be kept at the forefront of NHS planning. PMID:17132317
Taylor, Kelly D.; Adedokun, Ayoade; Awobusuyi, Olugbenga; Adeniran, Peju; Onyia, Elochukwu; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
Objective To elicit the explanatory models (EM) of hypertension among patients in a hospital-based primary care practice in Nigeria. Design Semi-structured in-depth individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with 62 hypertensive patients. Interviews and focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was guided by phenomenology and content analysis using qualitative research software ATLAS.ti 5.0. Results Patients expressed four categories of EM of hypertension: 1) perceptions of hypertension, 2) consequences, 3) effect on daily life, and 4) perception of treatment. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews yielded a wide range of insights into the social and cultural factors influencing patients’ beliefs and health behavior. Participants were aware of the risks of hypertension. There was disagreement between participants’ own understanding of the serious nature of hypertension, the need for long-term treatment, and the desire to take medication long-term. Participants acknowledged the use of traditional medicine (e.g. teas and herbs) and healers. Different themes emerged for men versus women such that women often focused on family issues while men tended to discuss external stressors stemming from work as a cause of hypertension. Men were concerned with frequent urination, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction. Conclusion Knowledge gained will inform development of patient-centered treatment plans and targeted behavioral and educational interventions. PMID:23534506
Chawla, Jaya; Arora, D.; Paul, Mohini; Ajmani, Sangita N.
Objectives We sought to determine the frequency, demographic characteristics, indications, and feto-maternal outcomes associated with emergency peripartum hysterectomy in an easily accessible urban center. Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational, and analytical study over a period of eight years, from August 2006 to July 2014. A total of 56 cases of emergency obstetric hysterectomy (EOH) were studied in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Hospital, New Delhi. Results The incidence of EOH in our study was 30 per 100,000 following vaginal delivery and 270 per 100,000 following cesarean section. The overall incidence was 83 per 100,000 deliveries. Atonic postpartum hemorrhage (25%) was the most common indication followed by placenta accreta (21%) and uterine rupture (17.5%). The most frequent sequelae were febrile morbidity (19.2%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (13.5%). Maternal mortality was 17.7% whereas perinatal mortality was 37.5%. Conclusions A balanced approach to EOH can prove to be lifesaving at times when conservative surgical modalities fail and interventional radiology is not immediately available. Our study highlights the place of extirpative surgery in modern obstetrics in the face of rising rates of cesarean section and multiple pregnancies particularly in urban settings in developing countries. PMID:26171124
Ogunrinde, Tunde Joshua; Opeodu, Olanrewaju Ige
Background: Good denture care practice by individuals using Removable Partial Denture (RPD) is an important component of oral health measures. An assessment of denture care practice of such individuals by dental care practitioners is necessary. Objective: To evaluate the denture care practice among prosthetics patients attending a tertiary Hospital Dental Centre in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain information from RPD wearers that were willing to participate. The questionnaire assessed among other things, patients’ bio-data, frequency, techniques and device used for cleaning their dentures. Data was analyzed using Chi-square test (P < 0.05). Results: One hundred and ninety eight denture wearers consisting of 100 (50.5%) males and 98 (49.5%) females participated in the study. Majority 110 (55.6%) cleaned their dentures once daily and toothbrush and pastes were used by 105 (53%) of the participants. More than 70% of the respondents removed their dentures at night. One hundred and sixty-six (83.8%) visited the dentist only when they needed treatment. There was a statistical significant relationship between frequency and technique of cleaning denture, and denture cleanliness (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that once daily cleaning of dentures and cleaning the denture with rest of the teeth are ineffective in prevention of plaque accumulation. PMID:26229229
Gamarra, Soledad; Morano, Susana; Dudiuk, Catiana; Mancilla, Estefanía; Nardin, María Elena; de Los Angeles Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo
Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common mycosis. However, the information about antifungal susceptibilities of the yeasts causing this infection is scant. We studied 121 yeasts isolated from 118 patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and molecular methods, including four phenotypic methods described to differentiate Candida albicans from C. dubliniensis. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI documents M27A3 and M27S4 using the drugs available as treatment option in the hospital. Diabetes, any antibacterial and amoxicillin treatment were statistically linked with vulvovaginal candidiasis, while oral contraceptives were not considered a risk factor. Previous azole-based over-the-counter antifungal treatment was statistically associated with non-C.albicans yeasts infections. The most common isolated yeast species was C. albicans (85.2 %) followed by C. glabrata (5 %), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3.3 %), and C. dubliniensis (2.5 %). Fluconazole- and itraconazole-reduced susceptibility was observed in ten and in only one C. albicans strains, respectively. All the C. glabrata isolates showed low fluconazole MICs. Clotrimazole showed excellent potency against all but seven isolates (three C. glabrata, two S. cerevisiae, one C. albicans and one Picchia anomala). Any of the strains showed nystatin reduced susceptibility. On the other hand, terbinafine was the less potent drug. Antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon supporting the use of azole antifungals as empirical treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:25005365
Singh, Dara; Qadri, GJ; Kotwal, Monica; Syed, AT; Jan, Farooq
Introduction: The clean bedding and clean clothes installs psychological confidence in the patients and the public and enhances their faith in the services rendered by the hospital. Being an important Component in the management of the patients, a study was carried out to find out the current quality status and its conformity with the known standards and identify the areas of intervention in order to further increase the patient and staff satisfaction regarding the services provided by linen and laundry department Methods: Quality control practised in the Linen and Laundry Service was studied by conducting a prospective study on the concept of Donabedian model of structure, process and outcome. Study was done by pre-designed Proforma along with observation / Interviews / Questionnaire and study of records. The input studied included physical facilities, manpower, materials, equipments and environmental factors. The various elements of manpower studied consisted of number of staff working, their qualification, training, promotion avenues, motivation and job satisfaction. Process was studied by carrying out observations in linen and laundry service through a predesigned flow chart which was supplemented by interviews with different category of staff. Patient satisfaction, staff satisfaction and microbial count of laundered linen (quality dimensions) were studied in the outcome. Results: The current study found that in spite of certain deficiencies in the equipment, manpower and process, the linen and laundry service is providing a satisfactory service to its users. However the services can be further improved by removing the present deficiencies both at structure and process level. PMID:21475509
Vazin, Afsaneh; Zamani, Zahra; Hatam, Nahid
This study was conducted with the purpose of determining the frequency of medication errors (MEs) occurring in tertiary care emergency department (ED) of a large academic hospital in Iran. The incidence of MEs was determined through the disguised direct observation method conducted by a trained observer. A total of 1,031 medication doses administered to 202 patients admitted to the tertiary care ED were observed over a course of 54 6-hour shifts. Following collection of the data and analysis of the errors with the assistance of a clinical pharmacist, frequency of errors in the different stages was reported and analyzed in SPSS-21 software. For the 202 patients and the 1,031 medication doses evaluated in the present study, 707 (68.5%) MEs were recorded in total. In other words, 3.5 errors per patient and almost 0.69 errors per medication are reported to have occurred, with the highest frequency of errors pertaining to cardiovascular (27.2%) and antimicrobial (23.6%) medications. The highest rate of errors occurred during the administration phase of the medication use process with a share of 37.6%, followed by errors of prescription and transcription with a share of 21.1% and 10% of errors, respectively. Omission (7.6%) and wrong time error (4.4%) were the most frequent administration errors. The less-experienced nurses (P=0.04), higher patient-to-nurse ratio (P=0.017), and the morning shifts (P=0.035) were positively related to administration errors. Administration errors marked the highest share of MEs occurring in the different medication use processes. Increasing the number of nurses and employing the more experienced of them in EDs can help reduce nursing errors. Addressing the shortcomings with further research should result in reduction of MEs in EDs. PMID:25525391
Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Sanmee, Sittinee; Pusathit, Papanin; Piewngam, Pipat; Elliott, Briony; Riley, Thomas V.; Kiratisin, Pattarachai
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of healthcare-associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Thailand, CDI exhibits low recurrence and mortality and its molecular epidemiology is unknown. CDI surveillance was conducted in a tertiary facility (Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok). A total of 53 toxigenic C. difficile strains from Thai patients were analyzed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), PCR ribotyping, and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The mean age of the cohort was 64 years and 62.3% were female; 37.7% of patients were exposed to > two antibiotics prior to a diagnosis of CDI, with beta-lactams the most commonly used drug (56.3%). Metronidazole was used most commonly (77.5%; success rate 83.9%), and non-responders were treated with vancomycin (success rate 100%). None of the isolates carried binary toxin genes. Most isolates (98.2–100%) were susceptible to metronidazole, vancomycin, tigecycline and daptomycin. There were 11 sequence types (STs), 13 ribotypes (RTs) and four PFGE types. Six previously identified STs (ST12, ST13, ST14, ST33, ST41 and ST45) and five novel STs unique to Thailand (ST66, ST67, ST68, ST69 and ST70) were identified. PCR RTs UK 017 (ST45) (45.3%) and UK 014/020 (ST33) (24.5%) were the most common. High concordance was observed between the MLST and ribotyping results (p<0.001). C. difficile isolates from Thai patients were highly susceptible to standard antimicrobial agents. In conclusion, the five STs indicate the high genetic diversity and unique polymorphisms in Thailand. Moreover, the emergence of antimicrobial resistance to vancomycin warranted continuous surveillance to prevent further spread of the toxigenic C. difficile isolates. PMID:26000789
Sadat-Ali, Mir; Al-Omran, AS; Al-Bakr, WI; Azam, Md Quamar; Tantawy, AM; Al-Othman, AA
Background: International osteoporosis foundation described severe or established osteoporosis as an osteoporotic individual with a fragility fracture. Orthopaedic surgeons frequently manage fractures, but we believe that large gaps are prevalent in the medical management of osteoporosis after fractures are fixed. Aim: The aim of this analysis is to assess the investigations and gaps in the management of osteoporosis in patients admitted with a fragility fracture of femur at King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all admission and discharge; medical and pharmacy records database of patients over ? 50 years with fragility fracture between January 2001 and December 2011. The outcome measures assessed were investigations such as serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels and a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Secondly once the fracture was fixed what medications were prescribed, calcium and vitamin D, antiresorptives and anabolic agents. Results: There were 207 patients admitted during the study period with an average age of 69.2 (12.1) years and 118 were females. In 169 (81.6%) patients, the fracture site was proximal femur. Vitamin D (25OHD) was requested in 31/207 (14.9%). DEXA scan was ordered in 49/207 (24.1%). A total of 78/207 (37.6%) patients received calcium and vitamin D3 and 94/207 (45.4%) either got calcium or vitamin D3. Bisphosphonates was used in 35, miacalcic nasal spray in 25 and anabolic agent teriparatide was prescribed in 21 patients. Post-fixation 126/207 (60.8%) patients did not receive any anti-osteoporotic medication. In untreated group, there were 87 males and 39 females. Conclusions: The study found that in patients, who sustained a fragility fracture, confirmation of osteoporosis by DEXA was very low and ideal treatment for severe osteoporosis was given out to few patients. More efforts are needed to fill this large gap in the correct management of osteoporosis related fractures by orthopaedic surgeons. PMID:24761237
Eyo, JE; Onyishi, GC; Ugokwe, CU
Background This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community. Methods A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were examined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) method. Results Out of this number, 119 (39.02%) individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00%) prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71%) than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24%) than the females (35.03%). Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD) was the most prevalent (35.29%) onchocerciasis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS) had the lowest (20.17%) occurrence and blindness (0.00%) which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infection was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respondent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6%) among the respondent's knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community. Conclusion Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemotherapy. PMID:23682272
Dibua, Uju M.E.; Onyemerela, Ifeoma S.; Nweze, Emeka I.
Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s) of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males) clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream ‘clean catch’ method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2%) from females and 12 (19.4%) from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08%) were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%). All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase. PMID:24553609
Okwu-Delunzu, V. U.; Enete, I. C.; Abubakar, A. S.; Lamidi, S.
Erosion is a natural, gradual and continuous process of earth surface displacement caused by various agents of denudation. It is also caused by some anthropogenic activities. Erosion rate of an area at any point in time is dependent mainly on climate and geological factors. Physical aspects of the erosive force experienced in gullies are mainly dependent on the local prevailing climate condition. In this study, remotely sensed data was used in the analysis of gully erosion progression at Nyaba River in Enugu Urban, aimed at mapping and monitoring gully erosion at the study site. Methodologies employed include; data acquisition from field observation and satellite images; data processing and analyses using ilwis 3.7 and Arc GIS 9.3 software. The result showed that gully progressed from 578,713,735 square meters in 1986 to 1, 002,819,723 in 2011. Prediction showed that the magnitude of the gully area is expected to increase as the years go by if measures are not taken to control the expansion rate. The forecast put the expected coverage of gully erosion at Nyaba River to be 45,210,440 square meters by the year 2040. Consequently, recommendations made include: constant monitoring to detect early stages of gully formation; regulation of grazing of pasture in the area; restriction of sand mining from the river bank and construction of water ways to stabilize river flow. In conclusion, monitoring clearly showed that there was a geometric progression in gully formation at Nyaba over years; the expansion was aided more by anthropogenic activities than natural factors.
Utom, Ahamefula U.; Odoh, Benard I.; Egboka, Boniface C. E.; Egboka, Nkechi E.; Okeke, Harold C.
As few boreholes may be available and carrying out pumping tests can be expensive and time consuming, relationships between aquifer characteristics and the electrical parameters of different geoelectric layers exist. Data from 19 vertical electrical soundings (VESs; 13 of these selected for evaluation) was recorded with a Schlumberger electrode configuration in the area around Akwuke, Enugu, Nigeria. The data was interpreted by computer iterative modelling with curve matching for calibration purposes. Geoelectric cross-sections along a number of lines were prepared to ascertain the overall distribution of the resistivity responses of the subsurface lithology. Identified probable shallow aquifer resistivity, thickness and depth values are in the range of 28-527 ?m, 2.1-22.5 m and 3.1-28.3 m respectively. As our aquifer system consists of fine-grained, clay-silty sand materials, a modification of the Archie equations (Waxman-Smits model) was adopted to determine the true formation factor using the relationship between the apparent formation factor and the pore water resistivity. This representation of the effects of a separate conducting path due to the presence of clay particles in the aquifer materials was used in making reliable estimations of aquifer properties. The average hydraulic conductivity of 8.96 × 10-4 m s-1 transmissivity ranging between 1.88 × 10-3 and 2.02 × 10-3 m2 s-1 estimated from surface resistivity measurements correlated well with the available field data. Results of the study also showed a direct relationship between aquifer transmissivity and modified transverse resistance (R2 = 0.85).
Ezenwaji, Emma E.; Anyadike, Raymond N. C.; Igu, Nnaemeka I.
Recent studies in water supply in Enugu urban area have observed that there is a persistent water supply shortage relative to demand. One of the strategies for achieving a good water supply under the circumstance is through efficient water allocation to consumers. The existing allocation system by the Enugu State Water Corporation is not achieving the desired goal, because it is not based on any scientific criteria. In this study, we have employed the linear programming modelling technique to optimise the allocation of 35,000,000 L of water produced daily by the State Water Corporation and supplied to the four sectors of the town. The result shows that the model allocated 27,470,000 L to the residential sector, 3,360,000 L to commercial, 3,120,000 L to industrial and 882,000 L to public institutions sectors leaving a balance of 168,000 L to be utilised in emergency situations. This allocation pattern departs sharply from the present management technique adopted by the corporation. It is then suggested that for urban water supply to be sustainable in the town, the corporation should rely on this technique for water supply.
Cheng, Keping; Li, Jiawei; Kong, Qingfang; Wang, Changxian; Ye, Nanyuan; Xia, Guohua
Background The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) in a teaching hospital. Methods A prospective study was initiated to investigate risk factors for SSI at a university-affiliated tertiary care center from July 2013 to December 2014. The chi-square test for categorical variables was used to determine the significance of association, whereas the multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine independent risk factors for SSI. Results A total of 1,138 patients met the inclusion criteria, in whom 36 cases of infection occurred during the hospitalization period and two cases occurred after discharge. Univariate analysis showed that SSI was associated with the type of operation, wound classification, volume of blood loss, blood transfusion, American Society of Anesthesiology score before surgery, risk index, duration of surgery, diabetes, cancer, gastrointestinal catheter, urinary catheter, postoperative drainage, and preprocedural white blood cell count. Multivariate analysis identified six independent parameters correlating with the occurrence of SSI: diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 6.400; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.582–15.866; P=0.000); cancer (OR 2.427; 95% CI 1.028–5.732; P=0.043); preprocedural white blood cell count more than 10×109/L (OR 6.988; CI 3.165–15.425; P=0.000); wound classification (clean contaminated [OR: 7.893; CI: 2.244–27.762; P=0.001]; contaminated [OR: 7.031; CI: 1.652–29.922; P=0.008]; dirty [OR: 48.778; CI: 5.418–439.164; P=0.001]); operative duration more than 120 minutes (OR 4.289; CI 1.773–10.378; P=0.001); and postoperative drainage (OR 3.957; CI 1.422–11.008; P=0.008). Conclusion Our data suggest that all these risk factors could be regarded as potential indicators of SSI and that relevant preventive measures should be taken to reduce SSI and improve patient outcomes.
Improvement in efficiency of healthcare in the United States is an urgent issue. Information technology is seen as one of key solutions to improve efficiency. As such, hospitals in the United States are rapidly adopting ...
Steinman, Amir; Masarwa, Samira; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Gleser, Dan; Kelmer, Gal; Adler, Amos; Carmeli, Yehuda; Schwaber, Mitchell J
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and colonization, involving MRSA strains which differ from common human health care-associated clones, have become serious emerging conditions in equine veterinary hospitals. In 2010, MRSA spa type t535 caused an outbreak involving both horses and personnel in a veterinary teaching hospital in Israel. Since then, surveillance continued, and occasional MRSA isolation occurred. Two years later, MRSA of another spa type, t002, was isolated from a veterinarian and, 3 weeks later, from a horse. The appearance of spa type t002, a common clone in human medicine in Israel, among both personnel and horses, prompted a point-prevalence survey of hospital personnel and hospitalized horses. Fifty-nine staff members (n = 16 equine; n = 43, other) and 14 horses were screened. Ten of 59 staff members (16.9%) and 7 of 14 horses (50%) were MRSA carriers. Among the staff, 44% of large animal department (LAD) personnel, compared with only 7% of non-LAD personnel, were carriers. Isolates from all horses and from 9 of 10 personnel were found to be of MRSA spa type t002. This clone was later isolated from an infected postoperative wound in a hospitalized horse. Measures were taken to contain transmission between horses and personnel, as was done in the previous outbreak, resulting in reduction of transmission and, finally, cessation of cross-transmission between horses and personnel. PMID:26085620
Louisa Poon, W Y; Covington, Jennifer P; Dempsey, Lauren S; Goetgeluck, Scott L; Marscher, William F; Morelli, Sierra C; Powell, Jana E; Rivers, Elizabeth M; Roth, Ira G
This article provides an introduction to the use of students' business skills in optimizing teaching opportunities, student learning, and client satisfaction in a primary health care setting at a veterinary teaching hospital. Seven veterinary-student members of the local chapter of the Veterinary Business Management Association (VBMA) evaluated the primary-care service at the University of Georgia (UGA) veterinary teaching hospital and assessed six areas of focus: (1) branding and marketing, (2) client experience, (3) staff and staffing, (4) student experience, (5) time management, and (6) standard operating procedures and protocols. For each area of focus, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats were identified. Of the six areas, two were identified as areas in need of immediate improvement, the first being the updating of standard operating protocols and the second being time management and the flow of appointments. Recommendations made for these two areas were implemented. Overall, the staff and students provided positive feedback on the recommended changes. Through such a student-centered approach to improving the quality of their education, students are empowered and are held accountable for their learning environment. The fact that the VBMA functions without a parent organization and that the primary-care service at UGA functions primarily as a separate entity from the specialty services at the College of Veterinary Medicine allowed students to have a direct impact on their learning environment. We hope that this model for advancing business education will be studied and promoted to benefit both veterinary education and business practice within academia. PMID:24531532
...of 2010 relating to the treatment of teaching hospitals that are members of the same...higher indirect patient care costs of teaching hospitals relative to nonteaching hospitals...Medicare GME affiliation agreements allow teaching hospitals to temporarily transfer...
Medicare program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system and fiscal year 2015 rates; quality reporting requirements for specific providers; reasonable compensation equivalents for physician services in excluded hospitals and certain teaching hospitals; provider administrative appeals and judicial review; enforcement provisions for organ transplant centers; and electronic health record (EHR) incentive program. Final rule.
We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, and other legislation. These changes are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. We also are updating the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits are effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2014. We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014. In addition, we discuss our proposals on the interruption of stay policy for LTCHs and on retiring the "5 percent" payment adjustment for collocated LTCHs. While many of the statutory mandates of the Pathway for SGR Reform Act apply to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, others will not begin to apply until 2016 and beyond. In addition, we are making a number of changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education (IME) payments. We are establishing new requirements or revising requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare. We are updating policies relating to the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition (HAC) Reduction Program. In addition, we are making technical corrections to the regulations governing provider administrative appeals and judicial review; updating the reasonable compensation equivalent (RCE) limits, and revising the methodology for determining such limits, for services furnished by physicians to certain teaching hospitals and hospitals excluded from the IPPS; making regulatory revisions to broaden the specified uses of Medicare Advantage (MA) risk adjustment data and to specify the conditions for release of such risk adjustment data to entities outside of CMS; and making changes to the enforcement procedures for organ transplant centers. We are aligning the reporting and submission timelines for clinical quality measures for the Medicare HER Incentive Program for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) with the reporting and submission timelines for the Hospital IQR Program. In addition, we provide guidance and clarification of certain policies for eligible hospitals and CAHs such as our policy for reporting zero denominators on clinical quality measures and our policy for case threshold exemptions. In this document, we are finalizing two interim final rules with comment period relating to criteria for disproportionate share hospital uncompensated care payments and extensions of temporary changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals and of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital (MDH) Program. PMID:25167590
Al-Qahtani, Mona Faisal; Al-Sheikh, Mona
Objectives This study was aimed to determine how medical interns perceive the important factors of the learning environment the surgical theatre at the teaching hospital of the medical school, University of Dammam (UoD). The study also investigated the relationships between the learning environment and academic achievements. Finally, it determined the role and significance of gender on the above perceptions and relationships. Methods The Surgical Theatre Educational Environment Measure (STEEM) was used to identify the perceptions of interns on the most important factors prevalent in the surgical theatre as an educational environment. STEEM was administered to all interns during the period of June-September 2009. Ninety-one out of 145 students completed the questionnaire representing a response rate of 63%. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 17. Results The STEEM was shown to be internally consistent for the assessment of the overall educational environment in the surgical theatre of UoD. The overall STEEM mean score was 110. For male and female students, the mean scores were 114 and 107 respectively. There were statistically significant gender differences in the perceptions of "learning opportunities" and "teaching and training". Females rated these subscales lower than males. There were no significant associations between academic achievements and perceptions of the educational environment. Conclusion The interns perceived the learning environment of the surgical theatre as less than satisfactory. In comparison with the males; the perception of the females was less positive, particularly in the areas of learning opportunities, and teaching and training. The study also revealed some other problematic areas in the learning environment of surgical theatre of the teaching hospital of UoD. The results imply that there is much room for improvement. They also indicate that equal opportunities for learning and training should be given to both sexes. PMID:22811771
Eveillard, M; Schmit, J L; Biendo, M; Canarelli, B; Daoudi, F; Laurans, G; Rousseau, F; Thomas, D; Eb, F
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) constitute the most important multiresistant bacteria (MRB) recovered in French hospitals. Our objective was to measure these MRSA diffusion in our hospital to evaluate the MRB control programme which had been implemented in the beginning of 1999. This study was conducted in a teaching hospital containing 1800 beds, from February 1999 to January 2001. All MRSA isolated in clinical samples were included. Duplicates (same bacteria in the same patient) were excluded. The detection of methicillin-resistance was performed at 30 degrees C, by disk diffusion method. Incidence densities were determined with their 95% confidence interval (CI 95%). Their evolution by four-month period was evaluated with the chi-square test for trend. During the two-year period, 866 MRSA were isolated. The global incidence was 0,88 per 1000 patient-days (PD) (IC 95% = left open bracket 0,83-0,93 right open bracket ). For cases acquired in our hospital the incidence was 0,66 per 1000 PD, whereas it was 0,26 per 1000 PD for imported cases. Concerning the evolution of incidences, no significant trend was observed for global incidence. The incidence of acquired MRSA decreased during the first year, but increased thereafter. The incidence of imported MRSA increased with a significant trend (p < 10(-5)). The number of these imported MRSA isolated in our hospital was twice fold higher in 2000. This study emphasizes an important actual problem : the increase of patient colonization pressure at the time of admission in hospitals. This increase, which can be due in part to a community transmission, is responsible for a reduction of the efficacy of MRSA control programmes. PMID:12490416
Yu, Dongmei; Ma, Yuqin; Sun, Qingwen; Lu, Gendi; Xu, Ping
We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a nursing care classification system for re-assessing nurse workload and determining staffing needs. Adequate bed-nurse ratios help manage hospital cost-efficiency, quality of care and patient safety. A prospective pre-post intervention study was conducted from January 2010 to December 2012 in 16 medical-surgical units of a tertiary teaching hospital. Nursing tasks were classified into four grades of care reflecting actual workload. Units were re-staffed accordingly and bed-nurse ratios compared with government-authorized bed-nurse ratios. Patient satisfaction, hospital stays and mortality were evaluated pre- and poststaffing changes. Average bed-nurse ratio (1:0.41) exceeded the national standard (1:0.40) in 16 units, but was inadequate in five units. Re-staffing increased average bed-nurse ratio from 1:0.41 to 1:0.48. Patients' satisfaction increased from 96.9% to 97.6%, and hospital stays decreased significantly. Nursing care classification effectively distributes nurse staffing to match patients' care levels, improving patient outcomes. PMID:24754507
Talati, Shweta; Bhatia, Prateek; Kumar, Ashok; Gupta, A. K.; Ojha, Col. D
BACKGROUND: As per the “Disaster Management Act, 2005” of India, it is mandatory for government hospitals in India to prepare a disaster plan. This study aimed to prepare a disaster manual of a 1 900 bed tertiary care hospital, in consultation and involvement of all concerned stakeholders. METHODS: A committee of members from hospital administration, clinical, diagnostic and supportive departments worked on an initial document prepared according to the Act and gave their inputs to frame a final disaster manual. RESULTS: The prepared departmental standard operating procedures involved 116 people (doctors and paramedical staff), and were then synchronized, in 12 committee meetings, to produce the final hospital disaster manual. CONCLUSIONS: The present disaster manual is one of the few comprehensive plans prepared by the stakeholders of a government hospital in India, who themselves form a part of the disaster response team. It also helped in co-ordinated conduction of mock drills. PMID:25215145
Chatterjee, Dattatreyo; Sen, Sukanta; Begum, Sabnam Ara; Adhikari, Anjan; Hazra, Avijit; Das, Anup Kumar
Objectives: The objective was to assess the views of clinicians in teaching hospitals of Kolkata regarding the use of antibiotics in their own hospitals, focusing on perceived misuse, reasons behind such misuse and feasible remedial measures. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 clinicians from core clinical disciplines was approached in six teaching hospitals of Kolkata through purposive sampling. A structured, validated questionnaire adopted from published studies and modified to suit the responding population was completed by consenting respondents through face-to-face interaction with a single interviewer. Respondents were free to leave out questions they did not wish to answer. Results: Among 130 participating clinicians (65% of approached), all felt that antibiotic misuse occurs in various hospital settings; 72 (55.4% of the respondents) felt it was a frequent occurrence and needed major rectification. Cough and cold (78.5%), fever (65.4%), and diarrhea (62.3%) were perceived to be the commonest conditions of antibiotic misuse. About half (50.76%) felt that oral preparations were more misused compared to injectable or topical ones. Among oral antibiotics, co-amoxiclav (66.9%) and cefpodoxime (63.07%) whereas among parenteral ones, ceftriaxone and other third generation cephalosporins (74.6%) followed by piperacillin-tazobactam (61.5%) were selected as the most misused ones. Deficient training in rational use of medicines (70.7%) and absence of institutional antibiotic policy (67.7%) were listed as the two most important predisposing factors. Training of medical students and interns in rational antibiotic use (78.5%), implementation of antibiotic policy (76.9%), improvement in microbiology support (70.7%), and regular surveillance on this issue (64.6%) were cited as the principal remedial measures. Conclusions: Clinicians acknowledge that the misuse of antibiotics is an important problem in their hospitals. A system of clinical audit of antibiotic usage, improved microbiology support and implementation of antibiotic policy can help to promote rational use of antimicrobial agents. PMID:25821321
... in nonteaching hospital OPD clinics (22%) than in teaching hospital OPD clinics (8%) ( Figure 2 ). Does PA/ ... beds as recorded in SDI Market Profile Database. Teaching hospital : Refers to a hospital that provides clinical ...
