Background The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of congenital cardiac disease among children attending UNTH, Enugu, Nigeria. The nature of these abnormalities and the outcome were also considered. The exact etiology is unknown but genetic and environmental factors tend to be implicated. The difference in the pattern obtained worldwide and few studies in Nigeria could be due to genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, or ethnic origin. Methods A retrospective analysis of discharged cases in which a review of the cases of all children attending children outpatient clinics including cardiology clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu over a five year period (January 2007-June 2012) was undertaken. All the children presenting with cardiac anomalies were included in the study and the cases were investigated using ECG, X-ray and echocardiography studies. Results A total of 31,795 children attended the children outpatient clinics of the hospital over the study period. Of these, seventy one (71) had cardiac diseases. The overall prevalence of cardiac disease is 0.22%. The commonest symptoms were breathlessness, failure to thrive and cyanosis. Almost all types of congenital detects were represented, the commonest being isolated ventricular septal detect (VSD), followed by tetralogy of Fallot. One of these cardiac anomalies presented with Downs’s syndrome and another with VACTERAL association. Conclusions The results of this study show that 0.22% per cent of children who attended UNTH in Enugu State had congenital cardiac abnormalities and the commonest forms seen were those with VSD. PMID:24252233
Iroha IR; Adikwu MU; Esimone CO; Aibinu I; Amadi ES
Objective: The frequency of extended spectrum ß - lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli in a tertiary hospital in Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria was studied. Methodology: Clinical specimens were collected from patients attending the Medical Microbiology laboratory unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu. Isolates of E. coli were obtained from various specimen types namely, urine (19), blood
Okoye, Augustine Ejike; Ibegbulam, Obike Godswill; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Ugwu, Ngozi I; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Anigbo, Chukwudi Simon; Nonyelu, Charles E
Background Human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 is a retrovirus transmitted vertically from mother to child parenterally and sexually by infected lymphocytes. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies and associated risk factors for HTLV-1 infection among pregnant women in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2010. Two hundred pregnant women were recruited consecutively from the antenatal clinic. Five milliliters of blood was collected from each of the participants into a plain sterile bottle and allowed to clot. The serum obtained was stored at ?20°C until required for analysis. The serum samples were then analyzed for antibodies to HTLV-1 using a one-step incubation double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Participants’ demographic characteristics and degree of exposure to the risk factors associated with HTLV-1 infection were captured using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis of results was done using SPSS version 17. Results The average age of the pregnant women was 28.94 years (standard deviation 4.17). The age-group with the highest representation was those between the ages of 26 and 30 years. Thirty-six percent of the population was above 30 years old. The result of the tests showed that only one respondent, a 31-year-old pregnant woman tested positive for HTLV-1 antibodies. Therefore, the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital was 0.5%, with a 95% confidence interval of 0%–2.8%. Some of the sociodemographic risk factors of HTLV-1 infection found to be applicable to the 31-year-old woman who tested positive included positive history of previous sexually transmitted diseases, high parity, low socioeconomic status, female sex, and age above 30 years. The pregnant women that participated in this study were exposed to risk factors and behaviors associated with HTLV-1 infection. Some of the pregnant women (17.5%) had contracted sexually transmitted diseases, and 80.5% did not use condoms during coitus. Conclusion The seroprevalence obtained in this study was low, though it is 100% for anyone infected. More prospective and multicenter studies are required to determine the infectivity of HTLV-1 among pregnant women in Nigeria. PMID:25258559
Background Respiratory diseases are one of the causes of childhood morbidity and mortality as well as hospitalization globally. The patterns of different respiratory illnesses in several parts of the world have been reported but there are few on the combined burden of the diseases. Determination of the burden of respiratory diseases as a group will help ascertain their collective impact on the health systems in order to develop intervention measures. Methods Data from case notes of children with respiratory diseases admitted to the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria over a six year period were extracted. Age, gender, admission rates, types of respiratory illness, duration of admission, season of presentation and outcome were analysed. Descriptive and inferential (Chi square) statistics were used to describe the various disease types and ascertain association of the disease outcome, seasonal pattern with the types of diseases. Results Of the total of 8974 children admissions, 2214 (24.7%) were due to respiratory diseases. The mean age of all the children with respiratory diseases was 3.3?years (SD 3.9). Communicable diseases were the common cause of admission cases throughout the seasons, p < 0.001. The highest admission rates were for pneumonia, (34.0%), acute bronchial asthma, (27.7%) and rhinosinusitis (14.6%) p < 0.001. The frequency of respiratory disease decreases with age and children less than five years of age and of low socio-economic status were commonly affected, p?=?0.01. The median duration of hospital stay was two days [range 1 to 8?days], children less than five years old and those of low socio-economic status, spent more than four days (p?=?0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively). The all-cause mortality was 0.5% (11/2214) of which 81.8% (9/11) was due to pneumonia. Conclusions Respiratory diseases constitute a significant burden of childhood illnesses in our centre. Efforts are required to reduce the impact as part of the steps towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:24916799
Isiguzo, Chimaobi; Ogbonnaya, Sunday Iheuko; Udezue, Anthonia O
Context: Large breast is a major problem because of associated symptomatology and aesthetic concerns. Reduction mammoplasty (RM) resolves the symptom and at the same time improves the aesthetic appearance of the breast, hence improving self-esteem and social integration. Aims: To describe the pattern of RM in a hospital in the developing world and its impact on postgraduate surgical training. Settings and Design: A retrospective review of all the RMs done in the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu (a major plastic surgery training center in Nigeria) over a ten-year period (2001–2010), in the developing country of Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: All RMs done in the hospital were reviewed after retrieving their records from operation register and medical records department. Fifteen (15) cases were retrieved and analyzed. Data Analysis: Data was analyzed with Microsoft excel 2007. Results: Average age of female patients who had RM was 26.5 years and 83.3% were single. The most common complaint was abnormally large breast (macromastia). Inferior pedicle technique was commonly used. Conclusions: The results of RM are remarkable as it impact positively on the quality of life of the patients. However, the level of awareness about the availability of this service is still low in the region as shown by few cases done over the period of review and this impacts negatively on the training. The need for public awareness cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25838761
VETERINARY TEACHING HOSPITAL 1602 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1602 Phone: 970.297.1269 CHIEF NURSING OFFICER Veterinary Teaching Hospital College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences Position Summary: The Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) at Colorado State University (CSU) seeks
VETERINARY TEACHING HOSPITAL 1602 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1602 Phone: 970.297.1269 On-call Anesthesia Post-Doc Post-Doctoral Veterinary Teaching Hospital College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences Position Summary: The Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) at Colorado State University
VETERINARY TEACHING HOSPITAL 1602 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1602 Phone: 970.297.1269 Canine Rehabilitation Therapist Veterinary Teaching Hospital College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences Position Summary: The Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) at Colorado State University
Schwartz, W B; Newhouse, J P; Williams, A P
The nonmunicipal teaching hospital faces some special challenges in adapting to the increasingly austere fiscal environment in which all hospitals must operate. However, except in a few instances, such developments as constraints on Medicaid expenditures do not appear to be notably more serious for teaching hospitals than for their community counterparts. The teaching hospitals most closely connected with medical schools provide more charity care and carry more bad debt than community hospitals. But other teaching hospitals have about the same burden as their community counterparts. The most serious problem facing teaching hospitals results from new bases of prospective reimbursement, some of which do not adequately compensate hospitals that treat more "difficult" cases--that is, more expensive cases. Competitive providers of health care such as health maintenance organizations promise to reduce admissions at all types of hospitals; whether this reduction will selectively affect teaching hospitals is not yet clear. By contrast, the fiscal state of municipal teaching hospitals is far more precarious than that of their nonmunicipal counterparts. The ability of these institutions to maintain high-quality patient care and teaching programs is in considerable jeopardy. PMID:3925337
A program of integrated teaching by consultants and general practitioners is described. The teaching took place in the hospitals used for the purpose by the Medical Faculty of the University of Birmingham. (Author)
Fanak Fahimi; Pharm D; Mohammad Abbasi; Nazari Pharm; Ramin Abrishami; Mohammad Sistanizad; Talya Mazidi; Toktam Faghihi; Rasoul Soltani; Shadi Baniasadi
Medication errors are among the most common medical errors in the hospitals. Transcription error is a specific type of medication errors and is due to data entry error that is commonly made by the human operators. This study was designed to detect transcription errors in a teaching hospital in Tehran. Direct observational method was used in this study. Error was
Green, Alan C.
Planning and design criteria are established for educational facilities in VA hospitals, rendering them more effective for medical education. Rather than developing plans for prototype teaching hospitals, guidelines are presented which may be utilized to meet the needs of a particular situation. Three broad categories of facilities are…
University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the College of Veterinary Medicine SERVICE EMAIL Director's Office VTHDir@vetmed.illinois.edu Referral Coordinator VTHrDVMcoor@vetmed.illinois.edu Medical Records firstname.lastname@example.org Anesthesia VTHAnesthesia@vetmed.illinois.edu Cardiology
Goldblatt, S J
Given the special challenges and problems of teaching hospitals,...these institutions should be treated at least no worse than hospitals with no teaching affiliations. Interest expense on hospital related debt should be reimbursed without regard to income earned by nonhospital related investment. PMID:10297544
Dim, Cyril C.; Onah, Hyacinth E.
Background More than half of the pregnant women in the world have hemoglobin levels indicative of anemia. Knowledge of the current situation of the condition in our environment is necessary. This knowledge will motivate antenatal caregivers toward early detection and prompt management of anemia in pregnancy. Aims Our aim was to determine the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women at registration for antenatal care at a major tertiary healthcare center in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study of 530 normal pregnant women registered with the antenatal unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, between January 1, 2005 and October 30, 2005. Data on the age, parity, gestational age at booking, interval between last confinement and last menstrual period in the index pregnancy, hemoglobin concentration at booking, and HIV status were obtained and analyzed. Results The mean gestational age at booking was 21.7 ± 7.1 weeks (range, 6–37). Two hundred fourteen (40.4%) of the women were anemic (hemoglobin [Hb] < 11.0 g/dL). The majority (90.7%) of these anemic patients were mildly anemic, whereas 9.3% were moderately anemic. There was no case of severe anemia (Hb < 7.0 g/dL). The prevalence of anemia at booking was significantly higher in those who registered for antenatal care in the third trimester than in those who registered in the second trimester, and in HIV-positive pregnant women than in HIV-negative ones (P = .00). The patients' age, parity, and the interval between the last confinement and the index pregnancy had no significant relationship with the hemoglobin concentration of pregnant women at booking (P > .05). Conclusion The prevalence of anemia in pregnancy at booking is still high in Enugu. Preconception care, including iron and folic acid supplementation, is advocated to reduce this problem. Early antenatal booking and improved antenatal care are also necessary for early diagnosis and treatment of the condition. All would ensure safe motherhood. PMID:18092018
Guillem López-casasnovas; Marc Sáez
In this paper we analyse the observed systematic differences in costs for teaching hospitals (THhenceforth) in Spain. Concern has been voiced regarding the existence of a bias in the financing of TH’s has been raised once prospective budgets are in the arena for hospital finance, and claims for adjusting to take into account the ‘legitimate’ extra costs of teaching on
...Federal Register Volume 78, Number 127 (Tuesday, July 2, 2013...Notification of Closure of Teaching Hospitals and Opportunity To...Notification of Closure of Teaching Hospitals and Opportunity to...in which one of the closed teaching hospitals was located....
Juwah, A; Nlemadim, E; Kaine, W
Background: Anaemic crises in paediatric patients with sickle cell anaemia are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Some children admitted to hospitals' emergency rooms or paediatric wards of the hospitals with severe anaemia die before blood transfusion. Aims and Methods: A total of 108 episodes of anaemic crises were prospectively evaluated in 108 patients with sickle cell anaemia attending the paediatric sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Results: Hyper-haemolytic crises were the commonest types of anaemic crises in the patients studied. The mean haemoglobin concentration of 44.66 (SD 6.42) g/l in crises was significantly lower than the mean steady state level of 78.69 (SD 8.50) g/l. Reticulocytes, unconjugated serum bilirubin concentrations, and the presence of nucleated red blood cells were also increased. About 4.6% of patients were not jaundiced at presentation even though they were profoundly anaemic. Their haematological indices gradually returned to normal without marked changes in their serum bilirubin concentrations. These patients were probably in the early recovery phase of aplastic crises. The classical presentation of acute splenic sequestration crisis with a rapidly enlarging spleen and hypotension was not observed. This was probably because of its precipitate nature and accompanying circulatory collapse, which carried a high mortality rate. Minor forms of sequestration crises may have occurred in the liver and spleen. Conclusions: Malaria appeared to have played a role in precipitating some of the hyper-haemolytic episodes. Further studies to elucidate this role are required so that appropriate recommendations regarding malaria prophylaxis can be made in patients with sickle cell anaemia. PMID:15155406
Taylor, Ian L.
On Monday, August 29, 2005 Hurricane Katrina passed east of New Orleans causing minimal damage to Tulane's Medical Center. Later that day, levees that protected the city failed and several feet of water entered the hospitals and school buildings. Emergency generators provided power for 36 hours before running out of fuel. Temperatures in the hospitals soared into the upper 90's and conditions were made intolerable by 100% humidity and backed-up sewage. For several days, faculty, residents, nurses and hospital personnel performed heroically, caring for patients in appalling conditions, hand-ventilating critically ill patients in shifts. Approximately 200 patients, and 1500 additional personnel would be evacuated on Wednesday and Thursday from a makeshift heliport on Tulane's parking garage. Current disaster plans may be inadequate should facilities be inaccessible for months because of damage or contamination. Contingency plans also need to be made should outside disaster relief be markedly delayed as was the case with Katrina. PMID:18528490
Walker, Terry S.
The University of California at Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital created a healthier environment with inexpensive business procedures. Reported are: removal of billing responsibilities from faculty, separation of discharge functions from receptionist's functions, billing system/medical records system, and use of credit cards and…
P. Boerlin; S. Eugster; F. Gaschen; R. Straub; P. Schawalder
Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from infected surgical wounds and other types of infections in a veterinary teaching hospital were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. A first cluster of infections with a multiresistant A. baumannii strain was observed in dogs and cats in 1998–1999. This strain disappeared after cleaning and disinfection of the companion
Marwan, Yousef; Al-Saddique, Muhammad; Hassan, Adnan; Karim, Jumanah; Al-Saleh, Mervat
Background Worldwide, patients are the cornerstone of bedside teaching of medical students. In this study, the authors aimed to assess patients’ acceptability toward medical students in teaching hospitals of the Faculty of Medicine of Kuwait University. Methods Ninehundred and ninety five patients were approached in 14 teaching hospitals; 932 patients agreed to participate (refusal rate is 6.3%). A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results In general, higher acceptance of students by patients was found when there is no direct contact between the patient and the student (e.g., reading patients’ files, presenting in outpatient clinic, observing doctors performing examination or procedures) compared to other situations (e.g., performing physical examination or procedures). Pediatrics patients showed higher acceptance of students compared to patients in other specialties, while Obstetrics/Gynecology patients showed the highest refusal of students. Gender of patients (especially females) and students appeared to affect the degree of acceptance of medical students by patients. Majority of the patients (436; 46.8%) believed that the presence of medical students in hospitals improves the quality of health care. Conclusion Patients are an important factor of bedside teaching. Clinical tutors must take advantage of patients who accept medical students. Clinical tutors and medical students should master essential communication skills to convince patients in accepting students, thus improving bedside teaching. Also, using simulation and standardization should be considered to address scenarios that most patients are unwilling to allow students to participate. PMID:22509091
...Federal Register Volume 78, Number 105 (Friday, May 31, 2013...Notification of Closure of Teaching Hospitals and Opportunity To...announces the closure of two teaching hospitals and the initiation...upon the FTE resident caps in teaching hospitals that closed...
Karaca, Zeynal; Wong, Herbert S.
Introduction: The sources of racial disparity in duration of patients’ visits to emergency departments (EDs) have not been documented well enough for policymakers to distinguish patient-related factors from hospital- or area-related factors. This study explores the racial disparity in duration of routine visits to EDs at teaching and non-teaching hospitals. Methods: We performed retrospective data analyses and multivariate regression analyses to investigate the racial disparity in duration of routine ED visits at teaching and non-teaching hospitals. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) were used in the analyses. The data include 4.3 million routine ED visits encountered in Arizona, Massachusetts, and Utah during 2008. We computed duration for each visit by taking the difference between admission and discharge times. Results: The mean duration for a routine ED visit was 238 minutes at teaching hospitals and 175 minutes at non-teaching hospitals. There were significant variations in duration of routine ED visits across race groups at teaching and non-teaching hospitals. The risk-adjusted results show that the mean duration of routine ED visits for Black/African American and Asian patients when compared to visits for white patients was shorter by 10.0 and 3.4%, respectively, at teaching hospitals; and longer by 3.6 and 13.8%, respectively, at non-teaching hospitals. Hispanic patients, on average, experienced 8.7% longer ED stays when compared to white patients at non-teaching hospitals. Conclusion: There is significant racial disparity in the duration of routine ED visits, especially in non-teaching hospitals where non-White patients experience longer ED stays compared to white patients. The variation in duration of routine ED visits at teaching hospitals when compared to non-teaching hospitals was smaller across race groups. PMID:24106554
Varallo, Fabiana Rossi; Capucho, Helaine Carneiro; da Silva Planeta, Cleópatra; de Carvalho Mastroianni, Patrícia
OBJECTIVES: Drug safety problems can lead to hospital admission. In Brazil, the prevalence of hospitalization due to adverse drug events is unknown. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of hospitalization due to adverse drug events and to identify the drugs, the adverse drug events, and the risk factors associated with hospital admissions. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was performed in the internal medicine ward of a teaching hospital in Săo Paulo State, Brazil, from August to December 2008. All patients aged ?18 years with a length of stay ?24 hours were interviewed about the drugs used prior to hospital admission and their symptoms/complaints/causes of hospitalization. RESULTS: In total, 248 patients were considered eligible. The prevalence of hospitalization due to potential adverse drug events in the ward was 46.4%. Overprescribed drugs and those indicated for prophylactic treatments were frequently associated with possible adverse drug events. Frequently reported symptoms were breathlessness (15.2%), fatigue (12.3%), and chest pain (9.0%). Polypharmacy was a risk factor for the occurrence of possible adverse drug events. CONCLUSION: Possible adverse drug events led to hospitalization in a high-complexity hospital, mainly in polymedicated patients. The clinical outcomes of adverse drug events are nonspecific, which delays treatment, hinders causality analysis, and contributes to the underreporting of cases. PMID:24626940
Mauro, Marianna; Cardamone, Emma; Cavallaro, Giusy; Minvielle, Etienne; Rania, Francesco; Sicotte, Claude; Trotta, Annarita
This paper explores the performance dimensions of Italian teaching hospitals (THs) by considering the multiple constituent model approach, using measures that are subjective and based on individual ideals and preferences. Our research replicates a study of a French TH and deepens it by adjusting it to the context of an Italian TH. The purposes of this research were as follows: to identify emerging views on the performance of teaching hospitals and to analyze how these views vary among hospital stakeholders. We conducted an in-depth case study of a TH using a quantitative survey method. The survey uses a questionnaire based on Parsons' social system action theory, which embraces the major models of organizational performance and covers three groups of internal stakeholders: physicians, caregivers and administrative staff. The questionnaires were distributed between April and September 2011. The results confirm that hospital performance is multifaceted and includes the dimensions of efficiency, effectiveness and quality of care, as well as organizational and human features. There is a high degree of consensus among all observed stakeholder groups about these values, and a shared view of performance is emerging. Our research provides useful information for defining management priorities to improve the performance of THs. PMID:24560230
REZAEE, RITA; MARHAMATI, SAADAT; NABEIEI, PARISA; MARHAMATI, RAHELEH
Introduction: Organization structure and manpower constitute two basic components of anorganization and both are necessary for stablishing an organization. The aim of this survey was to investigate the type of the organization structure (mechanic and organic) from viewpoint of senior and junior managers in Shiraz teaching hospitals and creativity in each of these two structures. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, organization structure and organizational creation questionnaires were filled out by hospital managers. According to the statistical consultation and due to limited target population, the entire study population was considered as sample. Thus, the sample size in this study was 84 (12 hospitals and every hospital, n = 7). For data analysis, SPSS 14 was used and Spearman correlation coefficient and t-test were used. Results: Results showed that there is a negative association between centralization and complexity with organizational creation and its dimensions. Also there was a negative association between formalization and 4 organizational creation dimensions: reception change, accepting ambiguity, abet new view and less control outside (p=0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the creation in hospitals with organic structure is more than that in hospitals with mechanic structure. PMID:25512934
Ogbu, I Si; Okoro, O Io; Ugwuja, E I
Abnormal fluoride levels in drinking water have been associated with adverse health effects. To determine the fluoride content of well waters in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, water samples from 50 artisan wells chosen by multistage sampling procedure from the 5 zones of Enugu municipality were analyzed in duplicates for their fluoride content. The zonal mean values were 0.60, 0.70, 0.62, 0.62, and 0.63 mg/L for Abakpa Nike, Achara Layout, Obiagu/ Ogui, Trans Ekulu and Uwani, respectively (p<0.05). The mean value for the whole city was 0.63 mg/L. Although, the mean level of fluoride recorded in this study is currently within safe limits (1.5 mg/L, WHO 2011), it is important to monitor continuously the fluoride content of well waters in the municipality in view of the increasing industrial activities going on in the city and heavy reliance on well water for domestic purposes and the widespread use of consumer products containing fluoride. PMID:23022857
Mohammad Nejad, Esmaeil; Begjani, Jamaloddin; Abotalebi, Ghasem; Salari, Amir; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh
Patients' rights observance is one of the effective measures of patients' satisfaction of health care services. We performed this study at the aim of evaluation of nurses' awareness of patients' rights in a teaching hospital in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010. In this study 156 nurses were randomly selected. Two-part questionnaire was used for data collection. The validity and reliability of questionnaire was determined and then it was distributed between subjects. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 using descriptive and inferential statistics. Our results showed that %58.33, %39.10 and % 2.56 of nurses have good, medium, and poor levels of awareness respectively. We observed a significant relationship between nurses awareness and work experience (P=0.008) and concurrent work in public and private hospitals (P=0.01). The most of the nurses (%95.51) were aware of "right to privacy protection and ensure confidentiality of information" and the least of them (%33.97) were aware of "right to receiving necessary information about the health care providers, the rate of tariff and insurance coverage". According to our survey it is concluded that implementation of Patients' Right Charter in this hospital is accompanied by some limitations which necessitates promotion of the nurses' awareness about patients' rights. Taken together in order to enhance nurses' awareness special measures and strategies should be considered. PMID:23908744
M Chinawa, Josephat; T Chinawa, Awoere
Objective: Primary health care (PHC) is a vital in any community. Any health centre with a well implemented PHC program can stand the test of time in curbing under five mortality and morbidity. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the activities in a health centre located in a rural area in Enugu state and to determine the pattern and presentation of various diseases in the health centre. Methods: This is retrospective study undertaken in a primary health care centre in Abakpa Nike in Enugu east LGA of Enugu State of Nigeria from December 2011 to December 31st 2013. Data retrieved were collected with the aid of a structured study proforma and analyzed using SPSS Version 18. Results: Total number of children that attended immunization program in the health centre over 20 months period was 25,438 (12,348 males and 13090 females), however only 17745 children (7998 males and 9747 females) were actually registered in the hospital records. None of the children was immunized for DPT2 and OPV0 and HBV1 in the course of this study. The dropout rate using DPT1, 2 and 3 (DPT1-DPT2/DPT3) was very high (494%). The mean immunization coverage rate was 8.3%. Family planning activities, integrated management of childhood illnesses program were also carried out in the health centre but at very low level. Conclusions: The major fulcrum of events in the health centre which include immunization coverage, IMCI, and management of common illnesses were simply non operational. However the health centre had a well knitted referral system. PMID:25878615
Davis, Christopher K; Smith, Harry
Academic teaching hospitals and their networks can best serve patients and other stakeholders by achieving critical mass and scope of clinical services, teaching and research. Successful hospital reconfigurations are associated with a convincing case and majority clinician buy-in. The inscrutable political decision to relocate services away from a major teaching hospital campus and into a merged Queensland Children's Hospital was determined without broad stakeholder consultation or a transparent and accountable business case. This compromised process poses a significant and enduring risk to patient care and Queensland's paediatric, perinatal, adolescent and obstetric academic teaching hospital services. As the proposed major stakeholder in Australia's public hospitals and medical workforce training, the federal government should review this decision using an effective methodology incorporating relevant criteria. National guidelines are needed to ensure best practice in the future planning and auditing of major health care projects. The medical profession is responsible for ensuring that health care policy complies with reliable evidence and good practice. PMID:20712545
Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Doosty, Farzaneh
In a world of continuously changing business environments, organizations have no option; however, to deal with such a big level of transformation in order to adjust the consequential demands. Therefore, many companies need to continually improve and review their processes to maintain their competitive advantages in an uncertain environment. Meeting these challenges requires implementing the most efficient possible business processes, geared to the needs of the industry and market segments that the organization serves globally. In the last 10 years, total quality management, business process reengineering, and business process management (BPM) have been some of the management tools applied by organizations to increase business competiveness. This paper is an original article that presents implementation of “BPM” approach in the healthcare domain that allows an organization to improve and review its critical business processes. This project was performed in “Qaem Teaching Hospital” in Mashhad city, Iran and consists of four distinct steps; (1) identify business processes, (2) document the process, (3) analyze and measure the process, and (4) improve the process. Implementing BPM in Qaem Teaching Hospital changed the nature of management by allowing the organization to avoid the complexity of disparate, soloed systems. BPM instead enabled the organization to focus on business processes at a higher level. PMID:25540784
Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H; Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Doosty, Farzaneh
In a world of continuously changing business environments, organizations have no option; however, to deal with such a big level of transformation in order to adjust the consequential demands. Therefore, many companies need to continually improve and review their processes to maintain their competitive advantages in an uncertain environment. Meeting these challenges requires implementing the most efficient possible business processes, geared to the needs of the industry and market segments that the organization serves globally. In the last 10 years, total quality management, business process reengineering, and business process management (BPM) have been some of the management tools applied by organizations to increase business competiveness. This paper is an original article that presents implementation of "BPM" approach in the healthcare domain that allows an organization to improve and review its critical business processes. This project was performed in "Qaem Teaching Hospital" in Mashhad city, Iran and consists of four distinct steps; (1) identify business processes, (2) document the process, (3) analyze and measure the process, and (4) improve the process. Implementing BPM in Qaem Teaching Hospital changed the nature of management by allowing the organization to avoid the complexity of disparate, soloed systems. BPM instead enabled the organization to focus on business processes at a higher level. PMID:25540784
Kyalo Mutisya, Albanus; KagureKarani, Anna; Kigondu, Christine
Introduction: In the era of evidence based practice (EBP), health care delivery should be grounded on new or validated knowledge and evidence from research. The aim of the study was to assess research utilization by nurses and the influencing factors at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the largest teaching hospital in Kenya. Methods: The study employed a descriptive design that utilized both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. It incorporated the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale. It was conducted in six specialized care areas at KNH. Data was collected using questionnaires, Focus Group Discussion and in-depth interviews. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13 and qualitative data analyzed using themes. Results: The study found that 20.6% of the nurses were participating in research related to their work and 53.6% of these were implementing research findings to practice. Over 2/3 (70.5%) of the respondents were basing their evidence for practice on the knowledge gained during their nursing school. The three greatest barriers to research utilization were that research reports are not readily available (68.7%), unclear implications for practice (66.5%) and inadequate facilities for implementation (66.4%). Conclusion: It is recommended that sensitization trainings on nursing research/ utilization of findings in nursing practice be established to create awareness, motivate and enhance nurses' abilities and also facilities should be provided to enable implementation.
Raehl, Cynthia; Bond, C. A.
Analyzed databases from four U.S. National Clinical Pharmacy Services Studies and the American Hospital Association for trends in hospital involvement in pharmacy education. Detailed findings indicated that clinical pharmacy services within the nation's teaching hospitals are not standardized and that financial pressures impede a full, consistent…
Kuhn, E M; Hartz, A J; Krakauer, H; Bailey, R C; Rimm, A A
Hospital characteristics have been shown previously to be associated with variations in the probability of death within 30 days of admission. In the current study, the authors extend the examination of the relationship between hospital type to both short-term and long-term adjusted mortality. Observed and predicted 1988 hospital mortality rates were obtained from the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). A total of 3,782 acute care hospitals were divided into six mutually exclusive groups on the basis of their status as osteopathic, private for-profit, public teaching, public nonteaching, private teaching, and private nonteaching hospitals. After adjusting for the HCFA predicted mortality, Medicaid admissions, and emergency visits, 30-day and 30-to-180-day patient mortality rates were compared for these hospital types. Separate comparisons also were performed after stratifying hospitals into three groups defined by community size. The risk-adjusted 30-day mortality per 1,000 patients was 91.5, ranging from 85.4 for private teaching hospitals to 95.3 for nonteaching public hospitals, and 97.4 for osteopathic hospitals. The adjusted 30-to-180-day mortality was 84.7, ranging from 82.6 for nonteaching public hospitals to 87.4 and 88.2, respectively for public teaching and osteopathic hospitals. Differences among hospital types were minimal for small communities and increased with community size. In the large communities, the types of hospitals with high 30-day mortality also had higher mortality after 30 days. There was a strong association of hospital type with adjusted 30-day mortality, which should depend on the quality of hospital care, and a much weaker association with post-30-day mortality, which may be more dependent on patient risk. There was no evidence that types of hospitals with low 30-day mortality were postponing rather than preventing mortality. PMID:7967851
Vazin, Afsaneh; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Ghalesoltani, Setareh
To evaluate pattern of using of three antifungal drugs: fluconazole, amphotericin B and voriconazole, at the hematology–oncology and bone marrow transplant wards of one large teaching hospital. In a prospective cross-sectional study, we evaluated the appropriateness of using antifungal drugs in patients, using Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. All the data were recorded daily by a pharmacist in a form designed by a clinical pharmacist and infectious diseases specialist, for antifungals usage, administration, and monitoring. During the study, 116 patients were enrolled. Indications of prescribing amphotericin B, fluconazole, and voriconazole were appropriate according to guidelines in 83.4%, 80.6%, and 76.9% respectively. The duration of treatments were appropriate according to guidelines in 75%, 64.5%, and 71.1% respectively. The dose of voriconazole was appropriate according to guidelines in 46.2% of patients. None of the patients received salt loading before administration of amphotericin B. The most considerable problems with the mentioned antifungals were about the indications and duration of treatment. In addition, prehydration for amphotericin B and dosage of voriconazole were not completely compatible with the mentioned guidelines. A suitable combination of controlling the use of antifungals and educational programs could be essential for improving the general process of using antifungal drugs at our hospital.
Bhanganada, K; Wilde, H; Sakolsataydorn, P; Oonsombat, P
Thailand has a large domestic and stray dog population and Buddhist cultural beliefs encourage feeding and protection of stray animals. Dog bites are common injuries encountered in emergency rooms throughout the country. A prospective study of such bites seen at a teaching hospital in Bangkok revealed that: (1) dog bites represent 5.3% of injuries seen in the emergency room; (2) the majority occur on the street, are inflicated by stray dogs and are interpreted by the victim as unprovoked. Children and teenagers account for 55% of the victims. The lower extremities (54%) and upper extremities (20%) were the most common sites for bites. 9% of patients were bitten on the face or head. In addition to pain, risk of infection (approximately 13%) and the significant cost of caring for these injuries, victims often experienced prolonged anxiety because of to the generally known risk of rabies in Thailand. Due to the high cost of imported immune globulins and vaccines, rabies exposures are not always managed optimally in Asia. PMID:8147281
Stephens, Graeme L.
Assistant Professor, Veterinary Ophthalmology Department of Clinical Sciences, James L. Voss Veterinary Teaching Hospital College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences Colorado State University. Qualifications DVM or equivalent veterinary professional degree. Diplomate status in the ACVO or completion
Sinnamon, Gordon J.
to Canadian citizens and permanent residents of Canada only. DENTAL GENERAL PRACTICE RESIDENCY I hereby apply for a General Practice Residents. (Residents rotate through the two major teaching hospitals (three sites) PRE
Stephens, Graeme L.
Burt with Sheba. Sheba is a rattlesnake bite survivor. Read her story on Page 10. 3 Volunteers foal syndrome 10 Rattlesnake bite! 15 Companion Care Fund 16 Night at the VTH 18 Dairy Ambulatory with the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Her grey- hound dog was a donor to the hospital's blood bank. "For me
Mehdi Farsi; Massimo Filippini
This paper explores the cost structure of Swiss hospitals, focusing on differences due to teaching activities and those related to ownership and subsidization types. A stochastic total cost frontier with a Cobb-Douglas functional form has been estimated for a panel of 148 general hospitals over the six-year period from 1998 to 2003. Inpatient cases adjusted by DRG cost weights and
PATRICE FRANCOIS; JEAN-CLAUDE PEYRIN; MURIEL TOUBOUL; THOMAS REVERDY; DOMINIQUE VINCK
Objectives. This study evaluated a strategy for implementing continuous quality improvement based on a decentralized quality management system in the clinical departments of a hospital. Setting. The institution is a 2000-bed teaching hospital of tertiary health care employing 8000 people. Methods. The quality management intervention was tested in six volunteer departments. This intervention comprised an instructional seminar, methodological assistance, and
Manisha Agarwal; Abhishek Sharma
The present study examined the effects of certain hospital workplace factors on job involvement among healthcare employees\\u000a at the paramedical levels and quality of patient care in public hospitals in North India. The sample consisted of paramedical\\u000a healthcare employees (N?=?200), from a medical college affiliated teaching hospital and public hospitals (non-teaching) run by the railway services.\\u000a Data were analyzed statistically
Custer, W S; Willke, R J
This article examines the effect of medical staff behavior on the cost of hospital-based care and graduate medical education, and shows its implications for estimation of hospital costs. The empirical work brings a unique new data source for these characteristics to the estimation process. Our results indicate that there are important economies of scale and scope in hospital production, both for inpatient stays and for residency training. Controlling for medical staff characteristics significantly reduces the estimated costs of residency training. Staff characteristics may be capturing aspects of the quality of inpatient care and residency training provided by the hospital. PMID:1991676
Eze, Boniface Ikenna; Chuka-Okosa, Chimdi Memnofu; Uche, Judith Nkechi
Background This study set out to determine the incidence, socio-demographic, and clinical correlates of Traditional Eye Medicine (TEM) use in a population of newly presenting ophthalmic outpatients attending a tertiary eye care centre in south-eastern Nigeria. Methods In a comparative cross-sectional survey at the eye clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, between August 2004 - July 2006, all newly presenting ophthalmic outpatients were recruited. Participants' socio-demographic and clinical data and profile of TEM use were obtained from history and examination of each participant and entered into a pretested questionnaire and proforma. Participants were subsequently categorized into TEM- users and non-users; intra-group analysis yielded proportions, frequencies, and percentages while chi-square test was used for inter-group comparisons at P = 0.01, df = 1. Results Of the 2,542 (males, 48.1%; females, 51.9%) participants, 149 (5.9%) (males, 45%; females, 55%) used TEM for their current eye disease. The TEMs used were chemical substances (57.7%), plant products (37.7%), and animal products (4.7%). They were more often prescribed by non-traditional (66.4%) than traditional (36.9%) medicine practitioners. TEMs were used on account of vision loss (58.5%), ocular itching (25.4%) and eye discharge (3.8%). Reported efficacy from previous users (67.1%) and belief in potency (28.2%) were the main reasons for using TEM. Civil servants (20.1%), farmers (17.7%), and traders (14.1%) were the leading users of TEM. TEM use was significantly associated with younger age (p < 0.01), being married (p < 0.01), rural residence (p < 0.01), ocular anterior segment disease (p < 0.01), delayed presentation (p < 0.01), low presenting visual acuity (p < 0.01), and co-morbid chronic medical disease (p < 0.01), but not with gender (p = 0.157), and educational status (p = 0.115). Conclusion The incidence of TEM use among new ophthalmic outpatients at UNTH is low. The reasons for TEM use are amenable to positive change through enhanced delivery of promotive, preventive, and curative public eye care services. This has implications for eye care planners and implementers. To reverse the trend, we suggest strengthening of eye care programmes, even distribution of eye care resources, active collaboration with orthodox eye care providers and traditional medical practitioners, and intensification of research efforts into the pharmacology of TEMs. PMID:19852826
Andargachew Mulu; Afework Kassu; Belay Tessema; Gizachew Yismaw; Moges Tiruneh; Feleke Moges; Yared Wondmikun; Takeshi Nishikawa; Fusao Ota
SUMMARY: Ethiopia is one of the countries in which sexually transmitted infections are highly prevalent. However, the data needed to present a realistic picture of the infections are lacking. This study was therefore designed to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis and HIV-1 among pregnant women at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. A prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted between
Kyser, Kathy L.; Lu, Xin; Santillan, Donna; Santillan, Mark; Caughey, Aaron B.; Wilson, Mark C.; Cram, Peter
Purpose The decline in the use of forceps in operative deliveries over the last two decades raises questions about teaching hospitals' ability to provide trainees with adequate experience in the use of forceps. The authors examined: (1) the number of operative deliveries performed in teaching and nonteaching hospitals, and (2) whether teaching hospitals performed a sufficient number of forceps deliveries for physicians to acquire and maintain competence. Method The authors used State Inpatient Data from nine states to identify all women hospitalized for childbirth in 2008. They divided hospitals into three categories: major teaching, minor teaching, and nonteaching. They calculated delivery volumes (total operative, cesarean, vacuum, forceps, two or more methods) for each hospital and compared data across hospital categories. Results The sample included 1,344,305 childbirths in 835 hospitals. The mean cesarean volumes for major teaching, minor teaching, and nonteaching hospitals were 969.8, 757.8, and 406.9. The mean vacuum volumes were 301.0, 304.2, and 190.4, and the mean forceps volumes were 25.2, 15.3, and 8.9. In 2008, 31 hospitals (3.7% of all hospitals) performed no vacuum extractions, and 320 (38.3%) performed no forceps deliveries. In 2008, 13 (23%) major teaching and 44 (44%) minor teaching hospitals performed five or fewer forceps deliveries. Conclusions Low forceps delivery volumes may preclude many trainees from acquiring adequate experience and proficiency. These findings highlighted broader challenges, faced by many specialties, in ensuring that trainees and practicing physicians acquire and maintain competence in infrequently performed, highly technical procedures. PMID:24280847
Palmer, G; Aisbett, C; Fetter, R; Winchester, L; Reid, B; Rigby, E
The results are reported of a first round of costing by DRG in seven major teaching hospital sites in Sydney using the Yale cost model. These results, when compared between the hospitals and with values of relative costs by DRG from the United States, indicate that the cost modelling procedure has produced credible and potentially useful estimates of casemix costs. The rationale and underlying theory of cost modelling is explained, and the need for further work to improve the method of allocating costs to DRGs, and to improve the cost centre definitions currently used by the hospitals, is emphasised. PMID:10117339
Paradoxically some "extreme" didactic needs, such as those of students who are unable to attend normal education regularly (e.g., hospitalized and/or homebound students), have shown themselves to be ideal for the development of a teaching style aimed at stimulating the active role of the student, at fostering a learning process based…
Waqqas Afif; Panhavat Huor; Paul Brassard; Vivian G. Loo
Background: Nosocomial transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) occurs primarily through the contaminated hands of health care workers who do not follow appropriate precautionary measures. This study investigates various factors associated with compliance with MRSA precautions during routine patient care. Methods: This observational study took place at a teaching hospital in Montreal, Canada. Nurses (184), physicians (41), occupational therapists and
The purpose of this study was to compare Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis isolates obtained from patients or the environment of a veterinary teaching hospital over a period of nine years following a nosocomial outbreak to determine whether isolates were epidemiologically related or represented ...
D. O. Duerink; H. Farida; N. J. D. Nagelkerke; H. Wahyono; M. Keuter; E. S. Lestari; U. Hadi; P. J. J. A. van den Broek
Standard precautions can prevent transmission of micro-organisms. This study investigated hand hygiene, handling of needles and use of personal protective equipment in an Indonesian teaching hospital, and performed a multi-faceted intervention study to improve compliance. An intervention was performed in an internal medicine ward and a paediatric ward, consisting of development of a protocol for standard precautions, installation of washstands,
Roseline I Ogbimi; Clement A Adebamowo
BACKGROUND: Smooth working relationships between nurses and doctors are necessary for efficient health care delivery. However, previous studies have shown that this is often absent with negative impact on the quality of health care delivery. In 2002, we studied factors that affect nurse-doctor working relationships in University Teaching Hospitals (UTH) in Southern Nigeria in order to characterize it and identify
D Ifenne; E Essien; N Golji; K Sabitu; M Alti-Mu'azu; A Musa; V Adidu; M Mukaddas
Preliminary studies: Research at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria, Nigeria, showed delay in treating women with obstetric complications and highlighted multiple contributing factors. Interventions: In response, a surgical theater was restored to working order, the maternity ward renovated, resident physicians trained in obstetrics and an emergency drug pack system instituted. A system of blood donation from families of
Okoye, Augustine Ejike; Ibegbulam, Obike Godswill; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Ugwu, Ngozi Immaculata; Anigbo, Chukwudi Simon; Nonyelu, Charles Emeka
Background Human T-cell lymphotrophic/leukemia virus (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus implicated in transfusion-transmitted infection. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies among blood donors at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Eastern Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on consented participants over 4 months. A total of 300 blood donors were recruited consecutively from the blood bank. The serum of the collected 5 mL of blood obtained from each participant was stored at ?20°C until required for analysis. The serum samples were then analyzed for antibodies to HTLV-1 using a one-step incubation double-antigen sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit. Participants’ demographic characteristics and degree of exposure to the risk factors associated with HTLV-1 infection were captured using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis of results was done using SPSS version 17. Results Of the 300 blood donors, 288 (96%) were male, while 12 (4%) were female. The average age of the blood donors was 26.85±8.52 years. The age group with the highest representation among the blood donors were those aged between 21 and 25 years. Only 22.3% of the blood donors were above 30 years. None of the 300 screened blood donors tested positive to HTLV-1 antibodies. Hence, the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 infection among blood donors was 0%. Of the blood donors, 5% had history of previous sexually transmitted disease, while 34.7% used condoms during sexual intercourse. Conclusion The seroprevalence obtained in this study cannot statistically support the justification of routine screening of blood donors for HTLV-1 infection. More prospective and multicentered studies are required to determine the infectivity of HTLV-1 in blood donors in Nigeria. PMID:25632240
Van Peenen, Hubert J.
This paper documents, using a single test as a model, the significant increase in clinical laboratory workload which occurred in a university hospital when strong sections of nephrology, hematology-oncology, and immunology-rheumatology were added to the department of medicine. (Author)
Youssef, Adel; Alharthi, Hana
Hospital management and researchers are increasingly using electronic databases to study utilization, effectiveness, and outcomes of healthcare provision. Although several studies have examined the accuracy of electronic databases developed for general administrative purposes, few studies have examined electronic databases created to document the care provided by individual hospitals. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of an electronic database in a major teaching hospital in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, in documenting the 17 comorbidities constituting the Charlson index as recorded in paper charts by care providers. Using the hospital electronic database, the researchers randomly selected the data for 1,019 patients admitted to the hospital and compared the data for accuracy with the corresponding paper charts. Compared with the paper charts, the hospital electronic database did not differ significantly in prevalence for 9 conditions but differed from the paper charts for 8 conditions. The kappa (K) values of agreement ranged from a high of 0.91 to a low of 0.09. Of the 17 comorbidities, the electronic database had substantial or excellent agreement for 10 comorbidities relative to paper chart data, and only one showed poor agreement. Sensitivity ranged from a high of 100.0 percent to a low of 6.0 percent. Specificity for all comorbidities was greater than 93 percent. The results suggest that the hospital electronic database reasonably agrees with patient chart data and can have a role in healthcare planning and research. The analysis conducted in this study could be performed in individual institutions to assess the accuracy of an electronic database before deciding on its utility in planning or research. PMID:23861671
Idrees, Z; Dooley, I; Fahy, G
Strabismus may result in impaired stereopsis, diplopia, undesirable appearance, amblyopia and negative psychological impact. This study provides epidemiological and surgical outcome information about patients attending University College Hospital Galway requiring strabismus surgery. We report a retrospective analysis of 75 consecutive patients, who underwent horizontal strabismus surgery. Sixty-one (81.3%) patients had clinically significant refractive errors, hyperopia being the most common. Thirty-four (45.3%) patients had amblyopia and nine (12%) required further treatment. A cosmetically acceptable result with a post-operative ocular deviation within 25 prism dioptres of straight (grade 2) was achieved in 70/75 (93.3%) of patients. The overall mean change in ocular deviation per mm of muscle operated was 3.25 prism dioptre/mm. The outcomes of strabismus surgery in an Irish hospital compare very favourably with other jurisdictions. This data will help plan service delivery. PMID:24988834
Little, Mark A; Hussein, Tanya; Lambert, Mark; Dickson, Stuart J
Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens remains an important and largely preventable issue in hospital practice. This article argues that formal training can increase use of best practice phlebotomy. A survey of at-risk healthcare workers at a central London hospital was conducted to identify factors associated with use of an evacuated blood collection system (BD Vacutainer and gloves while taking blood. Eighty per cent of doctors and 37% of non-doctors performing percutaneous venepuncture did not use the Vacutainer system exclusively. Doctors qualified less than three years were particularly likely to prefer needle and syringe. Venepuncture technique training significantly increased the probability of always using the Vacutainer system from 7% to 46%. The only factor independently associated with glove use was operator experience. There is considerable room for improvement in phlebotomy technique, particularly among junior doctors. The Modernising Medical Careers initiative provides a unique opportunity to implement this. PMID:17633944
Goudarzi, Reza; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Askari, Roohollah; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Moghri, Javad
Background: Hospitals are highly resource-dependent settings, which spend a large proportion of healthcare financial resources. The analysis of hospital efficiency can provide insight into how scarce resources are used to create health values. This study examines the Technical Efficiency (TE) of 12 teaching hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) between 1999 and 2011. Methods: The Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) method was applied to estimate the efficiency of TUMS hospitals. A best function, referred to as output and input parameters, was calculated for the hospitals. Number of medical doctors, nurses, and other personnel, active beds, and outpatient admissions were considered as the input variables and number of inpatient admissions as an output variable. Results: The mean level of TE was 59% (ranging from 22 to 81%). During the study period the efficiency increased from 61 to 71%. Outpatient admission, other personnel and medical doctors significantly and positively affected the production (P< 0.05). Concerning the Constant Return to Scale (CRS), an optimal production scale was found, implying that the productions of the hospitals were approximately constant. Conclusion: Findings of this study show a remarkable waste of resources in the TUMS hospital during the decade considered. This warrants policy-makers and top management in TUMS to consider steps to improve the financial management of the university hospitals. PMID:25114947
Esposito, Silvano; Pascale, Renato; Esposito, Isabella; Noviello, Silvana; Russo, Enrico; Simone, Giuseppe De; Vitolo, Matilde; Rega, Maria Rosaria; Massari, Angelo
We focused our attention on susceptibility profile of Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Klebsiella spp. isolated from biological specimens at the University Hospital of Salerno between June 2011 and October 2012. Acinetobacter, with a prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii (97%) presented a high range of resistance to the antimicrobials considered, excluding colistin (COL). Klebsiella spp. isolates, with a prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae (90%), presented a variable pattern of resistance [from 9·8% for COL to 50% for levofloxacin (LEV)]. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases production was detected in 15% of isolates. Most Pseudomonas isolates were P. aeruginosa with a high rate of resistance (95% to amoxicillin/clavulanate and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and <50% to the other antibiotics). Colistin remained the most effective drug tested. This study provided useful information of the local bacterial epidemiology hopefully permitting to establish a more effective empirical therapy, preventing the inappropriate use of antibacterial agents and possibly limiting the diffusion of antibacterial resistance. PMID:24625286
Toms Augustin; Siddharth Bhende; Keyur Chavda; Thomas VanderMeer; Burt Cagir
Introduction Studies examining the relationship between computed tomography (CT) scans and appendiceal perforation have largely been conducted\\u000a in urban centers. The present study sought to evaluate this relationship in a rural hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Procedures This is a retrospective analysis of 445 patients who underwent appendectomies from January 2000 to June 2005 at a rural teaching\\u000a hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Four hundred forty-five patients were
Murphy, I; Lavelle, L; Ni Mhurchu, E; McCarthy, R; Heffernan, E
There has been an increase in gun-related crime in Ireland over the last decade to gangland violence, especially in west Dublin. This places a burden on hospital services not previously encountered. The aim of this study was to examine the demographics of gunshot: injuries presenting to a Dublin teaching hospital, and the impact on radiology over a ten year period. A total of 65 gunshot injuries were seen. Mortality for high velocity wounds was much higher (10/23, 43%) than for low-velocity shotgun injuries (2/34, 6%). PMID:25282967
Akinde, Olakanmi Ralph; Phillips, Adekoyejo Abiodun; Oguntunde, Olubanji Ajibola; Afolayan, Olatunji Michael
Background. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and about 70% of all cancer deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries. The cancer mortality pattern is quite different in Africa compared to other parts of the world. Extensive literature research showed little or no information about the overall deaths attributable to cancer in Nigeria. Aims and Objectives. This study aims at providing data on the patterns of cancer deaths in our center using the hospital and autopsy death registers. Methodology. Demographic, clinical data of patients who died of cancer were extracted from death registers in the wards and mortuary over a period of 14 years (2000–2013). Results. A total of 1436 (4.74%) cancer deaths out of 30287 deaths recorded during the period. The male to female ratio was 1?:?2.2 and the peak age of death was between 51 and 60 years. Overall, breast cancer was responsible for most of the deaths. Conclusion. The study shows that the cancers that accounted for majority of death occurred in organs that were accessible to screening procedures and not necessary for survival. We advise regular screening for precancerous lesions in these organs so as to reduce the mortality rate and burden of cancer. PMID:25628656
B. A. Issa; A. D. Yussuf; G. T. Olanrewaju; A. O. Oyewole
Summary Medical education is a stressful endeavor and has been reported to be a cause of burnout, anxiety, depression and other psycho-social problems among resident doctors. This descriptive cross-sectional study described the stress of residency training as perceived by resident doctors at a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital using a structured questionnaire. Seventy-three of the 98 residents who met the inclusion
Keegan, C J
An action research project commenced the process of introducing a clinical budgeting system into the clinical areas in a large public teaching hospital. Focused interviews were used as the initial activity aimed at involving Heads in using the system. The process underlined a number of issues which need to be managed in this type of process and pointed to a number of factors which should be present to assist its introduction. PMID:10109116
Retchin, Sheldon M.; Blish, Christine S.
