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1

Teaching through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

2

Principles for Teaching Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

Kirkley, Rob F.

2003-01-01

3

Problem Solving in Teaching Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter from the dissertation "Education About and Through Technology: In Search of More Appropriate Pedagogical Approaches to Technology Education" explores the importance and nature of problem solving in technology.

Esa-Matti Jarvinen (University of Oulu)

2012-01-16

4

Teaching and Learning through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author relates some problem solving work with primary schools to Department for Children, Schools, and Families (DfES) support. In four primary schools in the West Midlands, the focus was teaching mathematics through problem solving, based on materials published on the DfES "standards" website. The author noticed the way…

Ollerton, Mike

2007-01-01

5

Teaching Our Children to Solve "Fuzzy" Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how parents can teach children to be creative problem solvers, providing information from the University of Michigan's Future Problem Solving Program (FPSP). The FPSP model involves brainstorming subproblems, identifying important problem areas, brainstorming solutions, brainstorming criteria for evaluating ideas, evaluating solutions,…

Alvino, James

1993-01-01

6

Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…

Forgan, James W.

2002-01-01

7

Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…

Forgan, James W.

2002-01-01

8

Teaching Problem Solving in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Musicians practice to build endurance, flexibility, and dexterity. They practice to maintain good performance, to sight-read better, to memorize, and simply, to enjoy music making. There are other motivations for practice, but one, more than others, is a catalyst for consequential change in musical development--practicing to solve performance…

Byo, James L.

2004-01-01

9

Using PLATO to Teach Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the results of three studies which investigated the use of PLATO to teach problem solving. Subjects were 244 children from kindergarten through third grade. The first study explored the extent to which kindergartners and second graders used the knowledge about which answers were right and which were wrong to develop the correct strategy to solve a novel picture problem. The next study looked at the procedures used by kindergartners and second graders while they were in the process of trying to get the answer. The third study considered three conditions of teaching first and third graders the necessary problem solving skills: experience only, feedback consisting of a visual record of the student's work on the first five problems, and interactive instructional feedback on how to solve each problem that the child had done wrong. Abstracts, methods, results, and discussions are given for each of the studies. Results of this research led to a post hoc study which is described. Seven figures show sample displays and nine references are also given.

Steinberg, Esther R.

2006-12-07

10

Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely…

Pestel, Beverly C.

1993-01-01

11

Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a

R. Taconis; M. G. M. Ferguson-Hessler; H. Broekkamp

2001-01-01

12

Using Bibliotherapy to Teach Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students with high-incidence disabilities (e.g., specific learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, mild mental retardation) can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning how to become proactive problem solvers. Often students with high-incidence disabilities are characterized as inefficient in recognizing and solving problems. By learning a problem-solving strategy and applying it to children's literature titles, students with disabilities can learn to become independent

James W. Forgan

2002-01-01

13

TEACHING TRIZ AS A SYSTEMATIC PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD: BREAKING MINDSETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present education has often a dysfunctional approach in that it gives students knowledge and examples of how to solve problems using that knowledge, and then assumes that the student will somehow by a process similar to osmosis understand how to solve further problems in that domain. In reality there appears to be little focus on 'teaching' how to solve problems

Paul R. Filmore

2007-01-01

14

Problem-Solving Exercises and Evolution Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is suggested that the work of Kammerer provides suitable material, in the form of case studies on which to base discussions of Lamarckism versus Darwinism. A set of structured problems is described as an example of possible problem-solving exercises, and further experiments to extend Kammerer's work are outlined. (Author/MA)

Angseesing, J. P. A.

1978-01-01

15

Teaching and Learning. A Problem-Solving Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify Polya's art of…

Curcio, Frances R., Ed.

16

Teaching and Learning. A Problem-Solving Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify Polya's art of…

Curcio, Frances R., Ed.

17

Teaching Clinical Problem Solving in a Preclinical Operative Dentistry Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A method developed at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine for teaching modification of cavity design to large numbers of preclinical students in operative dentistry is reported. It standardizes the learning process for this complex problem-solving skill. (MLW)|

Silvestri, Anthony R., Jr.; Cohen, Steven N.

1981-01-01

18

Teaching and Assessing Problem Solving for International Conflict Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and methodology for teaching a problem-solving approach to international conflict resolution in college courses and for assessing the outcomes of instruction are described in this article. The Conflict Resolution Strategies Checklist was developed to evaluate students’ problem solving in essays about international conflict scenarios. Interrater reliability was adequate. Checklist scores correlated positively with Cornell Critical Thinking Test scores and

Linden L. Nelson; Natasha L. Golding; David R. Drews; Mary K. Blazina

1995-01-01

19

Why Solve Problems?--Interviewing College Faculty about the Learning and Teaching of Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the design and initial data analysis of an ongoing study to determine the important elements, as perceived by faculty, of the learning and teaching of problem solving in the context of an introductory calculus-based physics course. To elicit instructors' beliefs that inform their instructional choices, an interview around…

Yerushalmi, E.; Heller, K.; Heller, P.; Henderson, C.; Kuo, V.

20

Teaching Word Problem Solving at the Primary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a problem-solving strategy unit to be used as a supplement to the regular mathematics curriculum at the primary level. Specific teaching steps and examples are given for three developmental stages of thinking: (1) concrete, (2) representational, and (3) abstract. (DB)

Howell, Susan C.; Barnhart, Ruth S.

1992-01-01

21

Teaching Math K-2 Session 3 Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development session is from an Annenberg Learner course that explores the NCTM process standard of problem solving as a key means to introducing new material and building conceptual understanding in students grades K-2. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, student responses and reflection opportunities. This session is eligible for graduate credit for a fee when taken in conjunction with the other Teaching Math sessions from this course.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

22

Teaching Math 3-5 Session 3 Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development session is from an Annenberg Learner course that explores the NCTM process standard of problem solving as a key means to introducing new material and building conceptual understanding in students grades 3-5. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, student responses and reflection opportunities. This session is eligible for graduate credit for a fee when taken in conjunction with the other Teaching Math sessions from this course.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

23

The Problem Solving Method in Teaching Physics in Elementary School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most of the teachers ask if there is a ``best'' known way to teach. The most effective teaching method depends on the specific goals of the course and the needs of the students. An investigation has been carried out to compare the effect of teaching selected physics topics using problem-solving method on the overall achievements of the acquired knowledge and teaching the same material by traditional teaching method. The investigation was performed as a pedagogical experiment of the type of parallel groups with randomly chosen sample of students attending grades eight. The control and experimental groups were equalized in the relevant pedagogical parameters. The obtained results were treated statistically. The comparison showed a significant difference in respect of the speed of acquiring knowledge, the problem-solving teaching being advantageous over traditional methodDo not replace the word ``abstract,'' but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your ``Enter'' key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

Jandri?, Gordana Hajdukovi?; Obadovi?, Dušanka Ž.; Stojanovi?, Maja

2010-01-01

24

Teaching general learning and problem-solving skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the investigation and teaching of two general cognitive skills important in introductory physics. We first analyzed the various abilities needed for understanding a relation (definition or law) well enough to use it appropriately. Then we developed two different instructional methods for teaching students the general learning skill of gaining such an understanding of any new relation. We further taught students a simple strategy for problem solving. Our results indicate that students can indeed be taught such general cognitive skills and that they can transfer these skills to areas outside of physics.

Reif, Frederick; Larkin, Jill H.; Brackett, George

2005-10-20

25

Teaching Problem Solving Through Cooperative Grouping. Part 1: Group Versus Individual Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an experiment that was conducted to investigate the effects of cooperative group learning on the problem solving performance of college students in a large introductory physics course. An explicit problem solving strategy was taught in the course, and students practiced using the strategy to solve problems in mixed-ability cooperative groups. A technique was developed to evaluate students' problem solving performance and determine the difficulty of context-rich problems. It was found that better problem solutions emerged through collaboration than were achieved by individuals working alone. The instructional approach improved the problem solving performance of students at all ability levels.

Heller, Patricia; Keith, Ronald; Anderson, Scott

2006-06-19

26

Planning Teaching an Unfamiliar Mathematics Problem: The Role of Teachers' Experience in Solving the Problem and Watching Pupils Solving It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During individual interviews, secondary school mathematics teachers were asked to plan teaching an unfamiliar and challenging mathematics problem. Each teacher watched a special video-clip showing a pair of pupils successfully coping with the task. Teachers' planning was analyzed at three stages: before they solved the problem, after solving it,…

Leikin, Roza; Kawass, Sally

2005-01-01

27

Teaching creativity and inventive problem solving in science.  

PubMed

Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property. The creative process can be explained by reference to increasingly well-understood cognitive skills such as cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control that are widely distributed in the population. I explore the relationship between creativity and the higher-order cognitive skills, review assessment methods, and describe several instructional strategies for enhancing creative problem solving in the college classroom. Evidence suggests that instruction to support the development of creativity requires inquiry-based teaching that includes explicit strategies to promote cognitive flexibility. Students need to be repeatedly reminded and shown how to be creative, to integrate material across subject areas, to question their own assumptions, and to imagine other viewpoints and possibilities. Further research is required to determine whether college students' learning will be enhanced by these measures. PMID:19723812

DeHaan, Robert L

2009-01-01

28

Introductory Economic Geography: Problem-Solving or a Teaching Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because economic geography is viewed as a field with too many different aspects for one person to master, teaching an introductory course in the subject poses the challenge of selecting an organizing theme. One specific approach, organized around higher level generalizations and theories, is the use of location theory. Coupling location theory…

Wheeler, James O.

29

Selective Problem Solving (sps): A Model for Teaching Creative Problem-Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving is an integral part of human life from mathematics and science to business, marketing, arts, technology and more. It is sometimes a form of creativity with discoveries and aesthetics. In fact, wherever a genuine problem exists novel behavior is needed on the part of the problem solver. The aim of this article was to describe and discuss the

Ugur Sak

2011-01-01

30

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

2012-01-01

31

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

2012-01-01

32

Teaching Thinking and Problem Solving at University: A Course on TRIZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thinking and problem solving skills are considered to be of significant importance in many professions. Surveys indicate that university education fails in appropriately enhancing these skills. This paper presents a concept of teaching thinking and problem solving as a separate course, based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). Student surveys showed that students' perception of their abilities in

Iouri Belski

2009-01-01

33

Conceptual teaching and quantitative problem solving: friends or foes?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compared the quantitative problem-solving skills of conceptually-taught and traditionally-taught introductory physics students. Found that students taught conceptually through peer instruction performed significantly better on quantitative exam questions for two out of three exams. However, the conceptually taught students were not as satisfied.

Jones, Linda R.; Miller, Andrew G.; Watts, J. F.

2006-05-24

34

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

K-12 Outreach,

35

Teaching to Enhance Problem Solving: It's More than the Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a gap between the algorithmic problem solving abilities of chemistry students and their conceptual understanding of the chemistry. This gap persists because many chemistry instructors allow students to hide their lack of conceptual understanding behind correct numerical answers. If the goal of chemistry instruction is to have students think about and solve conceptual problems as well as algorithmic problems then the approach to chemistry instruction must change. This is a report of a study where an attempt was made to bridge the gap between the concepts and algorithms by altering the instructional method in general chemistry. This approach emphasized conceptual problem solving in the initial phase of a concept. The approach was implemented simultaneously in general chemistry courses designed for science majors and non-science majors. The study provided some interesting data with regard to the response of science majors and non-science majors to this conceptually oriented instructional approach. These responses provide some interesting insight into the ways in which the two groups of students have been socialized with regard to science.

Phelps, Amy J.

1996-04-01

36

Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Problem solving and thinking are inseparably linked together. We propose that a theory of thinking has to consider and incorporate\\u000a the notion of problem solving. In this chapter, we review the most important accounts of problem solving and hope to convince\\u000a the reader that problem solving may provide an ideal framework for developing a theory of thinking.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a We start with

Michael Öllinger; Vinod Goel

37

Evolution of a Teacher's Problem Solving Instruction: A Case Study of Aligning Teaching Practice with Reform in Middle School Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study shows how a teacher's middle school mathematics instruction evolved from teaching problem solving as computation exercises to teaching how to select and implement combinations of problem solving strategies.

Rickard, Anthony

2005-01-01

38

Teaching for Connection: Critical Thinking Skills, Problem Solving, and Academic and Occupational Competencies. Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains 48 sample lesson plans that practicing teachers of vocational and academic education have developed to train vocational students to think critically and to solve problems. Discussed in the introduction are the following topics: critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making as the building blocks of teaching;…

Hedges, Lowell E.

39

Teaching the Pressure-Flow Hypothesis of Phloem Transport in a Problem-Solving Session  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem solving is an ideal learning strategy, especially for topics that are perceived as difficult to teach. As an example, a format is described for a problem-solving session designed to help students understand the pressure-flow hypothesis of phloem transport in plants. Five key facts and their discussion can lead to the conclusion that a…

Clifford, Paul

2004-01-01

40

Effect of Teaching Comprehension Strategies on Improving Math Problem Solving Skills in a Title I School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching math problem solving has been a challenge for many educators, especially in Title I schools. Textbooks provided by the district under study were the primary source of math instructional material. Moreover, the instruction of computation was the method used for preparing students for success with later problem solving lessons. The lack of…

Gresens, Ay-Shin

2011-01-01

41

Classroom-tested Recommendations for Teaching Problem Solving within a Traditional College Course: Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both teachers and students alike acknowledge that genetics and genetics problem-solving are extremely difficult to learn and to teach. Therefore, a number of recommendations for teaching college genetics are offered. Although few of these ideas have as yet been tested in controlled experiments, they are supported by research and experience and may…

Smith, Mike U.

42

Teaching the pressure-flow hypothesis of phloem transport in a problem-solving session  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving is an ideal learning strategy, especially for topics that are perceived as difficult to teach. As an example, a format is described for a problem-solving session designed to help students understand the pressure-flow hypothesis of phloem transport in plants. Five key facts and their discussion can lead to the conclusion that a turgor-pressure difference along sieve tubes of

P. aul Clifford

2004-01-01

43

Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving to Middle School Students in Math, Technology Education, and Special Education Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared two approaches for teaching sixth-grade middle school students to solve math problems in math, technology education, and special education classrooms. A total of 17 students with disabilities and 76 students without disabilities were taught using either enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) or text-based instruction coupled with applied problems (TBI). Results showed that both EAI and TBI students benefited

Brian A. Bottge; Mary Heinrichs; Zara Dee Mehta; Enrique Rueda; Ya-Hui Hung

44

Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry: A Problem-Solving and Collaborative-Learning Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory-centered approach to teaching introductory organic chemistry has been developed to accommodate large (250+ students) course sections. Through collaborative problem-solving, students are required to begin to develop the critical, creative, and complex thinking skills of chemical practitioners. These skills are emphasized in both classroom and lab components of courses. Course evaluations by students and teaching assistants attest to the success of this pedagogical approach. The teaching style required of teaching assistants is discussed and some of the pedagogical tools that have been developed are discussed.

Browne, Lois M.; Blackburn, Edward V.

1999-08-01

45

Teaching Students Problem Solving in Introductory Physics: Forming an Initial Hypothesis of Instructors' Beliefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, shares an initial hypothesis of instructors' beliefs about their role in helping students learn to solve problems in an introductory calculus-based physics course. Instructors see their teaching role as primarily providing resources and making suggestions, with little mentioning of how they influence the students to use the resources or follow the suggestions.

2010-07-27

46

Teaching Students Problem Solving in Introductory Physics: Forming an Initial Hypothesis of Instructors' Beliefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, shares an initial hypothesis of instructors' beliefs about their role in helping students learn to solve problems in an introductory calculus-based physics course. Instructors see their teaching role as primarily providing resources and making suggestions, with little mentioning of how they influence the students to use the resources or follow the suggestions.

Kuo, H. V.; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia; Henderson, Charles R.; Yerushalmi, Edit

2006-12-06

47

Teaching Clinical Reasoning and Problem-solving Skills Using Human Patient Simulation  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses using human patient simulation (HPS) to expose students to complex dynamic patient cases that require clinical judgment, problem-solving skills, and teamwork skills for success. An example of an HPS exercise used to teach multifaceted clinical concepts in a therapeutics course also is provided.

Vyas, Deepti; Ottis, Erica J.; Caligiuri, Frank J.

2011-01-01

48

COGNITIVE STYLES, PERSONALITY FACTORS PROBLEM?SOLVING SKILLS AND TEACHING APPROACH IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation a comprehensive test of problem?solving skills and attitudes in electrical engineering was administered pre?course and post?course to two groups of undergraduates at the University of Salford (Group 1 total N = 40, Group 2 total N = 38) who followed laboratory courses which involved contrasting teaching approaches. Group 1 followed a course which adhered quite rigorously to

James Freeman; George Carter; Tom Jordan

1978-01-01

49

The Effectiveness of a CBI Program for Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Middle Level Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the effectiveness of "Solutions Unlimited," a computer software program developed to teach problem solving to middle level students. Fifty-one fourth, fifth, and sixth graders (21 girls and 30 boys) attending a private school in a small mid-west community were the subjects for this experiment; none had received prior training…

Langholz, Judith; Smaldino, Sharon E.

50

Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving to Middle School Students in Math, Technology Education, and Special Education Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared two approaches for teaching sixth-grade middle school students to solve math problems in math, technology education, and special education classrooms. A total of 17 students with disabilities and 76 students without disabilities were taught using either enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) or text-based instruction coupled with…

Bottge, Brian A.; Heinrichs, Mary; Mehta, Zara Dee; Rueda, Enrique; Hung, Ya-Hui; Danneker, Jeanne

2004-01-01

51

Teaching Problem Solving Through Cooperative Grouping. Part 2: Designing Problems and Structuring Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A supportive environment based on cooperative grouping was developed to foster students' learning of an effective problem-solving strategy. Experiments to adapt the technique of cooperative grouping to physics problem solving were carried out in two diverse settings: a large introductory course at a state university, and a small modern physics class at a community college. Groups were more likely to use an effective problem-solving strategy when given context-rich problems to solve than when given standard textbook problems. Well-functioning cooperative groups were found to result from specific structural and management procedures governing group members' interactions. Group size, the gender and ability composition of groups, seating arrangement, role assignment, textbook use, and group as well as individual testing were all found to contribute to the problem-solving performance of cooperative groups.