Isfahani, Haleh Mousavi; Aryankhesal, Aidin; Haghani, Hamid
Performance of different organizations, such as hospitals is mainly influenced by their managers' performance. Nursing managers have an important role in hospital performance and their managerial skills can improve the quality of the services. Hence, the present study was conducted in order to assess the relationship between the managerial skills and the results of their performance evaluation in Teaching Hospitals of Iran University of Medical Science in 2013. The research used the cross sectional method in 2013. It was done by distributing a managerial skills assessment questionnaire, with close-ended questions in 5 choice Likert scale, among 181 managers and head nurses of hospitals of Iran university of Medical Sciences; among which 131 answered the questions. Another data collection tools was a forms to record evaluation marks from the personnel records. We used Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and SPSS for analysis and description (frequency, mean and standard deviation). Results showed that the managerial skills of the nursing mangers were fair (2.57 out of 5) and the results of the performance evaluation were in a good condition (98.44). The mangers' evaluation results and the managerial skills scores were not in a meaningful correlation (r=0.047 np=0.856). The research showed no correlation between different domains of managerial skills and the performance evaluation marks: decision making skills (r=0.074 and p=0.399), leadership (correlation coefficient 0.028 and p=0.654), motivation (correlation coefficient 0.118 and p=0.163), communication (correlation coefficient 0.116 and p=0.122), systematic thinking (correlation coefficient 0.028 and p=0.828), time management (correlation coefficient 0.077 and p=0.401) and strategic thinking (correlation coefficient 0.041 and p=0.756). Lack of any correlation and relation between managers' managerial skills and their performance evaluation results shows need to a fundamental revision at managers' performance evaluation form. PMID:25716403
Background In light of the immense attention given to patient safety, this paper details the findings of a baseline assessment of the patient safety culture in a large hospital in Riyadh and compares results with regional and international studies that utilized the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. This study also aims to explore the association between patient safety culture predictors and outcomes, considering respondent characteristics and facility size. Methods This cross sectional study adopted a customized version of the HSOPSC and targeted hospital staff fitting sampling criteria (physicians, nurses, clinical and non-clinical staff, pharmacy and laboratory staff, dietary and radiology staff, supervisors, and hospital managers). Results 3000 questionnaires were sent and 2572 were returned (response rate of 85.7%). Areas of strength were Organizational Learning and Continuous Improvement and Teamwork within units whereas areas requiring improvement were hospital non-punitive response to error, staffing, and Communication Openness. The comparative analysis noted several areas requiring improvement when results on survey composites were compared with results from Lebanon, and the United States. Regression analysis showed associations between higher patient safety aggregate score and greater age (46 years and above), longer work experience, having a Baccalaureate degree, and being a physician or other health professional. Conclusions Patient safety practices are crucial toward improving overall performance and quality of services in healthcare organizations. Much can be done in the sampled organizations and in the context of KSA in general to improve areas of weakness and further enhance areas of strength. PMID:24621339
Sarro, Angela; Anthony, Tracy; Magtoto, Rosalie; Mauceri, Julie
Caring for an individual with a halo vest can be a frustrating and anxiety-provoking experience for healthcare professionals, the patient, and their families. Physicians or trained nurses apply halo vests in various situations in which cervical spine stabilization is required for an extended period. This device can be used as a first-line treatment in the management of nonoperative cervical trauma, that is, fractures, or placed following cervical surgery. Standardizing the application techniques and care associated with the halo vest, pin site care, and day-to-day activities of daily living will increase the comfort and self-confidence of healthcare professionals and the patient and family members in the provision of care. A collaborative approach among three greater Toronto area teaching hospitals aided in the development of standardizing care and patient educational materials for patients with halo vests. PMID:20550077
Thomas J. Nolan; Gary Smith
The apparent prevalence of endoparasitic infections of cats and dogs presented to the small animal Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania was measured between 1984 and 1991. Two thousand feline and 8077 canine fecal samples were examined along with 6830 canine blood samples. The overall mean monthly prevalence of feline infections was 16% for ascarids, 0.9% for hookworms, 4.0%
Sellappans, Renukha; Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Ng, Chirk Jenn
Objective The aim of this study was to identify the challenges faced by primary care physicians (PCPs) when prescribing medications for patients with chronic diseases in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Design/setting 3 focus group discussions were conducted between July and August 2012 in a teaching primary care clinic in Malaysia. A topic guide was used to facilitate the discussions which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic approach. Participants PCPs affiliated to the primary care clinic were purposively sampled to include a range of clinical experience. Sample size was determined by thematic saturation of the data. Results 14 family medicine trainees and 5 service medical officers participated in this study. PCPs faced difficulties in prescribing for patients with chronic diseases due to a lack of communication among different healthcare providers. Medication changes made by hospital specialists, for example, were often not communicated to the PCPs leading to drug duplications and interactions. The use of paper-based medical records and electronic prescribing created a dual record system for patients’ medications and became a problem when the 2 records did not tally. Patients sometimes visited different doctors and pharmacies for their medications and this resulted in the lack of continuity of care. PCPs also faced difficulties in addressing patients’ concerns, and dealing with patients’ medication requests and adherence issues. Some PCPs lacked time and knowledge to advise patients about their medications and faced difficulties in managing side effects caused by the patients’ complex medication regimen. Conclusions PCPs faced prescribing challenges related to patients, their own practice and the local health system when prescribing for patients with chronic diseases. These challenges must be addressed in order to improve chronic disease management in primary care and, more importantly, patient safety. PMID:26316648
Gorios, Carlos; de Souza, Renata Maia; Gerolla, Viviane; Maso, Bruno; Rodrigues, Cintia Leci; Armond, Jane de Eston
Objective to describe the victim profile and circumstances of transport accidents involving children and adolescents who were attended at a teaching hospital in the southern zone of the city of Săo Paulo. Methods this was an individual observational case series study among patients up to the age of 19 years who were attended at a hospital in the southern zone of the city of Săo Paulo, state of Săo Paulo, Brazil, due to traffic accidents. The files notifying suspected or confirmed cases of violence and accidents (SIVVA files) covering January to December 2012 were analyzed. Results among the 149 cases notified, 64.4% related to males and 35.6% to females. The transport accidents were predominantly among males, irrespective of age. The main injury diagnoses were superficial head trauma (24.8%) followed by multiple non-specified trauma (36.4%), in both sexes. Conclusion transport accidents among children and adolescents occurred more often among males. The main transport accidents among the children and adolescents attended as emergency cases were caused by motor vehicles and motorcycles. Among the accident victims, the largest proportion was attended because of being run over. PMID:26229833
Zou, Y M; Ma, Y; Liu, J H; Shi, J; Fan, T; Shan, Y Y; Yao, H P; Dong, Y L
The purpose of this investigation was to describe the effect of antibacterial stewardship and evaluate the trends and correlation of antibacterial resistance and usage from 2009 to 2013 in a tertiary-care teaching hospital in northwest China. Antibacterial usage was expressed as defined daily doses per 100 patients per day (DDDs/100 PDs). Hospital-wide population-level data and time series analysis were used to evaluate the trends and determine associations between antibacterial exposure and acquisition of resistance. Yearly consumption of overall antibacterials significantly decreased from 66.54 to 28.08 DDDs/100 PDs (??=?-10.504, p?0.01). The resistant rates of the five most frequently isolated species (including Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) significantly decreased or remained stable, and none of them showed a statistically significant upward trend. The medical quality indicators got better or remained stable. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models demonstrated that the monthly resistance rate of P. aeruginosa to imipenem was strongly correlated with antipseudomonal carbapenems usage (??=?34.94, p?0.001), as did the correlation of P. aeruginosa to meropenem with antipseudomonal third-generation cephalosporins usage (??=?32.76, p?0.01) and K. pneumoniae to amikacin with aminoglycosides usage (??=?22.01, p?0.001). The decreased antibacterial use paralleled the improved bacterial resistance without deteriorating medical quality indicators during antimicrobial stewardship. It also suggests that optimum antibiotic use is necessary to alleviate the threat posed by resistant microorganisms at the hospital level. PMID:25487131
Okoronkwo, Ijeoma; Onyia-pat, Jane-lovena; Okpala, Pat; Agbo, Mary-Ann; Ndu, Afam
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is now on the increase. Evidence from studies carried out globally has established that CAM use is very common and varies among populations. This study investigated patterns of CAM use, perceived benefits, and associated harm with CAM use among adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three local government areas of Enugu urban, Southeast Nigeria. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from all consenting adult participants aged between 18 and 65 years. Of the 732 participants interviewed, 62.8% were females while 37.2% were males. Majority (84.7%) of the participants had used CAM at one time or another. The most commonly used CAM product was the biological products, followed by spiritual therapy. The major route of administration for CAM products was oral and about 40% of the participants combined CAM with conventional medicine. Majority (78.6%) of CAM users benefited from CAM products after using them while a few complained of adverse reactions. As CAM is gaining widespread acceptance and use, there is need for clinical trial on the benefits and adverse effects associated with the use of CAM to facilitate proof of efficacy and safety of the products. PMID:24803945
Koh, Seong Joo; Lee, Jong Hoo
Background/Aims: Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) is included under healthcare-associated pneumonia. However, the optimal treatment strategy for NHAP has been controversial in several studies. We evaluated the clinical features of NHAP compared to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in elderly patients admitted with pneumonia. Methods: This was a retrospective study in elderly patients aged ? 65 years with NHAP or CAP who were hospitalized at Jeju National University Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. Results: A total of 209 patients were enrolled, and 58 (27.7%) had NHAP. The patients with NHAP were older, had more frequent central nervous system disorders, and showed worse clinical parameters. Potential drug-resistant pathogens were more frequently detected in the NHAP group (22.4% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.018), and the incidences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were 8.6% and 10.3%, respectively. In-hospital mortality occurred in 13 patients (22.4%) with NHAP and 17 patients (11.2%) with CAP (p = 0.039). In multivariate analyses, only higher pneumonia severity index (PSI) score was associated with increased mortality (p < 0.001), and the PSI score was higher in the NHAP group than that in the CAP group. Conclusions: Elderly patients admitted with NHAP showed more severe pneumonia at onset, higher rates of potentially drug-resistant pathogens, and worse clinical outcomes than those with CAP. However, higher in-hospital mortality in those with NHAP seemed to be related to the PSI score reflecting host factors and severity of pneumonia rather than the type of pneumonia or the presence of drug-resistant pathogens. PMID:26354058
Yan, Jing-Jou; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Chuang, Chin-Luan
In an epidemiologic and case-control study including 30 case patients over a 3.5-year period in a Taiwanese university hospital, only ?-lactamase inhibitor use and extended-spectrum cephalosporin use were identified as independent risk factors for nosocomial CMY-2-producing Escherichia coli bloodstream infection, and CMY-2 producers were found more prevalent than extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing isolates. PMID:15243108
Evans, Melanie; Carlson, Joe; Barr, Paul; Kutscher, Beth; Zigmond, Jessica
In the wake of the devastation Sandy wreaked along the Atlantic Coast, some hospitals were forced to close. But others took on new roles, whether as makeshift phone-charging stations or dealing with healthcare needs patients usually turned to outpatient centers for. "The biggest challenge is making up for the other services that are not available in the community," says Steven Littleson, of Jersey Shore University Medical Center. PMID:23198308
Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Berhanie, Alemayehu; Tigistu, Habtamu; Abraham, Yishak; Getachew, Yosheph; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Unakal, Chandrashekhar
Objective To determine the prevalence, clinical significance and the associated risk factors of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at internal medicine ward of University of Gondar (UOG) hospital. Method A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on patients treated in internal medicine ward of UOG hospital from April 29, 2013 to June 2, 2013. Data was collected from medical records and by interviewing the patients face to face. Descriptive analysis was conducted for back ground characteristics and logistic regression was used to determine the associated risk factors. Result In our study, we have identified a total number of 413 potential DDIs and 184 types of interacting combinations with 4.13 potential DDIs per patient. Among 413 potential DDIs most were of moderate interactions 61.2% (n=253) followed by 26% (n=107) of minor interactions and 12.8% (n=53) of major interactions. There was significant association of occurrence of potential DDIs only with taking three or more medications. Conclusion We have recorded a high rate of prevalence of potential DDI in the internal medicine ward of UOG hospital and a high number of clinically significant DDIs which the most prevalent DDI were of moderate severity. Careful selection of drugs and active pharmaceutical care is encouraged in order to avoid negative consequences of these interactions. PMID:25183081
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.
This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…
Rauniar, Gajendra Prasad; Das, Balbhadara Prasad; Banerje, Basudev; Bhattacharya, Swapan Kumar
A prospective assessment of the current status of prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents (AMAs) for caesarean section deliveries at BPKIHS, Dharan, Nepal was done. Data was collected by systemic random sampling of 349 in patient case sheets. The prevalence of use of ampicillin either alone or in combination with metronidazole was noted in both the elective and non-elective groups, either in the hospital or at discharge, while only 7.0-9.0% of patients receivedAMAs other than ampicillin. Ampicillin has been reported to be an effective AMA in reducing post-partum endometritis and our observation also corroborates with this finding. PMID:16827083
Dubey, Debasmita; Rath, Shakti; Sahu, Mahesh C.; Rout, Subhrajita; Debata, Nagen K.; Padhy, Rabindra N.
Objective To investigate the infection of hospital- and community-acquired “erythromycin-induced clindamycin resistant” strains or D-test positives of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (with and without methicillin resistance) in a hospital. Methods Strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical specimens were subjected to D-test and antibiotic profiling. Results Of the total 278 isolates, 140 (50.35%) were D-test positives and the rest were D-test negatives. Further, of 140 (100%) positives, 87 (62.14%) and 53 (37.85%) strains were from males and females, respectively. Of 140 (100%) positives, 117 (83.57%) were methicillin resistant S. aureus and 23 (16.42%) were methicillin sensitive S. aureus; of 140 strains, 103 (73.57%) strains from persons with and 37 (26.42%) were without related infections; of 140 strains, 91 (65%) and 49 (35%) were from hospital- and community-acquired samples, respectively. In 140 strains, 118 (84.28%) with comorbidities and 22 (15.71%) without comorbidities cases were recorded; similarly, persons with prior antibiotic uses contributed 108 (77.14%) and without 32 (22.85%) positive strains. These binary data of surveillance were analyzed by a univariate analysis. It was evident that the prior antibiotic uses and comorbidities due to other ailments were the determinative factors in D-test positivity, corroborated by low P values, P=0.001?1 and 0.002?4, respectively. All isolates (278) were resistant to 17 antibiotics of nine groups, in varying degrees; the minimum of 28% resistance for vancomycin and the maximum of 97% resistance for gentamicin were recorded. Further, of 278 strains, only 42 (15.1%) strains were resistant constitutively to both antibiotics, erythromycin resistant and clindamycin resistant, while 45 (16.2%) strains were constitutively sensitive to both antibiotics (erythromycin sensitive and clindamycin sensitive). Further, of the rest 191 (68.7%) strains were with erythromycin resistant and clindamycin resistant, of which only 140 (50.35%) strains were D-test positives, while the rest 51 (18.34%) strains were D-test negatives. Conclusions In view of high prevalence of D-test positive S. aureus strains, and equally high prevalence of multidrug resistant strains both in community and hospital sectors, undertaking of D-test may be routinely conducted for suppurative infections. PMID:23593595
Childbirth educators need to take the lead in helping hospitals change by teaching women what the evidence says. When women, one by one and collectively, start insisting on their right to have normal birth options, more bonding time, and better support of breastfeeding, hospitals and care providers will respond and change will happen. This article suggests strategies childbirth educators can use to advocate for women and help hospitals improve their maternity-care practices. PMID:17273441
Anyanechi, C E
Mandibular condylar fractures are common presentations to hospitals across the globe and remain the most important cause of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. This study aimed to analyze cases of mandibular condylar fracture complicated by TMJ ankylosis after treatment. A 16-year retrospective analysis was performed at the dental and maxillofacial surgery clinic of the study institution; patient data were collected from the hospital records and entered into a pro-forma questionnaire. It was found that 56/3596 (1.6%) fractures resulted in TMJ ankylosis. The age of patients with ankylosis ranged from 12 to 47 years. The age (P=0.03) and gender (P=0.01) distributions were significant, with most cases of ankylosis occurring in those aged 11-30 years (n=43/56, 76.8%). Fractures complicated by ankylosis were intracapsular (n=22/56, 39.3%) and extracapsular (n=34/56, 60.7%). Ankylosis increased significantly with the increase in time lag between injury and fracture treatment (P=0.001). Ankylosis was associated with concomitant mandibular (85.7%) and middle third (66.1%) fractures. Treatment methods were not significantly related to ankylosis (P=0.32). All cases of ankylosis were unilateral, and complete (n=36, 64.3%) and incomplete ankylosis (n=20, 35.7%) were diagnosed clinically. The incorporation of computed tomography scans and rigid internal fixation in the management of condylar fractures will reduce ankylosis. PMID:26008733
García Ramírez, Dolores; Nicola, Federico; Zarate, Soledad; Relloso, Silvia; Smayevsky, Jorgelina; Arduino, Sonia
An outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenamase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae occurred at our institution. Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa could have acquired this transmissible resistance mechanism, going unnoticed because its phenotypic detection in this species is difficult. We compared P. aeruginosa isolates obtained before and after the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae outbreak. No bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolates obtained before the outbreak, whereas 33/76 (43%) of the isolates obtained after the outbreak harboured the bla(KPC) gene. P. aeruginosa may thus become a reservoir of this transmissible resistance mechanism. It is very important to understand the epidemiology of these multiresistant isolates, in order to achieve early implementation of adequate control measures to contain and reduce their dissemination in the hospital environment. PMID:23831767
Ezeonu, CT; Uneke, CJ; Ojukwu, JO; Anyanwu, OU; Okike, CO; Ezeanosike, OB; Agumadu, HU
Background: Reports from the developed nations reveal respiratory tract infections as the leading cause of childhood hospital admissions. Children may be admitted for a variety of respiratory illnesses. Data on the spectrum of pediatric respiratory illnesses admitted in the hospital is scarce. Aim: To determine the pattern of pediatrics respiratory illness admissions, seasonal frequency, underlying risk factors and outcome. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective assessment of respiratory cases admitted in the pediatric ward from 2005 to 2010 was conducted using case notes. Parameters considered included month of presentation, age, sex, immunization and nutritional status, tools of diagnosis and patient outcome. Results were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences with the level of significance P ? 0.05. Results: Of the 239 cases admitted, there were more males than females (1.4:1). The commonest case was Bronchopneumonia, 71.6% (171/239 out of which 161 were uncomplicated, 5 had effusions and 6 were associated with measles). Other cases were Pulmonary Tuberculosis, 10.9% (26/239), Lobar pneumonia 8.8% (21/239), Bronchiolitis, 5% (12/239), Aspiration pneumonitis 2.1% (5/239) and Bronchial asthma, 0.8% (2/239). Mortality was 7.5% (18/239) mostly from Bronchopneumonia amongst the 1–5 years old. Mortality was significantly associated with malnutrition (P < 0.001) and poor immunization status (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Bronchopneumonia was found to be the commonest illness with significant mortality and peak occurrence in the rainy season. More emphasis must be laid on anticipatory guidance and prevention by encouraging the immunization, good nutrition and increased attention on children even after 1 year of age. PMID:25745580
Bishnu, Saptarshi; Bandyopadhyay, Dipanjan; Samui, Samiran; Das, Indrani; Mondal, Pradip; Ghosh, Pramit; Roy, Deeptarka; Manna, Sukanta
Background & objectives: Newly diagnosed HIV patients may be asymptomatic or present with a wide range of symptoms related to opportunistic infections, acute seroconversion illness or other medical illnesses. This study was designed to evaluate the socio-demographic parameters, spectrum of the presenting clinical conditions and concurrent immunological status of newly diagnosed HIV patients and document the WHO clinical stages at the time of HIV diagnosis. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study was undertaken over a 12 month period at a tertiary referral hospital in eastern India. Three hundred sixty consecutive newly diagnosed HIV patients were selected for the study from the HIV clinic and medicine wards of this hospital. Demographic and clinical data and relevant laboratory investigations of the patients were recorded and analyzed. Results: Mean age of patients was 36.38 ± 10.62 yr, while 63.89 per cent were males. The main mode of transmission of HIV for males and females were unprotected exposure to commercial sex (139, 60.44%) and intercourse with HIV seropositive spouses (89, 68.46%), respectively. Fever (104, 28.89%), weight loss (103, 28.61%) and generalized weakness (80, 22.22%) were the predominant symptoms. Overall mean CD4 count was 176.04 ± 163.49 cells/?l (males 142.19 ± 139.33 cells/?l; females 235.92 ± 185.11 cells/?l). Overall, 224 opportunistic infections were documented in 160 patients, opportunistic diarrhoea (44, 12.22%) and pulmonary tuberculosis (39, 10.83%) being the commonest. There were 83 and 133 patients in WHO clinical stages 3 and 4, respectively; 291 (80.83%) patients were eligible for initiation of first-line antiretrovirals at presentation. Interpretation & conclusions: Advanced immunodeficiency and burden of opportunistic infections characterize newly diagnosed HIV patients in eastern India. The physicians should keep in mind that these patients may have more than one clinical condition at presentation. PMID:25109725
Nnodu, Obiageli E; Giwa, SO; Eyesan, Samuel U; Abdulkareem, Fatima B
Background Due to difficulty in confirming clinical suspicions of malignancy in patients presenting with bone tumours, the cost of surgical biopsies where hospital charges are borne almost entirely by patients, competition with bone setters and healing homes with high rate of loss to follow up; we set out to find if sufficient material could be obtained to arrive at reliable tissue diagnosis in patients with clinical and radiological evidence of bone tumours in our hospitals. Methods After initial clinical and plain radiographic examinations, patients were sent for fine needle aspirations. Aspirations were carried out with size 23G needles of varying lengths with 10 ml syringes in a syringe holder (CAMECO, Sebre Medical, Vellinge, Sweden). The aspirates were air dried, stained by the MGG method and examined microscopically. Histology was performed on patients who had subsequent surgical biopsy. These were then correlated with the cytology reports. Results Out of 96 patients evaluated, [57 males, 39 females, Mean age 31.52 years, Age Range 4–76 years,] material sufficient for diagnosis was obtained in 90 patients. Cytological diagnosis of benign lesions was made in 40 patients and malignant in 47. Of these, 27 were metastases, osteogenic sarcoma 16, giant cell tumour 19, infection 11. Histology was obtained in 41 patients. Correct diagnosis of benignity was made in 17 out of 18 cases, malignancy in 21 out of 22 cases. One non-diagnostic case was malignant. The accuracy of specific cytological diagnosis was 36/41 (87.8%) and incorrect in 5/41 (12.2%). Conclusion We conclude that FNAC can be useful in the pre-operative assessment of bone tumours especially where other diagnostic modalities are unavailable. PMID:16776844
Tavakoli-Ardakani, Maria; Eshraghi, Azadeh; Hajhossein Talasaz, Azita; Salamzadeh, Jamshid
Drug Utilization Evaluation (DUE) studies facilitate assessing the appropriateness and rational use of medications.The goal of the present study was to evaluate Amphotericin B usage in neutropenic patients. A prospective DUE study was performed in Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation wards at Taleghani hospital for one-year. National comprehensive cancer network, clinical practice guidelines in oncology, American Hospital Formulary Service and other relevant medical practice and up-to dated articles were used to evaluate whether Amphotericin B is properly used according to the guidelines. All data collected by a pharmacist in daily review using information of physician and nursing records as well as laboratory findings. During the one-year study, 35 patients receiving amphotericin B were evaluated. 29 patients (82.9%) received amphotericin B due to neutropenia and fever and 6 patients had confirmed fungal infections. All of the injectable solutions of amphotericin B were appropriately prepared for intravenous infusion. In addition, for all patients, ordering (indication) of the study drug was in accordance with the guidelines. Twenty-five (71.4%) patients received an appropriate dose according to the guidelines. Duration of treatment was properly selected in 21 (60%) patients. Twenty-two (62.8%) patients developed hypokalemia as the most frequent adverse drug event. Although, preparation and indication of amphotericin B was in compliance with the current guidelines, dosage and duration of treatment were considered to be incoherent with the designed protocol used in this study. We conclude more attention should be paid to dosage and duration of treatment with amphotericin B in order to optimize its administration. PMID:24250436
Enwere, Oguamanam Okezie; Diwe, Kevin Chiekulie
Introduction Health care workers are exposed to the risk of blood-borne diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B and C in their daily encounter with infected patients and materials through unsafe injections. This study determined the baseline and post-intervention knowledge and practice of modern injection safety standards among health care workers. Methods The study population was the healthcare workers in a teaching hospital in southeastern Nigeria. Data was collected using a self-administered 37-item structured questionnaire assessing their knowledge and practice on injection safety. Collected data was analyzed using SPSS. Results Nurses comprised 62.8% (98/156) of the population. While most had heard of injection safety only 67.2% (84/125) had previously had any form of training on it. Only 54% (81/150) had heard or seen color coded bins. The standard needle and syringe is still widely used and 45% (65/145) still recap needles on syringes after use irrespective of type of personnel. Half (50.6% =78/154) of our respondents had had a previous needle prick injury. Only 25.6% (20/78) with previous needle prick injury had post-exposure prophylaxis. All doctors and laboratory scientists always use gloves compared to 94.8% (91/96) nurses while handling patients or materials. Following the intervention, a significantly high number became aware of post-exposure prophylaxis and color coded bins and liners. Conclusion There is a need for healthcare workers to be regularly updated on changing safety standards in their practice. Also hospitals must be encouraged to acquire and use internationally accepted standard materials in collection and disposal patient's samples. PMID:25237415
Ahmad, Aftab; Weston, Philip J; Ahmad, Mahin; Sharma, Dushyant; Purewal, Tejpal
Objectives Misuse of investigations, medications and hospital beds is costing the National Health Service (NHS) billions of pounds with little evidence that approaches centred on reducing overuse are sustainable. Our previous study demonstrated that twice-daily consultant ward rounds reduce inpatient length of stay and suggested a reduction in overuse of investigations and medications. This study aims to assess the impact of daily consultant ward rounds on the use of investigations and medications and estimate the potential cost benefit. Settings The study was performed on two medical wards in a major city university teaching hospital in Liverpool, UK, receiving acute admissions from medical assessment and emergency departments. Participants and intervention The total number of patients admitted, investigations performed and pharmacy costs incurred were collected for 2?years before and following a change in the working practice of consultants from twice-weekly to twice-daily consultant ward rounds on the two medical wards. Outcome measures We performed a cost-benefit analysis to assess the net amount of money saved by reducing inappropriate investigations and pharmacy drug use following the intervention. Results Despite a 70% increase in patient throughput (p<0.01) the investigations and pharmacy, costs per patient reduced by 50% over a 12-month period (p<0.01) and were sustained for the next 12?months. The reduction in investigations and medication use did not have any effect on the readmission or mortality rate (p=NS), whereas, the length of stay was almost halved (p<0.01). Daily senior clinician input resulted in a net cost saving of Ł336?528 per year following the intervention. Conclusions Daily consultant input has a significant impact on reducing the inappropriate use of investigations and pharmacy costs saving the NHS more than Ł650K on the two wards over a 2-year period. PMID:25854972
Battle, T; Clemence, L
Decommissioning a hospital is not an every day management task, but as the health service endeavours to make better use of its estate it is likely to face more managers. St Stephen's Hospital, Chelsea, was recently decommissioned to make way for a new teaching hospital, and Tim Battle and Lynne Clemence offer a checklist based on the experience. PMID:10107166
Sheridan, Mary S.