A computer generated report (Practice Profile) summarizing epidemiologic, demographic and utilization data from a general internal medicine practice, was developed and implemented in a teaching hospital setting. Using a computerized medical record system, the Profile displays individual and group practice data. It is used for enhancing the physicians' understanding of their ambulatory practices and for raising important quality assurance issues. The Practice Profile is also used for improving educational activities in the residency program and for stimulating research opportunities within the practice.
Ujunwa, FA; Ezeonu, CT
Background: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) constitute the major causes of mortality and morbidity among under-five children of the developing world. The prevalence of ARIs is determined individually or collectively by a number of factors which may be prevalent in our environment. Aim: The present study is aimed to determine the risk factors that affect the prevalence of ARIs in under-five children in Enugu. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 436 under-five children diagnosed with ARI was carried out in three hospitals in Enugu. Participants were consecutively enrolled after being diagnosed as a case of ARI. Structured pro foma was used to collect sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric data and risk profile. Data were analyzed using Epi info version 6.0 and significant probability value was 5%. Results: A total of 436 patients were enrolled for the study 224 males and 212 females M: F 1.06:1. The mean age of the population was 18.75(13.38) months and there were 31.6%(138/436) cases of pneumonia 6.9%(30/436) cases of bronchiolitis and 61.5%(268/436) cases of acute upper respiratory tract infections. Children less than 20 months accounted for 60.9% (84/138 cases) of pneumonia, 86.7% (26/30 cases) of bronchiolitis, and 64.5% (173/268 cases) of acute upper respiratory tract infections. Pneumonia was noted in about 75.7% (56/74) of inadequately nourished children compared to 22.6% (82/362) in adequately nourished children. Other risk factors identified in the study include inadequate breast feeding, poor immunization statues, attendance to daycare centers, large family size, poor parental educational statues, parental smoking, living in the urban area and use of biofuels. Conclusion: ARIs are affected by socio-demographic and socio-cultural risk factors, which can be modified with simple strategies. It is recommended that control program for ARIs should be multifaceted with a strong political will. PMID:24669339
Jeroan J. Allison; Catarina I. Kiefe; Norman W. Weissman; Sharina D. Person; Matthew Rousculp; John G. Canto; Sejong Bae; O. Dale Williams; Robert Farmer; Robert M. Centor
CONTEXT: Issues of cost and quality are gaining importance in the delivery of medical care, and whether quality of care is better in teaching vs nonteaching hospitals is an essential question in this current national debate.\\u000aOBJECTIVE: To examine the association of hospital teaching status with quality of care and mortality for fee-for-service Medicare patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Rashidian, Arash; Torkamandi, Hassan; Alahyari, Sara; Hanafi, Somayaeh; Farsaei, Shadi; Javadi, Mohammadreza
Medication errors have important effects on increased length of hospitalization, increased mortality and costs. We assessed the incidence of medication errors and characterize the error types in an emergency department in a large teaching hospital in Tehran. We also investigated the effect of Emergency Department pharmacists on patient safety with regard to recovery of potentially harmful medication errors. The study was conducted in the 24 bed emergency department from February to March, 2010 at a 600-bed teaching hospital. Two hospital pharmacists and two clinical pharmacy residents observed care provision and collected data on medication errors. Demographic data, type of medication error, the recorded stage of error, date and time of occurrence and report, who made the error, probability of error were recorded from medical records. We used chi-squared and independent sample t- tests for analyzing the data. We recorded 203 medication errors during 180 hours. The incidence of medication errors was 50.5% at various levels in the emergency department. Significant difference in age means was seen between the patients with and without medication errors. Seventy four point nine percent of errors were recorded as definitely an error. Most recorded errors were made by nurses (44.5%) and occurred in administrating stage (63.6%). Given that the rate of the errors was relatively high, it seems that the presence of clinical pharmacist can be beneficial. PMID:24523775
Background and purpose Malnutrition is a common problem in patients who are hospitalized in surgical and medical wards. Surgical patients, geriatric populations and individuals with severe illness are more vulnerable to malnutrition during their hospitalization course. The purpose of this study was evaluation of parenteral nutrition services in a referral teaching hospital, Tehran, Iran. Method Medical records of 72 patients who received parenteral nutrition during one year period in different surgical and medical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were reviewed retrospectively by clinical pharmacists. Criteria for initiation of parenteral nutrition, selection of appropriate formulation and monitoring parameters were assessed based on the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition recommendations. Results Based on the patients' anthropometric parameters and serum albumin levels, 4.2%, 75% and 20.8% of the patients were well-nourished, moderately malnourished and severely malnourished respectively at the hospital admission and before nutritional support. Adequate calorie, protein, carbohydrate and lipid supports were achieved in 21.1%, 32.4%, 23.7% and 10.5% of the patients respectively. About 91% of the patients experienced at least one complication of the nutritional support. Conclusion In this evaluation, several errors in assessment, establishing goals, and monitoring of parenteral nutrition regimens have been detected. Approximately all of the patients did not receive to the trace elements supports goals. PMID:23351175
Akande, T M; Aderibigbe, S A
This descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital to examine the influence of drug promotion by drug companies on the prescription habits of doctors in the hospital. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information from 137 doctors selected across all the clinical and laboratory departments using proportionate sampling. Majority (89.0%) of the doctors had attended drug promotion forum and were exposed to 64 different branded drugs within 6 months to this study. Fifty percent of the doctors had prescribed promoted drugs for the first time within 6 months to this study and over two-thirds agreed that drug promotion materials served as incentives to prescribe promoted drugs in preference to their alternatives. More than two-thirds of the doctors did not prescribe in generic names, thus making them susceptible to prescribing promoted branded drugs. Drug promotion by drug companies influence prescription habits of doctors in this teaching hospital. This finding though beneficial to the drug companies may not necessarily be cost-effective and to the benefit of the patients. Further studies and attention on this issue in developing countries is necessary with the ultimate aim of protecting the interest of patients in the face of rising cost of pharmaceuticals. PMID:18390058
Spellberg, Brad; Lewis, Roger J.; Sue, Darryl; Chavoshan, Bahman; Vintch, Janine; Munekata, Mark; Kim, Caroline; Lanks, Charles; Witt, Mallory D.; Stringer, William; Harrington, Darrell
Background The optimal structure of an internal medicine ward team at a teaching hospital is unknown. We hypothesized that increasing the ratio of attendings to housestaff would result in an enhanced perceived educational experience for residents. Methods Harbor-UCLA Medical Center (HUMC) is a tertiary care, public hospital in Los Angeles County. Standard ward teams at HUMC, with a housestaff?attending ratio of 5?1, were split by adding one attending and then dividing the teams into two experimental teams containing ratios of 3?1 and 2?1. Web-based Likert satisfaction surveys were completed by housestaff and attending physicians on the experimental and control teams at the end of their rotations, and objective healthcare outcomes (e.g., length of stay, hospital readmission, mortality) were compared. Results Nine hundred and ninety patients were admitted to the standard control teams and 184 were admitted to the experimental teams (81 to the one-intern team and 103 to the two-intern team). Patients admitted to the experimental and control teams had similar age and disease severity. Residents and attending physicians consistently indicated that the quality of the educational experience, time spent teaching, time devoted to patient care, and quality of life were superior on the experimental teams. Objective healthcare outcomes did not differ between experimental and control teams. Conclusions Altering internal medicine ward team structure to reduce the ratio of housestaff to attending physicians improved the perceived educational experience without altering objective healthcare outcomes. PMID:22532860
Bruce, Suliasnaia P.; Acheampong, Franklin; Kretchy, Irene
Background: The burden of diabetes mellitus, especially Type-2, continues to increase across the world. Medication adherence is considered an integral component in its management. Poor glycemic controls due to medication nonadherence accelerates the development of long-term complications which consequently leads to increased hospitalization and mortality. Objective: This study examined the level of adherence to oral antidiabetic drugs among patients who visited the teaching hospital and explored the probable contributory factors to non-adherence. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study using systematic sampling to collect quantitative data was undertaken. Questionnaires were administered to outpatients of the medical department of a teaching hospital in Ghana. Logistic regression was performed with statistical significance determined at p<0.05. Results: A total of 200 diabetic patients participated in the study. Using the Morisky Medication Adherence scale, the level of adherence determined was 38.5%. There were significant correlations between level of adherence and educational level [(OR)=1.508; (CI 0.805-2.825), P=0.019), and mode of payment [(OR)=1.631; (CI 0.997-2.669), P=0.05). Conclusion: Adherence in diabetic patients was low among respondents and this can be improved through education, counseling and reinforcement of self-care. There were several possible factors that contributed to the low adherence rate which could benefit from further studies. PMID:25883693
"Common Occurrence of Ceftriaxone-Resistant, Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus at a Community Teaching Hospital" by Aaron J. Pickering, Rahman Hariri, Lee H. Harrison, Jane W. Marsh, Amatullah Tasneem, Henry Freedy, Laura Wilson, and Hector Bonilla. [Clin Infect Dis. (2014), doi:10.1093/cid/ciu149]. Due to an honest error in the interpretation of a key lab test by the study microbiologist, with approval of all authors cited above, the authors are retracting this article from Clinical Infectious Diseases. PMID:24633690
Liberto, Maria Carla; Matera, Giovanni; Puccio, Rossana; Lo Russo, Teresa; Colosimo, Elena; Focŕ, Emanuele
Pantoea agglomerans is an environmental organism which may seldom cause opportunistic infections. Here we report on a 6 case outbreak in a teaching hospital. Within three months . agglomerans was isolated from blood cultures of 5 patients from oncology and 1 patient from ICU departments. P. agglomerans was in pure culture in 5 cases, while in the last one Rahnella aquatilis and Candida famata were also isolated. Therefore, P. agglomerans is able to produce nosocomial infections in patients with primary pathology often associated with immune suppression. PMID:19382678
Zairi, M; Cooke, M; Whymark, J
Measuring organisational effectiveness in a health-care delivery context is quite a challenging task. Although there are numerous performance assessment models, audit tools and managerial diagnostic tools, they all, however, tend to fall short in their attempts to scrutinize how health-care organizations deploy their capabilities to deliver optimum quality in service provision and what performance levels they achieved as a result of their approach. The project reported here attempted to address these issues, reflecting the experience of Leeds Teaching Hospitals, one of a series of Trusts whose approach to organizational effectiveness was closely examined. PMID:10848174
Blish, Christi; Proctor, Rita; Fletcher, Suzanne W.; O'Malley, Michael
As part of a new automated ambulatory medical record, a computerized outpatient medication system was developed for a teaching hospital general medicine group practice. Seven months after its implementation, the system was evaluated to determine physician acceptance and approval. Practice physicians were surveyed, and 94% of the respondents approved of the system. Over 90% thought that the computerized system had improved the completeness and accuracy of medication information as well as their own efficiency in prescription writing. Eighteen percent thought it had influenced their prescribing patterns. These perceived improvements in medication information and the prescription process may mean that patient care has improved as a result of the new computerized system.
Background Hospitalization and surgery are critical negative life events that lead to the experience of considerable anxiety in patients. Patients may perceive the day of surgery as the biggest and the most threatening day in their lives. There is paucity of information on predictors of anxiety in the current study area. The main objective of this study is to assess predictors of preoperative anxiety among patients scheduled for surgery in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted using quantitative data collection technique in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital from February 13 to April 13, 2012 on 239 patients scheduled for surgery. The data were collected by five trained diploma nurses using structured interviewer administered questionnaires that were prepared based on state trait anxiety inventory measurement scale. The quantitative data were entered into SPSS for windows version 16. 0 and descriptive, simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Results A total of 239 patients were enrolled in the study with a response rate of 93.0%. Their mean age was 42.7?±?1.8 years (range 16 to 85 years). Nearly over half 53.6% were females, while 48.1% illiterate, 72.4% Oromo and 56.5% were Muslim followers. Significant preoperative anxiety was seen in 70.3% patients. The most common factors that lead to anxiety were fear of death 38.1% and fear of unknown origin 24.3% and the most common strategy mentioned by patient in reducing anxiety were talking to other patient 79.8% and religious belief. Conclusions In the present study, two third 70.3% of preoperative patients had anxiety. Factors which were positively correlated with anxiety were trait anxiety, single and divorced, time of operation and income. Factors which were shown to reduce anxiety were preoperative anxiety related information provision and afternoon operation. Health professionals working in the hospital should provide anxiety related information for patients. PMID:25189274
Ogbimi, Roseline I; Adebamowo, Clement A
Background Smooth working relationships between nurses and doctors are necessary for efficient health care delivery. However, previous studies have shown that this is often absent with negative impact on the quality of health care delivery. In 2002, we studied factors that affect nurse-doctor working relationships in University Teaching Hospitals (UTH) in Southern Nigeria in order to characterize it and identify managerial and training needs that might be used to improve it. Method Questionnaire survey of doctors and nurses working in four UTH in Southern Nigeria was done in 2002. The setting and subjects were selected by random sampling procedures. Information on factors in domains of work, union activities, personnel and hospital management were studied using closed and open-ended questionnaires. Results Nurse-doctor working relationships were statistically significantly affected by poor after-work social interaction, staff shortages, activist unionism, disregard for one's profession, and hospital management and government policies. In general, nurses had better opinion of doctors' work than doctors had about nurses' work. Conclusion Working relationships between doctors and nurses need to be improved through improved training and better working conditions, creation of better working environment, use of alternative methods of conflict resolution and balanced hospital management and government policies. This will improve the retention of staff, job satisfaction and efficiency of health care delivery in Nigeria. PMID:16504039
Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Abdehou, Sophia T.; Hassanzadeh, Jafar; Fallhzadeh, Fatemeh; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Malekmakan, Leila
Introduction: Causes of death are different and very important for policy makers in different regions. This study was designed to analyze the data for our in-patient children mortality. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study from March 2011 to March 2013, all patients from 2 months to 18 years who died in pediatric intensive care unit, emergency room or medical pediatric wards in the teaching hospitals were studied. Results: From a total of 18,915 admissions during a 2-year-period, 256 deaths occurred with a mean age of 4.3 ± 5 years and mortality 1.35%. An underlying disease was present in 70.7% of the patients and in 88.5% of them the leading causes of death were related to the underlying diseases. The most common underlying diseases were congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathy in 50 (27.6%). The four main causes of deaths were sepsis (14.8%), pneumonia (14.5%), congestive heart failure (9.8%), and hepatic encephalopathy (9.8%). Conclusion: We may conclude that after sepsis and pneumonia, congestive heart failure, and hepatic encephalopathy are the leading causes of death. Most patients who died had underlying diseases including malignancies, heart and liver diseases as the most common causes. PMID:26195856
Thompson, C. D.; Brekken, A. L.
Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe, life-threatening soft tissue infection that results in rapid and progressive destruction of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue. Because of its varied clinical presentation and bacteriological make-up, it has been labelled with many other names such as acute streptococcal gangrene, gangrenous erysipelas, necrotizing erysipelas, hospital gangrene, and acute dermal gangrene. Although described by Hippocrates and Galen, it has received increasing attention in obstetrical and gynecological literature only within the last 20 years. This review includes two recent cases successfully managed at Parkland Memorial Hospital, Dallas, Texas. The first patient was a 50 year old, morbidly obese, diabetic woman who presented with a small, painful lesion on the vulva. After failing triple antibiotic therapy with ampicillin, clindamycin, and gentamicin, the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis of the vulva was made, and she was taken to the operating room for extensive excision. She was discharged home on hospital day 29. The second patient was a 65 year old, obese, diabetic woman with risk factors for atherosclerosis who had a wound separation after an abdominal hysterectomy. Two days later a loss of resistance to probing was noted in the subcutaneous tissue. Necrotizing fasciitis was suspected, and she was taken to the operating room for resection. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 27. The mortality rate after diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis has been reported to be 30% to 60%. We review the literature and outline the guidelines used in a large Ob/Gyn teaching hospital to minimize the adverse outcome. Lectures on soft-tissue infections are included on a regular basis. The high-risk factors of age over 50, diabetes, and atherosclerosis are emphasized. The need for early diagnosis and surgical treatment within 48 hours is stressed, and any suspicious lesions or wound complications are reported to experienced senior house officers and staff. We use two recent cases to highlight the diagnostic clues and management strategies for this often fatal polymicrobial infection. PMID:18476200
Mantz, J M; Bastian, B
Ethics problems arise from conflict of values: a physician has to take charge of his patients, but advances of sciences and technics make such conflicts more and more frequent. Their solution cannot be left to a mere improvization. Medical ethics have to be taught. In Strasbourg, we have elected to teach compulsory medical ethics in the course of compulsory hospital training, for five mornings running, to groups of ten fifth-year medical students, the place being different each day. Fifteen departments including five specialties, internal medicine, intensive care, pediatrics, gynecology-obstetrics, geriatrics, are involved in this experience. The training takes place near the patient bed in the presence of a medical teacher. Communication and multi-disciplinarity are the characteristics. The teaching is done with the purpose of bringing about reflection in the students, of proposing methods for the discovering and the approach of ethics problems, of leading the students up to the enlightenment of their own scale of evaluation. A few previous lectures about history of ethics through different philosophical systems, about social, economical and cultural implications, are given for basic formation of the students. This teaching experience interests students and teachers greatly. The first ones have the opportunity to perceive a new dimension of medical responsibility, the second ones appreciate this form of recovered fellowship. PMID:1809494
Al-Haddabi, Rahma; Al-Bash, Majeda; Al-Mabaihsi, Nadia; Al-Maqbali, Najla; Al-Dhughaishi, Tamima; Abu-Heija, Adel
Objective To study the obstetrical and perinatal outcomes of teenage Omani girls with singleton pregnancies at a tertiary teaching hospital. Methods This is a retrospective case control study. We reviewed obstetric and perinatal outcomes of teenage nulliparous pregnant Omani girls with singleton pregnancies aged 14 to 19 years, delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2013. We compared their outcomes with outcomes of pregnant nulliparous Omani women with singleton pregnancies aged 20 to 25 years old delivered at the same hospital during the same period. Results When compared with pregnant women (n=307), teenage pregnant girls (n=307) were found to have higher proportion of preterm delivery <32 weeks (7% vs. 3%, p=0.040), preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes (PPROM) (19% vs. 11%, p=0.005) and anemia (58% vs. 44%, p=0.005). Cesarean section rate was higher in women than teenager girls (20% vs. 10%, p=0.001). Teenager girls had lighter babies (mean weight ± standard deviation 2,750±690 vs. 2,890±480, p=0.020), incidence of very low birth weight babies (<1,500g) was higher in teenagers (3.9% vs. 0.3%, p=0.003), but perinatal mortality rate was similar in the two groups. Conclusion Teenage pregnant Omani women are at increased risk of preterm delivery before 32 weeks gestation, PPROM, anemia, and delivering very low birth weight babies. PMID:25584155
Mishra, P.H.; Gupta, Shakti
Background The hospitals have evolved from being an isolated sanatorium to a place with five star facilities. Patients and their relatives coming to the hospital not only expect world-class treatment, but also other facilities to make their stay comfortable in the hospital. This change in expectation has come due to tremendous growth of media and its exposure, as well as commercialization and improvement in facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of patient/relatives satisfaction at tertiary care teaching hospital and feedback from them for improvement of the same. Methods The study was conducted by 1. Review of available national and international literature on the subject. 2. Carrying out survey amongst 50 patients and their relatives at one of the surgical unit by using structured questionnaire. 3. By analyzing the data using appropriate statistical methods. Results Eighty two percent people were satisfied with the service at admission counter while 81% were satisfied with room preparation at the time of admission. The nursing services satisfied 80% of people while 92% were satisfied with explanation about disease and treatment by doctor. The behavior of nurses, doctors and orderlies satisfied 92, 92 and 83% of people. The cleanliness of toilets satisfied only 49% while diet services satisfied 78% of people. Conclusion The five major satisfiers were behavior of doctors, explanation about disease and treatment, courtesy of staff at admission counter, behavior and cooperation of nurses. The five major dissatisfiers were cleanliness of toilets, quality of food, explanation about rules and regulation, behavior of orderlies and sanitary attendant and room preparedness. PMID:25983455
Bass, J B; Hawkins, E L
The speed and accuracy of diagnosis of tuberculosis on general medical teaching services were retrospectively compared to that on a designated publicly funded tuberculosis service and to recent discouraging reports in the literature. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients on the designated service and in 78.8% of patients not on the designated service within one week. No patient was discharged undiagnosed. Acid-fast smears done by the hospital laboratory showed a sensitivity of 82.5% and a specificity of 98.4%. Radiologic reports indicated the presence of tuberculosis or cavities in 85% of chest x-ray films in patients with pulmonary disease. These results may indicate that a publicly funded tuberculosis service, by providing emphasis on tuberculosis, allows more rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis in all patients. The impact of such training on future health care delivery should be recognized when decisions regarding allocation of public funds are made. PMID:6422562
Zhang, Xujun; Gu, Yue; Cui, Mengjing; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun
Needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs) are a major occupational injury to health care workers worldwide. This study aimed to report the prevalence and risk factors of NSIs among nurses working at a Chinese teaching hospital. From 463 nurses, 402 completed questionnaires were obtained. A total of 261 (64.9%) nurses reported needlestick or sharps injuries. NSIs were more common among females, young nurses, surgical nurses, and junior nurses. Logistic regression analysis suggests that age and work department were independent risk factors for NSIs. By type of devices, syringe needles accounted for the highest proportion of all NSIs (59%), followed by glass items (22%), and trocar core/catheter wires (4%). NSIs remain an important occupational hazard issue or Chinese nurses. Programs must be developed to prevent injuries caused by needlesticks and sharps. PMID:26031696
Position Summary: The Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) at Colorado State University (CSU) seeks to fill a senior level Veterinary Care Manager position. This position is an integral part of the VTH's degree in animal science/veterinary science, management, or related field or Associate degree with VTS
JENNIFER C. SEGUIN; ROBERT D. WALKER; JOHN P. CARON; WESLEY E. KLOOS; CAROL G. GEORGE; RICHARD J. HOLLIS; RONALD N. JONES; MICHAEL A. PFALLER
During a 13-month period, 11 equine patients visiting a veterinary teaching hospital for various diagnostic and surgical procedures developed postprocedural infections from which methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were isolated. The S. aureus isolates were identified by conventional methods that included Gram staining, tests for colonial morphology, tests for clumping factor, and tests for coagulase and urease activities and
Saghaeiannejad-Isfahani, Sakineh; Saeedbakhsh, Saeed; Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Habibi, Mahboobeh
Background: Quality is one of the most important criteria for the success of an information system, which refers to its desirable features of the processing system itself. The aim of this study was the analysis of system quality of hospital information systems (HIS) in teaching hospitals of Isfahan based on the DeLone and McLean model. Materials and Methods: This research was an applied and analytical-descriptive study. It was performed in teaching hospitals of Isfahan in 2010. The research population consisted of the HIS's users, system designers and hospital information technology (IT) authorities who were selected by random sampling method from users’ group (n = 228), and system designers and IT authorities (n = 52) using census method. The data collection tool was two researcher-designed questionnaires. Questionnaires’ reliability was estimated by using Cronbach's alpha was calculated. It was 97.1% for the system designers and IT authorities’ questionnaire and 92.3% for system users’ questionnaire. Results: Findings showed that the mean of system quality score in a variety of HIS and among different hospitals was significantly different and not the same (P value ? 0.05). In general, Kosar (new version) system and Rahavard Rayaneh system have dedicated the highest and the lowest mean scores to themselves. The system quality criterion overall mean was 59.6% for different HIS and 57.5% among different hospitals respectively. Conclusion: According to the results of the research, it can be stated that based on the applied model, the investigated systems were relatively desirable in terms of quality. Thus, in order to achieve a good optimal condition, it is necessary to pay particular attention to the improving factors of system quality, type of activity, type of specialty and hospital ownership type. PMID:25767816
Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.
Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…
Hyacinth Eze Onah; Lawrence C. Ikeako; Gabriel C. Iloabachie
The maternal mortality ratio and other maternal health indicators are worse for developing countries than for the developed world due to improved access to quality care during pregnancy and especially at delivery in the industrialized world. This study was carried out to identify the factors which influenced choice of place of delivery by pregnant women in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, and
As one of the 'new towns' of tropical Africa which arose as a result of contact with Europe, Enugu was intended primarily for white colonial officials, then, if need be, a few native (indigenous) labourers - colliers, railway men and domestic servants - whose services were 'absolutely essential'. However, due to the pressing need for labour to service the colliery
Introduction: Managing postoperative pain efficiently is one important therapeutic challenge in the hospitals. Combination use of analgesics is in vogue, where in drugs from the opioid and non-opioid group are given synergistically. The aim of this study is to audit the use of different analgesics on the first postoperative day. Effort has been made to look into the drug or drug combinations used and other factors associated with their use. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, cross sectional observational study was conducted over a period of 11 months in a tertiary care teaching hospital at Hyderabad with approval from institutional ethics committee. Medical records of 649 patients on the first postoperative day were analysed for analgesics by various indicators. Results: Average number of drugs per encounter was 4.23. Percentage of patients prescribed drugs from national essential drug list/WHO was 81.94%. Most common analgesic (monotherapy) prescribed was tramadol followed by diclofenac and the most common combination drugs prescribed were tramadol+Paracetamol. The most common route of administration was intravenous. All the drugs except piroxicam, were in the lower limit of the recommended daily dose. Conclusion: The present study gives an idea of the overall pattern of analgesic drug use in postoperative patients. The drug combinations used, the most common single use drug can be made out. The health professionals can be encouraged to prescribe by generic name and from the National List of Essential Medicines NLEMs.
Parvan, Kobra; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Seyedrasooly, Alehe; Dadkhah, Delavar; Jabarzadeh, Faranak
Introduction: Empathy is the ability to put one in the place of others and to better understand their feelings and experiences. According to researchers, there is a type of challenge in using this concept in nursing field. In most cases, the term empathy substitutes other concepts. Regarding this point, it seems quite necessary to research and discuss different dimensions of this concept in different studies. This study aimed to determine empathy regarding the nurses' point of view. Methods: In this descriptive study sample size was selected according to study population or in the other hand all the nurses in 3 general hospital was selected because they are the most important teaching hospital in Tabriz. LEP (La Monica Empathy Profile) was used as empathy tool. Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver. 13.0. Results: In nonverbal behavior dimension, touching the patient was considered as the most effective methods. On the other hand, nurses could not always be able to control stress and they could not always being with patients to show their empathy. Many people believe that nurses showed very little feelings while raggedly the reflective enclosure and they occasionally had to change their schedules to talk to patients. Conclusion: In most cases the nurses support nonverbal behavior, such as reflective, close and touching encountering in establishing relationship with the patient. However, to improve this situation, planning for nurses to become familiar with the ways through which they can express their interest to show empathy would be effective PMID:25276746
Al Momani, M; Al Korashy, H
Background: Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients’ expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011) from a convenience sample of 448 patients using a 42-items questionnaire assessing six dimensions of the nursing care provided to, during hospitalization. Results: On a four–point scale (4-higly agree,3-agree, 2-disagree, and 1-higly disagree). The individual items of nursing care showing the lowest means were the information received from the nurses about self-help (2.81), the information about the laboratory results (2.76) and the way the nurse shared the patient's feeling (2.72). A strong correlation existed between the overall perception level and the variables of gender (P=0.01), and the types of department (0.004). Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate negative experiences of patients with nursing care in dimensions of information, caring behavior, and nurse competency and technical care. Awareness of the importance of these dimensions of nursing care and ongoing support to investigate patients’ perception periodically toward quality of nursing care are critical to success the philosophy of patient centered health care. PMID:23113223
Nasirpour, Amir Ashkan; Gohari, Mahmoud Reza; Moradi, Saied
One of the main problems in the efficiency and efficacy of an organization is its structural issue. Organizational culture is also considered as an effective factor in the performance of many organizations. The main goal of the present study was to determine the relationship of Centralization and organizational culture and performance indexes in Teaching Hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This correlation study was performed in the year 2007. The population studied consisted of 4408 personnel from 13 hospitals among whom 441 subjects were selected and studied via a class sampling method. Data was compiled using a check list concerning the evaluation status of Centralization and another form concerning performance indexes as well as Robbin's organizational culture questionnaire. Data were obtained from the subjects by self answering and analyzed by using descriptive statistical indexes, T- test and Fisher's exact tests. Among the organizational culture indexes of the hospitals studied, control and organizational identity was better as compared to others (mean=3.32 and 3.30). Concerning the extent of Centralization in the hospitals studied, 53.85 % and 46.15 % were reported to have upper and lower organizational Centralization, respectively. Mean ratio of surgical operations to inpatients was 40%, the mean rate of admissions per active bed was 60.83, mean bed occupancy coefficient was 70.79%, average length of stay was 6.96 days, and mean net death rate was 1.41%. No significant correlation was seen between Centralization degree, organizational culture and performance indexes in teaching hospitals Tehran university of medical sciences. (with 95% confidence interval). Due to the fact that first grade Teaching hospitals use board certified members, expert personnel, and advanced equipments and because of the limitation of patients choice and, the extent of Centralization and many organizational culture components have no significant correlation with performance indexes of these hospitals. Further research regarding structure is suggested in the future. PMID:21287467
Doshmangir, Leila; Rashidian, Arash; Ravaghi, Hamid; Takian, Amirhossein; Jafari, Mehdi
Background: In 2004, the health system in Iran initiated an organizational reform aiming to increase the autonomy of teaching hospitals and make them more decentralized. The policy led to the formation of a board of trustees in each hospital and significant modifications in hospitals’ financing. Since the reform aimed to improve its predecessor policy (implementation of hospital autonomy began in 1995), it expected to increase user satisfaction, as well as enhance effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare services in targeted hospitals. However, such expectations were never realized. In this research, we explored the perceptions and views of expert stakeholders as to why the board of trustees’ policy did not achieve its perceived objectives. Methods: We conducted 47 semi-structured face-to-face interviews and two focus group discussions (involving 8 and 10 participants, respectively) with experts at high, middle, and low levels of Iran’s health system, using purposive and snowball sampling. We also collected a comprehensive set of relevant documents. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically, following a mixed inductive-deductive approach. Results: Three main themes emerged from the analysis. The implementation approach (including the processes, views about the policy and the links between the policy components), using research evidence about the policy (local and global), and policy context (health system structure, health insurers capacity, hospitals’ organization and capacity and actors’ interrelationships) affected the policy outcomes. Overall, the implementation of hospital decentralization policies in Iran did not seem to achieve their intended targets as a result of assumed failure to take full consideration of the above factors in policy implementation into account. Conclusion: The implementation of the board of trustees’ policy did not achieve its desired goals in teaching hospitals in Iran. Similar decentralization policies in the past and their outcomes were overlooked, while the context was not prepared appropriately and key stakeholders, particularly the government, did not support the decentralization of Iran’s health system. PMID:25844379
Sulaiman, Akanmu A.; Solomon, Bamiro B.; Chinedu, Obosi A.; Victor, Inem A.
An investigation was carried out during October 2005–September 2006 to determine the prevalence of bloodstream infections in patients attending the outpatient department of the HIV/AIDS clinic at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. Two hundred and one patients—86 males and 115 females—aged 14-65 years were recruited for the study. Serological diagnosis was carried out on them to confirm their HIV status. Their CD4 counts were done using the micromagnetic bead method. Twenty mL of venous blood sample collected from each patient was inoculated into a pair of Oxoid Signal blood culture bottles for 2-14 days. Thereafter, 0.1 mL of the sample was plated in duplicates on MacConkey, blood and chocolate agar media and incubated at 37 °C for 18-24 hours. The CD4+ counts were generally low as 67% of 140 patients sampled had <200 cells/?L of blood. Twenty-six bacterial isolates were obtained from the blood samples and comprised 15 (58%) coagulase-negative staphylococci as follows: Staphylococcus epidermidis (7), S. cohnii cohnii (1), S. cohnii urealyticum (2), S. chromogenes (1), S. warneri (2), S. scuri (1), and S. xylosus (1). Others were 6 (23%) Gram-negative non-typhoid Salmonella spp., S. Typhimurium (4), S. Enteritidis (2); Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Escherichia coli (1), Ochrobactrum anthropi (1), Moraxella sp. (1), and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that coagulase-negative staphylococci had good sensitivities to vancomycin and most other antibiotics screened but were resistant mainly to ampicilin and tetracycline. The Gram-negative organisms isolated also showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and septrin. This study demonstrates that co-agulase-negative staphylococci and non-typhoidal Salmonellae are the most common aetiological agents of bacteraemia among HIV-infected adults attending the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The organisms were resistant to older-generation antibiotics often prescribed in this environment but were sensitive to vancomycin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, and other new-generation antibiotics. PMID:20824974
Hariharan, Seetharaman; Pillai, Gopalakrishna; McIntosh, Denero; Bhanji, Zahra; Culmer, Lendeisha; Harper-McIntosh, Keista
This study aimed to evaluate the prescribing practices and utilization of antimicrobials in a tertiary care teaching hospital of a Caribbean developing country. A prospective observational cohort study was undertaken for a period of 12 weeks in the general wards and the intensive care unit (ICU) of the hospital. Demographic data, diagnoses on admission, antimicrobials prescribed, dosage and duration, route of administration, leukocyte count and microbiological culture and sensitivity reports were recorded. Hospital length of stay and final outcome were recorded. The usage was determined in terms of prescribed daily dose and the total costs of antimicrobials were calculated. Of 889 patients admitted, 335 (37.7%) received 22 different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, 67% of the prescriptions adhered to the hospital protocol. Median length of stay in the hospital was 7 days. Skin and soft tissue infections were the most common diagnoses for which antimicrobials were prescribed. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was the most common (32%) antimicrobial used. Eighty-nine percent of the antimicrobials were given through the intravenous route. Sixty percent of the patients received two antimicrobials, 26% received three, and 14% of patients were prescribed four or more antimicrobials during their stay at the hospital. There was significantly higher inappropriate choice of antimicrobials in ICU when compared with general wards (Mantel-Haenszel Odds Ratio 3.3; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.4, 7.7). Prescribing patterns did not strictly adhere to the hospital antimicrobial protocol. There is a need for monitoring and control of antimicrobial prescription. PMID:19656207
Johnson, Ofonime E
People living with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (PLWHA) face numerous social challenges. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of self-disclosure of status by PLWHA, to describe the level and patterns of stigma and discrimination, if any, experienced by the PLWHA and to assess the effect of sero-positivity on the attitude of friends, family members, health workers, colleagues and community. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among PLWHA attending the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Southern Nigeria. Information was obtained using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire, which was analysed using the Epi 6 software. A total of 331 respondents were interviewed. A majority, 256 (77.3%), of the respondents were within the age range of 25-44 years. A total of 121 (36.6%) PLWHA were single and 151 (46.6%) were married, while the rest were widowed, divorced or separated. A majority, 129 (85.4%), of the married respondents disclosed their status to their spouses and 65 (50.4%) were supportive. Apart from spouses, disclosure to mothers (39.9%) was highest. Most clients (57.7%) did not disclose their status to people outside their immediate families for fear of stigmatization. Up to 111 (80.4%) of the respondents working for others did not disclose their status to their employers. Among those whose status was known, discrimination was reported to be highest among friends (23.2%) and at the workplace (20.2%). Attitudes such as hostility (14.5%), withdrawal (11.7%) and neglect (6.8%) were reported from the private hospitals. Apart from disclosure to spouses, the level of disclosure to others was very low. Those whose status was known mainly received acceptance from their families but faced discriminatory attitudes such as hostility, neglect and withdrawal from friends, colleagues and hospital workers. There is a need for more enlightenment campaigns on HIV/AIDS by stakeholders to reduce stigma and discrimination and ensure adequate integration of PLWHA into the society. PMID:23237039
Bocanegra, Cristina; Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Pahissa, Albert; Molina, Israel
The objective of this study was to describe the screening for imported diseases among an immigrant population. This retrospective observational study was of all adult immigrants attended at the Tropical Medicine Unit of the Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital from September of 2007 to March of 2010. The screening strategy was adjusted by symptoms, country of origin, and length of residence in Europe. Overall, 927 patients were included. The median age was 34.5 years, and 42.1% of patients were male. A diagnosis was made in 419 (45.2%) patients. The most frequent diagnoses were Chagas disease, anemia, latent tuberculosis infection, intestinal parasitosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. After screening, more diseases were identified in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa (new diagnoses in 56.6% of patients) than patients from other geographic areas. The geographic origin and length of residence in a developed country determine the prevalence of diseases; hence, screening protocols must be based on this information. PMID:25331805
Bi, P; Tully, P J; Pearce, S; Hiller, J E
To examine work-related blood and body fluid exposure (BBFE) among health-care workers (HCWs), to explore potential risk factors and to provide policy suggestions, a 6-year retrospective study of all reported BBFE among HCWs (1998-2003) was conducted in a 430-bed teaching hospital in Australia. Results showed that BBFE reporting was consistent throughout the study period, with medical staff experiencing the highest rate of sharps injury (10.4%). Hollow-bore needles were implicated in 51.7% of all percutaneous injuries. Most incidents occurred during sharps use (40.4%) or after use but before disposal (27.1%). Nursing staff experienced 68.5% of reported mucocutaneous exposure. Many such exposures occurred in the absence of any protective attire (61.1%). This study indicated that emphasis on work practice, attire, disposal systems and education strategies, as well as the use of safety sharps should be employed to reduce work-related injuries among HCWs in Australia. PMID:16194290
Durando, Paolo; Alicino, Cristiano; Orsi, Andrea; Barberis, Ilaria; Paganino, Chiara; Dini, Guglielmo; Mazzarello, Giovanni; Del Bono, Valerio; Viscoli, Claudio; Copello, Francesco; Sossai, Dimitri; Orengo, Giovanni; Sticchi, Laura; Ansaldi, Filippo; Icardi, Giancarlo
The surveillance of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in both healthcare workers and healthcare students is considered fundamental for tuberculosis (TB) prevention. The aim of the present study was to estimate LTBI prevalence and evaluate potential risk-factors associated with this condition in a large cohort of medical students in Italy. In a cross-sectional study, performed between March and December 2012, 1511 eligible subjects attending the Medical School of the University of Genoa, trained at the IRCCS San Martino-IST Teaching Hospital of Genoa, were actively called to undergo the tuberculin skin test (TST). All the TST positive cases were confirmed with an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). A standardized questionnaire was collected for multivariate risk analysis. A total of 1302 (86.2%) students underwent TST testing and completed the questionnaire. Eleven subjects (0.8%) resulted TST positive and LTBI diagnosis was confirmed in 2 (0.1%) cases. Professional exposure to active TB patients (OR 21.7, 95% CI 2.9-160.2; P value 0.003) and previous BCG immunization (OR 28.3, 95% CI 3.0-265.1; P value 0.003) are independently associated with TST positivity. Despite the low prevalence of LTBI among Italian medical students, an occupational risk of TB infection still exists in countries with low circulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25705685
Yadav, Arvind Kumar; Patel, Varsha
Objective: To study drug use pattern in patients of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and to analyze the cost of different anti-glaucoma medications. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried in the glaucoma clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 9 months. The data collected for patients with POAG included the patient's demographic details and the drugs prescribed. Data were analyzed for drug use pattern and cost drugs used. Results: In a total 180 prescriptions (297 drugs) analyzed, most drugs (83.83%) were prescribed by topical route as eye drops. ? blockers (93.88%) were found to be the most frequently prescribed for POAG. Timolol (82.22%) was the most frequently prescribed drug and timolol with acetazolamide (17.22%) was the most commonly prescribed drug combination. Fixed dose combinations constituted 26.66% of prescriptions. ? blockers were found to be cheaper than other anti-glaucoma drugs while prostaglandins analogs were the costliest. Instructions about the route, frequency and duration of treatment were present in all prescriptions. However, instructions regarding instillation of eye drops were missing in all prescriptions. PMID:23716884
Cummings, Kevin J; Rodriguez-Rivera, Lorraine D; Mitchell, Katharyn J; Hoelzer, Karin; Wiedmann, Martin; McDonough, Patrick L; Altier, Craig; Warnick, Lorin D; Perkins, Gillian A
Nosocomial salmonellosis continues to pose an important threat to veterinary medical teaching hospitals. The objectives of this study were to describe an outbreak of salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg within our hospital and to highlight its unique features, which can be used to help mitigate or prevent nosocomial outbreaks in the future. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients that were fecal culture-positive for Salmonella Oranienburg between January 1, 2006, and June 1, 2011, including historical, clinical, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) data. Salmonella Oranienburg was identified in 20 horses, five alpacas, and three cows during this time frame, with dates of admission spanning the period from August, 2006, through January, 2008. We consider most of these patients to have become infected through either nosocomial or on-farm transmission, as evidenced by molecular subtyping results and supportive epidemiologic data. Interpretation of PFGE results in this outbreak was challenging because of the identification of several closely related Salmonella Oranienburg subtypes. Furthermore, a high percentage of cases were fecal culture-positive for Salmonella Oranienburg within 24 h of admission. These patients initially appeared to represent new introductions of Salmonella into the hospital, but closer inspection of their medical records revealed epidemiologic links to the hospital following the index case. Cessation of this outbreak was observed following efforts to further heighten biosecurity efforts, with no known cases or positive environmental samples after January, 2008. This study demonstrates that a Salmonella-positive culture result within 24 h of admission does not exclude the hospital as the source of infection, and it underscores the important role played by veterinary medical teaching hospitals as nodes of Salmonella infection that can promote transmission outside of the hospital setting. PMID:24902121
H. I. Ezeigbo; B. N. Ezeanyim
Hydrogeological studies of the Enugu coal mining area were carried out which included hydrogeochemical analyses of water samples.\\u000a These analyses revealed high sulphate and iron content in the acid mine drainage water as well as high total dissolved solids’\\u000a (TDS) and low pH (acidity) values. The water issues from the Ajali Sandstone formation and the underlying carbonaceous Mamu\\u000a Formation and
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.
