Teaching through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.
2012-01-01
Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…
Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.
2010-01-01
Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…
Teaching Teamwork and Problem Solving Concurrently
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goltz, Sonia M.; Hietapelto, Amy B.; Reinsch, Roger W.; Tyrell, Sharon K.
2008-01-01
Teamwork and problem-solving skills have frequently been identified by business leaders as being key competencies; thus, teaching methods such as problem-based learning and team-based learning have been developed. However, the focus of these methods has been on teaching one skill or the other. A key argument for teaching the skills concurrently is…
Teaching and Learning through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ollerton, Mike
2007-01-01
In this article, the author relates some problem solving work with primary schools to Department for Children, Schools, and Families (DfES) support. In four primary schools in the West Midlands, the focus was teaching mathematics through problem solving, based on materials published on the DfES "standards" website. The author noticed the way…
Problem Solving Software: What Does It Teach?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duffield, Judith A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for teaching problem solving skills. It was conducted in three phases. During the first phase, two pieces of problem solving software, "The King's Rule" and "Safari Search," were identified and analyzed. During the second phase, two groups of six…
Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz
2009-01-01
In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…
Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forgan, James W.
2002-01-01
This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…
Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim
2016-01-01
This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…
Teaching Top-Down Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Patrick, Charles
Top-down problem solving is a methodical approach to obtaining real solutions for open-ended problems common in the realms of engineering and science. The technique provides a means for logically understanding a problem prior to attempting a solution. Steps in the top-down problem-solving method include the following: (1) identifying a need; (2)…
Using Problem Solving to Teach the Disabled.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cardon, Phillip L.; Scott, Michael L.
2000-01-01
Technology education can and should play a role in the development of ideas through problem solving to assist teachers of students with disabilities. Technology teachers can adapt the Engineering for Success model in working with these students. (JOW)
Teaching Problem Solving in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lam, Toh Tin; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Hoong, Leong Yew; Choon, Toh Pee; Him, Ho Foo; Jaguthsing, Dindyal
2014-01-01
This paper reports an innovative approach to teaching problem solving in secondary school mathematics classrooms based on a specifically designed problem-solving module.This approach adopts the science practical paradigm and rides on the works of Polya and Schoenfeld in order to give greater emphasis to the problem solving processes. We report the…
Using Problem-Solving Teaching: Theoretical and Philosophical Considerations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osborne, Edward W.
A rationale for the teaching of thinking and problem-solving skills is outlined, and the definition of and design for teaching such skills are discussed. Developing the ability of students to think has surfaced in recent years as one of the major purposes of American education. Problem solving has been described as a major type of thinking…
The Effect of a Problem-Solving Teaching Method on Student Problem-Solving Processes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frank, David V.; Herron, J. Dudley
A problem-solving method of teaching was used in the recitation sections of a freshmen chemistry course for science and engineering majors at Purdue University. The method was based on prior research which revealed that good problem solvers formed better representations and used heuristics more often than poor problem solvers. Consequently, the…
Teaching and Learning. A Problem-Solving Focus.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curcio, Frances R., Ed.
This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify Polya's art of…
Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M. G. M.; Broekkamp, H.
2001-04-01
The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a number of articles published between 1985 and 1995 in high-standard international journals, describing experimental research into the effectiveness of a wide variety of teaching strategies for science problem solving. To characterize the teaching strategies found, we used a model of the capacities needed for effective science problem solving, composed of a knowledge base and a skills base. The relations between the cognitive capacities required by the experimental or control treatments and those of the model were specified and used as independent variables. Other independent variables were learning conditions such as feedback and group work. As a dependent variable we used standardized learning effects. We identified 22 articles describing 40 experiments that met the standards we deemed necessary for a meta-analysis. These experiments were analyzed both with quantitative (correlational) methods and with a systematic qualitative method. A few of the independent variables were found to characterize effective strategies for teaching science problem solving. Effective treatments all gave attention to the structure and function (the schemata) of the knowledge base, whereas attention to knowledge of strategy and the practice of problem solving turned out to have little effect. As for learning conditions, both providing the learners with guidelines and criteria they can use in judging their own problem-solving process and products, and providing immediate feedback to them were found to be important prerequisites for the acquisition of problem-solving skills. Group work did not lead to
[Methods for teaching problem-solving in medical schools].
Shumway, J M; Vargas, M E; Heller, L E
1984-01-01
The need to include in the medical curriculum instructional activities to promote the development of problem-solving abilities has been asserted at the national and international levels. In research on the mental process involved in the solution of problems in medicine, problem-solving has been defined as a hypothetical-deductive activity engaged in by experienced physicians, in which the early generation of hypotheses influences the subsequent gathering of information. This article comments briefly on research on the mental process by which medical problems are solved. It describes the methods that research has shown to be most applicable in instruction to develop problem-solving abilities, and presents some educational principles that justify their application. The "trail-following" approach is the method that has been most commonly used to study the physician's problem-solving behavior. The salient conclusions from this research are that in the problem-solving process the diagnostic hypothesis is generated very early on and with limited data; the number of hypotheses is small; the problem-solving approach is specific to the type of medical problem and case in hand; and the accumulation of medical knowledge and experience forms the basis of clinical competence. Four methods for teaching the solution of problems are described: case presentation, the rain of ideas, the nominal groups technique and decision-making consensus, the census and analysis of forces in the field, and the analysis of clinical decisions. These methods are carried out in small groups. The advantages of the small groups are that the students are active participants in the learning process, they receive formative evaluation of their performance in a setting conductive to learning, and are able to interact with their instructor if he makes proper use of the right questioning techniques. While no single problem-solving method can be useful to all students or in all the problems they encounter
Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
2014-01-01
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Problem-Solving Style, Teaching Style, and Teaching Practices among In-Service Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mandelbaum, Matthew Gary
2013-01-01
While educational psychologists have found evidence for effective teaching behaviors that lead to academic achievement, pedagogy still lacks prescriptive accuracy for all students at all times. Teaching style and problem-solving style may be underlying mechanisms behind teaching behaviors. The present study looked at these three…
Teaching Creativity and Inventive Problem Solving in Science
2009-01-01
Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property. The creative process can be explained by reference to increasingly well-understood cognitive skills such as cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control that are widely distributed in the population. I explore the relationship between creativity and the higher-order cognitive skills, review assessment methods, and describe several instructional strategies for enhancing creative problem solving in the college classroom. Evidence suggests that instruction to support the development of creativity requires inquiry-based teaching that includes explicit strategies to promote cognitive flexibility. Students need to be repeatedly reminded and shown how to be creative, to integrate material across subject areas, to question their own assumptions, and to imagine other viewpoints and possibilities. Further research is required to determine whether college students' learning will be enhanced by these measures. PMID:19723812
Teaching creativity and inventive problem solving in science.
DeHaan, Robert L
2009-01-01
Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property. The creative process can be explained by reference to increasingly well-understood cognitive skills such as cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control that are widely distributed in the population. I explore the relationship between creativity and the higher-order cognitive skills, review assessment methods, and describe several instructional strategies for enhancing creative problem solving in the college classroom. Evidence suggests that instruction to support the development of creativity requires inquiry-based teaching that includes explicit strategies to promote cognitive flexibility. Students need to be repeatedly reminded and shown how to be creative, to integrate material across subject areas, to question their own assumptions, and to imagine other viewpoints and possibilities. Further research is required to determine whether college students' learning will be enhanced by these measures. PMID:19723812
Introductory Economic Geography: Problem-Solving or a Teaching Problem?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wheeler, James O.
Because economic geography is viewed as a field with too many different aspects for one person to master, teaching an introductory course in the subject poses the challenge of selecting an organizing theme. One specific approach, organized around higher level generalizations and theories, is the use of location theory. Coupling location theory…
Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.
2010-01-01
Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-01-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…
Synectics: Teaching Creative Problem Solving by Making the Familiar Strange.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Springfield, Lynn Hardie
1986-01-01
The article describes the theory of synectics, an idea producing process, and shows how upper elementary gifted students can be taught to use synectics in more effective problem solving. Steps in the synectics process are reviewed. (CL)
Teaching problem-solving skills to nuclear engineering students
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-08-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and accurate analysis of the problems, design of solutions (focusing on public safety, environmental stewardship and ethics), solution execution and monitoring results. A three-month course in problem solving, modelling and simulation was designed and a collaborative approach was undertaken with instructors from both industry and academia. Training was optimised for the laptop-based pedagogy, which provided unique advantages for a course that includes modelling and simulation components. The concepts and tools learned as part of the training were observed to be utilised throughout the duration of student university studies and interviews with students who have entered the workforce indicate that the approaches learned and practised are retained long term.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brandt, Barbara F.; Lubawy, William C.
1998-01-01
Microsituations teaching is a case-based, active learning tool developed from cognitive learning theory to teach problem-solving skills to large classes while conserving faculty and other resources. Since implementing this method in an endocrine pharmacology course at the University of Kentucky, student performance on problem-solving examinations…
History of Mathematics and Problem Solving: A Teaching Suggestion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meavilla, V.; Flores, A.
2007-01-01
This note presents a teaching suggestion, using the history of mathematics, to give students from middle school and high school the possibility of facing problems found in old mathematics books and comparing their solutions with those given in those books. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)
John Dewey--Problem Solving and History Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martorella, Peter H.
1978-01-01
Presents a model for introducing inquiry and problem-solving into middle grade history classes. It is based on an educational approach suggested by John Dewey. The author uses the model to explore two seemingly contradictory statements by Abraham Lincoln about slavery. (AV)
Teaching Community Psychology: A Problem-Solving Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Visser, Maretha; Cleaver, Glenda
1999-01-01
Describes a psychology course that implemented a problem-solving approach to provide students with a hands-on experience of community psychology in a multicultural South Africa. Traces the students' reactions to the course from their initial enthusiasm and emergence of frustration to their eventual understanding of other cultures. (CMK)
Theory-Based Teaching: Problem Solving in Studio Art Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rush, Jean C.
The call for more empirical research in art education during the 1950s seems to be a precursor of the contemporary move toward more systematic instruction in the visual arts. If making art employs nonverbal aesthetic concepts, then conceptual consistency and problem solving within studio instruction can facilitate students' acquisition, retention,…
Why Teach Cooperative Problem-Solving in Adult Education?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walker, Ann
2013-01-01
This article explores aspects of the theory and practice of cooperative problem solving in education from the perspective of community-based adult learning. It describes how society can benefit from using collaborative and questioning approaches as a positive alternative to more confrontational methods of resolving differences and how collective…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hong, Soo-Young; Diamond, Karen E.
2012-01-01
The present study examined the efficacy of two different approaches to teaching designed to facilitate children's learning about science concepts and vocabulary related to objects' floating and sinking and scientific problem-solving skills: responsive teaching (RT) and the combination of responsive teaching and explicit instruction (RT + EI).…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hedges, Lowell E.
This document contains 48 sample lesson plans that practicing teachers of vocational and academic education have developed to train vocational students to think critically and to solve problems. Discussed in the introduction are the following topics: critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making as the building blocks of teaching;…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gresens, Ay-Shin
2011-01-01
Teaching math problem solving has been a challenge for many educators, especially in Title I schools. Textbooks provided by the district under study were the primary source of math instructional material. Moreover, the instruction of computation was the method used for preparing students for success with later problem solving lessons. The lack of…
Teaching the Pressure-Flow Hypothesis of Phloem Transport in a Problem-Solving Session
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clifford, Paul
2004-01-01
Problem solving is an ideal learning strategy, especially for topics that are perceived as difficult to teach. As an example, a format is described for a problem-solving session designed to help students understand the pressure-flow hypothesis of phloem transport in plants. Five key facts and their discussion can lead to the conclusion that a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khotimah, Rita Pramujiyanti; Masduki
2016-01-01
Differential equations is a branch of mathematics which is closely related to mathematical modeling that arises in real-world problems. Problem solving ability is an essential component to solve contextual problem of differential equations properly. The purposes of this study are to describe contextual teaching and learning (CTL) model in…
Techniques of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krantz, Steven G.
The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Mike U.
Both teachers and students alike acknowledge that genetics and genetics problem-solving are extremely difficult to learn and to teach. Therefore, a number of recommendations for teaching college genetics are offered. Although few of these ideas have as yet been tested in controlled experiments, they are supported by research and experience and may…
Teaching Creative Problem Solving Methods to Undergraduate Economics and Business Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cancer, Vesna
2014-01-01
This paper seeks to explore the need for and possibility of teaching current and potential problem solvers--undergraduate students in the economic and business field to define problems, to generate and choose creative and useful ideas and to verify them. It aims to select an array of quick and easy-to-use creative problem solving (CPS) techniques.…
Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M; Hornberger, Erin
2015-09-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a point-of-view video modeling intervention to teach mathematics problem-solving when working on word problems involving subtracting mixed fractions with uncommon denominators. Using a multiple-probe across students design of single-case methodology, three high school students with ASD completed the study. All three students demonstrated greater accuracy in solving fraction word problems and maintained accuracy levels at a 1-week follow-up. PMID:25911304
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mataka, Lloyd M.; Cobern, William W.; Grunert, Megan L.; Mutambuki, Jacinta; Akom, George
2014-01-01
This study investigate the effectiveness of adding an "explicit general problem solving teaching strategy" (EGPS) to guided inquiry (GI) on pre-service elementary school teachers' ability to solve heat transfer problems. The pre-service elementary teachers in this study were enrolled in two sections of a chemistry course for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Hornberger, Erin
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a point-of-view video modeling intervention to teach mathematics problem-solving when working on word problems involving subtracting mixed fractions with uncommon denominators. Using a multiple-probe across students design of single-case methodology, three high school students with…
Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry: A Problem-Solving and Collaborative-Learning Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Browne, Lois M.; Blackburn, Edward V.
1999-08-01
A laboratory-centered approach to teaching introductory organic chemistry has been developed to accommodate large (250+ students) course sections. Through collaborative problem-solving, students are required to begin to develop the critical, creative, and complex thinking skills of chemical practitioners. These skills are emphasized in both classroom and lab components of courses. Course evaluations by students and teaching assistants attest to the success of this pedagogical approach. The teaching style required of teaching assistants is discussed and some of the pedagogical tools that have been developed are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heller, Patricia; Hollabaugh, Mark
1992-07-01
A supportive environment based on cooperative grouping was developed to foster students' learning of an effective problem-solving strategy. Experiments to adapt the technique of cooperative grouping to physics problem solving were carried out in two diverse settings: a large introductory course at state university, and a small modern physics class at a community college. Groups were more likely to use an effective problem-solving strategy when given context-rich problems to solve than when given standard textbook problems. Well-functioning cooperative groups were found to result from specific structural and management procedures governing group members' interactions. Group size, the gender and ability composition of groups, seating arrangement, role assignment, textbook use, and group as well as individual testing were all found to contribute to the problem-solving performance of cooperative groups.
Assessing Problem Solving Competence through Inquiry-Based Teaching in School Science Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zervas, Panagiotis; Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Sampson, Demetrios G.
2015-01-01
Nowadays, there is a consensus that inquiry-based learning contributes to developing students' scientific literacy in schools. Inquiry-based teaching strategies are promoted for the development (among others) of the cognitive processes that cultivate problem solving (PS) competence. The build up of PS competence is a central objective for most…
Neural Networks Art: Solving Problems with Multiple Solutions and New Teaching Algorithm
Dmitrienko, V. D; Zakovorotnyi, A. Yu.; Leonov, S. Yu.; Khavina, I. P
2014-01-01
A new discrete neural networks adaptive resonance theory (ART), which allows solving problems with multiple solutions, is developed. New algorithms neural networks teaching ART to prevent degradation and reproduction classes at training noisy input data is developed. Proposed learning algorithms discrete ART networks, allowing obtaining different classification methods of input. PMID:25246988
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erdamar, Gurcu; Alpan, Gulgun
2013-01-01
This study aims to examine the development of preservice teachers' epistemological beliefs and problem solving skills in the process of teaching practice. Participants of this descriptive study were senior students from Gazi University's Faculty of Vocational Education ("n" = 189). They completed the Epistemological Belief…
Solving Real Community Problems to Improve the Teaching of Public Affairs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yaghi, Abdulfattah; Alibeli, Madalla
2014-01-01
In order to achieve their course learning outcomes, public affairs instructors can train students to solve real community problems (SRCP). This approach focuses on the learners themselves and aims to transform the role of college professors from traditional teaching (lecturing) to facilitating and coaching students' learning activities. This…
A Teaching-Learning Method Enhancing Problem Solving and Motivation in Secondary Schools.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Markoczi-Revak, Ibolya
2003-01-01
Presents a teaching-learning method for enhancing problem solving and motivation for studying science in secondary schools. Emerges from a former survey which, found that the motivation of 14-18-year-olds as measured by the Kozekik-Entwistle test was at a rather low level. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)
Teaching the Grant Proposal as a Problem-Solving Strategy: A Rhetorical Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Herbert J.
Technical communications courses, which frequently present the research proposal as part of the report writing segment, rarely teach the grant proposal, even though it can provide the instructor with a vehicle for presenting such rhetorical strategies as audience analysis and persuasive writing. In addition to its problem solving structure, the…
Teaching Clinical Reasoning and Problem-solving Skills Using Human Patient Simulation
Vyas, Deepti; Ottis, Erica J.; Caligiuri, Frank J.
2011-01-01
This paper discusses using human patient simulation (HPS) to expose students to complex dynamic patient cases that require clinical judgment, problem-solving skills, and teamwork skills for success. An example of an HPS exercise used to teach multifaceted clinical concepts in a therapeutics course also is provided. PMID:22171117
How to Teach Procedures, Problem Solving, and Concepts in Microbial Genetics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bainbridge, Brian W.
1977-01-01
Flow-diagrams, algorithms, decision logic tables, and concept maps are presented in detail as methods for teaching practical procedures, problem solving, and basic concepts in microbial genetics. It is suggested that the flexible use of these methods should lead to an improved understanding of microbial genetics. (Author/MA)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Leeuw, L.
Sixty-four fifth and sixth-grade pupils were taught number series extrapolation by either an algorithm, fully prescribed problem-solving method or a heuristic, less prescribed method. The trained problems were within categories of two degrees of complexity. There were 16 subjects in each cell of the 2 by 2 design used. Aptitude Treatment…
The problem-solving approach in the teaching of number theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toh, Pee Choon; Hoong Leong, Yew; Toh, Tin Lam; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng; Guan Tay, Eng; Him Ho, Foo
2014-02-01
Mathematical problem solving is the mainstay of the mathematics curriculum for Singapore schools. In the preparation of prospective mathematics teachers, the authors, who are mathematics teacher educators, deem it important that pre-service mathematics teachers experience non-routine problem solving and acquire an attitude that predisposes them to adopt a Pólya-style approach in learning mathematics. The Practical Worksheet is an instructional scaffold we adopted to help our pre-service mathematics teachers develop problem-solving dispositions alongside the learning of the subject matter. The Worksheet was initially used in a design experiment aimed at teaching problem solving in a secondary school. In this paper, we describe an application and adaptation of the MProSE (Mathematical Problem Solving for Everyone) design experiment to a university level number theory course for pre-service mathematics teachers. The goal of the enterprise was to help the pre-service mathematics teachers develop problem-solving dispositions alongside the learning of the subject matter. Our analysis of the pre-service mathematics teachers' work shows that the MProSE design holds promise for mathematics courses at the tertiary level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuza, Kristina; Garmendia, Mikel; Barragués, José-Ignacio; Guisasola, Jenaro
2016-09-01
Frequently, in university-level general physics courses, after explaining the theory, exercises are set based on examples that illustrate the application of concepts and laws. Traditionally formulated numerical exercises are usually solved by the teacher and students through direct replacement of data in formulae. It is our contention that such strategies can lead to the superficial and erroneous resolution of such exercises. In this paper, we provide an example that illustrates that students tend to solve problems in a superficial manner, without applying fundamental problem-solving strategies such as qualitative analysis, hypothesis-forming and analysis of results, which prevents them from arriving at a correct solution. We provide evidence of the complexity of an a priori simple exercise in physics, although the theory involved may seem elementary at first sight. Our aim is to stimulate reflection among instructors to follow these results when using examples and solving exercises with students.