Heller, Patricia; Hollabaugh, Mark

2006-06-19

52

Teaching problem solving through cooperative grouping. Part 2: Designing problems and structuring groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A supportive environment based on cooperative grouping was developed to foster students' learning of an effective problem-solving strategy. Experiments to adapt the technique of cooperative grouping to physics problem solving were carried out in two diverse settings: a large introductory course at state university, and a small modern physics class at a community college. Groups were more likely to use an effective problem-solving strategy when given context-rich problems to solve than when given standard textbook problems. Well-functioning cooperative groups were found to result from specific structural and management procedures governing group members' interactions. Group size, the gender and ability composition of groups, seating arrangement, role assignment, textbook use, and group as well as individual testing were all found to contribute to the problem-solving performance of cooperative groups.

Heller, Patricia; Hollabaugh, Mark

1992-07-01

53

Teaching problem solving through cooperative grouping. Part 2: Designing problems and structuring groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supportive environment based on cooperative grouping was developed to foster students' learning of an effective problem-solving strategy. Experiments to adapt the technique of cooperative grouping to physics problem solving were carried out in two diverse settings: a large introductory course at state university, and a small modern physics class at a community college. Groups were more likely to use

Patricia Heller; Mark Hollabaugh

1992-01-01

54

Effects of Teaching a Problem-Solving Strategy on Preschool Children with Problem Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four preschool children who exhibited aggressive methods for resolving social interaction conflicts were taught a problem-solving strategy. Results found that acquisition of the problem-solving strategy influenced the types of alternative solutions the children provided to social interaction conflicts. Students produced more prosocial resolutions…

Hune, Jennifer Buie; Nelson, C. Michael

2002-01-01

55

Teaching law to non-law students: The use of problem solving models in legal teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of problem solving models has been successfully applied and subject to evaluation in law school courses. However, the models have not been evaluated in terms of their application to law courses in which non-law (i.e., business) students are involved. This paper discusses the usefulness of such legal problem solving methods for non-law students from a technology use and

Kristy Richardson; Eric Holm

2009-01-01

56

Using Videotape Vignettes to Teach Problem-Solving Skills in EE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation discusses the development and use of videotape vignettes, portraying real-life problem scenarios, to teach concepts and problem-solving skills in environmental education. Vignettes are richer, more complex, and more motivating than text . Interdisciplinary activities combining the science-learning cycle and cooperative-learning strategies will be described for middle-school to college level. A multitude of national reports indicate the majority of

Derrick Lavoie

57

An interactive problem-solving approach to teach traumatology for medical students  

PubMed Central

Aim We aimed to evaluate an interactive problem-solving approach for teaching traumatology from perspectives of students and consider its implications on Faculty development. Methods A two hour problem-solving, interactive tutorial on traumatology was structured to cover main topics in trauma management. The tutorial was based on real cases covering specific topics and objectives. Seven tutorials (5-9 students in each) were given by the same tutor with the same format for fourth and fifth year medical students in Auckland and UAE Universities (n = 50). A 16 item questionnaire, on a 7 point Likert-type scale, focusing on educational tools, tutor-based skills, and student-centered skills were answered by the students followed by open ended comments. Results The tutorials were highly ranked by the students. The mean values of educational tools was the highest followed by tutor-centered skills and finally student-centered skills. There was a significant increase of the rating of studied attributes over time (F = 3.9, p = 0.004, ANOVA). Students' open ended comments were highly supportive of the interactive problem-solving approach for teaching traumatology. Conclusions The interactive problem-solving approach for tutorials can be an effective enjoyable alternative or supplement to traditional instruction for teaching traumatology to medical students. Training for this approach should be encouraged for Faculty development.

2010-01-01

58

Comparing Explicit and Implicit Teaching of Multiple Representation Use in Physics Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There exist both explicit and implicit approaches to teaching students how to solve physics problems involving multiple representations. In the former, students are taught explicit problem-solving approaches, such as lists of steps, and these approaches are emphasized throughout the course. In the latter, good problem-solving strategies are modeled for students by the instructor and homework and exams present problems that require multiple representation use, but students are rarely told explicitly to take a given approach. We report on comparative study of these two approaches; students at Rutgers University receive explicit instruction, while students from the University of Colorado receive implicit instruction. Students in each course solve five common electrostatics problems of varying difficulty. We compare student performances and their use of pictures and free-body diagrams. We also compare the instructional environments, looking at teaching approaches and the frequency of multiple-representation use in lectures and exams. We find that students learning via implicit instruction do slightly better and use multiple representations more often on the shorter problems, but that students learning via explicit instruction are more likely to generate correct free-body diagrams on the hardest problem.

Kohl, Patrick B.; Rosengrant, David; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2007-11-25

59

Theme: Is Problem-Solving Teaching and SAE Needed in Agricultural Education in the 21st Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine articles in this theme issue address problem-solving teaching and supervised agricultural experience. Topics covered include systems approaches to SAE, SAE for Y2K, SAE for science, applied SAE, types of SAE, and examples of activities. (JOW)

Wardlow, George, Ed.

1999-01-01

60

The Teaching of Elementary Problem Solving in Engineering and Related Fields.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph presents 13 papers dealing with various aspects of elementary problem solving. They are: (1) "Training for Effective Problem Solving" (Gary A. Davis); (2) "Patterns of Problem Solving--A Campus-Wide Course at UCLA" (Moshe F. Rubinstein, L. Robin Keller, Edward A. Kazmarek); (3) "A Taxonomy of Problem-Solving Activities and Its…

Lubkin, James L., Ed.

61

Problem Solving with Patents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

2008-01-01

62

Solving Trade Discount Word Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

Nunenkamp, David; Coonce, Carol

2008-01-01

63

[Repetition of teaching contents between genetics and relative courses in agricultural and forestry colleges and approaches to solving the problem].  

PubMed

Genetics is one of the main courses in agricultural and forestry colleges. However, there is large repetition of teaching contents and joining problems between genetics and the relative courses. The negative effects of above problems are discussed in this paper. In order to relieve the conflict between the increase of genetics contents and the decrease of teaching hours in genetics teaching of undergraduates and provide reference for future textbook compilation, some approaches on solving repetition of teaching content and suggestions on joining problems are put forward. PMID:21951805

Liang, Shun-Xiang; He, Tao; Li, Shu-Juan; Shen, Ning-Dong; Wei, Mei-Qin; Xiong, Hui-Yan; Wei, Guo-Liang; Meng, Xiao-Ping

2011-09-01

64

Preparing College Students to Teach an Environmental Problem Solving Curriculum to Middle School Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An NSF-funded project-based program was implemented by Clarkson University in 2000 to increase the interest and knowledge of middle school students in science, math and technology through the solution of an environmental problem that is relevant to their local school community. Clarkson students developed curricula for 7th and 8th grade science and technology classes and then worked with the middle school students throughout the year to reduce to transform solid waste into healthy soil for plant growth. The solution to this problem provided a vehicle to teach fundamental science and math content as well as the process of doing science and solving problems. Placing college science and engineering students in the classroom proved to be a great mechanism for engaging students in science topics and providing mentoring experiences that differ greatly from those that a practicing professional can provide. It is clear, however, that the students must be well prepared for this experience to maximize the benefits of university - school district partnership programs. The objective of this presentation will be to describe the training program that has been developed to prepare Clarkson students to work effectively in middle school classrooms. The Clarkson students are trained for their classroom experiences during the summer before they enter the classroom. They receive three credits for the training, curriculum development, and teaching efforts. It is expected that the students have the necessary background in science and technology to teach themselves the content and environmental relevance of the problem they will be teaching. Lectures and workshops focus on how to transform this knowledge into a project-based curriculum that meets the needs of the teachers, while also exciting the students. Lecture/workshops include: team work; components of an effective class and teacher; project planning and management; problem solving process; inquiry based learning, deductive/inductive learning; creating unit/lesson plan; defining learning objectives; incorporating mentoring into program; NYS standards and science exam; and, assessment techniques. Journals are used to encourage the fellows to reflect on their learning and own educational experiences. An evaluation of the program by both Clarkson students and their partner teachers indicated that this training was appropriate for the students to enter the classroom as professional scientists and engineers. Their classroom interaction skills improved throughout the year.

Powers, S. E.

2001-12-01

65

Computer Problem-Solving Coaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth

2005-09-01

66

Computer Problem-Solving Coaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth

2009-11-30

67

Problem Solving about Problem Solving: Framing a Research Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to provide teachers with support for the improvement of computer-based problem solving, this paper considers the following research questions--and provides answers--about how to teach students problem solving and how to design training courses for teachers: (1) What are the teachers' and researchers' assumptions about the relation…

Marshall, Gail

68

The Power of Problem Solving: Practical Ideas and Teaching Strategies for Any K-8 Subject Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on the belief that giving students opportunities to think and solve problems independently is the best way to help them enjoy learning, this book provides guidelines and learning activities to help students in grades kindergarten through 8 to solve problems in all subject matter areas of the curriculum. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for…

Sorenson, Juanita S.; Buckmaster, Lynn R.; Francis, Mary Kay; Knauf, Karen M.

69

Toward Teaching Methods that Develop Learning and Enhance Problem Solving Skills in Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem solving skills and abilities are critical in life and more specifically in the engineering field. Unfortunately, significant numbers of South African students who are accessing higher education lack problem solving skills and this results in poor academic performance jeopardizing their progress especially from first to second year. On the…

Loji, K.

2012-01-01

70

The Teaching and Assessing of Mathematical Problem Solving. Research Agenda for Mathematics Education Series. Volume 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains overviews of current research, insights from teachers and tutors, and considerations of such issues as metacognition, choice of operations, and the testing of problem-solving skills. Papers include: (1) "Historical Perspectives on Problem Solving in the Mathematics Curriculum" (George M. A. Stanic and Jeremy Kilpatrick);…

Charles, Randall I., Ed.; Silver, Edward A., Ed.

71

Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

Tolman, Richard R.

1982-01-01

72

Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)|

Tolman, Richard R.

1982-01-01

73

Promoting Self-Determination in Early Elementary School: Teaching Self-Regulated Problem-Solving and Goal-Setting Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes and validates a model of teaching in early elementary grades that infuses the self-determination skills of problem solving and goal setting into existing curricula and programs. Use of the "Self-Determination Learning Model of Instruction with 5- and 6-year-olds found the model effective in identifying student interests,…

Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

2003-01-01

74

Comparison of Direct Instruction and Problem Solving Approach in Teaching Social Skills to Children with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was aimed at comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of direct instruction and problem solving approaches in teaching social skills to children with mental retardation. The design was adapted alternating treatment design. The subjects of the study consist of a girl and a boy between the ages of 11 and 13 who are mentally retarded. In…

Dagseven Emecen, Deniz

2011-01-01

75

Creating Problem Solving Natives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post, the author discusses how valuable the problem-solving tool of drawing (or acting) out the problem is to help learners make sense of the problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of work from students who were successful and who were not successful in solving the problem are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "Schmoos ânâ Goos" (cataloged separately) that is best solved by drawing a picture.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-03-04

76

Research and Teaching: Promoting the Use of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills in Qualitative Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a platform to encourage students to use HOCS in their Learn responses. The study focused on students' use of HOCS in these Learn responses regardless of whether HOCS were used in the actual solving of the problems or not. The results of this study suggest that consistent use of the Learn response in problem solving promotes reflection with an accompanied increase in use of HOCS by students during a semester.

Justice, Jason; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

2008-05-01

77

Faculty conceptions about the teaching and learning of problem-solving in introductory calculus-based physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers and curriculum developers have developed a wide variety of curricular materials and instructional strategies that have been shown to be effective in improving student problem solving performance. Relatively few physics faculty, however, have chosen to use them. One likely reason is that these curricular materials and instructional strategies do not align with the ways that faculty think about the teaching and learning of problem solving. This study is the first stage of a research program to understand faculty conceptions of the teaching and learning of problem solving. Interviews with six physics faculty from a large research university were used to generate an initial explanatory model of faculty conceptions. The interview was designed around three types of concrete instructional artifacts (3 instructor solutions, 5 student solutions, 4 types of problems). Based on an in-depth analysis of the interview transcripts, a model of faculty conceptions was developed that consists of 14 general features. The basic relationships between these 14 general features are described in a concept map that is common to all six faculty. For example, there are three distinct ways that faculty think students can learn how to solve physics problems: (1) by solving problems on their own; (2) by using feedback while/after working on problems; (3) by watching someone else solve problems or describe how to solve problems. Concept maps are also used to describe each of the 14 general features. For some of the general features, all six faculty have similar conceptions. For example, they all classify their students in terms of intelligence/natural ability and learning characteristics (e.g. motivation, study habits, etc.) and use these characteristics to explain why some students succeed and some students fail. For other general features, there is more than one distinct conception. For example, the model shows three different ways that these faculty conceive of the problem solving process: (1) three think of it as a linear decision-making process; (2) two think of it as a process of exploration and trial and error; and (3) one thinks of it as an art form that is different for each problem.

Henderson, Charles Roy

78

An Individualized Problem-Solving Approach for Teaching Choral Phrase Shaping: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experiment tested a treatment designed to improve choral students' expressiveness regarding keyword emphasis and phrase shaping. The treatment was founded upon the constructivist belief that students actively construct conceptual knowledge through problem solving. Participants were 46 university students randomly selected from a…

Broomhead, Paul

2009-01-01

79

Teaching Methods for Inventive Problem-Solving in Junior High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fostering pupils' competencies in inventive thinking and problem-solving has remained a rather unresolved issue in traditional schooling, mainly because many people regard creative thinking as a God-given ability, something an individual either possesses or does not possess, but can only be slightly learned or improved. The current study is aimed…

Barak, Moshe; Mesika, Pnina

2007-01-01

80

Conceptual Framework of Modes of Problem Solving Action (MPSA): Implications for Internet Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The conceptual framework of the Modes of Problem Solving Action (MPSA) model integrates Dewey's pragmatism, critical science theory, and theory regarding the three modes of inquiry. The MPSA model is formulated in the shape of a matrix. Horizontally, there are the following modes: technical, interpretive, and emancipating. Vertically, there are…

Lai, Su-Huei

81

Teaching Young Children Decomposition Strategies to Solve Addition Problems: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ability to count has traditionally been considered an important milestone in children's development of number sense. However, using counting (e.g., counting on, counting all) strategies to solve addition problems is not the best way for children to achieve their full mathematical potential and to prepare them to develop more complex and…

Cheng, Zi-Juan

2012-01-01

82

Teaching Mathematics Problem Solving to Students with Limited English Proficiency through Nested Spiral Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Nested Spiral Approach (NSA) is an integrated instructional approach used to promote the motivated learning of mathematics problem solving in limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. The NSA is described and a trial use is discussed. The approach extends, elaborates, and supplements existing education and instruction theories to help LEP…

Chyu, Chi-Oy W.

83

Teaching Methods for Inventive Problem-Solving in Junior High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fostering pupils' competencies in inventive thinking and problem-solving has remained a rather unresolved issue in traditional schooling, mainly because many people regard creative thinking as a God-given ability, something an individual either possesses or does not possess, but can only be slightly learned or improved. The current study is aimed…

Barak, Moshe; Mesika, Pnina

2007-01-01

84

Grading Cooperative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses aspects of cooperative problem solving that include the selection of appropriate problems and the grading of group and individual papers using an analytical scoring scale. Offers six tips for grading cooperative problem solving. An appendix provides solutions to cited problems, potential follow-up questions, and an annotated…

Kroll, Diana Lambdin; And Others

1992-01-01

85

Physics faculty beliefs and values about the teaching and learning of problem solving. II. Procedures for measurement and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To identify and describe the basis upon which instructors make curricular and pedagogical decisions, we have developed an artifact-based interview and an analysis technique based on multilayered concept maps. The policy capturing technique used in the interview asks instructors to make judgments about concrete instructional artifacts similar to those they likely encounter in their teaching environment. The analysis procedure alternatively employs both an a priori systems view analysis and an emergent categorization to construct a multilayered concept map, which is a hierarchically arranged set of concept maps where child maps include more details than parent maps. Although our goal was to develop a model of physics faculty beliefs about the teaching and learning of problem solving in the context of an introductory calculus-based physics course, the techniques described here are applicable to a variety of situations in which instructors make decisions that influence teaching and learning.

Henderson, Charles; Yerushalmi, Edit; Kuo, Vince H.; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia

2007-12-01

86

Effective Family Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective family problem solving was studied in 97 families of elementary-school-aged children with definite- and indefinite-solution tasks. Incentive and task independence were manipulated. It was found that definitions of effective problem solving based on directly observed measures of group interaction were more valid than definitions based on…

Blechman, Elaine A.; McEnroe, Michael J.

1985-01-01

87

Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual restructuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth?level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem?solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students experienced a conceptual restructuring that stayed with them over time and

Teresa Ibáńez Orcajo; Mercedes Martínez Aznar

2005-01-01

88

Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students…

Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez; Aznar, Mercedes Martinez

2005-01-01

89

Problem Solving and Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, ``knowledge chunks'' are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

Singh, Chandralekha

2009-07-01

90

Effects of guided design and lecture teaching strategies on knowledge recall and on problem-solving performance of student nurses.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of guided design and lecture teaching strategies on the clinical problem-solving performance of first quarter student nurses. The guided design treatment (written simulations and small group interaction) was selected especially with a view of developing new approaches to teaching nursing diagnosis. A total of 50 students, enrolled in Fundamentals of Nursing, were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: guided design and lecture. Each group received 10 hours of instruction. Treatment groups remained intact for 6 weeks of clinical practice following instruction. Recall knowledge of the nursing process was measured by an objective examination, and performance in problem solving was measured through the use of a care plan evaluation tool. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and t-tests. Students taught by guided design scored significantly higher than those taught by lecture in preparing a patient care plan for an actual patient and for a simulated patient. Knowledge of the nursing process as tested by an objective examination was not significantly different for the two treatment groups. PMID:2268495

Newsome, G G; Tillman, M H

91

Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…

Veal, William

1999-01-01

92

Solving the Pentagon Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes one possible approach to solving the following problem: given a pentagon ABCDE in which triangles ABC, BCD, CDE, DEA, and EAB all have area=1, is the area of the pentagon determined? (AIM)|

Greer, Brian

1996-01-01

93

Problem Solving Seminar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course includes elements from an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. The material will help students develop their mathematical and problem solving skills. A few topics that are covered include probability, generating mathematical functions and polynomials. Course materials include student assignments and solutions. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-; Kedlaya, Kiran Sridhara, 1974-; Stanley, Richard

2010-12-22

94

Inquiry and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…

Thorson, Annette, Ed.