This report evaluates the Department of Health and Human Services PATH (Physicians at Teaching Hospitals) initiative involving audits of Medicare billing processes and procedures. The PATH audits resulted from concerns that medical records did not adequately document the direct involvement of teaching physicians in services provided by resident…
Wang, Ying-Chuan; Chen, Po-Chuan; Lee, Kwai-Fong; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Chiu, Chun-Hsiang
Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (previously called Rickettsia tsutsugamushi). The severity of this disease varies from only mild symptoms to death, and its manifestations are nonspecific. Therefore, clinicians may not correctly diagnose scrub typhus early enough for successful treatment. Reports of infections in travelers returning from Asia to their home countries are increasingly common. Thus, it is important that even clinicians in nonepidemic regions be alert for this disease. Here we describe the epidemiological aspects and clinical manifestations of scrub typhus encountered at a teaching hospital in Penghu, Taiwan, over the past 5 years. A total of 126 patients were confirmed to be positive for scrub typhus at the hospital from 2006 to 2010. All cases were confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or its contract laboratory through pathogen isolation and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Medical records of these patients were reviewed, and demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory data, seasonal data, geographic distribution, complications, and outcome were analyzed. The incidence of scrub typhus peaked in individuals aged 0-10 and 51-60 years, with the highest incidence among those ?10 years of age. No significant difference was noted between sexes. Fever was the most common symptom (93.6%), followed by chills (23.8%), cough (18.3%), and headache (14.3%). Eschars were observed in 78 (61.9%) patients, with the axilla being the most frequent site (n=17; 21.8%). Most patients were retirees (n=63; 50%), followed by students (n=16; 12.7%). Patients were more likely to live in rural areas than urban areas. Scrub typhus was epidemic in the spring (April to June) and fall (October to December) in a bimodal distribution similar to that observed in Japan. Leukocytosis was not common, but most patients had abnormal C-reactive protein levels, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver function test results. Residents of Penghu, particularly Makung City and Husi Township, as well as travelers to the region during the spring and fall seasons should be educated about the signs and symptoms of scrub typhus. All physicians who come into contact with individuals residing in or traveling to or from epidemic regions should remain alert about the manifestations of this disease. PMID:23421889
Lawani, Osaheni L; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K
Background Obstetric hemorrhage has been repeatedly implicated as a leading cause of maternal mortality in Nigeria, yet there are very few studies that evaluate the practice of blood transfusion in obstetrics as a life saving measure. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the practice of obstetric blood transfusion, the mean decision-transfusion interval, and the outcome in parturients who had blood transfusions. Methods This was a prospective descriptive study conducted at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, South-East Nigeria, between 1st January, 2012 and 31st December, 2012. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15.0 for Windows. Results Out of 151 parturients who received blood transfusion, 141/151 (97.4%) were knowledgeable about blood transfusion, while only 10/151 (2.6%) had no knowledge of it. The hospital was the source of information for 120/151 (80.8%) of the participants. Blood transfusion rate was 7.04% of all parturients. The mean decision-transfusion interval was 12.0 ± 4.3 hours. All participants were transfused with either whole blood or sedimented cells. The mean number of blood units transfused was 1.77 ± 0.93 units. The indications for transfusion were: anemia, 109/151 (72.2%); shock, 13/151 (8.6%); postpartum hemorrhage, 23/151 (15.2%); antepartum hemorrhage, 6 (4%). Six (4%) women died; mortality was due to renal failure in 3/6 (50%) and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in 3/6 (50%). These deaths were due to delays and difficulty in securing blood for transfusion, while those who got transfused on time were salvaged with minimal morbidity, 21/151 (14%), or with no morbidity, 130/151 (86%). Conclusion Excessive blood loss and anemia still complicate most pregnancies in our practice and the mean decision-transfusion interval is unacceptably long with debilitating maternal morbidity and mortality that can be improved with safe and effective blood transfusion with minimal or no risk. PMID:23874125
Kyei, Mathew Y; Klufio, George O; Mensah, James E; Gyasi, Richard K; Gepi-Attee, Samuel; Ampadu, Kwadwo
The objective of this study was to analyze nephrectomies performed in adults over a 12-year period at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra and to compare our findings with reports from other institutions. In this retrospective study, medical records of 97 consecutive adult patients who underwent nephrectomy from January 2000 to December 2011 were reviewed. The parameters extracted included the patients' age, gender, indication for nephrectomy and the side of nephrectomy. Also considered were the histology of the nephrectomy specimen and the peri-operative mortality. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows (Version 19.0). Of the 97 nephrectomies performed, 62 were performed for suspected malignant renal tumors and 35 were performed for clinically benign renal conditions. Malignancy was confirmed in 85.5% (53/62) of the suspected cases. The mean age of this group was 52.2 ± 15.5 years and the male to female ratio was 1:0.9. Thirty-two tumors (60.4%) were in the right kidney and 21 (39.6%) tumors were in the left kidney; the mean tumor size was 16.8 ± 4.0 cm. The predominant presenting complaints included flank pain (67.9%), flank mass (50.9%) and hematuria (24.5%). In one case (1.9%), the renal mass was found incidentally. Among patients who had benign disease, non-functioning kidney due to renal cystic disease was the most common lesion (11/44; 25.0%). A peri-operative mortality rate of 3.1% was recorded. Our study suggests that malignant renal tumors constitute the main indication for nephrectomy in our institution. Non-functioning kidney due to renal cystic disease was the most common benign renal indication for nephrectomy. PMID:26022047
Abdullah, Dellemin Che; Ibrahim, Noor Shufiza; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed
The main aim of this study was to determine the medication errors among geriatrics at the outpatient pharmacy in a teaching hospital in Kelantan and the strategies to minimize the prevalence. A retrospective study was conducted that involved screening of prescription for a one-month period (March 2001). Only 15.35% (1601 prescription) of a total 10,429 prescriptions were for geriatrics. The prescriptions that were found to have medication errors was 403. Therefore, the prevalence of medication errors per day was approximately 20 cases. Generally, the errors between both genders were found to be comparable and to be the highest for Malays and at the age of 60–64 years old. Administrative errors was recorded to be the highest which included patient’s particulars and validity of the prescriptions (70.22%) and drugs that available in HUSM (16.13%). Whereas the total of prescribing errors were low. Under prescribing errors were pharmaceutical error (0.99%) and clinical error (8.68%). Sixteen cases or 3.98% had more than 1 error. The highest prevalence went to geriatrics who received more than nine drugs (32.16%), geriatrics with more than 3 clinical diagnosis (10.06%), geriatrics who visited specialist clinics (37.52%) and treated by the specialists (31.07%). The estimated cost for the 403 medication errors in March was RM9,327 or RM301 per day that included the cost of drugs and humanistic cost. The projected cost of medication errors per year was RM 111,924. In conclusion, it is very clear that the role of pharmacist is very great in preventing and minimizing the medication errors beside the needs of correct prescription writing and other strategies by all of the heath care components. PMID:22973127
Gary C Geelhoed
Study objective: To describe the experience of croup at Princess Margaret Hospital for Children (PMH), the only tertiary pediatric hospital in Western Australia, from 1980 through 1995 with reference to the introduction of routine steroid treatment in the ICU in 1989, in the general hospital wards from 1989 through 1993, and in the emergency department observation ward in 1993. Methods:
Sharma, Sushmita; Chhetri, Himal Paudel; Alam, Kadir
Aim: Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is of major concern in patients with complex therapeutic regimens. The involvement of cardiovascular medicines in drug interaction is even higher. However, reports of DDI between these groups of drugs are few. The study aims to identify the potential DDI among hospitalized cardiac patients. Furthermore, we assessed the possible risk factors associated with these interactions. Subjects and Methods: The Type of study prospective observational study was conducted from May 2012 to August 2012 among hospitalized cardiac patients. Cardiac patients who were taking at least two drugs and who had a hospital stay of at least 24 h were enrolled. The medications of the patients were analyzed for possible interactions using the standard drug interaction database - Micromedex -2 (Thomson Reuters) × 2.0. Results: From a total of 150 enrolled patients, at least one interacting drug combination was identified among 32 patients. The incidence of potential DDI was 21.3%. A total of 48 potentially hazardous drug interactions were identified. Atorvastatin/azithromycin (10.4%), enalapril/metformin (10.4%), enalapril/potassium chloride (10.4%), atorvastatin/clarithromycin (8.3%) and furosemide/gentamicin (6.3%) were the most common interacting pairs. Drugs most commonly involved were atorvastatin, enalapril, digoxin, furosemide, clopidogrel and warfarin. Majority of interactions were of moderate severity (62.5%) and pharmacokinetic (58.3%) in nature. Increased number of medicines, prolonged hospital stays and comorbid conditions were the risk factors found associated with the potential DDI. Conclusions: This study highlighted the need of intense monitoring of patients who have identified risk factors to help detect and prevent them from serious health hazards associated with drug interactions. PMID:24741184
Talleshi, Z.; Hosseininejad, S. M.; Khatir, Goli; Bozorghi, F.; Gorji, A. M. Heidari; Gorji, M. A. Heidari
Background and Aim: Ideally, the period of patients admitting in the Emergency Department (ED) should not exceed 6 hours. Prolonged of the patients admitting time affects the ED overcrowding, quality of patient care and patient satisfaction. To evaluate the efficacy of new programs and suggest new strategies to reduce the overcrowding in a typical overcrowded ED of general teaching hospital in Tehran city. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive case study, charts of patients held over 24 hours, in Imam Hossein Hospital affiliated to the Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, were reviewed from April 21rd on August 23rd, 2008. Results: Of 15,477 patients, 151 (1%) have been held in the ED over 24 hours. Reasons for this long-stay included:lack of available bed in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (125 patients), lack of available bed in related wards (18 patients), poor final decision — making by physician (eight patient) Conclusion: Long-term stay of patients in ED of teaching hospital is a major problem. The most frequent cause is a limitation of inpatient beds. The long stay time had not been affected by paraclinic procedures, multispecialities involvement or the lack of obvious diagnosis. The following solution is proposed: (1) creation of a holding unit, (2) active inter-facility transfer and (3) governing admittance of patients who need ICU care to related wards. PMID:24791047
Okpala, Nonso Ejikeme; Umeh, Rich Enujioke; Onwasigwe, Ernest Nnemeka
A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were <15 years in two randomly selected primary schools in the urban area and three randomly selected schools in the rural area were interviewed and examined with Snellen chart, pen torch, head loupe, and direct ophthalmoscope. The findings were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire and the World Health Organization Programme for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) eye examination form. Training on visual acuity measurement was done for each of the class teachers. A total of 1,236 children <15 years of age were studied and analyzed. Slightly more females, 652 (52.8%), than males, 584 (47.2%), constituted the sample population giving a female/male ratio of 1.1:1. A total of 98 (7.93%) children had evidence of injury to the eye or its adnexa. Eyelid scar was the commonest (5.34%) followed by eyebrow scar (2.10%). Canthal scar was the next (0.32%). Two girls had monocular blindness from eye trauma (0.16%). One had leucoma, while the other had a dislocated lens. All the monocular blind children of this study were from the urban area. The home was the commonest environment for an eye injury (69.39%) followed by the school (20.41%). The farm was next in frequency (7.14%), especially among boys in the rural area. The church and the road/street constituted the remainder. Regarding persons causing the injury, the child’s playmate was the commonest (55.10%) followed by self (27.55%). Parents and guardians were the next (9.18%). These were injuries associated with corporal punishment. Corporal punishment-related eye injury, according to this study, appears to be common in the rural area and affects boys predominantly. Other human intermediary agents that cause an eye injury include passersby (2.04%), RTA (2.04%), siblings (2.04%), and others (1.02%). The primary agents that caused an eye injury were sticks/wood, 29 (29.60%); stone, 21 (21.43%); pieces of metal, 19 (19.39%); fall, 10 (10.20%); fight/fist blow, 9 (9.918%); plastic, 2 (2.04%); fingernails, 2 (2.04%); farm tools/fruits, 2 (2.04%); and RTA, glass, and headbutt, each 1.02%. Farm implements/fruits as well as fingernails appear to be fairly common primary agents that cause an eye injury in the rural Enugu, Nigeria. In terms of prevalence, there was no significant difference between the urban and rural areas. The findings from this study showed a high prevalence of eye injury among primary school children. In terms of treatment, 58.16% of the children with an eye injury had no form of treatment for it. The children from this study with monocular blindness did not receive adequate medical treatment. Treatment of an eye injury, according to this study, was sought from chemists (19.39%), at hospital/health centers (16.33%), at home (3.06%), and from traditional healers (3.06%). The persons who treated an eye injury, as observed from this study, were doctors (14.29%), nurses (4.08%), chemists (17.35%), and traditional healers and fathers (3.06% each). The frequency of noninjury-related diagnosis made in this study was refractive error, 4.85%; allergic conjunctivitis, 1.94%; oculocutaneous albinism, 0.24%; prepapillary vascular loops, 0.40%; and then ptosis, exotropia, stye, corneal opacity, and retinitis pigmentosa, 0.08% each. The annual incidence of an eye injury according to this study was 3.48%. The majority of the causes of an eye injury, as per this study, were preventable. Appropriate promotion of preventive eye care among children may go a long way in reducing the burden of blindness from eye injuries. PMID:26124686
Covington, Matthew F.; Agan, Donna L.; Liu, Yang; Johnson, John O.; Shaw, David J.
Background Rising costs pose a major threat to US health care. Residency programs are being asked to teach residents how to provide cost-conscious medical care. Methods An educational intervention incorporating the American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria with lectures on cost-consciousness and on the actual hospital charges for abdominal imaging was implemented for residents at Scripps Mercy Hospital in San Diego, CA. We hypothesized that residents would order fewer abdominal imaging examinations for patients with complaints of abdominal pain after the intervention. We analyzed the type and number of abdominal imaging studies completed for patients admitted to the inpatient teaching service with primary abdominal complaints for 18 months before (738 patients) and 12 months following the intervention (632 patients). Results There was a significant reduction in mean abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans per patient (1.7–1.4 studies per patient, P < .001) and total abdominal radiology studies per patient (3.1–2.7 studies per patient, P ?=? .02) following the intervention. The avoidance of charges solely due to the reduction in abdominal CT scans following the intervention was $129 per patient or $81,528 in total. Conclusions A simple educational intervention appeared to change the radiologic test-ordering behavior of internal medicine residents. Widespread adoption of similar interventions by residency programs could result in significant savings for the health care system. PMID:24404274
General practitioners attending 'Morning Report' have provided information on the general practice management of a wide range of conditions and have promoted the benefits of improved communication between general practitioners and hospital doctors. By collecting data on a range of problems at the community hospital interface, they are in a position to identify and act upon issues with important implications for health care. This activity is recommended to all general practitioners working in association with a major hospital. PMID:9254951
M. L. Moretti; L. G. de Oliveira Cardoso; C. E. Levy; A. Von Nowakosky; L. F. Bachur; O. Bratfich; M. L. Leichsenring; R. Fagnani; S. M. Peres Evangelista Dantas; M. R. Resende; P. Trabasso
The purpose of this article was to describe a 2.5-year interventional program designed to control the dissemination after\\u000a a large hospital outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in a tertiary-care university hospital. A VRE working\\u000a group was designated to work specifically on controlling VRE intrahospital dissemination after the detection of the first\\u000a VRE infection at in our hospital in June 2007.
Debnath, Dhrubajyoti J; Parulekar, Chandrakant V
Background: Malnutrition is a major public health problem in a developing country like India. Keeping this in mind a study was carried out to find the proportion of under–five children suffering from malnutrition among the under-five hospitalized children and to study co-morbid illnesses and epidemiological factors associated with malnutrition. Methods: This was a hospital-based cross sectional study carried out in the pediatric ward of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pune, India. All under–five children suffering from malnutrition were studied over a period of 1 month. Results: Total number of under five children diagnosed as malnourished were 47 (39.83%). Moderate and severe/very severe malnutrition was statistically significantly higher in a girl child. The proportion of moderate and severe/very severe malnutrition was higher in low birth weight babies, children who were incompletely immunized for age. Faulty infant feeding practice was observed in 28 (59.6%) children. Some of the co-morbid illnesses contributing to morbidity in the malnourished child were acute diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infection, anemia, and septicemia. Conclusion: A large proportion of hospitalized children were malnourished. Girl child suffered from moderate to severe forms of malnutrition as compared to male child and this was the only statistically significant association. This may be due to neglect of girl child. PMID:25105000
Myers, Jennifer S; Nash, David B
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education recently announced its Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) program, which is designed to catalyze and promote the engagement of physician trainees in health care quality and patient safety activities that are essential to the delivery of high-quality patient care in U.S. teaching hospitals. In this Commentary, the authors argue that a strong organizational culture in quality improvement and patient safety is a necessary foundation for resident engagement in these areas. They describe residents' influence via their social networks on the behaviors and attitudes of peers and other health care providers and highlight this as a powerful driver for culture change in teaching hospitals. They also consider some of the potential unintended consequences of the CLER program and offer strategies to avoid them. The authors suggest that the CLER program provides an opportunity for health care and graduate medical education leaders to closely examine organizational quality and safety culture and the degree to which their residents are integrated in these efforts. They highlight the importance of developing collaborative interprofessional strategies to reach common goals to improve patient care. By sharpening the focus on patient safety, supervision, professionalism, patient care transitions, and the overall quality of health care delivery in the clinical learning environment during residents' formative training years, the hope is that the CLER program will inspire a new generation of physicians who possess and value these skills. PMID:25054414
...compensated services. Example No: 1. Dr. Jones received $3,000 a year from Hospital...review and administrative services. Dr. Jones also voluntarily furnished direct medical...period. The full imputed value of Dr. Jones' volunteer direct medical services...
...compensated services. Example No: 1. Dr. Jones received $3,000 a year from Hospital...review and administrative services. Dr. Jones also voluntarily furnished direct medical...period. The full imputed value of Dr. Jones' volunteer direct medical services...
...compensated services. Example No: 1. Dr. Jones received $3,000 a year from Hospital...review and administrative services. Dr. Jones also voluntarily furnished direct medical...period. The full imputed value of Dr. Jones' volunteer direct medical services...
N. Sanančs; O. Garbin; M. Hummel; C. Youssef; R. Vizitiu; D. Lemaho; D. Rottenberg; P. Diemunsch; A. Wattiez
Teleoperated surgical robots could provide a genuine breakthrough in laparoscopy and it is for this reason that the development\\u000a of robot-assisted laparoscopy is one of the priorities of the Strasbourg University Hospitals’ strategic plan. The hospitals\\u000a purchased a da Vinci S® robot in June 2006 and Strasbourg has, in IRCAD, one of the few robotic surgery training centres in the
Yamileth Mora; María L. Avila-Agüero; María A. Umańa; Ana L. Jiménez; María M. París; Idis Faingezicht
Objective: This study in a tertiary care teaching center with 361 beds was conducted to assess use, misuse, and abuse of antibiotics.Materials and Methods: Every day of the study, a computer program was used to compile a list of patients' bedside records. On a specific day, the bedside charts of selected patients were reviewed to determine whether: (1) a justification
Askarian, M; Assadian, O; Safaee, GhR; Golkar, A; Namazi, S; Movahed, M R
We investigated adherence to the Hospital Infection Control Practice Advisory Committee (HICPAC) guidelines on vancomycin prescription in a large university-affiliated hospital in Shiraz. From August to December 2003, 200 hospitalized patients received vancomycin. For only 12 (6%) of these patients was vancomycin prescribed appropriately according to HICPAC guidelines. The main reasons why vancomycin use did not comply with HICPAC recommendations were: surgical prophylaxis in patients with negative cultures for resistant Gram-positive organisms, no investigation of vancomycin serum levels in patients receiving > 48 hours of vancomycin, vancomycin serum levels not repeated in patients receiving > 1 week of vancomycin, no appropriate adjustment of dosage with respect to serum levels in patients receiving vancomycin. PMID:18290414
Moyano, Jairo; Figueras, Albert
Introduction: Review of opioid prescriptions in a hospital provides valuable information to health care professionals which may contribute to proper pain management; opioid utilization studies may help uncover factors that can be improved for better prescribing. To evaluate the use of opioid analgesics in a university hospital, a review of opioids prescribed in hospitalized patients was developed. Methods: Information was obtained from the pharmacy database and medical records. The study period was 1 month. Results: Medical records of 1156 patients admitted in July 2009 were analyzed. The most widely prescribed opioid was tramadol; the preferred administration route was intravenous; the main indication was severe pain; and major prescribers were from surgical departments. Discussion: Underutilization of potent opioids for acute and chronic pain seems to occur. Conclusion: Most prescribers prefer weak opioids, given intravenously to treat acute and chronic pain, while some patients may benefit from the prescription of more potent opioids. PMID:23049273
Caseris, M; Houhou, N; Longuet, P; Rioux, C; Lepeule, R; Choquet, C; Yazdanpanah, Y; Yeni, P; Joly, V
We reviewed 80 adult cases of measles seen in a Parisian hospital during the French 2010-2011 outbreak. Fifty per cent had at least one complication: pneumonia and hepatitis were the most frequent. Forty per cent of hospitalized cases did not have any complications, suggesting clinically poor tolerance of measles in adults. The outcome was always favourable. Subjects were younger, were more often French nationals and had a higher socio-economic status than the overall population. This report suggests that immunity resulting from natural disease in patients from an area where the disease is endemic is protective in the long term. PMID:24707854
Ball, Katherine R; Rubin, Joseph E; Chirino-Trejo, M; Dowling, Patricia M
Between January 2002 and June 2007, uropathogens were isolated from 473 of 1557 canine urine samples submitted to Prairie Diagnostic Services from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Culture and susceptibility results were analyzed, retrospectively, to estimate the prevalence of common bacterial uropathogens in dogs with urinary tract infections and to identify changes in antimicrobial resistance. The most common pathogens identified were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus intermedius, Enterococcus spp., and Proteus spp. Antimicrobial resistance increased during the study period, particularly among recurrent E. coli isolates. Using the formula to help select rational antimicrobial therapy (FRAT), bacterial isolates were most likely to be susceptible to gentamicin, fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and groups 4 and 5 (third generation) cephalosporins. PMID:19119366
Emanuele Amodio; Giovanna Anastasi; Maria Grazia Laura Marsala; Maria Valeria Torregrossa; Nino Romano; Alberto Firenze
The aim of the study was to investigate factors involved in vaccination acceptance among healthcare workers (HCWs) and adverse reactions rates associated with pandemic influenza vaccination. The study was carried out in the major teaching hospital of Sicily from November 2009 to February 2010 on 2267 HCWs. A total of 407 (18%) HCWs were vaccinated against the 2009 pandemic influenza
Silva, Kesia Esther; Cayô, Rodrigo; Carvalhaes, Cecilia Godoy; Patussi Correia Sacchi, Flávia; Rodrigues-Costa, Fernanda; Ramos da Silva, Ana Carolina; Croda, Julio; Gales, Ana Cristina; Simionatto, Simone
We describe an outbreak caused by KPC-2- and IMP-10-producing Serratia marcescens isolates in a Brazilian teaching hospital. Tigecycline was the only active antimicrobial agent tested. The blaIMP-10 gene was located in a new class 1 integron, named In990, carried by a nonconjugative plasmid, in contrast to blaKPC-2. PMID:25878341
Shahrzad Rahbaran; Mark S. Gilthorpe; Sheelah D. Harrison; Kishor Gulabivala
Objectives. The aims of this retrospective study were (1) to compare the outcome of periapical surgery performed in endodontic and in oral surgery units of a teaching dental hospital and (2) to evaluate the influence of factors affecting outcome. Study design. A total of 176 teeth (endodontic unit, 83; oral surgery unit, 93) surgically treated more than 4 years previously
Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Fiebai, Bassey; Awoyesuku, Elizabeth Akon
Purpose: To provide the types, frequency and clinical information on common cranial nerve palsies seen at the Eye Clinic at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A chart review was performed of patients who presented with cranial nerve palsy at the Eye Clinic over a 3-year period (January 2009-December 2011). Data were collected on age, sex, type of cranial nerve palsy, a history of systemic disease such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. Exclusion criteria included medical charts with incomplete data. Data was analyzed using Epi-info Version 6.04D. Statistical significance was indicated by P < 0.05. Results: Twenty-four patients had cranial nerve palsies. There were 11 males and 13 females with a mean age of 34.50 ± 18.41 years. Four patients (26.6%) had exotropia while three patients (20%) had esotropia. Complete ophthalmoplegia was noted in two patients (13.3%). The 3rd and 6th cranial nerves were affected in seven patients each (29.2%) and five patients (20.8%) had 7th cranial nerve palsy. Approximately 38% of patients with cranial nerve palsies had systemic disorders (16.7% systemic hypertension; 12.5% DM). The relationship between cranial nerve palsy and systemic disorder was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: This is the first study in the literature on ocular cranial nerve palsies in Southern Nigeria. Third and sixth cranial nerve palsies were the most common cases to present to the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Eye Clinic. There was a statistically significant association to systemic disorders such as hypertension and DM and majority of cases with 6th cranial nerve palsy. PMID:24791110
AHM Feroz; MH RAHMAN
Summary: Aims: To study the demographic, clinical features, treatment as well as outcomes of tetanus patients in the Bangladeshi population from 1994 to 2003. Design: A retrospective descriptive study. Setting: A large public Medical college hospital with a regional as well as referral service. Materials and Methods: All cases of tetanus in adult patients from January 1994 to December 2003
Jawed Mohammad Akther; Imran Ali Khan; Vinay V Shahpurkar; Najnin Khanam; Zahiruddin Quazi Syed
Diabetic foot is a common, preventable complication of diabetes mellitus. This was a prospective study (April 2004 to October 2005) of 55 diabetic foot patients attending surgical out and in-patient departments at a rural hospital in Mahrastra, India. To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot amongst our patients with diabetes and the associated risk factors. All patients underwent medical assessment,
Catherine A. Alinovi; Michael P. Ward; Laurent L. Couëtil; Ching Ching Wu
Identification of risk factors for horses shedding Salmonella in their feces helps identify patients at-risk of infection and protect the overall population through heightened biosecurity. Fecal samples from 230 hospitalized horses were cultured for Salmonella spp. Historical data were collected on 21 putative risk factors and assessed for association with the risk of a horse being culture positive using forwards
Robert Maunder; Jonathan Hunter; Leslie Vincent; Jocelyn Bennett; Nathalie Peladeau; Molyn Leszcz; Joel Sadavoy; Lieve M. Verhaeghe; Rosalie Steinberg; Tony Mazzulli
Background: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Toronto, which began on Mar. 7, 2003, resulted in extraordinary public health and infection control measures. We aimed to describe the psychological and occupational im- pact of this event within a large hospital in the first 4 weeks of the outbreak and the subsequent administrative and mental health response. Methods:
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...control (within the meaning of § 413.17 of this...the aggregate per diem method described in paragraph...to medical and other scientific research). (i...hospital (within the meaning of § 413.17 of this...Aggregate per diem methods of apportionment...
Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Abdelrahim, Hisham Elhag Ahmed; Ab Rahman, Ab Fatah
Background Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) makes use of serum drug concentrations as an adjunct to decision-making. Preliminary data in our hospital showed that approximately one-fifth of all drugs monitored by TDM service were gentamicin. Objective In this study, we evaluated the costs associated with providing the service in patients with bronchopneumonia and treated with gentamicin. Methods We retrospectively collected data from medical records of patients admitted to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over a 5-year period. These patients were diagnosed with bronchopneumonia and were on gentamicin as part of their treatment. Five hospitalisation costs were calculated; (i) cost of laboratory and clinical investigations, (ii) cost associated with each gentamicin dose, (iii) fixed and operating costs of TDM service, (iv) cost of providing medical care, and (v) cost of hospital stay during gentamicin treatment. Results There were 1920 patients admitted with bronchopneumonia of which 67 (3.5%) had TDM service for gentamicin. Seventy-three percent (49/67) patients were eligible for final analysis. The duration of gentamicin therapy ranged from 3 to 15 days. The cost of providing one gentamicin assay was MYR25, and the average cost of TDM service for each patient was MYR104. The average total hospitalisation cost during gentamicin treatment for each patient was MYR442 (1EUR approx. MYR4.02). Conclusions Based on the hospital perspective, in patients with bronchopneumonia and treated with gentamicin, the provision of TDM service contributes to less than 25% of the total cost of hospitalization. PMID:24644520
Jombo, G T A; Jonah, P; Ayeni, J A
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium that is often encountered in urinary tract infection (UTI) worldwide and has shown varied antibiotic susceptibility patterns. This study was therefore designed to ascertain the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the organism in Jos. Data on antimicrobial susceptibility of P. aeruginosa generated from urine samples by the Microbiology laboratory of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) was compiled for a period of three years (July 2001-June 2004). Additional information was obtained from the records department of the hospital. Samples were collected, stored and processed using standard laboratory procedures. The rate of isolation of P. aeruginosa from urine samples was found to be 4.6% (n=127) from 12,458 samples. From male population 34% (n=43) were isolated and 66 % (n=84) were recovered from females population with a significant (P < 0.05) gender difference. All the 100 % isolates of P. aeruginosa were resistant to penicillin, cloxacillin, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin and nalidixic acid. while 67% were sensitive to augmentin, sensitivity to ofloxacin was 92%, ciprofloxacin 92% and cefuroxime (86%). The resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa from urine against antibiotics was extremely high. Prophylactic antibiotic medication against UTI should be carefully weighed against this undesirable possible outcome (resistance). Susceptibility testing should be adopted as a basic routine laboratory procedure in hospitals and clinics in order to guide appropriately on the right choice of antibiotics. Finally, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and cefuroxime should be considered on isolation of P. aeruginosa from UTI, especially in the absence of a sensitivity report as well as for prophylactic options. PMID:19434224
Cross, G; Bilgrami, I; Eastwood, G; Johnson, P; Howden, B P; Bellomo, R; Jones, D
In a three-month retrospective study, we assessed the proportion of rapid response team (RRT) calls associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. We also documented the site of infection (whether it was community- or hospital-acquired), antibiotic modifications after the call and in-hospital outcomes. Amongst 358 RRT calls, two or more SIRS criteria were present in 277 (77.4%). Amongst the 277 RRT calls with SIRS criteria, 159 (57.4%) fulfilled sepsis criteria in the 24 hours before and 12 hours after the call. There were 118 of 277 (42.6%) calls with SIRS criteria but no evidence of sepsis and 62 of 277 (22.3%) calls associated with both criteria for sepsis as well as an alternative cause for SIRS. Hence, 159 (44.4%) of all 358 RRT calls over the three-month study period fulfilled criteria for sepsis and in 97 (159-62) (27.1%) of the 358 calls, there were criteria for sepsis without other causes for SIRS criteria. The most common sites of infection were respiratory tract (86), abdominal cavity (38), urinary tract (26) and bloodstream (26). Infection was hospital-acquired in 91 (57.2%) and community-acquired in 67 (42.1%) cases, respectively. Patients were on antibiotics in 127 of 159 (79.9%) cases before the RRT call and antibiotics were added or modified in 76 of 159 (47.8%) cases after RRT review. The hospital length-of-stay of patients who received an RRT call associated with sepsis was longer than those who did not (16.0 [8.0 to 28.5] versus 10 days [6.0 to 18.0]; P=0.002). PMID:25735684
Mariani, F; Bravi, C; Dolcetti, L; Moretto, A; Palermo, A; Ronchin, M; Tonelli, F; Carrer, P
University Hospital "L. Sacco" had started in 2006 a two-year project in order to set up a "Health and Safety Management System (HSMS)" referring to the technical guideline OHSAS 18001:1999 and the UNI and INAIL "Guidelines for a health and safety management system at workplace". So far, the following operations had been implemented: Setting up of a specific Commission within the Risk Management Committee; Identification and appointment of Departmental Representatives of HSMS; Carrying out of a training course addressed to Workers Representatives for Safety and Departmental Representatives of HSMS; Development of an Integrated Informative System for Prevention and Safety; Auditors qualification; Inspection of the Occupational Health Unit and the Prevention and Safety Service: reporting of critical situations and monitoring solutions adopted. Short term objectives are: Self-evaluation through check-lists of each department; Sharing of the Improvement Plan among the departments of the hospital; Planning of Health and Safety training activities in the framework of the Hospital Training Plan; Safety audit. PMID:18409761
Ignatius, C Maduka; Francis, E Ezeonu; Emeka, E Neboh; Elvis, N Shu; Ebele, J Ikekpeazu
BPA and environmental estrogen levels were assayed in potable water samples (38 tap water, 36 well water, 18 river water and 24 rain water samples) that were randomly collected from the different parts of Enugu metropolis, south-east Nigeria. The mean ± SD estrogen levels in tap, well, river and rain water samples were 0.10 ± 0.09, 0.05 ± 0.02, 0.05 ± 0.02 and 0.05 ± 0.02 ?g/L respectively. Also, the mean BPA levels (?g/L) in the different water sources were 0.20 ± 0.07, 0.21 ± 0.07, 0.18 ± 0.04, and 0.40 ± 0.16, respectively. There was statistically significant difference (p = 0.0227) in BPA levels between the harvested rain water and the drinking tap water. PMID:20936514
Ash-Bernal, Rachel; Wise, Robert; Wright, Scott M
Methemoglobin is a form of hemoglobin that does not bind oxygen. When its concentration is elevated in red blood cells, functional anemia and tissue hypoxia may occur. We performed a retrospective case series to describe the cases of acquired methemoglobinemia (methemoglobin level >2%) detected and the clinical circumstances under which they occurred at 2 tertiary care hospitals and affiliated outpatient clinics over 28 months. We surveyed co-oximetry laboratory data to identify patients with methemoglobinemia. We reviewed these patients' medical records to extract the clinical information and context. One hundred thirty-eight cases of acquired methemoglobinemia were detected over the 28 months. There was no gender predisposition, and the condition occurred over a wide range of ages (patients aged 4 days to 86 years). Cases occurred in many areas of the hospital, including outpatient clinics. One fatality and 3 near-fatalities were directly attributable to methemoglobinemia. Dapsone was the most common etiology of acquired methemoglobinemia, accounting for 42% of all cases. The mean peak methemoglobin level among these individuals was 7.6%. In 5 of the patients with the most severely elevated levels, 20% benzocaine spray (Hurricaine Topical Anesthetic spray, Beutlich Pharmaceuticals, Waukegan, IL) was the etiology, associated with a mean peak methemoglobin level of 43.8%. Eleven pediatric patients developed methemoglobinemia either from exogenous exposure, such as drugs, or due to serious illness, such as gastrointestinal infections with dehydration. Almost all (94%) patients with methemoglobinemia were anemic. Drugs that cause acquired methemoglobinemia are ubiquitous in both the hospital and the outpatient setting. Acquired methemoglobinemia is a treatable condition that causes significant morbidity and even mortality. We hope that a heightened awareness of methemoglobinemia will result in improved recognition and treatment. Primary prevention efforts have the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. PMID:15342970
Nwokocha, ARC; Ujunwa, FA; Onukwuli, VO; Okafor, HU; Onyemelukwe, N
Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the infections that could lead to chronic kidney disease. Most of the offending isolates are usually Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Adolescent age groups are a special group of individuals who indulge in some risk behavior that could predispose them to urinary tract infections with possible mixed flora. Aim: The aim was to determine the burden of Gram-positive significant bacteriuria among adolescents in Enugu. Subjects and Methods: A survey of 628 adolescents attending secondary schools in Enugu was studied. Information on sociodemographic profile was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Clean-catch urine sample was collected using a sterile boric acid bottle, and this was cultured in both anaerobic and aerobic media. Significant isolates were Gram-stained in order to determine their characteristics. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0.(Chicago Illinois USA). Results: There were 324 females and 304 males. Significant bacteria growth was identified in 61 samples giving a prevalence rate of 9.7% (61/628). Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 77.1% (47/61) of samples, while Gram-negative bacteria were isolated in 22.9% (14/61) of samples. Staphylococcus saprophyticus was the most common Gram-positive organism isolated this consists 38.3% (18/47) while E. coli was the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated comprising 64.2% (9/14). Other Gram-positive bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus auerus, Staphylococcus epididimis. All isolated bacteria were more common in females 44/61 (72.1%) than males 17/61 (27.9%). Conclusion: Gram-positive bacteriuria is prevalent among secondary school adolescents, and S. saprophyticus is the most common Gram-positive organism implicated. Further studies should be undertaken to determine the risk factors and possible sensitivity pattern among the age group. PMID:25328783
Viale, P; Tumietto, F; Giannella, M; Bartoletti, M; Tedeschi, S; Ambretti, S; Cristini, F; Gibertoni, C; Venturi, S; Cavalli, M; De Palma, A; Puggioli, M C; Mosci, D; Callea, E; Masina, R; Moro, M L; Lewis, R E
We performed a quasi-experimental study of a multifaceted infection control programme for reducing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) transmission and bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a 1420-bed university-affiliated teaching hospital during 2010-2014, with 30 months of follow-up. The programme consisted of the following: (a) rectal swab cultures were performed in all patients admitted to high-risk units (intensive-care units, transplantation, and haematology) to screen for CRE carriage, or for any room-mates of CRE-positive patients in other units; (b) cohorting of carriers, managed with strict contact precautions; (c) intensification of education, cleaning and hand-washing programmes; and (d) promotion of an antibiotic stewardship programme carbapenem-sparing regimen. The 30-month incidence rates of CRE-positive rectal cultures and BSIs were analysed with Poisson regression. Following the intervention, the incidence rate of CRE BSI (risk reduction 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p 0.03) and CRE colonization (risk reduction 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.97, p <0.0001) significantly decreased over a period of 30 months. After accounting for changes in monthly census and percentage of externally acquired cases (positive at ?72 h), the average institutional monthly rate of compliance with CRE screening procedures was the only independent variable associated with a declining monthly incidence of CRE colonization (p 0.002). The monthly incidence of CRE carriage was predictive of BSI (p 0.01). Targeted screening and cohorting of CRE carriers and infections, combined with cleaning, education, and antimicrobial stewardship measures, significantly decreased the institutional incidence of CRE BSI and colonization, despite endemically high CRE carriage rates in the region. PMID:25658534
Major, S; Pashayan, N; Atweh, S; Chidiac-Tannoury, R; Shaar, S; Uthman, I; Fatah Masri, A; Arayssi, T
The objective of the study was to describe the practice patterns of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) as compared with consensus guidelines for diagnosis and to determine whether practice patterns correlate with patient demographics and physician specialty. A retrospective medical chart review was conducted at the American University Hospital, in Beirut, Lebanon. All adult and pediatric patients admitted to the hospital between 1 January and 31 December 1998 who underwent either anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) or lupus anticoagulant (LA) testing were included in the study. Work-up of APS syndrome was compared with: (a) the consensus guidelines for clinical diagnosis; (b) physician specialty; and (c) patient demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, health insurance status). Eighty-seven patients fulfilled at least one clinical criterion for APS; 92% were for work-up of thrombosis and 8% for pregnancy morbidities. Fifty-one percent underwent both aCL and LA. Overall 38% (33) of patients had an abnormal test result, however only 18% (6) underwent retesting, of whom only two satisfied a minimum of 6 weeks between test and retest TheAPS diagnostic work-up was requested by 11 different specialties. Rheumatologists were the most consistent in asking for both tests. APS is seen and diagnosed by a variety of medical specialties. Practice patterns as compared with the latest consensus are sub-optimal, and need to be improved. Interventions to help improve this have been discussed and are being implemented. PMID:12475008
Islam, M N; Siddika, M; Hossain, M A; Bhuiyan, M K; Ali, M A
This retrospective study was conducted to determine the morbidity and mortality pattern of neonates admitted in to Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH). A total of 4826 neonates were admitted and reviewed during the period January 2003 to December 2003 in MMCH. Neonatal admission comprises 31.6% of total paediatric admission. Majority of the patients were 1 to 3 days of age and male. The top five causes for neonatal admission in MMCH were perinatal asphyxia (38.7%), low birth weight (25.7%), septicemia (19.2%), neonatal jaundice (5.9%), meconium aspiration syndrome (2.9%). The death rate of neonatal admission was 20.6%. The mortality was found among the neonates admitted with low birth weight (28.1%), perinatal asphyxia (22.8%), septicemia (18.9%). The average duration of hospital stay was higher among the septicemia patients than neonates suffering from other diseases. The finding of this study could be used by professionals, managers and policy makers to design neonatal health programmes to achieve millennium development goal (MDG) by the year 2015. PMID:20395904
K. F. Chah; S. I. Oboegbulem
One hundred and seventy-two ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains isolated from commercial chickens in Enugu State, Nigeria, were screened for beta-lactamase production using the broth method with nitrocefin ® as the chromogenic cephalosporin to detect enzyme production. Beta-lactamase producing strains were further examined for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production using the Oxoid combination discs method. One hundred and seventy (98.8%) of the
Ilechukwu, GC; Ilechukwu, CGA; Ubesie, AC; Onyire, NB; Emechebe, G; Eze, JC
Background: Intestinal helminthiasis is associated with malnutrition in children. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the intensity and effect of the common intestinal helminths on the nutritional status of children in Enugu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 460 children conducted in Enugu metropolis, south-east Nigeria between August and September 2003. Their stools were analyzed at the research laboratory of the Federal Ministry of Health, National Arbovirus and Vector Research Center, Enugu. The intensity of the common intestinal helminths was determined using the standard Kato-Katz method of fresh stool samples. The classification intensity of helminthic infestation was according to the World Health Organization classification. Data were analyzed using Statistical Software for Social Sciences version 11.0 (Chicago IL, USA). P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: 452 of 460 children (98.3%) had normal height for age, weight for age and weight for height Z-scores. Six of the 460 children (1.3% were wasted), 1/460 stunted (0.2%) and 1/460 wasted and stunted (0.2%). 150 out of 460 (32.6%) studied were infected with helminths. There was no significant relationship between the intensity of helminth infection and the nutritional status of the children. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of helminthiasis in children in Enugu was high, intensity of helminthiasis in these children was mainly mild. Hence, majority of them had normal weight and height measurements for age and sex. PMID:25184077
Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Kumar, Suresh; Aravindan, U; Balasubramanian, Hariharan; Selvan, Tamil
Background: The management of Diabetes Mellitus and its important complication Diabetic Ketoacidosis is very crucial in today’s world where the prevalence of Diabetes is very high. Medical students are the pillars of our future healthcare system and it is important to evaluate and update their knowledge and awareness regarding these both conditions. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional; Questionnaire based observational study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. The respondents were final year MBBS students of that college. Study instrument was a self developed, pre-validated, semi-structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 73 questionnaires were considered for analysis, giving a response rate of 90.12% with 43.83% and 56.16% were male and female respondents respectively. About 81.25% and 90.24% of male and female respondents gave correct answer to question related to the best indicator of glycemic control. Lack of knowledge was seen regarding the world Diabetes day. Approximately 37% of the respondent’s parents were diabetic. Only 12 out of 73 respondents were aware about the factors leading to DKA.8 out of 73 were aware about investigations to be done in DKA. Around 43.84% of responders knew regarding the proper screening duration in person with risk of diabetes. Conclusion: From the study it was concluded that most of the students have basic knowledge regarding diabetes mellitus, its clinical features and management etc but only 50 % of the respondent were aware about DKA and further teaching and post teaching evaluation are needed in future direction. PMID:24959462
Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Ugwu, George Onyemaechi; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Ezugwu, Euzebus Chinonye; Onah, Paul; Onwuka, Chidinma Ifechi
Background Interdisciplinary team working could facilitate the efficient provision and coordination of increasingly diverse health services, thereby improving the quality of patient care. The purpose of this study was to describe knowledge of interdisciplinary team working among obstetricians and gynecologists in two teaching hospitals in South East Nigeria and to determine their attitude toward an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to patient care in these institutions. Methods This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 17.0 for Windows. Results In total, 116 doctors participated in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9±7.0 (range 22–51) years. Approximately 74% of respondents were aware of the concept of interdisciplinary team working. Approximately 15% of respondents who were aware of the concept of interdisciplinary team working had very good knowledge of it; 52% had good knowledge and 33% had poor knowledge. Twenty-nine percent of knowledgeable respondents reported ever receiving formal teaching/training on interdisciplinary team working in the course of their professional development. About 78% of those aware of team working believed that interdisciplinary teams would be useful in obstetrics and gynecology practice in Nigeria, with 89% stating that it would be very useful. Approximately 77% of those aware of team working would support establishment and implementation of interdisciplinary teams at their centers. Conclusion There was a high degree of knowledge of the concept and a positive attitude toward interdisciplinary team working among obstetricians and gynecologists in the study centers. This suggests that the attitude of physicians may not be an impediment to implementation of a collaborative interdisciplinary approach to clinical care in the study centers.