Teaching genetics using hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoppe, Stephanie Ann
Teaching genetics can be challenging because of the difficulty of the content and misconceptions students might hold. This thesis focused on using hands-on model activities, problem solving, and inquiry-based teaching/learning methods in order to increase student understanding in an introductory biology class in the area of genetics. Various activities using these three methods were implemented into the classes to address any misconceptions and increase student learning of the difficult concepts. The activities that were implemented were shown to be successful based on pre-post assessment score comparison. The students were assessed on the subjects of inheritance patterns, meiosis, and protein synthesis and demonstrated growth in all of the areas. It was found that hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based activities were more successful in learning concepts in genetics and the students were more engaged than tradition styles of lecture.
Wu, Zong-Sheng; Fu, Wei-Ping; Xue, Ru
2015-01-01
Teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm is proposed in recent years that simulates the teaching-learning phenomenon of a classroom to effectively solve global optimization of multidimensional, linear, and nonlinear problems over continuous spaces. In this paper, an improved teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm is presented, which is called nonlinear inertia weighted teaching-learning-based optimization (NIWTLBO) algorithm. This algorithm introduces a nonlinear inertia weighted factor into the basic TLBO to control the memory rate of learners and uses a dynamic inertia weighted factor to replace the original random number in teacher phase and learner phase. The proposed algorithm is tested on a number of benchmark functions, and its performance comparisons are provided against the basic TLBO and some other well-known optimization algorithms. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm has a faster convergence rate and better performance than the basic TLBO and some other algorithms as well. PMID:26421005
Teaching problem solving: Don't forget the problem solver(s)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranade, Saidas M.; Corrales, Angela
2013-05-01
The importance of intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences has long been known but educators have debated whether to and how to incorporate those topics in an already crowded engineering curriculum. In 2010, the authors used the classroom as a laboratory to observe the usefulness of including selected case studies and exercises from the fields of neurology, artificial intelligence, cognitive sciences and social psychology in a new problem-solving course. To further validate their initial findings, in 2012, the authors conducted an online survey of engineering students and engineers. The main conclusion is that engineering students will benefit from learning more about the impact of emotions, culture, diversity and cognitive biases when solving problems. Specifically, the work shows that an augmented problem-solving curriculum needs to include lessons on labelling emotions and cognitive biases, 'evidence-based' data on the importance of culture and diversity and additional practice on estimating conditional probability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez
2005-01-01
A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.
2008-01-01
Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…
Use of a problem-based learning exercise to teach the lean 8-step problem-solving method.
Tovar, Elizabeth G; Warshawsky, Nora
2015-01-01
Doctor of nursing practice (DNP) graduates must be prepared to lead quality improvement (QI) initiatives in health care settings; however, effective and feasible teaching strategies pose a challenge for many DNP program faculties. This article describes a successful and practical problem-based learning exercise for students to work through the QI process using the Lean 8-step problem-solving method. Suggestions for faculty and recommendations for future activities are discussed. PMID:25695501
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niaz, Mansoor
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of teaching experiments within a dialectic-constructivist framework based on the following considerations: (a) Cognitive conflicts used in the teaching experiments must be based on problem-solving strategies that students find relatively convincing: (b) after having generated a cognitive conflict, it is essential that the students be provided with an experience that could facilitate the resolution of the conflict; and (c) the teaching strategy developed is used by an interactive constructivist approach within an intact classroom. The study was based on two sections of freshman students who had registered for Chemistry I at the Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela. One of the sections was randomly designated as the control group and the other as the experimental group. To introduce cognitive conflict, the experimental group was exposed to two teaching experiments dealing with stoichiometry problems based on the concept of limiting reagent. Students in the control group were exposed to the same problems - however, without the cognitive conflict teaching experiments format. To evaluate the effect of the teaching experiments, both groups were evaluated on five different problems at different intervals during the semester, referred to as posttests. All posttests formed part of the regular evaluation of the students. Results obtained show the advantage of the experimental group on four of the posttests. It is concluded that the experimental treatment was effective in improving performance on the immediate posttests. It was observed that some students protect their core belief [see Lakatos, I. (1970). Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes. In I. Lakatos & A. Musgrave (Eds.), Criticism and the growth of knowledge (pp. 91-196). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] in stoichiometry (establishing equivalent relations between different elements or compounds) by ignoring the conflicting
The Teaching of Elementary Problem Solving in Engineering and Related Fields.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lubkin, James L., Ed.
This monograph presents 13 papers dealing with various aspects of elementary problem solving. They are: (1) "Training for Effective Problem Solving" (Gary A. Davis); (2) "Patterns of Problem Solving--A Campus-Wide Course at UCLA" (Moshe F. Rubinstein, L. Robin Keller, Edward A. Kazmarek); (3) "A Taxonomy of Problem-Solving Activities and Its…
Theme: Is Problem-Solving Teaching and SAE Needed in Agricultural Education in the 21st Century?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wardlow, George, Ed.
1999-01-01
Nine articles in this theme issue address problem-solving teaching and supervised agricultural experience. Topics covered include systems approaches to SAE, SAE for Y2K, SAE for science, applied SAE, types of SAE, and examples of activities. (JOW)
Computer Problem-Solving Coaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth
2005-09-01
Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lukas, George; And Others
In order to provide high school students with general problem-solving skills, two LOGO computer-assisted instruction units were developed--one on the methods and strategies for solution and a second on the relation between formal and informal representations of problems. In both cases specific problem contexts were used to give definition and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Powers, S. E.
2001-12-01
An NSF-funded project-based program was implemented by Clarkson University in 2000 to increase the interest and knowledge of middle school students in science, math and technology through the solution of an environmental problem that is relevant to their local school community. Clarkson students developed curricula for 7th and 8th grade science and technology classes and then worked with the middle school students throughout the year to reduce to transform solid waste into healthy soil for plant growth. The solution to this problem provided a vehicle to teach fundamental science and math content as well as the process of doing science and solving problems. Placing college science and engineering students in the classroom proved to be a great mechanism for engaging students in science topics and providing mentoring experiences that differ greatly from those that a practicing professional can provide. It is clear, however, that the students must be well prepared for this experience to maximize the benefits of university - school district partnership programs. The objective of this presentation will be to describe the training program that has been developed to prepare Clarkson students to work effectively in middle school classrooms. The Clarkson students are trained for their classroom experiences during the summer before they enter the classroom. They receive three credits for the training, curriculum development, and teaching efforts. It is expected that the students have the necessary background in science and technology to teach themselves the content and environmental relevance of the problem they will be teaching. Lectures and workshops focus on how to transform this knowledge into a project-based curriculum that meets the needs of the teachers, while also exciting the students. Lecture/workshops include: team work; components of an effective class and teacher; project planning and management; problem solving process; inquiry based learning, deductive
Patterns of Problem Solving and Its Peer Teaching Program: An Interdisciplinary Innovation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manus, Lee Aura; Zipser, Dean
An interdisciplinary course in problem solving, entitled "patterns of problem solving," and its unique peer program offered at the University of California, Los Angeles, are described. The emphasis in the subject matter and approach is to expose the student to the wide range of alternative problem solving techniques and to enable the student to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mompo, Rafael; Redoli, Judith
2010-01-01
With this article, we wish to transmit some key factors of success that we have used personally when faced with the structuring of a teaching programme based on e-learning. In particular, this paper reflects the experience of the authors in the usage of Internet tools in their teaching duties at university, in order to solve several problems that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muis, Krista R.; Psaradellis, Cynthia; Chevrier, Marianne; Di Leo, Ivana; Lajoie, Susanne P.
2016-01-01
We developed an intervention based on the learning by teaching paradigm to foster self-regulatory processes and better learning outcomes during complex mathematics problem solving in a technology-rich learning environment. Seventy-eight elementary students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: learning by preparing to teach, or learning for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bailey, Judy; Taylor, Merilyn
2015-01-01
Learning to teach is a complex matter, and many different models of pre-service teacher education have been used to support novice teachers' preparation for the classroom. More recently there have been calls for a focus on core high-leverage teaching practices and for novice teachers to engage in representations, decompositions, and approximations…
Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tolman, Richard R.
1982-01-01
Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)
A Structured Approach to Teaching Applied Problem Solving through Technology Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fischbach, Fritz A.; Sell, Nancy J.
1986-01-01
Describes an approach to problem solving based on real-world problems. Discusses problem analysis and definitions, preparation of briefing documents, solution finding techniques (brainstorming and synectics), solution evaluation and judgment, and implementation. (JM)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Sophia; Koch, Doug
2010-01-01
This article focuses on how technology educators can challenge students to "think" about technical problems. A key aspect of success in quality problem solving is understanding learning preferences and problem-solving approaches. The Learning Style Inventory (LSI) can be used to assess an individual's ideal way to learn, in essence, a person's…
An Approach to Teaching Parents and Adolescents Problem-Solving Communication Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robin, Arthur L.; And Others
Parents and adolescents were taught to resolve conflicts concerning rules, responsibilities, and values through the use of problem solving and communication skills. Problem-solving included (1) defining the problem, (2) listing alternative solutions, (3) evaluating the solutions, and (4) planning implementation. Communication skills included (1)…
Teaching People to Manage Constraints: Effects on Creative Problem-Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peterson, David R.; Barrett, Jamie D.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Robledo, Issac C.; Hougen, Dean F.; Day, Eric A.; Mumford, Michael D.
2013-01-01
Constraints often inhibit creative problem-solving. This study examined the impact of training strategies for managing constraints on creative problem-solving. Undergraduates, 218 in all, were asked to work through 1 to 4 self-paced instructional programs focused on constraint management strategies. The quality, originality, and elegance of…
The Problem-Solving Approach in the Teaching of Number Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toh, Pee Choon; Leong, Yew Hoong; Toh, Tin Lam; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng; Tay, Eng Guan; Ho, Foo Him
2014-01-01
Mathematical problem solving is the mainstay of the mathematics curriculum for Singapore schools. In the preparation of prospective mathematics teachers, the authors, who are mathematics teacher educators, deem it important that pre-service mathematics teachers experience non-routine problem solving and acquire an attitude that predisposes them to…
Technology and the Role of Affect in Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McLeod, Douglas B.
The paper discusses the affective influences on students of problem solving instruction using computers, and the relationship of affective influences to student belief systems. It reviews affective issues and problem solving, and analyzes affect with particular reference to the work of G. Mandler. The paper considers types of congnitive processes,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charles, Randall I., Ed.; Silver, Edward A., Ed.
This document contains overviews of current research, insights from teachers and tutors, and considerations of such issues as metacognition, choice of operations, and the testing of problem-solving skills. Papers include: (1) "Historical Perspectives on Problem Solving in the Mathematics Curriculum" (George M. A. Stanic and Jeremy Kilpatrick); (2)…
Teaching Methods for Systematic Inventive Problem-Solving: Evaluation of a Course for Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barak, Moshe
2006-01-01
Systematic inventive problem-solving is an approach for finding original and useful ideas by systematically examining alterations in existing components within a system, their attributes, functions or internal relationships. This method, which aims at complementing divergent thinking in problem-solving and design, is gaining increased attention in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Loji, K.
2012-01-01
Problem solving skills and abilities are critical in life and more specifically in the engineering field. Unfortunately, significant numbers of South African students who are accessing higher education lack problem solving skills and this results in poor academic performance jeopardizing their progress especially from first to second year. On the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bushman, Bryan B.; Peacock, Gretchen Gimpel
2010-01-01
Problem-solving skills training (PSST) has been proposed as a potentially effective addition to behavioral parent training (PT). However, it is not clear whether PSST specifically increases the benefits provided by PT. In this study, PT + PSST was compared to PT + nondirective therapy in a sample of 26 families. All parents received PT. Following…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DEVANE, J.R.; RIMOLDI, H.J.A.
CHANGES WERE STUDIED IN THE PROBLEM-SOLVING BEHAVIOR OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AS A FUNCTION OF A CAREFULLY DESIGNED TRAINING PROGRAM. TRAINING WAS DEFINED AS THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENT AWARENESS OF PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES USED. INSTRUMENTS WERE DEVELOPED AND REFINED TO MEASURE PROBLEM-SOLVING BEHAVIOR. SPECIFICALLY TESTED WAS THE FOLLOWING…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westlander, Meghan Joanne
Interactive engagement environments are critical to students' conceptual learning gains, and often the instructor is ultimately responsible for the creation of that environment in the classroom. When those instructors are graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), one of the primary ways in which they can promote interactive engagement is through their interactions with students. Much of the prior research on physics GTA-student interactions focuses on GTA training programs (e.g. Ezrailson (2004); Smith, Ward, and Rosenshein (1977)) or on GTAs' specific actions and beliefs (e.g. West, Paul, Webb, and Potter (2013); Goertzen (2010); Spike and Finkelstein (2012a)). Research on students' ideas and behaviors within and surrounding those interactions is limited but important to obtaining a more complete understanding of how GTAs promote an interactive environment. In order to begin understanding this area, I developed the Issues Framework to examine how GTA-student interactions are situated in students' processes during physics problem solving activities. Using grounded theory, the Issues Framework emerged from an analysis of the relationships between GTA-student interactions and the students procedures and expressions of physics content in and surrounding those interactions. This study is focused on introducing the Issues Framework and the insight it can provide into GTA-student interactions and students' processes. The framework is general in nature and has a visually friendly design making it a useful tool for consolidating complex data and quickly pattern-matching important pieces of a complex process. Four different categories of Issues emerged spanning the problem solving process: (1) Getting Started, (2) Solution Approach, (3) Unit Conversions, and (4) Other. The framework allowed for identification of the specific contents of the Issues in each category as well as revealing the common stories of students' processes and how the interactions were situated in those
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jitendra, Asha K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Lein, Amy E.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Kunkel, Amy K.; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Egan, Andrea M.
2015-01-01
This study examined the quality of the research base related to strategy instruction priming the underlying mathematical problem structure for students with learning disabilities and those at risk for mathematics difficulties. We evaluated the quality of methodological rigor of 18 group research studies using the criteria proposed by Gersten et…
Teaching Problem-Solving and Critical-Thinking Skills Online Using Problem-Based Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romero, Liz; Orzechowski, Agnes; Rahatka, Ola
2014-01-01
The availability of technological tools is promoting a shift toward more student-centered online instruction. This article describes the implementation of a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) model and the technological tools used to meet the expectations of the model as well as the needs of the students. The end product is a hybrid course with eight…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turnip, Betty; Wahyuni, Ida; Tanjung, Yul Ifda
2016-01-01
One of the factors that can support successful learning activity is the use of learning models according to the objectives to be achieved. This study aimed to analyze the differences in problem-solving ability Physics student learning model Inquiry Training based on Just In Time Teaching [JITT] and conventional learning taught by cooperative model…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finch, Curtis R.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of three methods of teaching diagnostic problem-solving (troubleshooting) to automotive students. The sample consisted of 45 community college students enrolled in automotive courses. Initially, all students received a presentation on ignition principles, and the Otis Mental Ability Test…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okechukwu, Rose N.
2010-01-01
The study examined the effect of concept-mapping and problem-solving teaching strategies on achievement in biology among Nigerian secondary school students. The method used for the study was a quasi-experimental pre-test treatment design. One hundred and thirteen senior secondary three (S.S. 111) students randomly selected from three mixed…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dagseven Emecen, Deniz
2011-01-01
This study was aimed at comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of direct instruction and problem solving approaches in teaching social skills to children with mental retardation. The design was adapted alternating treatment design. The subjects of the study consist of a girl and a boy between the ages of 11 and 13 who are mentally retarded. In…
Herkert, Joseph R
2005-07-01
Engineering ethics entails three frames of reference: individual, professional, and social. "Microethics" considers individuals and internal relations of the engineering profession; "macroethics" applies to the collective social responsibility of the profession and to societal decisions about technology. Most research and teaching in engineering ethics, including online resources, has had a "micro" focus. Mechanisms for incorporating macroethical perspectives include: integrating engineering ethics and science, technology and society (STS); closer integration of engineering ethics and computer ethics; and consideration of the influence of professional engineering societies and corporate social responsibility programs on ethical engineering practice. Integrating macroethical issues and concerns in engineering ethics involves broadening the context of ethical problem solving. This in turn implies: developing courses emphasizing both micro and macro perspectives, providing faculty development that includes training in both STS and practical ethics; and revision of curriculum materials, including online resources. Multidisciplinary collaboration is recommended 1) to create online case studies emphasizing ethical decision making in individual, professional, and societal contexts; 2) to leverage existing online computer ethics resources with relevance to engineering education and practice; and 3) to create transparent linkages between public policy positions advocated by professional societies and codes of ethics. PMID:16190278
Using Logo to Develop Problem Solving Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denenberg, Stewart A.
1993-01-01
Proposes using computer programing teaching problem solving. Describes the problem-solving technique of Top-Down Design, discusses its application to LOGO, and provides examples of programs using LOGO. (MDH)
Report on the WPI Conference: "Teaching Problem Solving and Critical Thinking in Chemistry".
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beall, Herbert
1995-01-01
Reports on the Seventh Annual Conference on Chemical Education which explored the assumption that science courses focus too much on the product of science and not enough on the process. Problem solving was examined as a possible route toward developing the necessary critical-thinking skills. Covers the keynote address, Problems versus Exercises,…
Teaching Third Graders about Real-Life Mathematical Problem Solving: A Randomized Controlled Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Finelli, Robin; Courey, Susan J.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Sones, Estelle M.; Hope, Susan K.