1999-01-01

95

Problem Solving in Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

96

Effective family problem solving.  

PubMed

Effective family problem solving was studied in 97 families of elementary-school-aged children, with 2 definite-solution tasks--tower building (TWB) and 20 questions (TQ), and 1 indefinite-solution task--plan-something-together (PST). Incentive (for cooperation or competition) and task independence (members worked solo or jointly) were manipulated during TWB and TQ, yielding 4 counterbalanced conditions per task per family. On TQ, solo performance exceeded joint performance; on TWB, competition impaired joint performance. Families effective at problem solving in all conditions of both definite-solution tasks tried more problem-solving strategies during TWB and deliberated longer and reached more satisfactory agreements during PST. Family problem-solving effectiveness was moderately predicted by 2 parents' participation in the study. Parental education, parental occupational prestige, and membership in the family of an academically and socially competent child were weaker predictors. The results indicate that definitions of effective family problem solving that are based on directly observed measures of group interaction are more valid than definitions that rely primarily on family characteristics. PMID:3987417

Blechman, E A; McEnroe, M J

1985-04-01

97

Persistence in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video third grade teacher Jean Saul demonstrates how she uses problem solving tasks to create a classroom climate that fosters persistence, independence, responsibility, and risk-taking. Students are asked to find three different methods for solving each problem and to record them on a Choose Three Ways graphic organizer. Through collaboration and presentation of their work to peers, students develop math language and discourse skills. A side bar provides reflection questions. Supporting materials include a transcript of the video (doc), the graphic organizer (doc), and two samples of student work (pdf).

2012-01-01

98

Best Practices in Writing Instruction. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Highly practical and accessible, this indispensable book provides clear-cut strategies for improving K-12 writing instruction. The contributors are leading authorities who demonstrate proven ways to teach different aspects of writing, with chapters on planning, revision, sentence construction, handwriting, spelling, and motivation. The use of the…

Graham, Steve, Ed.; MacArthur, Charles A., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Jill, Ed.

2007-01-01

99

A Different Approach to Teaching Multiculturalism: Pragmatism as a Pedagogy and Problem-Solving Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the moral imperative for teaching multiculturalism from a classically pragmatic point of view. Through an examination of the principles of classical pragmatism, embodied in the work of John Dewey, this analysis suggests that approaching multiculturalism from a pragmatic perspective lends a necessary moral foundation for the…

Henry, Sue Ellen

2005-01-01

100

Best Practices in Writing Instruction. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highly practical and accessible, this indispensable book provides clear-cut strategies for improving K-12 writing instruction. The contributors are leading authorities who demonstrate proven ways to teach different aspects of writing, with chapters on planning, revision, sentence construction, handwriting, spelling, and motivation. The use of the…

Graham, Steve, Ed.; MacArthur, Charles A., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Jill, Ed.

2007-01-01

101

Solid Gold Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is designed to strengthen critical thinking and problem-solving skills by allowing students to assume the roles of 1992 Winter Olympic Games planners who make preparations for the event. A reproducible data sheet serves as a resource. Hands-on activities and a critical television viewing activity are included. (IAH)

Fagella, Kathy

1992-01-01

102

[Problem Solving Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

103

Using Proportional Reasoning to Solve Geometric Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students solve a geometric problem of measuring polygons with the help of proportional reasoning. Thus the importance of conceptual reasoning is emphasized as a highly efficient technique for teaching and strengthening mathematical content.

Pandiscio, Eric A

2004-01-01

104

Problem Solving through Aviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit that focuses on problem solving through real life situations that involveaviation. In spite of a variety of shapes and sizes all airplanes fly in the same way, and the problems of the aviation industry are basically the same. Some of the problems in this unit deal with the tests that have already been in the United States by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Federal Aviation Agency, and the Department of Defense in order to ensure safety, convenience, and efficiency in aviation.

Bryant, Joyce

2007-04-10

105

Opportunities in Workclothes: Problems & Problem-Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook suggests six problem-solving steps to help employees in workplace literacy programs learn how to solve problems: identify the problem; clarify goals; examine alternatives; choose; act; and evaluate and react. Fifteen problem scenarios are provided for group efforts in problem solving. A problem-solving questionnaire and questionnaire…

Falagrady, Teresa

106

NARRATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING IN TEACHER EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among system characteristics we can emphasize problem-solving orientation of school work in all school subjects. The comprehensive school reform introduced in the 1970's a unified school form in the whole country with regulated subject matter teaching (the number of lessons is defined in law). During the nine years in comprehensive school each student solves about 15 000 problems and tasks

Pentti Hakkarainen

107

Explicitly Teaching for Transfer: Effects on the Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance of Students with Mathematics Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore methods to enhance mathematical problem solving for students with mathematics disabilities (MD). A small-group problem-solving tutoring treat- ment incorporated explicit instruction on problem-solution rules and on transfer. The transfer component was designed to increase awareness of the connections between novel and fami- liar problems by broadening the categories by which students group

Lynn S. Fuchs; Douglas Fuchs; Carol L. Hamlett; Amanda C. Appleton

2002-01-01

108

Generating enthusiasm for undergraduate research by teaching futures-based problem-solving skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This model is intended to generate enthusiasm for research that goes beyond the experience of the typical college “term-paper.” Framed in the context of introductory lectures on the basics of social science research within the global perspective of challenges futurists predict for the early years of the millennium, undergraduates are instructed to think in terms of problems related to the

Michael J. Bolton

2000-01-01

109

Preparing College Students to Teach an Environmental Problem Solving Curriculum to Middle School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

An NSF-funded project-based program was implemented by Clarkson University in 2000 to increase the interest and knowledge of middle school students in science, math and technology through the solution of an environmental problem that is relevant to their local school community. Clarkson students developed curricula for 7th and 8th grade science and technology classes and then worked with the middle

S. E. Powers

2001-01-01

110

Preparing College Students to Teach an Environmental Problem Solving Curriculum to Middle School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

An NSF-funded project-based program was implemented by Clarkson University in 2000 to increase the interest and knowledge of middle school students in science, math and technology through the solution of an environmental problem that is relevant to their local school community. Clarkson students developed curricula for 7th and 8 th grade science and technology classes and then worked with the

Susan E. Powers

111

The Comparative Effects on Two Methods of Automated Instruction, One Visual and One Auditory, in Teaching Selected Problem Solving Behaviors to Two Groups of Sixth Grade Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research was to measure the effectiveness of two methods of automated instruction in teaching sixth grade students selected problem solving behaviors, namely observing, comparing, classifying, interpreting, analyzing, making assumptions, summarizing, and critical thinking. Two treatments (one visual and one auditory) were…

Walker, Mary Ann

112

Problem Solving: Pencil Box Staining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip shows students engaged in the first Common Core Practice StandardâMake sense of problems and persevere in solving them as learners make a decision about how much stain will be needed to cover the surface area of twenty-six completed boxes. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video. A related clip (cataloged separately) shows the same exploration by the same students but Common Core Practice Standard # #5-Use appropriate tools strategically is evident.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

113

Genetics problem solving and worldview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

Dale, Esther

114

Problem solving and behavior modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively reviewed problem-solving theory and research for possible applications in behavior modification. Problem solving was defined as a behavioral process which (a) makes available a variety of response alternatives for dealing with a problematic situation, and (b) increases the probability of selecting the most effective response from among these alternatives. 5 stages of problem solving were identified: (a) general orientation

Thomas J. DZurilla; Marvin R. Goldfried

1971-01-01

115

Visualization in Problem Solving Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes two problem solving environments that integrate visualization and computational tools into a high level user interface. The objective of a problem solving environment is to provide scientists with a complete, usable, and integrated set of high level facilities for solving problems in a specific domain. Integrating visualization tools with computation tools encourages scientists to think in terms

Amit Goel

116

The Problem-Solving Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of microcomputers and software as problem-solving tools, including comments on "TK! Solver," automatic problem-solving program (reviewed in detail on pp.84-86 in this same issue). Also discusses problem-solving approaches to bridge the disciplines, such as music/physics, junior high science/mathematics (genetics),…

Bardige, Art

1983-01-01

117

The Development of Students' Problem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

118

Solving an ``unsolvable'' projectile-motion problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

If there were any rules about teaching physics, ``Don't assign problems to the students that you, yourself, cannot solve'' would probably top the list. And yet this bias is an unfortunate one: a closer examination of some of these problems can lead to new and valuable understandings.

David Montalvo

1999-01-01

119

Mathematical Problem Solving by Analogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed

Laura R. Novick; Keith J. Holyoak

1991-01-01

120

Context Effects on Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context effects on problem solving demonstrated so far in the literature are the result of systematic manipulation of some supposedly irrelevant to the solution elements of the problem description. Little attention has been paid to the role of casual entities in the environment which are not part of the problem description, but which might influence the problem solving process. The

Boicho Kokinov; Marina Yoveva

1996-01-01

121

The Transfusion Medicine Tutor: Using Expert Systems Technology to Teach Domain-Specific Problem-Solving Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides data regarding the effectiveness of the expert system-based Transfusion Medicine Tutor (TMT) when used by medical technology students to learn an important problem-solving task, the identification of alloantibodies in a patient's blood for the purpose of finding compatible blood for transfusion. The results show that the students who were taught by an instructor using TMT to provide

Jodi Heintz Obradovich; Philip J. Smith; Stephanie Guerlain; Sally Rudmann; Patricia Strohm; Jack W. Smith; Larry Sachs; Rebecca Denning

1996-01-01

122

Representations in Problem Solving: A Case Study with Optimization Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: Representations play an essential role in mathematical thinking. They favor the understanding of mathematical concepts and stimulate the development of flexible and versatile thinking in problem solving. Here our focus is on their use in optimization problems, a type of problem considered important in mathematics teaching and…

Villegas, Jose L.; Castro, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jose

2009-01-01

123

Problem Solving: A Handbook for Teachers. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past decade, problem solving has become a major focus of the mathematics curriculum. Many feel that in this era of increasing technology, it is important for students to learn how to approach a problem situation. This book was designed to help teachers teach problem solving. Chapter 1, "An Introduction to Problem Solving," deals with…

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

124

Models of group problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the group problem solving process was investigated with college Ss working on Maier's horse trading problem (1952). 3 theoretical models were posited to be utilized to interpret the results: an independent model (group response will not differ from those of Ss working alone), a rational model (when one group member solves the problem, the group will adopt

Edwin J. Thomas; Clinton F. Fink

1961-01-01

125

Problem Solving Style, Creative Thinking, and Problem Solving Confidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…

Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.

2009-01-01

126

Instructors' Ideas about Problem Solving--Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has developed an interview tool to investigate physics faculty views about the learning and teaching of problem solving. In the part of the interview dealing with grading, faculty members were asked to evaluate a set of five student solutions and explain their reasons for the…

Henderson, Charles; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia; Kuo, Vince H.; Yerushalmi, Edit

127

Research on Problem Solving: Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides a very detailed and comprehensive review of the extensive literature in education and cognitive science on the use of physics problems as a context for examining cognitive processes and approaches to problem solving.

Maloney, David

2006-06-19

128

Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in…

Lacy, Grace

129

Training Preschool Children in Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving training, developed to teach children how (rather than what) to think and therefore how to solve their own interpersonal problems, was used in a study over three years conducted in Newaygo County, Michigan to evaluate its impact on low-income preschool children. Overall, trained children improved in both their ability to solve interpersonal problems, and in their classroom

Carolyn L. Feis; Craig Simons

1985-01-01

130

Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Is There a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a study into the relationship between a student's ability to solve problems in chemistry and his/her understanding of molecular concepts. Argues that teaching students to solve problems about chemistry is not equivalent to teaching about the nature of matter. (TW)|

Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Pickering, Miles

1987-01-01

131

On Solving "Problems"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counting and estimating are no doubt ancient survival skills. And yet, present educational methods tend to downplay these very skills. This breeds senseless innumeracy and social disruption. Jumbling inches with centimeters, for example, can cause a Mars mission to fail. With minor distortion, elementary and high schools (and beyond) teach that all fractions are simple, that all square roots are rational, and that trigonometric functions need be evaluated only for 30, 45, and 60 degrees. We thus inflict threefold damage on our children and students. First, they come to believe that numbers beyond 10 (except for current account deficits) are intuitively inaccessible; second, that answers to all mathematical questions are "formulas"; and third, that the art of estimation merely requires punching keys on a calculator—a dismal sort of black magic. These beliefs I wish to expose in the form of eight short numerical tales.

Ghez, Richard

2006-04-01

132

Children Solve Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

De Bono, Edward

133

Solving bearing overheating problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overheating is a major indicator, along with vibration and noise, of an underlying problem affecting a bearing or related components. Because normal operating temperatures vary widely from one application to another, no single temperature is a reliable sign of overheating in every situation. By observing an application when it is running smoothly, a technician can establish a benchmark temperature for

Jendzurski

1995-01-01

134

Solving Playground Network Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use cooperation and logical thinking to find solutions to network problems on the playground. Learners act both as computer routers, figuring out with each other how to effectively get data to the place it's being sent, and as the actual data, because the learners travel various edges of a network to get to their destination or "home" point. Learners use geometry skills to determine the most efficient routes in the network.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

135

Metaheuristics: Intelligent Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Metaheuristics support managers in decision making with robust tools providing high quality solutions to important problems\\u000a in business, engineering, economics and science in reasonable time horizons. While finding exact solutions in these applications\\u000a still poses a real challenge despite the impact of recent advances in computer technology and the great interactions between\\u000a computer science, management science\\/operations research and mathematics, (meta-)

Marco Caserta; Stefan Voß

136

Solving satisfiability problems with preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propositional satisfiability (SAT) is a success story in Computer Sci- ence and Artificial Intelligence: SAT solvers are currently used to solve problems in many different application domains, including planning and formal verifica- tion. The main reason for this success is that modern SAT solvers can success- fully deal with problems having millions of variables. All these solvers are based on

Emanuele Di Rosa; Enrico Giunchiglia; Marco Maratea

2010-01-01

137

Problem solving in science and technology education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both science and technology education have a commitment to teaching process; investigations or scientific method in science,\\u000a design in technology, and problem solving in both areas. The separate debates in science and technology education reveal different\\u000a curricular emphases in processes and content, reflecting different goals, and pedagogic and educational research traditions.\\u000a This paper explores these differences and argues that each

Patricia Murphy; Robert McCormick

1997-01-01

138

Assessing Problem Solving with "Diana"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, discusses an experiment in which expert and novice participants completed a task either completing a mechanics problem (novices) or evaluating the answer to the problem (experts). The results indicated that instructors were more likely to make specific criticisms if the students spoke in generalities. Additional evidence indicates that novice problem solving knowledge consists of both conscious and tacit pieces.

Harper, Kathleen A.

2010-08-03

139

Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

Man, Yiu-Kwong

2010-01-01

140

Student performance and their perception of a patient-oriented problem-solving approach with audiovisual aids in teaching pathology: a comparison with traditional lectures  

PubMed Central

Purpose We use different methods to train our undergraduates. The patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS) system is an innovative teaching–learning method that imparts knowledge, enhances intrinsic motivation, promotes self learning, encourages clinical reasoning, and develops long-lasting memory. The aim of this study was to develop POPS in teaching pathology, assess its effectiveness, and assess students’ preference for POPS over didactic lectures. Method One hundred fifty second-year MBBS students were divided into two groups: A and B. Group A was taught by POPS while group B was taught by traditional lectures. Pre- and posttest numerical scores of both groups were evaluated and compared. Students then completed a self-structured feedback questionnaire for analysis. Results The mean (SD) difference in pre- and post-test scores of groups A and B was 15.98 (3.18) and 7.79 (2.52), respectively. The significance of the difference between scores of group A and group B teaching methods was 16.62 (P < 0.0001), as determined by the z-test. Improvement in post-test performance of group A was significantly greater than of group B, demonstrating the effectiveness of POPS. Students responded that POPS facilitates self-learning, helps in understanding topics, creates interest, and is a scientific approach to teaching. Feedback response on POPS was strong in 57.52% of students, moderate in 35.67%, and negative in only 6.81%, showing that 93.19% students favored POPS over simple lectures. Conclusion It is not feasible to enforce the PBL method of teaching throughout the entire curriculum; However, POPS can be incorporated along with audiovisual aids to break the monotony of dialectic lectures and as alternative to PBL.

Singh, Arjun

2011-01-01

141

Building Confidence through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-minute video demonstrates how students learn to persevere through challenging number puzzles and games. Headteacher Kate Frood discusses her philosophy and models teaching children to use core multiplication facts as tools for more complex problems. She differentiates tasks to accommodate advanced and struggling learners.

2012-01-01

142

Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…

Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

2007-01-01

143

Knowledge Structure and Problem Solving in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article presents a prescriptive analysis of the kinds of knowledge and procedures leading to effective human problem solving in a quantitative science such as physics. The knowledge about such a science, explicated in the case of mechanics, specifies special descriptive concepts and relations described at various levels of abstractness, is organized hierarchically, and is accompanied by explicit guidelines specifying when and how this knowledge is to be applied. General problem-solving procedures, to be used in conjunction with such domain-specific knowledge, specify how initially to describe and analyze any problem so as to facilitate its subsequent solution; how to search for a solution by methods of constraint satisfaction used together with heuristic methods for decomposing problems and exploring decisions; and how to assess whether the resulting solution is correct and reasonably optimal. The preceding model of effective human problem solving is compared with some relevant observations and with special experiments designed to test such a prescriptive model. It also suggests methods for teaching students improved scientific problem-solving skills.