Bronsard, N; Chignon Sicard, B; Amoretti, N; Rottier, H; Ertz, P; de Peretti, F
Digital imaging is a daily practice in traumatology. Such photographs should remain confidential. However, there is a need for objectivity concerning the circumstances and clinical follow-up for trauma patients. This paper describes how to conserve these photographs within the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) safely as regards identity and confidentiality. A computer converts the photographs into DICOM files. The DICOM image is associated to a reconciliation layer, validated by the physician in charge, and then included in the hospital PACS. This improves transmission from one medical team to another, both initially and after the accident if an expert medical opinion is required. The literature has demonstrated the value of photographs in modern medicine, but the technical and legal challenges are many. They enhance the computerized medical records. Identification, confidentiality and integration in the PACS are obstacles that we have now overcome. PMID:25817905
Streuli, Jürg C; Staubli, Georg; Pfändler-Poletti, Marlis; Baumann-Hölzle, Ruth; Ersch, Jörg
Our retrospective study presents and evaluates clinical ethics consultations (CECs) in pediatrics as a structure for implementing hospital-wide ethics. We performed a descriptive and statistical analysis of clinical ethics decision making and its implementation in pediatric CECs at Zurich University Children's Hospital. Ninety-five CECs were held over 5 years for 80 patients. The care team reached a consensus treatment recommendation after one session in 75 consultations (89 %) and on 82 of 84 ethical issues (98 %) after two or more sessions (11 repeats). Fifty-seven CECs recommended limited treatment and 23 maximal treatment. Team recommendations were agreed outright by parents and/or patient in 59 of 73 consultations (81 %). Initial dissensus yielded to explanatory discussion or repeat CEC in seven consultations (10 %). In a further seven families (10 %), no solution was found within the CEC framework: five (7 %) required involvement of the child protection service, and in two families, the parents took their child elsewhere. Eventual team-parent/patient consensus was reached in 66 of 73 families (90 %) with documented parental/patient decisions (missing data, n?=?11). Patient preference was assessable in ten CECs. Patient autonomy was part of the ethical dilemma in only three CECs. The Zurich clinical ethics structure produced a 98 % intra-team consensus rate in 95 CECs and reduced initial team-parent dissensus from 21 to 10 %. Success depends closely on a standardized CEC protocol and an underlying institutional clinical ethics framework embodying a comprehensive set of transparently articulated values and opinions, with regular evaluation of decisions and their consequences for care teams and families. PMID:24323344
McIndoe, A K; Underwood, S M
We examined the placement of anaesthetists in our department over a 2 yr period. Data were collected from an in-theatre system to provide details of caseload and supervision for 34,856 operations. There was wide variation between anaesthetic sub-specialties with overall supervision levels of 35% of cases for senior house officers (SHOs) and 32% for specialist registrars (SpRs). The consultant data showed the size and areas of teaching reserve in the department. We then examined individual logbooks in order to validate our data, and departmental rotas to put these data into perspective with previous attempts to quantify trainee supervision. Supervision data derived from the rota allocations showed that 86% of SHO lists and 62% of SpR lists were scheduled to be supervised. This study has described our training activity and facilitated departmental changes, as well as highlighting the need for great care in interpreting trainee supervision data acquired from different sources, particularly when comparisons are being made. PMID:10844835
Background Uterine rupture is one of the most devastating complications of labour that exposes the mother and foetus to grave danger hence contributing to the high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity in Uganda. Every year, 6000 women die due to complications of pregnancy and childbirth, uterine rupture accounts for about 8% of all maternal deaths. The objective of this study was to establish the incidence of uterine rupture, predisposing factors, maternal and fetal outcomes and modes of management at a regional referral university hospital in South-western Uganda. Methods Case–control design of women with uterine rupture during 2005–2006. Controls were women who had spontaneous vaginal delivery or were delivered by caesarean section without uterine rupture as a complication. For every case, three consecutive in-patient chart numbers were picked and retrieved as controls. All available case files, labour ward and theater records were reviewed. Results A total of 83 cases of uterine rupture out of 10940 deliveries were recorded giving an incidence of uterine rupture of 1 in 131 deliveries. Predisposing factors for uterine rupture were previous cesarean section delivery(OR 5.3 95% CI 2.7-10.2), attending?4 antenatal visits (OR 3.3 95% CI 1.6-6.9), parity???5(OR 3.67 95% CI 2.0-6.72), no formal education (OR 2.0 95% CI 1.0-3.9), use of herbs (OR15.2 95% CI 6.2-37.0), self referral (OR 6.1 95% CI 3.3-11.2) and living in a distance >5 km from the facility (OR 10.86 95% CI 1.46-81.03). There were 106 maternal deaths during the study period giving a facility maternal mortality ratio of 1034 /100,000 live births, there were 10 maternal deaths due to uterine rupture giving a case fatality rate of 12%. Conclusion Uterine rupture still remains one of the major causes of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality in Mbarara Regional referral Hospital in Western Uganda. Promotion of skilled attendance at birth, use of family planning among those at high risk, avoiding use of herbs during pregnancy and labour, correct use of partograph and preventing un necesarry c-sections are essential in reducing the occurences of uterine repture. PMID:23718798
Background Cut throat injuries though rarely reported in literature pose a great therapeutic challenge because multiple vital structures are vulnerable to injuries in the small, confined unprotected area. A sudden increase in the number of cut throat patients in our centre in recent years prompted the authors to analyze this problem. This study was conducted in our local setting to describe the etiology, patterns and treatment outcome of these injuries. Methods This was a combined retrospective and prospective study of cut throat injury patients who were managed at Bugando Medical Centre between February 2009 and January 2013. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0. Results A total of 98 patients with cut throat injuries were studied. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2.4: 1. The median age of patients was 26 years (range 8 to 78 years). Majority of patients (79.6%) had no employment and most of them (65.3%) came from rural community. Homicide was the commonest (55.1%) cause, followed by suicidal attempts (34.7%) and accidental (10.2%) injuries. Interpersonal conflict (24.4%) was the most common motivating factor for homicidal injury whereas psychiatric illness (16.2%) and road traffic accidents (9.2%) were the most frequent motivating factors of suicidal attempt and accidental injuries respectively. The majority of injuries were in Zone II accounting for 65.3% of cases and most of them had laryngeal (57.1%) injury. Surgical debridement, laryngeal/hypopharynx repair and tracheostomy were the most common surgical procedures performed in 93.9%, 73.5% and 70.4% of patients respectively. Postoperative complication rate was 57.1%, the commonest being surgical site infections in 28.1% of patients and it was significantly associated with late presentation and anatomical zones (P?0.001). The overall median duration of hospitalization was 12 days. Patients who had postoperative complications stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (p?=?0.011). Mortality rate was 11.2% and was significantly associated with co-morbidities, delayed presentation and presence of complications (p?0.001). The follow up of patients was poor. Conclusions Cut throat injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young adult males in our setting. Addressing the root causes of violence such as poverty, unemployment, and substance abuse will reduce the incidence of these injuries in our environment. PMID:24423426
Patro, Nibedita; Panda, Maitreyee; Dash, Mrutyunjay
Background: Acne vulgaris is a common disease of the skin affecting the socially vulnerable young age group. There are multitudes of treatment options available but till now no studies have been reported to demonstrate the current prescribing pattern of drugs in acne vulgaris. Aim: To study the prescribing pattern of drugs in acne in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Odisha, India. Materials and Methods: The study was an observational study conducted for a period of one year on patients more than 10 yeras age and having acne attending the Skin & VD OPD. Drug induced acne and acneiform eruptions were excluded. Results: A total of 1210 prescriptions of acne were analysed. The male to female ratio was 1:1.29. Most patients presented with grade 2 (60%) acne followed by grade 3 (20.99%). Out of prescribed drugs, 47.44% were oral and 52.56% were topical formulations. Oral isotretinoin (68.10%) was the most frequently prescribed drug among oral formulations. Doxycycline (54.18%) was the most preferable oral antibiotic. The average number of drugs per prescription was 3.003. Polypharmacy was preferred over monotherapy. Conclusion: In the management of acne, judicious and early intervention with oral isotretinoin improves the overall treatment outcome, the fact which has increased its use in acne patients. PMID:25954687
Esposito, Silvano; Gioia, Renato; De Simone, Giuseppe; Noviello, Silvana; Lombardi, Domenico; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo Giuseppe; Filippelli, Amelia; Rega, Maria Rosaria; Massari, Angelo; Elberti, Maria Giovanna; Grisi, Lucilla; Boccia, Giovanni; De Caro, Francesco; Leone, Sebastiano
Objectives Surgical infections represent an increasingly important problem for the National Health System. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganisms concerned as well as the utilization of antibiotics in the General and Emergency Surgery wards of a large teaching hospital in southern Italy in the period 2011–2013. Methods Data concerning non-duplicate bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility were retrieved from the Vitek 2 database. The pharmacy provided data about the consumption of antibiotics in the above reported wards. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test were used. Results In all, 94 Gram-negative were isolated in 2011, 77 in 2012, and 125 in 2013, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa always being the most frequently isolated microorganisms. A. baumannii showed high rates of resistance to carbapenems (with values of 100% in 2011 and 2012) and low rates of resistance to tigecycline, colistin and amikacin. In the same years, there were respectively 105, 93, and 165 Gram-positive isolated. The rate of MRSA isolates ranged from 66% to 75% during the study period. Conclusions Our results show no significant increase in antimicrobial resistance over the period in question, and a higher rate of both MRSA isolates and resistance to carbapenems in A. baumannii compared with other European data.
Pandey, Santwana; Raza, Shahid; Bhatta, Chandra Prakash
Background: Bloodstream infections are associated with a significant patient morbidity and mortality. The detection of microorganisms in the patients’ blood has a great diagnostic and prognostic significance. The early positive results provide valuable diagnostic information, based on which the appropriate antimicrobial therapy can be initiated. Objective: To know the aetiology of the bloodstream infections in the Kathmandu Medical College, Nepal and the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the causative organisms. Materials and Methods: The blood specimens which were received from May 2010 to October 2010 in Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, were processed and all the positive isolates were included in the study. The isolates were identified by the standard laboratory procedures. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns were determined by the modified Kirby Bauer antibiotic sensitivity method. Result: Of the 1089 blood cultures which were received with the suspected cases of blood stream infections, 138 (12.6 %) were bacteriologically positive. Salmonella serotypes were isolated in 42.7% cases of blood stream infections, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae in 19.5%, Staphylococcus aureus in 15.9% and others in the rest of the cases. All the gram-negative bacilli isolates showed lower degrees of resistance to amikacin and ofloxacin. All the gram positive isolates were sensitive to amikacin, oxacillin and vancomycin. Conclusion: This study stresses on the need for a continued screening and surveillance in the routine blood culture technique for starting with the empiric therapy for blood borne infections. PMID:23730636
Orji, E O; Fasubaa, O B; Onwudiegwu, Uche; Dare, F O; Ogunniyi, S O
The occupational health hazards among health-care workers in an obstetrics and gynaecology unit were investigated. A total of 78 pretested questionnaires were administered to the doctors, nurses and ward orderlies in the unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The common occupational health hazards were work-related stress (83.3%), needle-stick injuries (75.6%), bloodstains on skin (73.1%), sleep disturbance (42.3%), skin reactions (37.2%) assault from patients (24.3%) and hepatitis (8.9%). Nearly half of the staff used diazepam, lexotan or alcohol to cope with the stress of work. A greater percentage of doctors compared to nurses and ward orderlies used safety precautions such as gloves, facemasks and aprons. All the staff employed regular handwashing after various procedures. However no category of staff adopted regularly proper disposal of needles and sharps into separate puncture-resistant containers. About 59% of the staff recap used needles. The implications of the findings were discussed and recommendations made appropriately. PMID:12521735
Yeong, C T; Atputharajah, V
Ignorance is not bliss when it comes to sexuality. Psychosexual problems lead to shame, fumbling, needless fears, low-self esteem and even subfertility. The demands for help appears to be increasing; as the general population become more aware of its presence and the treatment options available through the mass media and better health education. Sex therapy has traditionally been the realm of the psychiatrist but with the gynaecologist as the first contact for most women, the number of women seeking advice directly from their doctors will only increase with time. A total of 243 new cases of sexual dysfunction were treated at the sexual problem clinic in Kandang Kerbau Hospital between January 1994 and November 1996; majority of which were self-referrals (48.5%). The patient pool consisted of more males than females although the clinical setting is in an obstetrics and gynaecology teaching institute. Vaginismus and erectile problems constituted the main complaints. Erectile problems are more common in the patients above 40 years old (p < 0.001). We report here our experience of such a sexual problem clinic and hope to provide insight into this area of medicine from the perspective of a practising gynaecologist. PMID:10972009
Ohanaka, E C; Osime, U; Okonkwo, C E
Splenic injuries are common and require emergency treatment. Efforts are now geared towards splenic conservation by way of splenorrhaphy. Thirty cases of splenic injuries seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria between June 1992 and June 1997 were evaluated with a view to assessing the pattern of injuries and the management with respect particularly to splenic conservation. Males accounted for 66.6% of cases and the age range was 3-57 years (mean 20.8). Road traffic accident was the leading cause (63.3%) of injury. Splenic injuries were graded in severity from grades one to five based on the organ injury scaling. Injuries in 3(10%) cases were Grade 1, 5(17%) Grade 2, 7(23%) Grade 3, 4(20%) Grade 4 and 9(30%) Grade 5. Because majority of the splenic injuries were severe only four (13.3%) in Grades 1 and 2 had salvage operation of splenorrhaphy. All the other patients had splenectomy. Splenic conservation has been little practiced but could be encouraged by the more experienced surgeons having more interest in preserving splenic functions. PMID:11505888
Obisesan, Oluranti J.; Olowe, Olugbenga A.; Taiwo, Samuel S.
The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31–45 and 16–30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere.
Baqain, Zaid H; Sawair, Faleh A; Tamimi, Zaid; Bsoul, Nazzal; Al Edwan, Ghazi; Almasad, Jamal K; Abbadi, Abdalla A
INTRODUCTION We describe our experience with oncology patients on a frequent dosing schedule of intravenous (i.v.) bisphosphonates at the Jordan University Hospital (JUH). PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients treated by i.v. bisphosphonates in the medical oncology unit at the JUH were examined for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ). Diagnosis was made according to the guidelines of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) original position paper. RESULTS Of the 41 patients, four developed BRONJ, two in maxilla, one in mandible and one bimaxillary. Patients with BRONJ were older; mean age was 69.3 ±3.1 years compared to 62.8 ± 12.5 years (P = 0.022). Dental co-morbidities were more commonly present in patients with the disease (P = 0.038). Patients who developed BRONJ were on treatment for a longer duration of time; the mean duration of treatment was 23.5 ± 8.4 months compared to 11.9 ± 13.4 months (P = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS The results of this case series demonstrated that age and poor oral health status are significant risk factors of BRONJ for oncology patients on long-term frequent dosing schedule of i.v. bisphosphonates. PMID:20522306
Storey, E; Cook, M; Peppard, R; Newton-John, H; Byrne, E
Cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome, its variants, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy presenting during the period 1980-84 were identified through computer-based record systems. Case notes were examined, and cases that did not meet standard criteria for diagnosis were excluded. A hundred and ten patients were identified, giving an annual adult incidence rate of 0.9/100,000 and a male:female ratio of 1.3:1. The majority of cases developed severe tetraparesis, but unusual presentations included the Miller-Fisher variant, paraplegia, and bibrachial involvement. There was wide variation in peak disability, ranging from ambulant with weakness (32%), through bedfast but without significant respiratory involvement (29%), to respiratory involvement requiring admission to an intensive care unit (38%). Of those discharged directly home, the average hospital stay for those less than 50 years was 27 days, whilst that for those over 50 was 49 days. CSF protein was measured in 87 patients, and was greater than or equal to 0.6 g/L in 76% of these. Nerve conduction studies were performed in 52 patients, and were abnormal in 90% of these. Guillain-Barré syndrome and allied conditions represent a major drain on health resources, and the need to provide adequate plasmapheresis facilities for patients early in the course of severe disease is stressed. PMID:2631660
Rossi, L A; Barruffini, R de C; Garcia, T R; Chianca, T C
Burns are a significant health problem in Brazil, but there have been few data collected that could shape treatment and prevention programs. To help overcome that knowledge gap, this study looked at the types of accidents and the characteristics of 138 burn patients admitted into the burn unit of the University of Săo Paulo Hospital in Ribeirăo Preto, state of Săo Paulo, Brazil, between November, 1991, and December, 1993. Patient charts were reviewed to collect data on age, sex, region of the body affected, burn depth and surface affected, agent causing the burn, and circumstances in which the burn happened. Of the 138 cases, 71% occurred in the home. In 50% of all accidents the victims were children. Boiling water was the agent responsible for 59% of the accidents among children younger than 3 years of age; fuel alcohol used in the home for cooking and other purposes caused 57% of the accidents among children between 7 and 11 years, the most affected pediatric group. Among adults, the group between 20 and 39 years of age was the most affected (23%); 84% of the victims in this age group were male. Seventeen percent of all cases involved adult males at work. Women suffered burns in accidents at home (67%) and in suicide-related events (33%). Seventy-five percent of the suicide cases were women. The strategies to reduce the incidence of burn injuries should aim at eliminating environmental risk factors and implementing educational programs disseminated through radio and television. PMID:9924518
Chawla, Jaya; Arora, D.; Paul, Mohini; Ajmani, Sangita N.
Objectives We sought to determine the frequency, demographic characteristics, indications, and feto-maternal outcomes associated with emergency peripartum hysterectomy in an easily accessible urban center. Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational, and analytical study over a period of eight years, from August 2006 to July 2014. A total of 56 cases of emergency obstetric hysterectomy (EOH) were studied in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Hospital, New Delhi. Results The incidence of EOH in our study was 30 per 100,000 following vaginal delivery and 270 per 100,000 following cesarean section. The overall incidence was 83 per 100,000 deliveries. Atonic postpartum hemorrhage (25%) was the most common indication followed by placenta accreta (21%) and uterine rupture (17.5%). The most frequent sequelae were febrile morbidity (19.2%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (13.5%). Maternal mortality was 17.7% whereas perinatal mortality was 37.5%. Conclusions A balanced approach to EOH can prove to be lifesaving at times when conservative surgical modalities fail and interventional radiology is not immediately available. Our study highlights the place of extirpative surgery in modern obstetrics in the face of rising rates of cesarean section and multiple pregnancies particularly in urban settings in developing countries. PMID:26171124
Liu, Helu; Lü, Dongyue; Liang, Hong; Dou, Yuhong
The multidrug-resistant rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae has risen rapidly worldwide. To better understand the multidrug resistance situation and molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a total of 153 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected, and drug susceptibility test was performed to detect its susceptibility patterns to 13 kinds of antibiotics. Phenotypic tests for carbapenemases ESBLs and AmpC enzyme-producing strains were performed to detect the resistance phenotype of the isolates. Then PCR amplification and sequencing analysis were performed for the drug resistance determinants. The results showed that 63 strains harbored blaCTX-M gene, and 14 strains harbored blaDHA gene. Moreover, there were 5 strains carrying blaKPC gene, among which 4 strains carried blaCTX-M, blaDHA and blaKPC genes, and these 4 strains were also resistant to imipenem. Our data indicated that drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were highly prevalent in the hospital. Thus it is warranted that surveillance of epidemiology of those resistant isolates should be a cause for concern, and appropriate drugs should be chosen. PMID:24740167
Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p < 0.001); 43.2% in auxiliaries, 26.1% in nurses, 18.9% among physicians, and 34.7% among other non-health professionals (p = 0.024). The findings showed a very high level of agreement with smoking bans, even among smokers, despite the fact that 70.3% of the smokers smoked on the premises and 76% of staff reported being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). In addition 42.8% reported that SHS was unpleasant and 28.3% admitted complaining. MLR showed that smoking behaviour was the most important predictor of TC attitudes. Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change. PMID:21943400
Saud, Mohammed; Madhu, B; Srinath, K M; Ashok, N C; Renuka, M
Context: Tobacco is a leading cause of disease and premature death. Most of the smokers visit a doctor for various health related ailments and thus such clinic visits provide many opportunities for interventions and professional tobacco cessation advice. Aims: The primary aim of the following study is to assess the physician practices, perspectives, resources, barriers and education relating to tobacco cessation and their perceived need for training for the same. The secondary aim is to compare the physician's cessation practices from patient's perspective. Settings and Design: A descriptive study was conducted in a hospital attached to Medical College in Mysore city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Information about doctor's practices, perspectives and their perceived need for training in tobacco cessation were collected using pre-structured self-administered Questionnaire, which were distributed in person. Patient's practices and perspectives were assessed using a pre-structured Oral Questionnaire. Results: Almost 95% of physicians said that they ask patients about their smoking status and 94% advise them to quit smoking, but only 50% assist the patient to quit smoking and only 28% arrange follow-up visits. Thus, they do not regularly provide assistance to help patients quit, even though 98% of the physicians believed that helping patients to quit was a part of their role. Only 18% and 35% of the physicians said that Undergraduate Medical Education and Post Graduate Medical Education respectively prepared them very well to participate in smoking cessation activities. Conclusions: Tobacco cessation requires repeated and regular assistance. Such assistance is not being provided to patients by attending doctors. Our medical education system is failing to impart the necessary skills to doctors, needed to help patients quit smoking. Reforms in education are needed so as to prepare the physician to effectively address this problem. PMID:24574555
Kehinde, E. O.; Al-Awadi, K. A.; Al-Hunayan, A.; Okasha, G. H.; Al-Tawheed, A.; Ali, Y.
BACKGROUND: Ureteric lithiasis is a common urological problem in Kuwait. Because of the different interventional approaches, we carried out an audit on the morbidity associated with the surgical management of the disorder. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The surgical records were reviewed of all patients with the diagnosis of ureteric lithiasis that were managed surgically by ureteroscopy or ureterolithotomy in Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital in Kuwait between January 1996 and December 1999. Patients' bio-data, location of calculi, indications for surgical intervention, types of therapeutic interventions, operating surgeon and complications were analysed. Patients managed primarily and successfully by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy were excluded from this analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1383 patients with ureteric calculus were managed in the period under review--775 (56%), 567 (41%), and 41 (3%) patients were managed by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy and ureterolithotomy, respectively. The 608 patients managed by ureteroscopy or ureterolithotomy had a total of 710 operations. The commonest surgical procedure performed was ureteroscopy with Dormia basket with or without double 'J' stenting and this accounted for 418 (58.9%) operations. The least common procedure was ureteric meatotomy with Dormia basket and with or without double 'J' stenting in 9 (1.3%) patients. The overall complication rate was 110 out of 710 (15.5%) operations. Of the complications, 101 (92%) were minor (e.g. haematuria, fever, and mucosal injury). Nine (8%) complications were major complications (e.g. ureteric perforation and ureteric avulsions). Ureterolithotomy and ureteroscopy with intracorporeal lithotripsy were associated with the highest complication rates. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis has shown that with technological advances, the treatment of ureteric lithiasis has improved and major complications have decreased. However, with so many therapeutic options to choose from, there is a need to audit the various therapeutic options and select those associated with the least morbidity rates in each urology unit. PMID:14594540
Ajuwon, Grace Ada
Background The internet is an important source of up-to-date medical information. Although several studies in different countries have explored the extent to which health science students use the computer and the internet, few researches are available on this subject in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to assess the uptake of computer and internet by health science students studying in the country. Methods One hundred and eighty three first year medical and nursing students of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, completed a-25 item questionnaire during routine Library Orientation Program in the medical library. The EPI-Info software was used for data analysis. Results The mean ages for medical students and the student nurses were 22 and 24.6 years respectively. Overall, 42.6% of the entire sample could use the computer, 57.4% could not. While more than half (58%) of the medical students are computer literate, majority (75.9%) of the student nurses are not. Slightly more than two thirds (60.7%) of the entire students had ever used the internet, 33. 9% had not. E-mail was the most popular of internet services used by the students (76.4%) and the cyber café was the common place where students had accessed these services. The students' mean scores on a 15-point perceived self-efficacy scale for internet-related tasks was 3.8 for medical and 0.7 for nursing students (p = 0.00). Students who are computer literate had superior mean scores (4.8) than those without (0.6) (p = 0.000). Conclusion First year clinical and nursing students in Ibadan Nigeria have not fully utilised the opportunity that the use of computer and internet offer for medical education. Improved efforts such as inclusion of computer education in medical and nursing curricular and establishment of computer laboratories are required to increase the student's access to computers and internet. PMID:14498997
Ikpeme, Ikpeme A; Oku, Enembe O; Ngim, Ngim E; Abang, Innocent E; Udosen, Anthony M
Introduction: The global burden of road traffic injury (RTI)-related trauma is enormous and has the highest impact in low income economies. Loss of lives in the most productive age groups and the socio-economic costs to these weak economies, coupled with poor infrastructure for management of the severely injured dictate that well executed preventive measures be instituted in these countries. Low and middle income economies account for 90% RTI-related deaths in the world, yet in these regions, public health regulations on road safety hardly exist and where they do, are hardly enforced. Aim: To document variations in injury frequency, severity and outcomes following the ban on the use of motorcycles as a means of public transportation in Calabar. Patients and Methods: A prospective study of RTI patients who presented in our Emergency center over a 12 month period. Information recorded included biodata, anatomic location of injury, injury-arrival time, mode of transportation to hospital and final disposition at discharge. Chest injuries were excluded as there were no data for comparison. Results were analyzed by SPSS version 20 and compared with the 2005 Trauma Study Group results. Results: There were 366 road traffic injuries out of 5612 emergency room presentations during the period. There were 237 males and 99 females (M: F= 2.4: 1), mean age of patients was 30.13±12.62 years. Businessmen were the most commonly involved occupational group (n= 138; 38.7%) and the mean injury-arrival interval was 16.57±56.14 hours. Only 12 (3.6%) patients arrived by ambulance and 108 (32.1%) left against medical advice. Conclusion: RTIs constitute a major socioeconomic burden in the developing world. Lack of research, high risk behaviors and lack of enforceable road use regulations contribute to high rates of RTI-related mortality and morbidity. Preventive interventions and appropriate research to identify risk factors will reduce the burden of RTIs in low and middle income economies. PMID:24273697
The Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Colorado State University has an opening for a position as an Equine Field Service Veterinarian. Equine Field Service provides general medical care, preventive health, herd
The Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Colorado State University has an opening for a position to provide a hands-on learning experience for 4th year veterinary students while providing excellent equine appointments with clients in the Northern Colorado region Teach 4th year veterinary students about
Hoet, Armando E; van Balen, Joany; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Bateman, Shane; Hillier, Andrew; Dyce, Jonathan; Wittum, Thomas E
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as an important zoonotic and nosocomial pathogen in veterinary settings. Even though human risk factors for MRSA infection and colonization are well known, this information in animals is lacking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with MRSA carrier dogs on their arrival at a veterinary teaching hospital. A total of 435 dogs were enrolled in the MRSA active surveillance program at The Ohio State University-Veterinary Medical Center over a 1-year period. Dogs were screened for MRSA on arrival, regardless of health status, sex, breed, or age. In addition, an epidemiological survey and medical history were obtained for each dog to identify potential risk factors up to 1 year prior to the appointment. Of 435 dogs included in the study, 25 (5.7%) were MRSA positive, with 86.5% of the isolates classified staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) type II and USA100. Four of the 25 MRSA carrier dogs were healthy, 20 had health issues unrelated to MRSA, and 1 had an active MRSA infection. MRSA was detected in the nares (72%, 18/25), skin lesions (24%, 6/25), and the perianal area (16%, 4/25). Except for previous surgery <90 days (odds ratio [OR]=4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-17.6; p value 0.01), none of the variables related to the previous medical history, dog's management, home environment, and other potential exposures were associated with the MRSA carrier status. However, the profession of the owner was significantly associated, and dogs owned by veterinary students were 20.5 times (95% CI 4.5-93.6; p value?0.01) more likely to be MRSA positive than dogs owned by clients with different occupations. MRSA-positive dogs were dispersed in different categories, preventing the creation of an epidemiological profile that would allow their early recognition upon arrival to a veterinary hospital. However, the association between veterinary students with MRSA-positive dogs is a concern that deserves further evaluation. PMID:23473222
Li, Bin; Xu, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Zhi-chang; Wang, Mei-hua; Cao, Ying-ping
The aim of this study was to characterize the carbapenemases in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) from a Chinese teaching hospital. A total of 40 CR-KPs were screened for the presence of carbapenemases. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by agar dilution. The modified Hodge test was used for the detection of carbapenemase production. Carbapenemase, extended-spectrum ?-lactamase, and AmpC genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. A conjugation test was performed using a broth culture mating method, transferred plasmids were typed by PCR-based replicon typing, and clonal relatedness was investigated by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences PCR (ERIC-PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The results revealed that modified Hodge test was positive for 28 CR-KPs, and CR-KPs exhibited high resistance rates against various antibiotics, except colistin (5.0%) and tigecycline (22.5%). ERIC and MLST profiles showed no clonal outbreak. PCR demonstrated a high prevalence rate (55.0%, 22/40) of metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) in CR-KPs. IMP-4, IMP-8, NDM-1, and KPC-2 were identified in 14 (35.0%), 7 (17.5%), 2 (5.0%), and 7 (17.5%) isolates, respectively. Notably, 2 CR-KPs coproduced 2 carbapenemases simultaneously (IMP-8/NDM-1 and IMP-4/KPC-2). In vitro transfer of carbapenem resistance was successful for 11 MBL-producing CR-KPs. The extended spectrum ?-lactamase genes were detected in 30 (75.0%) of these CR-KPs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report focusing on carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae due to metalloenzymes in China. Screening and surveillance of MBLs in Enterobacteriaceae is urgently needed in this region to control and prevent the spread of these resistance determinants. PMID:25285938
Lawan, Umar M.; Amole, Gboluwaga T.; Jahum, Mahmud G.; Sani, Abdullahi
Background: Appropriate infant feeding is the key to optimum infant and child development and survival. This study investigates age-appropriate infant feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending the immunization and child welfare clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, a sample of 300 sets of infants (age ?12 months) and caregivers was systematically selected and studied. The data were analyzed using the MINITAB® 12.21 (USA) statistical software. Results: All the infants studied were still on breast milk. Most of the mothers demonstrated correct body positioning (89.9) and attachment (78.7%) during breastfeeding, and effective suckling was demonstrated in 77.0%. Interestingly, none of the infants was either exclusively breastfed for 6 months or currently on exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, only 64 (58.2%) of the 110 infants that were more than 6 months of age had appropriately been started on complementary feeding from 6 months of age. Overall, most caregivers (88.7%) had “fair” to “good” infant feeding practices. The practices were significantly associated with their level of education, and their relationship with the infants. Up to 40.0% and 73.7% of the infants had varying degrees of wasting and stunting respectively. Infant feeding practices and the age of the infants emerged as the only factors significantly associated with stunting, while both the caregivers’ practices and age of the infants emerged as significant predictors of wasting in the infants. Conclusion and Recommendations: Barely 3 years to the 2015 target of the millennium development goals (MDGs), infant feeding and nutritional status still poses a serious threat to the dream of realizing the MDG-4. The Ministry of Health and relevant developing partners in this region should as a matter of urgency, formulate and implement a strong community-based public health intervention program to improve the knowledge and practices of mothers on infant feeding. PMID:24696628
Akpan-Idiok, Paulina Ackley; Anarado, Agnes Nonye
Introduction Cancer care is devastating to families. This research studied the informal caregivers’ perceptions of burden of caregiving to cancer patients attending University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Methods The research adopted a cross-sectioned descriptive design and 210 caregivers providing care to advanced cancer patients were purposively selected. Data were collected using a researcher developed questionnaire and standardized Zarit Burden Interview scale (ZBIS). Data collected were analysed using descriptive and chi-square statistics with the help of SPSS 18.0 and PAS 19.0 softwares. Results The results indicated that the caregivers were in their youthful and active economic age, dominated by females, Christians, spouses, partners and parents. The burden levels experienced by the caregivers were as follows: severe (46.2%), moderate (36.2%) and trivial of no burden (17.6%). The forms of burden experienced were physical (43.4%), psychological (43.3%), financial (41.1%) and social (46.7%), quite frequently and nearly always. Psychological and social forms of burden had the highest weighted score of 228 in terms of magnitude of burden. The result further showed that there was a significant (P = 0.001) and inverse association between caregivers’ burden and the care receivers’ functional ability. The level of burden also increased significantly (P = 0.000) with the duration of care, while there was also a significant (P = 0.01) relationship between caregivers’ experience of burden and their desire to continue caregiving. Conclusion Caregiving role can be enhanced by provision of interventions such as formal education programme on cancer caregiving, oncology, home services along side with transmural care. PMID:25419297
Iliyasu, Zubairu; Babashani, Musa
Background The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been accompanied by a severe epidemic of tuberculosis (TB), although the prevalence of coinfection is largely unknown, especially in developing countries, including Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of TB coinfection among HIV-seropositive Nigerians. Methods The case files of HIV/AIDS patients attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Nigeria from January to December 2006 were reviewed. Results A total of 1320 HIV/AIDS patients had complete records and were reviewed, among which 138 (10.5%) were coinfected with TB (95% CI, 8.9% to 12.2%). Pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 103 (74.6%) patients, among whom only 18 (17.5%) were sputum-positive. Fifty (36.2%) coinfected patients had some type of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB); 15 had both pulmonary TB and EPTB. Among the 35 patients with EPTB only, 20 (57.1%) had abdominal TB, 5 (14.3%) had TB adenitis, 5 (14.3%) had spinal TB, 3 (8.6%) were being monitored for tuberculous meningitis, and 1 (2.9%) each had renal TB and tuberculous adrenalitis. The highest prevalence of TB, 13.7% (n = 28), was seen among patients aged 41–50 years. TB coinfection was significantly associated with marital status, WHO clinical stage, and CD4 count. Marital status (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.28–3.59; P = 0.04), WHO clinical stage at presentation (4.81; 1.42–8.34; P = 0.001), and baseline CD4 count (2.71; 1.51–6.21; P = 0.02) remained significant predictors after adjustment for confounding. Conclusions The moderately high prevalence of TB among HIV-seropositive patients underscores the urgent need for strategies that lead to rapid identification and treatment of coinfection with active or latent TB. PMID:19265273
Background Peripheral pancytopenia is not a disease by itself; rather it describes simultaneous presence of anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia resulting from a number of disease processes. Only a few systematic studies have been published on the topic of pancytopenia, although extensive studies have been done for its different etiological factors like aplastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, leukemia, etc. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate for and to identify the causes of pancytopenia, to find out the frequency of different causes, to determine the incidence of pancytopenia in relation to sex and age and to compare our findings with those of other similar studies from this part of the world. Methods This was a prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology of a teaching institute and a tertiary care hospital in southern Maharashtra, India, over a period of two years. All the patients referred to the central clinical laboratory for routine complete blood count (CBC) and peripheral smear (PS) examination, from both - the outpatient and the inpatient departments, were screened for pancytopenia. Of these, a total number of 250 cases that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria were selected. Detailed hematological investigations followed by bone marrow aspiration wherever indicated and possible were performed according to standard methods to ascertain the causes of pancytopenia. Results A definite male preponderance was observed, the male to female ratio being 2.6 : 1. The majority of cases were encountered in 3rd and 4th decades. Hypersplenism (29.2%), Infections (25.6%), Myelosuppressants (16.8%) and Megaloblastosis (13.2%) were the four most common causes in this large series on pancytopenia from a single centre in India. Conclusion Detailed clinical history and meticulous physical examination along with baseline hematological investigations, provides invaluable information in the complete workup of pancytopenic patients, helping in systematic planning of further investigations to diagnose and ascertain the cause, avoiding a battery of unnecessary tests. PMID:24238033
Shakya, B; Shrestha, S; Mitra, T
Present study was conducted to assess the nasal carriage rate of methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among patients, visitors/patient attendants and healthcare personnel at National Medical College Teaching Hospital, Birgunj, Nepal. A total of 112 nasal swabs (patients: 31, visitors/patient attendants: 61, and healthcare personnel: 20) were subjected to bacteriological investigation following standard protocol. S. aureus isolates were identified by mannitol fermentation and coagulase positivity. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar medium. S. aureus was isolated in 14 (12.5%) of participants (M: 11.3%, F: 13.6%). Highest nasal colonization rate was found among healthcare personnel (25.0%) followed by the visitors/patient attendants (13.1%) and the patients (3.2%) (P>0.05). Highest positive rate was observed in the age group d"14 years (33.3%), followed by 15 to 50 years (13.2%) and >50 years (5.6%) (P>0.05). Out of 14 S. aureus isolates, 57.1% were methicillin resistant, prevalence rate of MRSA among total subjects being 7.1%. MRSA prevalence rate were 5.6% and 8.5% in total male and female participants, respectively (P>0.05). Highest MRSA prevalence rate was among health-care personnel (10.0%), followed by visitors/patient attendants (8.2%) and the patients (3.2%) (P>0.05). All MRSA isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, followed by Cephalexin (37.5%), Ciprofloxacin (37.5%), Tetracycline (37.5%), Gentamycin (25.0%), Erythromycin (0.0%) and Vancomycin (0.0%). High rate of nasal MRSA carriage rate found in this study indicates the need for standard infection control to prevent MRSA transmission. PMID:20677605
Finley Jr., Russell L.
For our pediatric and musculoskeletal oncology rotations our residents are sent to the University of Michigan. Mott's Childrens Hospital is a level 1 pediatric hospital's. The PGY 3's also spend two months on MSK oncology here. #12;
Omonona, O V; Onwuka, O S; Okogbue, C O
Groundwater quality of Enugu metropolis comprising Achara Layout, Abakpa, and Emene settlement areas has been studied and characterized using multivariate statistical techniques. Three principal components (PCs) which explain 77.93 and 88.17% were extracted at Achara Layout and Abakpa, respectively, while two PCs which explain 83.13% were extracted at Emene. PC 1 of all the three areas reflects weathering of the host rock minerals and constitutes the dominant controlling process for all the areas. PC 2 of the three areas and PC 3 of Achara Layout and Abakpa can be attributed to both weathering/leaching of feldspathic minerals of host rocks (giving rise to alkaline earth metals in the groundwater) and anthropogenic activities. Cluster analysis defined groups of groundwater samples with similar hydrochemical characteristics. Two groups in Achara Layout and Emene fell into the high pollution loading class, while only one group in Abakpa fell into this class. The variation in the groundwater quality within each of the three areas may be explained in terms of groundwater flow directions, land use, and well depths. Discriminant analysis showed that the discriminating parameters of the groundwater quality of Achara Layout, Abakpa, and Emene are total dissolved solids, Na and Mg, and Cl, respectively. This study has revealed that the groundwater quality of the areas is controlled by both geogenic and anthropogenic processes and activities. The generated groundwater quality spatial variation models for each area will serve as a tool in the planning and development of groundwater in that region. PMID:24037228
Improvement in efficiency of healthcare in the United States is an urgent issue. Information technology is seen as one of key solutions to improve efficiency. As such, hospitals in the United States are rapidly adopting ...
Amy L. Pakyz; Michael Oinonen; Ronald E. Polk
Many hospital antimicrobial stewardship programs restrict the availability of selected drugs by requiring prior approval. Carbapenems may be among the restricted drugs, but it is unclear if hospitals that restrict availability actually use fewer carbapenems than hospitals that do not restrict use. Nor is it clear if restriction is related to resistance. We evaluated the relationship between carbapenem restriction and
Michael Buist; Julia Harrison; Ellie Abaloz; Susan Van Dyke
Problem In-hospital cardiac arrest often represents failure of optimal clinical care. The use of medical emergency teams to prevent such events is controversial. In-hospital cardiac arrests have been reduced in several single centre historical control studies, but the only randomised prospective study showed no such benefit. In our hospital an important problem was failure to call the medical emergency team
Aij, Kjeld Harald; Simons, Frederique Elisabeth; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Visse, Merel
Objectives To date, experiences of leaders in the implementation of Lean after a Lean Training Programme have not been systematically investigated within teaching hospitals. Existing studies have identified barriers and facilitators only from an improvement programme perspective and have not considered the experiences of leaders themselves. This study aims to bridge this gap. Design Semistructured, indepth interviews. Setting One of largest teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants 31 medical, surgical and nursing professionals with an average of 19.2?years of supervisory experience. All professionals were appointed to a Lean Training Programme and were directly involved in the implementation of Lean. Results The evidence obtained in this study shows that, from the perspectives of participants, leadership management support, a continuous learning environment and cross-departmental cooperation play a significant role in successful Lean implementation. The results suggest that a Lean Training Programme contributed to positive outcomes in personal and professional skills that were evident during the first 4?months after programme completion. Conclusions Implementing Lean in a teaching hospital setting is a challenge because of the ambiguous and complex environment of a highly professionalised organisation. The study found that leadership management support and a continuous learning environment are important facilitators of Lean implementation. To increase the successful outcomes of leadership actions, training should be supplemented with actions to remove perceived barriers. This requires the involvement of all professionals, the crossing of departmental boundaries and a focus on meaning-making processes rather than simply ‘implementing’ facts. Therefore, this research suggests that programme participants, such as staff members and leaders, can mutually explore the meanings of Lean thinking and working for their own contexts. By entering this shared learning process (eg, learning on the job) the ownership of Lean implementation could also increase. PMID:24171938
Isaac, IZ; Mainasara, AS; Erhabor, Osaro; Omojuyigbe, ST; Dallatu, MK; Bilbis, LS; Adias, TC
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human enzyme deficiencies in the world. It is particularly common in populations living in malaria-endemic areas, affecting more than 400 million people worldwide. This present study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among children visiting the Emergency Paediatric Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital for pediatric-related care. The study included 118 children, made up of 77 (65.3%) males and 41 (34.7%) females aged ?5 years with mean age of 3.26 ± 1.90 years. Randox G6PD quantitative in vitro test screening was used for the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency. Of the 118 children tested, 17 (14.4%) were G6PD-deficient. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency was concentrated predominantly among male children (22.1%). Male sex was significantly correlated with G6PD deficiency among the children studied (r = 7.85, P = 0.01). The highest prevalence occurred among children in the 2- to 5-year age-group. Of the 17 G6PD-deficient children, twelve (70.2%) were moderately deficient, while five (29.4%) were severely deficient. Blood film from G6PD-deficient children indicated the following morphological changes; Heinz bodies, schistocytes, target cells, nucleated red cells, spherocytes, and polychromasia. This present study has shown a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency among children residing in Sokoto in the northwestern geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The study indicated a male sex bias in the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among the children studied. There is a need for the routine screening of children for G6PD deficiency in our environment, to allow for evidence-based management of these children and to ensure the avoidance of food, drugs, and infective agents that can potentially predispose these children to oxidative stress as well as diseases that deplete micronutrients that protect against oxidative stress. There is need to build capacity in our setting among pediatricians to ensure the effective management of children with G6PD deficiency. PMID:23874116
Tuladhar, H; Marahatta, R
A cross sectional descriptive study of awareness and practice of family planning methods among 200 women of reproductive age attending gynecology out patient department (GOPD) of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from 14th May 2008 to 14th July, 2008 was carried out. Most of the respondents (93.0%) were aware of at least one of family planning methods out often methods, but only 65.0% had ever used it and contraceptive prevalence rate was 33.5% which was slightly higher than the national data as 28.5%. The best known method of temporary contraception was depo provera (78.0%) followed by oral contraceptive pills (74.0%) and condom (71.0%) and least known methods were vaginal foam tablets/jelly (34.0%) and natural methods (16.0%). Among permanent family planning methods, awareness about female sterilization (81.0%) was more than male sterilization (77.0%) which was in accordance with studies done in other countries. Knowledge about emergency coritraception was quite low (12.0%) as it was newly introduced in the country. Regarding current use of contraception depo provera (11.0%) was the most widely used followed by oral contraceptive pills (4.5%) and condom (4.5%). 5.5% had undergone female sterilization while only 2.5% of male partner had sterilization Knowledge of non contraceptive benefits of family planning methods was claimed by only 35.0% of the respondents, 27.0% reported awareness that condoms protect from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) while knowledge about various adverse effects was widespread (52.5%). The most common source of information on contraception was media (55.5%), both printed and electronic. This study also observed that with increase in level of education, awareness also increased. Although most of the women were aware about the methods, they were ignorant about the details like duration of protection, return of fertility on discontinuation and non contraceptive benefits. The most common reason for discontinuation of FP methods was stated as side effects. A wide knowledge practice gap was evident in this study, which was similar to the findings of studies done in other developing countries. Improved female education strategies and better access to services are needed to solve these problems. The use of communication media suitable for the audience and adequate message is important in conducting effective family planning awareness activities. Efforts should be made to educate the public about the safety and convenience of modern, long-term, reversible methods of contraception among both healthcare professionals and the public. PMID:19253864
Okwu-Delunzu, V. U.; Enete, I. C.; Abubakar, A. S.; Lamidi, S.
Erosion is a natural, gradual and continuous process of earth surface displacement caused by various agents of denudation. It is also caused by some anthropogenic activities. Erosion rate of an area at any point in time is dependent mainly on climate and geological factors. Physical aspects of the erosive force experienced in gullies are mainly dependent on the local prevailing climate condition. In this study, remotely sensed data was used in the analysis of gully erosion progression at Nyaba River in Enugu Urban, aimed at mapping and monitoring gully erosion at the study site. Methodologies employed include; data acquisition from field observation and satellite images; data processing and analyses using ilwis 3.7 and Arc GIS 9.3 software. The result showed that gully progressed from 578,713,735 square meters in 1986 to 1, 002,819,723 in 2011. Prediction showed that the magnitude of the gully area is expected to increase as the years go by if measures are not taken to control the expansion rate. The forecast put the expected coverage of gully erosion at Nyaba River to be 45,210,440 square meters by the year 2040. Consequently, recommendations made include: constant monitoring to detect early stages of gully formation; regulation of grazing of pasture in the area; restriction of sand mining from the river bank and construction of water ways to stabilize river flow. In conclusion, monitoring clearly showed that there was a geometric progression in gully formation at Nyaba over years; the expansion was aided more by anthropogenic activities than natural factors.
Ezenwaji, Emma E.; Anyadike, Raymond N. C.; Igu, Nnaemeka I.
Recent studies in water supply in Enugu urban area have observed that there is a persistent water supply shortage relative to demand. One of the strategies for achieving a good water supply under the circumstance is through efficient water allocation to consumers. The existing allocation system by the Enugu State Water Corporation is not achieving the desired goal, because it is not based on any scientific criteria. In this study, we have employed the linear programming modelling technique to optimise the allocation of 35,000,000 L of water produced daily by the State Water Corporation and supplied to the four sectors of the town. The result shows that the model allocated 27,470,000 L to the residential sector, 3,360,000 L to commercial, 3,120,000 L to industrial and 882,000 L to public institutions sectors leaving a balance of 168,000 L to be utilised in emergency situations. This allocation pattern departs sharply from the present management technique adopted by the corporation. It is then suggested that for urban water supply to be sustainable in the town, the corporation should rely on this technique for water supply.
Dim, Cyril C.; Dim, Ngozi R.
Background: The burden of tuberculosis (TB) in Nigeria is high. Unfortunately, the data from the TB programme of the States’ ministries of health are usually unpublished, which possibly contribute to the prevailing ignorance and poor attitude of Nigerians to the disease. This study determined the trends of TB burden and treatment outcome in Enugu state, Nigeria; and relate the State's disease burden to that of the Nation. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of secondary data from the TB control programme, Ministry of Health, Enugu state, the National annual report of 2008, and World Health Organisation (WHO) TB database for the 10-year period of 2000-2009. Results: The number of female TB cases was higher than males within the 0-14 age group only. The annual number of all TB cases showed a rising trend from 914 cases in the year 2000 to 1684 in 2009; but the proportion of new sputum smear (ss+) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases declined (Trend X2 = 7.37, P = 0.007). The average number of extra-pulmonary TB cases increased fourfold from 2000-2004 to 2005-2009 (36 versus 150 cases). The median treatment success rate was 82% (range: 78-85). For the period 2004-2008, 2.0% of all new ss + PBT cases reported in Nigeria, originated from Enugu state. The proportion of new ss + PTB reported in Enugu state was significantly higher than national value (59.6% versus 52.6%) [P < 0.001, OR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.26, 1.40)]. Conclusion: The burden of TB in Enugu state of Nigeria had increased over the period reviewed. However, the State's contribution to the disease burden in Nigeria was low. PMID:24665153
Gandhi, Anuradha M; Patel, Prakruti P
Objective: To study the use of antimicrobial agents in patients on ventilator in ICU. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted at tertiary care teaching hospital Ahmedabad, India. Total 300 patients admitted in ICU and prescribed antimicrobial agents were included in the study. The data were recorded in preformed Case Record Form (CRF) and were analysed by Z and x2 Test. Results: Patients were divided into group A (patients on ventilator support) and group B (patients without ventilator support). In all the patients antimicrobial agents were prescribed empirically and more than two antimicrobial agents were prescribed in both groups. It was observed that above 60% antimicrobial agents were prescribed according to WHO, National and State Essential Medicine List (EML). Restricted antimicrobial agents (according to antimicrobial policy of tertiary care teaching hospital) were prescribed significantly (p<0.05) higher in group A as compared to group B. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Kleibsella shown significantly (p<0.05) higher in group A as compared to group B. Change of antimicrobial therapy after Culture Sensitivity Test (CST) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group A as compared to group B. Conclusion: Number of antimicrobial agents, antimicrobial resistance and change of antimicrobial therapy after CST were higher in patients on ventilator support. PMID:25584243
Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers. PMID:23566078
Joseph, L; Paul, H; Premkumar, J; Paul, R; Michael, J S
Bio-medical waste has a higher potential of infection and injury to the healthcare worker, patient and the surrounding community. Awareness programmes on their proper handling and management to healthcare workers can prevent the spread of infectious diseases and epidemics. This study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital to assess the impact of training, audits and education/implementations from 2009 to 2012 on awareness and practice of biomedical waste segregation. Our study reveals focused training, strict supervision, daily surveillance, audits inspections, involvement of hospital administrators and regular appraisals are essential to optimise the segregation of biomedical waste. PMID:25560016
Thomas J. Nolan; Gary Smith
The apparent prevalence of endoparasitic infections of cats and dogs presented to the small animal Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania was measured between 1984 and 1991. Two thousand feline and 8077 canine fecal samples were examined along with 6830 canine blood samples. The overall mean monthly prevalence of feline infections was 16% for ascarids, 0.9% for hookworms, 4.0%
Erhabor, Gregory E.; Adewole, Olufemi; Adisa, Adewale O.; Olajolo, Olufadeke A.