2006-01-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of schema-broadening instruction (SBI), with and without explicit instruction in strategies for tackling the complexities involved in real-life (RL) math problems, on the math problem solving of third-grade students. Teachers (n = 30) were assigned randomly to 3 16-week conditions: control, SBI,…
Teaching Handwriting to Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities: A Problem-Solving Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Datchuk, Shawn
2015-01-01
Problems with handwriting can negatively impact the writing of students with learning disabilities. In this article, an example is provided of a fourth-grade special education teacher's efforts to assist a new student by using a problem-solving approach to help determine an efficient course of action for special education teachers who are trying…
Nozari, Ali Yazdanpanah; Siamian, Hasan
2014-01-01
Introduction: Nowadays, regarding the learners’ needs and social conditions, it is obviously needed to revise and reconsider the traditional methods and approaches in teaching. The problem solving approach is one of the new ways in Teaching and learning process. This study aimed at studying and examining the effect of “problem-solving” approach on creative thinking of high school female students. Methods: An experimental method is used for this research. In this research, 342 out of 3047 female-students from Sari high schools were randomly selected. These 342 students were divided into two groups (experimental and control) in which there were seven classrooms. The total number of students in every group was about 171. After testing them with Jamal Abedi creativity test, it was revealed that two groups were equal in creativity score. The tests were done through Requirements. The experimental group was taught by problem solving method for three months while the control group was taught by traditional method. Results: The research results showed that using descriptive indices and t-test for the two independent sample groups in which problem solving teaching method was used in teaching processes had an effect on creativity level in comparison with traditional method used in the control group. Conclusion: Considering the results of this study, the application of problem-solving teaching methods increased the creativity and its components (fluidity, expansion, originality and flexibility) in learners, therefore, it is recommended that students be encouraged to take classes on frequent responses on various topics (variability) and draw attention on different issues, and expand their analysis on elements in particular courses like art (expansion). To enhance the learner’s mental flexibility and attention to various aspects, they are encouraged to provide a variety of responses. PMID:25685077
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karrison, Joan; Carroll, Margaret Kelly
1991-01-01
Students with language and learning disabilities may have difficulty solving mathematics word problems. Use of a sequential checklist, identifying clues and keywords, and illustrating a problem can all help the student identify and implement the correct computational process. (DB)
Teaching methods for systematic inventive problem-solving: evaluation of a course for teachers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barak, Moshe
2006-11-01
Systematic inventive problem-solving is an approach for finding original and useful ideas by systematically examining alterations in existing components within a system, their attributes, functions or internal relationships. This method, which aims at complementing divergent thinking in problem-solving and design, is gaining increased attention in industrial and academic frameworks. The current study examined how science and technology teachers learn, internalize and use the method within an academic course. Data were collected through pre-course and post-course quizzes and questionnaires, documentation of students’ activities, and interviews. The results showed that individuals can improve their problem-solving abilities by combining methods based on ‘ordered thinking’ and ‘disordered thinking,’ and that none of these approaches has preference over the other. Considerable additional work is required, however, to investigate how the proposed approach could be used to foster creative thinking in science and technology studies at school.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karns, Phyllis Spear
The relationship of educational preparation to the problem- solving performance of 55 hospital employed baccalaureate and associate degree nurses working in Wyoming hospitals was studied. Participant data were collected that might correlate with problem-solving ability: age, years of experience in nursing, years of work experience in a…
Problem Solving and Intelligence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Resnick, Lauren B.; Glaser, Robert
This paper argues that a major aspect of intelligence is the ability to solve problems and that careful analysis of problem-solving behavior is a means of specifying many of the psychological processes that make up intelligence. The focus is on the mechanisms involved when, in the absence of complete instruction, a person must "invent" a new…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moreno, Roxana; Ozogul, Gamze; Reisslein, Martin
2011-01-01
In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that…
Teaching Methods for Inventive Problem-Solving in Junior High School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barak, Moshe; Mesika, Pnina
2007-01-01
Fostering pupils' competencies in inventive thinking and problem-solving has remained a rather unresolved issue in traditional schooling, mainly because many people regard creative thinking as a God-given ability, something an individual either possesses or does not possess, but can only be slightly learned or improved. The current study is aimed…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chyu, Chi-Oy W.
The Nested Spiral Approach (NSA) is an integrated instructional approach used to promote the motivated learning of mathematics problem solving in limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. The NSA is described and a trial use is discussed. The approach extends, elaborates, and supplements existing education and instruction theories to help LEP…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalelioglu, Filiz; Gülbahar, Yasemin
2014-01-01
Computer programming is perceived as an important competence for the development of problem solving skills in addition to logical reasoning. Hence, its integration throughout all educational levels, as well as the early ages, is considered valuable and research studies are carried out to explore the phenomenon in more detail. In light of these…
Teaching Constitutional Law and Related Courses Through Problem-Solving and Role-Playing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davidow, Robert P.
1984-01-01
Problem-solving and role-playing can be used successfully even in the second semester of law school, serving as a bridge between traditional analytical and doctrinal education and the more realistic simulation and clinical experiences of the third year. Students can gain sufficient experience to perform proficiently in more advanced courses. (MSE)
Teaching Young Children Decomposition Strategies to Solve Addition Problems: An Experimental Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheng, Zi-Juan
2012-01-01
The ability to count has traditionally been considered an important milestone in children's development of number sense. However, using counting (e.g., counting on, counting all) strategies to solve addition problems is not the best way for children to achieve their full mathematical potential and to prepare them to develop more complex and…
An Individualized Problem-Solving Approach for Teaching Choral Phrase Shaping: An Experimental Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Broomhead, Paul
2009-01-01
This experiment tested a treatment designed to improve choral students' expressiveness regarding keyword emphasis and phrase shaping. The treatment was founded upon the constructivist belief that students actively construct conceptual knowledge through problem solving. Participants were 46 university students randomly selected from a nonauditioned…
A Modeling Perspective on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mousoulides, Nicholas G.; Christou, Constantinos; Sriraman, Bharath
2008-01-01
This study analyzed the processes used by students when engaged in modeling activities and examined how students' abilities to solve modeling problems changed over time. Two student populations, one experimental and one control group, participated in the study. To examine students' modeling processes, the experimental group participated in an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy
2009-01-01
In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…
Mathematics as Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soifer, Alexander
This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)
Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veal, William
1999-01-01
Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carpenter, Thomas P.; And Others
1980-01-01
Student weaknesses on problem-solving portions of the NAEP mathematics assessment are discussed using Polya's heuristics as a framework. Recommendations for classroom instruction are discussed. (MP) Aspect of National Assessment (NAEP) dealt with in this document: Results (Interpretation).
Solving Tommy's Writing Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burdman, Debra
1986-01-01
The article describes an approach by which word processing helps to solve some of the writing problems of learning disabled students. Aspects considered include prewriting, drafting, revising, and completing the story. (CL)
Collis-Romberg Mathematical Problem Solving Profiles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collis, K. F.; Romberg, T. A.
Problem solving has become a focus of mathematics programs in Australia in recent years, necessitating the assessment of students' problem-solving abilities. This manual provides a problem-solving assessment and teaching resource package containing four elements: (1) profiles assessment items; (2) profiles diagnostic forms for recording individual…
Affect and Problem Solving: Two Theoretical Perspectives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McLeod, Douglas B.
Cognitive factors related to problem solving have been explored, but affective factors also play an important role in the teaching of mathematical problem solving. This paper outlines the theories of George Mandler and Bernard Weiner, providing a useful background for research related to affect and problem solving. Data related to the two theories…
Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual Restructuring
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez; Aznar, Mercedes Martinez
2005-01-01
This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students…
Developing Legal Problem-Solving Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nathanson, Stephen
1994-01-01
A law professor explains how he came to view legal problem solving as the driving concept in law school curriculum design and draws on personal experience and a survey of students concerning teaching methods in a commercial law course. He outlines six curriculum design principles for teaching legal problem solving. (MSE)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yerushalmi, E.; Henderson, C.; Heller, K.; Heller, P.; Kuo, V.
2007-12-01
In higher education, instructors’ choices of both curricular material and pedagogy are determined by their beliefs about learning and teaching, the values of their profession, and perceived external constraints. Dissemination of research-based educational reforms is based on assumptions about that mental structure. This study reports the initial phase of an investigation of the beliefs and values of physics professors as they relate to the teaching and learning of problem solving in introductory physics. Based on an analysis of a series of structured interviews with six college physics faculty, a model of a common structure of such beliefs for all physics faculty teaching introductory physics was constructed. This preliminary model, when tested and modified by future research, can be used by curriculum developers to design materials, pedagogy, and professional development that gain acceptance among instructors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henderson, Charles; Yerushalmi, Edit; Kuo, Vince H.; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia
2007-12-01
To identify and describe the basis upon which instructors make curricular and pedagogical decisions, we have developed an artifact-based interview and an analysis technique based on multilayered concept maps. The policy capturing technique used in the interview asks instructors to make judgments about concrete instructional artifacts similar to those they likely encounter in their teaching environment. The analysis procedure alternatively employs both an a priori systems view analysis and an emergent categorization to construct a multilayered concept map, which is a hierarchically arranged set of concept maps where child maps include more details than parent maps. Although our goal was to develop a model of physics faculty beliefs about the teaching and learning of problem solving in the context of an introductory calculus-based physics course, the techniques described here are applicable to a variety of situations in which instructors make decisions that influence teaching and learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martinez, Michael E.
1998-01-01
Many important human activities involve accomplishing goals without a script. There is no formula for true problem-solving. Heuristic, cognitive "rules of thumb" are the problem-solver's best guide. Learners should understand heuristic tools such as means-end analysis, working backwards, successive approximation, and external representation. Since…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorson, Annette, Ed.
1999-01-01
This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…
Problem Solving Techniques Seminar.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.
This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…
Problem Solving in Electricity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias
Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.
Learning through Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murray, Hanlie; Olivier, Alwyn; Human, Piet
After conducting several studies on young students' understanding of particular concepts before, during, and after instruction, this paper focuses on the two small scale and several informal teaching experiments based on the idea that the teacher should pose problems to students for which they do not yet have a routine solution method available,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.
The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…
Problem Solving Using Calculators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Billings, Karen; Moursund, David
1978-01-01
The first part in the serialized version of a book on the use of calculators for problem solving is presented. It contains prefaces for teachers and students and a chapter on getting started which includes topics such as symmetries, operations, powers, and chaining. (MP)
Solving Common Mathematical Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luz, Paul L.
2005-01-01
Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.
Universal Design Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sterling, Mary C.
2004-01-01
Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…
Solving Problems through Circles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
Circumference and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blackburn, Katie; White, David
The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Takahashi, Akihiko
2016-01-01
Problem solving has been a major theme in Japanese mathematics curricula for nearly 50 years. Numerous teacher reference books and lesson plans using problem solving have been published since the 1960s. Government-authorized mathematics textbooks for elementary grades, published by six private companies, have had more and more problem solving over…
Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon
2014-01-01
Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andrews, Paul; Xenofontos, Constantinos
2015-01-01
In this article, we analyse the problem-solving-related beliefs, competence and classroom practice of three Cypriot upper-primary teachers. Data derived from semi-structured interviews focused on teachers' beliefs about the nature of mathematical problems, problem-solving, and their competence as both problem-solvers and teachers of…
Computer Aided Instruction and Problem Solving in the Teaching of Oral Diagnosis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spencer, Judson; Gobetti, John P.
A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program is being used at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry to aid in the teaching of oral diagnosis to dental students. The program is designed to simulate a real life situation--i.e., the diagnosis of patient illness-which would not be otherwise available to the student and to demonstrate to…
A Different Approach to Teaching Multiculturalism: Pragmatism as a Pedagogy and Problem-Solving Tool
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henry, Sue Ellen
2005-01-01
This article explores the moral imperative for teaching multiculturalism from a classically pragmatic point of view. Through an examination of the principles of classical pragmatism, embodied in the work of John Dewey, this analysis suggests that approaching multiculturalism from a pragmatic perspective lends a necessary moral foundation for the…
Best Practices in Writing Instruction. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graham, Steve, Ed.; MacArthur, Charles A., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Jill, Ed.
2007-01-01
Highly practical and accessible, this indispensable book provides clear-cut strategies for improving K-12 writing instruction. The contributors are leading authorities who demonstrate proven ways to teach different aspects of writing, with chapters on planning, revision, sentence construction, handwriting, spelling, and motivation. The use of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmidt, Sylvine; Bednarz, Nadine
1997-01-01
Discusses the difficulties observed in the transition from teaching arithmetic to teaching algebra. Future teachers (n=164) were questioned regarding to what extent they were able to shift back and forth between teaching methods within the context of problem solving. Interviews were conducted individually and in a dyad format. (AIM)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dennis, Minyi Shih; Knight, Jacqueline; Jerman, Olga
2016-01-01
This article describes how to teach fraction and percentage word problems using a model-drawing strategy. This cognitive strategy places emphasis on explicitly teaching students how to draw a schematic diagram to represent the qualitative relations described in the problem, and how to formulate the solution based on the schematic diagram. The…
Genetics problem solving and worldview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dale, Esther
The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Problem-Solving Skills for Office Supervisors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hathaway, Sandy
This package contains a selection of exercises designed to facilitate learning of problem-solving/communication skills within the area of office supervision. It does not provide the learning material or lesson plans. Section 1 is an overview that explains the scope of the material, learning methods, use of the teaching package, teaching resources,…
Teaching Systematic Thinking and Problem Solving through Database Searching, Synthesis and Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murray, David R.; Graham, Tom
Teacher education faculty and library reference services personnel collaborated to introduce teacher education students to the use of modern technological resources and to encourage systematic thinking processes to address pedagogically based educational problems. Undergraduate students enrolled in an educational psychology class piloted the…
The Problem-Solving Revolution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bardige, Art
1983-01-01
Discusses the use of microcomputers and software as problem-solving tools, including comments on "TK! Solver," automatic problem-solving program (reviewed in detail on pp.84-86 in this same issue). Also discusses problem-solving approaches to bridge the disciplines, such as music/physics, junior high science/mathematics (genetics),…
The Identity of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mamona-Downs, Joanna; Downs, Martin
2005-01-01
This paper raises issues motivated by considering the "identity" of problem solving. This means that we are concerned with how other mathematics education topics impinge on problem solving, and with themes that naturally arise within the problem-solving agenda. We claim that some of these issues need more attention by educational research, while…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Jahanzad, Farzaneh; Greenwood, Carmen
2014-01-01
Collaborative problem solving is an essential component of any 21st century science career. Scientists are hired, retained, and promoted for solving problems in dynamic and interdisciplinary teams. They discuss issues, explain and justify their opinions, debate, elaborate, and reflect on their collective knowledge. At the same time, both…
Problem Solving Strategies for Pharmaceutical/Chemical Technology College Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grant, George F.; Alexander, William E.
Teaching problem solving strategies and steps to first year college students enrolled in the pharmaceutical/chemical technology program as a part of their first year chemistry course focused on teaching the students the basic steps in problem solving and encouraging them to plan carefully and focus on the problem solving process rather than to…
Problem Solving in the Professions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackling, Noel; And Others
1990-01-01
It is proposed that algorithms and heuristics are useful in improving professional problem-solving abilities when contextualized within the academic discipline. A basic algorithm applied to problem solving in undergraduate engineering education and a similar algorithm applicable to legal problems are used as examples. Problem complexity and…
A Method for Solving Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knoop, Robert
1987-01-01
Problem solving and decision making are considered to be keys to successful management. A normative method for problem solving is presented, suggesting that the analysis of the problem be structured along a five-step procedure: problem identification, analysis, decision alternatives, decision making, and decision implementation. Follow-up…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malouff, John M.; Schutte, Nicola S.
2007-01-01
This book provides descriptions of 76 engaging activities that can be used to teach children, adolescents, and adults valuable social, emotional, and problem-solving skills. Some of the skills taught include identifying and expressing one's own emotions, identifying emotions in others, coping with stressors, making and keeping friends, setting…
Solving Geometry Problems via Mechanical Principles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu Kwong
2004-01-01
The application of physical principles in solving mathematics problems have often been neglected in the teaching of physics or mathematics, especially at the secondary school level. This paper discusses how to apply the mechanical principles to geometry problems via concrete examples, which aims at providing insight and inspirations to physics or…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robison, Diane F.
The purpose of this study was to take a case study approach to exploring student learning experiences in a large enrollment introductory biology class. Traditionally such classes are taught through the lecture method with limited instructor-student interaction and minimal student-centered learning (Lewis & Woodward, 1984; Wulff, Nyqst, & Abbott, 1987). Biology 120 taught at Brigham Young University winter semester 2006 by John Bell was chosen as the case for the study due to its large enrollment (263) and its innovative pedagogy. In the classroom, students applied their learning through a variety of student-centered activities including solving problems, discussing concepts with peers, drawing diagrams, and voting. Outside of the classroom students were assigned, in addition to reading from the textbook and homework problems, to teach each week's concepts to another student. Formative feedback was emphasized in classroom activities and through a unique assessment system. Students took self-graded weekly assessments designed to provide regular and timely feedback on their performance. The only traditionally-graded assessment was the final exam. Students were expected to understand, apply, and think analytically with their knowledge and this was reflected in the assessment items. Student learning, as measured by a pretest and a posttest, increased from an average of 44% correct to 77% correct on a set of 22 items common to both tests. Responses to pre and post-surveys indicated that students increased in their orientation towards understanding as apposed to grades during the course. Qualitative data suggested that during the course many students deepened their learning approach and increased in feelings of personal control over their learning.
Parent Problem Solving: Analysis of Problem Solving in Parenthood Transition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alpert, Judith L.; And Others
The general purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of adapting the Means-Ends Problem-Solving procedure (MEPS) to the investigation of the individual's transition to parenthood. Specific purposes were to determine (1) the internal consistency of the Parent Problem-Solving Scale (PPSS), of its subclasses, and of a combined subscale;…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitcher, Carrie Lynn
2005-08-01
Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0
Facilitating problem solving in high school chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.
The major purpose for conducting this study was to determine whether certain instructional strategies were superior to others in teaching high school chemistry students problem solving. The effectiveness of four instructional strategies for teaching problem solving to students of various proportional reasoning ability, verbal and visual preference, and mathematics anxiety were compared in this aptitude by treatment interaction study. The strategies used were the factor-label method, analogies, diagrams, and proportionality. Six hundred and nine high school students in eight schools were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategies within each classroom. Students used programmed booklets to study the mole concept, the gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Problem-solving ability was measured by a series of immediate posttests, delayed posttests and the ACS-NSTA Examination in High School Chemistry. Results showed that mathematics anxiety is negatively correlated with science achievement and that problem solving is dependent on students' proportional reasoning ability. The factor-label method was found to be the most desirable method and proportionality the least desirable method for teaching the mole concept. However, the proportionality method was best for teaching the gas laws. Several second-order interactions were found to be significant when mathematics anxiety was one of the aptitudes involved.
Problem Solving vis Soap Bubbles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bader, William A.
1975-01-01
Describes the use of a scientific phenomenon related to the concept of surface tension as an intriguing vehicle to direct attention to useful problem solving techniques. The need for a definite building process in attempts to solve mathematical problems is stressed. (EB)
Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ernst, Jeremy V.
2009-01-01
Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…
Learning Impasses in Problem Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodgson, J. P. E.
1992-01-01
Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.
Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Shih-Yin
2012-01-01
Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…
Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lacy, Grace
The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…
Transformation Problem Solving Abilities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harmel, Sarah Jane
The relationship between transformation problem performance and Guilford Structure of Intellect (SI) abilities is explored. During two group sessions 42 females and 35 males, age 18-39, were administered 12 Guilford SI tests exemplifying all five symbolic content (numeric) operations, and three contents in the divergent production area. Logical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Bono, Edward
A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…
Solving bearing overheating problems
Jendzurski, T.
1995-05-08
Overheating is a major indicator, along with vibration and noise, of an underlying problem affecting a bearing or related components. Because normal operating temperatures vary widely from one application to another, no single temperature is a reliable sign of overheating in every situation. By observing an application when it is running smoothly, a technician can establish a benchmark temperature for a particular bearing arrangement. Wide deviations from this accepted norm generally indicate troublesome overheating. The list of possible causes of over-heating ranges from out-of-round housings and oversize shaft diameters to excessive lubrication and bearing preloading. These causes fall into two major categories: improper or faulty lubrication and mechanical problems, such as incorrect fits and tolerances. These are discussed along with solutions.
Irrelevance in Problem Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levy, Alon Y.
1992-01-01
The notion of irrelevance underlies many different works in AI, such as detecting redundant facts, creating abstraction hierarchies and reformulation and modeling physical devices. However, in order to design problem solvers that exploit the notion of irrelevance, either by automatically detecting irrelevance or by being given knowledge about irrelevance, a formal treatment of the notion is required. In this paper we present a general framework for analyzing irrelevance. We discuss several properties of irrelevance and show how they vary in a space of definitions outlined by the framework. We show how irrelevance claims can be used to justify the creation of abstractions thereby suggesting a new view on the work on abstraction.
Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual restructuring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibáñez Orcajo, Teresa; Martínez Aznar, Mercedes
2005-10-01
This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students experienced a conceptual restructuring that stayed with them over time and involved the following specific theories: the location of hereditary information, the transmission of hereditary information, and the appearance of new characteristic. The learning connections between these specific theories were also studied. Furthermore, these results were compared with a control group that worked with closed problems, the usual approach to genetics teaching in Spanish classrooms. Consequently, we were able to verify that our methodology results in better learning.
Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair
2015-01-01
There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bekki, Jennifer M.; Bernstein, Bianca; Fabert, Natalie; Gildar, Natalie; Way, Amy
2014-01-01
Interpersonal problem solving skills allow engineers to prevent interpersonal difficulties more effectively and to manage conflict, both of which are critical to successful participation on teams. This research provides evidence that the "Career"WISE online learning environment can improve those skills among women in engineering graduate…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Ruth Baynard
1994-01-01
Intermediate level academically talented students learn essential elements of computer programming by working with robots at enrichment workshops at Dwight-Englewood School in Englewood, New Jersey. The children combine creative thinking and problem-solving skills to program the robots' microcomputers to perform a variety of movements. (JDD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diamond, Nina; Koernig, Stephen K.; Iqbal, Zafar
2008-01-01
This article describes an innovative strategic tools course designed to enhance the problem-solving skills of marketing majors. The course serves as a means of preparing students to capitalize on opportunities afforded by a case-based capstone course and to better meet the needs and expectations of prospective employers. The course format utilizes…
Supporting Problem Solving in PBL
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jonassen, David
2011-01-01
Although the characteristics of PBL (problem focused, student centered, self-directed, etc.) are well known, the components of a problem-based learning environment (PBLE) and the cognitive scaffolds necessary to support learning to solve different kinds of problems with different learners is less clear. This paper identifies the different…
Problem Solving with General Semantics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hewson, David
1996-01-01
Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)
Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Is There a Difference?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Pickering, Miles
1987-01-01
Reports on a study into the relationship between a student's ability to solve problems in chemistry and his/her understanding of molecular concepts. Argues that teaching students to solve problems about chemistry is not equivalent to teaching about the nature of matter. (TW)
Exploring Parental Influences on Children's Problem-Solving Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Derrington, Taletha; And Others
This study examined the impact of different styles of parental communication and teaching on children's problem solving, focusing on how parental teaching and communication styles affected children's performance on four problem-solving games involving deduction/categorization and planning. Thirty-two children ages 4 and 5 years and their families…
Problem Solving in Technology Education: A Taoist Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flowers, Jim
1998-01-01
Offers a new approach to teaching problem solving in technology education that encourages students to apply problem-solving skills to improving the human condition. Suggests that technology teachers incorporate elements of a Taoist approach in teaching by viewing technology as a tool with a goal of living a harmonious life. (JOW)
Problem Solving through Paper Folding
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wares, Arsalan
2014-01-01
The purpose of this article is to describe a couple of challenging mathematical problems that involve paper folding. These problem-solving tasks can be used to foster geometric and algebraic thinking among students. The context of paper folding makes some of the abstract mathematical ideas involved relatively concrete. When implemented…
Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin
2015-01-01
In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.
Students' Problem Solving and Justification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Robot, computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.
1972-01-01
The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olowa, O. W.
2009-01-01
The approach used by teachers is very important to the success of the teaching process. This is why this study seeks to determine which teaching approaches--problem solving and subject-matter, would best improve the problem solving ability of selected secondary agricultural education students in Ikorodu Local Government Area. Ten classes and 150…
Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor
2007-01-01
TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roesch, Frank; Nerb, Josef; Riess, Werner
2015-01-01
Our study investigated whether problem-oriented designed ecology lessons with phases of direct instruction and of open experimentation foster the development of cross-domain and domain-specific components of "experimental problem-solving ability" better than conventional lessons in science. We used a paper-and-pencil test to assess…
Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems
DiVincenzo, David [IBM Watson Research Center
2009-09-01
One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.
Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems
DiVincenzo, David
2007-04-12
One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.
Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems
DiVincenzo, David
2007-04-11
One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1974-01-01
The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.
Solving Problems by Reading Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Witkowski, Joseph C.
1988-01-01
A course at the University of Georgia is described that helps students acquire problem-solving skills so that ultimately the entire remedial program would be improved, giving students with major deficiencies in basic skills a better chance to succeed in their regular university courses. (MLW)
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1974-01-01
The conceptual, experimental, and practical phases of developing a robot computer problem solving system are outlined. Robot intelligence, conversion of the programming language SAIL to run under the THNEX monitor, and the use of the network to run several cooperating jobs at different sites are discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Champagne, Audrey B.; And Others
Teachers in elementary schools, supervisors of instruction, and other educational practitioners are the primary audience for this publication. The paper presents philosophical, psychological, and practical reasons for including a problem-solving approach in elementary school instruction. It draws on the writings of John Dewey, Jean Piaget, James…
Customer Service & Team Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Sabrina Budasi
This curriculum guide provides materials for a six-session, site-specific training course in customer service and team problem solving for the Claretian Medical Center. The course outline is followed the six lesson plans. Components of each lesson plan include a list of objectives, an outline of activities and discussion topics for the lesson,…
Analyzing the many skills involved in solving complex physics problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.
2015-05-01
We have empirically identified over 40 distinct sub-skills that affect a person's ability to solve complex problems in many different contexts. The identification of so many sub-skills explains why it has been so difficult to teach or assess problem solving as a single skill. The existence of these sub-skills is supported by several studies comparing a wide range of individuals' strengths and weaknesses in these sub-skills, their "problem solving fingerprint," while solving different types of problems including a classical mechanics problem, quantum mechanics problems, and a complex trip-planning problem with no physics. We see clear differences in the problem solving fingerprint of physics and engineering majors compared to the elementary education majors that we tested. The implications of these findings for guiding the teaching and assessing of problem solving in physics instruction are discussed.
Colorado Assessment of Problem Solving (CAPS) -- Identifying student's problem solving skills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Wendy; Wieman, Carl
2009-05-01
Problem solving is central to any physics curriculum and physics educators have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving; however, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because CAPS removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. CAPS has been developed and validated at Colorado and measures a person's competence in 44 separate skills that are used when solving a wide range of in-depth problems including classical mechanics and quantum mechanics problems. Understanding the specific processes that impact how a person solves a problem identifies which components are specific to physics and those that transfer across discipline, and provides insight for improved methods for teaching. 1. Supported in part by funding from National Science Foundation
Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2010-01-01
In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…
A Problem Solving Strategy for Gifted Learners in South Africa.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Horst, Helen v R.
2000-01-01
A strategy of problem solving in the teaching of gifted learners is explored as a possible way of differentiating the curriculum in order to optimize learning. The Teaching Actively in a Social Context Model (TASC) and Renzulli's Enrichment Triad Model are cited as valuable teaching-learning programs. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Modeling Applied to Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.
2009-11-01
We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and validate their own Models through guided discovery. Instead, students classify problems under the appropriate instructor-generated Model by selecting a system to consider and describing the interactions that are relevant to that system. We believe that this explicit System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.) problem modeling strategy represents a key simplification and clarification of the widely disseminated modeling approach originated by Hestenes and collaborators. Our narrower focus allows modeling physics to be integrated into (as opposed to replacing) a typical introductory college mechanics course, while preserving the emphasis on understanding systems and interactions that is the essence of modeling. We have employed the approach in a three-week review course for MIT freshmen who received a D in the fall mechanics course with very encouraging results.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lester, Frank K., Jr.; And Others
The "Preparing Elementary Teachers to Teach Mathematics (PETTM) Project" (1988-1991) was a cooperative university/school effort to improve the teaching of mathematics by elementary teachers with its primary focus on improving the university training of preservice teachers (PSTs) in mathematics. This document, volume II of the project's final…
Problem Solving in the Context of Medicine.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woods, Donald R.
1997-01-01
Reviews the book "Medical Problem Solving: An Analysis of Clinical Reasoning," a seminal book whose conclusions on problem solving in medical fields are still valid today. Discusses major problem-solving findings of this book, the application of the findings to education, and relating knowledge to problem-solving skills. (JRH)
Solving the Dark Matter Problem
Baltz, Ted
2009-09-01
Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.
Childhood Physical Punishment and Problem Solving in Marriage
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cast, Alicia D.; Schweingruber, David; Berns, Nancy
2006-01-01
Drawing from social learning theories and symbolic interactionist understandings of social life, the authors suggest that physical punishment teaches aggressive and controlling strategies for solving the problems of living together and hinders the development of important problem-solving skills, specifically the ability to role take with others.…
Effects of Problem-Solving Strategies on Different Ability Levels.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nichols, Teresa M.
To determine if differing ability levels will affect the acquisition of problem-solving skills and self-esteem as a result of participation in two approaches to teaching problem-solving skills, a study was conducted with sixth graders in a posttest-only control group experimental design. Subjects were 102 sixth graders randomly assigned to 5…
Cognitive Restructuring as a First Step in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bodner, George M.; McMillen, Theresa L. B.
Chemists have bemoaned for years their students' inability to solve problems in introductory chemistry courses. However, at least part of this inability must be attributed to the fact that chemists have historically tried to teach their students to solve problems by doing nothing more than working examples. In recent years, chemists have begun to…
Computers and Problem Solving for Sixth-Grade.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oughton, John M.
1995-01-01
Presents a curriculum unit designed for average sixth-grade students intended to engage them in problem-solving experiences and to teach them problem-solving strategies. The curriculum consists of 20 sessions in which students engage in various activities using the following software packages: The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, Rescue at Boone's…
Designing Computer Software for Problem-Solving Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duffield, Judith A.
1991-01-01
Discusses factors that might influence the effectiveness of computer software designed to teach problem solving. Topics discussed include the structure of knowledge; transfer of training; computers and problem solving instruction; human-computer interactions; and types of software, including drill and practice programs, tutorials, instructional…
Problem Solving/Decision Making for Social and Academic Success.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elias, Maurice J.; Tobias, Steven E.
Based on the premise that systematic instruction in social decision-making and problem-solving skills is a developmental right of all children, this book provides an in-service training program for teaching a set of social decision-making and problem-solving steps that are essential for success in school, in the family, with friends, in the world…
Theoretical and Philosophical Perspectives to Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sherman, Thomas M.; And Others
1988-01-01
Five articles explore various theoretical aspects of problems and problem solving skills. Highlights include strategies to learn problem solving skills; knowledge structures; metacognition; behavioral processes and cognitive psychology; erotetic logic; creativity as an aspect of computer problem solving; and programing as a problem-solving…
Cognitive restructuring as an early stage in problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodner, George M.; McMillen, Theresa L. B.
This article examines the hypothesis that there are preliminary stages in problem solving which most chemists neglect when trying to teach their students how to solve problems in introductory chemistry courses. It is during these early stages that relevant information is disembedded from the question and the problem is restructured. Unless students can successfully complete these cognitive restructuring stages, they cannot proceed on to the more analytic stages in problem solving that have received more attention from chemists.Preliminary evidence for this hypothesis consists of linear correlations between student ability to handle disembedding and cognitive restructuring tasks in the spatial domain and their ability to solve chemistry problems.
Geogebra for Solving Problems of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kllogjeri, Pellumb; Kllogjeri, Adrian
Today is highly speed progressing the computer-based education, which allowes educators and students to use educational programming language and e-tutors to teach and learn, to interact with one another and share together the results of their work. In this paper we will be concentrated on the use of GeoGebra programme for solving problems of physics. We have brought an example from physics of how can be used GeoGebra for finding the center of mass(centroid) of a picture(or system of polygons). After the problem is solved graphically, there is an application of finding the center of a real object(a plate)by firstly, scanning the object and secondly, by inserting its scanned picture into the drawing pad of GeoGebra window and lastly, by finding its centroid. GeoGebra serve as effective tool in problem-solving. There are many other applications of GeoGebra in the problems of physics, and many more in different fields of mathematics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roesch, Frank; Nerb, Josef; Riess, Werner
2015-03-01
Our study investigated whether problem-oriented designed ecology lessons with phases of direct instruction and of open experimentation foster the development of cross-domain and domain-specific components of experimental problem-solving ability better than conventional lessons in science. We used a paper-and-pencil test to assess students' abilities in a quasi-experimental intervention study utilizing a pretest/posttest control-group design (N = 340; average performing sixth-grade students). The treatment group received lessons on forest ecosystems consistent with the principle of education for sustainable development. This learning environment was expected to help students enhance their ecological knowledge and their theoretical and methodological experimental competencies. Two control groups received either the teachers' usual lessons on forest ecosystems or non-specific lessons on other science topics. We found that the treatment promoted specific components of experimental problem-solving ability (generating epistemic questions, planning two-factorial experiments, and identifying correct experimental controls). However, the observed effects were small, and awareness for aspects of higher ecological experimental validity was not promoted by the treatment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barak, Moshe
2013-01-01
This paper presents the outcomes of teaching an inventive problem-solving course in junior high schools in an attempt to deal with the current relative neglect of fostering students' creativity and problem-solving capabilities in traditional schooling. The method involves carrying out systematic manipulation with attributes, functions and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yerushalmi, E.; Henderson, C.; Heller, K.; Heller, P.; Kuo, V.
2007-01-01
In higher education, instructors' choices of both curricular material and pedagogy are determined by their beliefs about learning and teaching, the values of their profession, and perceived external constraints. Dissemination of research-based educational reforms is based on assumptions about that mental structure. This study reports the initial…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morrow, Lesley Mandel
This book offers essential guidance to preservice and inservice teachers seeking to create, revise, and/or add new strategies to the teaching of the language arts block. The book's focus is on how to implement effective strategies in the context of a well-planned classroom and smoothly choreographed daily schedule. A series of case studies in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paratore, Jeanne R. Ed.; McCormack, Rachel L. Ed.; Block, Cathy, Collins Ed.
2007-01-01
Showcasing assessment practices that can help teachers plan effective instruction, this book addresses the real-world complexities of teaching literacy in grades K-8. Leading contributors present trustworthy approaches that examine learning processes as well as learning products, that yield information on how the learning environment can be…
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merriam, E. W.; Becker, J. D.
1973-01-01
A robot computer problem solving system which represents a robot exploration vehicle in a simulated Mars environment is described. The model exhibits changes and improvements made on a previously designed robot in a city environment. The Martian environment is modeled in Cartesian coordinates; objects are scattered about a plane; arbitrary restrictions on the robot's vision have been removed; and the robot's path contains arbitrary curves. New environmental features, particularly the visual occlusion of objects by other objects, were added to the model. Two different algorithms were developed for computing occlusion. Movement and vision capabilities of the robot were established in the Mars environment, using LISP/FORTRAN interface for computational efficiency. The graphical display program was redesigned to reflect the change to the Mars-like environment.
Research on Computers and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burton, John K.; And Others
1988-01-01
Eight articles review and report on research involving computers and problem solving skills. Topics discussed include research design; problem solving skills and programing languages, including BASIC and LOGO; computer anxiety; diagnostic programs for arithmetic problems; and relationships between ability and problem solving scores and between…
King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borchardt, Donald A.
An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and applying…
Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji
2015-01-01
Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we…
THE ROLE OF PROBLEM SOLVING IN COMPLEX INTRAVERBAL REPERTOIRES
Sautter, Rachael A; LeBlanc, Linda A; Jay, Allison A; Goldsmith, Tina R; Carr, James E
2011-01-01
We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until problem solving was modeled and prompted. Following the model and prompts, all participants showed immediate significant increases in intraverbal categorization, and all prompts were quickly eliminated. Use of audible self-prompts was evident initially for all participants, but declined over time for 3 of the 4 children. Within-session response patterns remained consistent with use of the problem-solving strategy even when self-prompts were not audible. These findings suggest that teaching and prompting a problem-solving strategy can be an effective way to produce intraverbal categorization responses. PMID:21709781
Community-powered problem solving.
Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas
2013-04-01
Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections. PMID:23593769
Problem Solving in the General Mathematics Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troutman, Andria Price; Lichtenberg, Betty Plunkett
1974-01-01
Five steps common to different problem solving models are listed. Next, seven specific abilities related to solving problems are discussed and examples given. Sample activities, appropriate to help in developing these specific abilities, are suggested. (LS)
Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
2013-01-01
Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…
Developing Creativity through Collaborative Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Albert, Lillie R.; Kim, Rina
2013-01-01
This paper discusses an alternative approach for developing problem solving experiences for students. The major argument is that students can develop their creativity by engaging in collaborative problem solving activities in which they apply a variety of mathematical methods creatively to solve problems. The argument is supported by: considering…
Kindergarten Students Solving Mathematical Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Nickey Owen
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore problem solving with kindergarten students. This line of inquiry is highly significant given that Common Core State Standards emphasize deep, conceptual understanding in mathematics as well as problem solving in kindergarten. However, there is little research on problem solving with kindergarten students.…
LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris
2011-01-01
With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…
Facilitating Students' Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay
2010-10-01
Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of students' ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on students' common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on students' problem solving abilities.
Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ouellette, Hugh
1979-01-01
A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)
Anger in Middle School: The Solving Problems Together Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri L.; Owens, Rachel B.
2009-01-01
Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), with a small group of adolescent African American boys struggling with anger management. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…
Problem Solving in Student Police Officers' Professional Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zascerinska, Jelena; Zascerinskis, Mihails
2011-01-01
Introduction: The success of human safety requires the ability of police officers in problem solving within continuing professional development to be considered. Aim of the study: To analyze problem based teaching and learning in tertiary education within continuing professional development. Materials and methods: The search for problem based…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Del Favero, Laura; Boscolo, Pietro; Vidotto, Giulio; Vicentini, Marco
2007-01-01
In this study, 100 Italian eighth graders were divided into two groups to compare the effects of two instructional interventions--the first based on problem-solving through discussion, the second on individual problem-solving--on students' learning of two historical topics (World War I and the economic boom), interest and self-perception of…
Super 7: Daily Exercises in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hamilton, Octavia
This book is a year-long program of daily exercises in problem solving for 2nd and 3rd grade students that presents 144 lessons, each with seven problems. The problems cover number sense, computation, measurements, geometry, problem solving, and patterns. The material is presented in a sequential fashion with concepts repeated and expanded, and…
Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.
1993-01-01
Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.
Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billionniere, Elodie V.
Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macintyre, Tom
2006-01-01
A lot has been made of the topical puzzle Su Doku, with various claims that it can support development of mathematical abilities. The latest, in March this year, came from the Training and Development Agency when a giant puzzle was used to attract graduates into a career of maths teaching. A giant Su Doku puzzle toured busy city centres with the…
Solving the water jugs problem by an integer sequence approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2012-01-01
In this article, we present an integer sequence approach to solve the classic water jugs problem. The solution steps can be obtained easily by additions and subtractions only, which is suitable for manual calculation or programming by computer. This approach can be introduced to secondary and undergraduate students, and also to teachers and lecturers involved in teaching mathematical problem solving, recreational mathematics, or elementary number theory.