Reif, Frederick; Heller, Joan I.

2006-06-23

144

Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems  

ScienceCinema

One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

145

Logo's Problem-Solving Potential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the uncertainty of the future and the rapidity with which computer technology is changing, a generalist position on the objectives of educational computing is desirable. This position insists that learning how to think and solve problems is the foundation of education and suggests that basic learning needs to be an integral part of the…

Dale, Evelyn J.

146

The Development of Students' Probllem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas

2011-03-03

147

Organizing and Managing the Language Arts Block: A Professional Development Guide. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book offers essential guidance to preservice and inservice teachers seeking to create, revise, and/or add new strategies to the teaching of the language arts block. The book's focus is on how to implement effective strategies in the context of a well-planned classroom and smoothly choreographed daily schedule. A series of case studies in the…

Morrow, Lesley Mandel

148

An Experimental Study of In-Service Teacher Training to Promote Inductive Teaching and Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This latest in a series of studies (of conditions which support creative problemsolving activity of gifted children) attempted to assess the immediate impact of an inservice training program to promote inductive and nondirective teaching behaviors. Subjects were 160 teachers (124 who participated in the training program and 36 constituting a…

Stone, Douglas E.

149

Classroom Literacy Assessment. Making Sense of What Students Know and Do. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Showcasing assessment practices that can help teachers plan effective instruction, this book addresses the real-world complexities of teaching literacy in grades K-8. Leading contributors present trustworthy approaches that examine learning processes as well as learning products, that yield information on how the learning environment can be…

Paratore, Jeanne R. Ed.; McCormack, Rachel L. Ed.; Block, Cathy, Collins Ed.

2007-01-01

150

A Problem-Solving CAI--Factor-Q.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Factor-Q is a problem-solving computer assisted instruction system for teaching polynomials in grades 9-12 that addresses the limitations of most problem-solving programs, among others, the user interface. The system is designed to help students master the skills of factorizing polynomials. It demonstrates the ease with which inadequately trained…

Maredi, Mphahlele; Oosthuizen, H. J.

1995-01-01

151

Childhood Physical Punishment and Problem Solving in Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing from social learning theories and symbolic interactionist understandings of social life, the authors suggest that physical punishment teaches aggressive and controlling strategies for solving the problems of living together and hinders the development of important problem-solving skills, specifically the ability to role take with others.…

Cast, Alicia D.; Schweingruber, David; Berns, Nancy

2006-01-01

152

Computers and Problem Solving for Sixth-Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a curriculum unit designed for average sixth-grade students intended to engage them in problem-solving experiences and to teach them problem-solving strategies. The curriculum consists of 20 sessions in which students engage in various activities using the following software packages: The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, Rescue at Boone's…

Oughton, John M.

1995-01-01

153

Problem Solving Skills of Selected Fourth Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A comparison of three approaches to problem solving in fourth grade mathematics is presented. Three classes participated in the study. Class One studied problem solving in a structured classroom setting, Class Two studied problem solving incidentally, and Class Three studied problem solving when it appeared in the text. The structured study of…

Harvin, Virginia R.

154

Assessments as Teaching and Research Tools in an Environmental Problem-Solving Program for In-Service Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the use of a scenario-based assessment tool in two environmental geoscience in-service programs for middle school and high school teachers. This tool served both to guide instructional techniques and as a method to evaluate the success of the instructional approach. In each case, participants were assessed before the workshops to reveal misconceptions that could be addressed in program activities and afterwards to reveal shifts in their understanding of concepts and approaches. The researchers noted that this scenario-based assessment was effective in providing guidance in refining instructional techniques and as a method to evaluate the effectiveness of an instructional program. In addition, participating teachers reported significant changes in their teaching as a result of the program.

Cooper, Barbara; Shepardson, Daniel; Harber, Jonathan

2002-01-01

155

Classroom discussion and individual problem-solving in the teaching of history: Do different instructional approaches affect interest in different ways?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 100 Italian eighth graders were divided into two groups to compare the effects of two instructional interventions – the first based on problem-solving through discussion, the second on individual problem-solving – on students' learning of two historical topics (World War I and the economic boom), interest and self-perception of competence in history. The intervention based on discussion

Laura Del Favero; Pietro Boscolo; Giulio Vidotto; Marco Vicentini

2007-01-01

156

Using qualitative problem-solving strategies to highlight the role of conceptual knowledge in solving problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on the use of qualitative problem-solving strategies in teaching an introductory, calculus-based physics course as a means of highlighting the role played by conceptual knowledge in solving problems. We found that presenting strategies during lectures and in homework solutions provides an excellent opportunity to model for students the type of concept-based, qualitative reasoning that is valued in our profession, and that student-generated strategies serve a diagnostic function by providing instructors with insights on students' conceptual understanding and reasoning. Finally, we found strategies to be effective pedagogical tools for helping students both to identify principles that could be applied to solve specific problems, as well as to recall the major principles covered in the course months after it was over.

Leonard, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Mestre, Jose P.

2005-10-26

157

Toward a New Perspective on Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educating students to become successful problem solvers has been a goal of education at least since Dewey. However, the kinds of problems students do in school to practice their problem-solving competence have little to do with the problems they will need to solve in everyday settings. We briefly critique traditional conceptions of problem solving, propose a different framework for theorizing

Wolff-Michael Roth; Michelle K. McGinn

1997-01-01

158

The Influence of Perceived Constraints on Teachers' Problem-Solving Beliefs and Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes data collected from a study that examined links between the use of problem-solving teaching approaches in primary mathematics classrooms and teachers' beliefs about the role of problem solving in learning mathematics. It appears that teachers held diverse views about the role of problem solving in mathematics teaching, that their reported practices were compatible with their beliefs, and

Judy Anderson; Paul White

159

The Contribution of External Representations in Pre-School Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Could problem solving be the object of teaching in early education? Could appropriate teaching interventions develop to scaffold children's efforts to solve problems? These were the central questions of this article. The sample consisted of 18 children attending public pre-school in Cyprus. The problem they were asked to solve was to find all…

Shiakalli, Maria Angela; Zacharos, Konstantinos

2012-01-01

160

The Contribution of External Representations in Pre-School Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Could problem solving be the object of teaching in early education? Could appropriate teaching interventions develop to scaffold children's efforts to solve problems? These were the central questions of this article. The sample consisted of 18 children attending public pre-school in Cyprus. The problem they were asked to solve was to find all…

Shiakalli, Maria Angela; Zacharos, Konstantinos

2012-01-01

161

Graphical problem solving and visual communication in the beginning computer graphics course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beginning computer graphics course can teach much more than just computer graphics. It can also provide an excellent introduction to graphical problem solving and visual communication, and in so doing can be an excellent complement to other computer science courses that teach more analytical problem solving. This paper describes the graphical problem-solving and visual communication contexts and discusses how

Steve Cunningham

2002-01-01

162

Facilitating Students' Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of students' ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on students' common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on students' problem solving abilities.

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2010-10-01

163

Using Self-Guided Treatment Software (ePST) to Teach Clinicians How to Deliver Problem-Solving Treatment for Depression  

PubMed Central

Problem-solving treatment (PST) offers a promising approach to the depression care; however, few PST training opportunities exist. A computer-guided, interactive media program has been developed to deliver PST electronically (ePST), directly to patients. The program is a six-session, weekly intervention modeled on an evidence-based PST protocol. Users are guided through each session by a clinician who is presented via hundreds of branching audio and video clips. Because expert clinician behaviors are modeled in the program, not only does the ePST program have the potential to deliver PST to patients but it may also serve as a training tool to teach clinicians how to deliver PST. Thirteen social workers and trainees used ePST self-instructionally and subsequently attended a day-long workshop on PST. Participants' PST knowledge level increased significantly from baseline to post-ePST (P = .001) and did not increase significantly further after attending the subsequent workshop. Additionally, attending the workshop did not significantly increase the participants' skill at performing PST beyond the use of the ePST program. Using the ePST program appears to train novices to a sufficient level of competence to begin practicing PST under supervision. This self-instructional training method could enable PST for depression to be widely disseminated, although follow-up supervision is still required.

Cartreine, James A.; Chang, Trina E.; Seville, Janette L.; Sandoval, Luis; Moore, John B.; Xu, Shuai; Hegel, Mark T.

2012-01-01

164

Using Self-Guided Treatment Software (ePST) to Teach Clinicians How to Deliver Problem-Solving Treatment for Depression.  

PubMed

Problem-solving treatment (PST) offers a promising approach to the depression care; however, few PST training opportunities exist. A computer-guided, interactive media program has been developed to deliver PST electronically (ePST), directly to patients. The program is a six-session, weekly intervention modeled on an evidence-based PST protocol. Users are guided through each session by a clinician who is presented via hundreds of branching audio and video clips. Because expert clinician behaviors are modeled in the program, not only does the ePST program have the potential to deliver PST to patients but it may also serve as a training tool to teach clinicians how to deliver PST. Thirteen social workers and trainees used ePST self-instructionally and subsequently attended a day-long workshop on PST. Participants' PST knowledge level increased significantly from baseline to post-ePST (P = .001) and did not increase significantly further after attending the subsequent workshop. Additionally, attending the workshop did not significantly increase the participants' skill at performing PST beyond the use of the ePST program. Using the ePST program appears to train novices to a sufficient level of competence to begin practicing PST under supervision. This self-instructional training method could enable PST for depression to be widely disseminated, although follow-up supervision is still required. PMID:23213493

Cartreine, James A; Chang, Trina E; Seville, Janette L; Sandoval, Luis; Moore, John B; Xu, Shuai; Hegel, Mark T

2012-11-14

165

Problem Solving in Chemistry. Research Matters...To the Science Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This information sheet examines three areas: (1) what research tells about problem-solving in chemistry; (2) why students have such difficulty in solving chemistry problems; and (3) if there are some ways of teaching students to solve problems that are more effective than others. From several research studies on problem-solving in chemistry, it is…

Gabel, Dorothy

166

Conceptual and procedural knowledge community college students use when solving a complex science problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strong science knowledge base and problem solving skills have always been highly valued for employment in the science industry. Skills currently needed for employment include being able to problem solve (Overtoom, 2000). Academia also recognizes the need for effectively teaching students to apply problem solving skills in clinical settings. This thesis investigates how students solve complex science problems in

Janice Lee Steen-Eibensteiner

2006-01-01

167

Strategies of Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Artificial Intelligence is concerned with problem solving in which groups solve tasks. In this paper we describe stra­ tegies of cooperation that groups require to solve shared tasks effectively. We discuss such strategies in the context of a specific group problem solving application: collision avoidance in air traffic control. Experimental findings with four distinct air-traffic control systems, each implementing

Stephanie J. Cammarata; David Mcarthur; Randall Steeb

1983-01-01

168

Studentsâ Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate studentsâ difficulties with multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first semester calculus-based physics course. Each student was interviewed four times during the semester, each time after they had completed an exam in class. During these interviews students were first asked to solve a problem they had seen on the exam, followed by problems that differed in context and type of representation from the exam problem. Students were provided verbal scaffolding to solve the new problems. We discuss the common difficulties that students encountered when attempting to transfer their problem solving skills across problems in different representations.

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. S.

2010-01-19

169

Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to…

van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2013-01-01

170

LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

2011-01-01

171

Problem Solving Appraisal of Delinquent Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the following: (1) the relationship of problem solving appraisal to narcissistic vulnerability, locus of control, and depression; (2) the differences in problem solving appraisal, locus of control, and depression in first-time and repeat offenders; and (3) the prediction of problem solving appraisal by narcissistic…

Perez, Ruperto M.; And Others

172

Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)|

Ouellette, Hugh

1979-01-01

173

Teaching Word Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A paper motivated by Polya's book How to Solve It, which presents material mindful of students who may believe they have "Math Anxiety." The unit reviews the solutions of word problems starting with the concept of a variable and relating the solution of word problems to a process or scheme as given by Polya: 1) Understanding the problem, 2) Devising a plan, 3) Carrying out the plan, and 4) Reviewing the solution and the problem. .

Langan, James F.

2007-03-31

174

Hemisphericity Research: An Overview with Some Implications for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on cerebral hemisphericity and lateral dominance is reviewed, and relationships between right and left hemispheric modes of information processing as well as problem solving techniques are discussed. Conclusions focus mainly on need for educators to know information processing differences of the two hemispheres to teach children problem

Myers, John T.

1982-01-01

175

Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study…

Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen

2008-01-01

176

Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includes…

Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen

2008-01-01

177

Science Teachers and Problem Solving in Elementary Schools in Singapore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which science teachers taught problem solving in elementary science. The survey involved 348 teachers in 36 Singapore elementary schools. The study investigated the science teachers' views about their use of science instructional techniques in general and the problem-solving teaching approach in particular. It also focused on the difficulties faced by science teachers in implementing the problem-solving teaching approach in the science classroom. It was found that the most emphasised activities were completion of science workbooks, teachers' explanation of concepts, and hands-on activities. The least emphasised activities were computer-based learning, activities beyond the textbook and workbook, and visits to the ecology garden and other parts of the school. Only about one-third of the teachers often conducted activities pertaining to problem solving. Most of them were more concerned about covering the science syllabus for examinations, the physical constraints of the learning environment, and pupils' abilities and motivation. On the other hand, teacher-related factors ranked low: these included teachers' preference for teaching and learning outcomes, their ability to maintain control over pupils' learning, feelings of inadequacy of science knowledge, and insufficient understanding of the pedagogical method of teaching problem solving.

Lee, Kam-Wah L.; Tan, Li-Li; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Lee, Kam-Wah L.; Chia, Lian-Sai; Chin, Christine

2000-01-01

178

Gender Differences in Advanced Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategy flexibility in mathematical problem solving was investigated. In Studies 1 and 2, high school juniors and seniors solved Scholastic Assessment Test–Mathematics (SAT-M) problems classified as conventional or unconventional. Algorithmic solution strategies were students' default choice for both types of problems across conditions that manipulated item format and solution time. Use of intuitive strategies on unconventional problems was evident only

Ann M. Gallagher; Richard De Lisi; Patricia C. Holst; Ann V. McGillicuddy-De Lisi; Mary Morely; Cara Cahalan

2000-01-01

179

Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.

Billionniere, Elodie V.

180

Stabilization: A Descriptive Framework for Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative description of problem solving was tested against the think-aloud protocols of twelve introductory calculus-based physics students. Think-aloud protocols are transcripts of problem-solving sessions during which participants are asked to verbalize their thoughts as they attempt to solve a problem. The stabilization model tested considers perceptions of problem difficulty to be related to four primary factors: categorization, goal interpretation,

Sherry L. Savrda

2006-01-01

181

How problem-solving really works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years, many researchers have proposed theoretical models of problem-solving. These models work a problem in a sequential and rational manner. Through our professional experience and an action research study, we discovered fundamental differences between what these models describe and what actually happens when problems are solved in a real-world setting. Assisting with a process improvement experience in a

Satya S. Chakravorty; Douglas N. Hales; James I. Herbert

2008-01-01

182

Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem

Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

2013-01-01

183

AHA: A Connectionist Perspective on Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AHA model is proposed as a demonstration of what connectionism might have to offer the study of problem solving. Bridging the Gestalt and Problem Space theories of problem solving, AHA simulates serial search at a macro-level while incorporating (at a...

C. A. Kaplan

1988-01-01

184

Authentic assessment of students' problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Improving curricular materials and practices aimed at complex cognitive processes such as problem solving requires careful planning and useful tools for assessment. To illustrate the challenges of measuring a change in studentsâ problem solving in physics, we present the results of and a reflection on a pilot assessment of the effectiveness of computer problem-solving coaches in a large (200+ student) section of an introductory physics course.

Xu, Qing; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leon; Aryal, Bijaya

2013-08-05

185

Authentic assessment of students' problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving curricular materials and practices aimed at complex cognitive processes such as problem solving requires careful planning and useful tools for assessment. To illustrate the challenges of measuring a change in students' problem solving in physics, we present the results of and a reflection on a pilot assessment of the effectiveness of computer problem-solving coaches [1] in a large (200+ student) section of an introductory physics course.

Xu, Qing; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Aryal, Bijaya

2013-01-01

186

Doing Right: Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We discuss individual and multiagent (group) problem solving and negotiation. We consider connectedness, a dynamic subjective\\u000a relation experience of consciousness involving awareness\\/qualia experience – as cognition, emotion, social, conation, holistic,\\u000a etc. We develop Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation (CPSN) for doing right meaning defining\\/solving a validated\\u000a “right” problem\\/solution, as discussed in the chapter. The validated solution constitutes right action. CPSN

Melvin F. Shakun

187

Su Doku and Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lot has been made of the topical puzzle Su Doku, with various claims that it can support development of mathematical abilities. The latest, in March this year, came from the Training and Development Agency when a giant puzzle was used to attract graduates into a career of maths teaching. A giant Su Doku puzzle toured busy city centres with the…

Macintyre, Tom

2006-01-01

188

Extending the Conception of "Problem" in Problem-Solving Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the literature concerning problem solving in science education. Authors contend that the adoption of a forward-looking viewpoint of science has increased the attention given to the topics of discovery and problem-solving behavior. Authors conclude that research by philosophers of science on models and problem solving include insights to…

Stewart, Jim; Hafner, Robert

1991-01-01

189

The Effects of Language and Schooling on the Solution of Simple Word Problems by Nigerian Children. A Report from the Project Using the Microcomputer to Teach Problem-Solving Skills. Program Report 85-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study investigated the problem-solving strategies used by schooled and unschooled Nigerian children to solve simple addition and subtraction problems. The purpose of the study was to: (1) verify with Nigerian children, models of the knowledge and strategies underlying children's solutions to simple word problems; (2) test the…

Adetula, Lawal O.