SETTING: The Chest Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, southwest Nigeria is a referral center for tuberculosis patients in the region. Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) has been in operation in the center since 1996. OBJECTIVE: To review the outcome of patients on DOTS with the aim of determining factors that may influence compliance. METHODS: Tuberculosis patients were placed on different treatment regimens according to the recommendation of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) and the Nigerian Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Program (NTBLCP). The results were recorded and evaluated periodically by the clinic staff under central supervision. The outcome of treatment over a three-year period (1996-1999) was reviewed. RESULTS: Five-hundred-seventy-one patients were treated during this period. Cure/treatment completed rate was 86.1%, and compliance rate was 93.8%. Age, sex category of treatment, and distance from hospital had no significant influence on drug compliance. CONCLUSION: DOTS is an effective means of administering anti-TB drugs. Efforts should be channeled towards developing strategies for implementing DOTS in a more efficient way. PMID:14651375
Adejumo, Adebayo O
This cross-sectional survey investigated the role of dispositional (self-efficacy and self esteem), and situational factors (distractibility and perceived food variety) as determinants of food eating behaviour (FEB). Hospital employees (N500) in Nigeria's premier teaching Hospital participated. Results showed that self-efficacy and self-esteem jointly predicted cognitive restraint dimension of FEB (F(2499) = 26.00; R2 = 0.10; p < .05). Dispositional variables also jointly predicted uncontrolled eating (F(2499) = 17.41; R2 = 0.07; p < .05), emotional eating (F(2499)= 28.58; R2 = 0.10; p < .05), and cognitive restraint (F(2499) = 35.60; R2 = 0.13; p < .05) dimensions of FEB. Age (chi2 = 64.81; df = 1; p < .05), and marital status (chi2 = 32.74; df = 4; p < .05) were associated with FEB. Therefore, dispositional and situational variables are predictors of FEB as evidenced in previous literatures. The need for primary prevention, and assertiveness to reduce distractibility and eating disorders was highlighted towards maintaining health and efficiency at work is recommended. PMID:22073876
Objectives Antibacterial drugs (hereafter referred to as antibiotics) are crucial to treat infections during delivery and postpartum period to reduce maternal mortality. Institutional deliveries have the potential to save lives of many women but extensive use of antibiotics, add to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to present antibiotic prescribing among inpatients during and after delivery in a non-teaching, tertiary care hospital in the city of Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted including women having had either a vaginal delivery or a cesarean section in the hospital. Trained nursing staff collected the data on daily bases, using a specific form attached to each patient file. Statistical analysis, including bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted. Results Of the total 1077 women, 566 (53%) had a vaginal delivery and 511 (47%) had a cesarean section. Eighty-seven percent of the women that had a vaginal delivery and 98% of the women having a cesarean section were prescribed antibiotics. The mean number of days on antibiotics in hospital for the women with a vaginal delivery was 3.1 (±1.7) and for the women with cesarean section was 6.0 (±2.5). Twenty-eight percent of both the women with vaginal deliveries and the women with cesarean sections were prescribed antibiotics at discharge. The most commonly prescribed antibiotic group in the hospital for both the women that had a vaginal delivery and the women that had a cesarean section were third-generation cephalosporins (J01DD). The total number of defined daily doses (DDD) per100 bed days for women that had a vaginal delivery was 101, and 127 for women that had a cesarean section. Conclusions The high percentage of women having had a vaginal delivery that received antibiotics and the deviation from recommendation for cesarean section in the hospital is a cause of concern. Improved maternal health and rational use of antibiotics are intertwined. Specific policy and guidelines on how to prescribe antibiotics during delivery at health care facilities are needed. Additionally, monitoring system of antibiotic prescribing and resistance needs to be developed and implemented. PMID:25848538
Su, M S; Wang, S J; Chiang, H; Wang, J S; Tan, Y A; Fuh, J L; Liu, H C
We report a case of the unusual panencephalopathic type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in Taiwan. This 59-year-old woman presented in 1983 with typical clinical manifestations of CJD and died 16 months later. Postmortem examination revealed severe neuronal loss, spongiosis and gliosis extensively in cerebral cortex and striatum as well as in the white matter. We also report 6 other CJD patients seen from 1983 to 1991 at Veterans General Hospital-Taipei. PMID:8467846
Yatoto, GH; Syed, AT; Rangrez, RA; Singh, Dara
Background: Among natural calamities Earthquakes are more devastating, as much of the life and property is affected. Methods: The study was carried- out in Accident & Emergency Department of SKIMS, to determine personnel and medical profile of earthquake victims of October 2005, when the state was rattled by a major tremor. Data was obtained from Accident & Emergency Department. Total no of patients Admitted were 166, which were followed from admission to discharge/Death. Each patient was subjected to a pretested questionnaire indicating age, sex, rural/urban distribution, Glasgow coma score, out come of treatment and referral to other care facility. Results: The study revealed that children were mostly affected, being the valnerable group. Most of the patients had head and bone injuries. 143 patients out of 166 patients had a Glasgow coma score of 15. Only 9 patients died. The reason for better end result was because of initial first Aid, Rapid transportatation to Hospital and prompt treatment in the Hospital. Conclusion: As Jammu and Kashmir falls in seismic zone 5, it needs a central trauma centre, having all the specialties and sub specialties under one roof. This will save precious time, as cross referral to other hospitals will not be needed PMID:21475539
Pandey, Kishore Raj; Kafle, Phanindra Prasad; Karki, Debendra
, he rarely missed a class and was always attentive of his duties. He was equally popular among professors and scholars of Nepal and abroad, due to his open-hearted cooperation to all. He was always smiling and jolly \\\\ ith colleagues and juniors... . However, among the professors in Kirtipur, he especially loved to conduct lengthy discussions with AN OBITUARY TO PROF. GS. NEPALI Source: NMC Hospital Based Study Table 6: Number and Percentage of Patients Who Stated That d U I d· I It k Source: Source...
Background In Guadeloupe and Martinique, two French Overseas Departments, colorectal cancer (CRC) has become an essential public health issue. However, little is known about CRC characteristics and the p53 status in these populations, particularly in Guadeloupe, whereas certification of a cancer registry has been recently validated. Methods This was a descriptive retrospective study of 201 patients who, between 1995 and 2000, underwent surgery for CRC in the Guadeloupe Teaching Hospital (GlpeTH; 83 patients) and in the Martinique Teaching Hospital (MqueTH; 118 patients). The clinicopathological features and the p53 expression, evaluated with immunohistochemistry, were compared at the time of diagnosis. A relationship between these parameters and the p53 expression was also studied. Data were analysed, using the SPSS computer software version 17.0. Results No statistical difference was found between the two groups of patients regarding age (p?=?0.60), percentage of young patients (?50 years; p?=?0.94)), sex (p?=?0.47), histological type (p?=?0.073) and tumour sites (p?=?0.65), although the GlpeTH patients were diagnosed with more distal colon cancers (54.2%) than the Mque TH patients (47.4%). By contrast, a significant difference was found regarding the tumour grade (p?0.0001), the pTNM stage (p?=?0.045) and the pT stage (p?0.0001). Regarding p53 expression, solely for the MqueTH patients, nuclear expression was associated with pTNM, the percentage of p53 negative tumours increasing with the progression of the pTNM stages (p?=?0.029). Conclusions For the first time, this study reveals discrepancies in clinicopathological features and in the p53 status between the two groups of patients. The GlpeTH patients were diagnosed with more moderated CRCs but with few CRCs at pTNM IV stage. By contrast, the MqueTH patients were diagnosed with more differentiated tumours, but with many more CRCs at pTNM IV stage. This paradox may be due to differences in tumour location (distal vs proximal), multiplicity of the genetic profiles of patients, or patients getting treatment elsewhere. Although our study is limited due to its small size, it emphasizes the originality of our results. PMID:24679126
Eastaugh, Steven R
To determine the impact of health system restructuring on the levels of hospital diversification and operating ratio this article analyzed 94 teaching hospitals and 94 community hospitals during the period 2008-2013. The 47 teaching hospitals are matched with 47 other teaching hospitals experiencing the same financial market position in 2008, but with different levels of preference for risk and diversification in their strategic plan. Covariates in the analysis included levels of hospital competition and the degree of local government planning (for example, highly regulated in New York, in contrast to Texas). Moreover, 47 nonteaching community hospitals are matched with 47 other community hospitals in 2008, having varying manager preferences for service-line diversification and risk. Diversification and operating ratio are modeled in a two-stage least squares (TSLS) framework as jointly dependent. Institutional diversification is found to yield better financial position, and the better operating profits provide the firm the wherewithal to diversify. Some services are in a growth phase, like bariatric weight-loss surgery and sleep disorder clinics. Hospital managers' preferences for risk/return potential were considered. An institution life cycle hypothesis is advanced to explain hospital behavior: boom and bust, diversification, and divestiture, occasionally leading to closure or merger. PMID:25223156
The purpose of triage is to prevent the delay of treatment for patients in real emergencies due to excessive numbers of patients in the hospital. This study uses the data of patients of consistent triage to develop the triage prediction model. By integrating Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), the anomaly detection (overestimate and underestimate) prediction accuracy rate can be 100%, which is better than the accuracy rate of SVM (about 89.2%) or Back- propagation Neural Networks (BPNN) (96.71%); afterwards, this study uses Support Vector Regression (SVR) to adopt Genetic Algorithm (GA) to determine three SVR parameters to predict triage. After using the scroll data predictive values, we calculate the Absolute Percentage Error (APE) of each scroll data. The resulting SVR's Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) is 3.78%, and BPNN's MAPE is 5.99%; therefore, the proposed triage prediction model of this study can effectively predict anomaly detection and triage. PMID:23990379
García Ramírez, Dolores; Nicola, Federico; Zarate, Soledad; Relloso, Silvia; Smayevsky, Jorgelina; Arduino, Sonia
An outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenamase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae occurred at our institution. Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa could have acquired this transmissible resistance mechanism, going unnoticed because its phenotypic detection in this species is difficult. We compared P. aeruginosa isolates obtained before and after the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae outbreak. No bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolates obtained before the outbreak, whereas 33/76 (43%) of the isolates obtained after the outbreak harboured the bla(KPC) gene. P. aeruginosa may thus become a reservoir of this transmissible resistance mechanism. It is very important to understand the epidemiology of these multiresistant isolates, in order to achieve early implementation of adequate control measures to contain and reduce their dissemination in the hospital environment. PMID:23831767
Bishnu, Saptarshi; Bandyopadhyay, Dipanjan; Samui, Samiran; Das, Indrani; Mondal, Pradip; Ghosh, Pramit; Roy, Deeptarka; Manna, Sukanta
Background & objectives: Newly diagnosed HIV patients may be asymptomatic or present with a wide range of symptoms related to opportunistic infections, acute seroconversion illness or other medical illnesses. This study was designed to evaluate the socio-demographic parameters, spectrum of the presenting clinical conditions and concurrent immunological status of newly diagnosed HIV patients and document the WHO clinical stages at the time of HIV diagnosis. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study was undertaken over a 12 month period at a tertiary referral hospital in eastern India. Three hundred sixty consecutive newly diagnosed HIV patients were selected for the study from the HIV clinic and medicine wards of this hospital. Demographic and clinical data and relevant laboratory investigations of the patients were recorded and analyzed. Results: Mean age of patients was 36.38 ± 10.62 yr, while 63.89 per cent were males. The main mode of transmission of HIV for males and females were unprotected exposure to commercial sex (139, 60.44%) and intercourse with HIV seropositive spouses (89, 68.46%), respectively. Fever (104, 28.89%), weight loss (103, 28.61%) and generalized weakness (80, 22.22%) were the predominant symptoms. Overall mean CD4 count was 176.04 ± 163.49 cells/?l (males 142.19 ± 139.33 cells/?l; females 235.92 ± 185.11 cells/?l). Overall, 224 opportunistic infections were documented in 160 patients, opportunistic diarrhoea (44, 12.22%) and pulmonary tuberculosis (39, 10.83%) being the commonest. There were 83 and 133 patients in WHO clinical stages 3 and 4, respectively; 291 (80.83%) patients were eligible for initiation of first-line antiretrovirals at presentation. Interpretation & conclusions: Advanced immunodeficiency and burden of opportunistic infections characterize newly diagnosed HIV patients in eastern India. The physicians should keep in mind that these patients may have more than one clinical condition at presentation. PMID:25109725
Ogbera, A O; Fasanmade, O; Ohwovoriole, A E; Adediran, O
The major part of the burden of people with diabetes mellitus (DM) is their impaired quantity and quality of life. This is due to acute and chronic complications of which diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) takes the greatest toll. Most studies on the disease burden of DFU were carried out in developed countries, and to date, no indigenous study has addressed the burden of foot ulceration in Nigerians with DM. This study attempted to determine the disease burden of this important DM complication. The study was carried out at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria. The working definition of disease burden encompassed prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and the direct economic costs of diabetes mellitus foot syndrome (DMFS). For determination of the estimates of prevalence, the "capture-recapture" and intensive case-counting methods were used, mortality and morbidity were determined from records of admissions, and associated deaths over a 3-year period (1998-2000). The direct economic costs of foot ulceration were derived from the costs incurred from in-patient days, tests, drugs/medications, surgery, and other miscellaneous units of services. The total number of people with DM seen in LUTH from 1998 to 2000 was 1500, the hospital prevalence of DFU using the capture-recapture method being 9.5%. A total of 7253 medical admissions were made in this 3-year period, and of this number 827 (11.4%) were DM related. DFU-related admissions were 97 in number, and this made up 1.3% and 11.7% of the total medical and diabetes admissions, respectively. During this period, a total of 61 lower limb amputations were carried out and 26 (42.6%) of these were DM related. The proportion of medical deaths due to DMFS deaths was greater than the proportion of medical admissions due to DFU (P = .007). The case fatality of individuals with DFU was approximately 53%. A total number of 20 patients with DM foot ulcers were hospitalized during a 1-year period of the study (2003-2004). The majority had type 2 DM. A large majority (65%) of these patients had some form of surgery in addition to medical management of their condition. Mean costs for successfully treating a patient with DMFS was Nigerian Naira (NGN) 180,581.60. The total costs incurred ranged from NGN 20,400.00 to NGN 278,029.00. Drugs or medications accounted for the majority of the total costs incurred by the patients (46.9%). PMID:17088600
Background Bowel obstruction resulting from intestinal tuberculosis has been reported to be more prevalent in developing countries including Tanzania. This study was undertaken to describe the clinicopathological profile, surgical management and outcome of tuberculous intestinal obstruction in our local setting and to identify factors responsible for poor outcome among these patients. Methods This was a prospective descriptive study of patients operated for tuberculous intestinal obstruction at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) in northwestern Tanzania from April 2008 to March 2012. Ethical approval to conduct the study was obtained from relevant authorities. Statistical data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0. Results A total of 118 patients with tuberculous intestinal obstruction were studied. The male to female ratio was 1.8: 1. The median age was 26 years (range 11-67 years). The modal age group was 21-30 years. Thirty-one (26.3%) patients had associated pulmonary tuberculosis and 25 (21.2%) patients were HIV positive with a median CD4+ count of 225 cells /?l. Small bowel strictures were the most common operative findings accounting for 72.9% of cases. The ileo-caecal region was the commonest area of involvement in 68 (57.6%) patients. The right hemicolectomy with ileo-transverse anastomosis was the most frequent surgical procedure performed in 66 (55.9%) patients. Postoperatively all the patients received antituberculous drugs for a period of one year. Postoperative complication rate was 37.3% and surgical site infection (SSI) was the most frequent complication in 42.8% of cases. HIV positivity and low CD4+ count were the main predictors of SSI (p?0.001). The overall median length of hospital stay was 24 days. Patients who had postoperative complications stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (p?=?0.011). Mortality rate was 28.8% and it was significantly associated with co-existing medical illness, delayed presentation, HIV positivity, low CD 4 count (<200 cells/?l), ASA class and presence of complications (p?0.001). The follow up of patients was generally poor as more than fifty percent of patients were lost to follow up. Conclusion Tuberculous bowel obstruction remains rampant in our environment and contributes significantly to high morbidity and mortality. The majority of patients present late when the disease becomes complicated. A high index of suspicion, proper evaluation and therapeutic trial in suspected patients is essential for an early diagnosis and timely definitive treatment, in order to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. PMID:23497503
Liu, Qingzhong; Liu, Meina; Wu, Qing; Li, Chao; Zhou, Tieli; Ni, Yuxing
In this study, the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of 5 biocides (benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde, sodium hypochlorite, povidone iodine and ethanol) for 56 clinical quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) tolerant S. aureus strains following exposure for 5, 30 or 180 min, collected from a teaching hospital in China, were examined. The distributions of the biocide resistance genes qacA/B, smr, qacH and qacG were investigated by polymerase chain reaction. Following 5 min exposure of benzalkonium chloride and povidone iodine, 7.1% (4/56) and 7.1% (4/56) isolates, respectively, exhibited MBC values higher than their in-use concentrations for mucosa and wound disinfection. The MBC values of all the isolates studied for glutaraldehyde, sodium hypochlorite and ethanol were lower than the in-use concentrations in all contact times. The qacA/B gene was found in 94.6% (53/56) of QAC tolerant S. aureus. The frequencies of smr (3.6%, 2/56) and qacH (7.1%, 4/56) were low and qacG was not detected. The results suggested that clinical QAC tolerant S. aureus isolates of China had the possibility to survive in proper in-use concentrations of some biocides at proper contact time, and qacA/B is the most prevalent disinfectant resistant gene in this type of bacteria. PMID:19353380
Amponsah-Achiano, Kwame; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre
Dysglycaemia (hyper- or hypoglycaemia) in critically ill children has been associated with poor outcome. We compared the clinical outcomes in children admitted to Pediatric Emergency Unit (PEU) at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) for acute medical conditions and presenting with euglycaemia or dysglycaemia. This is a prospective case matching cohort study. Eight hundred subjects aged between 3 and 144 months were screened out of whom 430 (215 with euglycaemia and 215 with dysglycaemia) were enrolled. The median age was 24 months (range: 3–144 months). In the dysglycaemia group, 28 (13%) subjects had hypoglycemia and 187 (87%) had hyperglycemia. Overall, there were 128 complications in 116 subjects. The number of subjects with complications was significantly higher in dysglycaemia group (n = 99, 46%) compared to euglycaemia group (n = 17, 8%) (P < 0.001). Forty subjects died out of whom 30 had dysglycaemia (P = 0.001). Subjects with dysglycaemia were 3 times (95% CI: 1.5–6.0) more likely to die and 4.8 times (95% CI: 3.1–7.5) more likely to develop complications (P = 0.001). Dysglycaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in children with acute medical conditions and should lead to intensive management of the underlying condition. PMID:25614747
Gir, E; da Silva, A M; Costa, F P; Hayashida, M
This investigation was conducted with the purpose of identifying the changes in the professional practice of nurses at a public teaching hospital as a result of the arrival of HIV/AIDS. Through interviews with 100 nurses it was found that 76 (76%) referred changes in their professional practice. Of these, 52 (68.4%) referred to the use of garments; 17 (22.3%) to continuing education; and 7 (9.2%) to nursing care. Of a total of 76 reasons presented by the nurses, 46 (60.5%) were related to fear of becoming infected; and 30 (39.5%) related to nursing care. The study revealed that the advent of HIV/AIDS has risen various changes in practical activities of nurses, especially in those related to garments, having as the main concern the fear of becoming infected. Continuing education programs that aim not only to identify the causes that determine low adherence to standard precaution measures and undesirable behavior as well as biosafety surveillance are needed. PMID:11998466
Obeng-Nkrumah, Noah; Twum-Danso, Kingsley; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Newman, Mercy J.
Infections with bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasing across Africa. This study reports on ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae as significant causes of infections and antibiotic resistance at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. Of 300 isolates examined, 49.3% produced ESBLs. The prevalence of ESBLs was significantly high among isolates from neonates (28 of 43, 65.1%; relative risk = 1.62, 95% confidence interval = 1.33–2.13, P = 0.002) and adult patients > 65 years of age (36 of 51, 70.5%; relative risk = 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.41–2.40, P = 0.001). A marked increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations of ESBL-positive species was noticed compared with those for the other strains. Using these concentrations, we found that 26 (17%) ESBL producers were resistant to two or more antibiotics (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamide, and carbapenems) whereas 5 (3.2%) non–ESBL producers were multidrug resistant. Regular ESBL detection and evaluation of antibiotic resistance may help reduce the spread of ESBLs and antibiotic resistance in Ghana. PMID:24043693
Li, Li; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhu, Junhao; Gao, Qian; Chen, Min; Zhu, Min
Molecular typing of Candida albicans is important for studying the population structure and epidemiology of this opportunistic yeast, such as population dynamics, nosocomial infections, multiple infections and microevolution. The genetic diversity of C. albicans has been rarely studied in China. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of 62 C. albicans isolates collected from 40 patients from Huashan Hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 50 diploid sequence types (DSTs) were identified in the 62 C. albicans isolates, with 41 newly identified DSTs. Based on cluster analysis, the 62 isolates were classified into nine existing clades and two new clades (namely clades New 1 and New 2). The majority of the isolates were clustered into three clades, clade 6 (37.5%), clade 1 (15.0%) and clade 17 (15.0%). Isolates of clade New 2 were specifically identified in East Asia. We identified three cases of potential nosocomial transmission based on association analysis between patients’ clinical data and the genotypes of corresponding isolates. Finally, by analyzing the genotypes of serial isolates we further demonstrated that the microevolution of C. albicans was due to loss of heterozygosity. Our study represents the first molecular typing of C. albicans in eastern China, and we confirmed that MLST is a useful tool for studying the epidemiology and evolution of C. albicans. PMID:25919124
Merlino, J; Gill, R; Robertson, G J
Lipovitellin-salt-mannitol (LSM) plate medium was examined for its ability to directly isolate, recover, and presumptively identify Staphylococcus aureus from 418 clinical specimens. The criteria for medium evaluation included colony morphology reactions, selectivity, and ease of isolation. For 298 specimens used for screening, LSM agar medium was compared with the other conventional media used, mannitol salt agar (MSA), 5% horse blood agar (HBA), and phenolphthalein phosphate agar (PPA), to detect and recover S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The results indicated that LSM agar is more effective than MSA, HBA, or PPA for the recovery and isolation of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. On a replicator multipoint inoculation system, we compared the reactions on LSM agar, MSA, and DNase agar of 227 different strains of staphylococci, which included 178 different strains of S. aureus and 49 different strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from clinical specimens. By using the lipovitellin precipitation activity and mannitol fermentation characteristics, LSM agar gave a 100% correlation in presumptively identifying S. aureus. LSM agar may be an alternative plate medium for large hospital extensive screening for the detection and isolation of S. aureus. PMID:8940440
Adeyemi, A B; Fatusi, A O; Makinde, O N; Omojuwa, I; Asa, S; Onwudiegwu, U
A cross-sectional study was carried out among 134 antenatal clinic attendees in a Nigerian tertiary hospital to assess pregnancy-related sexual beliefs and changes in sexual frequency and response. Information was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire, and analysed by SPSS. Only 15% of women believed that religious, social or cultural reasons prevented sexual intercourse in pregnancy. Frequency of sexual intercourse decreased in pregnancy in 37.4% of the respondents, remained unaltered in 46.1% and increased in 16.5%. Age, marriage duration and gestational age were not associated with change in the pattern of coital frequency in pregnancy, but education was significantly associated. Sexual responsiveness diminished in approximately half of our respondents in terms of arousal (54.5%), orgasm (48.5%), pleasure (43.7%) and satisfaction (51.4%). The changes were not associated with pregnancy duration. We concluded that sex in pregnancy is well accepted in our environment, and health workers should promote sexual health and well-being in pregnancy. PMID:16368588
Marra, F; Reynolds, R; Stiver, G; Bryce, E; Sleigh, K; Frighetto, L; MacDougall, C; Jewesson, P
With the introduction of piperacillin/tazobactam to the North American market, hospitals have been faced with the task of making a decision regarding its formulary role. In view of its broad spectrum of activity, piperacillin/tazobactam could be considered as a formulary alternative to imipenem. To evaluate the formulary feasibility of substituting piperacillin/tazobactam for imipenem, a comparative assessment of these agents in the empiric treatment of serious bacterial infections was undertaken at this tertiary care hospital. This trial was conducted as a randomized, double-blind, single-center study. Consenting adult patients (>16 years of age) who were prescribed imipenem were randomized to receive either 4 g of i.v. piperacillin/tazobactam or imipenem 500 mg of i.v. Q6H with or without concurrent antibiotics. Doses were adjusted according to renal function. There were no restrictions regarding the use of nonstudy antibiotics before and during the study period. Patients with beta-lactam allergies or meningitis or who had received greater than 72 h of previous imipenem therapy were excluded. Patients were evaluated at the end of treatment, at discharge, and at 30 days postdischarge. Endpoints included both clinical and microbiologic efficacy as well as drug toxicity. Over the 433-day study period, 360 imipenem treatment courses were initiated. Of these, 150 treatment courses (75 piperacillin/tazobactam courses and 75 imipenem courses) met study criteria and were subsequently randomized. The distribution of prescriber services for enrolled patients was similar to that for all patients receiving imipenem during the study period (p = 0.15). Also, there were no statistically significant differences in demographic parameters between enrolled and excluded patients. For those patients enrolled in the study, demographic characteristics, treatment course indication(s), and accompanying antibiotics were similar across treatment arms. The mean duration of study drug therapy was 7.7 days (SD, 6.2) for imipenem and 7.5 days (SD, 6.7)for piperacillin/tazobactam (p = 0.84). In the majority of cases, treatment discontinuation occurred as a result of a favorable treatment course outcome, stepdown to a narrower spectrum parenteral agent, or stepdown to an oral agent and did not differ between study drugs (p = 0.73). Clinical and microbiologic treatment course outcomes were also similar across treatment arms. Clinical outcome was deemed successful or improved for 68% of imipenem and 70% of the piperacillin/tazobactam treatment courses (p = 0.54). Fifty-three percent of treatment courses were microbiologically confirmed. Of the 58 courses that were assessed for microbiological outcome, 93% demonstrated successful eradication of the causative pathogens. There was no difference between study drugs (96% imipenem; 90% piperacillin/tazobactam; p = 0.61). The proportion of treatment courses with at least one adverse event was similar between the study drugs (p = 1.0). Nausea and/or vomiting were/was observed more commonly in the imipenem arm (p = 0.03). Discontinuation of therapy due to drug toxicity occurred in 16% of imipenem and 5% of piperacillin/tazobactam treatment courses (p = 0.06). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean treatment course cost for imipenem ($762; range, $55-$3192) versus piperacillin/tazobactam ($696; range, $79-$2967; p = 0.59). In summary, piperacillin/tazobactam seems to represent a suitable alternative to imipenem for several clinical indications including intraabdominal infections, pneumonia, febrile neutropenia, and skin/soft tissue infections in which the causative pathogens are susceptible. However, in view of the prevalence of multiresistant Gram-negative aerobic pathogens at this institution, we do not believe that imipenem can be removed from the drug formulary. In addition, at the currently studied dosing regimen, there seems to be no evidence of a direct cost advantage associated with PMID:9635910
McIntyre, Tammie; Taylor, Carmel; Eastwood, Glenn M; Jones, Daryl; Baldwin, Ian; Bellomo, Rinaldo
The aim of an Intensive Care Nurse Consultant (ICNC) service is to optimise care of complex ward patients and reduce adverse events. Despite their widespread implementation, specific assessment of ward nurses' attitudes towards such is lacking. Accordingly, we surveyed ward nurses' attitudes towards our ICNC service in five domains: (a) accessibility and approachability; (b) perceived ICNC skill and knowledge; (c) perceived influence on patient management; (d) usefulness as a resource of clinical information; (e) impact upon adverse outcomes. To achieve this, an anonymous Liker-type questionnaire was distributed to 208 ward nurses in our hospital. We also included space for free text. Completed questionnaires were entered manually into a SURVEYMONKEY™ pro-forma to permit automatic report generation and results summary. The major findings were that ICNC staff were perceived as being approachable and good communicators, were skilled at early detection of deteriorating patients, and that they reduce serious adverse events. In addition, nurses believe the ICNC service provides continuity of care post discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU), as well as assisting staff to prioritise clinical issues following medical emergency team (MET) review or ICU discharge. The ward nurses did not believe that the ICNC service reduced their skills in managing ward patients. In contrast, respondents stated that the ICNC service needed to improve the processes of referral to allied health and education of ward staff regarding deteriorating patients. Finally, ward nurses suggest they would call the MET service rather than the ICNC service for patients who had already deteriorated. This survey suggests that the ICNC service is valued, and is perceived to prevent the development of adverse events, rather than playing a major role in the management of the deteriorating patient. There is a need to improve referrals to allied health and further educate ward nurses. PMID:22088555
Provided and maintained by the University of Iowa Health Care, the Virtual Hospital is designed as a "medical reference and health promotion tool for health care providers and patients." To that end, the site offers current and authoritative medical information for patients and professional and pedagogical information for health care providers. The former includes patient educational briefs browseable by organ system or by a topical list, a collection of peer-reviewed and annotated Web resources, an internal search engine, and archives of a column offering medical advice to middle-aged users. Resources in the health care provider section include several digital libraries aimed at certain specialties (Pediatrics, Pediatric Radiology, Family Medicine, and Medical Student); multimedia textbooks and teaching files grouped by organ system; lectures and publications; and clinical practice guidelines. Additional resources at the site include links to the Virtual Children's and Virtual Naval Hospitals, an internal search engine, and online continuing education courses.
Ravangard, Ramin; Sajjadnia, Zahra; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Shahsavan, Najme; Bahmaie, Jamshid; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim
In order to achieve success in today’s competitive world, organizations should adapt to environmental changes. On the other hand, managers should have a set of values and ethical guidelines for their administrative and organizational functions. This study aimed to investigate the association between work ethics and attitudes towards organizational changes among the administrative, financial and support employees of general teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This was an applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study conducted in 2013. A sample of 124 employees was selected using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. Data were collected using 2 questionnaires measuring the dimensions of employees' work ethics (four dimensions) and attitudes towards organizational changes (three dimensions). The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and statistical tests, including ANOVA, independent samples t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The maximum and minimum score of work ethic dimensions were related to being cooperative (4.60 ± 0.38) and dependable (4.29 ± 0.39) respectively. On the other hand, the maximum and minimum score of attitudes towards the various dimensions of organizational changes were related to the behavioral (3.83 ± 0.70) and the affective (3.55 ± 0.88) dimensions respectively. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between the work ethics and education levels of the employees in this study (P = 0.003). Also, among work s dimensions, only being considerate had a significant association with attitudes towards organizational changes (P = 0.014) and their cognitive dimension (P = 0.005). To improve employees' work ethics and attitudes towards organizational changes, the following suggestions can be offered: training hospitals managers in participative management style and its application, as well as the importance of meeting the employees' needs and expectations based on their characteristics; familiarizing employees with the Islamic work ethic; educating employees on the importance of being considerate towards their colleagues and subordinates in the workplace, and reinforcing this desirable quality; and finally, clarifying the need for changes in the organization for all employees. PMID:25512831
Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Eze, Justus Ndulue; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe
Background The global rise in cesarean delivery rate has been a major source of public health concern. Aim To appraise the cesarean deliveries and the associated fetal and maternal outcomes. Materials and methods The study was a case series with data collected retrospectively from the records of patients delivered by cesarean section at the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki over a 10-year period, from January 2002 to December 2011. Ethical approval was obtained. Results Of 14,198 deliveries, 2,323/14,198 (16.4%) were by cesarean deliveries. The overall increase of cesarean delivery was 11.1/10 (1.1%) per annum from 184/1,512 (12.2%) in 2002 to 230/986 (23.3%) in 2011. Of 2,097 case folders studied, 1,742/2,097 (83.1%) were delivered at term, and in 1,576/2,097 (75.2%), the cesarean deliveries were emergencies. The common indications for cesarean delivery were previous cesarean scars 417/2,097 (19.9%) and obstructed labor 331/2,097 (15.8%). There were 296 perinatal deaths, giving a perinatal mortality rate of (296/2,197) 134.7/1,000 births. Also, 129/2,097 (6.1%) maternal case fatalities occurred, giving a maternal mortality rate of 908.6/100,000 total births. Hemorrhage 57/129 (44.2%) and sepsis 41/129 (32.6%) were the major causes. Conclusion The study recorded a significant increase in cesarean delivery rate. Previous cesarean scars and obstructed labors were the main indications. Perinatal and maternal case fatalities were huge. Hence, there is need for continued community education for its reduction. PMID:25999769
Agrawal, Anurag; Tandon, Rajeev; Singh, Lalit; Chawla, Aakanksha
Background: Malignant pleural effusion is a major clinical problem associated with primary and metastatic pleural malignancies. Pleural effusions from an unknown primary are responsible for 7-15% of all malignant pleural effusions. Presence of malignant pleural effusion puts the patient in advanced stage and renders the prognosis as poor. Aim: In this study we intend to find out the incidence of malignant pleural effusion, its aetiology and clinical course in patients attending a tertiary care teaching hospital. Results: A total of 308 patients were included in this study. A majority of the patients were in age group 50- 70 years (median age = 58.8 years; range 32- 85 yrs). Male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The major primary cancers were lung cancer (135), lymphoma (40), breast cancer (36), female genital tract (30) gastrointestinal (21), and others (8). In 38 cases primary remained unknown. The yields of pleural fluid cytology, blind pleural biopsy, CT/USG guided pleural biopsy and thoracoscopy were 60%, 49%, 76% and 91% respectively. Chemical pleurodesis yielded complete response in 80%, incomplete response in another 13% patients. Only 136 (44%) cases could be followed up for minimum of 6 months. A majority of them (95, 69.85%) died. Conclusion: We conclude that malignant pleural effusion is a commonly misdiagnosed medical entity. Lung cancer is the commonest cause. Despite all efforts, in about 15% of the cases, primary remains undiagnosed. Thoracoscopy/pleuroscopy is a cost effective measure for diagnosis. Chemical pleurodesis provides expected results but mortality remains high. PMID:26180380
Ahmad, Akram; Patel, Isha; Asani, Himani; Jagadeesan, M.; Parimalakrishnan, S.; Selvamuthukumaran, S.
Aim: Antithrombotic therapy with heparin plus antiplatelets reduces the rate of ischemic events in patients with coronary heart disease. Low molecular weight heparin has a more predictable anticoagulant effect than standard unfractionated heparin, is easier to administer, does not require monitoring and is associated with less ADRs. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the clinical and cost outcomes of Enoxaparin with a standard unfractionated heparin in patients with coronary heart disease. Materials and Methods: This was a noninvasive prospective observational descriptive study carried out at a multi-specialty tertiary care teaching hospital situated in rural Tamil Nadu, India. Male and female coronary heart disease (CHD) patients aged 35–75 years newly diagnosed or those having a history of CHD were included. The intervention group received enoxaparin for 5 days. A series of resting the electrocardiogram, prothrombin time and ADRs were measured in all patients during days 1 and 21 respectively. Results: Compared to unfractionated heparin group of patients, the average prothrombin time was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) whereas hypokalemia was significantly lower (P < 0.02) in enoxaparin group of patients. Even though recurrence of angina and ADRs such as bleeding, nausea, headache and sudden cough occurred less frequently in the enoxaparin group of patients compared to unfractionated heparin group of patients, the differences were not significant. Conclusions: Antithrombotic therapy with enoxaparin plus aspirin was safer and more effective than unfractionated heparin plus aspirin, in reducing the incidence of ischemic events in patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction in the early phase. PMID:25821318
Denver Severt; Taryn Aiello; Shannon Elswick; Cheryl Cyr
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore an organization-wide philosophy of hospitality in a hospital setting. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An exploratory case study method approach matched the research purpose. First, a hospitality centric philosophy (HCP) was defined from the literature review. Next, a triangulation of unstructured visits, structured visits and key informant interviews is used to further explore
Characterization of carbapenemases, extended spectrum ?-lactamases, quinolone resistance and aminoglycoside resistance determinants in carbapenem-non-susceptible Escherichia coli from a teaching hospital in Chongqing, Southwest China.
Zhang, Chuanming; Xu, Xiuyu; Pu, Shuli; Huang, Shifeng; Sun, Jide; Yang, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Liping
Carbapenem-resistant Escherichiacoli isolates harboring carbapenemases or combining an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme with loss of porins present an increasingly urgent clinical danger. Combined resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones in carbapeneme non-susceptible (CNS) isolates will inevitably create problems. In the current study, we characterized the carbapenemases and ESBLs, and the prevalence of quinolone resistance determinants and aminoglycoside resistance determinants in carbapenem-non-susceptible (CNS) E.coli isolates from a teaching hospital in Chongqing, Southwest China in 2012. Thirty non-duplicated CNS E.coli isolates were screened via antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the drug resistance profiles of the 30 strains were analyzed. Carbapenemase genes blaKPC-2, ESBL genes including blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-55 and blaTEM, ARD genes including aac(6')-Ib, armA and rmtB, and QRD genes including qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS and aac(6')-Ib-cr were identified and clonal relatedness was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Of the 30 isolates, 2 (6.7%) harbored carbapenemase gene blaKPC-2; 29 (96.7%) carried ESBLs; 20 (66.7%) were QRD positive; and 11 (36.7%) were ARD positive. Between the two blaKPC-2 positive strains, one contained ESBL, QRD and ARD genes, while the other expressed ESBL genes but was negative for both QRD and ARD genes. Of the 29 ESBLs positive isolates, 2 (6.9%) were carbapenemase positive, 19 (65.5%) were QRD positive, and 11 (37.9%) were ARD positive. PFGE revealed genetic diversity among the 30 isolates, indicating that the high prevalence of CNS E. coli isolates was not caused by clonal dissemination. Production of ESBLs was associated with the carbapenem resistance and QRD genes were highly prevalent among the CNS E. coli isolates. Multiple resistant genes were co-expressed in the same isolates. This is the first report of a multidrug resistant carbapenem-non-susceptible E.coli co-harboring resistant determinants blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-55, blaTEM, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB, aac(6')-Ib and rmtB from Chongqing, mainland China. PMID:25107431
Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uguru, Nkoli; Etiaba, Enyi; Chikezie, Ifeanyi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Adjagba, Alex
Background Malaria is the number one public health problem in Nigeria, responsible for about 30% of deaths in under-fives and 25% of deaths in infants and 11% maternal mortality. This study estimated the economic burden of malaria in Nigeria using the cost of illness approach. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in two malaria holo-endemic communities in Nigeria, involving both community and hospital based surveys. A random sample of 500 households was interviewed using interviewer administered questionnaire. In addition, 125 exit interviews for inpatient department stays (IPD) and outpatient department visits (OPD) were conducted and these were complemented with data abstraction from 125 patient records. Results From the household survey, over half of the households (57.6%) had an episode of malaria within one month to the date of the interview. The average household expenditure per case was 12.57US$ and 23.20US$ for OPD and IPD respectively. Indirect consumer costs of treatment were higher than direct consumer medical costs. From a health system perspective, the recurrent provider costs per case was 30.42 US$ and 48.02 US$ for OPD and IPD while non recurrent provider costs were 133.07US$ and 1857.15US$ for OPD and IPD. The mode of payment was mainly through out-of-pocket spending (OOPS). Conclusion Private expenditure on treatment of malaria constitutes a high economic burden to households and to the health system. Removal of user fees and interventions that will decrease the use of OOPS for treatment of malaria will significantly decrease the economic burden of malaria to both households and the health system. PMID:24223796
Chang, Dong Wook
Teaching hospital Female gender Race / Ethnicity White Black Hispanic Asian Other Source of Admission Home Skilled nursingTeaching hospital Female gender Race / Ethnicity White Black Hispanic Asian Other Source of Admission Home Skilled nursingTeaching hospital Female gender Race / Ethnicity White Black Hispanic Asian Other Source of Admission Home Skilled nursing
Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals. PMID:24341115
An outbreak of infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains during a short period of time in a Chinese teaching hospital: epidemiology study and molecular characteristics.