Problem Solving Variations in an Online Programming Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebrahimi, Alireza
2007-01-01
An observation on teaching introductory programming courses on SLN for a period of two terms led me to believe that online students try various ways to solve a problem. In the beginning, I got the impression that some of their approaches for a solution were wrong; but after a little investigation, I found that some of the problem-solving…
Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen
2008-01-01
A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includes…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, David F.; And Others
Recent research has demonstrated the promise of graphing software as an aid to teaching graphs in two content areas: line graphs of aspects of motion and graphs of algebraic functions. This study attempted to generalize the idea of computer-assisted graphing to include the use of several kinds of graphs to solve a wider range of problems. A unit…
Strengthening Programs through Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dyer, Jim
1993-01-01
Describes a secondary agricultural education program that was a dumping ground for academically disadvantaged students. Discusses how such a program can be improved by identifying problems and symptoms, treating problems, and goal setting. (JOW)
Cartreine, James A; Chang, Trina E; Seville, Janette L; Sandoval, Luis; Moore, John B; Xu, Shuai; Hegel, Mark T
2012-01-01
Problem-solving treatment (PST) offers a promising approach to the depression care; however, few PST training opportunities exist. A computer-guided, interactive media program has been developed to deliver PST electronically (ePST), directly to patients. The program is a six-session, weekly intervention modeled on an evidence-based PST protocol. Users are guided through each session by a clinician who is presented via hundreds of branching audio and video clips. Because expert clinician behaviors are modeled in the program, not only does the ePST program have the potential to deliver PST to patients but it may also serve as a training tool to teach clinicians how to deliver PST. Thirteen social workers and trainees used ePST self-instructionally and subsequently attended a day-long workshop on PST. Participants' PST knowledge level increased significantly from baseline to post-ePST (P = .001) and did not increase significantly further after attending the subsequent workshop. Additionally, attending the workshop did not significantly increase the participants' skill at performing PST beyond the use of the ePST program. Using the ePST program appears to train novices to a sufficient level of competence to begin practicing PST under supervision. This self-instructional training method could enable PST for depression to be widely disseminated, although follow-up supervision is still required. PMID:23213493
Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2013-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…
Error Detection Processes in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allwood, Carl Martin
1984-01-01
Describes a study which analyzed problem solvers' error detection processes by instructing subjects to think aloud when solving statistical problems. Effects of evaluative episodes on error detection, detection of different error types, error detection processes per se, and relationship of error detection behavior to problem-solving proficiency…
Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil
1993-01-01
The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.
General Description of Human Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klein, Gary A.; Weitzenfeld, Julian
A theoretical model relating problem identification to problem solving is presented. The main purpose of the study is to increase understanding of decision making among Air Force educators. The problem-solving process is defined as the generation and evaluation of alternatives that will accomplish what is needed and the reidentification of what is…
Applications of Symmetry to Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leikin, Roza; Berman, Abraham; Zaslavsky, Orit
2000-01-01
Symmetry is an important mathematical concept that plays an extremely important role as a problem solving technique. Presents examples of problems from several branches of mathematics that can be solved using different types of symmetry. Discusses teachers' attitudes and beliefs regarding the use of symmetry in the solutions of these problems.…
Problem solving in health services organizations.
Rakich, J S; Krigline, A B
1996-01-01
Health services organization managers at all levels are constantly confronted with problems. Conditions encountered that initiate the need for problem solving are opportunity, threat, crisis, deviation, and improvement. A general problem-solving model presenting an orderly process by which managers can approach this important task is described. An example of the model applied to the current strategic climate is presented. PMID:10158720
Science Teachers and Problem Solving in Elementary Schools in Singapore
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kam-Wah L.; Tan, Li-Li; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Lee, Kam-Wah L.; Chia, Lian-Sai; Chin, Christine
2000-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which science teachers taught problem solving in elementary science. The survey involved 348 teachers in 36 Singapore elementary schools. The study investigated the science teachers' views about their use of science instructional techniques in general and the problem-solving teaching approach in particular. It also focused on the difficulties faced by science teachers in implementing the problem-solving teaching approach in the science classroom. It was found that the most emphasised activities were completion of science workbooks, teachers' explanation of concepts, and hands-on activities. The least emphasised activities were computer-based learning, activities beyond the textbook and workbook, and visits to the ecology garden and other parts of the school. Only about one-third of the teachers often conducted activities pertaining to problem solving. Most of them were more concerned about covering the science syllabus for examinations, the physical constraints of the learning environment, and pupils' abilities and motivation. On the other hand, teacher-related factors ranked low: these included teachers' preference for teaching and learning outcomes, their ability to maintain control over pupils' learning, feelings of inadequacy of science knowledge, and insufficient understanding of the pedagogical method of teaching problem solving.
Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.
Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro
2009-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills. PMID:19592762
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, Diana S.; Shell, Duane F.; Crawley, Frank E.
1997-01-01
Identifies and describes the differences in the problem-solving methods used by faculty teaching introductory chemistry and students enrolled in an introductory chemistry course. Results indicate that students correctly solve algorithmic-mode problems more frequently. Contains 33 references. (DDR)
Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji
2015-10-01
Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we conducted an interview study with 16 graduate students coming from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. During the interviews, we asked participants to solve two interdisciplinary science problems on the topic of osmosis. We investigated participants' problem reasoning processes and probed in their attitudes toward general interdisciplinary approach and specific interdisciplinary problems. Through a careful inductive content analysis of their responses, we studied how disciplinary, cognitive, and affective factors influenced their interdisciplinary problems-solving. We found that participants' prior discipline-based science learning experiences had both positive and negative influences on their interdisciplinary problem-solving. These influences were embodied in their conceptualization of the interdisciplinary problems, the strategies they used to integrate different disciplinary knowledge, and the attitudes they had toward interdisciplinary approach in general and specific interdisciplinary problems. This study sheds light on interdisciplinary science education by revealing the complex relationship between disciplinary learning and interdisciplinary problem-solving.
Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda
2008-01-01
This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)
Readiness for Solving Story Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunlap, William F.
1982-01-01
Readiness activities are described which are designed to help learning disabled (LD) students learn to perform computations in story problems. Activities proceed from concrete objects to numbers and involve the students in devising story problems. The language experience approach is incorporated with the enactive, iconic, and symbolic levels of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Easton, Don
1999-03-01
This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.
Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette
2003-01-01
Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)
Neural Network Solves "Traveling-Salesman" Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thakoor, Anilkumar P.; Moopenn, Alexander W.
1990-01-01
Experimental electronic neural network solves "traveling-salesman" problem. Plans round trip of minimum distance among N cities, visiting every city once and only once (without backtracking). This problem is paradigm of many problems of global optimization (e.g., routing or allocation of resources) occuring in industry, business, and government. Applied to large number of cities (or resources), circuits of this kind expected to solve problem faster and more cheaply.
Solving the Tulsa ozone problem
Wagner, K.K.; Wilson, J.D.; Gibeau, E.
1998-12-31
Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.
Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya
2016-06-01
The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.
Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Wayne
2007-01-01
Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…
A Problem-Solving Model for Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Roger O.
This second in a series of three papers on the Associated Staff Training Program of the Foreign Language Innovative Curriculum Study concentrates on the problem solving strategy employed by the program's specially trained innovative agents--the Instructional Systems Consultants (ISC). The problem-solving method used is first illustrated by citing…
Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-01-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…
Problem Solving Software for Math Classes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troutner, Joanne
1987-01-01
Described are 10 computer software programs for problem solving related to mathematics. Programs described are: (1) Box Solves Story Problems; (2) Safari Search; (3) Puzzle Tanks; (4) The King's Rule; (5) The Factory; (6) The Royal Rules; (7) The Enchanted Forest; (8) Gears; (9) The Super Factory; and (10) Creativity Unlimited. (RH)
Solving Problems with Charts & Tables. Pipefitter.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.
Developed as part of the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, this instructional module is designed to help individuals employed as pipefitters learn to solve problems with charts and tables. Outlined in the first section is a five-step procedure for solving problems involving tables and/or charts: identifying the question to…
Student Modeling Based on Problem Solving Times
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pelánek, Radek; Jarušek, Petr
2015-01-01
Student modeling in intelligent tutoring systems is mostly concerned with modeling correctness of students' answers. As interactive problem solving activities become increasingly common in educational systems, it is useful to focus also on timing information associated with problem solving. We argue that the focus on timing is natural for certain…
Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.
2015-01-01
Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…
Problem Solving and Technology. ACESIA Monograph 2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lomon, Earle L.; And Others
1977-01-01
The two articles dealing with problem solving and technology in this publication should be useful to those developing the kinds of materials, experiences, and thinking that elementary school industrial arts offers children. The first article accepts problem solving as an educational goal and reports a timely and universally acceptable approach.…
Geographic Information Systems: Implications for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Audet, Richard H.; Abegg, Gerald L.
1996-01-01
Compares expert-/novice-based problem-solving behaviors with a Geographic Information Systems program. Uses naturalistic methods to analyze problem-solving strategies for occurrence of thematic elements. Reports that experts relied on logical formulations to query the database while novices used trial-and-error methods and midlevel cognitive…
Children Solving Problems. The Developing Child Series.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thornton, Stephanie
The developmental increase in the ability to solve problems is a puzzle. Does it come from basic changes in mental skills, or is it a matter of practice? This book from the Developing Child series synthesizes recent research examining children's problem-solving skills development. Chapter 1 presents the major themes: (1) there is increasing…
Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-01-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem…
Problem Solving Interactions on Electronic Networks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waugh, Michael; And Others
Arguing that electronic networking provides a medium which is qualitatively superior to the traditional classroom for conducting certain types of problem solving exercises, this paper details the Water Problem Solving Project, which was conducted on the InterCultural Learning Network in 1985 and 1986 with students from the United States, Mexico,…
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin
2013-01-01
This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…
A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John
2013-01-01
A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…
Beyond Computation: Improving Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Jennifer M.; Olson, Jennifer S.; Wrobel, Margaret L.
This action research describes a program for improving mathematical problem solving skills. The targeted population consisted of first grade students in a transient, middle class community as well as third and sixth grade students from a growing, middle to upper class in Illinois. The concerns of problem solving were documented through teacher…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman
2016-01-01
This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…
Solving the wrong hierarchy problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson
2016-06-01
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2 -symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. We show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1 σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.
Solving a Spacecraft Design Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisher, D. K.
1998-01-01
We have probably all been amazed at the ingenuity of spacecraft engineers when we see some of the solutions they invent for such problems as landing a roving vehicle on Mars-as engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory did for NASA's Mars Pathfinder project-without using retro-rockets or even putting a spacecraft in orbit first.
Robot, computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1973-01-01
The TENEX computer system, the ARPA network, and computer language design technology was applied to support the complex system programs. By combining the pragmatic and theoretical aspects of robot development, an approach is created which is grounded in realism, but which also has at its disposal the power that comes from looking at complex problems from an abstract analytical point of view.
Solving the wrong hierarchy problem
Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson
2016-06-29
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs massmore » by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.« less
Sour landfill gas problem solved
Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.
1996-05-01
In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.
Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives
Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent
2015-01-01
Background: Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P < 0.05. Results: The RAS mean scores and the PSI mean scores showed statistically significant differences in terms of a midwife's considering herself as a member of the health team, expressing herself within the health care team, being able to say “no” when necessary, cooperating with her colleagues, taking part in problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P < 0.01). Conclusions: There were significant statistical differences between assertiveness levels and problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession. PMID:26793247
Hemisphericity Research: An Overview with Some Implications for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Myers, John T.
1982-01-01
Research on cerebral hemisphericity and lateral dominance is reviewed, and relationships between right and left hemispheric modes of information processing as well as problem solving techniques are discussed. Conclusions focus mainly on need for educators to know information processing differences of the two hemispheres to teach children problem…
Problem Solving: Physics Modeling-Based Interactive Engagement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ornek, Funda
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate how modeling-based instruction combined with an interactive-engagement teaching approach promotes students' problem solving abilities. I focused on students in a calculus-based introductory physics course, based on the matter and interactions curriculum of Chabay & Sherwood (2002) at a large state…
Problem Solving and Emotional Education in Initial Primary Teacher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caballero, Ana; Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Guerrero, Eloisa
2011-01-01
Our work is based on two premises. The first is that affective factors (beliefs, attitudes, and emotions) influence teaching and learning mathematics, and problem solving in particular. The second is that initial teacher education is an important element in the process of improving overall educational practice. On this basis, our research group…
The Patchwork Quilt: A Context for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carey, Deborah A.
1992-01-01
Discusses how children's literature can be used as a context to develop problem-solving tasks. Illustrates this idea by developing tasks to teach concepts related to multiplication through the context of "The Patchwork Quilt," a children's book by Valerie Flournoy. Suggests activity extensions to determine unit sizes, draw scale models, and make a…
Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)
... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...
Lesion mapping of social problem solving
Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.
2014-01-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511
Lesion mapping of social problem solving.
Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H
2014-10-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511
The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene
2005-01-01
This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has four…
Analyzing patterns in experts' approaches to solving experimental problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Čančula, Maja Poklinek; Planinšič, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia
2015-04-01
We report detailed observations of three pairs of expert scientists and a pair of advanced undergraduate students solving an experimental optics problem. Using a new method ("transition graphs") of visualizing sequences of logical steps, we were able to compare the groups and identify patterns that could not be found using previously existing methods. While the problem solving of undergraduates significantly differed from that of experts at the beginning of the process, it gradually became more similar to the expert problem solving. We mapped problem solving steps and their sequence to the elements of an approach to teaching and learning physics called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE), and we speculate that the ISLE educational framework closely represents the actual work of physicists.
Spatial visualization in physics problem solving.
Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A; Hegarty, Mary
2007-07-01
Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naíve students were administered kinematics problems and spatial visualization ability tests. In Study 2, 17 (8 high- and 9 low-spatial ability) additional students completed think-aloud protocols while they solved the kinematics problems. In Study 3, the eye movements of fifteen (9 high- and 6 low-spatial ability) students were recorded while the students solved kinematics problems. In contrast to high-spatial students, most low-spatial students did not combine two motion vectors, were unable to switch frames of reference, and tended to interpret graphs literally. The results of the study suggest an important relationship between spatial visualization ability and solving kinematics problems with multiple spatial parameters. PMID:21635308
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-05-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.
Solving inversion problems with neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.
1990-01-01
A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mossuto, Mark
2009-01-01
The adoption of problem-based learning as a teaching method in the advertising and public relations programs offered by the Business TAFE (Technical and Further Education) School at RMIT University is explored in this paper. The effect of problem-based learning on student engagement, student learning and contextualised problem-solving was…
Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi
2011-01-01
This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…
Task Variables in Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldin, Gerald A., Ed.; McClintock, C. Edwin, Ed.
A framework for research in problem solving is provided by categorizing and defining variables describing problem tasks. A model is presented in an article by Kulm for the classification of task variables into broad categories. The model attempts to draw realtionships between these categories of task variables and the stages of problem solving…
Collaborative Problem Solving in Shared Space
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Lin; Mills, Leila A.; Ifenthaler, Dirk
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative problem solving in a shared virtual space. The main question asked was: How will the performance and processes differ between collaborative problem solvers and independent problem solvers over time? A total of 104 university students (63 female and 41 male) participated in an experimental…
Problem Solving: Can Anybody Do It?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bennett, Stuart W.
2008-01-01
This paper examines the definition of a problem and at the process of problem solving. An analysis of a number of first and third year chemistry examination papers from English universities revealed that over ninety per cent of the "problems" fell into the "algorithm" category. Using Bloom's taxonomy and the same examination papers, we found that…
Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly
2013-01-01
At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-12-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Organizational Structure and Complex Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becker, Selwyn W.; Baloff, Nicholas
1969-01-01
The problem-solving efficiency of different organization structures is discussed in relation to task requirements and the appropriate organizational behavior, to group adaptation to a task over time, and to various group characteristics. (LN)
Physics: Quantum problems solved through games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-04-01
Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Minchi C.; Hannafin, Michael J.
2011-01-01
With the expanding availability and capability of varied technologies, classroom-based problem solving has become an increasingly attainable, yet still elusive, goal. Evidence of technology-enhanced problem-solving teaching and learning in schools has been scarce, understanding how to support students' problem solving in classroom-based,…
Implementing a Problem-Solving Intervention with Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cote, Debra L.
2011-01-01
Students with mild and moderate disabilities need to be skillful at problem solving. This article provides an overview of a problem-solving intervention designed to teach students with mild and moderate disabilities the skills of problem solving. An explanation of the assessments, materials, instructional outline, and methods is presented.…
Problem Solving Ability Confidence Levels among Student Teachers after a Semester in the Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krug, Kevin; Love, John; Mauzey, Ed; Dixon, Wayne
2015-01-01
Subjective confidence for solving classroom problems while instructing students in appropriate academic material is crucial for effective teaching. One way to develop problem solving confidence may result from the semester most education majors spend in the classroom as student teachers. The problem solving inventory (PSI) was given to university…
Implementing Problem Solving Technology into Classrooms: Four Case Studies of Teachers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Haneghan, James P.; Stofflett, Rene T.
1995-01-01
Presents four case studies of fifth grade teachers who have implemented the Jasper Woodbury Problem Solving Series, a videodisc problem-solving curriculum, in their classrooms, and proposes a model for problem-solving instruction. Discusses curriculum and teaching styles before and after the studies. Teacher interview questions are appended. (JMV)
Problem Solving of Newton's Second Law through a System of Total Mass Motion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abdullah, Helmi
2014-01-01
Nowadays, many researchers discovered various effective strategies in teaching physics, from traditional to modern strategy. However, research on physics problem solving is still inadequate. Physics problem is an integral part of physics learning and requires strategy to solve it. Besides that, problem solving is the best way to convey principle,…
The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.
Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N
2002-01-01
This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving. PMID:12102132
Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas
Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.
2012-01-01
Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748
Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.
Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E
2012-10-01
Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748
The Functional Equivalence of Problem Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simon, Herbert A.
1975-01-01
This analysis of solutions to the Tower of Hanoi Problem underscores the importance of subject-by-subject analysis of "What is learned" in understanding human behavior in problem-solving situations, and provides a technique for describing subjects' task performance programs in detail. (Author/BJG)
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
GIS Live and Web Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.
2007-01-01
GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…
Using Programmable Calculators to Solve Electrostatics Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yerian, Stephen C.; Denker, Dennis A.
1985-01-01
Provides a simple routine which allows first-year physics students to use programmable calculators to solve otherwise complex electrostatic problems. These problems involve finding electrostatic potential and electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring. Modest programing skills are required of students. (DH)
Problem-Solving Competitions: Just the Solution!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riley, Tracy L.; Karnes, Frances A.
2005-01-01
This article describes competitions across a range of curricular areas that develop students' problem solving skills by setting authentic, real-world tasks. As individuals or members of a team, students in these competitions are challenged with finding solutions to problems faced not only in today's scientific and technological world, but also in…
Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A.; Hegarty, Mary
2007-01-01
Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naive students were administered kinematics problems and…
Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Contreras, José N.
2014-01-01
The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…
Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blasetti, Sean M.
2010-01-01
This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…
Reflect ... for Better Problem Solving and Reasoning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.
1994-01-01
Elaborates the final step of Polya's heuristic model, reflecting, to improve students' problem-solving performance. After checking answers for accuracy, the following steps are suggested: (1) test reasonableness and practicality; (2) write a summary paragraph; (3) find other solutions; (4) change the conditions; and (5) extend the problem. (MKR)
Model Formulation for Physics Problem Solving. Draft.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novak, Gordon S., Jr.
The major task in solving a physics problem is to construct an appropriate model of the problem in terms of physical principles. The functions performed by such a model, the information which needs to be represented, and the knowledge used in selecting and instantiating an appropriate model are discussed. An example of a model for a mechanics…
Problem solving and decisionmaking: An integration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dieterly, D. L.