190

Problem Solving and Emotional Education in Initial Primary Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our work is based on two premises. The first is that affective factors (beliefs, attitudes, and emotions) influence teaching and learning mathematics, and problem solving in particular. The second is that initial teacher education is an important element in the process of improving overall educational practice. On this basis, our research group…

Caballero, Ana; Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Guerrero, Eloisa

2011-01-01

191

A taxonomy for computer-based assessment of problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-based assessment of problem solving is motivated by the need for educational assessments that are valid and efficient. Based on a recent revision of Bloom's taxonomy (Anderson et al., 2001, A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: a revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman), assessment items should require applying a particular cognitive process to a particular

Richard E Mayer

2002-01-01

192

Ideas in Practice: Metacognition and Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent research related to metacognition and mathematical problem-solving performance. Offers suggestions for classroom activities to teach the skills of metacognition (i.e., plan, monitor, and evaluate thinking) in the context of mathematics. Offers instructor observations and students' self-evaluations about the types of metacognitive…

Gray, Susan S.

1991-01-01

193

Problem Solving in Social Studies: A Model Lesson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These model lessons from the primary grades are on the techniques of advertising drawn from a unit on, "Creating and Producing Tools and Techniques". They include behaviorial objectives, teaching and motivational strategies, evaluation techniques. The model lessons follow the problem solving inquiry approach in social studies using multimedia…

Oklahoma City Public School System, OK.

194

CHANGING TEACHERS' BELIEFS ABOUT STUDENTS' HEURISTICS IN PROBLEM SOLVING  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on transformations of teachers' beliefs about students' heuristic strategies in problem solving. Twenty in-service teachers responded to questions on their and their students' heuristic experience. Then two of them took part in a six- month teaching experiment focused on heuristic training of their 8-graders. We found that the teachers' considerations on usefulness of particular heuristics and their pedagogical

Boris Koichu; Abraham Berman; Michael Moore

195

Suppressed semantic information accelerates analytic problem solving.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the limits of semantic processing without awareness, during continuous flash suppression (CFS). We used compound remote associate word problems, in which three seemingly unrelated words (e.g., pine, crab, sauce) form a common compound with a single solution word (e.g., apple). During the first 3 s of each trial, the three problem words or three irrelevant words (control condition) were suppressed from awareness, using CFS. The words then became visible, and participants attempted to solve the word problem. Once the participants solved the problem, they indicated whether they had solved it by insight or analytically. Overall, the compound remote associate word problems were solved significantly faster after the problem words, as compared with irrelevant words, were presented during the suppression period. However this facilitation occurred only when people solved with analysis, not with insight. These results demonstrate that semantic processing, but not necessarily semantic integration, may occur without awareness. PMID:23250762

Zabelina, Darya L; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru; Beeman, Mark

2013-06-01

196

Who Solved the Secretary Problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Martin Gardner's Mathematical Games column in the February 1960 issue of Scientific American, there appeared a simple problem that has come to be known today as the Secretary Problem, or the Marriage Problem. It has since been taken up and developed by many eminent probabilists and statisticians and has been extended and generalized in many different directions so that

Thomas S. Ferguson

1989-01-01

197

Reflection on Problem Solving in Introductory and Advanced Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reflection is essential to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective physics students are about problem solving and how to improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We evaluate strategies that teach reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. We find a large overlap between introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize based upon similarity of solution. Introductory students in calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in algebra-based courses. Other investigations explored if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty applying physical principles and differences between self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study suggests those who reflected with peers on problem solving drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study involved giving common problems in quantum mechanics midterm and final exams and suggested advanced students do not automatically reflect on mistakes. Interviews revealed even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than their knowledge structure. A survey was developed to evaluate studentsâ attitudes and approaches towards problem solving. The survey responses suggest introductory and graduate students have different attitudes and approaches to problem solving on several important measures compared to faculty. Responses to individual questions suggest expert and novice attitudes and approaches to problem solving may be more complex than naively considered.

Mason, Andrew J.

2012-05-09

198

University Physics As a Second Language: Mastering Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Get a better grade in Physics Solving physics problems can be challenging at times. But with hard work and the right study tools, you can learn the language of physics and get the grade you want. With Tom Barrett's University Physics as a Second Language(TM): Mastering Problem Solving, you'll be able to better understand fundamental physics concepts, solve a variety of problems, and focus on what you need to know to succeed. Here's how you can get a better grade in physics: Understand the basic concepts University Physics as a Second Language(TM) focuses on selected topics in calculus-based physics to give you a solid foundation. Tom Barrett explains these topics in clear, easy-to-understand language. Break problems down into simple steps University Physics as a Second Language(TM) teaches you to approach problems more efficiently and effectively. You'll learn how to recognize common patterns in physics problems, break problems down into manageable steps, and apply appropriate techniques. The book takes you step-by-step through the solutions to numerous examples. Improve your problem-solving skills University Physics as a Second Language(TM) will help you develop the skills you need to solve a variety of problem types. You'll learn timesaving problem-solving strategies that will help you focus your efforts, as well as how to avoid potential pitfalls.

Barrett, Tom

2005-09-01

199

Complexity reduction approach for solving hyperbolic problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complexity reduction approach has been used to solve various science and technology problems. In this paper we will discuss the implementation of the approach to solve some hyperbolic equation such as first order hyperbolic problem and the Maxwell Equations. For solving the Maxwell equations, we implement a weighted average fourth order truncation with the complexity reduction approach. The approach shown to successfully reduce the complexity of original method. Results show to increase the speed up of its original method significantly.

Hasan, M. K.; Sulaiman, J.; Karim, S. A. A.

2013-04-01

200

The Ideal Science Student and Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the nature of students' social mental models of the ideal science student, whether or not these models vary with student ethnicity, and the relationship of these models to problem solving strategies used, and problem solving ability in a robotics challenge. Participants were twenty-six, academically advanced, eleven and twelve year olds. Two social mental models were identified, a traits-based

Florence R. Sullivan; Xiaodong Lin

201

A Conceptual Approach to Physics Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students in introductory physics courses treat problem solving as an exercise in manipulating equations, symbols, and quantities with the goal of obtaining the correct answer. Although this approach is efficient for getting answers, it is far from optimal for learning how conceptual knowledge is applied in the problem-solving process. The goal of this study is to refine and evaluate an

Jennifer L. Docktor; Natalie E. Strand; José P. Mestre; Brian H. Ross

2010-01-01

202

Solving Problems with Charts & Tables. Pipefitter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, this instructional module is designed to help individuals employed as pipefitters learn to solve problems with charts and tables. Outlined in the first section is a five-step procedure for solving problems involving tables and/or charts: identifying the question to…

Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

203

Making Systematic Problem Solving Work with Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated systematic problem solving with 52 elementary school students. The experimental group (N=26) received Galvin Alternative Intervention Network (GAIN) training. Results indicated the GAIN program was effective in facilitating problem solving. Students' responses were unique and constituted creative behavior. (JAC)

Galvin, Maryanne

1983-01-01

204

Science problem solving learning through mobile gaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the impact of the application of a specially tailored classroom methodology based on a problem-solving mobile game for 8th grade science class curriculum. The methodology included science classroom activities with teachers as facilitators and learning activities using interactive mobile videogames. The evaluation study focused on the development of problem solving skills. The research team evaluated videos recorded

Jaime Sánchez; Alvaro Salinas

2008-01-01

205

Prescribing effective human problem solving processes: Problem description in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A theoretical model specifying the underlying knowledge and procedures whereby human subjects can generate effective initial descriptions of scientific problems was formulated. The model is prescriptive since it does not necessarily try to simulate the behavior of actual experts nor assume that their performance is optimal. The model, elaborated in the domain of mechanics, specifies explicit procedures for redescribing problems in terms of a relevant knowledge base. To test the model, carefully controlled experiments were devised where human subjects were induced to act in accordance with alternative models and where their resulting performance was observed in detail. Such experiments, carried out with undergraduate physics students, showed that the proposed model is sufficient to generate excellent problem descriptions, that these markedly improve subsequent problem solutions, and that most components of the model are indeed necessary for good performance. Detailed data analysis also showed how the model predictably prevents the occurrence of many common errors. Such a validated model of effective problem description provides a useful basis for teaching students improved scientific problem-solving skills.

Heller, Joan I.; Reif, Frederick

2006-06-09

206

Problem Solving. P.R.I.D.E. People Retraining for Industry Excellence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, part of a series of workplace-developed materials for retraining factory workers, provides teaching materials for a workplace course in problem-solving techniques. The course is a review of basic problem-solving techniques focused on helping participants to be comfortable solving problems on the job. Topics covered include the…

Pollak, Ave

207

Bridge over Troubled Water: Creating Effective Online Support for the Metacognitive Aspects of Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of higher education, the development of students' problem solving skills continues to be an area of much ongoing research. Effective teaching of problem solving requires the adoption of process-based approaches that reveal to students the ways that experts solve problems, and the coaching of students in higher order and…

McLoughlin, Catherine; Hollingworth, Rowan

208

Bridge over Troubled Water: Creating Effective Online Support for the Metacognitive Aspects of Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the context of higher education, the development of students' problem solving skills continues to be an area of much ongoing research. Effective teaching of problem solving requires the adoption of process-based approaches that reveal to students the ways that experts solve problems, and the coaching of students in higher order and…

McLoughlin, Catherine; Hollingworth, Rowan

209

Problem-Based Learning: Student Engagement, Learning and Contextualized Problem-Solving. Occasional Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The adoption of problem-based learning as a teaching method in the advertising and public relations programs offered by the Business TAFE (Technical and Further Education) School at RMIT University is explored in this paper. The effect of problem-based learning on student engagement, student learning and contextualised problem-solving was…

Mossuto, Mark

2009-01-01

210

Applying web-based PBL management system on the ecological pond teaching to explore its effects on sixth graders' science process skills and problem-solving abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of project-based learning on the sixth graders' science process skills and problem-solving abilities under web-based PBL management system. In the study, quantitative methods were conducted and the experimental design with an experiment group and a control group was adopted. The subjects are 60 sixth graders from two classes in a

2011-01-01

211

Problem-Solving Instruction and Problem-Solving Transfer: The Correspondence Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mayer and Wittrock (1996) have raised the specificity-generality issue as it applies to the teachable aspects of problem-solving transfer. Simply put, do the instructional practices that foster more efficient acquisition-learning of problem-solving strategies automatically foster more efficient problem-solving transfer? On the basis of the present…

Phye, Gary D.

2001-01-01

212

Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

2009-01-01

213

Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

2009-01-01

214

The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has…

Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene

2005-01-01

215

Solving problems on concurrent processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book explains how many major scientific algorithms can be used on large parallel machines. Based on five years of research on hypercubes, the book concentrates on practically motivated model problems, that serve to illustrate generic algorithmic and decomposition techniques. The authors include results for hypercube-class concurrent computers with up to 128 nodes, and the principles behind the extrapolation to

G Fox

1988-01-01

216

The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.  

PubMed Central

This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

2002-01-01

217

Spatial visualization in physics problem solving.  

PubMed

Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naíve students were administered kinematics problems and spatial visualization ability tests. In Study 2, 17 (8 high- and 9 low-spatial ability) additional students completed think-aloud protocols while they solved the kinematics problems. In Study 3, the eye movements of fifteen (9 high- and 6 low-spatial ability) students were recorded while the students solved kinematics problems. In contrast to high-spatial students, most low-spatial students did not combine two motion vectors, were unable to switch frames of reference, and tended to interpret graphs literally. The results of the study suggest an important relationship between spatial visualization ability and solving kinematics problems with multiple spatial parameters. PMID:21635308

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A; Hegarty, Mary

2007-07-01

218

Solving RDF feed system problems  

SciTech Connect

Energy recovery from solid waste involves processing the waste to concentrate combustibles for use as a refuse-derived fuel (RDF). RDF feed systems at 28 facilities in the United States and Canada are described. An assessment of the performance of these systems indicates problems with storage and retrieval, flow blockages, abrasion, entanglement and winding, and feed rate control. Guidelines for operation are included. (JMT)

Sokol, D.; Campbell, J.A.

1982-04-01

219

Neurophysiologic Collaboration Patterns During Team Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have explored using neurophysiologic collaboration patterns as an approach for developing a deeper understanding of how teams collaborate when solving time-critical, complex real-world problems. Teams of three students solved substance abuse management simulations using IMMEX software while measures of mental workload (WL) and engagement (E) were generated by electroencephalography (EEG). Levels of high and low workload and engagement were

Ron Stevens; Trysha Galloway; Chris Berka; Marcia Sprang

2009-01-01

220

Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi

2011-01-01

221

Mass collaboration problem solving: A new approach to wicked problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system that would harness the brainpower of vast numbers of humans and orchestrate their efforts could be used to solve hard problems that are beyond the reach of computational methods. This paper describes such a system. This system will use a recursive problem solving life cycle model based on a continuously evolving distributed supply chain infrastructure. The problems to

Andrew Potter; Melody McClure; Ken Sellers

2010-01-01

222

Frameworks for Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two forms of cooperation in distributed problem solving are considered: task-sharing and result-sharing. In the former, nodes assist each other by sharing the computational load for the execution of subtasks of the overall problem. In the latter, nodes assist each other by sharing partial results which are based on somewhat different perspectives on the overall problem. Different perspectives arise because

REID G. SM; Randall Davis

1981-01-01

223

Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.  

PubMed

Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E

2012-08-08

224

Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas  

PubMed Central

Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals.

Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.

2012-01-01

225

Development of a problem solving evaluation instrument; untangling of specific problem solving assets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

Adams, Wendy Kristine

226

Problem solving to prevent work injuries in supported employment.  

PubMed Central

A problem-solving strategy was used to teach three groups of 3 individuals in supported employment how to prevent work-related injuries. The problem-solving strategy was taught in two training phases. The first training phase involved the use of cue cards, and the second involved the withdrawal of the cue cards. Interviews and staged generalization assessments in the participants' natural work environments were conducted before, during, and up to 12 weeks after training. In these assessments, situations were presented that were either similar or dissimilar to situations presented in training. Results of both the interviews and staged assessments indicated that the participants' newly acquired problem-solving skills generalized to similar and dissimilar situations.

Martella, R C; Agran, M; Marchand-Martella, N E

1992-01-01

227

Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.

Sriraman, Bharath

2004-01-01

228

Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…

Benson, Dave

2011-01-01

229

Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naive students were administered kinematics problems and…

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A.; Hegarty, Mary

2007-01-01

230

Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…

Benson, Dave

2011-01-01

231

Teacher Learning on Problem-Solving Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem-solving teams address student difficulties. Teams comprised of teachers, specialists, and administrators identify the student problem, develop individualized interventions, and assess student change. Teacher experiences of teams are understudied. In a prospective, mixed-method study conducted in the United States, 34 teachers were…

Gregory, Anne

2010-01-01

232

Teacher Preparation for a Problem Solving Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the teacher is central to the success of any curriculum innovation. Thus, teachers' professional development has become an increasingly important subject of discussion in recent education literature. In the design and implementation of the project reported here, teachers' preparation for the problem-solving curriculum featured prominently. This paper discusses the challenges of selecting a suitable problem and ways

Khiok Seng; Jaguthsing Dindyal; Eng Guan

2009-01-01

233

GIS Live and Web Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…

Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.

2007-01-01

234

Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…

Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

235

Thinking Tools: A Young Person's Guide to Problem Solving. Thirty-seven Tools for Solving Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Resources that will help secondary students become more effective problem solvers are provided. The book describes techniques or tools and an overall strategy for solving problems. Throughout the book there are exercises that enable the student to practice the techniques. The first chapter provides an overview of the problem solving process.…

Stevens, Lawrence A.

236

Helping graduate assistants teach physics: problems and solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes a "Basics of Teaching Physics" course as an approach to training teaching assistants (TAs) in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) departments. The regular graduate course is based on constructivist learning: TAs construct their own understanding through guided questions, problem solving, reading and analyzing papers, discussions of their teaching experience, and group work.

Etkina, Eugenia

2006-05-17

237

Pre-service teachers' use of problem-solving in primary science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of problem-solving in science instruction implies a change in the teacher's role from dispensing content information to encouraging critical reflective thinking in the student. For problem-solving to become an integral part of the science curriculum, teachers must make it the focus of their instruction. This study investigated the extent to which pre-service primary teachers used the problem-solving approach in their science instruction. It also identified the factors affecting their efforts to teach science using this approach. The issues considered are important in whether problem-solving becomes part of the science curriculum, as teaching behaviour influences student learning outcomes.

Chin, Christine; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Lucille Lee, Kam-Wah; Soh, Kay-Cheng

1994-12-01

238

Exploring collaborative problem solving in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative problem solving occurs in situations in which two or more individuals cooperate in appraising, representing,\\u000a and solving a variety of cognitive tasks. Collaborative groups are the context for much everyday cognitive activity in adulthood.\\u000a Collaboration has been explored as a means through which older adults may maintain high levels of performance, perhaps compensating\\u000a for individual-level cognitive and neurological decline.

Roger A. Dixon; Diane P. Fox; Lee Trevithick; Rebecca Brundin

1997-01-01

239

Improving the Skills of Health Professionals in Engaging Patients in Diabetes-Related Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nurses, dietitians, physicians, and a pharmacist (n=33) attended a patient teaching and problem-solving course emphasizing assessment, brainstorming, collaboration, and direct instruction skills. Analysis of videotaped patient teaching exercises revealed significant improvement in all four skills. Length of teaching sessions remained the same.…

King, Elaine Boswell; Schlundt, David G.; Pichert, James W.; Kinzer, Charles K.; Backer, Barbara A.

2002-01-01

240

Nanomedicine : Problem Solving to Treat Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of ?real? scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.

Payne, Amy C.; Zenner, Greta; Sammel, Lauren M.; Hemling, Melissa A.; Crone, Wendy C.