The Talk Time program, which focuses on discussion and encourages children to share their fears and fantasies of the hospital experience, was started at the University of Illinois hospital. It has proved effective as well in teaching hospital personnel about pediatric patients. (Author)
Ogbera, A O; Fasanmade, O; Ohwovoriole, A E; Adediran, O
The major part of the burden of people with diabetes mellitus (DM) is their impaired quantity and quality of life. This is due to acute and chronic complications of which diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) takes the greatest toll. Most studies on the disease burden of DFU were carried out in developed countries, and to date, no indigenous study has addressed the burden of foot ulceration in Nigerians with DM. This study attempted to determine the disease burden of this important DM complication. The study was carried out at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria. The working definition of disease burden encompassed prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and the direct economic costs of diabetes mellitus foot syndrome (DMFS). For determination of the estimates of prevalence, the "capture-recapture" and intensive case-counting methods were used, mortality and morbidity were determined from records of admissions, and associated deaths over a 3-year period (1998-2000). The direct economic costs of foot ulceration were derived from the costs incurred from in-patient days, tests, drugs/medications, surgery, and other miscellaneous units of services. The total number of people with DM seen in LUTH from 1998 to 2000 was 1500, the hospital prevalence of DFU using the capture-recapture method being 9.5%. A total of 7253 medical admissions were made in this 3-year period, and of this number 827 (11.4%) were DM related. DFU-related admissions were 97 in number, and this made up 1.3% and 11.7% of the total medical and diabetes admissions, respectively. During this period, a total of 61 lower limb amputations were carried out and 26 (42.6%) of these were DM related. The proportion of medical deaths due to DMFS deaths was greater than the proportion of medical admissions due to DFU (P = .007). The case fatality of individuals with DFU was approximately 53%. A total number of 20 patients with DM foot ulcers were hospitalized during a 1-year period of the study (2003-2004). The majority had type 2 DM. A large majority (65%) of these patients had some form of surgery in addition to medical management of their condition. Mean costs for successfully treating a patient with DMFS was Nigerian Naira (NGN) 180,581.60. The total costs incurred ranged from NGN 20,400.00 to NGN 278,029.00. Drugs or medications accounted for the majority of the total costs incurred by the patients (46.9%). PMID:17088600
Khan, Sarfaraz Alam; Goyal, Chhaya; Tonpay, S. D.
Objective: The aim was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of dental doctors about adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, questionnaire was administered to 95 dental doctors working in a teaching dental hospital attached to a medical college with an ADR monitoring center (AMC). Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses. The association of knowledge and attitude with respect to position of dentists was analyzed with Chi-square test. Results: The response rate and spontaneous reporting rate was found to be 61.0% and 13.7%, respectively. Important factors contributing to under reporting of ADRs include lack of awareness about AMC in the institute (81.0%) and pharmacovigilance program (72.4%), complacency (67.2%), lack of training to identify ADRs (65.5%), fear factor (63.7%), lethargy (58.6%), lack of risk perception of over the counter product related ADR (39.6%), inadequate risk perception of nonallopathic and herbal medicines (31%), indifference (27.5%) and concern that report may be wrong (27.5%). No significant difference in knowledge and attitudes of doctors with respect to position was found except for reporting of ADRs of newly marketed drugs and serious reactions to established product (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The deficiencies in knowledge and attitudes appear to be the underlying factor for under reporting by dental practitioners. It should be addressed urgently in order to increase spontaneous reporting by them. PMID:26229750
Carter, Thomas; Conrad, Chris; Wilson, J. Link; Dogbey, Godwin
Objectives. Ultrasound (US) guidance is a safe and effective method for peripheral intravenous (IV) catheter placement. However, no studies have directly compared the success rate of emergency medicine (EM) residents and nurses at using this technique especially in community hospital settings. This prospective “noninferiority” study sought to demonstrate that nursing staff are at least as successful as EM residents at placing US guided IVs. Methods. A group of 5 EM residents and 11 nurse volunteers with at least two years' experience underwent training sessions in hands-on practice and didactic instruction with prospective follow-up. Two failed attempts on a patient using standard approach by an emergency department (ED) nurse were deemed to be “difficult sticks” and randomly assigned to either a nurse or resident, based on the day they presented. Results. A total of 90 attempts, consisting of trials on 90 patients, were recorded with a success rate of 85% and 86% for residents and nurses, respectively. With a p value of .305, there was no statistically significant difference in the success rate between the residents and nurses. Conclusion. Properly trained nursing staff can be as equally successful as EM residents in placing US guided intravenous lines.
Adeyemi, A B; Fatusi, A O; Makinde, O N; Omojuwa, I; Asa, S; Onwudiegwu, U
A cross-sectional study was carried out among 134 antenatal clinic attendees in a Nigerian tertiary hospital to assess pregnancy-related sexual beliefs and changes in sexual frequency and response. Information was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire, and analysed by SPSS. Only 15% of women believed that religious, social or cultural reasons prevented sexual intercourse in pregnancy. Frequency of sexual intercourse decreased in pregnancy in 37.4% of the respondents, remained unaltered in 46.1% and increased in 16.5%. Age, marriage duration and gestational age were not associated with change in the pattern of coital frequency in pregnancy, but education was significantly associated. Sexual responsiveness diminished in approximately half of our respondents in terms of arousal (54.5%), orgasm (48.5%), pleasure (43.7%) and satisfaction (51.4%). The changes were not associated with pregnancy duration. We concluded that sex in pregnancy is well accepted in our environment, and health workers should promote sexual health and well-being in pregnancy. PMID:16368588
Li, Li; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhu, Junhao; Gao, Qian; Chen, Min; Zhu, Min
Molecular typing of Candida albicans is important for studying the population structure and epidemiology of this opportunistic yeast, such as population dynamics, nosocomial infections, multiple infections and microevolution. The genetic diversity of C. albicans has been rarely studied in China. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of 62 C. albicans isolates collected from 40 patients from Huashan Hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 50 diploid sequence types (DSTs) were identified in the 62 C. albicans isolates, with 41 newly identified DSTs. Based on cluster analysis, the 62 isolates were classified into nine existing clades and two new clades (namely clades New 1 and New 2). The majority of the isolates were clustered into three clades, clade 6 (37.5%), clade 1 (15.0%) and clade 17 (15.0%). Isolates of clade New 2 were specifically identified in East Asia. We identified three cases of potential nosocomial transmission based on association analysis between patients’ clinical data and the genotypes of corresponding isolates. Finally, by analyzing the genotypes of serial isolates we further demonstrated that the microevolution of C. albicans was due to loss of heterozygosity. Our study represents the first molecular typing of C. albicans in eastern China, and we confirmed that MLST is a useful tool for studying the epidemiology and evolution of C. albicans. PMID:25919124
Wu, Kefei; Luo, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhu, Junhao; Gao, Qian; Chen, Min; Zhu, Min
Molecular typing of Candida albicans is important for studying the population structure and epidemiology of this opportunistic yeast, such as population dynamics, nosocomial infections, multiple infections and microevolution. The genetic diversity of C. albicans has been rarely studied in China. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of 62 C. albicans isolates collected from 40 patients from Huashan Hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 50 diploid sequence types (DSTs) were identified in the 62 C. albicans isolates, with 41 newly identified DSTs. Based on cluster analysis, the 62 isolates were classified into nine existing clades and two new clades (namely clades New 1 and New 2). The majority of the isolates were clustered into three clades, clade 6 (37.5%), clade 1 (15.0%) and clade 17 (15.0%). Isolates of clade New 2 were specifically identified in East Asia. We identified three cases of potential nosocomial transmission based on association analysis between patients' clinical data and the genotypes of corresponding isolates. Finally, by analyzing the genotypes of serial isolates we further demonstrated that the microevolution of C. albicans was due to loss of heterozygosity. Our study represents the first molecular typing of C. albicans in eastern China, and we confirmed that MLST is a useful tool for studying the epidemiology and evolution of C. albicans. PMID:25919124
Pruitt, Liese; Mumuni, Tolulope; Raikhel, Eugene; Ademola, Adeyinka; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Adenipekun, Adeniyi; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Ojengbede, Oladosu A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I
Globally, breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy in women, and stage at diagnosis is a key determinant of outcome. In low- to middle-income countries, including Nigeria, advanced stage diagnosis and delayed treatment represent a significant problem. That social barriers contribute to delay has been noted in previous research; however, few specific factors have been studied. Using semi-structured interviews, this study identifies social barriers to diagnosis and treatment for patients who presented at University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria. Transcripts from the interviews were coded and analysed thematically. Thirty-one patients and five physicians were interviewed. The median age of patients was 51 (range: 28 to above 80), 83% were Christian and 17% were Muslim. Preliminary analysis showed that delays in diagnosis reflected a lack of education as well as the utilisation of non-physician medical services such as pharmacists. Delays in treatment were often due to fear of unanticipated surgery and cost. The majority of women did not know the cause of their breast cancer, but some believed it was caused by a spiritual affliction. This study suggests that further education and awareness of breast cancer for both patients and providers is needed in order to increase early stage diagnosis. PMID:25443995
Ojieabu, Winifred Aitalegbe; Femi-Oyewo, M. N.; Eze, Uchenna I.
Aim: The rising HIV infection rates among women especially of child bearing age particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa expose children to increased HIV risk even before they are born. Without effective measures or awareness campaigns to deal with mother-to-child transmission, 390 000 out of the global 430 000 children newly infected with HIV during 2008 were from sub-Saharan Africa This study was undertaken to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and risk perception among pregnant women in Tertiary hospital, Southwestern Nigeria Method: The study was carried out using a 43- item self administered questionnaire, pretestd and administered to 403 pregnant women during ante-natal clinic sessions Results: High HIV/AIDS awareness level (97%) was recorded, 77.7% had correct knowledge of the cause of the disease but knowledge on the modes of vertical transmission during pregnancy (57.5%) and prevention during breast-feeding (62.3%) was not encouraging A lot of misconceptions about the cause of the HIV/AIDS, modes of contact, transmission, prevention and anti-retroviral therapy were recorded Conclusion: The survey revealed that a lot needed to be done to improve the knowledge, attitude, perception and behavioral changes among the populace especially in this particular group. This calls for urgent and proper response in order to stem the tide of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24826022
Ebrahim-Saraie, Hadi Sedigh; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Sarvari, Jamal; Hoseini Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a major cause of nosocomial infections. Methicillin resistance in S. aureus is caused by the acquisition of the mecA gene, located on a mobile genetic element called the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC). Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the predominant SCCmec type present among clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on a total of 146 MRSA isolates obtained from clinical specimens between 2012 and 2013 from two major hospitals in Shiraz, Southwest of Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined by the disc diffusion method according to the guidelines of The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Bacterial DNA was extracted using the small-scale phenol-chloroform extraction method and was employed as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) templates for the assigned current SCCmec types. Results: The assigned SCCmec types by PCR revealed the SCCmec type I as the predominant type with 86 (58.9%) samples, followed by the SCCmec type II with 29 (19.9%), type III with 16 (11.0%), and type IV with 12 (8.2%) samples, respectively. The SCCmec type I MRSA isolates were significantly recovered from blood (80%) and sputum (67.2%). The results of antibacterial susceptibility tests for the MRSA isolates showed that all of those carrying the SCCmec type I and II had significantly greater resistance rates to Gentamicin and Rifampin than the isolates containing the SCCmec type III. Also, a significant difference was detected for susceptibility to Co-trimoxazole between the SCCmec type I and II MRSA isolates and the SCCmec type III, which was more resistant. Conclusions: The frequency of the isolates containing type I in the current study can indicate an emergence of this SCCmec type in the studied medical centers.
Venkateswaran, Sridhar; Tee, Augustine
INTRODUCTION Overlap syndrome between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is important but under-recognised. We aimed to determine the prevalence of overlap syndrome and the predictors of OSA in patients with COPD. METHODS Patients aged ? 40 years were recruited from a dedicated COPD clinic and underwent overnight polysomnography. A diagnosis of OSA was made when apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) was ? 5. RESULTS In all, 22 patients (aged 71 ± 9 years), predominantly men, were recruited. Mean values recorded were predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second percentage 55 ± 15; body mass index 23.7 ± 6.5 kg/m2; Epworth Sleepiness Scale score 5.6 ± 5.8; and AHI 15.8 ± 18.6. Among the 14 patients with OSA (prevalence of overlap syndrome at 63.6%), the mean number of hospital visits for COPD exacerbations in the preceding one year was 0.5 ± 0.7. Patients with overlap syndrome had worse modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale scores and a lower percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than patients without. There were no other statistical differences in lung function or sleep study indices between the two patient groups. CONCLUSION The majority of our patients had overlap syndrome and minimal exacerbations, and were not obese or sleepy. Significant differences between patients with and without overlap syndrome were seen in two aspects – the former was more dyspnoeic and had less REM sleep. Our findings suggest that standard clinical predictors cannot be used for patients with overlap syndrome, and therefore, a high index of suspicion is needed. PMID:25273934
Arshad, Mehreen; Arham, Ahmad Zafir; Arif, Mansoor; Bano, Maria; Bashir, Ayisha; Bokutz, Munira; Choudhary, Maria Maqbool; Naqvi, Haider; Khan, Murad Moosa
Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is shown to be effective in many psychiatric illnesses, but its distorted projection by the Pakistani media and its unregulated use by many physicians across the country have adversely affected its acceptability. Given this situation we aimed to assess the awareness and perceptions regarding ECT as a treatment modality among the psychiatric patients. Methods This was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study carried out at 2 tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Results We interviewed 190 patients of which 140 were aware of ECT. The study showed that the level of education had a significant impact on the awareness of ECT (p = 0.009). The most common source of awareness was electronic and print media (38%), followed by relatives (24%) and doctors (23%). Physical injuries (42%) and neurological (12%) and cognitive disturbances (11%) were the commonly feared side effects. The most popular belief about ECT was that it was a treatment of last resort (56%). Thirty-nine percent thought that ECT could lead to severe mental and physical illness and 37% considered it inhumane. Patients' willingness to receive ECT was dependant on whether or not they were convinced of its safety (p = 0.001) and efficacy (p = 0.0001). Conclusion We identified a serious lack of dissemination of information regarding ECT by the psychiatrists and the mental health care providers. This may be the result of an inadequate postgraduate training in Pakistan or just a lack of concern about the mentally ill patients. The media seemed to be the major source of information for our patients. We also saw the prevalence of a variety of myths regarding ECT in our society, which we feel may be responsible for the patients' adverse attitudes. Given the widespread applicability of ECT there is a dire need to dispel these misconceptions and improve its acceptability. PMID:17584946
Kiaei, Mohammad Zakaria; Hasanpoor, Edris; Sokhanvar, Mobin; Mohseni, Mohammad; Ziaiifar, Hajarbibi; Moradi, Mahin
Background: Today, the concept of organizational learning has attracted the attention of many managers and researchers in scientific and research circles as well as those in the organization-related studies. Taking the organizational learning into account might offer a means of organizational effectiveness that has gone unnoticed. Thus the present study aimed at investigating the relationship between the organizational learning in each of its four aspects as independent variables and organizational citizen behavior of the staff as constituting the dependent variable of the study. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study with a practical approach conducted in 2010. The sample included 167 staff members working in educational health centers affiliated with Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. The data were collected via both the organizational learning questionnaire and organizational citizen behavior questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS software and Spearman test. Results: The results indicated that the mean of organizational learning indicator was 2.9±0.648 and that of organizational citizen behavior 3.78±0.413. In addition, the spearman correlation coefficient ranging from 0.058 to 0.129 between the elements of the organizational learning and the organizational citizen behavior was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The findings also indicated that the correlation between them was average among the staff of Shahid Raja’ee Educational health center (0.319), thus the relationship between the two sets of variables proved significant (p=0.031). However, the same was not true in other centers. Conclusion: It was concluded that management commitment, open space, transfer of knowledge, and systemic vision could all enhance the level of organizational learning in hospitals which calls for focus on the elements of organizational citizen behavior. PMID:25568629
Failure of hospital employees to comply with smoke-free policy is associated with nicotine dependence and motives for smoking: a descriptive cross-sectional study at a teaching hospital in the United Kingdom
Parks, Tom; Wilson, Clare V. R.; Turner, Kenrick; Chin, Joel W. E.
of hospital employees. Seven hundred and four members of staff at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK, completed the questionnaire, of whom 101 were smokers. Comparison between compliant and non-compliant smokers was made based on calculated scores...