Zhou, Tieli; Zhang, Yapei; Li, Meimei; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Yao; Xu, Jiru
In this study, we comprehensively described the clinical risk factors, outcome, epidemiology, and molecular basis associated with an outbreak of extensively drug-resistant KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae involving 15 patients in a teaching hospital from May 1 to June 27, 2013. Most of the patients were elderly and received long-term hospital treatment, and 40.0% (6/15) of them were dead. All strains carried blaKPC-2, rmtB, blaCTX-M-65, blaSHV-11, oqxA, oqxB, and aac(6')-Ib-cr and even harbored additional other resistance genes, such as armA, blaCTX-M-1, blaTEM-1. blaKPC-2, rmtB, and blaCTX-M-65 were located on the same ~54.2-kb plasmid, and conjugation experiments further proved the cotransferable characteristic. Alterations of outer membrane proteins were confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis and sequencing, which can lead to a drastic change in the permeability of cells. All isolates belonged to the clone complex 258, spreading rapidly across the world. Our study demonstrated that a high degree of awareness and surveillance of those drug resistance determinants is urgently needed. PMID:25865067
Carreras-González, E; Marruecos-Sant, L
Trauma operative systems were created in United States to optimize polytrauma patients' treatment. These systems include prehospital polytrauma care. They determine hospital requirements to treat this kind of patients, standardize physicians' training and implement hospital registries. Initially, this system was applied only in monographic centers. However, trauma services of General Hospitals that fulfill the requirements were authorized progressively by the American Surgery Academy to fulfill this function. This is the model followed in Europe at present. Accreditation requires the qualification of the stay, with specific health care resources and a detailed trauma program. The director is responsible for organizing the creation of the trauma teams, operating 24h, for teaching, protocols and guides and the coordination of pre-hospital emergency groups. In Spain, there is an extensive network of tertiary hospitals that have trauma programs and their consequent accreditation could make it possible to take advantage of their existing resources. An accreditation system should be elaborated in order to homogenize professional training in trauma emergencies and to create a National Polytraumatic Registry. The high level of technology of these hospitals and of their human resources that include all the medical, surgical specialties and central services provide an added value. Care to the trauma patients is complex and multidisciplinary. Thus, we believe that General Hospitals, within a traumas program, are the best setting to offer it with excellent conditions. PMID:19942318
Lieberthal, Robert D
Background Access to high quality medical care is an important determinant of health outcomes, but the quality of care is difficult to determine. Objective To apply the PRIDIT methodology to determine an aggregate relative measure of hospital quality using individual process measures. Design Retrospective analysis of Medicare hospital data using the PRIDIT methodology. Subjects Four-thousand-two-hundred-seventeen acute care and critical access hospitals that report data to CMS' Hospital Compare database. Measures Twenty quality measures reported in four categories: heart attack care, heart failure care, pneumonia care, and surgical infection prevention and five structural measures of hospital type. Results Relative hospital quality is tightly distributed, with outliers of both very high and very low quality. The best indicators of hospital quality are patients given assessment of left ventricular function for heart failure and patients given ?-blocker at arrival and patients given ?-blocker at discharge for heart attack. Additionally, teaching status is an important indicator of higher quality of care. Conclusions PRIDIT allows us to rank hospitals with respect to quality of care using process measures and demographic attributes of the hospitals. This method is an alternative to the use of clinical outcome measures in measuring hospital quality. Hospital quality measures should take into account the differential value of different quality indicators, including hospital “demographic” variables. PMID:18454777
Nicola Pusterla; Barbara A. Byrne; Emir Hodzic; Samantha Mapes; Spencer S. Jang; K. Gary Magdesian
A quantitative real-time (RT)-PCR assay was developed to detect Salmonella spp. in the feces of 911 equine species admitted to a veterinary hospital. Fresh feces and feces enriched for 24h in selenite broth were assessed by conventional culture and by RT-PCR targeting the SalmonellainvA gene. The detection limit for the RT-PCR assay was 3 and 10 organisms, respectively, when spiked
Weil, T P; Pearl, G M
A review of America's "best" teaching hospitals shows a huge disparity in their fiscal positions. Among the 15 hospitals studied, roughly half experience some fiscal distress. However, a somewhat similar fiscal analysis of the nation's largest investor-owned hospital chains, HMOs, and physician practice management corporations shows an even more serious weakness in operating margins and debt-equity ratios. Aside from raising possible ethical, quality, and cost issues, this financial analysis suggests that conversion from nonprofit to for-profit ownership of America's top teaching hospitals might not guarantee an improvement in their long-term fiscal outlook. PMID:11432151
AlGhamdi, Khalid M.; Moussa, Noura A.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Use of hair dye is extremely common worldwide. However, our literature search failed to find studies concerning the knowledge and attitudes of the public with regard to hair dyes. We sought to explore the knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dye among females. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional survey conducted on females who attended various outpatient clinics at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a tertiary referral hospital open to the general public. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire about the use of hair dyes was distributed randomly among females attending the outpatient clinics at a university hospital in 2008. RESULTS: The response rate was 87.2%, with completion of 567 of the 650 distributed questionnaires. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 32.0 (10.2) years. Among respondents, 82.6% (464/562) had at some point dyed their hair. Furthermore, 69.3% (334/482) had dyed their hair in the past 12 months. The mean (SD) age of the participants when they first dyed their hair was 22.2 (7.1) years (range, 7-50). Of the participants, 76.8% (354/461) used permanent dyes, and about the same percentage of participants believed such dyes were the safest hair dye type. However, 52.4% (278/531) of the participants believed that hair dyes are harmful, and 36% (191/531) believed that hair dyes could cause cancer. Younger females tend to dye their hair less frequently (P<.001), whereas those with less education tend to dye their hair more frequently (P=.013). CONCLUSION: Use of hair dye is very common among females. Because the practice starts at a very young age, we conclude that hair dyes are overused and misused. The public should be informed about the risks associated with excessive hair dye use. PMID:22048508
Liu, Y; Wan, L-G; Deng, Q; Cao, X-W; Yu, Y; Xu, Q-F
A total of 180 non-duplicate carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were recovered from patients hospitalized between December 2010 and January 2012 at a Chinese hospital. Eight KPC-2, four NDM-1, one VIM-2, and five KPC-2 plus IMP-4 producers were identified and all were multidrug resistant due to the presence of other resistance determinants, including extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (CTX-M-15, SHV-12), 16S rRNA methylases (armA, rmtB) and plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance determinants (qnrA, B, S, aac(6')-Ib-cr). Nine K. pneumoniae clones (Kpn-A1/ST395, Kpn-A3/ST11, Kpn-A2/ST134, Kpn-B/ST263, Kpn-C/ST37, Kpn-D/ST39, Kpn-E/ST1151, Kpn-F/ST890, Kpn-G/ST1153) were identified. bla KPC-2 was located on transferable ~65 kb IncL/M (ST395, ST11, ST134, ST39) and ~100 kb IncA/C (ST37, ST1153, ST890) plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, bla NDM-1 was associated with a ~70 kb IncA/C plasmid (ST263). However, non-typable plasmids of ~40 kb containing bla VIM-2 were detected in the ST1151 clone. This work reports the first co-occurrence of four diverse types of carbapenemase of K. pneumoniae clones from a single hospital in China. IncA/C, IncL/M, and other successful plasmids may be important for the dissemination of carbapenemases, producing a complex epidemiological picture. PMID:24762211
Hall, E M; Jacobs, P
This paper describes the development of a price index for hospital equipment. Based on 10 years of hospital capital acquisition data from a large teaching hospital, equipment acquisitions were categorized and weights derived for each category. Using national producer price indexes for each of these categories, a national hospital equipment index was derived for 1981 to 1991. Forecasts for 1991 and 1992 were then made. The resulting index indicated that price movements of our hospital capital equipment index were very similar to the Implicit Gross Domestic Product Deflator, an index that measures price changes for the nation's Gross Domestic Product. However, because of the relative importance of several categories of equipment (scientific instruments, computers), more widespread data on hospital equipment expenditure patterns would be desirable in order to validate these results. PMID:1936655
In 1948 Norwegian architect and author Odd Brochmann (1909-92) published his popular children's book Marianne in hospital (Marianne pĺ sykehus). Two years later the book was filmed on the initiative of the Ministry of Social Affairs. This article considers the question of what were the purposes of the film. Officially, it was presented as an attempt to teach children not to be afraid of hospitals. However, in internal notes and letters the health authorities stressed that the film should be an educational film about the social benefits and health services of the welfare state. Furthermore, I will argue that the film was the result of a wish to present the nation's modern hospital care and, by way of conclusion, discuss the characterisation of the film as educational. PMID:14691510
Brooks, G R; Jones, V G
OBJECTIVE: To address two questions: What are the characteristics of hospitals that affect the likelihood of their being involved in a merger? What characteristics of particular pairs of hospitals affect the likelihood of the pair engaging in a merger? DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Hospitals in the 12 county region surrounding the San Francisco Bay during the period 1983 to 1992 were the focus of the study. Data were drawn from secondary sources, including the Lexis/Nexis database, the American Hospital Association, and the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development of the State of California. STUDY DESIGN: Seventeen hospital mergers during the study period were identified. A random sample of pairs of hospitals that did not merge was drawn to establish a statistically efficient control set. Models constructed from hypotheses regarding hospital and market characteristics believed to be related to merger likelihood were tested using logistic regression analysis. DATA COLLECTION: See Data Sources/Study Setting. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis shows that the likelihood of a merger between a particular pair of hospitals is positively related to the degree of market overlap that exists between them. Furthermore, market overlap and performance difference interact in their effect on merger likelihood. In an analysis of individual hospitals, conditions of rivalry, hospital market share, and hospital size were not found to influence the likelihood that a hospital will engage in a merger. CONCLUSIONS: Mergers between hospitals are not driven directly by considerations of market power or efficiency as much as by the existence of specific merger opportunities in the hospitals' local markets. Market overlap is a condition that enables a merger to occur, but other factors, such as the relative performance levels of the hospitals in question and their ownership and teaching status, also play a role in influencing the likelihood that a merger will in fact take place. PMID:9018212
Lynn R. Maloney; Marianne E. Weiss
Ensuring that patients' informational needs have been met prior to hospital discharge sets the stage for successful self-management of recovery at home. This secondary analysis study aims to identify differences in the amount of discharge teaching content needed and received by adult medical-surgical patients on the basis of their sociodemographic characteristics and hospitalization-related factors. The Quality of Discharge Teaching Scale
Background Thoracic trauma is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this study, we present our 11-year experience in the management and clinical outcome of 888 chest trauma cases as a result of blunt and penetrating injuries in our university hospital in Damascus, Syria. Methods We reviewed files of 888 consequent cases of chest trauma between January 2000 and January 2011. The mean age of our patients was 31 ± 17 years mostly males with blunt injuries. Patients were evaluated and compared according to age, gender, etiology of trauma, thoracic and extra-thoracic injuries, complications, and mortality. Results The leading cause of the trauma was violence (41%) followed by traffic accidents (33%). Pneumothorax (51%), Hemothorax (38%), rib fractures (34%), and lung contusion (15%) were the most common types of injury. Associated injuries were documented in 36% of patients (extremities 19%, abdomen 13%, head 8%). A minority of the patients required thoracotomy (5.7%), and tube thoracostomy (56%) was sufficient to manage the majority of cases. Mean hospital LOS was 4.5 ± 4.6 days. The overall mortoality rate was 1.8%, and morbidity (n = 78, 8.7%). Conclusions New traffic laws (including seat belt enforcement) reduced incidence and severity of chest trauma in Syria. Violence was the most common cause of chest trauma rather than road traffic accidents in this series, this necessitates epidemiologic or multi-institutional studies to know to which degree violence contributes to chest trauma in Syria. The number of fractured ribs can be used as simple indicator of the severity of trauma. And we believe that significant neurotrauma, traffic accidents, hemodynamic status and GCS upon arrival, ICU admission, ventilator use, and complication of therapy are predictors of dismal prognosis. PMID:22515842
Characterisation of acute respiratory infections at a United Kingdom paediatric teaching hospital: observational study assessing the impact of influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) on predominant viral pathogens
Background According to the World Health Organisation, influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) has moved into the post-pandemic phase, but there were still high numbers of infections occurring in the United Kingdom in 2010-11. It is therefore important to examine the burden of acute respiratory infections at a large children’s hospital to determine pathogen prevalence, occurrence of co-infection, prevalence of co-morbidities and diagnostic yield of sampling methods. Methods This was a retrospective study of respiratory virus aetiology in acute admissions to a paediatric teaching hospital in the North West of England between 1st April 2010 and 31st March 2011. Respiratory samples were analysed either with a rapid RSV test if the patient had symptoms suggestive of bronchiolitis, followed by multiplex PCR testing for ten respiratory viruses, or with multiplex PCR testing alone if the patient had suspected other ARI. Patient demographics and data regarding severity of illness, presence of co-morbidities and respiratory virus sampling method were retrieved from case notes. Results 645 patients were admitted during the study period. 82/645 (12.7%) patients were positive for 2009 pdmH1N1, of whom 24 (29.2%) required PICU admission, with 7.3% mortality rate. Viral co-infection occurred in 48/645 (7.4%) patients and was not associated with more severe disease. Co-morbidities were present more frequently in older children, but there was no significant difference in prevalence of co-morbidity between 2009 pdmH1N1 patients and those with other ARI. NPA samples had the highest diagnostic yield with 192/210 (91.4%) samples yielding an organism. Conclusions Influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) is an ongoing cause of occasionally severe disease affecting both healthy children and those with co-morbidities. Surveillance of viral pathogens provides valuable information on patterns of disease. PMID:24948099
Robinson, Jane J A
The following article from the International Nursing Review, 'Religion, culture and male involvement in the use of family planning: evidence from Enugu and Katsina States of Nigeria', by C. Ujuju, J. Anyanti, S.B. Adebayo, F. Muhammad, O. Oluigbo and A. Gofwan, published online on 6 September 2010 on Wiley Online Library (http://wileyonlinelibrary.com) has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Jane J.A. Robinson and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as not all copyright permissions had been cleared. Jane J.A Robinson Editor International Nursing Review. PMID:21848764
Radford, Andrea; Slifkin, Rebecca; Schur, Claudia; Cheung, Karen; Baernholdt, Marianne
The 340B Drug Pricing Program has the potential to reduce outpatient pharmaceutical costs for qualifying hospitals—hut many rural hospital administrators are unaware of their organization’s eligibility. PMID:18637547
Zhu, Ling-Ling; Li, Wei; Song, Ping; Zhou, Quan
The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People's Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1) improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2) complications associated with vascular access; 3) incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4) liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan-do-check-act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety. PMID:24669192
Zhu, Ling-ling; Li, Wei; Song, Ping; Zhou, Quan
The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People’s Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1) improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2) complications associated with vascular access; 3) incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4) liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan–do–check–act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety. PMID:24669192
Dunowska, Magdalena; Morley, Paul S; Hyatt, Doreene R
The objective of the study was to determine the disinfection efficacy of aerosolizing (cold fogging) Virkon S on survival of Stahpylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica on different surfaces. Two experiments were conducted in different locations. Salmonella enterica and S. aureus were grown in broth culture and then seeded into pre-marked areas in each location and allowed to dry. Virkon S (1%) was aerosolized into the rooms (approximately 1L of per 30 m(3)). Samples were collected pre- and post-fogging for quantitative cultures to evaluate the efficacy of aerial disinfection. The reduction of S. enterica or S. aureus counts ranged from 3.40 to 0.95 log(10) (Salmonella) or 4.92 to 0.02 log(10) (Staphylococcus). The greatest reduction was evident in samples collected from non-porous horizontal surfaces, which were not obstructed from the air flow. These results indicate that fogging with Virkon S could be beneficial in routine disinfection of pre-cleaned surfaces. The benefits of routine use of cold fogging with Virkon S in veterinary hospital settings would include its wide-range antimicrobial action and minimal working-men power required to disinfect large areas. Also, fogging would potentially minimize microbial contamination in the hard to reach areas. PMID:15708826
Kumela, Kabaye; Amenu, Demisew; Chelkeba, Legese
Background: More than 90% of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is acquired due to mother-to-child transmission, which is spreading during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral and short course antiretroviral regimens in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and associated factors Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). Method: A hospital based retrospective cohort study was conducted on HIV infected pregnant mothers who gave birth and had follow up at anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinic for at least 6 months during a time period paired with their infants. The primary and secondary outcomes were rate of infant infection by HIV at 6 weeks and 6 months respectively. The Chi-square was used for the comparison of categorical data multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants of early mother-to-child transmission of HIV at 6 weeks. Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze factors that affect the 6 month HIV free survival of infants born to HIV infected mothers. Results: A total of 180 mother infant pairs were considered for the final analysis, 90(50%) mothers received single dose nevirapine (sdNVP) designated as regimen-3, 67 (37.2%) mothers were on different types of ARV regimens commonly AZT + 3TC + NVP (regimen-1), while the rest 23 (12.8%) mothers were on short course dual regimen AZT + 3TC + sdNVP (regimen-2). Early mother-to-child transmission rate at 6 weeks for regimens 1, 2 and 3 were 5.9% (4/67), 8.6% (2/23), and 15.5% (14/90) respectively. The late cumulative mother-to-child transmission rate of HIV at 6 months regardless of regimen type was 15.5% (28/180). Postnatal transmission at 6 months was 28.5% (8/28) of infected children. Factors that were found to be associated with high risk of early mother-to-child transmission of HIV include duration of ARV regimen shorter than 2 months during pregnancy (OR=4.3, 95%CI =1.38-13.46), base line CD4 less than 350 cells/cubic mm (OR=6.98, 95%CI=0.91-53.76), early infant infection (OR=5.4, 95%CI=2.04-14.4), infants delivered home (OR=13.1, 95%CI=2.69-63.7), infant with birth weight less than 2500 g (OR=6.41, 95%CI=2.21-18.61), and mixed infant feeding (OR=6.7, 95%CI=2.2-20.4). Antiretroviral regimen duration less than 2 months, maternal base line CD4 less than 350 cells/cubic mm and mixed infant feeding were also important risk factors for late infant infection or death. Conclusion: The effectiveness of multiple antiretroviral drugs in prevention of early mother-to-child transmission of HIV was found to be more effective than that of single dose nevirapine, although, the difference was not statistically significant. But in late transmission, a significant difference was observed in which infants born to mother who received multiple antiretroviral drugs were less likely to progress to infection or death than infants born to mothers who received single dose nevirapine. PMID:26131041
Background Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are safe and effective anticoagulant options for cardiovascular patients when applied as body weight-adjusted doses. However, there are some barriers that make it difficult to implement weight-adjusted doses in clinical practice. Therefore, it is vital to learn the dosing practices of LMWH and its efficacy and safety in clinical practice. Methods A retrospective study was conducted in cardiovascular inpatients who had received at least one dose of LMWH during a 6-month period. Appropriateness of LMWH dosing was determined and major clinical outcomes (major adverse vascular events and major bleeding) during hospitalization were evaluated. Results A total of 376 admissions representing 364 patients received LMWH treatment. Of these, 17.0% (64/376) of admissions did not have body weight records. Of the 312 admissions included for the outcome study, only 34 cases (10.9%) received the recommended doses of LMWH, while 51 cases (16.3%) received mild underdoses, 223 cases (71.5%) received major underdoses and 4 (1.3%) received excess doses. There were 10 major adverse vascular events, which occurred more often in patients receiving excess doses of LMWH than in patients receiving recommended, mild or major underdoses (50%, 2.9%, 2.0% and 2.7%, respectively, P < 0.001). After multivariable analysis, severe renal insufficiency was an independent risk factor for major adverse vascular events [odds ratio (OR), 31.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.99-170.30; P < 0.001]. No major bleeding was recorded. Conclusions Underdose of LMWH is commonly used in cardiovascular inpatients, which was suboptimal according to guidelines. Using LMWH at a fixed, low dose for treatment purposes in patients without severe renal insufficiency was not associated with a higher risk of adverse vascular events in the current study, though larger studies with extended follow-ups are required to fully assess the long-term consequences of LMWH underdosing. PMID:23217192
Upadhyay, Saloni; Chufal, Sanjay Singh; Hasan, Yuman; Tayal, Ishwer
Backround: ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens are hereditary characters and are useful in population genetic studies, in resolving medico-legal issues and more importantly for the immunologic safety of blood during transfusion. Aims: This study is aimed to determine the distribution pattern of the ABO and Rh blood groups among blood donors in Kumaon region of Uttarakhand and compare it with other data from similar studies within the India and all over the world. Design: It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank of Shushila Tewari Hospital of Government Medical College, Haldwani from January 2012 to December 2013. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 12,701 blood donors. ABO and Rh typing was done using slide agglutination method with antisera ABO and Rh (Tulip diagnostics ltd). Doubtful cases were confirmed by tube agglutination method and reverse grouping using known pooled A and B cells. The age group and sex of donors, frequency of ABO and Rh blood groups were reported in simple percentages. Results: The predominant donors belonged to age group between 18-35years (84.28%). Male donors were more than female donors, ratio being 352:1. Replacement donors (99.71%) were much more than voluntary donors (0.91%). The most common blood group was B (32.07%) and least common being AB (10.53%). Blood group ‘O’ and ‘A’ had same frequency. The prevalence of Rhesus positive and negative distribution in the studied population was 94.49% and 5.51% respectively. Blood group frequency with respect to ABO and Rhesus positive was found to be shown by formula B> O>A >AB. The frequency for ABO and Rhesus negative was given by the formula B>A>O>AB. Conclusion: Knowledge of frequencies of the different blood groups is very important for blood banks and transfusion service policies that could contribute significantly to the National Health System. PMID:25653957
Ibe, Nnenne I.; Iroegbu, Christian U.
Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods—beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri—and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p<0.05) among the various food samples. However, this did not differ significantly in the three methods used for the enumeration of coliforms, suggesting that any of the three methods could be validly used for such studies with confidence. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two major coliforms identified among 98 coliform isolates obtained from the various food samples, of which 78 (79.6%) were assumed to be of human origin on account of their ability to grow at 44 °C. The level of coliform contamination in the food samples from vendors and restaurants (geometric mean count 7.64-9.21; MPN ?50) were above the accepted 104 colony-forming unit/g or MPN ?10 limits. The results of the study, therefore, call for stringent supervision and implementation of food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors. PMID:22283029
Posteraro, Brunella; Spanu, Teresa; Fiori, Barbara; De Maio, Flavio; De Carolis, Elena; Giaquinto, Alessia; Prete, Valentina; De Angelis, Giulia; Torelli, Riccardo; D'Inzeo, Tiziana; Vella, Antonietta; De Luca, Alessio; Tumbarello, Mario; Ricciardi, Walter; Sanguinetti, Maurizio
Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) is an affordable alternative to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference method for antifungal susceptibility testing. In this study, the MICs of yeast isolates from 1,214 bloodstream infection episodes, generated by SYO during hospital laboratory activity (January 2005 to December 2013), were reanalyzed using current CLSI clinical breakpoints/epidemiological cutoff values to assign susceptibility (or the wild-type [WT] phenotype) to systemic antifungal agents. Excluding Candida albicans (57.4% of all isolates [n = 1,250]), the most predominant species were Candida parapsilosis complex (20.9%), Candida tropicalis (8.2%), Candida glabrata (6.4%), Candida guilliermondii (1.6%), and Candida krusei (1.3%). Among the non-Candida species (1.9%), 7 were Cryptococcus neoformans and 17 were other species, mainly Rhodotorula species. Over 97% of Candida isolates were susceptible (WT phenotype) to amphotericin B and flucytosine. Rates of susceptibility (WT phenotype) to fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 98.7% in C. albicans, 92.3% in the C. parapsilosis complex, 96.1% in C. tropicalis, 92.5% in C. glabrata, 100% in C. guilliermondii, and 100% (excluding fluconazole) in C. krusei. The fluconazole-resistant isolates consisted of 6 C. parapsilosis complex isolates, 3 C. glabrata isolates, 2 C. albicans isolates, 2 C. tropicalis isolates, and 1 Candida lusitaniae isolate. Of the non-Candida isolates, 2 C. neoformans isolates had the non-WT phenotype for susceptibility to fluconazole, whereas Rhodotorula isolates had elevated azole MICs. Overall, 99.7% to 99.8% of Candida isolates were susceptible (WT phenotype) to echinocandins, but 3 isolates were nonsusceptible (either intermediate or resistant) to caspofungin (C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and C. krusei), anidulafungin (C. albicans and C. guilliermondii), and micafungin (C. albicans). However, when the intrinsically resistant non-Candida isolates were included, the rate of echinocandin nonsusceptibility reached 1.8%. In summary, the SYO method proved to be able to detect yeast species showing antifungal resistance or reduced susceptibility. PMID:25896705
Background The clonal spread of Acinetobacter baumannii is a global problem, and carbapenems, such as imipenem, remain the first-choice agent against A. baumannii. Using synergy to enhance the antibiotic activity of carbapenems could be useful. Here, amlodipine (AML) was tested alone and with imipenem against A. baumannii isolates. Methods Forty-two isolates of A. baumannii were collected. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assessed the genetic relationship of the isolates. The resistance phenotypes were determined using disc diffusion. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the drugs were determined by broth microdilution. The combined effects of the drugs were determined by a checkerboard procedure. Metallo-?-lactamase (MBL) was determined using the MBL Etest. Results Forty-two A. baumannii isolates were collected from 42 patients who were mostly older than 65 years and had long inpatient stays (?7 days). A. baumannii was mostly recovered from the respiratory system (N?=?35, 83.3%). Most patients (N?=?27, 64.3%) received care in intensive care units (ICUs). Disc diffusion testing demonstrated that A. baumannii susceptibility to polymyxin B was 100%, while susceptibility to other antimicrobial agents was less than 30%, classifying the isolates into 10 MDR and 32 XDR strains. MLST grouped the A. baumannii isolates into 4 existing STs and 6 new STs. STn4 carried allele G1, with a T ? C mutation at nt3 on the gpi111 locus. STn5 carried allele A1, possessing A ? C mutations at nt156 and nt159 on the gltA1 locus. ST195 and ST208 accounted for 68.05% (29/42) of the isolates. Clonal relation analysis showed that ST195 and ST208 belonged to clonal complex (CC) 92. The inhibitory concentration of imipenem ranged from 0.5 to 32 ?g/ml, and that of AML ranged from 40 to 320 ?g/ml. In combination, the susceptibility rate of A. baumannii isolates increased from 16.7% to 54.8% (P?=?0.001). In the checkerboard procedure, half of the isolates (N?=?21, 50.0%) demonstrated synergy or partial synergy with the drug combination. The MBL Etest revealed that 1 A. baumannii strain (N?=?1, 2.4%) produced MBL. Conclusions CC92 was the major clone spreading in our hospital. AML improved the activity of imipenem against A. baumannii isolates in vitro but did not inhibit MBL. PMID:24238357
Background Typhoid intestinal perforation is still prevalent in many developing countries. Despite the advances in the management, the outcome in these patients in resource limited countries is still very poor. This study was to review our experiences on the surgical management of typhoid intestinal perforation and to determine the prognostic factors for mortality in our local setting. Methods This was a combined retrospective and prospective study of patients who were operated for typhoid intestinal perforation at Bugando Medical Centre between August 2006 and September 2011. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer software version 15. Results A total of 104 patients were studied representing 8.7% of typhoid fever cases. Males were affected twice more than the females (2.6:1). Their ages ranged from 8 to 76 years with a median age of 18.5 years. The peak age incidence was in the 11-20 years age group. Fever and abdominal pain were the most common presenting symptoms and majority of the patients (80.8%) perforated between within 14 days of illness. Chest and abdominal radiographs revealed pneumoperitonium in 74.7% of cases. Ultrasound showed free peritoneal collection in 85.7% of cases. Nine (10.2%) patients were HIV positive with a median CD4+ count of 261 cells/?l. The perforation-surgery interval was more than 72 hours in 90(86.5%) patients. The majority of patients (84.6%) had single perforations and ileum was the most common part of the bowel affected occurring in 86.2% of cases. Simple closure of the perforations was the most commonly performed procedure accounting for 78.8% of cases. Postoperative complication rate was 39.4% and surgical site infection was the most frequent complication in 55.5% of cases. Mortality rate was 23.1% and it was statistically significantly associated with delayed presentation, inadequate antibiotic treatment prior to admission, shock on admission, HIV positivity, low CD4 count (< 200 cells/?l), high ASA classes (III-V), delayed operation, multiple perforations, severe peritoneal contamination and presence of postoperative complications (P < 0.001). The median overall length of hospital stay was 28 days. Conclusion Typhoid intestinal perforation is still endemic in our setting and carries high morbidity and mortality. This study has attempted to determine the factors that statistically influence mortality in typhoid perforation in our environment. Appropriate measures focusing at these factors are vital in order to deliver optimal care for these patients in this region. PMID:22401289
Andrew J. Sussman; Jeffrey R. Otten; Robert C. Goldszer; Margaret Hanson; David J. Trull; Kenneth Paulus; Monte Brown; Victor Dzau; Troyen A. Brennan
Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), a major academic tertiary medical center, and Faulkner Hospital (Faulkner), a nearby community teaching hospital, both in the Boston, Massachusetts area, have established a close affiliation relationship under a common corporate parent that achieves a variety of synergistic benefits. Formed under the pressures of limited capacity at BWH and excess capacity at Faulkner, and the
Davis, James E., Ed.
This issue of "Focus: Teaching English in Southeastern Ohio" contains articles about teaching Shakespeare, student summaries of a Shakespeare conference held at Ohio University-Zanesville in April 1976, and suggested projects for teaching poetry writing. It also contains lists of materials and articles related to the teaching of Shakespeare, and…
Bitzer, Maryann D.; Boudreaux, Martha C.
A computer-based education system, PLATO (Programed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations), has been used to teach nursing students at Mercy Hospital School of Nursing in Urbana, Illinois since 1963. PLATO III, the model now being used in a maternity nursing course, has 70 student terminals (20 of which can be used at any one time) connected to…
Chatterjee, Susmita; Laxminarayan, Ramanan
Objective Despite a growing volume of surgical procedures in low-income and middle-income countries, the costs of these procedures are not well understood. We estimated the costs of 12 surgical procedures commonly conducted in five different types of hospitals in India from the provider perspective, using a microcosting method. Design Cost and utilisation data were collected retrospectively from April 2010 to March 2011 to avoid seasonal variability. Setting For this study, we chose five hospitals of different types: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital and a 778-bed tertiary care teaching hospital based on their willingness to cooperate and data accessibility. The hospitals were from four states in India. The private, charitable and tertiary care hospitals serve urban populations, the district hospital serves a semiurban area and the private teaching hospital serves a rural population. Results Costs of conducting lower section caesarean section ranged from rupees 2469 to 41?087; hysterectomy rupees 4124 to 57?622 and appendectomy rupees 2421 to 3616 (US$1=rupees 52). We computed the costs of conducting lap and open cholecystectomy (rupees 27?732 and 44?142, respectively); hernia repair (rupees 13?204); external fixation (rupees 8406); intestinal obstruction (rupees 6406); amputation (rupees 5158); coronary artery bypass graft (rupees 177?141); craniotomy (rupees 75?982) and functional endoscopic sinus surgery (rupees 53?398). Conclusions Estimated costs are roughly comparable with rates of reimbursement provided by the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY)—India's government-financed health insurance scheme that covers 32.4 million poor families. Results from this type of study can be used to set and revise the reimbursement rates. PMID:23794591
Whitcomb, M E; Cleverly, W O
In its 1990 report to the U.S. Congress and to the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Council on Graduate Medical Education noted that the financial status of teaching hospitals, as measured by trends in profit margins, had deteriorated during the years 1985-1988, and that major teaching hospitals had the lowest margins in the hospital industry. To gain insight into the financial viability of major teaching hospitals, the authors updated the analysis of the financial status of these hospitals and further analyzed their financial performance. They identified academic medical center hospitals using criteria established by the Association of American Medical Colleges' Council on Teaching Hospitals; accessed financial performance data on these institutions from the Health Care Financing Administration's prospective payment system minimum-data sets for the years 1987-1991; evaluated the financial performance of these institutions for the five-year period by calculating their total margin, return on equity, and financial leverage; and determined the percentage of Medicaid discharges for each year. The analyses show that academic medical center hospitals had stabilized their short-term financial performance in recent years. Nevertheless, their financial position is not strong. Their return on equity and debt financing percentages suggest that they will be forced to reduce their future rate of investment in new plant and equipment. Further, their overall financial performance is threatened by the growing percentage of Medicaid discharges. These observations raise serious concerns about the financial viability of these institutions in the face of continued changes in the financing of hospital services. PMID:8397596
K. Y. K. Wong; S. Y. S. Wong; H. W. Fraser; Y. Ersoy; S. Ogston; D. Wolfson; A. D. Struthers; H. Tunstall-Pedoe; R. S. MacWalter
Background: We aim to assess whether social deprivation independently predicts case fatality after a stroke patient has been admitted to hospital, and to assess whether social deprivation affected duration of hospital stay. Methods: Cohort study in a tertiary teaching hospital included consecutive patients admitted to hospital within 48 h of their stroke between 1988 and 1994. Outcome measures were case
The Massachusetts General Hospital has organized a School of Psychiatry web site with a wealth of resources. The site is divided into three sections; Parents, Educators and Clinicians. The Educator section provides many useful resources from basic health information and disorder background to helping educators cope with teaching students with mental health issues in the classroom. This site will be a valuable resource for both educators and students in the field of Mental Health.
Quality of Artemisinin-Based Combination Formulations for Malaria Treatment: Prevalence and Risk Factors for Poor Quality Medicines in Public Facilities and Private Sector Drug Outlets in Enugu, Nigeria
Kaur, Harparkash; Allan, Elizabeth Louise; Mamadu, Ibrahim; Hall, Zoe; Ibe, Ogochukwu; El Sherbiny, Mohamed; van Wyk, Albert; Yeung, Shunmay; Swamidoss, Isabel; Green, Michael D.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Culzoni, Maria Julia; Clarke, Siân; Schellenberg, David; Fernández, Facundo M.; Onwujekwe, Obinna
Background Artemisinin-based combination therapies are recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, yet medication must be of good quality for efficacious treatment. A recent meta-analysis reported 35% (796/2,296) of antimalarial drug samples from 21 Sub-Saharan African countries, purchased from outlets predominantly using convenience sampling, failed chemical content analysis. We used three sampling strategies to purchase artemisinin-containing antimalarials (ACAs) in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria, and compared the resulting quality estimates. Methods ACAs were purchased using three sampling approaches - convenience, mystery clients and overt, within a defined area and sampling frame in Enugu metropolis. The active pharmaceutical ingredients were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and confirmed by mass spectrometry at three independent laboratories. Results were expressed as percentage of APIs stated on the packaging and used to categorise each sample as acceptable quality, substandard, degraded, or falsified. Results Content analysis of 3024 samples purchased from 421 outlets using convenience (n=200), mystery (n=1,919) and overt (n=905) approaches, showed overall 90.8% ACAs to be of acceptable quality, 6.8% substandard, 1.3% degraded and 1.2% falsified. Convenience sampling yielded a significantly higher prevalence of poor quality ACAs, but was not evident by the mystery and overt sampling strategies both of which yielded results that were comparable between each other. Artesunate (n=135; 4 falsified) and dihydroartemisinin (n=14) monotherapy tablets, not recommended by WHO, were also identified. Conclusion Randomised sampling identified fewer falsified ACAs than previously reported by convenience approaches. Our findings emphasise the need for specific consideration to be given to sampling frame and sampling approach if representative information on drug quality is to be obtained. PMID:26018221
Subtitled "a professional development Website for teachers," Teaching Heritage is an impressive collection of information and resources for teaching Australian history and culture. There are eight main sections to the site: four offer teaching resources and four provide teaching units. The resource sections include an examination of different ways of defining heritage, an Australian heritage timeline, discussions of different approaches to teaching heritage through media, and outcomes-based approaches in teaching and assessing heritage coursework. The teaching units deal in depth with issues of citizenship, nationalism, Australian identities, and new cultural values. A Heritage Gallery features images of various culturally significant or representative places in Australia, such as New Italy, the Dundullimal Homestead, Australian Hall, Kelly's Bush, and many more. Obviously, teachers of Civics on the southern continent will find this site extremely useful, but the teaching units -- rich with texts and images -- also offer fascinating introductions for anyone interested in the issues of Australian nation-making.
Glied, S A; Gnanasekaran, S
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between hospital financing patterns and hospital resources for the care of babies born at low birthweight in New York City. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Data on neonatal care beds in New York City hospitals for 1991, obtained from the Greater New York Hospital Association, which were matched to 1991 hospital-specific birthweight and payment distributions from the New York State Department of Health. STUDY DESIGN: Statistical analyses were used to assess the relationship between insurance and beds across all hospitals and across hospitals classified by ownership and teaching status. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After adjusting for low birthweight and other measures of patient need and for hospital affiliation, the study finds that hospitals with more privately insured patients, especially those with more privately insured low-birthweight newborns, have statistically significantly more neonatal intensive care beds than do those with fewer such patients. This result persists within hospital affiliation categories. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that differences in the care received by privately insured, Medicaid insured, and uninsured low-birthweight babies may stem from differences in the resources available to the hospitals that treat these patients. PMID:8943992
Tomas, Z.; Kostka, I.; Mott-Smith, J. A.
The authors of "Teaching Writing" draw on their years of teaching and their knowledge of theory and research to present major concepts in teaching L2 writing. These concepts encompass how cultural differences affect the writing class, planning instruction, text-based writing, writing strategies, modeling, and responding to student…
Ekaterina Nemtchinova's book "Teaching Listening" explores different approaches to teaching listening in second language classrooms. Presenting up-to-date research and theoretical issues associated with second language listening, Nemtchinova explains how these new findings inform everyday teaching and offers practical suggestions…
The profession of teaching artist is an increasingly accepted career path. Teaching artists have generated plentiful testimonials to support what was once only backed up by anecdote and is now increasingly supported by objective data. They are finding that very definite and specific benefits await the artist who teaches. While the impacts are not…
College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.
A project was conducted at College of the Canyons (Valencia, California) to initiate a new 2-year hospitality program with career options in hotel or restaurant management. A mail and telephone survey of area employers in the restaurant and hotel field demonstrated a need for, interest in, and willingness to provide internships for such a program.…
Heath, Daniel E.; Hoy, Mary; Rathman, James F.; Rohdieck, Stephanie
The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in collaboration with the University Center for the Advancement of Teaching developed the Chemical Engineering Mentored Teaching Experience. The Mentored Teaching Experience is an elective for Ph.D. students interested in pursuing faculty careers. Participants are…
Choate, G M; Walker, W R; Unger, M
Recently available figures for 1982 and 1983 show that Catholic hospitals as a whole attained positive ratios of net income to fund balances and that these gains exceeded inflation in both years. The financial picture varies, however, when data for specific categories of Catholic hospitals are examined. For example, smaller hospitals relied more on borrowed funds to finance assets and generate profits, and for many of them these profits still did not exceed the 1983 inflation rate. Hospitals particularly vulnerable to diagnosis-related group payment--that is, teaching hospitals, hospitals with negative operating income, and hospitals adding beds--possessed less liquidity than Catholic hospitals aggregately. Hospitals in each of these categories experienced less-than-average basic profitability as well. PMID:10275109
HM Hayes; GP Wilson
A review of medical records from 17 North American university veterinary medical teaching hospitals identified 66 dogs with hypospadias. Males predominated (15:1) and cryptorchidism was the most commonly diagnosed second anomaly, often associated with intersexuality. Fifteen cases, diagnosed at 10 different university hospitals, were Boston terriers, strongly suggesting that this breed has a familial predisposition for hypospadias. Male mongrels, as
TORABIPOUR, Amin; NAJARZADEH, Maryam; ARAB, Mohammad; FARZIANPOUR, Freshteh; GHASEMZADEH, Roya
Abstract Background This study aimed to measure the hospital productivity using data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique and Malmquist indices. Methods This is a cross sectional study in which the panel data were used in a 4 year period from 2007 to 2010. The research was implemented in 12 teaching and non-teaching hospitals of Ahvaz County. Data envelopment analysis technique and the Malmquist indices with an input-orientation approach, was used to analyze the data and estimation of productivity. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.18 and DEAP.2 software. Results Six hospitals (50%) had a value lower than 1, which represents an increase in total productivity and other hospitals were non-productive. the average of total productivity factor (TPF) was 1.024 for all hospitals, which represents a decrease in efficiency by 2.4% from 2007 to 2010. The average technical, technologic, scale and managerial efficiency change was 0.989, 1.008, 1.028, and 0.996 respectively. There was not a significant difference in mean productivity changes among teaching and non-teaching hospitals (P>0.05) (except in 2009 years). Conclusion Productivity rate of hospitals had an increasing trend generally. However, the total average of productivity was decreased in hospitals. Besides, between the several components of total productivity, variation of technological efficiency had the highest impact on reduce of total average of productivity.
C J Hawkey; S Hodgson; A Norman; T K Daneshmend; S T Garner
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the medical impact of reactive pharmacy intervention. DESIGN--Analysis of all interventions during 28 days by all 35 pharmacists in hospitals in Nottingham. SETTING--All (six) hospitals in the Nottingham health authority (a teaching district), representing 2530 mainly acute beds, 781 mental illness beds, and 633 mainly health care of the elderly beds. PATIENTS--Hospital inpatients and outpatients. INTERVENTIONS--Recording of every
Pharmacy Lobby Visitor Elevators Escalator Patient Elevators University Hospital Information ElevatorVERSION 1 MAPUniversity Hospital VERSION 5 Directions from University Hospital to: Huntsman Cancer on the sixth floor of the Huntsman Cancer Hospital. Open Mon.Fri. 7 a.m.8:30 p.m., Sat.Sun. 11 a.m.7 p
Day, Richard R.
"Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…
Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…
Costello, Michael M; West, Daniel J; Ramirez, Bernardo
The pace of hospital merger and acquisition activity reflects the economic theory of supply and demand: Publicly traded hospital companies, private equity funds, and large nonprofit hospital systems are investing capital to purchase and operate freestanding community hospitals at a time when many of those hospitals find themselves short of capital reserves and certain forms of management expertise. But the sale of those community hospitals also raises questions about the impact of absentee ownership on the communities which those hospitals serve. PMID:21864058
Carmona, Elenice Valentim; Vale, Ianę Nogueira do; Ohara, Conceiçăo Vieira da Silva; Abrăo, Ana Cristina Freitas de Vilhena
Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the neonatal unit of a public teaching hospital in the state of Săo Paulo, Brazil, which aimed to determine the perceptions of mothers about their newborns hospitalized children. The sample consisted of 100 women questioned, through the Neonatal Perception Inventory Broussard, about how much trouble was expected to be presented by babies of the general unit, on behaviors such as crying; feeding; regurgitate or vomit; evacuate; sleep and have a routine. Then, the same questions were repeated about their own babies. Ninety mothers considered their children with fewer difficulties than other babies at the unit. Younger women and mothers of infants with higher weights tended to consider their children with more difficulty. The Inventory is easy to apply and may be useful in the evaluation of mother-child interaction, although its result cannot be considered in isolation. PMID:25517674
Michael M. Costello; Daniel J. West Jr; Bernardo Ramirez
The pace of hospital merger and acquisition activity reflects the economic theory of supply and demand: Publicly traded hospital companies, private equity funds, and large nonprofit hospital systems are investing capital to purchase and operate freestanding community hospitals at a time when many of those hospitals find themselves short of capital reserves and certain forms of management expertise. But the
Omokhodion, F O; Sridhar, M K C
Noise levels were measured in 3 hospitals in Ibadan; a teaching hospital with approximately 800 beds and 2 general hospitals with about 200 beds each. A type 2 digital integrating sound level meter was used to measure noise levels in selected sites. Children's clinics and wards in the teaching hospital recorded the highest noise levels, 68-73db(A) and 55-77db(A) respectively, compared to similar facilities for adults. High noise levels 74-89dB(A) were also recorded in the operating rooms. Noise levels above 80db (A) were recorded in service areas such as the boiler room, and laundry and generator rooms in the teaching hospital. Corresponding sites in the general hospitals were less noisy as such services are provided at a minimum in these hospitals. Sleep interference is known to occur at noise levels recorded in this study. Staff conversation makes a large contribution to noise levels in patient care areas. The use of hospital equipment in patient care also contributes to the noise levels especially in operating room. This can be reduced if attention is drawn to this as an important part of patient care. Noise levels in service areas need to be monitored closely and workers in those areas may need hearing protection and regular audiometric assessment. PMID:15032459
Felton, Harry F.
A backpacking course offered at the Pennsylvania State University teaches safety and proper use of equipment. This well planned course resulted in an appreciation for the outdoors, ecological awareness, self-reliance, and attainment of new experiences and skills. (CJ)
Discusses possibilities for the application of telepresence to physics and teaching. Telepresence allows a computer user to effectively be present at some other location through the use of remote cameras, sensors, and controls. (WRM)
Reid, John S.
Discusses experience of teaching optical experiments with emphasis upon the student's design and construction of refracting and reflecting telescopes. Concludes that the student's interest and acquired knowledge are greatly enhanced through the use of realistic experiments. (CC)
Panagiotis N. Papanikolaou; Georgia D. Christidi; John P. A. Ioannidis
Background Extensive debate exists in the healthcare community over whether outcomes of medical care at teaching hospitals and other healthcare units are better or worse than those at the respective nonteaching ones. Thus, our goal was to systematically evaluate the evidence pertaining to this question. Methods and Findings We reviewed all studies that compared teaching versus nonteaching healthcare structures for
Teaching Resource Guide 2013-2014 Center for Teaching Excellence Office of Undergraduate Studies for Teaching Excellence Reproduce with permission only Center for Teaching Excellence, University of Maryland important contributions to undergraduate student learning and to the commitment to excellence in teaching
Rosenfeld, J V; Kaye, A H
The Department of Neurosurgery of the Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH) is a major neurosurgery program and academic leader in Australasia. In 1998, the RMH marked its 150th anniversary. The department of neurosurgery was established in 1945 under the direction of R.S. Hooper and has produced many distinguished neurosurgeons since its founding. The department is currently directed by Andrew Kaye, who is also the James Stewart Professor of Surgery at the University of Melbourne. In 1997-1998, the neurosurgery department received 2930 admissions and performed 2225 operations, with 11 neurosurgeons on staff and a strong focus on subspecialization. The neurosurgeons have varying time commitments to the hospital and to research, but many are on site full-time. The RMH is a university teaching hospital as well as a public hospital; therefore, there is no financial burden for any patient. The RMH is closely linked to the adjacent Melbourne Private Hospital, where privately insured patients are treated. The department of neurosurgery maintains close links with the departments of neurology, ophthalmology, and neuropsychiatry, which together form the Melbourne Neuroscience Centre. There is a strong emphasis on undergraduate and postgraduate teaching, as well as clinical and laboratory research. Neurosurgery trainees are encouraged to undertake laboratory research and pursue higher academic degrees. Despite economic restraints, the department continues to grow in strength, and we remain optimistic of exciting times ahead for neurosurgery at the RMH in the new millennium. PMID:10764274
Oladapo, O T; Ayoola-Sotubo, O; Daniel, O J; Sule-Odu, A O
A matched case-control study was conducted to determine whether pregnant employees of a Nigerian teaching hospital are more at risk of caesarean than vaginal delivery. Cases (n = 167) were booked patients who had singleton emergency caesarean delivery in their last confinement at term while controls (n = 167) were similar patients who had vaginal delivery (spontaneous or assisted) during the same period. Cases and controls were matched for known clinical risk factors for caesarean section. The proportion of hospital staff members among the cases was 36/167 (21.6%), compared with 21/167 (12.6%) among the controls, a difference that reached statistical significance (p = 0.03). Matched analysis examining the association of place of work with caesarean delivery indicated that hospital staff members are almost twice at risk of caesarean section than vaginal delivery (Mantel-Haenszel OR: 1.83; CI: 1.08 - 3.85). Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis examining the association of hospital personnel with caesarean delivery while controlling for potential confounding variables revealed an adjusted odds ratio of 1.79 (CI: 1.02 - 3.74). Appraisal of caesarean section rate in teaching hospitals in southwest Nigeria could benefit from critical evaluation of the risk of caesarean section among parturients who are members of staff. PMID:16753682
Gilden, D J; Scissors, K N; Reuler, J B
Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were sorted and weighed, and potential waste reductions from recycling and substituting reusable items were calculated. Business paper, trash liners, diapers, custom surgical packs, paper gowns, plastic suction bottles, and egg-crate pads were among the 20 top items and were analyzed individually. Data from sorted trash documented potential waste reductions through recycling and substitution of 78, 41, and 18 tonnes per year (1 tonne = 1,000 kg = 1.1 tons) from administration, the operating room, and adult wards, respectively (total hospital waste was 939 tonnes per year). We offer specific measures to substantially reduce nonhazardous hospital waste through substitution, minimization, and recycling of select disposable products. PMID:1595242
Valdmanis, Vivian G; Rosko, Michael D; Mutter, Ryan L
Objective To use an advance in data envelopment analysis (DEA) called congestion analysis to assess the trade-offs between quality and efficiency in U.S. hospitals. Study Setting Urban U.S. hospitals in 34 states operating in 2004. Study Design and Data Collection Input and output data from 1,377 urban hospitals were taken from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey and the Medicare Cost Reports. Nurse-sensitive measures of quality came from the application of the Patient Safety Indicator (PSI) module of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Quality Indicator software to State Inpatient Databases (SID) provided by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). Data Analysis In the first step of the study, hospitals’ relative output-based efficiency was determined in order to obtain a measure of congestion (i.e., the productivity loss due to the occurrence of patient safety events). The outputs were adjusted to account for this productivity loss, and a second DEA was performed to obtain input slack values. Differences in slack values between unadjusted and adjusted outputs were used to measure either relative inefficiency or a need for quality improvement. Principal Findings Overall, the hospitals in our sample could increase the total amount of outputs produced by an average of 26 percent by eliminating inefficiency. About 3 percent of this inefficiency can be attributed to congestion. Analysis of subsamples showed that teaching hospitals experienced no congestion loss. We found that quality of care could be improved by increasing the number of labor inputs in low-quality hospitals, whereas high-quality hospitals tended to have slack on personnel. Conclusions Results suggest that reallocation of resources could increase the relative quality among hospitals in our sample. Further, higher quality in some dimensions of care need not be achieved as a result of higher costs or through reduced access to health care. PMID:18783457
OBJECTIVE. This study examines changes in hospitals' cost allocation patterns between inpatient and outpatient departments in response to the implementation of the prospective payment system. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTINGS. The analysis was carried out using data for 3,961 hospitals obtained from the Medicare Cost Reports and from the American Hospital Association for the years 1984 through 1988. STUDY DESIGN. A total operating cost function was estimated on the two outputs of discharges and outpatient visits. The estimation results were instrumental in disaggregating costs into inpatient and outpatient components. This was done cross-sectionally for each of the five years. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Comparison of this cost breakdown with that of hospital revenue provides evidence of distinct patterns in which nonteaching, rural, and small hospitals increasingly allocated greater costs to outpatient departments than did large, urban, and teaching hospitals. CONCLUSIONS. The results suggest that small rural hospitals turned to the outpatient side in the face of tough economic challenges over the period of study. Because differences in cost allocation patterns occur by particular hospital category, analyses that rely on accounting cost or revenue data in order to identify cost differences among those same categories may come to erroneous conclusions. In particular, because teaching hospitals apportion costs more heavily on the inpatient side, cost allocation differences cause upward bias in the PPS medical education adjustment. PMID:8063566
Barr, Charles E.; Goldberg, Marshal D.
A hospital-based method for teaching general practice dental residents, involving patients for whom the residents are responsible, is described. Residents present prepared cases of dental patients according to a predetermined protocol: a talk, complete documentation of clinical history and laboratory findings, and discussion of therapy and…
Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid
Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…
Shea, Mary Ann, Ed.
This collection of lectures includes the following contributions from faculty at the University of Colorado at Boulder: (1) "Aloof Professors and Shy Students" (Patricia Nelson Limerick); (2) "Teaching the Thundering Herd: Surviving in a Large Classroom" (Charles R. Middleton); (3) "The Scientist as a Story Teller" (R. Igor Gamow); (4) "Active…
This article describes an approach to teaching the basic skills of tennis to students in grades 4 and 5. It relates a five-lesson unit suitable to a near-weekly class schedule. The author found it effective when seeing his students as infrequently as once every four days for fifty minutes.
As the world moves from the industrial age into the information age people become less dependent on basic facts and skills and more dependent on the ability to manipulate information. The higher level thinking skills that are needed in this new age must be taught in the schools. When selecting programs for teaching thinking, educators should…
Communication: Journalism Education Today, 1998
Outlines nine objectives students should be able to accomplish after completing the activities in the unit on typography presented in the previous articles in this journal. Offers eight tips for teaching typography. Includes a short list of books about typography and a list of seven organizations. (SR)
Pike, Mark A.
Evidently, there are similarities between pictures and diagrams but essential features present in the former are conspicuously absent from the latter. The current obsession with effectiveness in teaching has reduced that which should be aesthetic and inspired to the wholly rational, diagrammatic and instrumental. Heidegger's ontology (theory of…
Harmin, Merrill; Gregory, Tom
This book is an orientation to teaching designed to help establish a comfortable self-image and to develop appropriate skills. Readings and experiences are presented in the five-part text to aid in this orientation process. Part 1 discusses forming a group that functions as a support system, a human experience resource, and a source of feedback…
Waters, John K.
It has been 41 years since the late Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson launched the first nationwide grassroots demonstration on behalf of the environment, known as Earth Day. The event was a national "teach-in" about environmental causes, and it is widely considered the spark that ignited the modern environmental education movement. Within months,…
Murphy provides a comprehensive overview of teaching pronunciation with a focus on thought groups and prominence. Understanding thought groups, or how speakers use clusters of words to best fit the communicative situation, is essential for clearer understanding of most components of English pronunciation that are teachable in ESL/EFL classrooms.…
Punske, Lori, Comp.
Reviews teaching materials for use in multicultural education. Materials described include posters, novels, picture books, toys, games, and curriculum packages. Topics include religious diversity, values, children's stories, bilingual literature, human rights, Native Americans, women's studies, multicultural art, immigrant students, gender equity,…
Malcolm Roberts: Teaching Statement Teaching Philosophy Teaching is very important to me. While requiring a great deal of energy, it also provides great rewards. From my first experience teaching English engineering students in Canada, much the same process takes place: first know and love your subject
Wolfe, Patrick J.
Fall 2013 Harvard University Certificate of Distinction in Teaching (for outstanding teaching Jiannan Lu STAT 110 Brian C. Zhang STAT 110 Harvard University Certificate of Teaching Harvard University Certificate of Distinction in Teaching (for outstanding teaching fellows, teaching
Sharon K. Inouye; Julia T. Rushing; Marquis D. Foreman; Robert M. Palmer; Peter Pompei
OBJECTIVE: To determine the independent contribution of admission delirium to hospital outcomes including mortality, institutionalization,\\u000a and functional decline.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Three prospective cohort studies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Three university-affiliated teaching hospitals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PATIENTS: Consecutive samples of 727 patients, aged 65 years and older.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Delirum was present at admission in 88 (12%) of 727 patients. The main outcome measures at hospital
The tagline of Teaching Channel is "Great Teaching. Inspiring Classrooms." Educators from kindergarten to college will find hundreds of resources here, including fact sheets, lesson plans, videos, and blogs to help them in the classroom. First-time visitors will need to fill out a short free registration to get started. After this, users can click on left-hand side of the page to browse through Topics that include planning, class culture, behavior, engagement, and assessment. The materials are also arranged by subject and grade level. The Featured Videos area is a delight as well, as it contains dozens of offerings, such as "Carbon Cycling: Create Your Own Biology Lab" and "Reading Like a Historian." Finally, the high-quality blog posts are thoughtful and erudite, including offerings like "Setting Goals for 2012: Where Do You Start?" and "10 Common Core 'Ah-Ha' Moments."