2006-01-01

241

The Case for Problem Solving in Second Language Learning. CLCS Occasional Paper No. 33.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study undertaken in Ireland investigated the effectiveness of a second language teaching strategy that focused on grammatical problem-solving. In this approach, the problems are located within the target language system, and the problem-solving involves induction of grammatical rules and use of those rules. Learners are confronted with instances…

Bourke, James Mannes

242

How to encourage university students to solve physics problems requiring mathematical skills: the 'adventurous problem solving' approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior\\/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential expressions and multi-dimensional integrations, and the Gauss and Ampčre laws learnt in electromagnetism courses. To

Frits F. M. DeMul; Cristina Martin i. Batlle; Imme DeBruijn; Kees Rinzema

2004-01-01

243

Supporting Family Caregivers in Stroke Care A Review of the Evidence for Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Teaching effective problem-solving skills to family caregivers of patients with chronic disease has been shown to be useful for promoting physical and psychosocial well-being. However, the use and effectiveness of problem solving for supporting caregivers in stroke care has not been reviewed. This article aims to identify and review studies that have examined the effectiveness of teaching problem

H. L. Lui; Fiona M. Ross; David R. Thompson

2010-01-01

244

The Effects of Problem-Based Learning On Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem-based instruction is designed to provide students with a guided experience in solving an ill-structured problem. All learning in problem-based instruction stems from students initial questions about a problem situation. Currently used in medical school programs, problem-based curriculum has not been tested at the high school level. Science, Society and the Future (SSF) is an experimental problem-based course for gifted

Shelagh A. Gallagher; William J. Stepien; Hilary Rosenthal

1992-01-01

245

Insightful Problem Solving in an Asian Elephant  

PubMed Central

The “aha” moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E.; Reiss, Diana

2011-01-01

246

Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.  

PubMed

The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food. PMID:21876741

Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana

2011-08-18

247

Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.  

PubMed

This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the pioneering LA solutions to this problem, unequivocally demonstrates that LA can play an important role in solving complex combinatorial and integer optimization problems. PMID:19884057

Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John

2010-02-01

248

Assessing Affect after Mathematical Problem Solving Tasks: Validating the Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…

Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.

2013-01-01

249

A MEMORY-BASED PROBLEM SOLVING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectural design activity requires some of the highest cognitive abilities of human beings, including creativity, synthesis and problem solving. Ambiguity, uncertainty and parallel scenarios are central to the early phases of the design process. Large amounts of information are manipulated in a short time at early conceptual design. This dynamic phase involves a dynamic search process for good concept solutions

H. M. G. Bártolo; P. J. S. Bártolo

250

A SURVEY OF PROBLEM-SOLVING COURSES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|TO DETERMINE THE DESIRABILITY OF HAVING ITS OWN CREATIVITY COURSE, THE STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE SURVEYED 43 ORGANIZATIONS ON THEIR PROBLEM SOLVING COURSES. FIFTEEN INDUSTRIAL CORPORATIONS, FOUR CONSULTING FIRMS, A GOVERNMENT AGENCY, A RESEARCH CORPORATION, AND NINE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES RESPONDED WITH SPECIFIC INFORMATION ON COURSE LENGTH…

EDWARDS, M.O.

251

Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

Szeberenyi, Jozsef

2010-01-01

252

Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…

McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

253

Supporting Organizational Problem Solving with a Workstation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes an approach to supporting work in the office. Using and extending ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), we describe office work as a problem solving activity. A knowledge-embedding language called Omega is used to embe...

G. Barber

1982-01-01

254

Design and Problem Solving in Technology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Collectively, technological literacy embraces everything from intelligent consumerism to concerns about environmental degradation, ethics, and elitism. Technological problem solving can have social, ecological, or technological goals and may be categorized by four types: invention, design, trouble shooting, and procedures. Every citizen should be…

Custer, Rodney L.

1999-01-01

255

Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

Szeberenyi, Jozsef

2010-01-01

256

Helping Students Develop Problem Solving Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifies procedure to help classroom teachers infuse problem solving into the typical technology education classroom. The five steps involved are (1) set a goal the student can attain, (2) define a task that incorporates new actions and ideas, (3) provide a structure, (4) force the student to choose between several alternatives, and (5) make…

Baker, G. E.; Dugger, John C., III

1986-01-01

257

Creating Environments for Peaceful Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For may early childhood teachers, angry voices of children are heard all too often. When children focus on protecting themselves and surviving conflicts, they miss out on the joys and opportunities the early childhood program has to offer. Without the ability to solve problems in their interactions with others, children are not able to peacefully…

Lamm, Sandra; Groulx, Judith G.; Hansen, Cindy; Patton, Mary Martin; Slaton, Anna Jimenez

2006-01-01

258

Using Algorithms in Solving Synapse Transmission Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how a simple three-step algorithm can aid college students in solving synapse transmission problems. Reports that all of the students did not completely understand the algorithm. However, many learn a simple working model of synaptic transmission and understand why an impulse will pass across a synapse quantitatively. Students also see…

Stencel, John E.

1992-01-01

259

How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…

Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

2013-01-01

260

Solving optimization problems on computational grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiprocessor computing platforms, which have become more and more widely available since the mid-1980s, are now heavily used by organizations that need to solve very demanding computational problems. Parallel computing is now central to the culture of many research communities. Novel parallel approaches were developed for global optimization, network optimization, and direct-search methods for nonlinear optimization. Activity was particularly widespread

S. J. Wright

2001-01-01

261

Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

2006-01-01

262

Databases, Problem Solving and Laboratory Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a problem-solving activity integrating a laboratory investigation with a database activity using Appleworks. Presents typical displays of the databases. The objective of the laboratory was to determine the identity of a pure substance by measuring physical properties and searching the database. (Author/YP)|

Strickland, A. W.; Hoffer, T.

1989-01-01

263

Will Biotech Crops Solve World Problems?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson examines implications of biotechnology on agriculture. Students can discuss the pro & con arguments and economics of GM food labeling, create a dinner menu of GM food, develop a GM crop testing company, submit ideas for a GM crop that may solve a selected nation's problem, update statistics & data used in the original article... and more!

Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College;)

2003-02-01

264

Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…

Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

2012-01-01

265

Creative Problem Solving Using GroupSystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creativity is an important issue in the world of collaboration and it is widely accepted that techniques of creativity can energize participants and improve effectiveness of meetings. Specifically these techniques have been applied to 'creative problem solving'. This paper analyses why it can be difficult to be creative in conventional meetings and. describes some current techniques for encouraging creativity. The

Alan Weatherall

1998-01-01

266

Using Conceptual Scaffolding to Foster Effective Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traditional end-of-chapter problems often are localized, requiring formulas only within a single chapter. Students frequently can solve these problems by performing âplug-and-chugâ without recognizing underlying concepts. We designed open-ended problems that require a synthesis of concepts that are broadly separated in the teaching time line, militating against studentsâ blindly invoking locally introduced formulas. Each problem was encapsulated into a sequence with two preceding conceptually-based multiple-choice questions. These conceptual questions address the same underlying concepts as the subsequent problem, providing students with guided conceptual scaffolding. When solving the problem, students were explicitly advised to search for underlying connections based on the conceptual questions. Both small-scale interviews and a large-scale written test were conducted to investigate the effects of guided conceptual scaffolding on student problem solving. Specifically, student performance on the open-ended problems was compared between those who received scaffolding and those who did not. A further analysis of whether the conceptual scaffolding was equivalent to mere cueing also was conducted.

Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

2010-01-19

267

Problem-Framing: A perspective on environmental problem-solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The specter of environmental calamity calls for the best efforts of an involved public. Ironically, the way people understand the issues all too often serves to discourage and frustrate rather than motivate them to action. This article draws from problem-solving perspectives offered by cognitive psychology and conflict management to examine a framework for thinking about environmental problems that promises to help rather than hinder efforts to address them. Problem-framing emphasizes focusing on the problem definition. Since how one defines a problem determines one's understanding of and approach to that problem, being able to redefine or reframe a problem and to explore the “problem space” can help broaden the range of alternatives and solutions examined. Problem-framing incorporates a cognitive perspective on how people respond to information. It explains why an emphasis on problem definition is not part of people's typical approach to problems. It recognizes the importance of structure and of having ways to organize that information on one's problem-solving effort. Finally, problem-framing draws on both cognitive psychology and conflict management for strategies to manage information and to create a problem-solving environment that not only encourages participation but can yield better approaches to our environmental problems.

Bardwell, Lisa V.

1991-09-01

268

Developing Problem-Solving Skills of Students Taking Introductory Physics via Web-Based Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science teaching and learning can be made both engaging and student-centered using pedagogical, computer-based learning tools. The authors have developed self-paced interactive problem-solving tutorials for introductory physics. These tutorials can provid

Singh, Chandralekha; Haileselassie, Daniel

2010-03-01

269

The Recognition of Instructional Strategies in the Modelling of Student Acquisition of Problem-Solving Skills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most scientific and technical instruction relies heavily on the use of examples and exercises to teach domain-relevant problem-solving skills. Little is known, however, about the relationship between the structure of such curricula and the learning abilit...

R. Smith P. Walker P. Spool

1982-01-01

270

Models of Competence in Solving Physics Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We describe a set of two computer-implemented models that solve physics problems in ways characteristic of more and less competent human solvers. The main features accounting for different competences are differences in strategy for selecting physics principles, and differences in the degree of automation in the process of applying a single principle. The models provide a good account of the order in which principles are applied by human solvers working problems in kinematics and dynamics. They also are sufficiently flexible to allow easy extension to several related domains of physics problems.

Larkin, Jill H.; Mcdermott, John; Simon, Dorothea P.; Simon, Herbert A.

2012-05-15

271

An In-Service Teachers' Workshop on Mathematical Problem Solving through Activity-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes an in-service professional development course in introducing creative approaches to teach mathematics for teachers from the private-funded schools in Java, Indonesia. The course focused on introducing teachers to problem-solving processes and skills, and samples of activity-based worksheet on problem solving through secondary…

Toh, Tin Lam

2007-01-01

272

A Schematic-Theoretic View of Problem Solving and Development of Algebraic Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the problem-solving schemas developed by 7th-grade pre-algebra students as they participated in a teaching experiment that was designed to help students develop effective schemas for solving algebraic problem situations involving contexts of (1) growth and change and (2) size and shape. This article describes the qualities and…

Steele, Diana F.; Johanning, Debra I.

2004-01-01

273

Technology Confidence, Competence and Problem Solving Strategies: Differences within Online and Face-to-Face Formats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified the problem solving strategies used by students within a university course designed to teach pre-service teachers educational technology, and whether those strategies were influenced by the format of the course (i.e., face-to-face computer lab vs. online). It also examined to what extent the type of problem solving strategies…

Peterson, Sharon L.; Palmer, Louann Bierlein

2011-01-01

274

Developing an Instrument for Identifying a Person's Ability to Solve Problems: Results of a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasing people's ability to solve complex problems is more and more often being seen as an integral part of vocational education. While there have been numerous empirically-based approaches to the didactic structuring of teaching and learning arrangements by which students' ability to solve problems can be increased, knowledge of how to…

Wuttke, Eveline; Wolf, Karsten D.

2007-01-01

275

Mathematical Problem Solving among Latina/o Kindergartners: An Analysis of Opportunities to Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores opportunities to learn mathematics problem solving for Latina/o students in 3 kindergarten classrooms in the southwest. Mixed methods were used to examine teaching practices that engaged Latina/o students in problem solving and supported their learning. Findings indicate that although students in all 3 classrooms showed growth…

Turner, Erin E.; Celedon-Pattichis, Sylvia

2011-01-01

276

Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.

Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana

2009-01-24

277

Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…

Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.

2012-01-01

278

Problem solving techniques in cognitive science  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, researchers have tried to discover how humans solve problems. This research has answered many questions, but\\u000a still many of them remain unanswered. However, knowledge gained in this field has greatly enhanced our understanding and has\\u000a enabled us to design human-like intelligent systems. In the 1920s the Gestalt psychologists introduced a new field to cognitive\\u000a science. They discovered

Joan Condell; John Wade; Leo Galway; Michael McBride; Padhraig Gormley; Joseph Brennan; Thiyagesan Somasundram

2010-01-01

279

Analysis of Algorithms: programming to problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Introduction to Analysis of Algorithms, students traditionally apply a combination of computer science theory and mathematics to paper-based problem solving, analysis of pre-developed algorithms and proofs of algorithmic run-times. In this paper, we suggest that a major factor that determines the success in the Analysis is the discrepancy between the programming styles of CS1 and CS2, with immediate

Karina V. Assiter

2005-01-01

280

Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

281

Problem Solving Challenge for Mathematics. 1985 Junior High School Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to assist teachers in helping students in further development of problem-solving skills. It consists of: a statement of purpose; an introduction (noting the place of problem-solving in junior high school mathematics curricula); a definition of problem-solving; a four-stage general framework for solving problems (which…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

282

A Literature Review of Expert Problem Solving using Analogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider software project cost estimation from a problem solving perspective. Taking a cognitive psychological approach, we argue that the algorithmic basis for CBR tools is not representative of human problem solving and this mismatch could account for inconsistent results. We describe the fundamentals of problem solving, focusing on experts solving ill-defined problems. This is supplemented by a systematic literature

Miriam Martincova

283

Studying insight problem solving with neuroscientific methods.  

PubMed

Insights are sporadic, unpredictable, short-lived moments of exceptional thinking where unwarranted assumptions need to be discarded before solutions to problems can be obtained. Insight requires a restructuring of the problem situation that is relatively rare and hard to elicit in the laboratory. One way of dealing with this problem is to catalyze such restructuring processes using solution hints. This allows one to obtain multiple insight events and their accurate onset times, which are required for event-related designs in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and Electroencephalogram (EEG), and to reliably record the activity associated with the restructuring component of insight. In this article, we discuss in detail the methodological challenges that brain research on insight poses and describe how we dealt with these challenges in our recent studies on insight problem solving. PMID:17434418

Luo, Jing; Knoblich, Guenther

2007-05-01

284

Exploring the role of conceptual scaffolding in solving synthesis problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC) problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiring a solver to conduct a general search for underlying concepts. Hypothesizing that complete reliance on EOC problems trains students to rely on a nonexpert approach, we designed and implemented “synthesis” problems, each combining two major concepts that are broadly separated in the teaching timeline. To provide students with guided conceptual scaffolding, we encapsulated each synthesis problem into a sequence with two preceding conceptually based multiple-choice questions. Each question contained one of the major concepts covered in the subsequent synthesis problem. Results from a small-scale interview study and two large-scale written tests showed that the scaffolding encouraged students to search for and apply appropriate fundamental principles in solving synthesis problems, and that repeated training using scaffolded synthesis problems also helped students to make cross-topic transfers.

Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

2011-12-01

285

Place of science in environmental problem solving  

SciTech Connect

Most important environmental problems are complex. Moreover, solutions to them must be sought in governmental arenas, where science, if it is used at all, typically serves political ends rather than being pursued on its own merits. Policy action often cannot wait for adequate scientific information. Indeed, sufficient information to permit rigorous predictions of the consequences of most policy and management decisions will never be available. For these and other reasons, scientists are often reluctant to enter the policy arena. However, it is abundantly clear that there is considerable scope for expanding the role of science and scientists in environmental problem solving. Substantial improvements in dealing with environmental problems can be obtained by combining better use of existing information with well-focused efforts to treat projects as experiments - to learn about the effects of human-caused perturbations on the functioning of ecological systems. A number of recent publications have treated the kinds of approaches to environmental problem solving that should help to make information available to decision makers and encourage its use.

Orians, G.H.

1986-11-01

286

Problem Solving in the Mathematics Curriculum. A Report, Recommendations, and an Annotated Bibliography. MAA Notes, Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, prepared for and published by the Mathematical Association of America's Committee on the Teaching of Undergraduate Mathematics, includes a description of the state of the art on problem solving, lists available resources, and makes recommendations regarding the place of problem solving in the college curriculum and ways to teach it.…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

287

Problem-Solving Appraisal and Human Adjustment: A Review of 20 Years of Research Using the Problem Solving Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews and synthesizes more than 120 studies from 20 years (1982-2002) of research that has examined problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). The goals of the article are fourfold: (a) introduce the construct of problem-solving appraisal and the PSI within the applied problem-solving literature,…

Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.

2004-01-01

288

Habits of Mind: Mathematics Problem Solving Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These roughly 200 lesson plans are related to mathematical problem solving and are provided by the non-profit Education Development Center. The lesson plans are designed to help students develop both deep conceptual mathematical understandings and technical skills. The plans are provided both as PDF files and in HTML, and teacher comments are also provided. Topics covered include modeling / mathematizing; finding analogies / structural similarities / isomorphisms; working with graphs; working with units/dimensional analysis; proving; formulating conjectures / generalizing / abstracting; finding and using invariants; creating / analyzing an algorithm; dealing with non-unique solutions; visualization; solving by special cases; verifying / interpreting results; analyzing parameters; estimating; inventing and using notation. This is an extensive and thorough resource for first-cycle college mathematics teachers and teachers of advanced high school math.

2007-11-12

289

Physics Problem Solving in Cooperative Learning Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research investigated the process of argument co-construction in 14 cooperative problem-solving groups in an algebra-based, college level, introductory physics course. The results of the research provide a rich description of argument co-construction, which, while predicted in previous literature, has not been systematically described. The research was a qualitative, case-study analysis of each group's discussion of the "physics description" portion of the group's problem solution. In a physics description physics concepts and principles are use to qualitatively analyze the problem. Transcripts were made from videotapes and the analysis focused on sequential groups of statements, called episodes, instead of isolated, individual statements. The groups' episodes were analyzed and described in terms of Stephen Toulmin's argument structure which consists of claims, grounds, warrants, and backings.

Hollabaugh, Mark

2007-01-01

290

TEACHING CHILDREN TO DISCOVER--A PROBLEM OF GOAL DEFINITION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BECAUSE OF THE EVER INCREASING EXPANSION OF KNOWLEDGE AND CULTURAL CHANGES, TEACHING CHILDREN TO DISCOVER (DEFINED HERE AS THE ACQUISITION OF AN ABILITY TO FORMULATE AND SOLVE PROBLEMS) SHOULD BE GIVEN CONSIDERABLE SIGNIFICANCE AS AN EDUCATIONAL GOAL. THE PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT IS (1) TO CLARIFY CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHING CHILDREN TO DISCOVER,…

KEISLAR, EVAN R.