Ravangard, Ramin; Sajjadnia, Zahra; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Shahsavan, Najme; Bahmaie, Jamshid; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim
In order to achieve success in today's competitive world, organizations should adapt to environmental changes. On the other hand, managers should have a set of values and ethical guidelines for their administrative and organizational functions. This study aimed to investigate the association between work ethics and attitudes towards organizational changes among the administrative, financial and support employees of general teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This was an applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study conducted in 2013. A sample of 124 employees was selected using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. Data were collected using 2 questionnaires measuring the dimensions of employees' work ethics (four dimensions) and attitudes towards organizational changes (three dimensions). The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and statistical tests, including ANOVA, independent samples t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The maximum and minimum score of work ethic dimensions were related to being cooperative (4.60 ± 0.38) and dependable (4.29 ± 0.39) respectively. On the other hand, the maximum and minimum score of attitudes towards the various dimensions of organizational changes were related to the behavioral (3.83 ± 0.70) and the affective (3.55 ± 0.88) dimensions respectively. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between the work ethics and education levels of the employees in this study (P = 0.003). Also, among work s dimensions, only being considerate had a significant association with attitudes towards organizational changes (P = 0.014) and their cognitive dimension (P = 0.005). To improve employees' work ethics and attitudes towards organizational changes, the following suggestions can be offered: training hospitals managers in participative management style and its application, as well as the importance of meeting the employees' needs and expectations based on their characteristics; familiarizing employees with the Islamic work ethic; educating employees on the importance of being considerate towards their colleagues and subordinates in the workplace, and reinforcing this desirable quality; and finally, clarifying the need for changes in the organization for all employees. PMID:25512831
Ravangard, Ramin; Sajjadnia, Zahra; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Shahsavan, Najme; Bahmaie, Jamshid; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim
In order to achieve success in today’s competitive world, organizations should adapt to environmental changes. On the other hand, managers should have a set of values and ethical guidelines for their administrative and organizational functions. This study aimed to investigate the association between work ethics and attitudes towards organizational changes among the administrative, financial and support employees of general teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This was an applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study conducted in 2013. A sample of 124 employees was selected using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. Data were collected using 2 questionnaires measuring the dimensions of employees' work ethics (four dimensions) and attitudes towards organizational changes (three dimensions). The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and statistical tests, including ANOVA, independent samples t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The maximum and minimum score of work ethic dimensions were related to being cooperative (4.60 ± 0.38) and dependable (4.29 ± 0.39) respectively. On the other hand, the maximum and minimum score of attitudes towards the various dimensions of organizational changes were related to the behavioral (3.83 ± 0.70) and the affective (3.55 ± 0.88) dimensions respectively. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between the work ethics and education levels of the employees in this study (P = 0.003). Also, among work s dimensions, only being considerate had a significant association with attitudes towards organizational changes (P = 0.014) and their cognitive dimension (P = 0.005). To improve employees' work ethics and attitudes towards organizational changes, the following suggestions can be offered: training hospitals managers in participative management style and its application, as well as the importance of meeting the employees' needs and expectations based on their characteristics; familiarizing employees with the Islamic work ethic; educating employees on the importance of being considerate towards their colleagues and subordinates in the workplace, and reinforcing this desirable quality; and finally, clarifying the need for changes in the organization for all employees. PMID:25512831
Obasa, Temitope Olorunsola; Adesiyun, Omotayo Olukemi; Mokuolu, Olugbenga Ayodeji; Ojuawo, Ayodele Isaac
Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is an enzyme in the hexose monophosphate shunt required for the production of reducing equivalents needed to mop up free radicals. thereby keeping hemoglobin in its free state. Deficiency of the enzyme can cause severe neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to compare G6PD levels in pre-term and term babies, and evaluate the extent to which G6PD deficiency determines the severity of jaundice in various gestational age groups. Samples of cord blood collected from consecutively delivered babies in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, were assayed for G6PD levels, and the babies were observed for jaundice during the first week of life. Those who developed jaundice had serial serum bilirubin measured. Nine hundred and thirty-three babies had G6PD assayed, with 348 being G6PD deficient, giving a hospital based prevalence of 37.3%. Of the 644 who were followed up, 143 (22.2%) were pre-term and 501(77.8%) were term babies. Babies with gestational age (GA) 27-29 weeks had the highest G6PD levels. However, there was no significant variation among the different gestational age groups (F=0.64, P=0.64). Jaundice occurred more in pre-term compared to term babies with a relative risk of 2.41 (?(2)=60.95, P=0.00001). Occurrence of jaundice in pre-term babies was irrespective of G6PD status (?(2)=0.2, P=0.66, RR=1.09, CI=0.83
Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uguru, Nkoli; Etiaba, Enyi; Chikezie, Ifeanyi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Adjagba, Alex
Background Malaria is the number one public health problem in Nigeria, responsible for about 30% of deaths in under-fives and 25% of deaths in infants and 11% maternal mortality. This study estimated the economic burden of malaria in Nigeria using the cost of illness approach. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in two malaria holo-endemic communities in Nigeria, involving both community and hospital based surveys. A random sample of 500 households was interviewed using interviewer administered questionnaire. In addition, 125 exit interviews for inpatient department stays (IPD) and outpatient department visits (OPD) were conducted and these were complemented with data abstraction from 125 patient records. Results From the household survey, over half of the households (57.6%) had an episode of malaria within one month to the date of the interview. The average household expenditure per case was 12.57US$ and 23.20US$ for OPD and IPD respectively. Indirect consumer costs of treatment were higher than direct consumer medical costs. From a health system perspective, the recurrent provider costs per case was 30.42 US$ and 48.02 US$ for OPD and IPD while non recurrent provider costs were 133.07US$ and 1857.15US$ for OPD and IPD. The mode of payment was mainly through out-of-pocket spending (OOPS). Conclusion Private expenditure on treatment of malaria constitutes a high economic burden to households and to the health system. Removal of user fees and interventions that will decrease the use of OOPS for treatment of malaria will significantly decrease the economic burden of malaria to both households and the health system. PMID:24223796
Background Snake bite is a common problem in the North Central province of Sri Lanka. Common krait (Bungarus careuleus), Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus), Cobra (Naja naja), Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii), Saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) and Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) are the six species of venomous land snakes in Sri Lanka. A significant number of adults and children are bitten by snakes every year. However, the majority of research studies done in Sri Lanka and other countries show adults bitten by snakes and studies describing children bitten by snakes are very sparse. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was performed in the Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka from May 2010 to 2011 May to describe the characteristics associated with cases of snake bite. Results There were 24 males and 20 females. The highest numbers of bites (48%) were in the range of ages 6-12 years. The majority of the bites occurred between 6 pm to 6 am (59%).The foot was the most common bitten site (48%). Out of all the venomous bites, the Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) accounted for the highest number (44%) and Russell’s viper (Daboia ruselii) accounted for the second highest number (27%). A significant number of venomous bites occurred indoors while sleeping (22%). Antivenom serum was given to (39%) of venomous bites. Deaths occurred in (11%) of the venomous bites. Conclusions Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) accounted for the highest number of venomous bites. Majority of the bites occurred between 6 pm and 6 am. Foot was the most common bitten site. A significant number of venomous bites occurred indoor while sleeping. Antivenom serum was given to a significant number of venomous bites. Educating the public on making their houses snake proof and using a torch when going out during night time will help in the prevention of getting bitten by snakes. PMID:25073710
Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Eze, Justus Ndulue; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe
Background The global rise in cesarean delivery rate has been a major source of public health concern. Aim To appraise the cesarean deliveries and the associated fetal and maternal outcomes. Materials and methods The study was a case series with data collected retrospectively from the records of patients delivered by cesarean section at the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki over a 10-year period, from January 2002 to December 2011. Ethical approval was obtained. Results Of 14,198 deliveries, 2,323/14,198 (16.4%) were by cesarean deliveries. The overall increase of cesarean delivery was 11.1/10 (1.1%) per annum from 184/1,512 (12.2%) in 2002 to 230/986 (23.3%) in 2011. Of 2,097 case folders studied, 1,742/2,097 (83.1%) were delivered at term, and in 1,576/2,097 (75.2%), the cesarean deliveries were emergencies. The common indications for cesarean delivery were previous cesarean scars 417/2,097 (19.9%) and obstructed labor 331/2,097 (15.8%). There were 296 perinatal deaths, giving a perinatal mortality rate of (296/2,197) 134.7/1,000 births. Also, 129/2,097 (6.1%) maternal case fatalities occurred, giving a maternal mortality rate of 908.6/100,000 total births. Hemorrhage 57/129 (44.2%) and sepsis 41/129 (32.6%) were the major causes. Conclusion The study recorded a significant increase in cesarean delivery rate. Previous cesarean scars and obstructed labors were the main indications. Perinatal and maternal case fatalities were huge. Hence, there is need for continued community education for its reduction. PMID:25999769
Aiman, U; Haseen, M A; Beg, M H; Khan, R A; Siddiqui, F A; Alam, I
Peripheral arterial disease, being a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis, carries a high risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Secondary medical prevention therapies of same magnitude as that for coronary artery disease are recommended for peripheral arterial disease patients also. Available evidence indicates that this condition commonly remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. There is lack of any report about management of these patients in India. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the atherosclerotic risk factor profile and pattern of drug prescription for patients of peripheral arterial disease at a tertiary care teaching hospital and to compare this management with standard guidelines. Data were collected from prescriptions of patients attending cardiothoracic and vascular surgery outpatient department with diagnosis of atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease from July 2012 to Jun 2013. One hundred twenty prescriptions were analysed. The mean age (±SD) of patients was 53±7.18 years and 23.3% were females. History of smoking, either past or present, was present in 91.6% patients. History of ischemic heart disease was present in 25%, while 26.7% patients were diabetic. Mean number of cardiovascular risk factors was 2.6. The percentage of eligible patients who were receiving a particular drug was 100% for aspirin and statins, 48.3% for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, 46.7% for beta blockers and 66.7% for cilostazol. The vascular surgeons of this centre are using antiplatelet agents and statins adequately for peripheral arterial disease. The prescription of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers and cilostazol is low. Exercise therapy and smoking cessation need more attention. PMID:25593383
Echocardiographic reporting system is very poor in Nepal. No long-term feasibility and efficacy data about the echocardiography database with video clips has been studied. Snazzi Movie Studio S4 was used to convert analog video signals into MPEG2 and color photographs were converted into JPEG format for storage and use for the database. All together 2272 patients' echocardiography were performed by one individual prospectively at the Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from 10th January 2007 to 9th January 2012. Echocardiographic findings of these patients were evaluated. Mean age +/- SD were 44.4 +/- 28.7 years. Male female ratio was 0.8:1. Brahman/Chhetri were the usual ethnic group to undergo echocardiography (943, 41.5%), followed byjanajati (631, 27.8%) and newar (496, 21.8%). Age group of 60-69 years was the most common echo users (519, 22.8%). Total time for echocardiography/report writing with database compared to non database was 13.9 +/- 2.4 minutes vs. 12.3 +/- 0.8 minutes, p = 0.51. Out of all lesions, valvular lesions were the most common lesions detected (4885, 215%). Mild tricuspid regurgitation (1213, 53.4%) was the most common valvular lesion followed by mild mitral regurgitation (742, 32.7%). Patent foramen ovale was the most common congenital heart disease (32, 45.7%) followed by atrial septal defect (12, 17.1%). About one seventh of the total patients (318, 13.9%) had systolic dysfunction. Out of total chronic cor pulmonale (383, 16.9%), severe Pulmonary arterial dysfulction (PAH) was noted in more than one third of the patients (169, 44.1%). PMID:24047011
Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Umar, Ismaila Alhaji; Ibrahim, Sani; Bello, Fatima; Ndidi, Uche Samuel
Hypertension (HTN) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are lifestyle interrelated diseases of global significance. Interestingly, the prevalence of these diseases in Africa and indeed Nigeria seems to be on the increase. This study, therefore, investigated the socioeconomic status (based on income, education and occupational activity) of 400 subjects (52% female and 48% male) aged 20 years and above who were sampled randomly among the newly diagnosed HTN and/or T2D cases at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, North-West Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the subjects. From the result obtained, most of the respondents who live in towns or city suffer from either HTN or T2D while more town dwellers (28%) suffer from a combination of both diseases. It was also discovered that most respondents who suffer from HTN and from a combination of HTN and T2D belong to the old generation (60-79 years). There is higher prevalence rate of diabetes among the respondents who had no formal education or attended only basic Arabic schools. Most respondents who earn good income (NGN50,000-NGN100,000 and above NGN100,000) suffer HTN, T2D and a combination of both diseases. Those engaged in heavy occupational activities had the lowest prevalence of the disease compared with those of light or moderate occupational activities. These data will be found useful in planning intervention healthcare preventive programs especially on public enlightenment workshops and seminars to educate the populace on the importance of lifestyle modification, healthy diet and regular exercises. PMID:25560354
Ahmad, Akram; Patel, Isha; Asani, Himani; Jagadeesan, M.; Parimalakrishnan, S.; Selvamuthukumaran, S.
Aim: Antithrombotic therapy with heparin plus antiplatelets reduces the rate of ischemic events in patients with coronary heart disease. Low molecular weight heparin has a more predictable anticoagulant effect than standard unfractionated heparin, is easier to administer, does not require monitoring and is associated with less ADRs. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the clinical and cost outcomes of Enoxaparin with a standard unfractionated heparin in patients with coronary heart disease. Materials and Methods: This was a noninvasive prospective observational descriptive study carried out at a multi-specialty tertiary care teaching hospital situated in rural Tamil Nadu, India. Male and female coronary heart disease (CHD) patients aged 35–75 years newly diagnosed or those having a history of CHD were included. The intervention group received enoxaparin for 5 days. A series of resting the electrocardiogram, prothrombin time and ADRs were measured in all patients during days 1 and 21 respectively. Results: Compared to unfractionated heparin group of patients, the average prothrombin time was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) whereas hypokalemia was significantly lower (P < 0.02) in enoxaparin group of patients. Even though recurrence of angina and ADRs such as bleeding, nausea, headache and sudden cough occurred less frequently in the enoxaparin group of patients compared to unfractionated heparin group of patients, the differences were not significant. Conclusions: Antithrombotic therapy with enoxaparin plus aspirin was safer and more effective than unfractionated heparin plus aspirin, in reducing the incidence of ischemic events in patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction in the early phase. PMID:25821318
Eshetu, Amare; Tsegaye, Aster; Petros, Beyene
Poor micronutrient levels are associated with an increased risk of progression to AIDS and are also suggested to influence outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), though existing data are inconclusive to support the latter. Few published data are available on micronutrient levels in Ethiopian HIV/AIDS patients taking HAART. The objective of the study was to determine the association of micronutrient levels and response to HAART (CD4(+) T cell count) among adult HIV/AIDS patients attending a teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa. CD4(+) T cell counts and micronutrient (retinol, zinc, and iron) levels for 171 subjects were determined using standard procedures. Some proportions of the study participants were found deficient for retinol (14.03 %), zinc (47.3 %), and iron (2.8 %). Patients who were deficient in retinol had a significantly lower median CD4(+) T cell counts (P?=?0.002) compared to non-deficient subjects. Association of micronutrient quartiles with CD4+ T cell count was assessed using adjusted multivariate regression by taking quartile 4 as a reference category. Accordingly, patients who had retinol levels in quartile 4 had a significantly lower mean CD4(+) T cell count compared to quartile 3 (P?=?0.02). The significantly higher CD4(+) T cell counts in patients who were non-deficient in retinol imply the role of retinol in improving the production of CD4(+) T cells. However, both lower and higher retinol levels were associated with suppressed immunity (CD4?200 cells/mm(3)), suggesting an adverse effect of higher retinol levels. Thus, retinol may be potentially harmful depending on the dose, emphasizing the need for optimized level of retinol in nutrient supplements in patients taking HAART. PMID:25256923
Nwogoh, Benedict; Aigberadion, Usimenahon; Nwannadi, Alexander Ikenna
Introduction. Adequate and safe blood supply has remained a challenge in developing countries like ours. There is a high dependency on family replacement and remunerated blood donors in our environment which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation among healthcare workers (nonphysicians) and to identify and recruit potential voluntary blood donors. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. A total of 163 staffs were recruited. Pretest questionnaires were used to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation. Statistical Analysis. The responses were collated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16. The association between blood donation practice and gender of respondents, category of staff, and level of education was tested using Chi-square and Fisher's tests where appropriate. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. The median age of the respondents was 32 years (18-56) with females accounting for 55.6% (90). A total of 74.8% (122) attained tertiary education, and 55.8% (91) of respondents were senior staffs. The majority has good knowledge and positive attitude towards donation; however, only 22.1% (36) have donated blood with 41.7% (15) of these being voluntary. Male workers were more likely to donate (P < 0.05). There is no significant association between blood donation and level of education. Conclusion. There is a strong disparity between the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary donation amongst healthcare workers. PMID:24222890
Nwogoh, Benedict; Aigberadion, Usimenahon; Nwannadi, Alexander Ikenna
Introduction. Adequate and safe blood supply has remained a challenge in developing countries like ours. There is a high dependency on family replacement and remunerated blood donors in our environment which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation among healthcare workers (nonphysicians) and to identify and recruit potential voluntary blood donors. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. A total of 163 staffs were recruited. Pretest questionnaires were used to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation. Statistical Analysis. The responses were collated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16. The association between blood donation practice and gender of respondents, category of staff, and level of education was tested using Chi-square and Fisher's tests where appropriate. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. The median age of the respondents was 32 years (18–56) with females accounting for 55.6% (90). A total of 74.8% (122) attained tertiary education, and 55.8% (91) of respondents were senior staffs. The majority has good knowledge and positive attitude towards donation; however, only 22.1% (36) have donated blood with 41.7% (15) of these being voluntary. Male workers were more likely to donate (P < 0.05). There is no significant association between blood donation and level of education. Conclusion. There is a strong disparity between the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary donation amongst healthcare workers. PMID:24222890
Dim, Cyril C; Ekwe, Esther; Madubuko, Theresa; Dim, Ngozi R; Ezegwui, Hyginus U
Improved awareness of Pap test by Nigerian women may not necessarily increase its use. This hypothesis was tested using female medical practitioners in Enugu state, Nigeria. They were expected to be advocates of disease screening and therefore should lead by example. All respondents were aware of the Pap smear but only 18% had used it. The mean frequency of Pap smear was 1.8+/-1.2 (range 1-5). Repeat Pap tests were observed only among respondents that had screened as routine. The majority (32%) of those who never screened for cervical cancer had no reason. There may be more to the use of Pap smear among women in Nigeria than its awareness. PMID:19394990
Ihedioha, J N; Okoye, C O B
The study assessed the dietary intake of lead and cadmium and health risk from consumption of various parts of cow meat by the urban population of Enugu State, Nigeria. Meat samples (n=150) comprising of muscle, liver, kidney, intestine and tripe were purchased from abattoirs in Nsukka and Enugu. The samples were dried, ground and two gram was digested with 3:2 HNO3:HClO4 v/v. The Cd and Pb concentrations were read with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The dietary intakes were estimated using a one week food frequency questionnaire administered to 755 subjects. The dietary intake of lead (µg/kg body weight/week) were in the following ranges; men [0.15 (kidney)-0.55(intestine)], non pregnant/non lactating women [0.16 (kidney)-0.62 (liver)], pregnant/lactating women [0.13 (kidney)-0.53 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.12 (kidney)-0.62 (intestine)] and school children [0.29 (kidney)-1.16 (liver)]; cadmium: men [0.42 (liver)-1.21 (tripe)], non-pregnant/non-lactating women [0.53 (kidney)-1.20 (tripe)], pregnant/lactating women [0.43 (kidney)-0.90 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.40 (kidney)-1.18 (tripe)] and school children [0.97 (kidney)-1.93 (tripe)]. The total dietary intakes of lead from the various cow meat parts by the groups were much lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) guide line, but for cadmium, the intakes were quite appreciable when compared to the PTWI guideline while the intake for school children was very high, 113% of PTWI for the metal. The target hazard quotients were in the range of 0.05-0.10 for lead and 0.42-0.90 for cadmium. These values are less than one, indicating that the subjects are not exposed to any significant health risk via cow meat consumption. PMID:23664087
["Let's become the surgeon" the present status of the medical course beside teaching in Department of surgery, Daisan Hospital the Jikei University School of medicine: based on the experience OF clinical Clark ship for 5 years].
Hoya, Yoshiyuki; Okamoto, Tomoyoshi; Yabe, Mitsuo; Hanyu, Ken; Suwa, Katsuhito; Fujioka, Shuichi; Tabei, Isao; Satou, Shuji; Yanaga, Katsuhiko
In Department of Surgery, Daisan Hospital, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Clinical Clark ship (C.C.) is positively taken in the bedside teaching of the medical course fifth and sixth grader from April, 2010. We think that the C.C. is a good opportunity to tell the charm of the surgeon to the students. We introduce a bedside teaching going in our Department, based on the experience of the C.C. for 5 years. In the bedside teaching of our department, there are many tasks not to advance before when students do not have discussion with preceptors, about participation in surgery, presentation of the preoperative conference, visiting of outpatient care and night practice. Moreover, students decide the theme about submitting report and research presentation. For our department which built a bedside teaching with on the job training as a concept from 2010, "students in the C.C." is welcome and beneficial for the doctors, the students itself and the patients. When C.C. will be introduced into all Department of our university in earnest from 2016, we have to examine the merits and demerits in future so that C.C. functions going well. PMID:26050516
Jahani-Sherafat, Somayeh; Razaghi, Maryam; Rosenthal, Victor D; Tajeddin, Elahe; Seyedjavadi, Simasadat; Rashidan, Marjan; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Rostampour, Maryam; Haghi, Arezo; Sayarbayat, Masoumeh; Farazmandian, Somayeh; Yarmohammadi, Tahere; Arshadi, Fardokht K; Mansouri, Nahid; Sarbazi, Mohammad R; Vilar, Mariano; Zali, Mohammad R
Device-associated health care-acquired infections (DA-HAIs) pose a threat to patient safety, particularly in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, few data regarding DA-HAI rates and their associated bacterial resistance in ICUs from Iran are available. A DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted in six adult and pediatric ICUs in academic teaching hospitals in Tehran using CDC/NHSN definitions. We collected prospective data regarding device use, DA-HAI rates, and lengths of stay from 2584 patients, 16,796 bed-days from one adult ICU, and bacterial profiles and bacterial resistance from six ICUs. Among the DA-HAIs, there were 5.84 central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABs) per 1000 central line-days, 7.88 ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs) per 1000 mechanical ventilator-days and 8.99 catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) per 1000 urinary catheter-days. The device utilization ratios were 0.44 for central lines, 0.42 for mechanical ventilators and 1.0 for urinary catheters. The device utilization ratios of mechanical ventilators and urinary catheters were higher than those reported in the ICUs of the INICC and the CDC's NHSN reports, but central line use was lower. The DA-HAI rates in this study were higher than the CDC's NHSN report. However, compared with the INICC report, the VAP rate in our study was lower, while the CLAB rate was similar and the CAUTI rate was higher. Nearly 83% of the samples showed a mixed-type infection. The most frequent pathogens were Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus spp. In the S. aureus isolates, 100% were resistant to oxacillin. Overall resistances of A. baumannii and K. pneumonia to imipenem were 70.5% and 76.7%, respectively. A multiple drug resistance phenotype was detected in 68.15% of the isolates. The DA-HAI rates in Iran were shown to be higher than the CDC-NHSN rates and similar to the INICC rates. Resistance to oxacillin and imipenem was higher as well. Comparing device use, DA-HAI rates, and bacterial resistance for the primary isolated bacteria indicated a direct association between urinary catheter use and the rates of CAUTI. PMID:26027477
Nunes, Juscimar C.; Braz, Jose R. C.; Oliveira, Thais S.; de Carvalho, Lidia R.; Castiglia, Yara M. M.; Braz, Leandro G.
Background Little information is known about factors that influence perioperative and anesthesia-related cardiac arrest (CA) in older patients. This study evaluated the incidence, causes and outcome of intraoperative and anesthesia-related CA in older patients in a Brazilian teaching hospital between 1996 and 2010. Methods During the study, older patients received 18,367 anesthetics. Data collected included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, anesthesia type, medical specialty team and outcome. All CAs were categorized by cause into one of four groups: patient's disease/condition-related, surgery-related, totally anesthesia-related or partially anesthesia-related. Results All intraoperative CAs and deaths rates are shown per 10,000 anesthetics. There were 100 CAs (54.44; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 44.68–64.20) and 68 deaths (37.02; 95% CI: 27.56–46.48). The majority of CAs were patient's disease-/condition-related (43.5; 95% CI: 13.44–73.68). There were six anesthesia-related CAs (3.26; 95% CI: 0.65–5.87) - 1 totally and 5 partially anesthesia-related, and three deaths, all partially anesthesia-related (1.63; 95% CI: 0.0–3.47). ASA I-II physical status patients presented no anesthesia-related CA. Anesthesia-related CA, absent in the last five years of the study, was due to medication-/airway-related causes. ASA physical status was the most important predictor of CA (odds ratio: 14.52; 95% CI: 4.48–47.08; P<0.001) followed by emergency surgery (odds ratio: 8.07; 95% CI: 5.14–12.68; P<0.001). Conclusions The study identified high incidence of intraoperative CAs with high mortality in older patients. The large majority of CAs were caused by factors not anesthesia-related. Anesthesia-related CA and mortality rates were 3.26 and 1.63 per 10,000 anesthetics, with no anesthesia-related CA in the last five years of the study. Major predictors of intraoperative CAs were poorer ASA physical status and emergency surgery. All anesthesia-related CAs were medication-related or airway-related, which is important for prevention strategies. PMID:25117481
Burwell, Rebecca; Huyser, Mackenzi
This article explores pedagogical approaches to teaching students how to practice hospitality toward the other. Using case examples from the college classroom, the authors discuss the roots of Christian hospitality and educational theory on transformative learning to explore how students experience engaging with others after they have…
Smith, C; Curran, M D; Roddick, I; Reacher, M
Effective use of data linkage is becoming an increasingly important focus in the new healthcare system in England. We linked data from the results of a multiplex PCR assay for respiratory viruses for a population of 230 inpatients at a UK teaching hospital with their patient administrative system records in order to compare the mortality and length of stay of patients who tested positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with those positive for another influenza A virus. The results indicated a reduced risk of death among influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 patients compared to other influenza A strains, with an adjusted risk ratio of 0·25 (95% confidence interval 0·08-0·75, P = 0·01), while no significant differences were found between the lengths of stay in the hospital for these two groups. Further development of such methods to link hospital data in a routine fashion could provide a rapid means of gaining epidemiological insights into emerging infectious diseases. PMID:25119499
Placher, William C.
As associate director and then director of the Wabash Center for Teaching and Learning in Theology and Religion, Lucinda Huffaker has been a key factor in the Center's reputation for hospitality. The Center's work presupposes that reflection on teaching improves teaching and learning, and good reflection on one's teaching requires taking risks and…
Ohana, Salomon; Leflon, Veronique; Ronco, Esthel; Rottman, Martin; Guillemot, Didier; Lortat-Jacob, Sylvie; Denys, Pierre; Loubert, Georges; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Helčne; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Lawrence, Christine
We describe a large outbreak involving a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain producing a plasmid-encoded ACC-1 type AmpC ?-lactamase in a hospital caring for patients with motor impairment. The epidemic strain was isolated from 57 patients in six wards between September 1999 and May 2003 and caused clinical infections in 19 patients. PMID:15855536
An outbreak of infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains during a short period of time in a Chinese teaching hospital: epidemiology study and molecular characteristics.