Jennifer L. Sundquist
This paper contains the findings from a Needs Assessment conducted during the 2009-2010 school year at Sherrod Elementary in Palmer, Alaska, USA. The researcher wanted to know how the teaching of the Farm Education classes, conducted by AmeriCorps Volunteers, at the elementary school could be changed to better suit the needs of the school and the AmeriCorps Volunteer. This Needs
The Standards vision guides the discussion in this chapter on science teaching standards for the postsecondary level. The discussion centers on the importance of goal setting, designing experiences to meet students' needs, assessment, and collegiality. There is a strong recommendation that students be given opportunities to engage in meaningful scientific inquiry--to ask scientific questions, design experiments to collect evidence, and make critical interpretations of observations. This free selection includes an Introduction and Table of Contents.
Adlassnig, K P
The field of medical informatics in its current understanding is defined and criteria distinguishing this field from similar areas are provided. Special consideration is given to its position at a School of Medicine - in particular to the University of Vienna Medical School with the Vienna General Hospital as its teaching hospital. Demands for medical informatics and electronic data processing (EDP) in this extended field of activity come from four different sources: (1) research in medical informatics, (2) teaching of medical informatics as well as EDP training, (3) EDP service for research and teaching, and (4) EDP hospital operations to assist patient care. (Purely administrative EDP demands are not considered here.) It is shown that the different demands can be fulfilled by the usually available institutions involved in medical informatics and EDP at a School of Medicine. At many places these institutions are as follows: (1) a department or division of medical informatics with a possibly attached computer center dedicated to provide assistance in the area of research and teaching, (2) the computer center of the respective university the School of Medicine belongs to, (3) the computer center of the hospital-owned institution responsible for all EDP activities connected to patient care, and (4) external software companies and EDP training centers. To succeed in the development of an exhaustive, school-wide system of medical informatics and EDP that considers the different demands in research, teaching, and EDP hospital operations equally, close and well-suited coordination between the institutions involved is necessary. PMID:7871786
... prevent medical errors when you are in the hospital. ... Share your health information with health care providers in the hospital. DO NOT think they already know it. Know what tests are being done. Ask what the test is for, ...
Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sun, Maxine; Kim, Simon P.; Sammon, Jesse; Kowalczyk, Keith J.; Friedman, Ariella A.; Sukumar, Shyam; Ravi, Praful; Muhletaler, Fred; Agarwal, Piyush K.; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Hu, Jim C.; Menon, Mani; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.
SUMMARY Objectives Although high-volume hospitals have been associated with improved outcomes for radical prostatectomy (RP), the association of residency and/or fellowship teaching institutions and this volume-outcome relationship remains poorly described. We examine the effect of teaching status and hospital volume (HV) on perioperative RP outcomes. Methods and Materials Within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), we focused on RPs performed between 2003 and 2007. We tested the rates of prolonged length of stay (pLOS) beyond the median of 3 days, in-hospital mortality, as well as intraoperative and postoperative complications, stratified according to teaching status. Multivariable logistic regression analyses further adjusted for confounding factors. Results Overall, 47,100 eligible RPs were identified. Of these, 19,193 cases were performed at non-teaching institutions, 24,006 at residency teaching institutions and 3901 at fellowship teaching institutions. Relative to patients treated at non-teaching institutions, patients treated at fellowship teaching institutions were healthier and more likely to hold private insurance. In multivariable analyses, patients treated at residency (OR=0.92, p=0.015) and fellowship (OR=0.82, p=0.011) teaching institutions were less likely to experience a postoperative complication than patients treated at non-teaching institutions. Patients treated at residency (OR=0.73, p<0.001) and fellowship (OR=0.91, p=0.045) teaching institutions were less likely to experience a pLOS. Conclusions More favorable postoperative complication profile and shorter length of stay should be expected at residency and fellowship teaching institutions following RP. Moreover, postoperative complication rates were lower at fellowship teaching than at residency teaching institutions, despite adjustment for potential confounders. PMID:23453659
J. R. Karel; S. Ketyer
In 1961 the Medical Division of the Union County Civil Defense and ; Disastor Control organization in cooperation with the Radiology Department of St. ; Elizabeth Hospital in Elizabeth, N. J., developed a Hospital Decontamination ; Center. In addition to being a decontamination center, St. Elizabeth Hospital ; has become a fallout monitor station for Union County. According to the
MANNY, ELSIE S.; ROGERS, CHARLES E.
MODERN ADVANCEMENTS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE HAVE PRECIPITATED THE NEED FOR ADEQUATE UP-TO-DATE HOSPITAL FACILITIES REASONABLY CLOSE TO ALL PEOPLE. RURAL COMMUNITIES HAVE UTILIZED FEDERAL AID, STATE AID, ASSISTANCE FROM FOUNDATIONS, CIVIC BONDS, AND VOLUNTEER CONTRIBUTIONS AND DRIVES TO ERECT AND EQUIP HOSPITALS. HOSPITAL CARE FOR RURAL PEOPLE USUALLY…
via queries from our Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS) and other hospital databasesMASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL Page 1 of 4 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL Position: Quality & Safety and efficacy of our practice, reporting this data out to department clinicians, senior leadership and hospital
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to examine the geographic scope of rural hospital markets. DATA SOURCES. The study uses 1988 Medicare patient discharge records (MedPAR) and hospital financial information (HCRIS) for all rural hospitals participating in the Medicare Program. STUDY DESIGN. Hospital-specific market areas are compared to county-based market areas using a series of geographic and socioeconomic-demographic dimensions as well as indicators of market competitiveness. The potential impact of alternative market configurations on health services research is explored by estimating a model of rural hospital closure. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. Hospital-specific market areas were defined using the zip code of patient origin. Zip code-level data were subsequently aggregated to the market level. FINDINGS. Using the county as the hospital market area results not only in the inclusion of areas from which the hospital does not draw patients but also in the exclusion of areas from which it does draw patients. The empirical estimation of a model of rural hospital closure shows that the definition of a hospital market area does not jeopardize the ability to identify major risk factors for closure. CONCLUSIONS. Market area definition may be key to identifying and monitoring populations at risk from rural hospital decisions to downsize or close their facilities. Further research into the market areas of rural hospitals that have closed would help to develop alternative, and perhaps more relevant, definitions of the population at risk. PMID:8514499
2. View northwest of main hospital building complex, hospital building (Building 90), administration and clinical hospital building (Building 88), and hospital building (Building 91) - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers Western Branch, 4101 South Fourth Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS
Shortell, S M; Evashwick, C
Using data from the 1973 American Hospital Association national survey of hospital medical staff organization, six factors of medical staff organization structure are examined in relation to each other and to hospital ownership, size, teaching status, geographic region and size of Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA). The six factors include 1) Resource Capability; 2) Generalist Physician Contractual Orientation; 3) Communication and Control; 4) Local Staff Orientation; 5) Physician Participation in Decision Making; and 6) Hospital-Based Contractual Orientation. Several relatively distinct patterns emerged related to hospital ownership, size, teaching activity and region of the country, as well as interrelationships among the factors themselves. Differences between smaller and larger hospitals clearly emerged as well as a distinctive pattern for for-profit hospitals. All of the factors are subject to manipulation through administrative and/or public policy interventions and the findings suggest dimensions for future investigation of important policy issues related to the medical staff's role in cost containment, utilization, quality assurance and technology adoption. PMID:7230935
Tarlov, Alvin R.; And Others
A case study of the University of Chicago Medical Center highlights the tensions, strains, and resistances that inhibit the development of an urban health care system. It raises questions about the role of the research and teaching hospital in regional health care planning, especially as suburban facilities are drawing away patients. (Author/LBH)
Ferguson, Jane; Alpert, Joel J.
A survey of U.S. pediatric training programs to determine the role of rules in the hospital admission of pediatric patients is reported. The results support the hypothesis that rules are a widely used teaching tool. The rules relate to such factors as fevers, age, specific diseases, administrative concerns, head traumas, and poisonings. (JMD)
M. Potocki; J. Goette; T. D. Szucs; D. Nadal
Background: The rise in the use of antibiotics has resulted in increasing health care costs and the emergence of resistant bacteria. Little is known about the general misuse of antibiotics in hospitalized children. We evaluated the utilization of antibiotics in a pediatric teaching hospital aiming to identify targets for improvement of prescription. Patients and Methods: Clinical, radiological, laboratory and treatment
Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…
David L. DiGiuseppe; David C. Aron; Lorin Ranbom; Dwain L. Harper; Gary E. Rosenthal
Objective: To examine the reliability of birth certificate data and determine if reliability differs between teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Methods: We compared information from birth certificates and medical records in 33,616 women admitted for labor and delivery in 1993–95 to 20 hospitals in Northeast Ohio. Analyses determined the agreement for 36 common data elements, and the sensitivity, specificity, and positive
This guide is designed to be used by teachers as an aid for teaching principles of fossils and past life to elementary school students. The activities and labs provided include topics such as fossilization, sedimentation, trace fossils, the importance of fossils, ancient environments, changes in environments, paleontology as a science, biodiversity, food webs, ecosystems, and human influences. The lessons provide pre- and post-questions, procedures, vocabulary, materials, and field trip ideas. This curriculum guide for paleontology was developed by Fossil Butte National Monument as part of its growing environmental education program.
Post-exposure rate of tuberculosis infection among health care workers measured with tuberculin skin test conversion after unprotected exposure to patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: 6-year experience in an Italian teaching hospital
Background This study assesses the risk of LTBI at our Hospital among HCWs who have been exposed to TB patients with a delayed diagnosis and respiratory protection measures were not implemented. Methods All HCWs exposed to a patient with cultural confirmed pulmonary TB and respiratory protection measures were not implemented were included. Data on TST results performed in the past (defined as T0) were recorded. TST was performed twice: first, immediately after exposure to an index patient (T1) and three months later (T2). The period of time between T0 and T1 was used to calculate he annual rate of tuberculosis infection (ARTI), while le period of time between T1 and T2 was used to calculate the post exposure annual rate of tuberculosis infection (PEARTI). Results Fourteen index patients were admitted; sputum smear was positive in 7 (58.3%), 4 (28.6%) were non-Italian born patients. 388 HCWs were exposed to index patients, a median of 27 (12-39) HCW per each index patient. One hundred eighty (46.4%) HCWs received BCG in the past. One hundred twenty two HCWs (31%) were TST positive at a previous routine screening and not evaluated in this subset. Among the remaining 255 HCWs with negative TST test in the past, TST at T1 was positive in 11 (4.3%). ARTI was 1.6 (95% CI 0.9-2.9) per 100 PY. TST at T2 was positive in 9 (3.7%) HCWs, that were TST negative at T1. PEARTI was 26 (95% CI 13.6-50) per 100 PY. At univariate analysis, older age was associated with post exposure latent tuberculosis infection (HR 1.12; 95% CI 1.03-1.22, p=0.01). Conclusions PEARTI was considerably higher among HCWs exposed to index patients than ARTI. These data underscore the overwhelming importance of performing a rapid diagnosis, as well as implementing adequate respiratory protection measures when TB is suspected. PMID:24919953
Ashish Pathak; Kalpana Mahadik; Surya Prakesh Dhaneria; Ashish Sharma; Bo Eriksson; Cecilia Stĺlsby Lundborg
Antibiotic surveillance initiatives are limited in resource-constrained settings. In the present study, a quantitative comparison of antibiotic use rates for suspected infections in 2 hospitals in India was performed using the “focus of infection” approach to identify targets for quality improvement in antibiotic prescription patterns in hospitalized patients.MethodsThis observational study was carried out in one teaching and one nonteaching hospital.
THE GOAL OF THE BEREITER-ENGELMANN PRESCHOOL PROGRAM IS TO GET DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN READY FOR THE LEARNING TASKS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL BY TEACHING A TEACHING LANGUAGE. THIS IS DONE BY MEANS OF A HIGHLY ORGANIZED AND STRUCTURED DIRECT LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION DESIGNED TO TEACH THAT A SENTENCE IS A SEQUENCE OF MEANINGFUL PARTS. THE CHILDREN BEGIN WITH…
Kotb, Amany Ali; Mohamed, Khalid Abd-Elmoez; Kamel, Mohammed Hbany; Ismail, Mosleh Abdul Rahman; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed Ahmed
Introduction The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. It is associated with impaired job performance. Methods This descriptive study examined 171 physicians for the presence of burnout and its related risk factors. The evaluation of burnout was through Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The participant was considered to meet the study criteria for burnout if he or she got a “high“ score on at least 2 of the three dimensions of MBI. Results In the current study, the prevalence of burnout in hospital physicians (53.9%) was significantly higher than family physicians (41.94%) with (p=0.001). Participants who work in the internal medicine department scored the highest prevalence (69.64%) followed by Surgeons (56.50%) and Emergency doctors (39.39%). On the other hand, Pediatricians got the lowest prevalence (18.75%). Working in the teaching hospital and being married are strong predictors for occurrence of burnout. Conclusion There is a significant difference of burnout between hospital physicians and family physicians among the study subjects. Working in the teaching hospital and being married are strong predictors for occurrence of burnout. PMID:25422682
Mamishi, Setareh; Pourakbari, Babak; Teymuri, Mostafa; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza; Mahmoudi, Shima
Nosocomial, or hospital-acquired, infections are considered the most common complications affecting hospitalized patients. According to results obtained from studies conducted in the Children Medical Center Hospital, a teaching children's hospital and a tertiary care referral unit in Tehran, Iran, improvements in infection control practices in our hospital seem necessary. The aim of this study was to identify risk management and review potential hospital hazards that may pose a threat to the health as well as safety and welfare of patients in an Iranian referral hospital. Barriers to compliance and poor design of facilities, impractical guidelines and policies, lack of a framework for risk management, failure to apply behavioral-change theory, and insufficient obligation and enforcement by infection control personnel highlight the need of management systems in infection control in our hospital. In addition, surveillance and early reporting of infections, evaluation of risk-based interventions, and production of evidence-based guidelines in our country are recommended. PMID:25379367
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Colorectal cancer in patients seen at the teaching hospitals: In Guadeloupe and Martinique, two French Overseas Departments, colorectal cancer (CRC) has become an essential the originality of our results. Keywords: Colorectal cancer, Guadeloupian patients, Martinican patients
Chua, Chew Lian; Palangkaraya, Alfons; Yong, Jongsay
This paper proposes a method of deriving a quality indicator for hospitals using mortality outcome measures. The method aggregates any number of mortality outcomes into a single indicator via a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, mortality outcomes are risk-adjusted using a system of seemingly unrelated regression equations. These risk-adjusted mortality rates are then aggregated into a single quality indicator in the second stage via weighted least squares. This method addresses the dimensionality problem in measuring hospital quality, which is multifaceted in nature. In addition, our method also facilitates further analyses of determinants of hospital quality by allowing the resulting quality estimates be associated with hospital characteristics. The method is applied to a sample of heart-disease episodes extracted from hospital administrative data from the state of Victoria, Australia. Using the quality estimates, we show that teaching hospitals and large regional hospitals provide higher quality of care than other hospitals and this superior performance is related to hospital case-load volume. PMID:19937614
Panagiotis N Papanikolaou; Georgia D Christidi; John P. A Ioannidis
BackgroundExtensive debate exists in the healthcare community over whether outcomes of medical care at teaching hospitals and other healthcare units are better or worse than those at the respective nonteaching ones. Thus, our goal was to systematically evaluate the evidence pertaining to this question.Methods and FindingsWe reviewed all studies that compared teaching versus nonteaching healthcare structures for mortality or any
Founded in 1898, the American Hospital Association (AHA) is the national umbrella organization that represents a wide range of hospitals and health care networks. While some of the siteâ??s contents are designed for health care professionals and executives, the general public and some scholars will find some of the features, such as their quarterly reports on the latest in hospital trends, quite valuable. A good place to start is the Resource Center section of the site, which contains helpful guides to locating the information on the site itself. There are a number of free resources available here, such as a fact sheet about Americaâ??s hospitals and studies, including â??The State of Americaâ??s Hospitals: Taking the Pulseâ?ť and â??Costs of Caring: Sources of Growth in Spending for Hospital Careâ?ť.
Pittman, Frank S; Wagers, Tina Pittman
Working therapeutically with individuals or couples either following an affair or prior to its occurrence requires teaching them about risks to monogamy and the challenges of recovering from infidelity. Risks to monogamy include cultural myths about both infidelity and marriage that may be shared not only by lay persons, but also by their ill-informed therapists. Exacerbating risks to fidelity are physiological components of emotional and physical attraction that contribute to cognitive and affective disorientation. Therapists can promote fidelity and recovery from infidelity by attending to the fundamental tasks of modeling compassion, debunking myths regarding infidelity, confronting individuals with their own choices, promoting emotional closeness, and helping individuals to understand both their own and their partner's learned attitudes that distract them from maintaining a faithful marriage. Several cases illustrate these fundamental therapeutic tasks. PMID:16161130
The study of geology at the University of Colorado has a long and distinguished history, and in recent years they have also become increasingly interested in providing online teaching resources in the field. Educators will be glad to learn about this site's existence, as they can scroll through a list of interactive demonstrations that can be utilized in the classroom. Specifically, these demonstrations include a shaded interactive topographical map of the western United States, a magnetic field of the Earth, and several animated maps of various National Park sites. The site comes to a compelling conclusion with the inclusion of the geology department's slide library, which can be used without a password or registration.
As a basis for taking a position on the future school structure in grades 8-10 in Denmark, an extensive study was carried out on mixed ability teaching (teaching in heterogeneous classes) on these grade levels. Results showed that mixed ability teaching gave at least as good results as teaching in differentiated classes. (Author/LMO)
Guidelines and Procedures..........................................................3 Laboratory Instructor Guidelines................................................... 10 Recitation Section Guidelines for Teaching Assistants
Shea, Mary Ann, Ed.
This collection of essays, which evolved from the Professional Lecture Series on Teaching and Learning and Instructional Workshops on Teaching and Learning held at the University of Colorado (Boulder), addresses a variety of styles and situations for teaching and learning. The following essays are included: (1) "Teaching as Architecture:…
Lang, James M.
In this article, the author contemplates two books dealing with developing a teaching persona. These books are Elaine Showalter's "Teaching Literature" and Jay Parini's "The Art of Teaching". Showalter and Parini present very different perspectives on the issue. Showalter addresses it in a section called "Personae: The Teaching Self," in which she…
Cleverly, W O
An examination of factors related to hospital closures reveals a disconcerting trend. Hospitals that closed in 1991 appear to have been more efficient than hospitals that closed in 1990, and hospitals that closed in 1990 appear to have been more efficient than hospitals that closed in 1989. This trend suggests that future hospital closures may pull relatively efficient hospitals out of the healthcare system. The end result may be increases, not decreases, in total healthcare costs. PMID:10145793
Shamshuddin, S; Matthews, H R
Widespread adoption of digital imaging in clinical practice and for the image-based examinations of the Royal College of Radiologists has created a desire to provide a digital radiology teaching library in many hospital departments around the UK. This article describes our experience of using OsiriX software in developing digital radiology teaching libraries. PMID:24880758
continued on page 2 Inside 2 A stake in history 3 Forensic crime fighters 4 Poor sleepers 5 Indigenous academic presence we already have at the Repatriation Hospital,in terms of research and teaching,and to develop that presence at Noarlunga. "It also enables the high standard of anatomy and pathology teaching
Occasional events, regular workshops, concerts, shows, artists in residence, cultural outings...Hospital does not necessarily have to be a place of silence and sadness. But this situation has not always been so straightforward as on the face of it, nothing is more incompatible with a hospital environment than music, which, by definition, is festive and noisy. PMID:20684389
The Northern Arizona Hospitality Education Program is an exemplary three-year project designed to help students, mainly Indian, obtain job skills and attitudes necessary for successful employment in the hospitality industry. Nine high schools from Apache, Coconino, and Navajo Counties participated in the project. Objectives included providing an…
Prynne, T. A.
Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.
This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…
This article reports on children's experiences of hospitalization. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 11 children aged between seven and 14 years from four paediatric units in England. The children identified a range of fears and concerns, which included: separation from parents and family; unfamiliar environment; investigations and treatments; and loss of self-determination. The children's loss of self-determination over personal needs exacerbated their fears and concerns. It needs to be recognized that compliance with hospital routines is a variable, which influences children's reaction to hospitalization. The findings clearly indicate that children need adequate information tailored to their needs, that their views are sought in the planning and delivery of their care and that hospital environments need to be made more child-centred. Interventions designed to reduce children's stress during hospitalization are not only likely to decrease their stress at the time, but also likely to influence how future experiences are appraised and managed. PMID:17101624
Dwyer, Judith; Leggat, Sandra G
This paper examines the challenge of innovation, and reports on innovation in the Australian hospital sector. Through review of both published and 'grey' literature, the analysis of the innovative record of Australian hospitals is focused on two key questions: How has the hospital sector made use of opportunities for renewal and improved effectiveness in its ongoing response to the challenges it faces? And are the conditions for effective innovation in place? To be truly innovative, the Australian hospital sector requires greater supporting mechanisms including: a consistent policy and funding framework, greater ability to harness the power of information, and development of innovation skills. The government has an important role to play in stimulating the creative capacities of hospitals and their staff. PMID:12474499
White, Chapin; Reschovsky, James D; Bond, Amelia M
Private insurers pay widely varying prices for inpatient care across hospitals. Previous research indicates that certain hospitals use market clout to obtain higher payment rates, but there have been few in-depth examinations of the relationship between hospital characteristics and pricing power. This study used private insurance claims data to identify hospitals receiving inpatient prices significantly higher or lower than the median in their market. High-price hospitals, compared to other hospitals, tend to be larger; be major teaching hospitals; belong to systems with large market shares; and provide specialized services, such as heart transplants and Level I trauma care. High-price hospitals also receive significant revenues from nonpatient sources, such as state Medicaid disproportionate-share hospital funds, and they enjoy healthy total financial margins. Quality indicators for high-price hospitals were mixed: High-price hospitals fared much better than low-price hospitals did in U.S. News & World Report rankings, which are largely based on reputation, while generally scoring worse on objective measures of quality, such as postsurgical mortality rates. Thus, insurers may face resistance if they attempt to steer patients away from high-price hospitals because these facilities have good reputations and offer specialized services that may be unique in their markets. PMID:24476706
Patwari, A K
Scientific basis for oral rehydration therapy (ORT) has revolutionized the concepts and management of diarrheal diseases during the last 25 years. ORT is the only therapy needed in the majority of diarrhea cases. Sometimes, however, in more severe or complicated cases, the judicious use of IV therapy and antimicrobial agents is called for. This approach should form the practical guidelines for the management of diarrhea in hospitals. Indeed, such therapy practiced in Indian hospitals has resulted in fewer diarrhea-related hospital admissions and lower average expenditure per patient. Savings from the reduction in the use of IV fluid and antibiotics have been used to supply oral rehydration solution packets to mothers for use at home. Managing the more severe and complicated cases, large referral hospitals still play a central role in the practice and promotion of standard diarrhea case management (SDCM). Medical colleges and teaching hospitals have an additional responsibility to train doctors, nurses, and health workers in SDCM. The first full-fledged diarrhea training and treatment unit (DTTU) in the country was established in Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital in January 1989. That later served as the National Training Center for training key personnel from other medical colleges and large hospitals in SDCM. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare trained senior physicians, pediatricians, hospital administrators, and senior nursing personnel from medical colleges, referral hospitals, and district hospitals in SDCM. There are now more than 80 DTTUs functioning in the country. Many more large/referral hospitals have no DTTU, but, nonetheless, actively practice and promote SDCM. PMID:7499899
Dahlstrom, Jane; Dorai-Raj, Anna; McGill, Darryl; Owen, Cathy; Tymms, Kathleen; Watson, D Ashley R
Background This study was designed to assess the motivations of senior medical clinicians to teach medical students. This understanding could improve the recruitment and retention of important clinical teachers. Methods The study group was 101 senior medical clinicians registered on a teaching list for a medical school teaching hospital (The Canberra Hospital, ACT, Australia). Their motivations to teach medical students were assessed applying Q methodology. Results Of the 75 participants, 18 (24%) were female and 57 (76%) were male. The age distribution was as follows: 30–40 years = 16 participants (21.3%), 41–55 years = 46 participants (61.3%) and >55 years = 13 participants (17.3%). Most participants (n = 48, 64%) were staff specialists and 27 (36%) were visiting medical officers. Half of the participants were internists (n = 39, 52%), 12 (16%) were surgeons, and 24 (32%) were other sub-specialists. Of the 26 senior clinicians that did not participate, two were women; 15 were visiting medical officers and 11 were staff specialists; 16 were internists, 9 were surgeons and there was one other sub-specialist. The majority of these non-participating clinicians fell in the 41–55 year age group. The participating clinicians were moderately homogenous in their responses. Factor analysis produced 4 factors: one summarising positive motivations for teaching and three capturing impediments for teaching. The main factors influencing motivation to teach medical students were intrinsic issues such as altruism, intellectual satisfaction, personal skills and truth seeking. The reasons for not teaching included no strong involvement in course design, a heavy clinical load or feeling it was a waste of time. Conclusion This study provides some insights into factors that may be utilised in the design of teaching programs that meet teacher motivations and ultimately enhance the effectiveness of the medical teaching workforce. PMID:16022738
Mendez, Carmen M; Harrington, Darrell W; Christenson, Peter; Spellberg, Brad
Case mix index (CMI) has become a standard indicator of hospital disease severity in the United States and internationally. However, CMI was designed to calculate hospital payments, not to track disease severity, and is highly dependent on documentation and coding accuracy. The authors evaluated whether CMI varied by characteristics affecting hospitals' disease severity (eg, trauma center or not). The authors also evaluated whether CMI was lower at public hospitals than private hospitals, given the diminished financial resources to support documentation enhancement at public hospitals. CMI data for a 14-year period from a large public database were analyzed longitudinally and cross-sectionally to define the impact of hospital variables on average CMI within and across hospital groups. Between 1996 and 2007, average CMI declined by 0.4% for public hospitals, while rising significantly for private for-profit (14%) and nonprofit (6%) hospitals. After the introduction of the Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) system in 2007, average CMI increased for all 3 hospital types but remained lowest in public vs. private for-profit or nonprofit hospitals (1.05 vs. 1.25 vs. 1.20; P<0.0001). By multivariate analysis, teaching hospitals, level 1 trauma centers, and larger hospitals had higher average CMI, consistent with a marker of disease severity, but only for private hospitals. Public hospitals had lower CMI across all subgroups. Although CMI had some characteristics of a disease severity marker, it was lower across all strata for public hospitals. Hence, caution is warranted when using CMI to adjust for disease severity across public vs. private hospitals. PMID:23965045
Mendez, Carmen M.; Harrington, Darrell W.; Christenson, Peter
Abstract Case mix index (CMI) has become a standard indicator of hospital disease severity in the United States and internationally. However, CMI was designed to calculate hospital payments, not to track disease severity, and is highly dependent on documentation and coding accuracy. The authors evaluated whether CMI varied by characteristics affecting hospitals' disease severity (eg, trauma center or not). The authors also evaluated whether CMI was lower at public hospitals than private hospitals, given the diminished financial resources to support documentation enhancement at public hospitals. CMI data for a 14-year period from a large public database were analyzed longitudinally and cross-sectionally to define the impact of hospital variables on average CMI within and across hospital groups. Between 1996 and 2007, average CMI declined by 0.4% for public hospitals, while rising significantly for private for-profit (14%) and nonprofit (6%) hospitals. After the introduction of the Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) system in 2007, average CMI increased for all 3 hospital types but remained lowest in public vs. private for-profit or nonprofit hospitals (1.05 vs. 1.25 vs. 1.20; P<0.0001). By multivariate analysis, teaching hospitals, level 1 trauma centers, and larger hospitals had higher average CMI, consistent with a marker of disease severity, but only for private hospitals. Public hospitals had lower CMI across all subgroups. Although CMI had some characteristics of a disease severity marker, it was lower across all strata for public hospitals. Hence, caution is warranted when using CMI to adjust for disease severity across public vs. private hospitals. (Population Health Management 2014;17:28–34) PMID:23965045
The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival. PMID:3300300
Manar, Manish Kumar; Sahu, Krishna Kumar; Singh, Shivendra Kumar
Objective: To assess hospital waste management in nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on the staffs of nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow from September 2012 to March 2013. A total of eight hospitals were chosen as the study sample size. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of the nonteaching hospitals. A pre-structured and pre-tested interview questionnaire was used to collect necessary information regarding the hospitals and biomedical waste (BMW) management of the hospitals. The general information about the selected hospitals/employees of the hospitals was collected. Results: Mean hospital waste generated in the eight nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow was 0.56 kg/bed/day. About 50.5% of the hospitals did not have BMW department and colored dustbins. In 37.5% of the hospitals, there were no BMW records and segregation at source. Incinerator was used only by hospital A for treatment of BMW. Hospital G and hospital H had no facilities for BMW treatment. Conclusion: There is a need for appropriate training of staffs, strict implementation of rules, and continuous surveillance of the hospitals of Lucknow to improve the BMW management and handling practices. PMID:25657950
David A Grimes; Joseph A Bachicha; Lee A Learman
Critical appraisal might be the most important skill to acquire in medical school. Despite its importance, this issue has received little attention in obstetrics and gynecology training. This article describes the approach used at San Francisco General Hospital. We teach critical appraisal in several ways. We provide a series of student seminars that foster critical reading of the literature. Topics
Caraway, James E.
The author discusses other writings on effective college teaching and then presents his list of necessary characteristics for the effective teacher, stressing the interpersonal dimension of the teaching-learning situation. (MF)
Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen
Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.
Honolulu Community College
This website features links to teaching tips and articles, organized by subject. Topics include assessment, the first day, syllabus and lesson plan preparation, teaching techniques, course design and many more.
Koons, Theresa L.
A system of teaching measurement equivalencies to students with learning disabilities promotes understanding by teaching basic measurement language. Concrete objects are used to develop the association between a measurement term and its size. (CL)
Lerner, William D.; And Others
Physicians are likely to encounter a wide gamut of disorders related to drug and alcohol abuse and will need specialized knowledge and skills to treat the affected population effectively. The development and implementation of a program to meet these needs at the Medical College of Virginia is described. (MLW)
I. Ellis; G Hercelinskyj; B. McEwan
\\u000a The American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing defines telenursing as “the delivery, management, and coordination of care\\u000a and services provided via telecommunications technology within the domain of nursing.”1 This ranges from telephone triage, digital imaging for wound management, to electronic discharge planning. Telenursing is\\u000a not a new field in Australia. In 1912, the Australian Inland Mission established nursing posts where
Marshall, S D; Myles, P S
Many drugs used in anaesthesia may prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram (ECG), and recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines mandate monitoring of the ECG before, during and after droperidol administration. We surveyed 41 trainee and consultant anaesthetists in our Department to determine current practice and knowledge of the QT interval to investigate if this is a practical proposition. A response rate of 98% (40/41) was obtained. The majority of respondents expressed moderate to high levels of confidence in interpreting the ECG, and this was related to years of training (rho 0.36, P=0.024). A total of 27 respondents (65%) were able to correctly identify the QT interval on a schematic representation of the ECG, trainees 70% vs consultants 60%, P=0.51. When asked to name drugs that altered the QT interval, droperidol was included by 11 of the 40 respondents (28%); trainees 10% vs consultants 45%, OR 7.4 (95% CI: 1.3-41), P=0.013. Torsades de Pointes was correctly identified as a possible consequence of a prolonged QT interval by 65% of trainees and 70% of consultants, P=0.83. The results suggest that QT interval measurement is not widely practised by anaesthetists, although its clinical significance is well known, and interpretation would be unreliable without further education. PMID:16398384
This new joint project from the Wellcome Trust and the UK Public Record Office helps researchers locate records of hospitals all over the UK. The database currently contains over 2,800 entries and may be searched by hospital or town name. Information contained in the database includes administrative details of the hospitals, location and covering dates of administrative and clinical records, and the existence of lists, catalogs or other finding aids. A sample search for "royal" under hospital name returned 210 records, and one for "Manchester" under town name produced 124 returns. While the target audience of this database -- researchers in British medical history -- is rather specialized, this new resource will prove extremely useful for these scholars and their students.
Christiana Hospital, Newark, Delaware Helen F. Graham Cancer Center at Christiana Care 4755 Ogletown-Stanton Rd. Newark, DE 19718 (302) 733-1000 www.christianacare.org www.christianacare.org/hfgcc • Robert Laskowski, MD, President and CEO, Christiana
Kauer, R T; Silvers, J B
Hospital managers may find it difficult to admit their investments have been suboptimal, but such investments often lead to poor returns and less future cash. Inappropriate use of free cash flow produces large transaction costs of exit. The relative efficiency of investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals in the product market for hospital services is examined as the free cash flow theory is used to explore capital-market conditions of hospitals. Hypotheses concerning the current competitive conditions in the industry are set forth, and the implications of free cash flow for risk, capital-market efficiency, and the cost of capital to tax-exempt institution is compared to capital-market norms. PMID:1743965
Laval R, Enrique
Hospital gangrene refers to a historical presentation of septic wounds, which was associated to situation with a multitude of wounded patients. Later, it was proven that hospital overcrowding together with inadequate wound treatment options aggravated the spread of the infection by nurses and surgeons as well as contaminated wound dressings resulting in high morbidity and mortality in the affected hospitals and lazarettos. This article, which reviews the historical situation of this disease in Chile, mainly bases on reports of the physicians Rafael Wormald and Jacinto Ugarte, who reported on this topic in 1852 and 1873, respectively, and on outbreak occurring between 1860 and 1870 at Hospital San Juan de Dios in Santiago. PMID:22552521
Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Emergency Department Visits in Kentucky, 2000 - 2012 #12; Kentucky Injury Preven on and Research Center Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitaliza ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Drug overdose deaths, 20002012
Created by the Cornell University Center for Hospitality Research and managed by Sage Publications, this e-journal provides â??applied research theories about important industry trends and timely topics in lodging, restaurant, and tourism management.â?ť Though most articles are only available through a paid subscription, each quarter editors select a featured article, all of which are available on this site after a brief, free registration. Article topics include wine selection, revenue management, customer satisfaction measurement, hotel pricing, and computer simulation in hospitality education. This is an excellent resource for soon-to-be hospitality managers and administrators as well as for educators to keep informed of current trends in hospitality education.
Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)
Hospital leaders should consider four factors in determining whether to fast track a hospital construction project: Expectations of project length, quality, and cost. Whether decisions can be made quickly as issues arise. Their own time commitment to the project, as well as that of architects, engineers, construction managers, and others. The extent to which they are willing to share with the design and construction teams how and why decisions are being made. PMID:23513759
Indoor air quality has deteriorated so much since the 1970s oil shortage and subsequent energy-efficient construction of buildings that people are becoming seriously ill by just breathing the indoor air. This is a problem with all industrial buildings and hospital staff are at particular risk. There are various things that hospital managers from different departments can do to make the air safe for staff and patients to breathe. PMID:11185833
Edinburgh, University of
ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING CENTRE www.ed.ac.uk/english-language-teaching Student Information About the first UNESCO city of literature. Edinburgh is host to a number of different festivals throughout the University from a variety of backgrounds and from 120 different countries. The English Language Teaching
A noted educator reflects on six satisfactions that he experienced during his career in teaching: introducing students to great ideas, getting a foothold on immortality, improvising on the job, enjoying teaching as a meaningful aesthetic experience, sharing your love of what you teach, and knowing you made a difference in a student's life.
Discusses teaching English in Mexico, a country with important social, cultural, and economic ties to the United States. Looks at the various English teaching situations as well as teacher education for teachers in Mexico. Concludes that the English teaching situation in Mexico reflects great diversity and growth, and that the knowledge of English…
There are selected philosophies in the teaching of mathematics which can provide guidance to the teacher in developing the curriculum and also a framework for teaching and learning. This paper discusses four such philosophies of teaching mathematics: Idealism, Realism, Experimentalism, and Existentialism. Idealism stresses that students live in an…
Nason, Gerald, Ed.
A review of a three-day conference on language teaching policies, methods, instructional materials, and teacher training in Canada is presented in this report. Articles and commentary focus on: (1) Canada's needs in language teaching, (2) language programs in the United Kingdom, United States, and the Soviet Union, (3) research in teaching…
Hugerat, Muhamad; Zidani, Saleem; Kurtam, Naji
Discusses the objectives of the science curriculum and the teacher's responsibility of passing through not only the required material, but also skills. Suggests that in order to improve teaching and learning skills, new strategies, such as teaching and learning through research must be utilized. Presents four examples of teaching and learning…
Instructional Support Services
The Indiana University Teaching Handbook is an online primer consisting of three sections: Preparing to Teach, Teaching Methods, and Creating a Positive Environment. It can be read straight through, printed, or topics can be selected through the table of contents. Links to additional readings are provided in each section.
Wisconsin State Univ., Oshkosh.
The Teaching-Learning Clinic, developed at the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, provided on-campus clinical student teaching experience. The purposes of the clinic were to create a reliable system of describing cognitive change in student teachers so such data may assist in restructuring student teaching situations based on sound theoretical…
Redefer, Frederick L.
A Professor Emeritus of New York University reviews the practice of awarding recognition for superior college teaching (great teacher awards) concluding that they do not increase great teaching or the number of great teachers. He suggests that prospective students should seriously ask colleges what they do to insure good teaching. (JT)
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
In this article, the author shares his thoughts about who he is as a teacher and what his goals as a teacher turn out to be. The author describes his role as researcher, teacher, and educator. He begins with his take on mathematics teaching and learning, because the question of which mathematics educators teach and how they teach it is really…
Gebhard, Jerry G.
Ways that teacher educators can provide opportunities for novice teachers to develop their beliefs about teaching and learning and their teaching practices are discussed. It is suggested that practical teaching experience is essential to teacher development, but that teachers must also be able to process their experiences in ways that allow time…
3. Hospital Point, general view toward Portsmouth Naval Hospital Building showing cannon (at left) and Saunders Monument (at right in distance), view to southwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA
Threats to the safety of security officers by persons they encounter in confrontational or potentially confrontational situations are an ever-present danger. This potential for physical violence can take place in the lobby, cafeteria, halls, elevators, or the parking lot of any corporate entity, not just hospitals. In hospitals, however, this danger is compounded by psychiatric patients and other hospital patients under stress. Hospital security personnel are often called to defuse potentially violent patient situations. Further compounding this risk of violence are increases in cutbacks in hospital personnel. Therefore, programs that teach hospital staff members how to control aggression will become increasingly important. Among the organizations have made a reputation for training security professionals and others in preventing and dealing with violence are R.E.B. Security Training, Inc., Avon, CT, and Wickersty & Associates, Inc., Bladensburg, MD. R.E.B. offers a two-day course in nonverbal communication that is taken by police officers and security directors. According to Ronald W. Ouellette, president, the course has also been attended by nurses, doctors, ambulance drivers, and psychologists. Wickersty & Associates has been conducting "Controlling Aggression" workshops in health care facilities for the past 12 years. According to Dr. Allan Wickersty, more and more hospitals are hiring consultants to teach staff members how to deal with aggressive behavior. But hospital violence remains an underreported problem. "One thing I have noticed is that the type of hospital experiencing violence is changing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10117487
Younis, Mustafa Z
The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) reduced the payment for fees for service providers and reduced the subsidy paid by the government for teaching hospitals. Since the passage of such cost containment measures, debates regarding their impact on hospitals, graduate medical education, and access to health care were raised. The need to examine the effect of such payment reduction on hospital profitability was widely ignored. We examined the relationship between the BBA and hospital profitability by using return on assets to measure profitability, by running an ordinary least squares regression for 1996 as pre-BBA and 1999 as post-BBA. We controlled for variables that were not included in previous literature, such as disproportionate share hospital status, critical access hospital status, and graduate medical education, measured by teaching hospitals to measure the effect of BBA cuts on teaching hospitals. Furthermore we incorporated several economic, financial, and utilization variables in the model. We used 1996 and 1999 data in our analysis to bridge potential effects of the BBA. To locate hospitals that changed ownership status we cross-matched the Medicare Cost Report data with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey. We found that overall hospital profitability declined as a result of the introduction of the BBA; however, small rural hospitals that converted to critical access status enjoyed improvement in financial status over the period of our study. Hospitals that converted to for-profit status did not improve in financial status, and showed a lower earning after the conversation. Our results show that the BBA had a negative effect on hospitals because of cuts in its reimbursement policy, except for critical access hospitals, which show improvement because of their exemption from the prospective payment system. Our study differs from others by using national comprehensive data for years that focus exclusively on the Balanced Budget Act period. We deliberately excluded any period that might be affected by the Balanced Budget Refinement Act (BBRA) of 1999, to clarify the severity of the BBA cut on hospital financial performance. Furthermore, because of the few studies that focused on the effect of the BBA on hospital profitability, this study is an important addition to the literature. PMID:18975734
Daniel P. Kessler; Mark B. McClellan
We study the consequences of hospital competition for Medicare beneficiaries' heart attack care from 1985 to 1994. We examine how relatively exogenous determinants of hospital choice such as travel distances influence the competitiveness of hospital markets, and how hospital competition interacts with the influence of managed-care organizations to affect the key determinants of social welfare-expenditures on treatment and patient health
Howat, Ian M.
Emergency 315 315 26 Rhodes Hall Ross Heart Hospital James Cancer Hospital Martha Morehouse holidays. Information current as of 8/8/14. Subject to change without notice. Updates posted at ttm.m. James Cancer Hospital 7:10 a.m. Rhodes Hall 7:13 a.m. Ross Heart Hospital 7:15 a.m. Martha Morehouse
Hammer, Dana; Piascik, Peggy; Medina, Melissa; Pittenger, Amy; Rose, Renee; Creekmore, Freddy; Soltis, Robert; Bouldin, Alicia; Schwarz, Lindsay; Scott, Steven
The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, alumni, peer, and self-assessment. The task force identifies important considerations that colleges and schools must address when establishing teaching recognition programs including the purpose, criteria, number and mix of awards, frequency, type of award, and method of nominating and determining awardees. The report concludes with recommendations for the academy to consider when establishing and revising teaching award programs. PMID:21301598
Piascik, Peggy; Medina, Melissa; Pittenger, Amy; Rose, Renee; Creekmore, Freddy; Soltis, Robert; Bouldin, Alicia; Schwarz, Lindsay; Scott, Steven
The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, alumni, peer, and self-assessment. The task force identifies important considerations that colleges and schools must address when establishing teaching recognition programs including the purpose, criteria, number and mix of awards, frequency, type of award, and method of nominating and determining awardees. The report concludes with recommendations for the academy to consider when establishing and revising teaching award programs. PMID:21301598
The University of Nottingham, in the United Kingdom, has an innovative online program called Teaching at Nottingham that "offers both a window onto the University's teaching culture and a space for the critical evaluation of teaching practice". The tab "Teaching & Learning Themes" is definitely worth a visitor's time. The link "Student Perspectives On...Teaching, Learning and Assessment" are particularly interesting, as in each category has synopses of studies that were done with the aim of quantifying the students' perspectives in classes at Nottingham. Visitors can read about one such study in the Learning category titled "The good, the bad and the ugly: [pharmacy] students' experiences of group projects", which found that most students believed that group projects were good learning experiences for working as a team in their future careers, but preferred solo or two-person projects. The "Focus On..." link offers, among other categories, "Visual Learning", "Peer Teaching" and "Academic Tutoring" which focus on research about teaching.
Sonia Prot-Labarthe; Jean-François Bussičres; Françoise Brion; Olivier Bourdon
Objective To compare hospital pharmacy practice in France and Canada by identifying similarities and differences in the two institution’s\\u000a pharmacy activities, resources, drug dispensing processes and responsibilities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine (SJ), Montr?al, Qu?bec, Canada and H?pital Robert Debr? (RD), Paris, France,\\u000a are two maternal-child teaching hospitals. They share a similar mission focused on patient care, teaching and research.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method The data
Miller, M E; Sulvetta, M B; Englert, E
OBJECTIVE. To determine if implementation of a PPS for Medicare hospital outpatient department (HOPD) services will have distributional consequences across hospital types and regions, this analysis assesses variation in service mix and the provision of high-technology services in the HOPD. DATA. HCFA's 1990 claims file for a 5 percent random sample of Medicare beneficiaries using the HOPD was merged, by hospital provider number, with various HCFA hospital characteristic files. STUDY DESIGN. Hospital characteristics examined are urban/rural location, teaching status, disproportionate-share status, and bed size. Two analyses of HOPD services are presented: mix of services provided and the provision of high-technology services. The mix of services is measured by the percentage of services in each of 14 type-of-service categories (e.g., medical visits, advanced imaging services, diagnostic testing services). Technology provision is measured by the percentage of hospitals providing selected high-technology services. FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS. The findings suggest that the role hospital types play in providing HOPD services warrants consideration in establishing a PPS. HOPDs in major teaching hospitals and hospitals serving a disproportionate share of the poor play an important role in providing routine visits. HOPDs in both major and minor teaching hospitals are important providers of high-technology services. Other findings have implications for the structure of an HOPD PPS as well. First, over half of the services provided in the HOPD are laboratory tests and HOPDs may have limited control over these services since they are often for patients referred from local physician offices. Second, service mix and technology provision vary markedly among regions, suggesting the need for a transition to prospective payment. Third, the organization of service supply in a region may affect service provision in the HOPD suggesting that an HOPD PPS needs to be coordinated with payment policies in competing sites of care (e.g., ambulatory surgical centers). PMID:7721585
de Leon, Alex R.