291

Social problem solving among popular and unpopular children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated two issues related to children's social status and problem solving: the content of problem-solving measures and judgments of the quality of responses to social problems. Three types of social problem situations were studied: peer entry\\/initiation, maintaining social interaction, and management of conflict. The quality of children's strategies for solving these problems was rated on two dimensions:

H. Ann Brochin; Barbara H. Wasik

1992-01-01

292

How problem-solving tasks work in a mathematics classroom in relation to developing students' mathematical thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efforts to improve the teaching and learning of mathematics involve varied approaches; the problem-solving approach is one of them. This research study sets out to understand how problem-solving tasks work in a mathematics classroom in relation to developing students' mathematical thinking. The objective was to teach mathematics in a lower-secondary class using problem-solving tasks and to find out how

Basiliana Caroli Mrimi

2005-01-01

293

Problem Solving Experiences of Student Mathematics Teachers through Cabri: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a case study dealing with teacher?student reaction and cooperation during problem-solving activities within a class setting. The aim is to familiarize student mathematics teachers with the process of mathematics teaching with computers and to help them re-examine their traditional views of mathematics learning and teaching.…

Baki, Adnan

2004-01-01

294

Work in progress - enhancement of problem solving techniques with tablet PC-based learning technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

EC2000 criteria raised the bar for educating engineers in the traditional 4-year degree program, requiring more student learning outcomes and teaching in more innovative ways. A challenge of teaching more in the undergraduate program is that itpsilas hard to do so in the time available. After recognizing a deficiency in problem-solving skills, an initiative was developed which will use classroom

Ken Stanton

2008-01-01

295

Complex problem solving: another test case?  

PubMed

Attacks on classic complex problem solving focus on both their ecological validity and the difficulty to analyze such a complex interplay of system variables. But we argue that the domain of travel planning is in some sense a much more "natural" domain and at least partially able to deal with this kind of criticism. We first review the main existing scenarios and paradigms like Lohhausen, Tailorshop, and Moro and compare them to what we call the TRAVELPLAN problem. This problem contains a number of computationally well-investigated problems, which are worked out and can be described by so-called constrained satisfaction problems. The formal investigations have led to the development of a computational architecture which is able to deal with these kinds of subproblems simultaneously. More important, however, is that it serves as a basis for developing experiments and particularly to determine aspects of the computational complexity of the main problem. This in turn allows us to specify and to formulate experimental ideas. Finally, the status quo of ongoing experiments is briefly presented. PMID:19902284

Ragni, Marco; Löffler, Christoph M

2009-11-10

296

I can problem solve (ICPS): Interpersonal cognitive problem solving for young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers of low?income preschool and kindergarten children were trained to help youngsters learn to think through and solve typical interpersonal problems with peers and adults. Compared to non? trained controls, youngsters trained to think of alternative solutions to problems and consequences to acts most improved in impulsive and inhibited behaviors as observed in the classroom. Training was equally effective in

Myrna B. Shure

1993-01-01

297

Team based Daily Problem Solving: When groups problem solve, everyone listens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Team based Daily Problem Solving (DPS) is designed to identify root-cause and solutions to problems at the core level in a fast and expedient manner using the subject experts. DPS emphasizes team work over individual effort. This system can be used in any...

1992-01-01

298

Independent Classroom Problem-Solving Model. A Teacher's Manual for Solving Reading Problems in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide presents a classroom problem solving model designed to help teachers conduct their own classroom research. It suggests developing a procedure for identifying the instructional problems influencing reading achievement. The model is presented in steps that can be used independently or in concert with other steps. Practice activities are…

Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Right to Read Program.

299

Multitasking-Pascal extensions solve concurrency problems  

SciTech Connect

To avoid deadlock (one process waiting for a resource than another process can't release) and indefinite postponement (one process being continually denied a resource request) in a multitasking-system application, it is possible to use a high-level development language with built-in concurrency handlers. Parallel Pascal is one such language; it extends standard Pascal via special task synchronizers: a new data type called signal, new system procedures called wait and send and a Boolean function termed awaited. To understand the language's use the author examines the problems it helps solve.

Mackie, P.H.

1982-09-29

300

Problem-solving deficits in depressed children, adolescents, and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has emphasized the importance of interpersonal problems with depression. It has been hypothesized that deficits in interpersonal problem-solving skills may account for many of these problems. Three studies that examined the relationship between problem-solving skills and depression are reported. Problem-solving skills among children, adolescents, and adults were assessed by the Means-Ends Problem Solving Test. Contrary to prediction, there

Leonard A. Doerfler; Larry L. Mullins; Nora J. Griffin; Lawrence J. Siegel; C. Steven Richards

1984-01-01

301

New Approaches for Solving the Diagnosis Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, the number of Earth orbiters and deep-space probes has grown dramatically and is expected to continue to do so in the future as miniaturization technologies drive spacecraft to become more numerous and more complex. This rate of growth has brought a new focus on autonomous and self-preserving systems that depend on fault diagnosis. Although diagnosis is needed for any autonomous system, current approaches are almost uniformly ad hoc, inefficient, and incomplete. Systematic methods of general diagnosis exist in literature, but they all suffer from two major drawbacks that severely limit their practical applications. First, they tend to be large and complex and hence difficult to apply. Second and more importantly, in order to find the minimal diagnosis set, i.e., the minimal set of faulty components, they rely on algorithms with exponential computational cost and hence are highly impractical for application to many systems of interest. In this article, we propose a two-fold approach to overcoming these two limitations and to developing a new and powerful diagnosis engine. First, we propose a novel and compact reconstruction of the general diagnosis engine (GDE) as one of the most fundamental approaches to model-based diagnosis. We then present a novel algorithmic approach for calculation of the minimal diagnosis set. Using a powerful yet simple representation of the calculation of the minimal diagnosis set, we map the problem onto two well-known problems -- that is, the Boolean satisfiability and 0/1 integer programming problems. The mapping onto the Boolean satisfiability problem enables the use of very efficient algorithms with a superpolynomial rather than an exponential complexity for the problem. The mapping onto the 0/1 integer programming problem enables the use of a variety of algorithms that can efficiently solve the problem for up to several thousand components. These new algorithms are a significant improvement over the existing ones, enabling efficient diagnosis of large, complex systems. In addition, the latter mapping allows one, for the first time, to determine the bound on the solution, i.e., the minimum number of faulty components, before solving the problem. This is a powerful insight that can be exploited to develop yet more efficient algorithms for the problem.

Fijany, A.; Vatan, F.; Barrett, A.; Mackey, R.

2002-01-01

302

Solving corrosion problems with surface analysis  

SciTech Connect

Surface analysis methods, in combination with traditional tools for corrosion research, have proven useful for the understanding and solution of a wide variety of corrosion problems. This paper reviews the use of several surface analysis methods in applications ranging from industrial problem solving to fundamental research work. A few specific examples are given from the areas of protective film formation, high temperature gaseous corrosion and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), and Laser Raman Spectroscopy are among the techniques discussed. Several examples of current uses of each method are listed, and advantages and limitations of the various methods for corrosion work are noted.

Baer, D.R.

1984-03-01

303

Teaching Linkage and Problem Translating Skills in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the effects of teaching Linkage and Problem Translating Skills on students' problem-solving performance and their learning of the five cognitive variables namely, Concept Relatedness, Idea Association, Problem Translating Skill, Non-Specific but Relevant Knowledge and Specific Knowledge. Seventy three Grade 9 (Secondary 3)…

Lee, Kam Wah Lucille; Yap, Kueh Chin; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Tang, Woh Un

2004-01-01

304

Computer simulations to stimulate scientific problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer simulations were employed by high school biology students in an attempt to enhance their problem solving skills. The simulations were administered under two conditions: (a) unguided discovery and (b) guided discovery. In addition, a control group received no simulations. To ascertain the effectiveness of the simulations in enhancing problem solving abilities, performance was compared on (a) subsequent unit pretests, (b) standardized tests measuring scientific thought processes, and (c) a standardized test of critical thinking. The results indicate that (a) the students using the simulations met the unit objectives at least as well as the control students, and (b) the students using the guided version of the simulations surpassed the other students on the subsequent simulation pretests, on the tests of scientific thinking, and on the test of critical thinking. The authors discuss the apparent usefulness of the programs in terms of the opportunities they provide students (a) to be actively involved in the learning process and (b) to repeatedly practice applying principles that would otherwise be practiced much less often.

Rivers, Robert H.; Vockell, Edward

305

Cognitive-behavioral remediation of problem solving deficits in children with acquired brain injury.  

PubMed

The inability to problem solve can have a deleterious impact on a student's academic performance and social adjustment. Children with an acquired brain injury (ABI) are at risk for deficits in problem solving skills. This case study and series of multiple baseline experiments examined the effects of a multi-component cognitive-behavioral training program on the remediation of problem solving deficits in five children with ABI. Results indicated that the training program resulted in a substantial decrease in errors on a computerized problem solving task used to monitor problem solving performance during baseline and treatment. In addition, significant improvements were found on two of four standardized measures of problem solving abilities. Finally, students, parents and teaching staff reported a high degree of satisfaction with and generalization of the training program. PMID:9327299

Suzman, K B; Morris, R D; Morris, M K; Milan, M A

1997-09-01

306

The effects of verbal scaffolding instruction on young children's private speech and problem-solving capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined the efficacy of a verbal scaffolding instructional program designed to teach young children how to use private speech while working on school tasks and problems. Two different contexts for solving problems were used; common school tasks and analogical reasoning problems. Thirty-four 5-year olds who attended public school kindergartens were assigned to either the comparison group or the

C. Stephen White; Brenda H. Manning

1994-01-01

307

Incredible Brain: How Does It Solve Problems? Is Logic a Natural Process?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the brain operates best on multimodal, nonlogical, real-world problems, it may be counterproductive to teach students sequential, logical techniques for solving artificially defined problems. Giving students time to consider and propose solutions for real problems may be a more effective means of helping them learn to think. (PGD)

Hart, Leslie A.

1983-01-01

308

The Use of Computer-Based Data Banks in the Teaching of Clinical Problem-Solving and Medical Case Management to Veterinary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a program at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis to give students experience in diagnosis and management of urinary tract diseases. Students request from computer data banks that laboratory information they deem most useful in the medical management of each clinical problem. (JT)|

Conzelman, Gaylord M.; And Others

1975-01-01

309

Problem-solving strategies in depressed and nondepressed college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency and style of problem solving for rules of varying difficulty was examined in a depressed college group. The depressed group and a control group of nondepressed students did not differ in the time required to solve conceptual problems. There were differences for the more difficult problems in the number of cards required for solution and problem-solving efficiency (defined

Deborah J. G. Dobson; Keith S. Dobson

1981-01-01

310

Viewing scheduling as an opportunistic problem-solving process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a search for more efficient yet effective ways of solving combinatorially complex problems such as jobshop scheduling, we move towards opportunistic approaches that attempt to exploit the structure of a given problem. Rather than adhere to a single problem-solving plan, such approaches are characterized by almost continual surveillance of the current problem-solving state to possibly modify plans so that

Peng Si OW; Stephen F. Smith

1988-01-01

311

Flexible Strategy Learning: Analogical Replay of Problem Solving Episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the integration of analogical reasoni ng into general problem solving as a method of learning at the strategy level to solve problems more effectively. Learnin g occurs by the generation and replay of annotated deriva- tional traces of problem solving episodes. The problem solver is extended with the ability to examine its decision cycle and accumulate knowledge

Manuela M. Veloso

1994-01-01

312

An Assessment Model for a Design Approach to Technological Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Education reform has focused increasingly on critical thinking processes, including problem solving and student assessment. Correspondingly, curriculum and professional development efforts are directed toward developing problem solving abilities through authentic learning and problem-based teaching methodologies. The development of problem solving abilities is pivotal to technological literacy. Problem solving is a critical thinking skill necessary for addressing issues related to technology and for developing effective solutions to practical problems. According to the Rationale and Structure for the Study of Technology (ITEA, 1996), technologically literate persons "are capable problem solvers who consider technological issues from different points of view and in relationship to a variety of contexts"(p. 11). Waetjen (1989) cited problem solving as an important skill necessary for optimizing technological innovation and for developing technological literacy. Whether for economic competitiveness (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983), technical means for survival (Savage & Sterry, 1990), or to develop common sense knowledge of technology and how it evolves to meet human needs (DeLuca, 1992), problem solving is deemed an essential skill for a productive life. With problem solving a major theme in technology education, there is a need for detailed assessments to determine how students solve problems and at what levels of expertise. This study sought to develop a model for assessing problem solving using a design approach to the study of technology. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Cluster, Rodney L.; Valesey, Brigitte G.; Burtke, Barry N.

2009-09-24

313

Spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.  

PubMed

Do gestures merely reflect problem-solving processes, or do they play a functional role in problem solving? We hypothesized that gestures highlight and structure perceptual-motor information, and thereby make such information more likely to be used in problem solving. Participants in two experiments solved problems requiring the prediction of gear movement, either with gesture allowed or with gesture prohibited. Such problems can be correctly solved using either a perceptual-motor strategy (simulation of gear movements) or an abstract strategy (the parity strategy). Participants in the gesture-allowed condition were more likely to use perceptual-motor strategies than were participants in the gesture-prohibited condition. Gesture promoted use of perceptual-motor strategies both for participants who talked aloud while solving the problems (Experiment 1) and for participants who solved the problems silently (Experiment 2). Thus, spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving. PMID:21813800

Alibali, Martha W; Spencer, Robert C; Knox, Lucy; Kita, Sotaro

2011-08-03

314

Preservice Agricultural Educators' Ability to Solve Agriculturally Related Mathematics Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem-solving test completed by 49 preservice agricultural educators showed a lack of competence in mathematical problem solving. Those who scored higher were more likely to have completed advanced mathematics courses and had higher ACT math scores. (JOW)

Miller, Greg; Gliem, Joe A.

1996-01-01

315

Theory of Constructions and Set in Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning, knowledge is described. Perdix' planning knowledge enables it to augm...

J. G. Greeno M. E. Magone S. Chaiklin

1979-01-01

316

Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).

Brewe, Eric

2006-12-01

317

The Integration Of TRIZ Problem Solving Techniques With Other Problem Solving And Assessment Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

TRIZ, as a problem-solving process, is seldom used or brought into an organization in a vacuum. There is almost always an existing structure of tools and processes in use into which TRIZ enters. TRIZ can be brought into an organization as a replacement, or in collaboration with the most commonly used innovation and creativity tools in use such as Creative

Jack Hipple

318

Students' Use of Imagery in Solving Qualitative Problems in Kinematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes a study that investigated the relationship between mental imagery and problem solving in physics, specifically in kinematics. A distinction is made between visual imagery and spatial imagery used in solving physics problems. The results of this study indicate that while spatial imagery may promote problem solving success, the use of visual imagery presents an obstacle to problem solving in kinematics. (Contains 23 references.)

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Hegarty, Mary; Mayer, Richard

2006-06-16

319

Problem Solving and Project Planned Base Curricular Enhancement in Manufacturing Engineering Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "lean" trend in business and industry is to expand capacity and quality while decreasing overall costs through continuous problem solving. More problems to solve, with fewer staff, places a premium on employees with problem solving skills. Universities excel at teaching technical topics and how to solve textbook problems within each technical discipline. However, little effort is directed to methods of problem solving for problems outside the textbook, even though this is becoming a major occupation of engineers in industry. Therefore it is important for engineering and technical programs to include more problem solving and project planning and management components in the curriculum. There are experts on structured methods of problem solving, some with extensive industry experience. These professionals can easily prove that a structured process will yield better solutions to problems than an off-the-wall approach, and that anyones problem solving skills can be improved. Similarly, most engineers spend much of their time involved in projects, but few have been trained in project planning and management by actually doing projects. Structured problem solving and project management are both skills that are learned more by actual practice than by textbook study. So it is necessary to incorporate significant project practice using both skills into curriculum as a part of normal course work. This paper will discuss the strategies and processes of curriculum enhancement for our manufacturing program, and investigate and integrate more practical industry-related components into the manufacturing curriculum.

Kegg, Richard; Dong, Janet; Al-Ubaidi, Muthar

2012-03-13

320

Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

2010-01-01

321

Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable evidence indicates that domain specific knowledge in the form of schemes is the primary factor distinguishing experts from novices in problem- solving skill. Evidence that conventional problem-solving activity is not effective in schema acquisition is also accumulating. It is suggested that a major reason for the ineffectiveness of problem solving as a learning device, is that the cognitive processes

John Sweller

1988-01-01

322

Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)|

Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth

1979-01-01

323

Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

2012-01-01

324

Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

Hung, Woei

2013-01-01

325

Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

2005-01-01

326

Computer-Assisted Learning for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous computer-assisted problem-solving systems have incorporated all the problem-solving steps within a single stage, making it difficult to diagnose stages at which errors occurred when a student encounters difficulties, and imposing a too-high cognitive load on students in their problem solving. This study proposes a computer-assisted…

Chang, Kuo-En; Sung, Yao-Ting; Lin, Shiu-Feng

2006-01-01

327

Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

2012-01-01

328

Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

2012-01-01

329

USE OF EXTERNAL VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS IN PROBABILITY PROBLEM SOLVING4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the use of external visual representations in probability problem solving. Twenty-six students enrolled in an introductory statistics course for social sciences graduate students (post-baccalaureate) solved eight probability problems in a structured interview format. Results show that students spontaneously use self- generated external visual representations while solving probability problems. The types of visual representations used include: reorganization of the

JAMES E. CORTER; DORIS C. ZAHNER

330

Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

2012-01-01

331

Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a companion paper, we discuss studentsâ ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss studentsâ ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two- step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2011-01-01

332

Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a companion paper, we discuss students' ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two-step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2010-10-01

333

Effects of a Problem-Based Structure of Physics Contents on Conceptual Learning and the Ability to Solve Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A model of teaching/learning is proposed based on a "problem-based structure" of the contents of the course, in combination with a training in paper and pencil problem solving that emphasizes discussion and quantitative analysis, rather than formulae plug-in. The aim is to reverse the high failure and attrition rate among engineering…

Becerra-Labra, Carlos; Gras-Marti, Albert; Torregrosa, Joaquin Martinez

2012-01-01

334

Young children's analogical problem solving: Gaining insights from video displays.  