Zhou, Tieli; Zhang, Yapei; Li, Meimei; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Yao; Xu, Jiru
In this study, we comprehensively described the clinical risk factors, outcome, epidemiology, and molecular basis associated with an outbreak of extensively drug-resistant KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae involving 15 patients in a teaching hospital from May 1 to June 27, 2013. Most of the patients were elderly and received long-term hospital treatment, and 40.0% (6/15) of them were dead. All strains carried bla(KPC-2), rmtB, bla(CTX-M-65), bla(SHV-11), oqxA, oqxB, and aac(6')-Ib-cr and even harbored additional other resistance genes, such as armA, bla(CTX-M-1), bla(TEM-1). bla(KPC-2), rmtB, and bla(CTX-M-65) were located on the same ~54.2-kb plasmid, and conjugation experiments further proved the cotransferable characteristic. Alterations of outer membrane proteins were confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate--olyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis and sequencing, which can lead to a drastic change in the permeability of cells. All isolates belonged to the clone complex 258, spreading rapidly across the world. Our study demonstrated that a high degree of awareness and surveillance of those drug resistance determinants is urgently needed. PMID:25865067
The independent evolution of resistance to ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and fusidic acid in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Australian teaching hospitals (1990-1995). Australian Group for Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR).
Gottlieb, T; Mitchell, D
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is endemic in teaching hospitals in eastern Australian states, with prevalence rates averaging 25-30% of all S. aureus. Between 1990 and 1995, 1467 non-duplicate MRSA isolates from clinically infected sites were tested in Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane as part of a national survey of staphylococcal susceptibility. We reviewed the differing evolution of resistance to ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and fusidic acid. Despite similarities in community and hospital antibiotic use and MRSA prevalence rates, trends in resistance to the oral antibiotics in these cities have progressed independently of each other. In the 1995 survey in individual hospitals in Melbourne, 16-24% of strains were ciprofloxacin-resistant, compared with 80-100% in Sydney and 30-44% in Brisbane. There was great diversity of phage type patterns for ciprofloxacin-resistant strains, suggesting heterogeneous development of resistance. Rifampicin resistance was more closely associated with distinct dominant epidemic phage types, common to institutions in the same city, but without spread to the other cites. Between 1990 and 1995, these comprised 30-60% of all MRSA in Brisbane, compared with 5-10% in Melbourne and < 25% in Sydney. Fusidic acid resistance was uncommon and sporadic (< 5%), and was distributed equally between methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible strains. Resistance to the oral agents in MRSA is due to a complex mix of antibiotic selection pressures and cross-infection with local and epidemic strains in closely related institutions. Each of these mechanisms can predominate, dependent on local factors and the antibiotics used. PMID:9700530
Brooks, G R; Jones, V G
OBJECTIVE: To address two questions: What are the characteristics of hospitals that affect the likelihood of their being involved in a merger? What characteristics of particular pairs of hospitals affect the likelihood of the pair engaging in a merger? DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Hospitals in the 12 county region surrounding the San Francisco Bay during the period 1983 to 1992 were the focus of the study. Data were drawn from secondary sources, including the Lexis/Nexis database, the American Hospital Association, and the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development of the State of California. STUDY DESIGN: Seventeen hospital mergers during the study period were identified. A random sample of pairs of hospitals that did not merge was drawn to establish a statistically efficient control set. Models constructed from hypotheses regarding hospital and market characteristics believed to be related to merger likelihood were tested using logistic regression analysis. DATA COLLECTION: See Data Sources/Study Setting. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis shows that the likelihood of a merger between a particular pair of hospitals is positively related to the degree of market overlap that exists between them. Furthermore, market overlap and performance difference interact in their effect on merger likelihood. In an analysis of individual hospitals, conditions of rivalry, hospital market share, and hospital size were not found to influence the likelihood that a hospital will engage in a merger. CONCLUSIONS: Mergers between hospitals are not driven directly by considerations of market power or efficiency as much as by the existence of specific merger opportunities in the hospitals' local markets. Market overlap is a condition that enables a merger to occur, but other factors, such as the relative performance levels of the hospitals in question and their ownership and teaching status, also play a role in influencing the likelihood that a merger will in fact take place. PMID:9018212
... to making information about the safety, quality, and efficiency of their hospital available to the public. We ... Hospitals that implement these quality, safety, and/or efficiency practices have reported that their internal processes of ...
Health Education (Washington D.C.), 1986
This special issue contains teaching strategies and suggestions for health-related activities at all educational levels. A few of the topics addressed by the 21 articles are heart disease, testicular cancer, hospital stress, family life, and sexual responsibility. (MT)
AlGhamdi, Khalid M.; Moussa, Noura A.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Use of hair dye is extremely common worldwide. However, our literature search failed to find studies concerning the knowledge and attitudes of the public with regard to hair dyes. We sought to explore the knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dye among females. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional survey conducted on females who attended various outpatient clinics at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a tertiary referral hospital open to the general public. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire about the use of hair dyes was distributed randomly among females attending the outpatient clinics at a university hospital in 2008. RESULTS: The response rate was 87.2%, with completion of 567 of the 650 distributed questionnaires. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 32.0 (10.2) years. Among respondents, 82.6% (464/562) had at some point dyed their hair. Furthermore, 69.3% (334/482) had dyed their hair in the past 12 months. The mean (SD) age of the participants when they first dyed their hair was 22.2 (7.1) years (range, 7-50). Of the participants, 76.8% (354/461) used permanent dyes, and about the same percentage of participants believed such dyes were the safest hair dye type. However, 52.4% (278/531) of the participants believed that hair dyes are harmful, and 36% (191/531) believed that hair dyes could cause cancer. Younger females tend to dye their hair less frequently (P<.001), whereas those with less education tend to dye their hair more frequently (P=.013). CONCLUSION: Use of hair dye is very common among females. Because the practice starts at a very young age, we conclude that hair dyes are overused and misused. The public should be informed about the risks associated with excessive hair dye use. PMID:22048508
Liu, Y; Wan, L-G; Deng, Q; Cao, X-W; Yu, Y; Xu, Q-F
A total of 180 non-duplicate carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were recovered from patients hospitalized between December 2010 and January 2012 at a Chinese hospital. Eight KPC-2, four NDM-1, one VIM-2, and five KPC-2 plus IMP-4 producers were identified and all were multidrug resistant due to the presence of other resistance determinants, including extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (CTX-M-15, SHV-12), 16S rRNA methylases (armA, rmtB) and plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance determinants (qnrA, B, S, aac(6')-Ib-cr). Nine K. pneumoniae clones (Kpn-A1/ST395, Kpn-A3/ST11, Kpn-A2/ST134, Kpn-B/ST263, Kpn-C/ST37, Kpn-D/ST39, Kpn-E/ST1151, Kpn-F/ST890, Kpn-G/ST1153) were identified. bla KPC-2 was located on transferable ~65 kb IncL/M (ST395, ST11, ST134, ST39) and ~100 kb IncA/C (ST37, ST1153, ST890) plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, bla NDM-1 was associated with a ~70 kb IncA/C plasmid (ST263). However, non-typable plasmids of ~40 kb containing bla VIM-2 were detected in the ST1151 clone. This work reports the first co-occurrence of four diverse types of carbapenemase of K. pneumoniae clones from a single hospital in China. IncA/C, IncL/M, and other successful plasmids may be important for the dissemination of carbapenemases, producing a complex epidemiological picture. PMID:24762211
Lucca, Jisha M.; Ramesh, M.; Narahari, Gopalakrishna M.; Minaz, N.
Objective: To analyze clinical pharmacist interventions in the intensive care units (ICUs) setting of a tertiary care Indian hospital and to assess the pharmacoeconomic impact on drug-related problems (DRPs). Materials and Methods: A postgraduate clinical pharmacist reviewed drug prescriptions over a period of 7 months. Whenever a DRP is identified, it was discussed with a physician and appropriate suggestions were provided, later it was documented on a preprepared form. Clinical significance of each intervention was graded based on the predicted clinical outcome. Acceptance of the interventions is entirely at the discretion of the medical staff. Each intervention was analyzed with respect to potential cost saving and/or additional cost incurred to existing drug therapy. An independent clinical panel was convened, and all the interventions made by the intervening pharmacist were critically reviewed for potential cost savings. Results: The intervening pharmacist made 117 recommendations, of which 94% was accepted by the medical professionals. The most frequent DRP identified was overdose (24%). The total net cost savings made was Rs. 77260.13 (USD 1796.73). This corresponds with Rs. 965.75 per patient and an annualized savings of Rs. 135205.22. Conclusion: Clinical pharmacist interventions had a significant impact on the cost of drug therapy and the patient outcome in intensive care settings of our hospital. PMID:23129959
Rabkin, Mitchell T.; Avakian, Laura
The participative management plan selected, adapted, and implemented by Beth Israel Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) in 1989 is described. Successes, lessons learned, and plans for the future are also discussed. The teaching hospital chose the Scanlon Plan from among others as a means to quality improvement. (Author/MSE)
Liua, Hsiu-Chu; Li, Hsing; Chang, Hsin-Fei; Lu, Mei-Rou; Chen, Feng-Chuan
Learning from the experience of another medical center in Taiwan, Kaohsiung Municipal Kai-Suan Psychiatric Hospital has changed the nursing informatics system step by step in the past year and a half . We considered ethics in the original idea of implementing barcodes on the test tube labels to process the identification of the psychiatric patients. The main aims of this project are to maintain the confidential information and to transport the sample effectively. The primary nurses had been using different work sheets for this project to ensure the acceptance of the new barcode system. In the past two years the errors in the blood testing process were as high as 11,000 in 14,000 events per year, resulting in wastage of resources. The actions taken by the nurses and the new barcode system implementation can improve the clinical nursing care quality, safety of the patients, and efficiency, while decreasing the cost due to the human error. PMID:26262221
Tandon, Vishal R; Khajuria, Vijay; Mahajan, Annil; Gillani, Zahid; Mahajan, Vivek; Chandail, Vijant
Medical burden of fatal adverse drug reactions (FADRs) is significant. The epidemiological data on FADR do exist from the western world, but there is scanty from India. We hereby report a case series of FADRs recorded in a 2 years period. Point prevalence of FADRs was 0.223%. Point prevalence of all cause death in the hospital was 1.20%. The drugs causing FADRs were injection bupivacaine, amphotericin B, directly observed treatment short-course Category-1, injection streptokinase, and tablet ferrous sulfate. All these FADR were labeled as possible expect one case as probable. All FADR were labeled as type A. In three out of five the central nervous system was involved, while the hepatic system and multiorgan failure accounted for one case each. Two cases each were acute and subacute, while one was latent in nature. Reporting of FADRs shall go a long way in patient safety. PMID:24914261
Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.
This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…
Prevedello, Luciano M; Andriole, Katherine P; Khorasani, Ryan Roobian Ramin
The RSNA Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) software is an open-source program that allows users to identify, index, and retrieve images, teaching files, and other radiologic data that share a common underlying structure. The software is being continually improved as new challenges and different needs become apparent. Although version T30 is easily installed on a stand-alone computer, its implementation at healthcare enterprises with complex network architecture may be challenging with respect to security because users cannot log on by using a standard enterprise-wide authentication protocol. Instead, authentication takes place through the local MIRC database, creating security concerns and potential organizational problems. In this setting, the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) can be used to provide a single sign-on environment and increase authentication security. A commercial directory service using LDAP has been successfully integrated with MIRC in a large multifacility enterprise to provide single sign-on capability compatible with the institutional networking policies for password security. PMID:19605651
And Others; Daggett, Christopher J.
Medical education research indicates little has been done to improve teaching effectiveness of attending physicians on hospital wards. Moreover, there have been few studies to determine what the attending physician should attempt to accomplish with medical school trainees. More data collected in clinical settings are needed. (RD)
Zhu, Ling-Ling; Li, Wei; Song, Ping; Zhou, Quan
The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People's Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1) improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2) complications associated with vascular access; 3) incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4) liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan-do-check-act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety. PMID:24669192
Zhu, Ling-ling; Li, Wei; Song, Ping; Zhou, Quan
The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People’s Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1) improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2) complications associated with vascular access; 3) incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4) liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan–do–check–act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety. PMID:24669192
Bach, Matthias; Geisel, Tabea; Martin, Julia; Schulze, Bettina; Schaefer, Roland; Virgin, Garth; Stein, Juergen
Current iron supplementation practice in geriatric patients is erratic and lacks evidence-based recommendations. Despite potential benefits in this population, intravenous iron supplementation is often withheld due to concerns regarding pharmacy expense, perceived safety issues, and doubts regarding efficacy in elderly patients. This retrospective, observational cohort study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM, Ferinject) in patients aged >75 years with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Within a twelve-month data extraction period, the charts of 405 hospitalised patients aged 65–101 years were retrospectively analysed for IDA, defined according to WHO criteria for anaemia (haemoglobin: <13.0?g/dL (m)/<12.0?g/dL (f)) in conjunction with transferrin saturation <20%. Of 128 IDA patients screened, 51 (39.8%) received intravenous iron. 38 patient charts were analysed. Mean cumulative dose of intravenous FCM was 784.4 ± 271.7?mg iron (1–3 infusions). 18 patients (47%) fulfilled treatment response criteria (?1.0?g/dL increase in haemoglobin between baseline and hospital discharge). AEs were mild/moderate, most commonly transient increases of liver enzymes (n = 5/13.2%). AE incidence was comparable with that observed in patients <75 years. No serious AEs were observed. Ferric carboxymaltose was well tolerated and effective for correction of Hb levels and iron stores in this cohort of IDA patients aged over 75 years.
de Micheli, Alfredo
The predecessor institutions of modern hospitals--Byzantine nosocómeion, European hospitale and Islamic maristan--were dissimilar both in their patients and their aims. The first charitable organizations in West Europe (Rome) and in the East (Cesarea in Cappadocia) were rather hospices. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire (476 A.D.), some monastic centers were prepared to provide medical assistance to religious and secular patients. Since the XI and XII Centuries in all of Christian Europe the charitable institutions, designated as hospitale, multiplied. Among the Italian ones, the Roman Santo Spirito (Holy Ghost) Hospital, built in the 1201-1204 period, reached a preeminet position. This one soon became the most important of the entire Christendom (archihospital), with a lot of affiliated hospitals in Europe and later in America. The first American hospital, Saint Nicholas Hospital, opened on December 29, 1503 in Santo Domingo, obtained in 1541 its affiliation to the Santo Spirito archihospital. Regarding continental America, the first health centers were established in Mexico: the Immaculate Conception Hospital and the Saint Lazarus Hospital, both established by Hernán Cortés. For its part, clinical teaching was systematized at the Saint Francis Hospital in Padua and by there moved to Leyden. In Mexico, the chair of medical clinics or practical medicine was established in 1806 at the Saint Andrew Hospital. During the XX century, Dr. Ignacio Chávez was the driving force behind the creation of the modern Mexican Health Institutes. These ones are dedicated to the treatment of poor patients, as well as to medical teaching and research. PMID:15754753
1 of 7 Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management ANNUAL REPORT May 16, 2005 May 15, 2006. (2006) "Applied Marketing and Sales of Hospitality and Tourism Services." Hospitality & Tourism. Ed: Selecting Students for an Oversubscribed HTM Program", Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, Vol. 4 (4
Dobson, Allen; Koenig, Lane; Sen, Namrata; Ho, Silver; Gilani, Jawaria
This study examined how competitive market dynamics between 1994 and 2000 have affected the financial stability of Academic Health Center (AHC) hospitals and their ability to support their academic and social missions. It looked at the financial challenges facing AHC hospitals through a survey involving 1,138 teaching hospitals. Findings…
Jones, Carolyn M.
The Wabash Center for Teaching and Learning in Theology and Religion is a place of hospitality and its staff the epitome of the "good host." This essay explores the meaning of hospitality, including its problematic dimensions, drawing on a number of voices and texts: Jacques Derrida's "Of Hospitality"; Henri M. Nouwen's "Reaching Out: The Three…
Kumela, Kabaye; Amenu, Demisew; Chelkeba, Legese
Background: More than 90% of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is acquired due to mother-to-child transmission, which is spreading during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral and short course antiretroviral regimens in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and associated factors Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). Method: A hospital based retrospective cohort study was conducted on HIV infected pregnant mothers who gave birth and had follow up at anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinic for at least 6 months during a time period paired with their infants. The primary and secondary outcomes were rate of infant infection by HIV at 6 weeks and 6 months respectively. The Chi-square was used for the comparison of categorical data multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants of early mother-to-child transmission of HIV at 6 weeks. Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze factors that affect the 6 month HIV free survival of infants born to HIV infected mothers. Results: A total of 180 mother infant pairs were considered for the final analysis, 90(50%) mothers received single dose nevirapine (sdNVP) designated as regimen-3, 67 (37.2%) mothers were on different types of ARV regimens commonly AZT + 3TC + NVP (regimen-1), while the rest 23 (12.8%) mothers were on short course dual regimen AZT + 3TC + sdNVP (regimen-2). Early mother-to-child transmission rate at 6 weeks for regimens 1, 2 and 3 were 5.9% (4/67), 8.6% (2/23), and 15.5% (14/90) respectively. The late cumulative mother-to-child transmission rate of HIV at 6 months regardless of regimen type was 15.5% (28/180). Postnatal transmission at 6 months was 28.5% (8/28) of infected children. Factors that were found to be associated with high risk of early mother-to-child transmission of HIV include duration of ARV regimen shorter than 2 months during pregnancy (OR=4.3, 95%CI =1.38-13.46), base line CD4 less than 350 cells/cubic mm (OR=6.98, 95%CI=0.91-53.76), early infant infection (OR=5.4, 95%CI=2.04-14.4), infants delivered home (OR=13.1, 95%CI=2.69-63.7), infant with birth weight less than 2500 g (OR=6.41, 95%CI=2.21-18.61), and mixed infant feeding (OR=6.7, 95%CI=2.2-20.4). Antiretroviral regimen duration less than 2 months, maternal base line CD4 less than 350 cells/cubic mm and mixed infant feeding were also important risk factors for late infant infection or death. Conclusion: The effectiveness of multiple antiretroviral drugs in prevention of early mother-to-child transmission of HIV was found to be more effective than that of single dose nevirapine, although, the difference was not statistically significant. But in late transmission, a significant difference was observed in which infants born to mother who received multiple antiretroviral drugs were less likely to progress to infection or death than infants born to mothers who received single dose nevirapine. PMID:26131041
Explores the analogy between teaching writing and teaching virtue and concludes that teaching writing with its focus on practical reasoning and prudence is bound up in similar ways with teaching moral goodness. (PD)
Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa
Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols. PMID:24918827
Posteraro, Brunella; Spanu, Teresa; Fiori, Barbara; De Maio, Flavio; De Carolis, Elena; Giaquinto, Alessia; Prete, Valentina; De Angelis, Giulia; Torelli, Riccardo; D'Inzeo, Tiziana; Vella, Antonietta; De Luca, Alessio; Tumbarello, Mario; Ricciardi, Walter; Sanguinetti, Maurizio
Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) is an affordable alternative to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference method for antifungal susceptibility testing. In this study, the MICs of yeast isolates from 1,214 bloodstream infection episodes, generated by SYO during hospital laboratory activity (January 2005 to December 2013), were reanalyzed using current CLSI clinical breakpoints/epidemiological cutoff values to assign susceptibility (or the wild-type [WT] phenotype) to systemic antifungal agents. Excluding Candida albicans (57.4% of all isolates [n = 1,250]), the most predominant species were Candida parapsilosis complex (20.9%), Candida tropicalis (8.2%), Candida glabrata (6.4%), Candida guilliermondii (1.6%), and Candida krusei (1.3%). Among the non-Candida species (1.9%), 7 were Cryptococcus neoformans and 17 were other species, mainly Rhodotorula species. Over 97% of Candida isolates were susceptible (WT phenotype) to amphotericin B and flucytosine. Rates of susceptibility (WT phenotype) to fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 98.7% in C. albicans, 92.3% in the C. parapsilosis complex, 96.1% in C. tropicalis, 92.5% in C. glabrata, 100% in C. guilliermondii, and 100% (excluding fluconazole) in C. krusei. The fluconazole-resistant isolates consisted of 6 C. parapsilosis complex isolates, 3 C. glabrata isolates, 2 C. albicans isolates, 2 C. tropicalis isolates, and 1 Candida lusitaniae isolate. Of the non-Candida isolates, 2 C. neoformans isolates had the non-WT phenotype for susceptibility to fluconazole, whereas Rhodotorula isolates had elevated azole MICs. Overall, 99.7% to 99.8% of Candida isolates were susceptible (WT phenotype) to echinocandins, but 3 isolates were nonsusceptible (either intermediate or resistant) to caspofungin (C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and C. krusei), anidulafungin (C. albicans and C. guilliermondii), and micafungin (C. albicans). However, when the intrinsically resistant non-Candida isolates were included, the rate of echinocandin nonsusceptibility reached 1.8%. In summary, the SYO method proved to be able to detect yeast species showing antifungal resistance or reduced susceptibility. PMID:25896705
... business) to contact in an emergency What to Leave at Home Leave jewelry (including wedding rings, earrings, ... shower and when using the toilet. After You Leave the Hospital Older people may have health problems ...
Chatterjee, Susmita; Levin, Carol; Laxminarayan, Ramanan
Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010–11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital) to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital) (USD 1?=?INR 52). The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country’s hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising payment rates under government-sponsored insurance schemes. PMID:23936088
This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation. PMID:14753323
Giacobbe, D R; Esteves, P; Bruzzi, P; Mikulska, M; Furfaro, E; Mesini, A; Tatarelli, P; Grignolo, S; Viscoli, C; Colombo, A L; Del Bono, V
A retrospective study was conducted to assess the role of initial serum (1,3)-?-d-glucan (BDG) values in predicting mortality in proven candidaemia. The study was conducted in two large teaching hospitals in Italy and Brazil. From January 2009 to June 2014, all patients with proven candidaemia who underwent a BDG test within 96 hours before or after the first positive blood culture were included in the study. The primary end point was 28-day mortality, with the role of initial BDG being assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 104 patients met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the crude 28-day mortality was 30% (31/104). In the final multivariate model, an initial BDG of >287 pg/mL (odds ratio (OR) 4.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-12.39, p 0.005), haemodialysis (OR 4.33, 95% CI 1.24-15.17, p 0.022) and a Pitt score of ?2 (OR 4.10, 95% CI 1.24-13.54, p 0.021) were significant predictors of 28-day mortality. The >287 pg/mL cutoff predicted 28-day mortality with 65% sensitivity and 70% specificity. Centre of enrolment (p for interaction 0.012), haemodialysis (p for interaction 0.062) and timing of BDG test of more than 24 hours before or after the positive culture (p for interaction 0.143) appeared to interact with BDG's ability to predict mortality. Although not statistically significant, the last two of these interactions might partially explain why BDG's ability to predict mortality was present only in the Italian cohort. PMID:26070961
H. Tunstall-Pedoe; L. Bailey; D. A. Chamberlain; A. K. Marsden; M. E. Ward; D. A. Zideman
OBJECTIVE--To determine the circumstances, incidence, and outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in British hospitals. DESIGN--Hospitals registered all cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts for 12 months or longer and followed survival to one year. SETTING--12 metropolitan, provincial, teaching, and non-teaching hospitals across Britain. SUBJECTS--3765 patients in whom a resuscitation attempt was performed, including 927 in whom the onset of arrest was outside the hospital.
Gruca, T S; Nath, D
This study examines the effect of traditional and innovative marketing factors on the overall financial, operations and market performance of 71 not-for-profit hospitals in a metropolitan area. Traditional marketing factors of location, services offered and pricing did influence the financial performance of system-affiliated and non-system hospitals. They also influenced the operating performance of urban hospitals and the market performance of non-teaching institutions. In contrast, the innovative marketing factors of physician relations, community relations and specialized sales forces had no significant influence on performance differences among the hospitals in the entire sample and sub-samples based on geography, teaching involvement and system affiliation. PMID:10137175
College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.