Teaching and Learning Centre Application for The Teaching and Learning Grants Program Purpose: The University of Calgary Teaching and Learning Grants program is designed to provide resources to integrate research evidence in teaching practice, to generate new knowledge about teaching and learning
Kuhn, E M; Hartz, A J; Gottlieb, M S; Rimm, A A
To determine which characteristics of hospitals may be related to a higher quality of care, the association of hospital characteristics with the outcomes of medical record review by state Peer Review Organizations (PROs) was studied. The two data sources were: 1) the AHA 1986 Annual Survey of Hospitals and 2) reviews completed between July 1987 through June 1988 from six large PROs. For each hospital the percentage of cases that failed physician review (the confirmed problem rate) was computed. Hospital characteristics evaluated included financial status, ownership, medical training, technological sophistication, and size. The following characteristics were significantly associated with a lower confirmed problem rate: a higher occupancy rate, greater payroll expenses per bed, a higher proportion of physicians who were board-certified specialists, greater technological sophistication, a higher number of beds, a higher proportion of nurses who were registered, and membership in the Council of Teaching Hospitals. Public hospitals had higher problems rates than private not-for-profit hospitals. All characteristics significantly related to higher confirmed problem rates were also related to higher adjusted mortality rates in a previous study of 3,100 U.S. hospitals. The results suggest that hospital resources, including financial status, training of medical personnel, and availability of sophisticated equipment, are related to the quality of care provided by the hospital. PMID:1921522
Blackstone, Erwin A; Fuhr, Joseph P
The spate of hospital mergers in recent years has yielded both substantial increases in market power and many divestitures. These seemingly contradictory results stem from the pressures imposed by stakeholders of merging hospitals and the inability of those stakeholders to exert control over nonprofit institutions prior to the effectuation of a merger. This Article examines several recent mergers, analyses their failures, and recommends that the judiciary and state attorneys general look carefully at merging nonprofits so as to fill the void left by the lack of market control mechanisms. PMID:12940679
Ubbink, Dirk T; Papadopoulos, Niki E; Legemate, Dink A
The quality of hospital care is being questioned. This calls for decisions and innovations both in terms of care process and content. Innovations do not always have the desired effect and are often insufficiently supported by scientific evidence. The adoption and application of evidence-based principles in the organization as well as in the content of healthcare are therefore pivotal, not only for care professionals, but for hospital managers and decision makers as well. Implementation of these ideas appears most successful when conducted on different levels: national, strategic, tactical, and operational, and in educational as well as clinical settings. PMID:24893809
Hospital mergers in Europe and North America have been launched to scale down expenditure, enhance the delivery of health care and elevate quality. However, the outcome of mergers suggest that they neither generated cost savings nor improved the quality of care. Almost all consolidations fall short, since those in leadership positions lack the necessary understanding and appreciation of the differences in culture, values and goals of the existing facilities. In spite of these shortcomings, hospital mergers will continue to be pursued in order to improve market share, eliminate excess capacity, gain access to capital and enhance the personal egos of the organizations' leaders. PMID:20660531
Katie Makar; Jill Fielding-Wells
\\u000a Despite its importance for the discipline, the statistical investigation cycle is given little attention in schools. Teachers\\u000a face unique challenges in teaching statistical inquiry, with elements unfamiliar to many mathematics classrooms: Coping with\\u000a uncertainty, encouraging debate and competing interpretations, and supporting student collaboration. This chapter highlights\\u000a ways for teacher educators to support teachers’ learning to teach statistical inquiry. Results of
Growing interest in the development of preservice teacher educators’ professional knowledge has been accompanied by increasing\\u000a activity by teacher educators as researchers of their own professional practices. Self-study of teacher education practices\\u000a has emerged as one important way of understanding this work, helping teacher educators explore questions about how knowledge\\u000a of teaching about teaching develops, what informs approaches taken to
Edelu, BO; Ndu, IK; Asinobi, IN; Obu, HA; Adimora, GN
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of rare inherited disorders of connective tissue with the common feature of excessive fragility of bones caused by mutations in collagen. Diagnosis is mainly based on the clinical features of the disorder. We report, the case of a male neonate delivered to a 33-year-old para 2 female at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu with no family history suggestive of OI. He had clinical features of a type II OI and severe birth asphyxia. Multidisciplinary management was instituted, but he died on the 7th day of life. PMID:25031897
Hayes, H M; Wilson, G P
A review of medical records from 17 North American university veterinary medical teaching hospitals identified 66 dogs with hypospadias. Males predominated (15:1) and cryptorchidism was the most commonly diagnosed second anomaly, often associated with intersexuality. Fifteen cases, diagnosed at 10 different university hospitals, were Boston terriers, strongly suggesting that this breed has a familial predisposition for hypospadias. Male mongrels, as a group, were seen in approximately the same proportion as their representation in the hospital population, suggesting other components in the aetiology of the condition. If maternal histories are obtained as new cases are identified, a better understanding of the factors associated with the aetiology of the condition may be possible. PMID:3487876
For the first time, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services is posting Star Ratings, showing patients' perception of care, on the Hospital Compare website. Ratings are based on the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) and include individual scores on 12 composite measures based on the HCAHPS responses as well as state and national averages. A big gap between patients who reported receiving discharge instructions (86%) and those who said they understood what to do at home (52%) indicates that hospitals need to revise their discharge teaching and make sure patients understand their treatment plan. Case managers need to take the time to fully assess all patients--not just those going to post-acute facilities--to find out their living situations, their support systems, and their need for resources after they go home. PMID:26094346
The interior of this masonry-built hospital in Cauquenes, Chile had severe fracturing and partially collapsed interior walls following the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. This building will be torn down and replaced with a reinforced concrete building....
This two story hospital wing in Cauquenes, Chile suffered severe damage to the wall of the first floor as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. This building must be torn down. All patients were successfully evacuated at 3:34 AM after the earthquake shaking started....
Modern hospitals are complex multi-product organisations. The analysis of a hospital's production and/or cost structure should therefore use the appropriate techniques. Flexible functional forms based on the neo-classical theory of the firm seem to be most suitable. Using neo-classical cost functions implicitly assumes minimisation of (variable) costs given that input prices and outputs are exogenous. Local and global properties of flexible functional forms and short-run versus long-run equilibrium are further issues that require thorough investigation. In order to put the results based on econometric estimations of cost functions in the right perspective, it is important to keep these considerations in mind when using flexible functional forms. The more recent studies seem to agree that hospitals generally do not operate in their long-run equilibrium (they tend to over-invest in capital (capacity and equipment)) and that it is therefore appropriate to estimate a short-run variable cost function. However, few studies explicitly take into account the implicit assumptions and restrictions embedded in the models they use. An alternative method to explain differences in costs uses management accounting techniques to identify the cost drivers of overhead costs. Related issues such as cost-shifting and cost-adjusting behaviour of hospitals and the influence of market structure on competition, prices and costs are also discussed shortly. PMID:12220092
This article is based on the ethnography of a drop?in center for the destitute. Making a distinction between curing and healing, we argue that this center heals through its hospitality; its open acceptance of mutual woundedness. Rather than being the problem to be cured, woundedness heals the fantasies of perfection that alienate us from each other and from our whole
Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…
Shi-Bing Wang; Yun Chen; Xiao-Si Zhan; Yufei Zhou
This paper presents the implications, significances, and realization of chaotification of class teaching based on the chaos theory. The classroom is an open, nonlinear and dynamical system. Chaotifying this system indicates that class teaching is provided with chaotic characteristics(e.g., butterfly effect, self-similarity, strange attractors, etc), which is beneficial to built a multi-dimensional, creative, and harmonious classroom. Furthermore, chaotifying class teaching
UCSF Benioff Children's Hospitals is the new name of the affiliated hospitals, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital and Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland. Each hospital also has a new name UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital San Francisco, and UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland
Educators define number sense as a set of conceptual relationships between quantities and numerical symbols. The instructional principals of teaching number sense and number worlds program are mentioned.
Quraishi, Sadeq A; Litonjua, Augusto A; Elias, Kevin M; Gibbons, Fiona K; Giovannucci, Edward; Camargo, Carlos A; Christopher, Kenneth B
The goal of the present study was to determine whether pre-hospital 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are associated with the risk of hospital-acquired new-onset delirium (HANOD). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 4508 adult inpatients at two teaching hospitals in Boston from 1993 to 2006. All patients had 25(OH)D levels measured before hospital admission. The main outcome measure was HANOD, defined as the onset of delirium during an acute care hospitalisation. Patients with a history of delirium or dementia, or those with a diagnosis of delirium or dementia upon acute care hospitalisation were excluded from the analysis. To test the association of pre-hospital 25(OH)D levels with HANOD, we constructed a multivariable logistic regression model to adjust for clinically relevant covariates. Among our patient cohort, the mean 25(OH)D level was 22 (sd 13) ng/ml and approximately 4 % of patients met the criteria for HANOD. Following adjustment for age, sex, race (non-white v. white), patient type (medical v. surgical) and Deyo-Charlson Index, patients with 25(OH)D levels < 10, 10-19·9 and 20-29·9 ng/ml had higher odds of HANOD than patients with 25(OH)D levels ? 30 ng/ml: OR 2·15 (95 % CI 1·32, 3·50), OR 1·54 (95 % CI 0·98, 2·43) and OR 1·23 (95 % CI, 0·76, 1·99), respectively. These data support the rationale for randomised, controlled trials to test the role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of HANOD. PMID:26067807
... How hospitals’ rates of readmission and 30-day mortality (death) rates for certain conditions compare with the national rate. • How each hospital uses outpatient medical imaging tests (like CT scans ...
Novikov, V Ia; Alborov, Z Ts
History of the Volgograd military hospital dates back to July 24, 1941, when on the basis of the regional children's bone tuberculosis sanatorium in Krasnodar was transformed into 2150th military hospital consisted of 240 beds. Since May 1944 relocated in the city of Stalingrad became a garrison hospital. Today the hospital is a multidisciplinary health centre of the Russian Defense Ministry. Annually, the hospital performed at least 3000 surgical procedures, including more than 37%--are complex. In surgery, improved endovideosurgical direction, over 31% of emergency operations performed using this method. Since December 2009 the hospital became a structural division of the District Hospital in 1602 in Rostov on Don. The close connection between the branch and district hospital allows for complex diagnostic situations to consult leading experts, including consultation, thus ensuring the most effective treatment results. PMID:22545455
Calgary, University of
TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT (TOUR) Bachelor of Commerce Degree The tourism industry & conferences, adventure tourism, travel trade, and tourism services. The Tourism and Hospitality concentration integrates general management concepts with the professional knowledge that is required by the tourism
Shahi, Mehraban; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam
IT governance is a set of organizational structures ensuring decision-making rights and responsibilities with regard to the organization's IT assets. This qualitative study was carried out to identify the IT governance domains in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. There were 10 heads of IT departments and 10 hospital directors. Semi structured interviews used for data collection. To analyze the data content analysis was applied. All the interviewees (100%) believed that decisions upon hospital software needs could be made in a decentralized fashion by the IT department of the university. Most of the interviewees (90%) believed that there were policies for logistics and maintenance of networks, purchase and maintenance, standards and general policies in the direction of the policies of the ministry of health and medical education. About 80% of the interviewees believed that the current emphasis of the hospital's IT unit and the hospital management for outsourcing of services were in the format of specialized contracts and under supervision of the university Statistic and IT department. A hospital strategic committee is an official organizational group consisting of hospital executives, heads of IT and multiple functional areas and business units in a hospital. In this committee, "the head of hospital" acts as the director of IT activities and ensures that IT strategies are alignment with the hospital business strategies. PMID:25948446
Hsia, Renee Y; Akosa Antwi, Yaa; Nath, Julia P
Objectives To determine the variation in charges for 10 common blood tests across California hospitals in 2011, and to analyse the hospital and market-level factors that may explain any observed variation. Design, setting and participants We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the degree of charge variation between hospitals for 10 common blood tests using charge data reported by all non-federal California hospitals to the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development in 2011. Outcome measures Charges for 10 common blood tests at California hospitals during 2011. Results We found that charges for blood tests varied significantly between California hospitals. For example, charges for a lipid panel ranged from US$10 to US$10?169, a thousand-fold difference. Although government hospitals and teaching hospitals were found to charge significantly less than their counterparts for many blood tests, few other hospital characteristics and no market-level predictors significantly predicted charges for blood tests. Our models explained, at most, 21% of the variation between hospitals in charges for the blood test in question. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the seemingly arbitrary nature of the charge setting process, making it difficult for patients to act as true consumers in this era of ‘consumer-directed healthcare.’ PMID:25127708
Houk, Scott; Cleverley, James O
A survey of finance leaders found that hospitals with lower charges were more likely than other hospitals to emphasize making prices defensible rather than simply transparent. Finance leaders of hospitals with higher charges were more likely to express concern that price transparency would cause a reduction in hospital revenue by forcing them to lower charges. Those respondents said commercial payers likely will have to agree to renegotiate contracts for price transparency to be a financially viable proposition. PMID:25647890
M. A. Abduli
The main objective of this paper is to analyse the present status of hospital waste management in Tehran and subsequently to draw up a policy regarding generation, collection, onsite handling, storage, processing, recycling, transportation and safe disposal of health care wastes in Tehran. Through field investigations of 133 hospitals, all steps of waste management inside and outside hospitals are surveyed.
A description is provided of a 15-month, in-service nursing education program at Childrens Hospital (Los Angeles, California). The first sections of the paper describe Childrens Hospital and provide a rationale for the hospital-based program. A listing of program goals and objectives is also provided, indicating that the curriculum is designed to…
Le Coz, R
Hospitals were founded as early as the forth century, by the Church in the Byzantine Empire. However, it was not before the sixth century, with the Reform of Justinian, that the hospital got its definitive organization. In Bagdad, as soon as the eight century, the christian-nestorian doctors organized the first hospitals in the Arab-Muslim world. PMID:11637013
In Sweden the 23 counties are responsible for the medical care of their inhabitants. They own and run virtually all hospitals. This system facilitates a county-based hospital infection control system. The infection control team is based in the county hospital department of clinical bacteriology. It is headed by an MD clinical bacteriologist or, in some counties, by an infectious disease
St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital was founded in 1962. The Cancer Center received its NCI designation in 1977 and was awarded status as a comprehensive cancer center by NCI in 2008. The hospital’s mission is to advance cures and means of prevention for pediatric catastrophic diseases through research and treatment.
The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and students…
This site is the archived version of the Games-to-Teach project, now hosted by The Education Arcade. The Games-to-Teach Project is a partnership between MIT and Microsoft to develop conceptual prototypes for the next generation of interactive educational entertainment. Included are details about prototype educational games.
Kenneth E. Brashier, Mark S. Lewine, Alexei V. Filippenko, and Donna C. Boyd were the four professors who won the Professors of the Year for 2006. They were chosen from nearly 300 candidates nominated by their institutions for their "outstanding commitment to teaching undergraduate students and their influence on teaching." The annual competition…
#12;Research on Teaching & Learning GUIDEBOOK Nancy E.Fenton,RD,Ph.D Karen Szala-Meneok,Ph.D Â© McMaster University, 2010 Centre for Leadership in Learning Edited by Beth Marquis,Ph.D First reprinting, 2011 #12;............................ ..................... ................................................................................ Understanding Teaching and Learning Concepts What Counts as Research? Classroom Assessment Classroom Research
DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas
The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…
Clark-Ibanez, Marisol; Scott, Linda
The demand for online courses is growing. This paper offers suggestions on how to teach online courses that promote student engagement and learning. We discuss the benefits and challenges of teaching online. We share research-based strategies for designing an online course and draw upon our experience of developing fully online sociology courses.…
Richardson, G., Ed.
Key areas of modern language teaching are addressed in 10 articles. In addition to a general overview of methods and aims of foreign language teaching, attention is directed to the audiolingual and audiovisual revolution, language study for the slow-learning child and for the child with above average ability, imaginative learning activities for…
Crawford, Michael J.
Presents a rationale for utilizing trivia to teach conversation. Shows how trivia-based materials fit into communicative language teaching approaches and provides examples of trivia-based activities and explains how to use them in the classroom. (Author/VWL)
Teaching in Northern Uganda is challenging considering the numerous obstacles and constraints that teachers must face on a daily basis, let alone the fact that they live in a war zone, constantly at risk of cross-fire. In this article, the author shares his experience working in Northern Uganda. He relates the life and teaching experiences of…
Corrigan, Dean, Ed.
This publication represents four years of work by the Commission on Implications of Recent Research on Teaching. An article by Henry Hermanowicz, "Studies of Teaching and Their Impact on Future Developments in Teacher Education," (ED 024 624) reviews recent critical examinations of teacher education, new developments in the systematic study of…
in computational mathematics, and the development of new infrastructures for student research on both graduate, Northridge (CSUN) I enjoy the challenges of teaching mathematics to students of different majors, cultures educational and curriculum enrichment activities including teaching summer and winter research institutes
Moseley, Bryan; Dustin, Daniel
In this article, the authors advance a metaphor born of chaos theory that views the college classroom as a complex dynamical system. The authors reason further that "teaching as chaos" provides a more accurate representation of the teaching-learning process than the existing linear scientific metaphors on which traditional learning assessments are…
David Lorge Parnas
In spite of unheralded advances in computer hardware and software, most of today's introductory programming courses are much like courses taught 30 years ago. Although the programming languages have changed, we continue to equate teaching programming with teaching the syntax and semantics of programming languages. This paper describes a different approach being taken in the Faculty of Engineering at McMaster
Jaquith, Paul, Ed.
In this special issue on technology in language teaching, major articles include: "Sociocultural Aspects of Second Language Acquisition" (David Nunan); "The Need for Multi-Media ESL Teaching Methods: A Psychological Investigation into Learning Styles" (Don W. Hinkelman, Jay M. Pysock); "Can Japanese Children Learn English?" (David Paul);…
Higgs, Theodore V.
Discusses a foreign language pedagogy that facilitates teaching for communication and teaching grammar, which is defined as a system for converting meaning into language. The teacher is advised to do in the classroom only what cannot be done elsewhere. Four instructional tactics are described. (SED)
Koehler, Anne G.
Describes experiences in teaching with Interactive TV (ITV) network, and the mindsets and goals educators encounter in utilizing this technology. Presents four basic principles of teaching well on TV: television technology is a brand new member of the class, every student is present in class with you, our goal is not "good TV" but a good class,…
Barnes, Carol P., Ed.; Goodhue-McWilliams, Kenneth, Ed.
Much of what teachers know about how to teach and how to conceptualize specific academic content is learned from their undergraduate professors. In 1990, California State University, Fullerton, received a grant from the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), Project Teach, to improve the quality of instruction which…
Stock, Janet C.
Some of the literature on the role of teaching culture in second language instruction is reviewed, with some emphasis on the work of Ortunio and the Kluckholn model of French culture. One instructor's use of French print and television advertising to teach French culture is described. Values such as intellectuality, traditionalism, and patriotism…
Leising, James; And Others
Includes "Teaching Agrimarketing" (Leising); "Agrisales and Marketing" (Downey, McFarland); "Agrimarketing: A Tool Every Agriculture Student Needs" (Barrett); "Using FFA (Future Farmers of America) Activities to Teach Agrimarketing" (Egan); "FFA Commodity Marketing Activity" (Moore, Day); and "Economics Program Challenges Students" (Jelinek,…
, and expectations of those involved in the student teaching experience. The Wittenberg Education Department and children toward the education of our future teachers. TABLE OF CONTENTS MISSION OF THE TEACHER EDUCATION1 WITTENBERG UNIVERSITY STUDENT TEACHING HANDBOOK 2012-13 MISSION OF THE TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM
McLeod, Alan M., Ed.
This theme issue of the "Virginia English Bulletin" focuses on "Literature and Its Teaching." The 15 major articles are: "Response to Literature" (Robert C. Small and Ruth Fisher); "The Power of a Good Book" (Gayle Sterrett); "Some Plain Truths about Teaching English" (Coalition of English Associations); "Introducing High School Students to…
Strasser, Ben B.; And Others
This book is intended to offer the teacher practical classroom ideas. The first chapter suggests two approaches in teaching children to inquire and compares the three modes of teaching--didactic, Socratic, and inquiry. The second chapter considers the problem of what people do as they inquire and the relationship between data and theory, which are…
Discusses several practices in teaching physics that are of dubious merit, such as stressing vocabulary and stressing content over process. Suggests several alternate approaches to make physics teaching more interesting. Includes several issues affecting the quality of science education which involve general school policy. (JN)
Midlands Technical Coll., Columbia, SC.
In 1987, Midlands Technical College (MTC), in Columbia, South Carolina, initiated a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) project, the Midlands Teaching Factory, LTD, which integrated various college departments with the goal of manufacturing a high quality, saleable product. The faculty developed a teaching factory model which was designed to…
Fernandez, Charles E.; Yu, Jenny
This article provides an overview and description of peer review of teaching for faculty members and administrators who would like to implement a peer review program. This may include classroom and clinical settings. A brief overview, procedure, and a teaching competence evaluation rubric are provided PMID:18483580
This article describes the experiences of a woman who is working as a teacher of mathematics in a New York City public junior high school through the Teach for America (TFA) program. The author relates the joys and frustrations of teaching and a sidebar describes the TFA program. (LZ)
Greenberg, R.; And Others
The Image Processing for Teaching project provides a powerful medium to excite students about science and mathematics, especially children from minority groups and others whose needs have not been met by traditional teaching. Using professional-quality software on microcomputers, students explore a variety of scientific data sets, including…
Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…
Brophy, Jere E.; Evertson, Carolyn M.
Process-product research in which the investigator observes in teachers' classrooms and tries to relate process measures of teaching behavior to product measures of student outcome has face validity appeal and common sense logic. This research approach appears to be the simplest and most direct way to identify teaching behaviors which discriminate…
Turner, Francis J.
Uses a personal perspective to reflect on the varieties of challenges and satisfactions in teaching social work in several different countries; discusses the role of the teacher and the danger of obsessive adherence to any specific "models" of teaching. Makes a case for the teacher's presentation of self rather than reliance of technological…
Beach, Richard W.; Appleman, Deborah; Hynds, Susan; Wilhelm, Jeffrey
This text for pre-service and in-service English education courses presents current methods of teaching literature to middle and high school students. The methods are based on social constructivist/socio-cultural theories of literacy learning, and incorporate research on literary response conducted by the authors. "Teaching Literature to…
TEACHING AND EXAMINATION REGULATIONS (see Article 7.13 of the Higher Education and Research Act 2013-2014 Page #12;Most important changes in comparison with the teaching and examination regulations - General 4 Article 1 - Areas to which the regulations apply 4 Article 2 - Definitions of terms used 4
TEACHING AND EXAMINATION REGULATIONS (see Article 7.13 ofthe Higher Education and Research Act Engineering 2013-2014 Page #12;Most important ctianges with regard to the teaching and examination regulations - Areas to which the regulations apply 4 Article 2 - Definitions of terms used 4 Article 3 - The programme
In the classroom ‘bad cinema’ is often determined as much by questions of pedagogical value as it is by cultural and\\/or aesthetic value. These three short papers explore some of the diverse ways in which teaching ‘bad’ film and television raises questions about the relations between cultural value and pedagogical value. Through reflections on particular teaching experiences, these papers contribute
FAWCETT, CLAUDE W.
TEACHING SKILLS WHICH ARE A PART OF THE TEACHER'S LEADERSHIP ROLE IN THE TEACHING PROCESS WERE IDENTIFIED BY ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS. IDENTIFICATION OF TEACHER LEADERSHIP ITEMS WAS DONE BY THE CONFERENCE METHOD WITH ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS OF TWO CALIFORNIA SCHOOL DISTRICTS. THE ITEMS WHICH WERE…
Bond, C A; Raehl, C L; Pitterle, M E; Franke, T
To evaluate associations among hospital characteristics, staffing levels of health care professionals, and mortality rates in 3763 United States hospitals, a data base was constructed from the American Hospital Association's Abridged Guide to the Health Care Field and hospital Medicare mortality rates from the Health Care Financing Administration. A multivariate regression analysis controlling for severity of illness was employed to determine the associations. Hospital characteristics associated with lower mortality were occupancy rate and private nonprofit and private for-profit ownership. Mortality rates decreased as staffing level per occupied bed increased for medical residents, registered nurses, registered pharmacists, medical technologists, and total hospital personnel. Mortality rates increased as staffing level per occupied bed increased for hospital administrators and licensed practical-vocational nurses. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that pharmacists were associated with lower mortality rates. PMID:10030762
Gonsu, Kamga Hortense; Guenou, Etienne; Toukam, Michel; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Mbakop, Calixte Didier; Tankeu, Dongmo Norbert; Mbopi-Keou, Francois Xavier; Takongmo, Samuel
Introduction Many studies still show significant numbers of surgical patients contracting nosocomial infections each year globally with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify potential bacteria reservoirs that may be responsible for nosocomial infection in surgical services in the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (YUTH) and the Central Hospital Yaoundé (CHY). Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to August 2012. Air, water, and surface samples were collected from two surgical services and subjected to standard bacteriological analysis. Results A total of 143 surface samples were collected. Bacteria were isolated in all surfaces except from one trolley sample and a surgical cabinet sample. The predominant species in all services was coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS). The average number of colonies was 132. 82CFU/25cm2. The bacteria isolated in the air were similar to those isolated from surfaces. From the 16 water samples cultured, an average of 50.93 CFU/100ml bacteria were isolated. The distribution of isolated species showed a predominance of Burkholderia cepacia. Conclusion These results showed the importance of the hospital environment as a potential reservoir and source of nosocomial infections amongst surgical patient at YUTH and CHY, thus we suggest that Public health policy makers in Cameroon must define, publish guidelines and recommendations for monitoring environmental microbiota in health facilities.
Ndukuba, AC; Odinka, PC; Muomah, RC; Nwoha, SO
Background: Pregnancy and labor in areas with high maternal morbidities as in Nigeria could be sufficiently stressful to precipitate mental disorders in women after delivery, which may be a new or a relapse of previously existing one, or an exacerbation of an attenuated mental illness in the nursing mother. Mental illness in a nursing mother, if not treated may result in impaired mother-infant relationship. Aim: To determine the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of women diagnosed with postpartum psychiatric conditions in a tertiary mental health facility of a developing country. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective case note reviews of 76 women diagnosed with postpartum psychiatric conditions for the first time in the Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Enugu between January 2009 and December 2011. Results: The mean age of the women was 27.76 years, with 63% (48/76) of them coming from the rural areas. 93% (71/76) of them had at least a secondary education and 78% (59/76) of the women had a family history of psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia was commonest, 48.7% (37/76) followed by depression, 22% (17/76) and mania, 15% (11/76). Those presenting with schizophrenia were younger when compared with other diagnostic groups, had a lower level of education and presented earlier for treatment. The husbands were the primary caregivers in 48% of them. Conclusion: With 63% (48/76) of them being rural dwellers, policy changes become imperative that would encourage establishment of psychiatric services in rural areas to ensure early detection and prompt treatment of postpartum women with a need for psychiatric services.
The Teaching Tolerance magazine, which is put out by the Southern Poverty Law Center to accompany its free Teaching Tolerance educational program, is available online via the website dedicated to the Teaching Tolerance program. The magazine is loaded with wonderful information and creative ways to teach tolerance. Visitors can view the magazine's archives and read the articles online for free. If the thoughtful content and depth with which the Southern Poverty Law Center supports their Teaching Tolerance program isn't enough to convince visitors that it's a superb program, check out this quote from their "About Us" section: "Scientific surveys demonstrate that our programs help students learn respect for differences and bolster teacher practice."
Merchant, Raina M.; Berg, Robert A.; Yang, Lin; Becker, Lance B.; Groeneveld, Peter W.; Chan, Paul S.
Background In?hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is common and often fatal. However, the extent to which hospitals vary in survival outcomes and the degree to which this variation is explained by patient and hospital factors is unknown. Methods and Results Within Get with the Guidelines?Resuscitation, we identified 135 896 index IHCA events at 468 hospitals. Using hierarchical models, we adjusted for demographics comorbidities and arrest characteristics (eg, initial rhythm, etiology, arrest location) to generate risk?adjusted rates of in?hospital survival. To quantify the extent of hospital?level variation in risk?adjusted rates, we calculated the median odds ratio (OR). Among study hospitals, there was significant variation in unadjusted survival rates. The median unadjusted rate for the bottom decile was 8.3% (range: 0% to 10.7%) and for the top decile was 31.4% (28.6% to 51.7%). After adjusting for 36 predictors of in?hospital survival, there remained substantial variation in rates of in?hospital survival across sites: bottom decile (median rate, 12.4% [0% to 15.6%]) versus top decile (median rate, 22.7% [21.0% to 36.2%]). The median OR for risk?adjusted survival was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.37 to 1.46), which suggests a substantial 42% difference in the odds of survival for patients with similar case?mix at similar hospitals. Further, significant variation persisted within hospital subgroups (eg, bed size, academic). Conclusion Significant variability in IHCA survival exists across hospitals, and this variation persists despite adjustment for measured patient factors and within hospital subgroups. These findings suggest that other hospital factors may account for the observed site?level variations in IHCA survival. PMID:24487717
A de Greeff; I Lorde; A Wilton; P Seed; A J Coleman; A H Shennan; AH Shennan
Accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement is dependent on a trained observer using validated and properly maintained equipment. BP devices should be checked regularly to ensure that their calibration remains within the European Standard specification of ±3 mm Hg. This study assessed the air leakage rates and calibration accuracy of BP devices in use at a large teaching hospital, using a
Hamdan Z Hamdan; Abdel Haliem M Ziad; Salah K Ali; Ishag Adam
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. METHODS: A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women.
This paper presents the results of some research that was intended to evaluate the use of videoconferencing as a teaching and learning tool in the context of doctoral training in medicine at a Canadian university hospital center. The evaluation was conducted by identifying the factors that influence the training of students, their satisfaction…
Lydia Kapiriri; Douglas K Martin
BACKGROUND: Because the demand for health services outstrips the available resources, priority setting is one of the most difficult issues faced by health policy makers, particularly those in developing countries. However, there is lack of literature that describes and evaluates priority setting in these contexts. The objective of this paper is to describe priority setting in a teaching hospital in
... Who Are Hospitalized in Rural and Urban Hospitals: United States, 2010 On This Page Key findings Hospitalized rural ... distribution of hospitalized rural residents, by hospital location: United States, 2010 NOTE: Estimates may not add to totals ...
Kornfeld, S. Kerry
's Hospital. Information regarding the Washington University Federalwide Assurance (FWA) and registrationHuman Research Protection Office Barnes Jewish Hospital St. Louis Children's Hospital Washington for faculty, staff, and students at Washington University, Barnes Jewish Hospital, and St. Louis Children
Centre for Learning and Teaching on university teaching and learning Volume 21 Number 3 · Fall 2013 for Learning and Teaching #12;Page 2 FOCUS · Volume 21 Number 3 · Fall 2013 Whatever the impetus for curriculum PUBLISHED BY Centre for Learning and Teaching Dalhousie University PO Box 15000 Halifax, NS B3H 4R2 Ph: (902
Centre for Learning and Teaching on university teaching and learning Volume 20 Number 3 · Fall 2012 (Institutional Initiatives) Centre for Learning and Teaching #12;Page 2 FOCUS · Volume 20 Number 3 · Fall 2012 Michelle Soucy PUBLISHED BY Centre for Learning and Teaching Dalhousie University PO Box 15000 Halifax, NS
Lehmann, Susan W.
Objective: Psychiatric residents' self-reported confidence levels related to teaching medical students were assessed before and after a five-part teaching seminar series. Methods: Five 1-hour seminars on teaching medical students in the psychiatry clerkship were presented to second postgraduate year (PGY-2) residents. Topics included how to teach…
Winters, Clyde A.
This paper discusses brain-based teaching and examines its relevance as a teaching method and knowledge base. Brain-based teaching is very popular among early childhood educators. Positive attributes of brain-based education include student engagement and active involvement in their own learning, teachers teaching for meaning and understanding,…
Hartnett, Joanie; Weed, Rahila; McCoy, Ann; Theiss, Deb; Nickens, Nicole
After more than 100 years of successfully practicing a traditional model of student teaching, a midwestern university recently transitioned to a new co-teaching model of student teaching. What factors contributed to the decision to implement a co-teaching model? What process was used to guide, facilitate, and implement this major change in the way…
Kotsis, Sandra V.
Background International volunteering missions are becoming an important focus of plastic surgeons in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to describe the teaching of pediatric hand surgery in Vietnam to share the lessons learned from this project. Methods Two medical education trips were conducted to the no. 1 Children’s Hospital in Ho Chi Minh city (Saigon) to teach pediatric hand and burn reconstructive surgery to the surgeons and therapists. This is the main referral children’s hospital for the country, and pediatric hand surgery expertise is not available. Results Structured education programs were conducted over two trips to introduce congenital hand surgery and burn reconstructive procedures using flap techniques. The education programs included lectures and surgical demonstrations of selected procedures. Their proficiency was verified by supervised conduct of these operations. Conclusions A well-conceived medical education program can introduce complex surgical discipline to a country. Through two trips, the surgeons at this referral center will have the capability to take care of many children requiring reconstructive hand surgery. PMID:18780043
College students' developmental stages affect their capacities to comprehend and absorb difficult texts and moral problems embedded in them, and faculty should teach accordingly. Interpersonal subjective transactions between teacher and student, the latter of whose identity is in flux, can result in transformations for both. (Author/MSE)
Yudkin, J S
The health plans of the Tower Hamlets district management team were studied to determine what effects the report of the Resource Allocation Working Party and the White Paper "Priorities in the Health and Social Services" have had on resource allocation in a teaching district. The study showed that at present acute services are allocated a greater proportion of the district budget than occurs nationally, while geriatrics, mental health, and community services receive proportionately less. In the next three years spending on acute services is expected to decrease, while spending on geriatric facilities and community services will increase. Nevertheless, cuts in acute services will take place mainly through a reduction in the number of beds serving a community function, concentrating all acute services in the teaching hospital. Services to the district might be better maintained by creating a community hospital to meet the needs of patients who would otherwise need to be accommodated in acute beds with unnecessarily expensive support services. PMID:102396
Chao, Daniel L; Gregori, Ninel Z; Khandji, Joyce; Goldhardt, Raquel
Intravitreal injection is one of the most common in-office procedures performed in ophthalmic practices. In teaching institutions such as the Veterans Affairs (VA) Hospitals, patient care is delivered by physicians-in-training, while mastering intravitreal injection technique. Infectious endophthalmitis and visual loss are the most feared complications of intravitreal injections, especially in the context of recent outbreaks caused by contaminated compounded medications. Ophthalmologists and ophthalmic educators increasingly face the dilemma of timing as well as balancing the risks and benefits of bilateral treatments required by many patients. In this editorial, we discuss published reports of bilateral injections, summarize our experience with bilateral intravitreal injections in a teaching setting at the Miami VA Hospital and list our recommendations for minimizing the risk of infectious endophthalmitis. PMID:24815986
Sussman, Andrew J; Otten, Jeffrey R; Goldszer, Robert C; Hanson, Margaret; Trull, David J; Paulus, Kenneth; Brown, Monte; Dzau, Victor; Brennan, Troyen A
Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), a major academic tertiary medical center, and Faulkner Hospital (Faulkner), a nearby community teaching hospital, both in the Boston, Massachusetts area, have established a close affiliation relationship under a common corporate parent that achieves a variety of synergistic benefits. Formed under the pressures of limited capacity at BWH and excess capacity at Faulkner, and the need for lower-cost clinical space in an era of provider risk-sharing, BWH and Faulkner entered into a comprehensive affiliation agreement. Over the past seven years, the relationship has enhanced overall volume, broadened training programs, lowered the cost of resources for secondary care, and improved financial performance for both institutions. The lessons of this relationship, both in terms of success factors and ongoing challenges for the hospitals, medical staffs, and a large multispecialty referring physician group, are reviewed. The key factors for success of the relationship have been integration of training programs and some clinical services, provision of complementary clinical capabilities, geographic proximity, clear role definition of each institution, commitment and flexibility of leadership and medical staff, active and responsive communication, and the support of a large referring physician group that embraced the affiliation concept. Principal challenges have been maintaining the community hospital's cost structure, addressing cultural differences, avoiding competition among professional staff, anticipating the pace of patient migration, choosing a name for the new affiliation, and adapting to a changing payer environment. PMID:15734807
Danny McCormick; Michael J Fine; Christopher M Coley; Thomas J Marrie; Judith R Lave; D. Scott Obrosky; Wishwa N Kapoor; Daniel E Singer
PURPOSE: To assess the variation in length of stay for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia and to determine whether patients who are treated in hospitals with shorter mean stays have worse medical outcomes.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We prospectively studied a cohort of 1,188 adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia who had been admitted to one community and three university teaching hospitals. We
May, William F.
A philosophical overview of the place of technology in higher education and especially in teaching is presented. Research can be viewed as the acquisition of knowledge; teaching as its transmission; and service as its application. Technology affects the transmission of knowledge in both the teaching process and the content of teaching. The…
Castel, Liana D; Timbie, Justin W; Sendersky, Veronica; Curtis, Lesley H; Feather, Keith A; Schulman, Kevin A
Background The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 gave states the option to withdraw Medicaid coverage of nonemergency care from most legal immigrants. Our goal was to assess the effect of PRWORA on hospital uncompensated care in the United States. Methods We collected the following state-level data for the period from 1994 through 1999: foreign-born, noncitizen population and health uninsurance rates (US Census Current Population Survey); percentage of teaching hospitals (American Hospital Association Annual Survey of Hospitals); and each state's decision whether to implement the PRWORA Medicaid bar for legal permanent residents or to continue offering nonemergency Medicaid coverage using state-only funds (Urban Institute). We modeled uncompensated care expenditures by state (also from the Annual Survey of Hospitals) in both univariate and multivariable regression analyses. Results When measured at the state level, there was no significant relationship between uncompensated care expenditures and states' percentage of noncitizen immigrants. Uninsurance rates were the only significant factor in predicting uncompensated hospital care expenditures by state. Conclusions Reducing the number of uninsured patients would most surely reduce hospital expenditures for uncompensated care. However, data limitations hampered our efforts to obtain a monetary estimate of hospitals' financial losses due specifically to the immigrant eligibility changes in PRWORA. Quantifying the impact of these provisions on hospitals will require better data sources. PMID:12523939
Takahashi, Traci A; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Bradley, Katharine
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common complications of illicit drug use. Studies at single, urban hospitals demonstrate high rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for these infections. This study sought to estimate nationwide and regional incidence and costs of hospitalizations for illicit drug users with SSTIs in the US. AHRQ's Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to conduct a retrospective cross-sectional, time-series study. Hospitalizations of illicit drug users with SSTIs were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision Clinical Modification codes. An estimated 106,126 hospitalizations for illicit drug users with SSTIs represented 0.07% of all US non-Federal hospitalizations from 1998 to 2001 and cost over 193 million dollars in 2001. Higher rates of hospitalization were found in the West, Northeast, and urban teaching hospitals. Hospitalization rates for illicit drug users with SSTIs vary significantly according to US region. Resources to reduce the incidence and severity of these infections should be targeted accordingly. PMID:19381818
Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Herzig, Carolyn T. A.; Larson, Elaine L.; Furuya, E. Yoko; Perencevich, Eli N.; Stone, Patricia W.
OBJECTIVE To describe the use of antimicrobial stewardship policies and to investigate factors associated with implementation in a national sample of acute care hospitals. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS Infection Control Directors from acute care hospitals participating in the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). METHODS An online survey was conducted in the Fall of 2011. A subset of hospitals also provided access to their 2011 NHSN annual survey data. RESULTS Responses were received from 1,015 hospitals (30% response rate). The majority of hospitals (64%) reported the presence of a policy; use of antibiograms and antimicrobial restriction policies were most frequently utilized (83% and 65%, respectively). Respondents from larger, urban, teaching hospitals and those that are part of a system that shares resources were more likely to report a policy in place (P < .01). Hospitals located in California were more likely to have policy in place than in hospitals located in other states (P = .014). CONCLUSION This study provides a snapshot of the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship policies in place in U.S. hospitals and suggests that statewide efforts in California are achieving their intended effect. Further research is needed to identify factors that foster the adoption of these policies. PMID:25695166
Grow, Laura; LeBlanc, Linda
Receptive language refers to responding appropriately to another person's spoken language. Most curricula dedicate a proportion of early intervention to developing receptive language skills. The specific terms used to refer to the receptive language programs and the recommendations for teaching such skills vary considerably across the early intervention curricula. The present paper will provide a conceptual analysis of the desired controlling variables for different receptive language programs, teaching recommendations, a brief review of the literature to substantiate the teaching recommendations, and a discussion of the potential negative effects of deviating from the recommendations. PMID:25729507
Explore the educational resources in this teaching box and bring cloud science to your elementary students. The science of clouds helps students feel closer to the sky and in awe of nature as they learn elementary concepts of physics, the water cycle, and atmospheric science. Teaching Boxes are themed collections of classroom-ready educational resources to build student understanding of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Resources highlighted within teaching boxes are from various science education programs and have been vetted by UCAR educators.
McHugh, Matthew D.; Kelly, Lesly A.; Smith, Herbert L.; Wu, Evan S.; Vanak, Jill M.; Aiken, Linda H.
Background Although there is evidence that hospitals recognized for nursing excellence—Magnet hospitals—are successful in attracting and retaining nurses, it is uncertain whether Magnet recognition is associated with better patient outcomes than non-Magnets, and if so why. Objectives To determine whether Magnet hospitals have lower risk-adjusted mortality and failure-to-rescue compared with non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the most likely explanations. Method and Study Design Analysis of linked patient, nurse, and hospital data on 56 Magnet and 508 non-Magnet hospitals. Logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in the odds of mortality and failure-to-rescue for surgical patients treated in Magnet versus non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the extent to which differences in outcomes can be explained by nursing after accounting for patient and hospital differences. Results Magnet hospitals had significantly better work environments and higher proportions of nurses with bachelor's degrees and specialty certification. These nursing factors explained much of the Magnet hospital effect on patient outcomes. However, patients treated in Magnet hospitals had 14% lower odds of mortality (odds ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.98; P = 0.02) and 12% lower odds of failure-to-rescue (odds ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.77–1.01; P = 0.07) while controlling for nursing factors as well as hospital and patient differences. Conclusions The lower mortality we find in Magnet hospitals is largely attributable to measured nursing characteristics but there is a mortality advantage above and beyond what we could measure. Magnet recognition identifies existing quality and stimulates further positive organizational behavior that improves patient outcomes. PMID:24022082
Background Research showed that promising approaches such as benchmarking, operations research, lean management and six sigma, could be adopted to improve patient logistics in healthcare. To our knowledge, little research has been conducted to obtain an overview on the use, combination and effects of approaches to improve patient logistics in hospitals. We therefore examined the approaches and tools used to improve patient logistics in Dutch hospitals, the reported effects of these approaches on performance, the applied support structure and the methods used to evaluate the effects. Methods A survey among experts on patient logistics in 94 Dutch hospitals. The survey data were analysed using cross tables. Results Forty-eight percent of all hospitals participated. Ninety-eight percent reported to have used multiple approaches, 39% of them used five or more approaches. Care pathways were the preferred approach by 43% of the hospitals, followed by business process re-engineering and lean six sigma (both 13%). Flowcharts were the most commonly used tool, they were used on a regular basis by 94% of the hospitals. Less than 10% of the hospitals used data envelopment analysis and critical path analysis on a regular basis. Most hospitals (68%) relied on external support for process analyses and education on patient logistics, only 24% had permanent internal training programs on patient logistics. Approximately 50% of the hospitals that evaluated the effects of approaches on efficiency, throughput times and financial results, reported that they had accomplished their goals. Goal accomplishment in general hospitals ranged from 63% to 67%, in academic teaching hospitals from 0% to 50%, and in teaching hospitals from 25% to 44%. More than 86% performed an evaluation, 53% performed a post-intervention measurement. Conclusions Patient logistics appeared to be a rather new subject as most hospitals had not selected a single approach, they relied on external support and they did not have permanent training programs. Hospitals used a combination of approaches and tools, about half of the hospitals reported goal accomplishment and no approach seemed to outperform the others. To make improvement efforts more successful, research should be conducted into the selection and application of approaches, their contingency factors, and goal-setting procedures. PMID:22852880
Sue Ellen Dechenne
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are important in the teaching of undergraduate students (Golde & Dore, 2001). However, they are often poorly prepared for teaching (Luft, Kurdziel, Roehrig, & Turner, 2004). This dissertation addresses teaching effectiveness in three related manuscripts: (1) A position paper that summarizes the current research on and develops a model
This resource explores the essential concepts involved in teaching students about recurrence intervals. It examines issues with 'random' events, probability, and recurrence intervals versus forecasting, and provides links to examples and other resources.
Zahorik, John A.
Good teaching can be divided into three conceptual categories: science-research, theory-philosophy, and art-craft. The author defines and discusses these categories in terms of the developmental stages of teacher growth. (MT)
Tunis, Harry B., Ed.
Describes three activities to teach mathematical concepts involving probabilities related to outcomes using "Sicherman" and other dice; geometric representations of algebraic identities; and the volume of a cone. (MDH)
Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.
Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)
Mathematics Teacher, 1990
Presented are two teaching methods: an algorithm for determining area; and identifying cubic polynomials with three integral zeros, integral maximum and minimum points, and integral inflection points at the advanced placement calculus level. Examples for each are given. (CW)
Argues that the teaching method instructors use to present poetry--direct/indirect, analytic/subjective, or reader focused/text focused--is influenced by the kind of relationship they wish to establish with the students. (MM)
Presents ideas to improve education, including employing increasingly effective group procedures, teaching techniques of cooperative planning and group problem solving, developing skills of cooperative assessment and self-evaluation, and developing skills of propaganda analysis. (CT)
Klemm, E. Barbara
Described are one-atmosphere and compressed-gas technologies used for investigating the environment beneath the surface of the ocean. Suggestions for teaching this information to high school students are provided. (CW)
Buurman, Bianca M.; Hoogerduijn, Jita G.; de Haan, Rob J.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lagaay, A. Margot; Verhaar, Harald J.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; Levi, Marcel; de Rooij, Sophia E.
Background To study the prevalence of eighteen geriatric conditions in older patients at admission, their reporting rate in discharge summaries and the impact of these conditions on mortality and functional decline one year after admission. Method A prospective multicenter cohort study conducted between 2006 and 2008 in two tertiary university teaching hospitals and one regional teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Patients of 65 years and older, acutely admitted and hospitalized for at least 48 hours, were invited to participate. Eighteen geriatric conditions were assessed at hospital admission, and outcomes (mortality, functional decline) were assessed one year after admission. Results 639 patients were included, with a mean age of 78 years. IADL impairment (83%), polypharmacy (61%), mobility difficulty (59%), high levels of primary caregiver burden (53%), and malnutrition (52%) were most prevalent. Except for polypharmacy and cognitive impairment, the reporting rate of the geriatric conditions in discharge summaries was less than 50%. One year after admission, 35% had died and 33% suffered from functional decline. A high Charlson comorbidity index score, presence of malnutrition, high fall risk, presence of delirium and premorbid IADL impairment were associated with mortality and overall poor outcome (mortality or functional decline). Obesity lowered the risk for mortality. Conclusion Geriatric conditions were highly prevalent and associated with poor health outcomes after admission. Early recognition of these conditions in acutely hospitalized older patients and improving the handover to the general practitioner could lead to better health outcomes and reduce the burden of hospital admission for older patients. PMID:22110598
Far, Rafat Mohebbi; Rad, Fatemeh Samiee; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Kohan, Mohamad Mehdi Daneshi
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and causes of wastage of blood and blood products (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate) in Qazvin hospitals. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in all hospitals in Qazvin, including 5 teaching hospitals, 2 social welfare hospitals, 3 private hospitals, 1 charity hospital, and 1 military hospital. This descriptive study was based on available data from hospital blood banks in the province of Qazvin. The research instrument was a 2-part questionnaire. The first part was related to demographic characteristics of hospitals and the second part elicited information about blood and blood component wastage. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive statistic methods and SPSS 11.5. Results: Blood wastage may occur for a number of reasons, including time expiry, wasted imports, blood medically or surgically ordered but not used, stock time expired, hemolysis, or miscellaneous reasons. Data indicated that approximately 77.9% of wasted pack cell units were wasted for the reason of time expiry. Pack cell wastage in hospitals is reported to range from 1.93% to 30.7%. Wastage at all hospitals averaged 9.8% among 30.913 issued blood products. Overall blood and blood product (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate) wastage was 3048 units and average total wastage per participant hospital for all blood groups was 254 units per year. Conclusion: Blood transfusion is an essential part of patient care. The blood transfusion system has made significant advancements in areas such as donor management, storage of blood, cross-matching, rational use of blood, and distribution. In order to improve the standards of blood banks and the blood transfusion services in Iran, comprehensive standards have been formulated to ensure better quality control in collection, storage, testing, and distribution of blood and its components for the identified major factors affecting blood product wastage. PMID:25035674