1980-01-01
An attempt was made to redress a critical fault of decisionmaking and problem solving research-a lack of a standard method to classify problem or decision states or conditions. A basic model was identified and expanded to indicate a possible taxonomy of conditions which may be used in reviewing previous research or for systematically pursuing new research designs. A generalization of the basic conditions was then made to indicate that the conditions are essentially the same for both concepts, problem solving and decisionmaking.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan
2013-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel
2016-01-01
This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…
An Investigation of Secondary Teachers’ Understanding and Belief on Mathematical Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuli Eko Siswono, Tatag; Wachidul Kohar, Ahmad; Kurniasari, Ika; Puji Astuti, Yuliani
2016-02-01
Weaknesses on problem solving of Indonesian students as reported by recent international surveys give rise to questions on how Indonesian teachers bring out idea of problem solving in mathematics lesson. An explorative study was undertaken to investigate how secondary teachers who teach mathematics at junior high school level understand and show belief toward mathematical problem solving. Participants were teachers from four cities in East Java province comprising 45 state teachers and 25 private teachers. Data was obtained through questionnaires and written test. The results of this study point out that the teachers understand pedagogical problem solving knowledge well as indicated by high score of observed teachers‘ responses showing understanding on problem solving as instruction as well as implementation of problem solving in teaching practice. However, they less understand on problem solving content knowledge such as problem solving strategies and meaning of problem itself. Regarding teacher's difficulties, teachers admitted to most frequently fail in (1) determining a precise mathematical model or strategies when carrying out problem solving steps which is supported by data of test result that revealed transformation error as the most frequently observed errors in teachers’ work and (2) choosing suitable real situation when designing context-based problem solving task. Meanwhile, analysis of teacher's beliefs on problem solving shows that teachers tend to view both mathematics and how students should learn mathematics as body static perspective, while they tend to believe to apply idea of problem solving as dynamic approach when teaching mathematics.
Enhancing chemistry problem-solving achievement using problem categorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunce, Diane M.; Gabel, Dorothy L.; Samuel, John V.
The enhancement of chemistry students' skill in problem solving through problem categorization is the focus of this study. Twenty-four students in a freshman chemistry course for health professionals are taught how to solve problems using the explicit method of problem solving (EMPS) (Bunce & Heikkinen, 1986). The EMPS is an organized approach to problem analysis which includes encoding the information given in a problem (Given, Asked For), relating this to what is already in long-term memory (Recall), and planning a solution (Overall Plan) before a mathematical solution is attempted. In addition to the EMPS training, treatment students receive three 40-minute sessions following achievement tests in which they are taught how to categorize problems. Control students use this time to review the EMPS solutions of test questions. Although problem categorization is involved in one section of the EMPS (Recall), treatment students who received specific training in problem categorization demonstrate significantly higher achievement on combination problems (those problems requiring the use of more than one chemical topic for their solution) at (p = 0.01) than their counterparts. Significantly higher achievement for treatment students is also measured on an unannounced test (p = 0.02). Analysis of interview transcripts of both treatment and control students illustrates a Rolodex approach to problem solving employed by all students in this study. The Rolodex approach involves organizing equations used to solve problems on mental index cards and flipping through them, matching units given when a new problem is to be solved. A second phenomenon observed during student interviews is the absence of a link in the conceptual understanding of the chemical concepts involved in a problem and the problem-solving skills employed to correctly solve problems. This study shows that explicit training in categorization skills and the EMPS can lead to higher achievement in complex problem-solving
Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho
2014-09-01
This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.
AI tools in computer based problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beane, Arthur J.
1988-01-01
The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.
Problem solving in a distributed environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rashid, R. F.
1980-01-01
Distributed problem solving is anayzed as a blend of two disciplines: (1) problem solving and ai; and (2) distributed systems (monitoring). It may be necessary to distribute because the application itself is one of managing distributed resources (e.g., distributed sensor net) and communication delays preclude centralized processing, or it may be desirable to distribute because a single computational engine may not satisfy the needs of a given task. In addition, considerations of reliability may dictate distribution. Examples of multi-process language environment are given.
Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui
1991-01-01
Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.
Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.
Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana
2011-01-01
The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food. PMID:21876741
Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Andrew J.
Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was
Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.
Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John
2010-02-01
This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Park, Jongwon; Lee, Limook
2004-01-01
Recently, the importance of an everyday context in physics learning, teaching, and problem-solving has been emphasized. However, do students or physics educators really want to learn or teach physics problem-solving in an everyday context? Are there not any obstructive factors to be considered in solving the everyday context physics problems? To…
Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox
Aerts, Diederik; Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano
2014-08-15
Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an “easy” problem and a “hard” problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible “ways of selecting” an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible “ways of selecting” an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.
Novel Problem Solving - The NASA Solution Mechanism Guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keeton, Kathryn E.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Davis, Jeffrey R.
2014-01-01
Over the past five years, the Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has conducted a number of pilot and ongoing projects in collaboration and open innovation. These projects involved the use of novel open innovation competitions that sought solutions from "the crowd", non-traditional problem solvers. The projects expanded to include virtual collaboration centers such as the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) and more recently a collaborative research project between NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). These novel problem-solving tools produced effective results and the HH&P wanted to capture the knowledge from these new tools, to teach the results to the directorate, and to implement new project management tools and coursework. The need to capture and teach the results of these novel problem solving tools, the HH&P decided to create a web-based tool to capture best practices and case studies, to teach novice users how to use new problem solving tools and to change project management training/. This web-based tool was developed with a small, multi-disciplinary group and named the Solution Mechanism Guide (SMG). An alpha version was developed that was tested against several sessions of user groups to get feedback on the SMG and determine a future course for development. The feedback was very positive and the HH&P decided to move to the beta-phase of development. To develop the web-based tool, the HH&P utilized the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL) to develop the software with TopCoder under an existing contract. In this way, the HH&P is using one new tool (the NTL and TopCoder) to develop the next generation tool, the SMG. The beta-phase of the SMG is planed for release in the spring of 2014 and results of the beta-phase testing will be available for the IAC meeting in September. The SMG is intended to disrupt the way problem solvers and project managers approach problem solving and to increase the
Computer Enhanced Problem Solving Skill Acquisition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slotnick, Robert S.
1989-01-01
Discusses the implementation of interactive educational software that was designed to enhance critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving in a university psychology course. Piagetian and computer learning perspectives are explained; the courseware package, PsychWare, is described; and the use of heuristics and algorithms in…
ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borg, Suzanne
2009-01-01
This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…
Correlates of Problem-Solving Flexibility.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenberger, Ellen; And Others
Problem solving flexibility (PSF), an ability commonly assessed in creativity batteries, was studied in a sample of middle class children (grades 1 through 3, average IQ 114), tested on questions resembling Guilford's consequences procedure. An hypothesis linking PSF with alertness to and interest in the environment was generally supported, more…
Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…
Option X, Level B Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.
This guide outlines an Option X course on problem solving techniques. The 16 learner objectives identified in the Mathematics Program Guide stress applications orientation to concepts about numbers and operations and common plane and solid figures. Techniques covered include working with diagrams, organizing information, using patterns,…
Design and Problem Solving in Technology Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Custer, Rodney L.
1999-01-01
Collectively, technological literacy embraces everything from intelligent consumerism to concerns about environmental degradation, ethics, and elitism. Technological problem solving can have social, ecological, or technological goals and may be categorized by four types: invention, design, trouble shooting, and procedures. Every citizen should be…
Taylor series to solve friction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Béchet, Fabien; Lejeune, Arnaud; Potier-Ferry, Michel
2010-06-01
Thin metallic sheet transportation appears in numerous manufacturing processes such as continuous annealing, levelling or galvanization. It involves various nonlinear phenomena and, in particular, contact with friction. We develop a numerical method to solve this kind of mechanical problem, using shell finite elements and the Asymptotic Numerical Method (ANM). This article focuses on the treatment of the friction equations with ANM.
Making Problem-Solving Simulations More Realistic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cotton, Samuel E.
2002-01-01
Many problem-solving activities include mathematical principles but students do not use them during the design and experimentation phases before creating a prototype or product. Restricting the amount and/or type of materials available to students will require them to calculate and requisition the materials needed. (JOW)
Models of Strategy for Solving Physics Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Larkin, Jill H.
A set of computer implemented models are presented which can assist in developing problem solving strategies. The three levels of expertise which are covered are beginners (those who have completed at least one university physics course), intermediates (university level physics majors in their third year of study), and professionals (university…
Is Problem Solving Dependent on Language?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baldo, J.V.; Dronkers, N.F.; Wilkins, D.; Ludy, C.; Raskin, P.; Kim, J.
2005-01-01
There has been a long-standing debate in the fields of philosophy and cognitive science surrounding the relationship of language to cognition, but the exact nature of this relationship is still unclear (Sokolov, 1968/1972). In the current study, we explored the role of language in one aspect of cognition, namely problem solving, by administering…
Structural and Linguistic Variables in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jerman, Max; Mirman, Sanford
This paper reports on an experiment designed to investigate the effect of structural and linguistic variables on level of difficulty in solving arithmetic word problems. Identification of such variables is intended to assist curriculum writers in preparing exercises at a specified level of difficulty for students at various age levels. The study…
Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil
2011-01-01
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…
Effective Practices (Part 4): Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moursund, Dave
1996-01-01
Discusses the use of computers to help with problem solving. Topics include information science, including effective procedure and procedural thinking; templates; artificially intelligent agents and expert systems; and applications in education, including the goal of computer literacy for all students, and integrated software packages such as…
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
2006-01-01
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
Partial Metacognitive Blindness in Collaborative Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ng, Kit Ee Dawn
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the impact of group dynamics on metacognitive behaviours of students (aged 13-14) during group collaborative problem solving attempts involving a design-based real-world applications project. It was discovered that group dynamics mediated the impact of metacognitive judgments related red flag situations and metacognitive…
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Problem-solving for better health.
Smith, B; Barnett, S; Collado, D; Connor, M; DePasquale, J; Gross, L; McDermott, V; Sykes, A
1994-01-01
An outline is given of an approach to the health-for-all goals which involves optimizing resource use, prioritizing people's well-being, achieving excellence and a measurable impact at all levels of care, and solving health problems in a broad developmental context. PMID:8141991
How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.
2013-01-01
This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…
Problem Solving. Workplace Education Program Curriculum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burkhart, Jennifer
The BUILD Program (Businesses United to Increase Literacy Development) was conducted from June 1991 through December 1992 as a cooperative workplace literacy program joining Arapahoe Community College and four companies in Littleton, Colorado. This document consists of three modules for the problem-solving and computer learning systems classes of…
Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, James
1983-01-01
Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)
Raise the Bar on Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Englard, Lisa
2010-01-01
In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS…
Informal Evaluation Strategies for Real Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellis, Arthur K.; Alleman-Brooks, Janet
1978-01-01
Examples of possible methods for unobtrusively evaluating student progress through real problem solving outcomes without formal testing are illustrated. These methods include the use of interviews, artifacts, observations, I learned statements, checklists, flow of discussion charts, and self-awareness exercises. (MN)
Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…
Problem Solving and Behavior Therapy Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nezu, Arthur M.
2004-01-01
Over three decades ago, D'Zurilla and Goldfried (1971) published a seminal article delineating a model of problem-solving training geared to enhance social competence and decrease psychological distress. Since that time, a substantial amount of research has been conducted to test various hypotheses that this model has engendered. Much of this…
Should Children Learn to Solve Problems?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watras, Joseph
2011-01-01
In this comparative essay, the author discusses the opposing educational theories of John Dewey and Gregory Bateson. While Dewey believed that the scientific method was the dominant method of solving problems and thereby acquiring knowledge that mattered, Bateson warned that this one-sided approach would lead to actions that could destroy the…
Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2010-01-01
This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…
Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Daoquan
2012-01-01
Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…
A SURVEY OF PROBLEM-SOLVING COURSES.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
EDWARDS, M.O.
TO DETERMINE THE DESIRABILITY OF HAVING ITS OWN CREATIVITY COURSE, THE STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE SURVEYED 43 ORGANIZATIONS ON THEIR PROBLEM SOLVING COURSES. FIFTEEN INDUSTRIAL CORPORATIONS, FOUR CONSULTING FIRMS, A GOVERNMENT AGENCY, A RESEARCH CORPORATION, AND NINE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES RESPONDED WITH SPECIFIC INFORMATION ON COURSE LENGTH…
ARPACK: Solving large scale eigenvalue problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehoucq, Rich; Maschhoff, Kristi; Sorensen, Danny; Yang, Chao
2013-11-01
ARPACK is a collection of Fortran77 subroutines designed to solve large scale eigenvalue problems. The package is designed to compute a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a general n by n matrix A. It is most appropriate for large sparse or structured matrices A where structured means that a matrix-vector product w
Problem-Solving Models for Computer Literacy: Getting Smarter at Solving Problems. Student Lessons.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moursund, David
This book is intended for use as a student guide. It is about human problem solving and provides information on how the mind works, placing a major emphasis on the role of computers as an aid in problem solving. The book is written with the underlying philosophy of discovery-based learning based on two premises: first, through the appropriate…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.
2008-01-01
More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.
2013-01-01
The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…
Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.
2014-01-01
Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…
Problem-Framing: A perspective on environmental problem-solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardwell, Lisa V.
1991-09-01
The specter of environmental calamity calls for the best efforts of an involved public. Ironically, the way people understand the issues all too often serves to discourage and frustrate rather than motivate them to action. This article draws from problem-solving perspectives offered by cognitive psychology and conflict management to examine a framework for thinking about environmental problems that promises to help rather than hinder efforts to address them. Problem-framing emphasizes focusing on the problem definition. Since how one defines a problem determines one's understanding of and approach to that problem, being able to redefine or reframe a problem and to explore the “problem space” can help broaden the range of alternatives and solutions examined. Problem-framing incorporates a cognitive perspective on how people respond to information. It explains why an emphasis on problem definition is not part of people's typical approach to problems. It recognizes the importance of structure and of having ways to organize that information on one's problem-solving effort. Finally, problem-framing draws on both cognitive psychology and conflict management for strategies to manage information and to create a problem-solving environment that not only encourages participation but can yield better approaches to our environmental problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeMul, Frits F. M.; Batlle, Cristina Martin i.; DeBruijn, Imme; Rinzema, Kees
2004-01-01
Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential expressions and multi-dimensional integrations, and the Gauss and Ampère laws learnt in electromagnetism courses. To enhance those skills in a quick and efficient way we have developed 'Integrating Mathematics in University Physics', in which students are provided with a selection of problems (exercises) that explicitly deal with the relation between physics and mathematics. The project is based on computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and available via the Internet (http://tnweb.tn.utwente.nl/onderwijs/; or http://www.utwente.nl/; search or click to: CONECT). Normally, in CAI a predefined student-guiding sequence for problem solving is used (systematic problem solving). For self-learning this approach was found to be far too rigid. Therefore, we developed the 'adventurous problem solving' (APS) method. In this new approach, the student has to find the solution by developing his own problem-solving strategy in an interactive way. The assessment of mathematical answers to physical questions is performed using a background link with an algebraic symbolic language interpreter. This manuscript concentrates on the subject of APS.
Problem solving stages in the five square problem.
Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael
2015-01-01
According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory. PMID:26300794
Problem solving stages in the five square problem
Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael
2015-01-01
According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory. PMID:26300794
Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg
2008-01-01
CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.
Solving combinatorial problems: the 15-puzzle.
Pizlo, Zygmunt; Li, Zheng
2005-09-01
We present a series of experiments in which human subjects were tested with a well-known combinatorial problem called the 15-puzzle and in different-sized variants of this puzzle. Subjects can solve these puzzles reliably by systematically building a solution path, without performing much search and without using distances among the states of the problem. The computational complexity of the underlying mental mechanisms is very low. We formulated a computational model of the underlying cognitive processes on the basis of our results. This model applied a pyramid algorithm to individual stages of each problem. The model's performance proved to be quite similar to the subjects' performance. PMID:16496727
A Comparison of Two Mathematics Problem-Solving Strategies: Facilitate Algebra-Readiness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xin, Yan Ping; Zhang, Dake; Park, Joo Young; Tom, Kinsey; Whipple, Amanda; Si, Luo
2011-01-01
The authors compared a conceptual model-based problem-solving (COMPS) approach with a general heuristic instructional approach for teaching multiplication-division word-problem solving to elementary students with learning problems (LP). The results indicate that only the COMPS group significantly improved, from pretests to posttests, their…
A connectionist model for diagnostic problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peng, Yun; Reggia, James A.
1989-01-01
A competition-based connectionist model for solving diagnostic problems is described. The problems considered are computationally difficult in that (1) multiple disorders may occur simultaneously and (2) a global optimum in the space exponential to the total number of possible disorders is sought as a solution. The diagnostic problem is treated as a nonlinear optimization problem, and global optimization criteria are decomposed into local criteria governing node activation updating in the connectionist model. Nodes representing disorders compete with each other to account for each individual manifestation, yet complement each other to account for all manifestations through parallel node interactions. When equilibrium is reached, the network settles into a locally optimal state. Three randomly generated examples of diagnostic problems, each of which has 1024 cases, were tested, and the decomposition plus competition plus resettling approach yielded very high accuracy.
Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana
2008-10-01
We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.
Childhood physical punishment and problem solving in marriage.
Cast, Alicia D; Schweingruber, David; Berns, Nancy
2006-02-01
Drawing from social learning theories and symbolic interactionist understandings of social life, the authors suggest that physical punishment teaches aggressive and controlling strategies for solving the problems of living together and hinders the development of important problem-solving skills, specifically the ability to role take with others. These strategies and skills become part of an individual's toolkit for problem resolution within his or her marriage. The analysis is based on 188 married couples in Washington State who participated in a longitudinal study of the first 2 years of marriage. The analysis reveals the following: Individuals who were physically punished during childhood are more likely to engage in physical and verbal aggression with their spouses, individuals who were physically punished during childhood are more controlling with their spouses, and individuals who were physically punished during childhood are less able to take their spouse's perspective. PMID:16368764
Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun
Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.
Optimization neural network for solving flow problems.
Perfetti, R
1995-01-01
This paper describes a neural network for solving flow problems, which are of interest in many areas of application as in fuel, hydro, and electric power scheduling. The neural network consist of two layers: a hidden layer and an output layer. The hidden units correspond to the nodes of the flow graph. The output units represent the branch variables. The network has a linear order of complexity, it is easily programmable, and it is suited for analog very large scale integration (VLSI) realization. The functionality of the proposed network is illustrated by a simulation example concerning the maximal flow problem. PMID:18263420
Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving
Johnson, Eric D.; Tubau, Elisabet
2015-01-01
Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian inferences relative to normalized formats (e.g., probabilities, percentages), both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on “transparent” Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e., transparent problem structures) at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct vs. incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual differences might influence this time point. PMID:26283976
Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir
2006-01-01
Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.
A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pritchard, David
The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).
Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin
2006-01-01
Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).
Role of multiple representations in physics problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maries, Alexandru
This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role in the initial stages of conceptual analysis and planning of the problem solution. Findings suggest that students who draw productive diagrams are more successful problem solvers even if their approach is primarily mathematical. Furthermore, students provided with a diagram of the physical situation presented in a problem sometimes exhibited deteriorated performance. Think-aloud interviews suggest that this deteriorated performance is in part due to reduced conceptual planning time which caused students to jump to the implementation stage without fully understanding the problem and planning problem solution. Another study investigated two interventions aimed at improving introductory students' representational consistency between mathematical and graphical representations and revealed that excessive scaffolding can have a detrimental effect. The detrimental effect was partly due to increased cognitive load brought on by the additional steps and instructions. Moreover, students who exhibited representational consistency also showed improved problem solving performance. The final investigation is centered on a problem solving task designed to provide information about the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of graduate student teaching assistants (TAs). In particular, the TAs identified what they considered to be the most common difficulties of introductory physics students related to graphical representations of kinematics concepts as they occur in the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K). As an extension, the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was also used to assess this aspect of PCK related to knowledge of
Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.
2013-01-01
This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…
Solving optimization problems on computational grids.
Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2001-05-01
Multiprocessor computing platforms, which have become more and more widely available since the mid-1980s, are now heavily used by organizations that need to solve very demanding computational problems. Parallel computing is now central to the culture of many research communities. Novel parallel approaches were developed for global optimization, network optimization, and direct-search methods for nonlinear optimization. Activity was particularly widespread in parallel branch-and-bound approaches for various problems in combinatorial and network optimization. As the cost of personal computers and low-end workstations has continued to fall, while the speed and capacity of processors and networks have increased dramatically, 'cluster' platforms have become popular in many settings. A somewhat different type of parallel computing platform know as a computational grid (alternatively, metacomputer) has arisen in comparatively recent times. Broadly speaking, this term refers not to a multiprocessor with identical processing nodes but rather to a heterogeneous collection of devices that are widely distributed, possibly around the globe. The advantage of such platforms is obvious: they have the potential to deliver enormous computing power. Just as obviously, however, the complexity of grids makes them very difficult to use. The Condor team, headed by Miron Livny at the University of Wisconsin, were among the pioneers in providing infrastructure for grid computations. More recently, the Globus project has developed technologies to support computations on geographically distributed platforms consisting of high-end computers, storage and visualization devices, and other scientific instruments. In 1997, we started the metaneos project as a collaborative effort between optimization specialists and the Condor and Globus groups. Our aim was to address complex, difficult optimization problems in several areas, designing and implementing the algorithms and the software
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ceberio, Mikel; Almudí, José Manuel; Franco, Ángel
2016-01-01
In recent years, interactive computer simulations have been progressively integrated in the teaching of the sciences and have contributed significant improvements in the teaching-learning process. Practicing problem-solving is a key factor in science and engineering education. The aim of this study was to design simulation-based problem-solving…
Can compactifications solve the cosmological constant problem?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali
2016-06-01
Recently, there have been claims in the literature that the cosmological constant problem can be dynamically solved by specific compactifications of gravity from higher-dimensional toy models. These models have the novel feature that in the four-dimensional theory, the cosmological constant Λ is much smaller than the Planck density and in fact accumulates at Λ = 0. Here we show that while these are very interesting models, they do not properly address the real cosmological constant problem. As we explain, the real problem is not simply to obtain Λ that is small in Planck units in a toy model, but to explain why Λ is much smaller than other mass scales (and combinations of scales) in the theory. Instead, in these toy models, all other particle mass scales have been either removed or sent to zero, thus ignoring the real problem. To this end, we provide a general argument that the included moduli masses are generically of order Hubble, so sending them to zero trivially sends the cosmological constant to zero. We also show that the fundamental Planck mass is being sent to zero, and so the central problem is trivially avoided by removing high energy physics altogether. On the other hand, by including various large mass scales from particle physics with a high fundamental Planck mass, one is faced with a real problem, whose only known solution involves accidental cancellations in a landscape.
Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems.
Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard
2016-03-01
There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article. PMID:27047610
Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems
Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard
2016-01-01
There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article. PMID:27047610
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marcus, Michael
2003-01-01
Describes a teaching method involving problem-solving techniques used by project teams in industry that have been tailored for use in an introductory engineering technology course. Provides step-by-step guidelines for each component. (JOW)
The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew
2015-01-01
School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…
A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grigg, Sarah J.
2012-01-01
In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any…
"I'm Not Very Good at Solving Problems": An Exploration of Students' Problem Solving Behaviours
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John
2008-01-01
This paper reports one aspect of a larger study which looked at the strategies used by a selection of grade 6 students to solve six non-routine mathematical problems. The data revealed that the students exhibited many of the behaviours identified in the literature as being associated with novice and expert problem solvers. However, the categories…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westbrook, Amy F.
2011-01-01
It can be difficult to find adequate strategies when teaching problem solving in a standard based mathematics classroom. The purpose of this study was to improve students' problem solving skills and attitudes through differentiated instruction when working on lengthy performance tasks in cooperative groups. This action research studied for 15 days…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peterson, Sharon L.; Palmer, Louann Bierlein
2011-01-01
This study identified the problem solving strategies used by students within a university course designed to teach pre-service teachers educational technology, and whether those strategies were influenced by the format of the course (i.e., face-to-face computer lab vs. online). It also examined to what extent the type of problem solving strategies…
Design, Development and Validation of a Model of Problem Solving for Egyptian Science Classes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shahat, Mohamed A.; Ohle, Annika; Treagust, David F.; Fischer, Hans E.
2013-01-01
Educators and policymakers envision the future of education in Egypt as enabling learners to acquire scientific inquiry and problem-solving skills. In this article, we describe the validation of a model for problem solving and the design of instruments for evaluating new teaching methods in Egyptian science classes. The instruments were based on…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wuttke, Eveline; Wolf, Karsten D.
2007-01-01
Increasing people's ability to solve complex problems is more and more often being seen as an integral part of vocational education. While there have been numerous empirically-based approaches to the didactic structuring of teaching and learning arrangements by which students' ability to solve problems can be increased, knowledge of how to…
A Schematic-Theoretic View of Problem Solving and Development of Algebraic Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Diana F.; Johanning, Debra I.
2004-01-01
This study explored the problem-solving schemas developed by 7th-grade pre-algebra students as they participated in a teaching experiment that was designed to help students develop effective schemas for solving algebraic problem situations involving contexts of (1) growth and change and (2) size and shape. This article describes the qualities and…
Learning Problem-Solving through Making Games at the Game Design and Learning Summer Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Akcaoglu, Mete
2014-01-01
Today's complex and fast-evolving world necessitates young students to possess design and problem-solving skills more than ever. One alternative method of teaching children problem-solving or thinking skills has been using computer programming, and more recently, game-design tasks. In this pre-experimental study, a group of middle school…
Developing Problem-Solving Skills of Students Taking Introductory Physics via Web-Based Tutorials
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Singh, Chandralekha; Haileselassie, Daniel
2010-01-01
Science teaching and learning can be made both engaging and student-centered using pedagogical, computer-based learning tools. We have developed self-paced interactive problem-solving tutorials for introductory physics. These tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem-solving techniques, as well as opportunities for…
Mathematical Problem Solving among Latina/o Kindergartners: An Analysis of Opportunities to Learn
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turner, Erin E.; Celedon-Pattichis, Sylvia
2011-01-01
This study explores opportunities to learn mathematics problem solving for Latina/o students in 3 kindergarten classrooms in the southwest. Mixed methods were used to examine teaching practices that engaged Latina/o students in problem solving and supported their learning. Findings indicate that although students in all 3 classrooms showed growth…
Analytical Derivation: An Epistemic Game for Solving Mathematically Based Physics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Thompson, John R.
2016-01-01
Problem solving, which often involves multiple steps, is an integral part of physics learning and teaching. Using the perspective of the epistemic game, we documented a specific game that is commonly pursued by students while solving mathematically based physics problems: the "analytical derivation" game. This game involves deriving an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.
2004-01-01
This article reviews and synthesizes more than 120 studies from 20 years (1982-2002) of research that has examined problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). The goals of the article are fourfold: (a) introduce the construct of problem-solving appraisal and the PSI within the applied problem-solving literature,…
Scientific problem solving by expert systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Good, Ron
Human expert problem solving in science is defined and used to account for scientific discovery. These ideas, attributed largely to Herbert Simon, are used in a description of BACON.5, a machine expert problem solver that discovers scientific laws using data-driven heuristics and expectations such as symmetry. Trial-and-error search of data-driven scientific discovery is drastically reduced when the BACON.5 system is altered to include expectations, such as symmetry, which have been influential in real (i.e., human) discoveries of scientific laws. A discussion of the implications of BACON.5-type research for traditional science education research recognizes the importance of a qualitative understanding of the relationships among pieces of a physical or biological system.
Solving large sparse eigenvalue problems on supercomputers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Philippe, Bernard; Saad, Youcef
1988-01-01
An important problem in scientific computing consists in finding a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a very large and sparse matrix. The most popular methods to solve these problems are based on projection techniques on appropriate subspaces. The main attraction of these methods is that they only require the use of the matrix in the form of matrix by vector multiplications. The implementations on supercomputers of two such methods for symmetric matrices, namely Lanczos' method and Davidson's method are compared. Since one of the most important operations in these two methods is the multiplication of vectors by the sparse matrix, methods of performing this operation efficiently are discussed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each method are compared and implementation aspects are discussed. Numerical experiments on a one processor CRAY 2 and CRAY X-MP are reported. Possible parallel implementations are also discussed.
Incubation and Intuition in Creative Problem Solving
Gilhooly, Kenneth J.
2016-01-01
Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation. PMID:27499745
Incubation and Intuition in Creative Problem Solving.
Gilhooly, Kenneth J
2016-01-01
Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation. PMID:27499745
Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective
Ganor-Stern, Dana
2016-01-01
Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults’ ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger) than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close) from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner. PMID:27171224
Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus).
Seed, Amanda M; Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J
2008-06-22
Recent work has shown that captive rooks, like chimpanzees and other primates, develop cooperative alliances with their conspecifics. Furthermore, the pressures hypothesized to have favoured social intelligence in primates also apply to corvids. We tested cooperative problem-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. Without training, eight rooks quickly solved a problem in which two individuals had to pull both ends of a string simultaneously in order to pull in a food platform. Similar to chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, performance was better when within-dyad tolerance levels were higher. In contrast to chimpanzees, rooks did not delay acting on the apparatus while their partner gained access to the test room. Furthermore, given a choice between an apparatus that could be operated individually over one that required the action of two individuals, four out of six individuals showed no preference. These results may indicate that cooperation in chimpanzees is underpinned by more complex cognitive processes than that in rooks. Such a difference may arise from the fact that while both chimpanzees and rooks form cooperative alliances, chimpanzees, but not rooks, live in a variable social network made up of competitive and cooperative relationships. PMID:18364318
Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.
1988-01-01
This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.
Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diamond, Lindsay Lile
2012-01-01
Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…
Experimenting with Classroom Formats To Encourage Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fernandez, Eileen; Kazimir, Jessica; Vandemeulebroeke, Lynn; Burgos, Carlos
2002-01-01
Describes how modifying familiar classroom formats in a college geometry class helped encourage student problem solving. Demonstrates these modified formats in the context of problems students explored, which resemble the problem-solving settings of mathematicians. (KHR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Finelli, Robin; Courey, Susan J.; Hamlett, Carol L.
2004-01-01
Mathematical problem solving is a transfer challenge requiring children to develop schemas for recognizing novel problems as belonging to familiar problem types for which they know solutions. Schema-based transfer instruction (SBTI) explicitly teaches transfer features that change problems in superficial ways to make them appear novel even though…
Glycoprotein Structural Genomics: Solving the Glycosylation Problem
Chang, Veronica T.; Crispin, Max; Aricescu, A. Radu; Harvey, David J.; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Fennelly, Janet A.; Yu, Chao; Boles, Kent S.; Evans, Edward J.; Stuart, David I.; Dwek, Raymond A.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Owens, Raymond J.; Davis, Simon J.
2007-01-01
Summary Glycoproteins present special problems for structural genomic analysis because they often require glycosylation in order to fold correctly, whereas their chemical and conformational heterogeneity generally inhibits crystallization. We show that the “glycosylation problem” can be solved by expressing glycoproteins transiently in mammalian cells in the presence of the N-glycosylation processing inhibitors, kifunensine or swainsonine. This allows the correct folding of the glycoproteins, but leaves them sensitive to enzymes, such as endoglycosidase H, that reduce the N-glycans to single residues, enhancing crystallization. Since the scalability of transient mammalian expression is now comparable to that of bacterial systems, this approach should relieve one of the major bottlenecks in structural genomic analysis. PMID:17355862
Problem Solving and Chemical Equilibrium: Successful versus Unsuccessful Performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Camacho, Moises; Good, Ron
1989-01-01
Describes the problem-solving behaviors of experts and novices engaged in solving seven chemical equilibrium problems. Lists 27 behavioral tendencies of successful and unsuccessful problem solvers. Discusses several implications for a problem solving theory, think-aloud techniques, adequacy of the chemistry domain, and chemistry instruction.…
Getting Started with Information Problem-Solving Isn't a Problem When One Begins with a Book.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ray, Sally
1998-01-01
Describes how to use Jean Fritz's book "George Washington's Breakfast" to teach the Big6 process of information problem solving to first graders. Six modified terms used in teaching the lesson with the first-grade classes are: task=what, strategy=how, locate=where, use=look, synthesis=show, and evaluation=well.(LRW)
Analytical derivation: An epistemic game for solving mathematically based physics problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Thompson, John R.
2016-06-01
Problem solving, which often involves multiple steps, is an integral part of physics learning and teaching. Using the perspective of the epistemic game, we documented a specific game that is commonly pursued by students while solving mathematically based physics problems: the analytical derivation game. This game involves deriving an equation through symbolic manipulations and routine mathematical operations, usually without any physical interpretation of the processes. This game often creates cognitive obstacles in students, preventing them from using alternative resources or better approaches during problem solving. We conducted hour-long, semi-structured, individual interviews with fourteen introductory physics students. Students were asked to solve four "pseudophysics" problems containing algebraic and graphical representations. The problems required the application of the fundamental theorem of calculus (FTC), which is one of the most frequently used mathematical concepts in physics problem solving. We show that the analytical derivation game is necessary, but not sufficient, to solve mathematically based physics problems, specifically those involving graphical representations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sullivan, Gary E.
This study examined the effects of specially designed thinking journal activities that have been attributed with encouraging reflective thinking, on instruction using generic, or content-free, problem solving software. Sixty-three fourth grade students participated in four instructional sessions using the software package called "Moptown Hotel."…
Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja
2014-01-01
In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.
Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lederman, Eric
2009-01-01
In "How to Solve It", accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to…
Promoting Problem Solving across Geometry and Algebra by Using Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erbas, A. Kursat; Ledford, Sara D.; Orrill, Chandra Hawley; Polly, Drew
2005-01-01
Technology is a powerful tool in assisting students in problem solving by allowing for multiple representations. The vignette offered in this article provides insight into ways to solve open-ended problems using multiple technologies.
Academic Achievement, Situational Stress, and Problem-Solving Flexibility
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rollins, Boyd C.; Calder, Colleen
1975-01-01
Tested two hypotheses: (1) academic underachievers will have less problem solving flexibility during failure than during success; and (2) academic overachievers will have more problem solving flexibility during failure than during success. Subjects were tenth grade boys. (Author/SDH)
Clinical Reasoning Terms Included in Clinical Problem Solving Exercises?
Musgrove, John L; Morris, Jason; Estrada, Carlos A; Kraemer, Ryan R
2016-05-01
Background Published clinical problem solving exercises have emerged as a common tool to illustrate aspects of the clinical reasoning process. The specific clinical reasoning terms mentioned in such exercises is unknown. Objective We identified which clinical reasoning terms are mentioned in published clinical problem solving exercises and compared them to clinical reasoning terms given high priority by clinician educators. Methods A convenience sample of clinician educators prioritized a list of clinical reasoning terms (whether to include, weight percentage of top 20 terms). The authors then electronically searched the terms in the text of published reports of 4 internal medicine journals between January 2010 and May 2013. Results The top 5 clinical reasoning terms ranked by educators were dual-process thinking (weight percentage = 24%), problem representation (12%), illness scripts (9%), hypothesis generation (7%), and problem categorization (7%). The top clinical reasoning terms mentioned in the text of 79 published reports were context specificity (n = 20, 25%), bias (n = 13, 17%), dual-process thinking (n = 11, 14%), illness scripts (n = 11, 14%), and problem representation (n = 10, 13%). Context specificity and bias were not ranked highly by educators. Conclusions Some core concepts of modern clinical reasoning theory ranked highly by educators are mentioned explicitly in published clinical problem solving exercises. However, some highly ranked terms were not used, and some terms used were not ranked by the clinician educators. Effort to teach clinical reasoning to trainees may benefit from a common nomenclature of clinical reasoning terms. PMID:27168884
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hamadneh, Iyad M.; Al-Masaeed, Aslan
2015-01-01
This study aimed at finding out mathematics teachers' attitudes towards photo math application in solving mathematical problems using mobile camera; it also aim to identify significant differences in their attitudes according to their stage of teaching, educational qualifications, and teaching experience. The study used judgmental/purposive…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Freitas, Isabel M.; Jimenez, Roque; Mellado, Vicente
2004-01-01
The results are described of two case studies on the conceptions and classroom practice of two Portuguese physics and chemistry teachers on the role of problem solving in the teaching/learning of science. One of these teachers was a novice and the other had about 20 years of teaching experience. The data were obtained from a questionnaire, a…
Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brewe, Eric
2006-12-01
Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).
Use of computers in problem solving and in student laboratories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jodl, Hans J.
1997-03-01
If we use the computer in teaching, how do we influence the learning process and behaviour; and if there is feedback, is this positive or negative? The object of our investigations were physics majors. During several years we observed students using PCs in a student laboratory or in problem solving parallel to a lecture-style introductory physics course. In the first case we compared the ideal situation in the student laboratory with the real situation; or in other words, with what we think the students should learn (˜100 goals, see appendix), and what they actually do (questionnaire). In addition we studied which of these experimentation goals can be abandoned, modified or newly established using PCs on-line/off-line with an experiment. In the second case we carefully analyzed typical physics problems (classes, levels of complexity, examples) and solved them with mathematical tools. In the future we must decide if such an exercise is important, if the solution of a problem can be achieved by two lines with the help of such a tool; and if we want students pushing buttons activating a mathematical procedure in such a tool without knowing what they are doing. In addition we describe new classes of problems using the PCs (see appendix).
Problem Solving in the School Curriculum from a Design Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toh, Tin Lam; Leong, Yew Hoong; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng
2010-01-01
In this symposium, the participants discuss some preliminary data collected from their problem solving project which uses a design experiment approach. Their approach to problem solving in the school curriculum is in tandem with what Schoenfeld (2007) claimed: "Crafting instruction that would make a wide range of problem-solving strategies…
Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne
2012-01-01
The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…
The Authentic Performance-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curtis, David; Denton, Rob
A new authentic performance-based approach to assessing problem solving was developed for use in vocational education and other programs in Australia. The process of developing the problem-solving assessment instrument and process included the following phases: (1) exploration of the theoretical conceptions of problem solving; (2) identification…
Conflict Management: A Premarital Training Program in Mutual Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ridley, Carl A.; And Others
1981-01-01
Evaluated the effectiveness of a structured educational program to train premarital couples in communication and mutual problem-solving skills. Couples (N=26) participated in a problem-solving training program, while similar couples (N=28) participated in a relationship discussion group. The problem-solving group showed a greater increase in…
Maximum/Minimum Problems Solved Using an Algebraic Way
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Modica, Erasmo
2010-01-01
This article describes some problems of the maximum/minimum type, which are generally solved using calculus at secondary school, but which here are solved algebraically. We prove six algebraic properties and then apply them to this kind of problem. This didactic approach allows pupils to solve these problems even at the beginning of secondary…
Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-01-01
Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…
The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel
2012-01-01
Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…
Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hung, Woei
2013-01-01
Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…
A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.
2005-01-01
Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…
Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth
1979-01-01
Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)
Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William
2005-01-01
Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…
Uncertainty during the Early Stages of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Hoyos, Maria; Gray, Eddie; Simpson, Adrian
2004-01-01
This paper discusses the role of uncertainty during the early stages of problem solving. It is argued that students start the problem solving activity with some degree of uncertainty that may vary from high to low. This degree of uncertainty may affect students' decisions at early stages of the problem solving process. It may be suggested that an…
Development of a Content Coding System for Marital Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winemiller, David R.; Mitchell, M. Ellen
While much research has focused on the processes of marital problem solving, the content of marital problem solving has received considerably less attention. This study examined the initial efforts to develop a method for assessing marital problem solving content. Married individuals (N=36) completed a demographic information sheet, the Dyadic…
The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bahar, Abdulkadir
2013-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…
Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xu Ryan, Qing
2013-01-01
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the…
Solving Word Problems Using Schemas: A Review of the Literature
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Powell, Sarah R.