A project was conducted at College of the Canyons (Valencia, California) to initiate a new 2-year hospitality program with career options in hotel or restaurant management. A mail and telephone survey of area employers in the restaurant and hotel field demonstrated a need for, interest in, and willingness to provide internships for such a program.…
Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald
Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…
Sloan, F A
This study presents descriptive information on several dimensions of the internal organization of hospitals, with particular emphasis on medical staff, using data from two unique national surveys. Three alternative theories of hospital behavior by economists are described and evaluated with these data. The study also shows how standard bed size, teaching, and ownership categories relate to important features of hospital organization. In this way, understanding of these standard "control" variables is enhanced. For example, systematic organizational differences between proprietary and other hospitals are reported, holding bed size and teaching status constant. No single theory of hospital behavior emerges as dominant. The tables demonstrate the diversity of hospitals and the likelihood that no single model can adequately describe the behavior of all hospitals. PMID:7204062
Kind, Amy JH; Bartels, Christie; Mell, Matthew W; Mullahy, John; Smith, Maureen
BACKGROUND About one-quarter of rehospitalized Medicare patients are admitted to hospitals different from their original. The extent to which this practice is related to for-profit hospital status, and impacts payments and mortality, is unknown. OBJECTIVE To describe and examine predictors of and payments for rehospitalization to a different hospital within 30 days among Medicare beneficiaries in for-profit and in not-for-profit/public hospitals. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Medicare fee-for-service hospitals throughout the United States. PARTICIPANTS Random 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries with acute-care rehospitalizations within 30-days of discharge, 2005–2006 (N=74,564). MEASUREMENTS 30-day rehospitalizations to different hospitals; total payments/mortality over subsequent 30-days. Multivariate logistic and quantile regression models included index hospital for-profit status, discharge counts, geographic region, rural-urban commuting area, and teaching status; and patient sociodemographics, disabled status, comorbidities, and a measure of risk-adjustment. RESULTS 22% (16,622) of the sample was rehospitalized to a different hospital. Factors associated with increased risk for rehospitalization to a different hospital included being hospitalized within a for-profit, major medical school-affiliated, or low volume index hospital, and having a Medicare-defined disability. When compared to those rehospitalized to the same hospital, patients rehospitalized to different hospitals had significantly higher adjusted 30-day total payments (median additional $1,308/patient, p-value<0.001), but no significant differences in 30-day mortality, regardless of index hospital for-profit status. LIMITATIONS The analysis lacked detailed clinical data, and did not assess specific provider practice motivations or the role of patient choice. CONCLUSIONS Rehospitalizations to different hospitals are common among Medicare beneficiaries, more likely among those initially hospitalized at a for-profit hospital, and related to increased overall payments without improved mortality. PMID:21135295
Walker, C L
This study used logit regression to discriminate between profitable and non-profitable hospitals. The specified model worked best for voluntary hospitals, and the classification results were consistently higher for profitable hospitals than for non-profitable hospitals. Only one financial variable, the operating margin, was consistently significant in each regression equation. The results challenged the "general consensus" that operating efficiency is uniform across control categories. Teaching status was found to have a significant and positive effect, but only for voluntary hospitals. Lastly, the results indicate that uncompensated care is a major concern for voluntary hospitals. These findings raise the question of whether reimbursement rates under PPS should incorporate local factors. They also indicate that hospital management style does not and will not model business operations. As such, hospital managers may be unable to dramatically change a hospital's level of profitability. PMID:10129243
Camp, Martha G.; And Others
A Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University course on teaching is described that was developed specifically for hospital house officers so that they could become familiar with instructional principles and resources necessary to carry out their teaching responsibilities. (MLW)
Davis, James E., Ed.
This issue of "Focus: Teaching English in Southeastern Ohio" contains articles about teaching Shakespeare, student summaries of a Shakespeare conference held at Ohio University-Zanesville in April 1976, and suggested projects for teaching poetry writing. It also contains lists of materials and articles related to the teaching of Shakespeare, and…
Leung, Peggy; Lo, Terence
This paper focuses on English language teaching for the hospitality industry in Hong Kong, presenting a brief statement on the concept of transfer and its relevance to teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) for the world of work. The observable changes in the nature of language in the world of work in a service-oriented economy are…
After her first-time experience as a patient in a hospital, a midwife and childbirth educator reflects on the vulnerability and dependence of women who undergo operative birth. Continuous support for these women during the early postpartum period is imperative. Childbirth educators are encouraged to advocate for these women's needs and to teach them how to advocate for themselves. PMID:19436416
The teaching of collective risks to paramedical staff is a difficult exercise. To make the training more concrete, the team from the emergency care training centre at Rouen university hospital has adopted an innovative pedagogical approach. Based on a multi-casualty disaster scenario and using model figures, the training invites participants to take part in role plays. PMID:26144514
Green Street Teaching and Learning Center Discovery vehicle) to the nearest hospital. I agree to indemnify and hold harmless Green Street Teaching in the programs sponsored by the Green Street. Parent/Guardian's Signature: ______________________________Date
On April 1, 2005, the impetus for public reporting of comparative hospital data was ratcheted up a giant notch by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Hospital Quality Alliance. Even before reaching the public's radar screen, Hospital Compare--a website that includes quality measures on how often large, acute-care and smaller, critical care hospitals provide recommended treatments that adults should receive for certain conditions--is having a major impact on hospital performance initiatives. PMID:16235825
Famakinwa, Abisola; Fabiny, Anne
Forty medical residents from major teaching hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts, participated in small group teaching sessions about caregiver stress. A teaching tool was developed that included a teaching handout, interactive cases, standard instruments for assessing caregiver stress, peer-reviewed articles about caregiving, and a list of…
Maloney, Lynn R; Weiss, Marianne E
Ensuring that patients' informational needs have been met prior to hospital discharge sets the stage for successful self-management of recovery at home. This secondary analysis study aims to identify differences in the amount of discharge teaching content needed and received by adult medical-surgical patients on the basis of their sociodemographic characteristics and hospitalization-related factors. The Quality of Discharge Teaching Scale (QDTS) is used to measure patients' perceptions of the amount of discharge-related informational content they needed and received. Eighty-nine percent of patients receive more informational content than they perceived they needed. Nonwhite patients report more content needed than White patients. Patients with prior hospitalizations and cardiac patients report greater amounts of content received. The QDTS content subscales provide a mechanism for assessing patient perceptions of discharge informational needs and discharge content received that can be used for clinical practice and quality monitoring. PMID:18617708
Costello, Michael M; West, Daniel J; Ramirez, Bernardo
The pace of hospital merger and acquisition activity reflects the economic theory of supply and demand: Publicly traded hospital companies, private equity funds, and large nonprofit hospital systems are investing capital to purchase and operate freestanding community hospitals at a time when many of those hospitals find themselves short of capital reserves and certain forms of management expertise. But the sale of those community hospitals also raises questions about the impact of absentee ownership on the communities which those hospitals serve. PMID:21864058
Subtitled "a professional development Website for teachers," Teaching Heritage is an impressive collection of information and resources for teaching Australian history and culture. There are eight main sections to the site: four offer teaching resources and four provide teaching units. The resource sections include an examination of different ways of defining heritage, an Australian heritage timeline, discussions of different approaches to teaching heritage through media, and outcomes-based approaches in teaching and assessing heritage coursework. The teaching units deal in depth with issues of citizenship, nationalism, Australian identities, and new cultural values. A Heritage Gallery features images of various culturally significant or representative places in Australia, such as New Italy, the Dundullimal Homestead, Australian Hall, Kelly's Bush, and many more. Obviously, teachers of Civics on the southern continent will find this site extremely useful, but the teaching units -- rich with texts and images -- also offer fascinating introductions for anyone interested in the issues of Australian nation-making.
Rubin, Fred H.; Neal, Kelly; Fenlon, Kerry; Hassan, Shuja; Inouye, Sharon K.
The Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP), an effective intervention to prevent delirium among hospitalized elders, has been successfully replicated in a community teaching hospital as a quality improvement project. Now, we report on successfully sustaining the program over 7 years and expanding its scale from 1 to 6 inpatient units at the same hospital. The program currently serves over 7000 older patients annually and is accepted as the standard of care throughout the hospital. Innovations which enhanced scalability and widespread implementation included ensuring dedicated staffing for the program, local adaptations to streamline protocols, continuous recruitment of volunteers, and more efficient data collection. Outcomes include reduced rate of incident delirium, reduced length of stay, increased satisfaction by patients, families, and nursing staff, and significantly reduced costs for the hospital. The financial return of the program, estimated at over $7.3 million per year during 2008, is comprised of cost savings from delirium prevention as well as revenue generated from freeing up hospitals beds (reduced length of stay in delirious and non-delirious HELP patients). Delirium poses a major challenge for hospital quality of care, patient safety, Medicare no-pay conditions, and costs of hospital care for older persons. Faced with rising numbers of elderly patients, hospitals can utilize HELP to improve both the quality and cost-effectiveness of care. PMID:21314654
McKnight, Philip C.; And Others
This handbook on teaching is divided into seven parts. Following the introduction (Part I), Part II presents essays on student and faculty rights and responsibilities, evaluation and assessment, grades, and teaching and efficiency. Part III is a summary of interviews on teaching and research with 20 professors from the University of Kansas…
Thomas, Alan J.
Discusses individualized teaching or focusing on each child's individual learning needs. Presents a brief history of individualized teaching from Socrates to Dewey. Suggests that, although individualized teaching is the most beneficial kind of instruction, time, resources, and experience show it to be nearly nonexistent in the classroom. Describes…
Tomas, Z.; Kostka, I.; Mott-Smith, J. A.
The authors of "Teaching Writing" draw on their years of teaching and their knowledge of theory and research to present major concepts in teaching L2 writing. These concepts encompass how cultural differences affect the writing class, planning instruction, text-based writing, writing strategies, modeling, and responding to student…
Scott L. Furney; Alex N. Orsini; Kym E. Orsetti; David T. Stern; Larry D. Gruppen; David M. Irby
OBJECTIVE: The One-Minute Preceptor (OMP) model of faculty development is used widely to improve teaching, but its effect on teaching\\u000a behavior has not been assessed. We aim to evaluate the effect of this intervention on residents’ teaching skills.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Inpatient teaching services at both a tertiary care hospital and a Veterans Administration Medical Center affiliated with
Belsheim, David J.; And Others
Forty hospital pharmacists participated in a 2 week pilot of a postgraduate clinical pharmacy clerkship, using different hospital services as teaching sites at the University of Illinois and Cook County hospitals in Chicago. The clerkship experience broadened participants' conceptions of the depth and scope of the clinical pharmacist's role.…
Hendryx, Michael; Ahern, Melissa M; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R
The goal of this study was to test whether the volume of coal mining was related to population hospitalization risk for diseases postulated to be sensitive or insensitive to coal mining by-products. The study was a retrospective analysis of 2001 adult hospitalization data (n = 93,952) for West Virginia, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania, merged with county-level coal production figures. Hospitalization data were obtained from the Health Care Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample. Diagnoses postulated to be sensitive to coal mining by-product exposure were contrasted with diagnoses postulated to be insensitive to exposure. Data were analyzed using hierarchical nonlinear models, controlling for patient age, gender, insurance, comorbidities, hospital teaching status, county poverty, and county social capital. Controlling for covariates, the volume of coal mining was significantly related to hospitalization risk for two conditions postulated to be sensitive to exposure: hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The odds for a COPD hospitalization increased 1% for each 1462 tons of coal, and the odds for a hypertension hospitalization increased 1% for each 1873 tons of coal. Other conditions were not related to mining volume. Exposure to particulates or other pollutants generated by coal mining activities may be linked to increased risk of COPD and hypertension hospitalizations. Limitations in the data likely result in an underestimate of associations. PMID:18049995
Reviews the literature on teaching awards and then examines a specific case, the Alan P. Stuart Award for Excellence in Teaching at the University of New Brunswick, using Menges's three tests of effective awards. Suggests that examining the strengths and weaknesses of institutional teaching awards can help illuminate the processes involved in…
Dang, Kien; Waddell, Andrea E.; Lofchy, Jodi
Objective: The training objectives for postgraduate education in the United States and Canada both state that teaching skills should be formally developed during training. This article reviews the development of the Teaching-to-Teach program at the University of Toronto Department of Psychiatry, the current curriculum, evaluation, and future…
Heath, Daniel E.; Hoy, Mary; Rathman, James F.; Rohdieck, Stephanie
The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in collaboration with the University Center for the Advancement of Teaching developed the Chemical Engineering Mentored Teaching Experience. The Mentored Teaching Experience is an elective for Ph.D. students interested in pursuing faculty careers. Participants are…
Fenstermacher, Gary D.; Osguthorpe, Richard D.; Sanger, Matthew N.
In this article, the authors introduce what they believe is an important distinction between teaching morality and teaching morally. In P-12 schools, the moral education debate often focuses on character education programs or other moral curricula. Such programs and curricula are championed as a means of teaching morality and transmitting moral…
Sadat, Somayeh; Abouee-Mehrizi, Hossein; Carter, Michael W
In this paper, we consider two hospitals with different perceived quality of care competing to capture a fraction of the total market demand. Patients select the hospital that provides the highest utility, which is a function of price and the patient's perceived quality of life during their life expectancy. We consider a market with a single class of patients and show that depending on the market demand and perceived quality of care of the hospitals, patients may enjoy a positive utility. Moreover, hospitals share the market demand based on their perceived quality of care and capacity. We also show that in a monopoly market (a market with a single hospital) the optimal demand captured by the hospital is independent of the perceived quality of care. We investigate the effects of different parameters including the market demand, hospitals' capacities, and perceived quality of care on the fraction of the demand that each hospital captures using some numerical examples. PMID:25711185
The Mercer Clinic Holiday Pet Basket program was started in 1995 by Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital staff members of the "VOICE" staff newsletter. It has grown due to need over the years from only 25 baskets to 130
Schladow, S. Geoffrey
The Mercer Clinic Holiday Pet Basket program was started in 1995 by Veterinary Medical Teaching that every year we rely on the kindness of others to help these very special pets who are more than a pet this wonderful tradition alive by contributing any time of year to the Mercer Veterinary Clinic Holiday Pet
Shepard, D S
A preliminary model is developed for estimating the extent of savings, if any, likely to result from discontinuing a specific inpatient service. By examining the sources of referral to the discontinued service, the model estimates potential demand and how cases will be redistributed among remaining hospitals. This redistribution determines average cost per day in hospitals that receive these cases, relative to average cost per day of the discontinued service. The outflow rate, which measures the proportion of cases not absorbed in other acute care hospitals, is estimated as 30 percent for the average discontinuation. The marginal cost ratio, which relates marginal costs of cases absorbed in surrounding hospitals to the average costs in those hospitals, is estimated as 87 percent in the base case. The model was applied to the discontinuation of all inpatient services in the 75-bed Chelsea Memorial Hospital, near Boston, Massachusetts, using 1976 data. As the precise value of key parameters is uncertain, sensitivity analysis was used to explore a range of values. The most likely result is a small increase ($120,000) in the area's annual inpatient hospital costs, because many patients are referred to more costly teaching hospitals. A similar situation may arise with other urban closures. For service discontinuations to generate savings, recipient hospitals must be low in costs, the outflow rate must be large, and the marginal cost ratio must be low. PMID:6668181
Cooper, John; Black, Carol
Foundation NHS Trusts will be constituted in the same way as Mutual Societies, and local people and patients will be invited to become subscribers. Subscribers will elect a board of governors who will appoint the non-executive directors of the Trusts. Foundation Trusts will be outside the performance management system, but will be subject to a regulator and to inspection. Contracts with commissioners will be legally enforceable. Issues discussed in the article include: financial borrowing; whether competition is being reintroduced; poaching staff; fears of a two-tier health service; fragmentation of the NHS; the impact on research and teaching; and the impact on the current 'target culture'. Local communities and patient groups may welcome involvement with their local hospitals, but special interest groups could be a danger. Foundation Trusts may bring back some of the better features of NHS Trusts as originally conceived, and offer better opportunities for clinicians to influence local policies and priorities. Fears of yet another organisational change are an important issue. Only time will tell whether the outcome will justify the effort the changes will involve. PMID:14703035
Burns, Johnna N.
Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: Hospital school teachers are a unique population of educators highly qualified and experienced in teaching students who are facing health crises. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the lived experience of teaching seriously ill students in the hospital school setting. The study was…
Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J. B.
Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were sorted and weighed, and potential waste reductions from recycling and substituting reusable items were calculated. Business paper, trash liners, diapers, custom surgical packs, paper gowns, plastic suction bottles, and egg-crate pads were among the 20 top items and were analyzed individually. Data from sorted trash documented potential waste reductions through recycling and substitution of 78, 41, and 18 tonnes per year (1 tonne = 1,000 kg = 1.1 tons) from administration, the operating room, and adult wards, respectively (total hospital waste was 939 tonnes per year). We offer specific measures to substantially reduce nonhazardous hospital waste through substitution, minimization, and recycling of select disposable products. Images PMID:1595242
Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid
Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…
This literature review examines the effects of hospitalization on the young child and suggests ways in which parents and hospital personnel can protect children from the potentially harmful emotional and intellectual effects of hospitalization. The history of attitudes toward the hospitalization of children is discussed. Children's emotional…
Costello, M M
With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature. PMID:10283019
The proliferation of hospital libraries since World War II has created a generation of librarians who take for granted the existence of libraries in hospitals. A literature review for the first half of the twentieth century presents a picture of uncertainty and struggle for identity for the hospital library. Then as now, hospital libraries reflect the institutions within which they operate. A brief history of the development of the American hospital provides a context for describing the various roles that the hospital library has played within its parent institution during the twentieth century. Some personal reflections on working in a hospital library are also presented. PMID:1998812
The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), which has been conducted annually since 1965, collects data from a sample of approximately 270,000 inpatient records acquired from a national sample of about 500 hospitals. Only hospitals with an average length of stay of fewer than 30 days for all patients, general hospitals, or children's general hospitals are included in the survey. Information collected includes diagnoses, surgical and nonsurgical procedures, prescription and over-the-counter drugs, immunizations, allergy shots, anesthetics, and dietary supplements.
Bunyan, L. W.
The purpose of this study was to review current developments in team teaching and to assess its potential in the Calgary, Alberta, schools. An investigation into team teaching situations in schools in the eastern half of the United States and Canada revealed characteristics common to successful programs (e.g., charismatic leadership and innovative…
Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…
European language-teaching theory and practice in retrospect covering the period from 1920 to 1970 are noted to be an amalgam of underlying disciplines, teaching methodologies, and technical aids. Chronologically presented, the "orthodoxy" of 1920-40 charts general similarities in the state of the art prior to a 10-year period of major upheaval…
Nemanich, Donald, Ed.
The articles in this volume address the teaching of composition. Chapters include D. G. Kehl's "A Rhetorical Question--With or Without an Answer," which examines the import of the rhetorical question, "How can I prepare my students for freshman English"; Arthur Donart's "A Behavioristic Approach to Teaching Freshman Composition"; Linda Houghton's…
Middleton, Kathleen, Ed.
Ideas to aid the classroom teacher include integration of emphasis on reading into health education; definitions pertinent to contemporary health education; teaching students to read food labels; identification of implications of scientific advances such as test tube reproduction; and a card game to teach food groups to middle school children.…
Recounts one Montessori teacher's experience team teaching in a secondary Montessori classroom. Illustrates how a conflict over decision making with a co-teacher helped to create better relationships with students in the classroom and better communication on the teaching team. Contends that resolving issues of conflict between teachers is vital…
Crawford, William J.
Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…
Cassie, Josephine M.; And Others
Videotapes recorded ward rounds at the pediatric teaching hospital affiliated with McGill University. The study revealed a variety of educational problems that provided the basis for a workshop on clinical teaching. The usefulness and practicality of the method as a tool for improving teacher effectiveness in a clinical setting was demonstrated.…
This autobiographical reflection on 40 years of teaching uses various accounts of schooling and teacher education practice against personal experience to explore continuities of teaching, progressive teaching practice, racial bias, teaching for understanding, teacher education, knowing the students, learning communities, teaching as a moral and…
Oetker-Black, Sharon L; Jones, Susan; Estok, Patricia; Ryan, Marian; Gale, Nancy; Parker, Carla
This study used a theoretical model to determine whether an efficacy-enhancing teaching protocol was effective in improving immediate postoperative behaviors and selected short- and long-term health outcomes in women who underwent abdominal hysterectomies. The model used was the self-efficacy theory of Albert Bandura, PhD. One hundred eight patients in a 486-bed teaching hospital in the Midwest who underwent hysterectomies participated. The participation rate was 85%, and the attrition rate was 17% during the six-month study. The major finding was that participants in the efficacy-enhancing teaching group ambulated significantly longer than participants in the usual care group. This is an important finding because the most prevalent postoperative complications after hysterectomy are atelectasis, pneumonia, paralytic ileus, and deep vein thrombosis, and postoperative ambulation has been shown to decrease or prevent all of these complications. This finding could affect the overall health status of women undergoing hysterectomies. PMID:12817743
Oliver, Douglas L.
and treatment of a mental disorder when there is reasonable expectation for improvement or when it is necessary to outpatient care for some patients. The Adult Partial Hospitalization Program is a short-term treatment Dempsey Hospital on the campus of the UConn Health Center. To reach the main campus of the UConn Health
Anderson, David W.
This paper contributes to a Christian hermeneutic of special education by suggesting the biblical concept of hospitality as a necessary characteristic of classroom and school environments in which students with disabilities and other marginalized students can be effectively incorporated into the body of the classroom. Christian hospitality, seen…
This webpage features resources associated with the 2008 Educause Learning Initiative annual meeting session on Teaching Metacognition. It includes links to Marsha Lovett's powerpoint slides and a video of her presentation. The presentation describes effective methods of teaching students: (1) that their ability to learn is mutable, (2) how to plan and set goals for their learning, and (3) how to self-monitor their learning and make adjustments when necessary. The presentation also describes gains in student learning resulting from teaching these metacognitive skills in first-year science courses.
Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke
In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority. PMID:23424818
... at a time. They might even bring you flowers, balloons, or other treats! Back Continue Hospital People ... hospitals have playrooms, where you'll find toys, books, arts and crafts, and games. Someone will be ...
Cohen, David A.
The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)
Hosterman, Craig A.
Outlines ideas for teaching an introductory course in propaganda, including an historical perspective and review of the etymology of the word and an examination of those characteristics that separate propaganda from other communication arts. (JMF)
Virtual University Design and Technology (Michigan State University)
This website is a compilation of information for the development and production of online teaching and learning experiences. The information covers critical questions that one may have before utilizing technology in a course.
Discusses possibilities for the application of telepresence to physics and teaching. Telepresence allows a computer user to effectively be present at some other location through the use of remote cameras, sensors, and controls. (WRM)
Felton, Harry F.
A backpacking course offered at the Pennsylvania State University teaches safety and proper use of equipment. This well planned course resulted in an appreciation for the outdoors, ecological awareness, self-reliance, and attainment of new experiences and skills. (CJ)
Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.
Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)
WIGDERSON, HARRY I.
WRITTEN TO PROVIDE AN EXTENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RELEVANT RESOURCE MATERIALS, THIS BROCHURE ALSO DEFINES TEAM TEACHING AND OUTLINES ITS CONCEPTS, STAFF UTILIZATION, EVALUATION, AND YET UNSOLVED PROBLEMS. BIBLIOGRAPHIC MATERIAL DATES FROM 1958 TO 1964, INCLUSIVELY. (BR)
Resorts Tourism/Travel Agencies Convention Centers #12;Hospitality Management (BS) Curriculum Guide, the Bachelor of Science degree in Hospitality Management includes a liberal arts core curriculum, much of which.hospitalityonline.con Hospitality Careers Online www.hcareers.com Required Skills: Leadership Problem Solving Organizational
Wiggins, Carla; Hatzenbuehler, Linda; Peterson, Teri
Today's U.S. health care industry is facing unprecedented shortages of health personnel in a great variety of disciplines and locations. An adequate supply of well-educated and trained health professionals is imperative to ensure sufficient access to health care for our citizenry. Hospital mission statements reflect the character, strategic direction, and priorities of the organization; thus, we might expect these statements to address the position and strategy of the organizations in regard to education of future health professionals. To investigate hospitals' publicly stated attention and commitment to the education of health professionals, we analyzed publicly available mission statements from a random stratified sample of 402 hospitals. The hospitals were stratified on the basis of teaching status, rural or urban, and profit status. The percentage of hospitals mentioning an education-related keyword was estimated using a 95% confidence interval with a finite population correction factor on the proportion within each stratum. As expected, teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to include language about education in their mission statements than nonteaching hospitals, with 74% of teaching hospitals mentioning education at least once. We found no significant difference in the use of education language among the mission statements of nonteaching hospitals, where 20% mentioned education at least once. From these findings, we conclude that despite the key importance of health professionals, strategies and policy regarding the education of future health personnel have not yet become "mission level" in importance to hospitals. PMID:18847108
areas. Additionally, I could teach electrical and computer engineering foundation classes in Computer and Electrical Engineering place emphasis on teaching not only the "computer" or "electrical" part1 Teaching Statement Kenneth Mai Stanford University My teaching interests are in computer
by the English Language Arts Council.! !! 2. LEARNING & TEACHING RESOURCES ! ! Online Learning and Teaching of the outcomes! Teaching: Teacher is intended audience.! !! Authorized Resources for English Language Arts K-9LANGUAGE ARTS ! Teaching Materials! !!! ! 1. PROGRAMS OF STUDY ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !Language Arts
Fleming, Daniel; Lovat, Terence
The article is a response to this journal's call for papers on metaphors for teaching, and also draws from a previous publication in which Kent Eilers developed a methodology for teaching global theologies. In this methodology, the ultimate goal was the development of "hermeneutical dispositions of empathy, hospitality, and receptivity toward…
Larson, Marion H.
Parker Palmer's (1983) often-quoted definition of teaching--"To teach is to create a space in which obedience to truth is practiced"--can be applied productively to work in faculty development. Exploring this notion is enhanced by the theological literature in hospitality, which can be viewed through Amy Oden's (2001) discussion of four movements…
This booklet is part of a series of activity booklets designed to increase the child's awareness of careers. It also provides reinforcement activities of the basic skills. In this particular booklet children in grades K-2 are introduced to careers in the field of hospitality and recreation. The subjects of the teaching sections are children's…
Ferguson, Jane; Alpert, Joel J.
A survey of U.S. pediatric training programs to determine the role of rules in the hospital admission of pediatric patients is reported. The results support the hypothesis that rules are a widely used teaching tool. The rules relate to such factors as fevers, age, specific diseases, administrative concerns, head traumas, and poisonings. (JMD)
Federal and state governments want to decrease payments for medical education, and other payers are trying to restrict payouts to direct and necessary patient care services. Teaching hospitals are increasing tuition and fees, reducing education budgets and, in many instances, closing education programs. Hospital administrators are examining the…
Angela Vivanti; Keren Harvey; Susan Ash; Diana Battistutta
Due to an absence of published primary data, this study explores dehydration prevalence and the change in physiological parameters frequently used to assess dehydration (fluid deficit) in older hospitalized people, as no standard measurement method exists. This observational long- itudinal cohort study recruited 43 people aged 60 years or over, voluntarily admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital's Geriatric and Rehabilitation
F. G. O'BRIEN; J. W. PEARMAN; M. GRACEY; T. V. RILEY; W. B. GRUBB
Western Australia (WA) has been able to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains from outside of the state from becoming established in its hospitals. Recently, a single-strain outbreak of MRSA occurred in a WA metropolitan teaching hospital following admission of an infected patient from a remote community. The strain responsible for the outbreak was unrelated to any imported strains and
we are Hospitality The Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management is consistently that owns and operates its own teaching hotel. We are the most diverse hospitality program in the world in the country means opportunity with more than 55,000 hotel rooms and 11,000 restaurants. We offer experiential
The previous decade witnessed significant advancements in the scholarship of teaching at the levels of both theory building and program development. Notwithstanding these achievements, there remains considerable ambiguity regarding the meaning of the concept. This ambiguity has implications for faculty evaluation. Excellence in teaching, expertise in teaching, and the scholarship of teaching are analyzed according to the nature and sources
Griffis, Heather M; Kilaru, Austin S; Werner, Rachel M; Asch, David A; Hershey, John C; Hill, Shawndra; Ha, Yoonhee P; Sellers, Allison; Mahoney, Kevin
Background Use of social media has become widespread across the United States. Although businesses have invested in social media to engage consumers and promote products, less is known about the extent to which hospitals are using social media to interact with patients and promote health. Objective The aim was to investigate the relationship between hospital social media extent of adoption and utilization relative to hospital characteristics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional review of hospital-related activity on 4 social media platforms: Facebook, Twitter, Yelp, and Foursquare. All US hospitals were included that reported complete data for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey and the American Hospital Association Annual Survey. We reviewed hospital social media webpages to determine the extent of adoption relative to hospital characteristics, including geographic region, urban designation, bed size, ownership type, and teaching status. Social media utilization was estimated from user activity specific to each social media platform, including number of Facebook likes, Twitter followers, Foursquare check-ins, and Yelp reviews. Results Adoption of social media varied across hospitals with 94.41% (3351/3371) having a Facebook page and 50.82% (1713/3371) having a Twitter account. A majority of hospitals had a Yelp page (99.14%, 3342/3371) and almost all hospitals had check-ins on Foursquare (99.41%, 3351/3371). Large, urban, private nonprofit, and teaching hospitals were more likely to have higher utilization of these accounts. Conclusions Although most hospitals adopted at least one social media platform, utilization of social media varied according to several hospital characteristics. This preliminary investigation of social media adoption and utilization among US hospitals provides the framework for future studies investigating the effect of social media on patient outcomes, including links between social media use and the quality of hospital care and services. PMID:25431831
Vicky Dudas; Thomas Bookwalter; Kathleen M. Kerr; Steven Z. Pantilat
We studied whether pharmacists involved in discharge planning can improve patient satisfaction and outcomes by providing telephone follow-up after hospital discharge. We conducted a randomized trial at the General Medical Service of an academic teaching hospital. We enrolled General Medical Service patients who received pharmacy-facilitated discharge from the hospital to home. The intervention consisted of a follow-up phone call by
Vicky Dudas; Thomas Bookwalter; Kathleen M Kerr; Steven Z Pantilat
We studied whether pharmacists involved in discharge planning can improve patient satisfaction and outcomes by providing telephone follow-up after hospital discharge. We conducted a randomized trial at the General Medical Service of an academic teaching hospital. We enrolled General Medical Service patients who received pharmacy-facilitated discharge from the hospital to home. The intervention consisted of a follow-up phone call by
Vicky Dudas; Thomas Bookwalter; Kathleen M. Kerr; Steven Z. Pantilat
We studied whether pharmacists involved in dis- charge planning can improve patient satisfaction and outcomes by providing telephone follow-up after hospital discharge. We conducted a randomized trial at the General Medical Service of an academic teaching hospital. We enrolled General Medical Ser- vice patients who received pharmacy-facilitated dis- charge from the hospital to home. The intervention consisted of a follow-up
Aghaei Hashjin, Asgar; Kringos, Dionne S.; Manoochehri, Jila; Ravaghi, Hamid; Klazinga, Niek S.
Objective To examine the extent of implementation for patient safety (PS) and patient-centeredness (PC) strategies and their association with hospital characteristics (type, ownership, teaching status, annual evaluation grade) in Iran. Methods A cross-sectional study through an adapted version of the MARQuIS questionnaire, eliciting information from hospital and nursing managers in 84 Iranian hospitals on the implementation of PS and PC strategies in 2009–2010. Results The majority of hospitals reported to have implemented 84% of the PS and 72% of the PC strategies. In general, implementation of PS strategies was unrelated to the type of hospital, with the exception of health promotion reports, which were more common in the Social Security Organization (SSO), and MRSA testing, which was reported more often in nonprofit hospitals. MRSA testing was also more common among teaching hospitals compared to non-teaching hospitals. The higher grade hospitals reported PS strategies significantly more frequently than lower grade hospitals. Overall, there was no significant difference in the reported implementation of PC strategies across general and specialized hospitals; except for the provision of information in different languages and recording of patient’s diet which were reported significantly more often by general than specialized hospitals. Moreover, patient hotel services were more common in private compared to public hospitals. Conclusions Despite substantial reporting of PS and PC strategies, there is still room for strengthening standard setting on safety, patient services and patient-centered information strategies in Iranian hospitals. To assure effective implementation of PS and PC strategies, enforcing standards, creating a PS and PC culture, increasing organizational responsiveness, and partnering with patients and their families need more attention. PMID:25268797
Kotb, Amany Ali; Mohamed, Khalid Abd-Elmoez; Kamel, Mohammed Hbany; Ismail, Mosleh Abdul Rahman; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed Ahmed
Introduction The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. It is associated with impaired job performance. Methods This descriptive study examined 171 physicians for the presence of burnout and its related risk factors. The evaluation of burnout was through Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The participant was considered to meet the study criteria for burnout if he or she got a “high“ score on at least 2 of the three dimensions of MBI. Results In the current study, the prevalence of burnout in hospital physicians (53.9%) was significantly higher than family physicians (41.94%) with (p=0.001). Participants who work in the internal medicine department scored the highest prevalence (69.64%) followed by Surgeons (56.50%) and Emergency doctors (39.39%). On the other hand, Pediatricians got the lowest prevalence (18.75%). Working in the teaching hospital and being married are strong predictors for occurrence of burnout. Conclusion There is a significant difference of burnout between hospital physicians and family physicians among the study subjects. Working in the teaching hospital and being married are strong predictors for occurrence of burnout. PMID:25422682
Ruchlin, Hirsch S.; Leveson, Irving
This study presents a comprehensive method for quantifying hospital output and estimating hospital productivity. A number of less comprehensive productivity measures that can be quantified from data available from regional third-party payers and from the American Hospital Association are also developed and evaluated as proxies for the comprehensive measure, which is based on local area data. Methods are discussed for estimating the necessary variables on a regional or national level. PMID:4461703
Gehant, David P
Think globally and act locally! This should not be viewed as a worn-out cliché because it is the call to action that has propelled Boulder Community Hospital to the forefront of those exemplary hospitals in the United States that have successfully executed environmentally friendly initiatives. It is this notion that inspired the leadership and staff at the hospital to initiate and embrace changes in their approach to eliminating waste. These achievements, by all measures, are nothing short of amazing. PMID:18831188
Kahn, Charles N; Ault, Thomas; Potetz, Lisa; Walke, Thomas; Chambers, Jayne Hart; Burch, Samantha
Three separate pay-for-performance programs affect the amount of Medicare payment for inpatient services to about 3,400 US hospitals. These payments are based on hospital performance on specified measures of quality of care. A growing share of Medicare hospital payments (6 percent by 2017) are dependent upon how hospitals perform under the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, the Value-Based Purchasing Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program. In 2015 four of five hospitals subject to these programs will be penalized under one or more of them, and more than one in three major teaching hospitals will be penalized under all three. Interactions among these programs should be considered going forward, including overlap among measures and differences in scoring performance. PMID:26240240
Kendal, Margaret; Stacey, Kaye
Introduces two methods of introducing trigonometry: ratio method and unit circle method. Presents a teaching experiment with two groups of students, half of whom were taught with ratio method and the other half with unit circle method. Concludes that ratio method students were better able to master the skills required and made greater improvements…
Waters, John K.
It has been 41 years since the late Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson launched the first nationwide grassroots demonstration on behalf of the environment, known as Earth Day. The event was a national "teach-in" about environmental causes, and it is widely considered the spark that ignited the modern environmental education movement. Within months,…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.
Intended primarily for use by instrumental music teachers who do not have a major concentration in strings, this guide provides pertinent basic resources, materials, teaching--learning expectation, and a general overall guide to achievement levels at various stages of development. Discussions are presented of Choosing the Proper Method Book,…
Harper, G. H.
Argues that the meaning of the word "symbiosis" be standardized and that it should be used in a broad sense. Also criticizes the orthodox teaching of general principles in this subject and recommends that priority be given to continuity, intimacy, and associated adaptations, rather than to the harm/benefit relationship. (Author/JN)
Burbules, Nicholas C.
This essay reflects upon certain aspects of Wittgenstein's own practices as a teacher. "Doing" philosophy always took priority for Wittgenstein, whether this was in oral or written form: it was important to show the deep puzzles in our language (and our culture and thinking) as a step toward dissolving them. In this respect, one can teach only as…
Journalism Educator, 1981
Four journalism teachers provide information on the use of tape recordings and written transcripts to illustrate the importance of factual accuracy, voluntary participation in a special advertising class, a method of teaching the history of public relations, and the importance of drill work to improve journalists' spelling abilities. (RL)
Articles about academic honesty seem either to begin with an example of egregious deceit in American schools or to claim that dishonesty is worse than ever. However great may be the forces influencing students to lie or cheat, educators, at all levels and in all settings, must push back by holding students accountable and by teaching about…
Couch, Richard W.
Precision teaching (PT) is an approach to the science of human behavior that focuses on precise monitoring of carefully defined behaviors in an attempt to construct an environmental analysis of that behavior and its controlling variables. A variety of subjects have been used with PT, ranging in academic objectives from beginning reading to college…
This book, which is written for English teachers in secondary schools and colleges, particularly junior college, is an attempt to provide a convenient and concise statement regarding prevailing tendencies and issues in teaching writing. These are related to correction, the tutorial conference, motivating composition, grammar, research, and lack of…
In matrix teaching, teachers utilize elements of cooperative learning and project-based learning, but all students are held responsible for their own final products. A hypothetical story illustrates a worst-case scenario for cooperative learning, then the story is analyzed for its difficulties. Offers strategies for avoiding ineffectual group work…
This article describes an approach to teaching the basic skills of tennis to students in grades 4 and 5. It relates a five-lesson unit suitable to a near-weekly class schedule. The author found it effective when seeing his students as infrequently as once every four days for fifty minutes.
Barnet, Richard J.
Information about nuclear weapons and their effects must be taught without imparting hopelessness and despair. Suggestions for teaching about the arms race from an historical perspective and about alternative security systems--international law, conventional weapons, nonviolent resistance--are given. (PP)
Shea, Mary Ann, Ed.
This collection of lectures includes the following contributions from faculty at the University of Colorado at Boulder: (1) "Aloof Professors and Shy Students" (Patricia Nelson Limerick); (2) "Teaching the Thundering Herd: Surviving in a Large Classroom" (Charles R. Middleton); (3) "The Scientist as a Story Teller" (R. Igor Gamow); (4) "Active…
Murphy provides a comprehensive overview of teaching pronunciation with a focus on thought groups and prominence. Understanding thought groups, or how speakers use clusters of words to best fit the communicative situation, is essential for clearer understanding of most components of English pronunciation that are teachable in ESL/EFL classrooms.…
Plattor, Emma E.
This paper discusses available materials for teaching listening skills at various instructional levels. (1) Recordings--"Let's Listen," a recording of sounds, emphasizes stimulation, with one band allowing students to hear their own voices as well as other human voices. "Sounds and Images" permits students to listen to various recorded sound…
Farrell, Thomas S. C.
Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…
A review of research on second-language writing instruction looks at four research approaches: the language and culture students bring with them to the classroom; contexts in which teaching/learning take place; the shape of the language curriculum; and academic writing and English for academic purposes. Attention is given to English as a Second…
HAROLD, JOHN W.
INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION IS USED TO TEACH SAMOAN ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. THE 12-YEAR GOAL OF THIS PROJECT IS TO RAISE THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL OF SAMOAN PUPILS TO U.S. AGE-GRADE LEVELS. SUBJECTS TAUGHT ARE ENGLISH, MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY-HISTORY, AND SAMOAN CULTURE. (MS)
Believing that a course in the novel ought to include the making of prose as well as its analysis, a college English instructor altered his teaching strategy by treating both the novel author and his students as writers. Prior to studying a particular novel, the instructor gave students an assignment that would involve a particular literary…
Powers, Janet M.
This article explores literature taught in three different courses and the peace education approaches used for each, including epics in literature courses, Vietnam War literature, and literature of anger and hope. The author recommends the teaching of war literature as an essential part of a peace education curriculum. Devastating events such as…
... the hospital can be stressful for people with Alzheimer’s disease and their caregivers. Being prepared for emergency and planned hospital visits ... The Center offers information and publications for families, caregivers, and ... disease and age-related cognitive changes. January 2013
An increasing number of hospitals are undertaking external revenue-generating activities to supplement their shrinking budgets. Written at the request of Leadership, this article outlines an example of a successful catering service -- a money-generating business that more Canadian hospitals could profitably consider. PMID:10127850
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.
This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.
This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…
This website will fascinate anyone who worked in London hospitals in years gone by and also younger nurses keen to know more about the development of health care in the capital. I love it, and could spend hours visiting the hospitals I know and knew. PMID:26350854
Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K
This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925
Department of Health and Social Security, London (England).
The memorandum gives guidance to the provision and organization of library services at hospitals both for staff and for patients. It also draws attention to the assistance available from outside sources towards the development and maintenance of these services so hospital authorities may make the most effective use of the available facilities.…
Maxwell, Bruce D.
& 62317 for advertising.) Hospitality form and participant list required for food over $30.00. (Account, or conferences. Hospitality Form required for food over $30.00. (Account Code 62809) _____ Entertainment: Costs) _____ Recruiting: Travel meals lodging for position candidates and prospective athletes. Not Advertising (See 62316
Prynne, T. A.
Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…
de Richemond, Albert L
Hospital fire dangers are real, widespread, and ever present, the article demonstrates, spelling out the locations, conditions, and ignition potentials which exist in such a setting. Knowledge of codes and standards, good maintenance practices, and frequent drills in fire prevention and suppression are among the practices recommended for keeping a hospital fire from becoming a disaster, the author says. PMID:20873506
Finn, D W; Lamb, C W
Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis. PMID:10280370
Compares stewardship and hospitality as they relate to the biosphere. Traces the origin of the word "hospitality," discusses cultural traditions of hospitality, and applies the concept of hospitality to the natural world. Considers forms of symbiosis in nature: commensals, mutualism, and parasitism. Hospitality promotes respect, humility, and…
Paterson, J. M.; Allega, R. L.; Shea, P. E.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether hospital activities and attitudes toward hospitals of members of an urban family medicine department changed between 1977 and 1997. To explore whether these activities and attitudes are different among fee-for-service (FFS) and non-FFS physicians in 1997. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys by interview (1977) and self-administered questionnaire (1997). SETTING: Community-based family practices in Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: In 1977, 88 of 89 (98.9%) and, in 1997, 66 of 88 (75.0%) members of the Department of Family Medicine at St Joseph's Hospital in Hamilton. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Perceived reasons for involvement in hospital work; time spent and main activities in hospital; use of hospital privileges; attitudes toward family physicians' role in hospital, hospital work, and the Department of Family Medicine; perceptions of patients', consultants', and hospital administrators' attitudes toward family physicians' role in hospitals. RESULTS: In 1977 and 1997, patient care and continuing education remained key reasons for doing hospital work. In 1997, however, respondents spent a mean of 3 hours less per week in hospital; used the hospital less often for procedures, meetings, and teaching; and assumed less responsibility for their patients' in-hospital care. While perceptions of hospital work changed over the years, most physicians continued to see a need and have a desire to remain involved in hospitals. Fee-for-service and non-FFS physicians held different opinions on the needs of both hospitalized patients and family physicians. CONCLUSION: Although physicians' hospital activities and attitudes changed between 1997 and 1997, most continued to see a need and have a desire to remain involved in hospitals. PMID:11398730
Capecchi, Mario R.
.m. Information Desk We want you to have an excellent experience at University Hospital. The Information Desk team & Rehabilitation Clinic Cashier Customer Service Emergency Department Gift Shop Starbucks Cafeteria (see map) Cardiac Rehab (Level 4) Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit (Level2) Cath Lab/Heart Monitor (Level 4) CCTS
Bernet, Patrick Michael; Rosko, Michael D; Valdmanis, Vivian G
U.S. Hospitals rely heavily on debt financing to fund major capital investments. Hospital efficiency is at least partly determined by the amount and quality of plant and equipment it uses. As such, a hospital's access to debt and credit rating may be related to its efficiency. This study explores this relationship using a broad sample of hospitals and associated bond issuance histories. Employing stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), we measure cost inefficiency to gauge the impact of debt issuance and debt rating. We find that hospitals with recent bond issues were less inefficient. Although we do not find a perfectly linear relationship between debt rating and inefficiency, we have evidence that hints at such a relation. Finally, we find an increase in inefficiency in the years following bond issues, consistent with the possibility of a debt death spiral. PMID:21110482
Yen, Miaofen; Chen, Ching-Huey; Chou, Shieu-Ming
Nurses constantly face the need to provide patient care, both physical and psychological, within the health care arena. Nursing staff must have an understanding of the concerns and experiences of hospitalization, and the sensitivity to elicit the patient s own private language of health care needs. The purpose of the study was to examine the concerns of health care needs from patients point of view. The specific objective was to understand the experiences of hospitalized patients. The grounded theory method was applied for this purpose with major assumptions from the symbolic interaction perspective. Twelve subjects were recruited from medical and surgical units at a teaching hospital using purposive sampling, and were interviewed. Data were in the form of transcripts from tapes, field notes, and analytic and process memos. The constant comparative technique was utilized to discover the core themes that would explain most of the variation and integrate the data, codes and memos. Three coding processes, open coding, axial coding, and selective coding, were employed. Six aspects were generated from the results of the study to describe patients concerns. The hospitalized experience was depicted as searching for certain aspects of health care needs including focus on the physical condition, promptness and effectiveness of nursing services, health professionals caring attitudes when giving service and their responsibility, food preparation, environment, and medical expenses. PMID:12119597
Malaspina, Dolores; Weitzman, Michael; Goldfrank, Lewis R.
The importance of the public hospital system to medical education is often absent from the debate about its value. Best known as a core provider of services to the underserved, the safety net hospital system also plays a critical role in the education of future physicians. Particular strengths include its ability to imbue physicians in training with core professional values, to reveal through the enormous range of clinical experience provided many of the social forces shaping health, and to foster interest in and commitment to advancing population health. Faculty teaching in the public hospital system has unusual opportunities to reveal to learners the broader meanings of their diverse and rich experiences. Now, as an alarming array of pressures bearing down on the safety net system threaten its stability, the potential negative impact on medical education, were it to shrink or be forced to change its essential mission, must be considered. As advocates of the safety net system marshal forces to rationalize its funding and support, its tremendous contribution to the training of physicians and other health care professionals must be clearly set forth to ensure that support for the public hospital system’s health is appropriately broad based. PMID:18575982
The Standards vision guides the discussion in this chapter on science teaching standards for the postsecondary level. The discussion centers on the importance of goal setting, designing experiences to meet students' needs, assessment, and collegiality. There is a strong recommendation that students be given opportunities to engage in meaningful scientific inquiry--to ask scientific questions, design experiments to collect evidence, and make critical interpretations of observations. This free selection includes an Introduction and Table of Contents.
... but can also be caused by fungi. Hospital construction. Hospital staff do everything they can to prevent ... patients staying at hospitals where there is ongoing construction or renovation. 5 This is thought to be ...
Smith, D G; Clement, J P; Wheeler, J R
OBJECTIVE. This study explores the relationships among donations to not-for-profit hospitals, the returns provided by these hospitals, and fund-raising efforts. It tests a model of hospital behavior and addresses an earlier debate regarding the supply price of donations. DATA SOURCES. The main data source is the California Office of Statewide Health Planning data tapes of hospital financial disclosure reports for fiscal years 1980/1981 through 1986/1987. Complete data were available for 160 hospitals. STUDY DESIGN. Three structural equations (donations, returns, and fund-raising) are estimated as a system using a fixed-effects, pooled cross-section, time-series least squares regression. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Estimation results reveal the expected positive relation between donations and returns. The reverse relation between returns and donations is insignificant. The estimated effect of fund-raising on donations is insignificantly different from zero, and the effect of donations on fund-raising is negative. Fund-raising and returns are negatively associated with one another. CONCLUSION. The empirical results presented here suggest a positive donations-returns relations and are consistent with a positive supply price for donations. Hospitals appear to view a trade-off between providing returns and soliciting donations, but donors do not respond equally to these two activities. Attempts to increase free cash flow through expansion of community returns or fund-raising activity, at least in the short run, are not likely to be highly successful financing strategies for many hospitals. PMID:8537223
Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.