2011-01-01
Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students…
Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle
2012-01-01
The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…
MAUVE: A New Strategy for Solving and Grading Physics Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, Nicole Breanne
2016-05-01
MAUVE (magnitude, answer, units, variables, and equations) is a framework and rubric to help students and teachers through the process of clearly solving and assessing solutions to introductory physics problems. Success in introductory physics often derives from an understanding of units, a command over dimensional analysis, and good bookkeeping. I developed MAUVE for an introductory-level environmental physics course as an easy-to-remember checklist to help students construct organized and thoughtful solutions to physics problems. Environmental physics is a core physics course for environmental and sustainability science (ESS) majors that teaches principles of radiation, thermodynamics, and mechanics within the context of the environment and sustainable energy systems. ESS student concentrations include environmental biology, applied ecology, biogeochemistry, and natural resources. The MAUVE rubric, inspired by nature, has encouraged my students to produce legible and tactical work, and has significantly clarified the grading process.
Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-10-01
In a companion paper, we discuss students' ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two-step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri Lynn; Khurshid, Ayesha
2011-01-01
Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), that focuses on working with students who struggle with negative peer pressure. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…
2014-01-01
Background Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. Methods A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. Results We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. Conclusions The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution. PMID:24450310
Energy Landscapes and Solved Protein Folding Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolynes, Peter
2004-03-01
Peter G. Wolynes Center for Theoretical Biological Physics Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Physics University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093-0371 Fifteen years ago, how proteins folded into organized structures on the basis of their sequence was a great mystery. By characterizing the energy landscapes of proteins with tools from the statistical mechanics of disordered systems like spin glasses, a "new view' of the folding process became possible. Energy landscape theory provided an incentive to pursue heroic new experiments and to carry out difficult computer simulations addressing protein folding mechanisms. Many aspects of folding kinetics revealed by these studies can be quantitatively understood using the simple idea that the topography of the energy landscape is that of a "rugged funnel". Energy landscape theory provided a quantitative means of characterizing which amino acid sequences can rapidly fold. Algorithms based on energy landscape theory have been used to successfully design novel sequences that fold to a given structure in the laboratory. Energy landscape ideas have begun to transform the prediction of protein structure from sequence data from being an art to being a science. The success of energy landscape- based algorithms in predicting protein structure from sequence will be highlighted. While there is still much to learn about folding mechanisms and much work to do achieving universally reliable structure prediction, many parts of what used to be called "the protein folding problem" can now be considered solved.
Learning Nucleic Acids Solving by Bioinformatics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nunes, Rhewter; de Almeida Júnior, Edivaldo Barbosa; de Menezes, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto; Malafaia, Guilherme
2015-01-01
The article describes the development of a new approach to teach molecular biology to undergraduate biology students. The 34 students who participated in this research belonged to the first period of the Biological Sciences teaching course of the Instituto Federal Goiano at Urutaí Campus, Brazil. They were registered in Cell Biology in the first…
The Problem-Solving Power of Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sacks, Ariel
2013-01-01
Risk takers of all kinds have joined the effort to find new and better ways to structure nearly every aspect of teaching and learning. But as teacher leader and blogger Ariel Sacks notes, "Sadly, most of the experiments in education reform come from the imaginations of people who don't actually teach children." Top-down experiments…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeon, Kyungmoon; Huffman, Douglas; Noh, Taehee
2005-01-01
A problem solving strategy, Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS), developed by Arthur Whimbey to help students monitor and understand their own thought process is presented. The TAPPS strategy encouraged the students interact verbally with each other to solve chemistry problems and improve the achievements in chemistry.
Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lederman, Eric
2009-02-01
In How to Solve It, accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to mathematicians but of interest to cognitive psychologists and problem solvers in all fields. I had the good fortune to be introduced to Polya's ideas in my first undergraduate class in physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dufner, Hillrey A.; Alexander, Patricia A.
The differential effects of two different types of problem-solving training on the problem-solving abilities of gifted fourth graders were studied. Two successive classes of gifted fourth graders from Weslaco Independent School District (Texas) were pretested with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Thinking Creatively With Pictures…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, P.; Caldwell, M.
2012-12-01
Coastal Florida offers a unique setting for the facilitation of learning about a variety of modern sedimentary environments. Despite the conflicting concept of "virtual" and "actual" field trip, and the uncertainties associated with the implementation and effectiveness, virtual trips provide likely the only way to reach a large diversified student population and eliminate travel time and expenses. In addition, with rapidly improving web and visualization technology, field trips can be simulated virtually. It is therefore essential to systematically develop and assess the educational effectiveness of virtual field trips. This project is developing, implementing, and assessing a series of virtual field trips for teaching undergraduate sedimentary geology at a large four-year research university and introductory geology at a large two-year community college. The virtual field trip is based on a four-day actual field trip for a senior level sedimentary geology class. Two versions of the virtual field trip, one for advanced class and one for introductory class, are being produced. The educational outcome of the virtual field trip will be compared to that from actual field trip. This presentation summarizes Year 1 achievements of the three-year project. The filming, editing, and initial production of the virtual field trip have been completed. Formative assessments were conducted by the Coalition for Science Literacy at the University of South Florida. Once tested and refined, the virtual field trips will be disseminated through broadly used web portals and workshops at regional and national meetings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceberio, Mikel; Almudí, José Manuel; Franco, Ángel
2016-03-01
In recent years, interactive computer simulations have been progressively integrated in the teaching of the sciences and have contributed significant improvements in the teaching-learning process. Practicing problem-solving is a key factor in science and engineering education. The aim of this study was to design simulation-based problem-solving teaching materials and assess their effectiveness in improving students' ability to solve problems in university-level physics. Firstly, we analyze the effect of using simulation-based materials in the development of students' skills in employing procedures that are typically used in the scientific method of problem-solving. We found that a significant percentage of the experimental students used expert-type scientific procedures such as qualitative analysis of the problem, making hypotheses, and analysis of results. At the end of the course, only a minority of the students persisted with habits based solely on mathematical equations. Secondly, we compare the effectiveness in terms of problem-solving of the experimental group students with the students who are taught conventionally. We found that the implementation of the problem-solving strategy improved experimental students' results regarding obtaining a correct solution from the academic point of view, in standard textbook problems. Thirdly, we explore students' satisfaction with simulation-based problem-solving teaching materials and we found that the majority appear to be satisfied with the methodology proposed and took on a favorable attitude to learning problem-solving. The research was carried out among first-year Engineering Degree students.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceberio, Mikel; Almudí, José Manuel; Franco, Ángel
2016-08-01
In recent years, interactive computer simulations have been progressively integrated in the teaching of the sciences and have contributed significant improvements in the teaching-learning process. Practicing problem-solving is a key factor in science and engineering education. The aim of this study was to design simulation-based problem-solving teaching materials and assess their effectiveness in improving students' ability to solve problems in university-level physics. Firstly, we analyze the effect of using simulation-based materials in the development of students' skills in employing procedures that are typically used in the scientific method of problem-solving. We found that a significant percentage of the experimental students used expert-type scientific procedures such as qualitative analysis of the problem, making hypotheses, and analysis of results. At the end of the course, only a minority of the students persisted with habits based solely on mathematical equations. Secondly, we compare the effectiveness in terms of problem-solving of the experimental group students with the students who are taught conventionally. We found that the implementation of the problem-solving strategy improved experimental students' results regarding obtaining a correct solution from the academic point of view, in standard textbook problems. Thirdly, we explore students' satisfaction with simulation-based problem-solving teaching materials and we found that the majority appear to be satisfied with the methodology proposed and took on a favorable attitude to learning problem-solving. The research was carried out among first-year Engineering Degree students.
Strategies, Not Solutions: Involving Students in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Von Kuster, Lee N.
1984-01-01
Defines problem solving, discusses the use of problems developed by students that are relevant to their own lives, presents examples of practical mathematics problems that deal with local situations, discusses fringe benefits of this type of problem solving, and addresses teachers' concern that this method consumes too much time. (MBR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seyhan, Hatice Güngör
2015-01-01
This study was conducted with 98 prospective science teachers, who were composed of 50 prospective teachers that had participated in problem-solving applications and 48 prospective teachers who were taught within a more researcher-oriented teaching method in science laboratories. The first aim of this study was to determine the levels of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becerra-Labra, Carlos; Gras-Marti, Albert; Torregrosa, Joaquin Martinez
2012-01-01
A model of teaching/learning is proposed based on a "problem-based structure" of the contents of the course, in combination with a training in paper and pencil problem solving that emphasizes discussion and quantitative analysis, rather than formulae plug-in. The aim is to reverse the high failure and attrition rate among engineering…
Problem-solving test: Tryptophan operon mutants.
Szeberényi, József
2010-09-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: tryptophan, operon, operator, repressor, inducer, corepressor, promoter, RNA polymerase, chromosome-polysome complex, regulatory gene, cis-acting element, trans-acting element, plasmid, transformation. PMID:21567855
Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.
Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John
2014-09-01
Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge. PMID:25000309
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caruthers, Heather Anne
Analysis of the effect of course structure, including motivational tools, laboratory and how problem solving was presented in lecture on students' exam performance, attitudes toward the subject of chemistry, and problem solving strategy use. Exam performance indicates that the use of ressurection points on the final exam benefits students' learning, especially for the Middle Bottom quartile of students. Laboratory improves students' understanding when the exams correspond to laboratory content. Attitude differences, as measured by the Attitude toward the subject of chemistry inventory version 2, show some differences and the influence of the level of expertise in graduate student teaching assistants. The use of dimensional analysis to solve stoichiometry problems in lecture leads students to use that process to solve novel tasks in a similiar way, even if it is not efficient or effective. The students' familiarity with the content, as well as the problem solving process, influence how they solve tasks.
Teachers of Mathematics as Problem-Solving Applied Mathematicians
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chick, Helen; Stacey, Kaye
2013-01-01
Some of mathematics teaching is routine, like an exercise from a textbook for which you have received instruction and already know what to do. On other occasions, however, teaching mathematics is challenging, involving problems of teaching for which the solutions may not be readily apparent. These situations require the application of mathematical…
Musical Creative Learning and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burns, Mary T.
1986-01-01
Educators need to develop teaching strategies that allow children to explore creative musical processes that will nurture musical skills, self-awareness, and imagination. A sequence of five lessons encompassing language arts and music demonstrates how students can develop creativity by writing haiku and then composing music to accompany the poems.…
Rhetorical Problem Solving: Cognition and Professional Writing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flower, Linda
The task of teaching writing to students in business, engineering, design, computer science, accounting, and other professional areas raises the question of what knowledge the writers call upon to create a rhetorically effective writing plan. Research suggests three plausible answers: their knowledge of schemata, the structure of their topic…
Revised laboratory manual helps solve problems.
Hardy, R; Grubbs, F C
1976-11-01
This paper describes a project to design a laboratory manual which could be easily understood and used by both those who work in and those who utilize the laboratory in a large teaching hospital complex. Results indicated increased employee knowledge of laboratory policies and procedures, and an improved relationship between patient units and the laboratory. PMID:984079
A descriptive study of cooperative problem solving introductory physics labs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knutson, Paul Aanond
The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those skills are the foundation for the quantitative aspects of problem solving. (Chi, et al., 1981). The literature also indicates that cooperative problem solving should enhance the students' performance. As a practical matter surveys of departments that require introductory physics classes expect their students to have general qualitative problem solving skills. The students in this study were asked to solve problem(s) before coming to a lab session and then cooperatively assess whether or not their answers were correct by conducting a laboratory activity for which they had to plan the procedure and obtain the necessary results. TA's were expected to provide instruction under a cognitive apprenticeship model. The results showed that the cooperative problem solving laboratories had almost no impact on the students' problem solving skills as measured from the start of a two hour lab session to the end of the lab session...The reason for this may have been that students did not have enough experience in the solving of different kinds of problems in the two domains of Newton's second Law and gravitation to overcome their misconceptions and become competent. Another possibility was that the TA's did not follow the cognitive apprenticeship model as consistently as might have been needed.
Problem Solving: An Overview of the Theory and a Course Attempting to Apply It.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mertz, Donald W.
Problem solving is viewed as an increasing area of interest that focuses on the theory, research, and teaching of general cognitive skills which are applicable to broad problem classes. This document gives an overview of some important aspects of the theory and research in order to identify what general cognitive skills ought to be taught. Modern…
Idea Focusing versus Idea Generating: A Course for Teachers on Inventive Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barak, Moshe
2009-01-01
This paper deals with a course intended to teach individuals a method of convergent thinking, or "idea focusing", in seeking inventive solutions to problems and designing innovative artefacts. The course participants (mathematics, science, or technology teachers) learned a range of "inventive principles" often used for problem-solving in…
The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wampler, Wendi N.
Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities
Computer Based Collaborative Problem Solving for Introductory Courses in Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilie, Carolina; Lee, Kevin
2010-03-01
We discuss collaborative problem solving computer-based recitation style. The course is designed by Lee [1], and the idea was proposed before by Christian, Belloni and Titus [2,3]. The students find the problems on a web-page containing simulations (physlets) and they write the solutions on an accompanying worksheet after discussing it with a classmate. Physlets have the advantage of being much more like real-world problems than textbook problems. We also compare two protocols for web-based instruction using simulations in an introductory physics class [1]. The inquiry protocol allowed students to control input parameters while the worked example protocol did not. We will discuss which of the two methods is more efficient in relation to Scientific Discovery Learning and Cognitive Load Theory. 1. Lee, Kevin M., Nicoll, Gayle and Brooks, Dave W. (2004). ``A Comparison of Inquiry and Worked Example Web-Based Instruction Using Physlets'', Journal of Science Education and Technology 13, No. 1: 81-88. 2. Christian, W., and Belloni, M. (2001). Physlets: Teaching Physics With Interactive Curricular Material, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 3. Christian,W., and Titus,A. (1998). ``Developing web-based curricula using Java Physlets.'' Computers in Physics 12: 227--232.
Formulating and Solving Problems in Computational Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norris, A. C.
1980-01-01
Considered are the main elements of computational chemistry problems and how these elements can be used to formulate the problems mathematically. Techniques that are useful in devising an appropriate solution are also considered. (Author/TG)
Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberényi, József
2014-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…
Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pescetti, D.
2008-01-01
The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…
Social Problem-Solving among Adolescents Treated for Depression
Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.
2009-01-01
Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire – Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19775677
Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wiest, Lynda R.
2008-01-01
Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…
A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.
2003-01-01
Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)
Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc
2011-01-01
The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…
Mathematical Profiles and Problem Solving Abilities of Mathematically Promising Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budak, Ibrahim
2012-01-01
Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…
Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees
2015-01-01
This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…
Schema Induction in Problem Solving: A Multidimensional Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhe; Mo, Lei
2004-01-01
The present research examined the processes of schema formation in problem solving. In 4 experiments, participants experienced a series of tasks analogous to A. S. Luchins' (1942) water jar problems before attempting to solve isomorphic target problems. Juxtaposing illustrative source instances varying in procedural features along multiple…
A Descriptive Study of Cooperative Problem Solving Introductory Physics Labs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knutson, Paul Aanond
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…
Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University
1997-01-01
Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…
Schoenfeld's Problem Solving Theory in a Student Controlled Learning Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.
2007-01-01
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes of solving problems. Crucial episodes are:…
Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda
2008-07-01
Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving. PMID:17899456
TEACHING CHILDREN TO DISCOVER--A PROBLEM OF GOAL DEFINITION.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
KEISLAR, EVAN R.
BECAUSE OF THE EVER INCREASING EXPANSION OF KNOWLEDGE AND CULTURAL CHANGES, TEACHING CHILDREN TO DISCOVER (DEFINED HERE AS THE ACQUISITION OF AN ABILITY TO FORMULATE AND SOLVE PROBLEMS) SHOULD BE GIVEN CONSIDERABLE SIGNIFICANCE AS AN EDUCATIONAL GOAL. THE PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT IS (1) TO CLARIFY CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHING CHILDREN TO DISCOVER,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santi, Terri
This book contains a classroom-tested approach to the teaching of problem solving to all students in Grades 6-8, regardless of ability. Information on problem solving in general is provided, then mathematical problems on logic, exponents, fractions, pre-algebra, algebra, geometry, number theory, set theory, ratio, proportion, percent, probability,…
Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-07-01
Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.
Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.
Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David
2014-11-01
Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25245306
The Family as a Small Problem Solving Group
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tallman, Irving
1970-01-01
Analyzes relationship between "open channels of communication" and "centralization of authority", and "cultural" variables in terms of their contributions to optimal problem solving structures and activities. (Author)
Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nunokawa, Kazuhiko
1996-01-01
The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009
2009-01-01
Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foshay, Wellesley R.
The topic of teaching troubleshooting is examined as an example of the teaching of cognitive strategies for technical problem solving. The traditional behavioral approach to teaching troubleshooting has essentially been algorithmic. Recent cognitive research suggests an approach founded first on task analysis and characterized by: (1) analysis of…
Teaching with Technology. Problem-Solving Strategies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allen, Denise
1996-01-01
Reviews two CD-ROMS and one computer game: "Explore Yellowstone," science activities on CD to earn badges toward becoming a ranger; "Oval Office: Challenge of the Presidency," in which students role play presidential responsibilities such as proposing budgets; and "Strategy Games of the World," in which students match their skills against game…
Problem Solved: How To Coach Cognition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krynock, Karoline; Robb, Louise
1999-01-01
When faced with real-world problems, students devise accurate, logical, and creative solutions using skills connecting to different subject areas. Students are intrigued by assignments involving preservation of species and design of environmentally friendly products and transit systems. Problem-based learning depends on coaching, modeling, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.
2009-01-01
This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…
A Decision Support System for Solving Multiple Criteria Optimization Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Filatovas, Ernestas; Kurasova, Olga
2011-01-01
In this paper, multiple criteria optimization has been investigated. A new decision support system (DSS) has been developed for interactive solving of multiple criteria optimization problems (MOPs). The weighted-sum (WS) approach is implemented to solve the MOPs. The MOPs are solved by selecting different weight coefficient values for the criteria…
Learning New Problem-Solving Strategies Leads to Changes in Problem Representation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alibali, Martha W.; Phillips, Karin M. O.; Fischer, Allison D.
2009-01-01
Children sometimes solve problems incorrectly because they fail to represent key features of the problems. One potential source of improvements in children's problem representations is learning new problem-solving strategies. Ninety-one 3rd- and 4th-grade students solved mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3+4+6=3+__) and completed a…
Solving workplace problems associated with VDTs.
Slovak, A J; Trevers, C
1988-06-01
The introduction of VDTs into the vast majority of modern working environments represents a substantial change in the disciplines of work for many people. This paper describes how the health and safety issues associated with this change were managed in one organisation by the acquisition of ergonomics skills and their combination with occupational health surveillance techniques. The results show that ergonomics problems far outweighed symptomatic complaints, but symptomatic complaints were strongly associated with high VDT occupancy. The processes used resulted in high response rates from VDT users and an excellent 'clear-up' rate of problems. The solution of these problems was quantified in terms of difficulty and cost. PMID:15676651
Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeFilippo, Shirley
1975-01-01
Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)
Solving maximum cut problems in the Adleman-Lipton model.
Xiao, Dongmei; Li, Wenxia; Zhang, Zhizhou; He, Lin
2005-12-01
In this paper, we consider a procedure for solving maximum cut problems in the Adleman-Lipton model. The procedure works in O(n2) steps for maximum cut problems of an undirected graph with n vertices. PMID:16236426