This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387
Sloan, F A
The private nonprofit hospital is the dominant organizational form in the U.S. hospital industry. Various reasons have been advanced for its high market share. As hospitals undergo massive changes due in large part to changes in payment practices, there is widespread concern that nonprofit hospitals may become less committed to noncommercial activities. This may even be more likely when such hospitals convert to for-profit status. The empirical evidence indicates that, on average, hospitals of nonprofit and for-profit ownership are similar in the provision of uncompensated care, the quality of care, and the adoption of technology. Conversion of a nonprofit to for-profit status does not adversely affect the provision of uncompensated care on average. However, for-profits are more likely to be located in areas where consumers have the ability to pay for care. As hospital markets become more competitive and the opportunity for cross-subsidizing more unprofitable, collective-good activities will become increasingly difficult. Support for such activities, if they are to exist, will have to come from explicit public subsidies. PMID:10182439
Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K; Deber, Raisa B
This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387
Background The study of length of stay (LOS) outliers is important for the management and financing of hospitals. Our aim was to study variables associated with high LOS outliers and their evolution over time. Methods We used hospital administrative data from inpatient episodes in public acute care hospitals in the Portuguese National Health Service (NHS), with discharges between years 2000 and 2009, together with some hospital characteristics. The dependent variable, LOS outliers, was calculated for each diagnosis related group (DRG) using a trim point defined for each year by the geometric mean plus two standard deviations. Hospitals were classified on the basis of administrative, economic and teaching characteristics. We also studied the influence of comorbidities and readmissions. Logistic regression models, including a multivariable logistic regression, were used in the analysis. All the logistic regressions were fitted using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results In near nine million inpatient episodes analysed we found a proportion of 3.9% high LOS outliers, accounting for 19.2% of total inpatient days. The number of hospital patient discharges increased between years 2000 and 2005 and slightly decreased after that. The proportion of outliers ranged between the lowest value of 3.6% (in years 2001 and 2002) and the highest value of 4.3% in 2009. Teaching hospitals with over 1,000 beds have significantly more outliers than other hospitals, even after adjustment to readmissions and several patient characteristics. Conclusions In the last years both average LOS and high LOS outliers are increasing in Portuguese NHS hospitals. As high LOS outliers represent an important proportion in the total inpatient days, this should be seen as an important alert for the management of hospitals and for national health policies. As expected, age, type of admission, and hospital type were significantly associated with high LOS outliers. The proportion of high outliers does not seem to be related to their financial coverage; they should be studied in order to highlight areas for further investigation. The increasing complexity of both hospitals and patients may be the single most important determinant of high LOS outliers and must therefore be taken into account by health managers when considering hospital costs. PMID:22906386
This paper examines key influences on the volume of capital employed by public hospitals. Empirical models are constructed and analysed separately for total capital employed and for plant and equipment only, using data from 68 Victorian hospitals. Such data provide an empirical base to guide government decisions on funding capital expenditure in hospitals. The analysis finds that the proportion of hospital expenditure devoted to outpatients and teaching, and the proportion of funding derived from government all influence the level of capital utilised per inpatient. The model provided a reasonable fit for plant and equipment, but much improved data coverage and consistent valuation of land and buildings are required to adequately explain influences on total capital. PMID:10140594
Hwang, Wenke; Derk, Jordan; LaClair, Michelle; Paz, Harold
Nationally, there is strong interest in measuring hospital performance in patient safety. The Leapfrog Group uses a survey, along with other data sources, to calculate patient safety scores for 2600 hospitals across the United States. Under this methodology, every hospital is assigned 1 of 5 letter grades (A, B, C, D, F) depending on how the hospital stands in safety performance relative to all other hospitals. The results have been widely marketed and disseminated to employers, payors, and the public. Leapfrog strongly encourages employers and payors to negotiate hospital reimbursement rates based on the safety grade the hospital receives. Leapfrog's effort to develop a standardized method to provide patient safety information should be commended. However, less than one-half of the 2600 hospitals participated in the Leapfrog survey. For those nonparticipating hospitals, certain safety measures were absent and alternative measures were used to calculate the safety score. A sample of the nation's most prestigious hospitals (n?=?35) was drawn from the U.S. News & World Report's "Best Hospitals." Overall, the group of participating hospitals (n?=?18) received an average grade of A (mean safety score?=?3.165), whereas the group of nonparticipating hospitals received an average grade of B (mean safety score?=?3.012). These nonparticipating hospitals were rescored using the methodology for participating hospitals. The results show that the majority of nonparticipating hospitals would have received a better safety grade. This demonstrates a potential shortcoming of Leapfrog's method and its tendency to discriminate against nonparticipating hospitals. PMID:24420641
Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Sluiter, Roderick; Stuyt, Paul M J; Laan, Roland F J M
Policy initiatives that aim to elevate the position of medical teaching to that of medical research could influence the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs related to motivation for medical teaching. To explore relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs towards medical teaching and two policy initiatives for medical teaching: (Junior) Principal Lecturer positions [(J)PL positions] and Subsidized Innovation and Research Projects in Medical Education (SIRPMEs). An online questionnaire was used to collect data about medical teaching in the setting of a university hospital. We adapted the Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction scale (Van den Broeck et al. in J Occup Organ Psychol, 83(4):981-1002, 2010), in order to measure feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in teaching. We examined the relations between (J)PL positions and SIRPMEs and the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs. A total of 767 medical teachers participated. The initiatives appear to be related to different beneficial outcomes in terms of feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in medical teaching. Either a (J)PL position is obtained by teachers who feel competent and related towards medical teaching, or obtaining a (J)PL position makes teachers feel more competent and related towards teaching, or these relations could be interacting. Also, either a SIRPME is obtained by teachers who feel competent and autonomous towards medical teaching, or obtaining a SIRPME makes teachers feel more competent and autonomous towards teaching, or these relations could be interacting. Additional research needs to scrutinize the causal or interacting relations further and to determine optimal conditions for these policy initiatives more specifically. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25503924
Fukutake, Toshio; Hashimoto, Yoichiro; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Toyoshima, Itaru; Amano, Takahiro; Aoki, Masashi; Yoshii, Fumihito; Inuzuka, Takashi; Kira, Jun-ichi
To evaluate postgraduate neurological education, a questionnaire-based survey regarding junior and senior doctor-in-training and the Board Certification Examination in Neurology was carried out on the training supervisors of 690 insitutes, excluding 80 university hospitals. The institutes included 243 teaching hospitals, 326 semi-teaching hospitals and 121 education-associated institutes authorized by the Japanese Society of Neurology (JSN). The results were obtained from 388 institutes, and the response rate was 56.2%. The percentage of junior doctors-in-training that received training in neurology was 68.6% (the average of 2.1 months during 2 years). More than half of the institutes did not have any teaching programs for junior doctors-in-training who did not train in neurology. In senior doctors-in-training, the number of senior doctors-in-trainings per year per institute was 0.44 and was only able to experience limited types of disorders. Also, many institutes could not achieve training goals by the institutes themselves (56%). The problems were due to lack of teaching staffs and manpower, and there were many requests to the Society regarding training methods. As for the Board Certification Examination in Neurology by the Society, it was revealed that there were small number of candidates per year per institute, and over half of institutes could not sufficiently teach and support them. Most requests to the Society were regarding teaching seminars and hands-on courses, and some institutes asked small group meetings for arts and techniques of neurology to be held the Regional Society. In conclusion, there are problems that cannot be solved by individual institutes alone, and we need procedures for postgraduate training in neurology that is organized by the Regional and JSN working as the central organization. PMID:24807281
Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Emergency Department Visits in Kentucky, 2000 - 2012 #12; Kentucky Injury Preven on and Research Center Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitaliza ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Drug overdose deaths, 20002012
Created by the Cornell University Center for Hospitality Research and managed by Sage Publications, this e-journal provides â??applied research theories about important industry trends and timely topics in lodging, restaurant, and tourism management.â?ť Though most articles are only available through a paid subscription, each quarter editors select a featured article, all of which are available on this site after a brief, free registration. Article topics include wine selection, revenue management, customer satisfaction measurement, hotel pricing, and computer simulation in hospitality education. This is an excellent resource for soon-to-be hospitality managers and administrators as well as for educators to keep informed of current trends in hospitality education.
Nosocomial pneumonia; Ventilator-associated pneumonia; Health-care associated pneumonia; HCAP ... Hospital-acquired pneumonia can also be spread by health care workers, who can pass germs from their hands ...
Kauer, R T; Silvers, J B
Hospital managers may find it difficult to admit their investments have been suboptimal, but such investments often lead to poor returns and less future cash. Inappropriate use of free cash flow produces large transaction costs of exit. The relative efficiency of investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals in the product market for hospital services is examined as the free cash flow theory is used to explore capital-market conditions of hospitals. Hypotheses concerning the current competitive conditions in the industry are set forth, and the implications of free cash flow for risk, capital-market efficiency, and the cost of capital to tax-exempt institution is compared to capital-market norms. PMID:1743965
. Opportunities exist for schools, hospitals, and other buildings t o achieve significant dollar savings by good utility management. Understanding utility rate structures is essential for minimizing energy costs. The authors' data is for Texas schools...
P.-O. Lang; D. Zekry; J.-P. Michel; M. Drame; J.-L. Novella; D. Jolly; F. Blanchard
Background Dementia is a serious, chronic, and costly public health problem. Prior studies have described dementia as increasing length\\u000a of hospital stay, but so far no explanations have been proposed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods To identify early markers for prolonged hospital stay in demented elderly inpatients, 178 community-dwelling or institutionalized\\u000a subjects aged 75+, hospitalized through an emergency department in 9 teaching hospitals in France, were
Speedling, E J; McDermott, M; Eichhorn, S; Rosenberg, G
Hospital service employees are often untrained for the human relations aspects of their jobs. Yet, workers who clean patient rooms, deliver meals, provide escort services, make room repairs, and the like can make a critical difference in the quality of patients' hospital experiences. The Patient Service Ethic Program helps such employees identify typical patient concerns during the course of hospitalization and guides them in ways to respond appropriately to those concerns. At a large teaching hospital where this program has been implemented, employees have responded positively to the caregiver role, and managers have used the program as a catalyst for constructive change. PMID:10281363
Fox, J T
There are many considerations when managing feedyard hospitals. The type of hospital system must fit the facility design, the type of cattle fed at the feedyard, the crew that is employed by the feedyard, and the protocol established by the veterinarian. Ensuring the animals are well-cared for and have their basic needs met should be the priority of the feedyard personnel and the veterinarian maintaining the veterinarian-client-patient relationship with the feedyard. PMID:26210766
When our reporter read that his hometown hospital--Ottumwa Regional Health Center in Iowa--was on a list of the nation's hospitals most vulnerable to cuts in Medicare and Medicaid spending, he went to see why. What he found were executives coping with the future, not avoiding it. Here's what they did, how they did it--and why it might save them. PMID:8541905
This research guide provides suggestions for specialists and teachers looking to improve fraction instruction in their classrooms or schools. The guide starts with ideas for introducing fraction concepts in kindergarten and early elementary school and continues with activities and teaching strategies designed to help older students understand fraction magnitudes and computational procedures involving fractions. It then examines ways of helping students use fractions to solve rate, ratio, and proportion problems. Each recommendation includes a brief summary of supporting research and descriptions of classroom activities that can be used to implement the recommendation.
Howard, Jeff W.
as method demon- stration, involves the teacher showing youth how to do something. For example: how to change a tire, prepare a recipe or make a tie knot. Another kind of demonstration is the result demonstration. It is a way of teaching good practices... a tire, allow members to practice. This method can be used with any of the others because it allows youth to ?learn by doing.? 7. Experimentation This is a successful technique for 4-H members when based on individual or group study. Here...
The concept of a limited service rural hospital recently gained nationwide attention when Montana introduced the medical assistance facility (MAF) model, which allows a hospital to have a license under less stringent rules (rather than close completely). The MAF is a down-scaled, limited-service rural hospital that makes extensive use of midlevel practitioners and has flexible staffing requirements. MAFs restrict admission to patients with low-intensity, acute illnesses who typically require short-term hospitalization. Montana currently has four MAFs certified as Medicare and Medicaid providers under the terms of a waiver agreement with the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). MAFs are located in four "frontier" communities--counties or regions with fewer than six residents per square mile. A 96-hour cap on inpatient stay effectively guarantees that the MAF's scope of services will be circumscribed. However, the array of services that meet the definition of low intensity and short term is potentially broad. The flexibility--and thus the real strength--of the MAF model is in the licensure rules, which relax some of the requirements that the small rural hospital has difficulty meeting (such as those regarding staffing). The demonstration project is now entering its final two years. So far, it has gained widespread interest and support. The central question is whether HCFA will extend the waiver after 1993. Another possibility is the reclassification of MAFs to rural primary care hospitals, which do not require waiver coverage to receive Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement. PMID:10117403
With health care costs on the rise, hospitals are looking for ways to reduce operating expenses-especially utility bills. But hospitals, more than anyone else, need a continuous source of electricity, heating and air conditioning. They cannot turn off medical equipment or climate control systems in the name of energy conservation. Hospital Corporation of America (HCA), with the help of the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has found a way to supply affordable and efficient power to a mid-size hospital in Houston, Texas. A 500-kilowatt (kw) gasfired cogeneration system, sold as a package, is now being field-tested at the Medical Center Del Oro, a 258-bed hospital facility. The cogeneration system, which began operating last month, will supply the medical center with 145 tons of cooling (or 2.3 MMBtu/hour space heating) and 500,000 Btu/hour for water heating, in addition to the 500 kw of electricity. A Caterpillar continuous-duty turbocharged gas-fueled engine serves as the prime mover, and heat is recovered from its exhaust and from water used to cool the engine. A Trane single-effect absorption chiller supplies chilled water for air conditioning the hospital.
Tarby, W; Hogan, K
Crouse Hospital in Syracuse, New York, is a 612-bed, not-for-profit teaching hospital with 2,500 employees. A close examination of operations at Crouse facilitated the development of a patient education task force that used a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to meet the educational needs of both patients and clinicians. The collaborative process involved all hospital departments. Within eighteen months, patient requests for information rose from 3% to 30% of total requests made at the hospital. Requests were made directly to the library or through a member of the health care team. Hospital staff members were surveyed about information needs and availability, and a library work plan was devised, setting standards of service for a multimedia approach. Work redesign improved the library staff's ability to integrate patient education into daily operations. Cost savings were achieved through the elimination of duplicated resources and services throughout the hospital. The management model developed at Crouse was the result of a needs assessment and a multidisciplinary, collaborative process. The model emphasizes communication links among disciplines rather than physical locations. The Crouse experience validates the development of hospital-based consumer health information services. PMID:9160153
Mrayyan, Majd T; Al-Faouri, Ibrahim
The interrelatedness of nurses' career commitment and job performance is debated. In nursing, few studies have focused on the relationship between the two concepts. A convenience sample of 640 registered nurses (RNs) from 24 hospitals was recruited. A comparative design was used to assess differences among governmental, teaching and private hospitals in regard to the concepts measured. In general, nurses were found to "agree" that they had a lifelong commitment to their careers, and that they were performing "well" their jobs in accordance with standards. Hospitals in the sample differed in most demographics except in gender, areas of work and decision-making styles. Based on the total scores of nurses' career commitment, there were no significant differences across hospitals. Based on the total scores of nurses' job performance, F-tests indicated some differences; the highest mean was at private hospitals. Using dimensional means of nurses' job performance uncovered no significant differences among hospitals. Individual items of nurses' job performance subscales differed, in some cases significantly, particularly for nurses working at private hospitals: nurses' career commitment was correlated positively and significantly with their job performance. Consistent with the current researchers' hypothesis, nurses' career commitment appears to influence job performance and is influenced by the nurses' characteristics and organizational factors in the workplace. Enhancing nurses' career commitment and their job performance should produce positive outcomes for nurses, patients and organizations. PMID:18536539
Thampy, Harish; Agius, Steven; Allery, Lynne A
The General Medical Council (GMC) states that teaching should be an integral part of the doctor's role and the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) have incorporated teaching outcomes into the GP training curriculum. However, there are suggestions that the teaching role of a GP trainee declines as they move from hospital posts to the registrar community year. Using doctors in training as near-peer tutors offers multiple advantages. Trainees themselves benefit as teaching others is a strong driver of the tutor's own learning. In addition there are also practical incentives to mobilising this under-utilised pool of primary care clinical teachers given the continuing shift of focusing medical education in the community. This study forms part of a larger body of work exploring the attitudes and perceived learning needs of GP registrars with regards to developing a teaching role. A primary area of investigation was trainees' motivation to teach. This paper describes our attempts to establish: a) how strongly motivated are GP registrars to take on teaching roles? b) in consequence how strongly motivated are they to learn more about teaching? c) what are the factors which affect motivation to teach? Three themes emerged from the data. First, teaching was felt to be of low priority in comparison to competing clinical learning needs. Secondly, the clinical dominance to both formative and summative assessment during training further compounded this situation. Thirdly, registrars identified a number of practical barriers and incentives that influenced their teaching engagement. This included potential negative views from trainers as to their trainee's ability and requirement to be involved with teaching activities.
By understanding and addressing these issues, it is hoped that GP trainees' engagement with teaching activities can be better engendered with subsequent benefits for both the trainee and those they teach. PMID:23906167
Wright, Steven; McNeill, Michael; Fry, Joan; Wang, John
This study was designed to determine the extent to which a technical and a tactical approach to teaching a basketball unit to physical education teacher education (PETE) students would each affect their games playing abilities, perceived ability to teach, and approach preference for teaching the game. Pre- and post-unit data were collected through…
Cohodes, Donald R.; And Others
The effects of Title VI provisions of the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 on patient care services in hospitals were investigated. The law restricts the supply of foreign medical grduates in the United States. Interviews were conducted with representatives of the administrative, medical, and teaching staffs of 24 hospitals to…
MacArthur, Judy; And Others
A successful intervention to establish independent eating behaviors in a developmentally handicapped, autistic-like three-year-old involved teaching appropriate behavior in a hospital setting (where he was being treated for dehydration and malnutrition) and then teaching his mother to implement the strategies at home. Skills were maintained at…
Massell, Adele P.; Hosek, James R.
The report investigates production and the cost effects of teaching within hospital departments. Models of primary production show that the cost effects of teaching are determined by the salaries paid to students (including residents, interns, medical students, and technical trainees) and physicians, by the levels of student inputs used in…
Shea, Mary Ann, Ed.
This collection of essays, which evolved from the Professional Lecture Series on Teaching and Learning and Instructional Workshops on Teaching and Learning held at the University of Colorado (Boulder), addresses a variety of styles and situations for teaching and learning. The following essays are included: (1) "Teaching as Architecture:…
Wimer, Frances N., Ed.
The focus of this bulletin is teaching the various literary genres in the secondary English class. Contents include "The Song Within: An Approach to Teaching Poetry,""Teaching Folk-Rock,""Approaches to Teaching Poetry,""Focus on an Elective Program: Twentieth Century Lyrical Poetry,""Hoffman and Poe: Masters of the Grotesque,""Plays: Shared and…
Seldin, Peter; And Others
This volume contains 20 papers providing practical, ready-to-use, research-based information to foster effective college teaching. Four sections group the papers under the following topics: (1) key influences on teaching quality; (2) programs to improve teaching; (3) strategies for teaching improvement; and (4) approaches to nontraditional…
Holzbecher, J.; Chatt, A. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))
The Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) has been operating since July 1976 and has proven to be an invaluable tool in many teaching programs. These reactors are inherently safe and are designed to serve teaching and research needs of the universities, research centers, hospitals, etc. Since the DUSR has been, from its inception, associated with the Trace Analysis Research Centre, which is the Analytical Chemistry Division of the Department of Chemistry, the main thrust of its use continues to be in the field of nuclear analytical chemistry. Both teaching and research programs involve trace element analysis by neutron activation.
Edwards, Don; Kusel, Jim; Oxner, Tom
The authors analyzed two national surveys to determine answers for two basic questions: How do the roles of internal auditors compare with those of their counterparts in other industries and to what extent over the past 6 years have the activities of internal auditors changed? Internal auditors in hospitals allocate their time primarily to financial/compliance and operational types of audits, as do their counterparts. The current trend is toward more operational types of audits. In the early years of employment, staff turnover in hospitals is significantly higher than in all combined industries, often leading to internal auditors' filling other positions in the organization. Hospital staff salaries are higher than are salaries in other industries combined. Staff composition continues to reflect the growing presence of women in the field. The majority of internal auditing directors believe that their salaries are fair, would recommend internal auditing as a career position, and are treated as valued consultants in the organization. PMID:15346832
Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A
In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1991677
Moch, C; Pivot, C; Floccard, B; Rimmelé, T; Paillet, C
The French regulatory system strongly encourages strict regulation of health products' production and distribution, especially concerning risk management and economic aspects. An ICU is an unusual environment for a local pharmacy practice (a nurse for every 2.5 patients, continuous adaptation of therapeutics…). However, a literature review reports interesting data concerning risk management and economics. This article aims to relate the experience of a pharmacist integration in a French teaching hospital ICU (half-time position). PMID:24630309
Every year 250,000 or more people with cardiovascular disease die within an hour of symptom onset and before they arrive at a hospital. With appropriate early defibrillation and follow-up treatment many people who might have died can now live. Nurses are key health care professionals for using automatic external defibrillators in hospitals and for teaching other first responders--inside and outside hospitals--how to use automatic external defibrillators. Features of automatic and semiautomatic external defibrillators are reviewed as well as ethical considerations for the use of automatic external defibrillators. PMID:11252874
Many librarians do not see themselves as marketers, but marketing is an essential role for hospital librarians. Library work involves education, and there are parallels between marketing and education as described in this article. It is incumbent upon hospital librarians actively to pursue ways of reminding their customers about library services. This article reinforces the idea that marketing is an element in many of the things that librarians already do, and includes a list of suggested marketing strategies intended to remind administrators, physicians, and other customers that they have libraries in their organizations. PMID:15982957
Dranove, D; Shanley, M; Simon, C
Recent attention has been given to the hypothesis that local hospital competition takes the form of costly duplication of specialized services--the "medical arms race." This contrasts with the hypothesis that the supply of specialized services is determined solely by "the extent of the market." We develop a model predicting the provision of specialized services in local markets. Our analysis of California hospitals provides minimal support for the medical arms race hypothesis while suggesting substantial scale economies for many services. Our results emphasize the importance of properly specifying the extent of the market. Failure to do so leads one to overestimate the importance of competition. PMID:10119678
Schultz, Maureen; Gill, Janet; Zubairi, Sabiha; Huber, Ruth; Gordin, Fred
We tested 100 keyboards in 29 clinical areas for bacterial contamination. Ninety five were positive for microorganisms. Streptococcus, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus (including one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus), Staphylococcus aureus, fungi, and gram-negative organisms were isolated. Computer equipment must be kept clean so it does not become another vehicle for transmission of pathogens to patients. PMID:12725363
Lamers, Karilyn; Janisse, Lisa; Brown, Gail; Butler, Carol; Watson, Barb
For nurses, the stress caused by entering a new place of employment may give rise to insecurity and a lack of confidence. Lack of confidence in one's nursing skills can affect performance and, ultimately, patient care and safety. In healthcare, growing fiscal constraints have resulted in lost resources, and support for new nursing staff is limited by both time and cost considerations. Clinical educators therefore must find innovative ways to provide education and support, including creative learning modalities that facilitate nurses' transition into a new role and work environment. PMID:24860953
Lerner, William D.; And Others
Physicians are likely to encounter a wide gamut of disorders related to drug and alcohol abuse and will need specialized knowledge and skills to treat the affected population effectively. The development and implementation of a program to meet these needs at the Medical College of Virginia is described. (MLW)
Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Yvette, Mawamba; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph
More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon. PMID:26401210
Palmer, Janice L; Lach, Helen W; McGillick, Janis; Murphy-White, Maggie; Carroll, Maria B; Armstrong, Johanna L
Individuals with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias have 3.2 million hospital stays annually, which is significantly more than older individuals without dementia. Hospitalized patients with dementia are at greater risk of delirium, falls, overwhelming functional decline that may extend the hospital stay, and prolonged or complicated rehabilitation. These risks highlight the need for staff education on the special care needs of this vulnerable population. This article describes a one-day education program, the Dementia Friendly Hospital Initiative, designed to teach staff how to provide the specialized care required by patients with dementia. Participants (N = 355) from five different hospitals, including 221 nurses, completed a pretest-posttest evaluation for the program. Changes in participants attitudes and practices, confidence, and knowledge were evaluated. Scores indicated significant improvement on the posttest. The evaluation provides further evidence for recommending dissemination of the Dementia Friendly Hospital Initiative. PMID:25299008
Amarasingham, Ruben; Diener-West, Marie; Plantinga, Laura; Cunningham, Aaron C; Gaskin, Darrell J; Powe, Neil R
Background A hospital's clinical information system may require a specific environment in which to flourish. This environment is not yet well defined. We examined whether specific hospital characteristics are associated with highly automated and usable clinical information systems. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 125 urban hospitals in Texas, United States using the Clinical Information Technology Assessment Tool (CITAT), which measures a hospital's level of automation based on physician interactions with the information system. Physician responses were used to calculate a series of CITAT scores: automation and usability scores, four automation sub-domain scores, and an overall clinical information technology (CIT) score. A multivariable regression analysis was used to examine the relation between hospital characteristics and CITAT scores. Results We received a sufficient number of physician responses at 69 hospitals (55% response rate). Teaching hospitals, hospitals with higher IT operating expenses (>$1 million annually), IT capital expenses (>$75,000 annually) and hospitals with larger IT staff (? 10 full-time staff) had higher automation scores than hospitals that did not meet these criteria (p < 0.05 in all cases). These findings held after adjustment for bed size, total margin, and ownership (p < 0.05 in all cases). There were few significant associations between the hospital characteristics tested in this study and usability scores. Conclusion Academic affiliation and larger IT operating, capital, and staff budgets are associated with more highly automated clinical information systems. PMID:18793426
Yeh, Michael M; Cahill, Daniel F
OBJECTIVE To design and test a customizable system for calculating physician teaching productivity based on clinical relative value units (RVUs). SETTING/PARTICIPANTS A 550-bed community teaching hospital with 11 part-time faculty general internists. DESIGN Academic year 1997–98 educational activities were analyzed with an RVU-based system using teaching value multipliers (TVMs). The TVM is the ratio of the value of a unit of time spent teaching to the equivalent time spent in clinical practice. We assigned TVMs to teaching tasks based on their educational value and complexity. The RVUs of a teaching activity would be equal to its TVM multiplied by its duration and by the regional median clinical RVU production rate. MEASUREMENTS The faculty members' total annual RVUs for teaching were calculated and compared with the RVUs they would have earned had they spent the same proportion of time in clinical practice. MAIN RESULTS For the same proportion of time, the faculty physicians would have generated 29,806 RVUs through teaching or 27,137 RVUs through clinical practice (Absolute difference = 2,669 RVUs; Relative excess = 9.8%). CONCLUSIONS We describe an easily customizable method of quantifying physician teaching productivity in terms of clinical RVUs. This system allows equitable recognition of physician efforts in both the educational and clinical arenas. PMID:10571707