PubMed

This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. The sample of 2- and 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older, but not younger, toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video and spontaneously transferred the strategy to solve isomorphic problems. Transfer by analogy from the video was evident only when the video illustrated the complete problem goal structure, including the character's intention and the action needed to achieve a goal. The same action isolated from the problem-solving context did not serve as an effective source analogue. These results illuminate the development of early representation and processes involved in analogical problem solving. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:24077465

Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S

2013-09-27

335

Design and performance frameworks for constructing problem-solving simulations.  

PubMed

Rapid advancements in hardware, software, and connectivity are helping to shorten the times needed to develop computer simulations for science education. These advancements, however, have not been accompanied by corresponding theories of how best to design and use these technologies for teaching, learning, and testing. Such design frameworks ideally would be guided less by the strengths/limitations of the presentation media and more by cognitive analyses detailing the goals of the tasks, the needs and abilities of students, and the resulting decision outcomes needed by different audiences. This article describes a problem-solving environment and associated theoretical framework for investigating how students select and use strategies as they solve complex science problems. A framework is first described for designing on-line problem spaces that highlights issues of content, scale, cognitive complexity, and constraints. While this framework was originally designed for medical education, it has proven robust and has been successfully applied to learning environments from elementary school through medical school. Next, a similar framework is detailed for collecting student performance and progress data that can provide evidence of students' strategic thinking and that could potentially be used to accelerate student progress. Finally, experimental validation data are presented that link strategy selection and use with other metrics of scientific reasoning and student achievement. PMID:14506505

Stevens, Ron; Palacio-Cayetano, Joycelin

2003-01-01

336

Design and Performance Frameworks for Constructing Problem-Solving Simulations  

PubMed Central

Rapid advancements in hardware, software, and connectivity are helping to shorten the times needed to develop computer simulations for science education. These advancements, however, have not been accompanied by corresponding theories of how best to design and use these technologies for teaching, learning, and testing. Such design frameworks ideally would be guided less by the strengths/limitations of the presentation media and more by cognitive analyses detailing the goals of the tasks, the needs and abilities of students, and the resulting decision outcomes needed by different audiences. This article describes a problem-solving environment and associated theoretical framework for investigating how students select and use strategies as they solve complex science problems. A framework is first described for designing on-line problem spaces that highlights issues of content, scale, cognitive complexity, and constraints. While this framework was originally designed for medical education, it has proven robust and has been successfully applied to learning environments from elementary school through medical school. Next, a similar framework is detailed for collecting student performance and progress data that can provide evidence of students' strategic thinking and that could potentially be used to accelerate student progress. Finally, experimental validation data are presented that link strategy selection and use with other metrics of scientific reasoning and student achievement.

Stevens, Ron; Palacio-Cayetano, Joycelin

2003-01-01

337

The impact of general chemistry course structure on students' exam performance, attitudes and problem solving strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the effect of course structure, including motivational tools, laboratory and how problem solving was presented in lecture on students' exam performance, attitudes toward the subject of chemistry, and problem solving strategy use. Exam performance indicates that the use of ressurection points on the final exam benefits students' learning, especially for the Middle Bottom quartile of students. Laboratory improves students' understanding when the exams correspond to laboratory content. Attitude differences, as measured by the Attitude toward the subject of chemistry inventory version 2, show some differences and the influence of the level of expertise in graduate student teaching assistants. The use of dimensional analysis to solve stoichiometry problems in lecture leads students to use that process to solve novel tasks in a similiar way, even if it is not efficient or effective. The students' familiarity with the content, as well as the problem solving process, influence how they solve tasks.

Caruthers, Heather Anne

338

Problems and solutions of multimedia aided college English teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many advantages in using multi-media technology in college English teaching, meanwhile problems exist. Teachers depend on the multi-media technology too much, and the learning motivation of the students is weakened. How to solve these problems is very important. The main solutions are to let students listen to more English; pay attention to the connection between the textbook and

Zhen Gao

2011-01-01

339

Idea Focusing versus Idea Generating: A Course for Teachers on Inventive Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper deals with a course intended to teach individuals a method of convergent thinking, or "idea focusing", in seeking inventive solutions to problems and designing innovative artefacts. The course participants (mathematics, science, or technology teachers) learned a range of "inventive principles" often used for problem-solving in…

Barak, Moshe

2009-01-01

340

Engineering Applications for Demonstrating Mathematical Problem-Solving Methods at the Secondary Education Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for teaching problem-solving skills to mathematics students is presented. By subtly incorporating engineering applications, the students are simultaneously exposed to an effective outreach programme. The process includes offering a complex problem that challenges students' abilities. Before allowing the students to become frustrated, the…

Kuehner, Joel P.; Mauch, Elizabeth K.

2006-01-01

341

Education and training of creative problem solving thinking with TRIZ\\/USIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiences of teaching under-graduate students and training industrial engineers on how to think creatively in problem solving are reported. The contents are based on the TRIZ methodology but have been further reorganized and unified into USIT (Unified Structured Inventive Thinking) for easier to learn and apply. Case studies, published by engineers in technologies and obtained by students for everyday-life problems,

Toru Nakagawa

2011-01-01

342

Teaching with Technology. Problem-Solving Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews two CD-ROMS and one computer game: "Explore Yellowstone," science activities on CD to earn badges toward becoming a ranger; "Oval Office: Challenge of the Presidency," in which students role play presidential responsibilities such as proposing budgets; and "Strategy Games of the World," in which students match their skills against game…

Allen, Denise

1996-01-01

343

Online Conference: Problem Solving with Smithsonian Experts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are there other worlds out there? What can science tell us about American history? These are but a few of the important questions asked by the people at the Smithsonian's Online Conference on problem solving. The conference was convened twice during April 2010, and it was sponsored in part by the Microsoft Partners in Learning organization. The experts asking and answering these questions are all from the Smithsonian Institution, and the website offers access to all of the sessions in question. First-time visitors should feel free to dive right into the "Program" area to view the welcome message from Betsy Broun, the director of the Smithsonian American Art Museum. After that, visitors are free to view the programs at their leisure, and they may also wish to check out the "Exhibit Hall" section of the website. Here they will find highlighted resources from across the Smithsonian community relating to the conference topics. All in all, this is a tremendously valuable resource that can be used in the classroom, or just to expand one's horizon for personal edification.

344

A General Architecture for Intelligent Tutoring of Diagnostic Classification Problem Solving  

PubMed Central

We report on a general architecture for creating knowledge-based medical training systems to teach diagnostic classification problem solving. The approach is informed by our previous work describing the development of expertise in classification problem solving in Pathology. The architecture envelops the traditional Intelligent Tutoring System design within the Unified Problem-solving Method description Language (UPML) architecture, supporting component modularity and reuse. Based on the domain ontology, domain task ontology and case data, the abstract problem-solving methods of the expert model create a dynamic solution graph. Student interaction with the solution graph is filtered through an instructional layer, which is created by a second set of abstract problem-solving methods and pedagogic ontologies, in response to the current state of the student model. We outline the advantages and limitations of this general approach, and describe it’s implementation in SlideTutor–a developing Intelligent Tutoring System in Dermatopathology.

Crowley, Rebecca S.; Medvedeva, Olga

2003-01-01

345

Measuring Problem Solving with Technology: A Demonstration Study for NAEP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a study intended to demonstrate how an emerging skill, problem solving with technology, might be measured in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Two computer-delivered assessment scenarios were designed, one on solving science-related problems through electronic information search and the other on solving

Bennett, Randy Elliot; Persky, Hilary; Weiss, Andy; Jenkins, Frank

2010-01-01

346

University Physics As a Second Language: Mastering Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Get a better grade in Physics Solving physics problems can be challenging at times. But with hard work and the right study tools, you can learn the language of physics and get the grade you want. With Tom Barrett's University Physics as a Second Language(TM): Mastering Problem Solving, you'll be able to better understand fundamental physics concepts, solve a variety

Tom Barrett

2005-01-01

347

It's in the Genes: Exploring Relationships between Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Undergraduate Agri-science Students' Solutions to Problems in Mendelean Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to clarify the relationship between problem solving and critical thinking to guide future teaching and research for agricultural educators using the problem solving approach. Students enrolled in an undergraduate genetics course in a college of agriculture were prompted for use of critical thinking skills in the answer of a problem in the context of biotechnology. Students' critical

Curt Friedel; Tracy Irani; Emily Rhoades; Nicholas Fuhrman; Maria Gallo

2007-01-01

348

Assessing Reflection on Practice: A Problem Solving Perspective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reflection on practice (ROP) serves to support teachers that introduce innovative instruction into their classrooms. There is an inherent dilemma between competing goals in ROP workshops: developing teachers' skills as reflective practitioners (process), vs. developing specific favored practices (result). This dilemma affects the evaluation of such workshops, as evaluation methods should align with the goals. In this paper we will gain insight on how to resolve the dilemma from the perspective of teaching scientific problem solving, where a similar dilemma between process and result is sharply manifested and thoroughly explored. Assessment methods and tools derived from this perspective were applied in a formative evaluation of a workshop for high school physics teachers. We will show how these analysis tools enabled us to identify differences in outcomes between versions of yearlong workshops that used different approaches to guidance of ROP. Our research can contribute to the planning and evaluation of ROP workshops.

Yerushalmi, Edit; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

2005-10-12

349

A GRASP algorithm to solve the unicost set covering problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The set covering problem (SCP) is a well-known combinatorial optimization problem. This paper presents a GRASP algorithm to solve a special SCP case known in the literature as the unicost set covering problem. The algorithm incorporates a local improvement procedure based on the heuristics to solve binary constraint satisfiability problems (SAT). The quality of the proposed algorithm is tested on

Joaquín Bautista; Jordi Pereira

2007-01-01

350

Solving dynamic economic dispatch problems using cellular differential evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes cellular differential evolution (cDE) algorithm for solving dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problems with valve-point effects. DEDs are high dimensional optimization problems with many equality and inequality con- straints. The problem of premature convergence in solving high dimensional optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms (EAs) could be fought using population structuring. This work investigates the suitability a structured DE

Nasimul Noman; Hitoshi Iba

2011-01-01

351

Transformational and derivational strategies in analogical problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analogical problem solving is mostly described as transfer of a source solution to a target problem based on the structural\\u000a correspondences (mapping) between source and target. Derivational analogy (Carbonell, Machine learning: an artificial intelligence\\u000a approach Los Altos. Morgan Kaufmann, 1986) proposes an alternative view: a target problem is solved by replaying a remembered problem-solving episode. Thus, the experience\\u000a with the

Sven-Eric Schelhorn; Jacqueline Griego; Ute Schmid

2007-01-01

352

Theory of constructions and set in problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation\\u000a of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning knowledge, is described. Perdix’s planning knowledge enables it to\\u000a augment the problem space it is given by constructing auxiliary lines. The planning system also provides a mechanism that\\u000a can result in problem solving set. Results

James G. Greeno; Maria E. Magone; Seth Chaiklin

1979-01-01

353

Solving the brachistochrone and other variational problems with soap films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the problem of the brachistochrone and other variational problems with the help of the soap films that are formed between two suitable surfaces. We also discuss the connection between some variational problems of dynamics, statics, optics, and elasticity.

Criado, C.; Alamo, N.

2010-12-01

354

How indirect supportive digital help during and after solving physics problems can improve problem-solving abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme, hints are only available as worked out problems after

Henk J. Pol; Egbert G. Harskamp; Cor J. M. Suhre; Martin J. Goedhart

2009-01-01

355

Computer Based Collaborative Problem Solving for Introductory Courses in Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss collaborative problem solving computer-based recitation style. The course is designed by Lee [1], and the idea was proposed before by Christian, Belloni and Titus [2,3]. The students find the problems on a web-page containing simulations (physlets) and they write the solutions on an accompanying worksheet after discussing it with a classmate. Physlets have the advantage of being much more like real-world problems than textbook problems. We also compare two protocols for web-based instruction using simulations in an introductory physics class [1]. The inquiry protocol allowed students to control input parameters while the worked example protocol did not. We will discuss which of the two methods is more efficient in relation to Scientific Discovery Learning and Cognitive Load Theory. 1. Lee, Kevin M., Nicoll, Gayle and Brooks, Dave W. (2004). ``A Comparison of Inquiry and Worked Example Web-Based Instruction Using Physlets'', Journal of Science Education and Technology 13, No. 1: 81-88. 2. Christian, W., and Belloni, M. (2001). Physlets: Teaching Physics With Interactive Curricular Material, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 3. Christian,W., and Titus,A. (1998). ``Developing web-based curricula using Java Physlets.'' Computers in Physics 12: 227--232.

Ilie, Carolina; Lee, Kevin

2010-03-01

356

A descriptive study of cooperative problem solving introductory physics labs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those skills are the foundation for the quantitative aspects of problem solving. (Chi, et al., 1981). The literature also indicates that cooperative problem solving should enhance the students' performance. As a practical matter surveys of departments that require introductory physics classes expect their students to have general qualitative problem solving skills. The students in this study were asked to solve problem(s) before coming to a lab session and then cooperatively assess whether or not their answers were correct by conducting a laboratory activity for which they had to plan the procedure and obtain the necessary results. TA's were expected to provide instruction under a cognitive apprenticeship model. The results showed that the cooperative problem solving laboratories had almost no impact on the students' problem solving skills as measured from the start of a two hour lab session to the end of the lab session...The reason for this may have been that students did not have enough experience in the solving of different kinds of problems in the two domains of Newton's second Law and gravitation to overcome their misconceptions and become competent. Another possibility was that the TA's did not follow the cognitive apprenticeship model as consistently as might have been needed.

Knutson, Paul Aanond

357

A Collection of Problems for Physics Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problems are an important instrument for teachers to mediate physics content and for learners to adopt this content. This collection of problems is not only suited to traditional teaching and learning in lectures or student labs, but also to all kinds of new ways of teaching and learning, such as self-study, long-distance teaching,…

Grober, S.; Jodl, H. -J.

2010-01-01

358

A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

2003-01-01

359

Constraint programming approach to solve facility layout design problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a methodology to solve the facility layout design problem by using constraint logic programming (CLP), which has proved to be a technology that gives good results when applied to a combinatorial problem optimisation. Methods to solve facility layout problems have to deal with a large set of factors, namely sales and production estimations, manufacturing process compatibilities, delivery dates,

J. A. Tavares; C. Ramos; J. Neves

1999-01-01

360

Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

2011-01-01

361

Developing authentic problem solving skills in introductory computing classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to solve problems is the key to developing software, and it is an ability that can be difficult to learn. Introductory Computer Science students are often taught syntax and semantics, along with simple problems designed to develop logical, structured thinking, but authentic problem-solving skills are rarely developed at these early stages. In this paper we describe an approach

Katrina Falkner; Edward Palmer

2009-01-01

362

Two-phase Method to Solve Fuzzy Quadratic Programming Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quadratic programming problems are of up most importance in a variety of relevant practical fields, as e.g., portfolio selection. This work presents and develops an original and novel fuzzy sets based method that solves a class of quadratic programming problems with vagueness in the set of constraints. The method uses two phases to solve fuzzy quadratic programming problems, which eventually

Ricardo C. Silva; José L. Verdegay; Akebo Yamakami

2007-01-01

363

Theory of Constructions and Set in Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning knowledge, is described. Perdix' planning knowledge enables it to augment the problem space it is given by constructing auxiliary lines. The planning system also…

Greeno, James G.; And Others

364

Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…

Wiest, Lynda R.

2008-01-01

365

Adaptive Expertise as Knowledge Building in Science Teachers’ Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Research,on expert\\/expert, differences ,has ,lead ,to a differentiation of adaptive ,expertise and ,routine expertise. Adaptive expertise was,investigated as a,knowledge-building orientation to problem ,solving ,in high ,school ,science teachers’ instructional problem solving. An authentic task was administered,to adaptive ,and ,routine experts as well ,as novices. Adaptive experts were ,found ,to show ,a higher orientation to knowledge-building during ,problem ,solving than

Valerie M. Crawford

366

Managerial Problem-Solving Styles: A Cross-Cultural Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature suggests that North American business-people differ from their Latin American counterparts with respect to specific behavioral traits. Our particular interest is in problem solving and in effecting changes in behavior to achieve better problem-solving capability. The purpose of the present study is to assess whether there are differences in problem-solving styles between two culturally different groups of managers

Robert Grosse; J. Eulogio Romero Simpson

2008-01-01

367

Cognitive Science: Problem Solving And Learning For Physics Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cognitive Science has focused on general principles of problem solving and learning that might be relevant for physics education research. This paper examines three selected issues that have relevance for the difficulty of transfer in problem solving domains: specialized systems of memory and reasoning, the importance of content in thinking, and a characterization of memory retrieval in problem solving. In addition, references to these issues are provided to allow the interested researcher entries to the literatures.

Ross, Brian H.

2009-07-13

368

Analysis of Problem-Solving-Based Online Asynchronous Discussion Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores the process of asynchronous problem-solving-based discussion activities and aims to understand limitations likely to arise during learners' problem-solving discussions. The research has combined lag-sequential analysis and quantitative content analysis, and expects to use such analyzing methods to further understand the sequential pattern of students' problem-solving discussion behaviors and knowledge-construction levels. In order to avoid influence caused by

Huei-tse Hou; Kuo-en Chang; Yao-ting Sung

2008-01-01

369

Phenomenographic study of studentsâ problem solving approaches in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study is a hierarchical set of categories that describe the studentsâ problem solving approaches in the context of introductory physics.

Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert; Bowe, Brian

2008-09-24

370

Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

2010-07-01

371

Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studentsâ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate studentsâ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate studentsâ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate studentsâ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-01-20

372

A hospital facility layout problem finally solved  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a history of a difficult facility layout problem that falls into the category of the Koopmans–Beckmann variant of the quadratic assignment problem (QAP), wherein 30 facilities are to be assigned to 30 locations. The problem arose in 1972 as part of the design of a German University Hospital, Klinikum Regensburg. This problem, known as the Krarup 30a

Peter M. Hahn; Jakob Krarup

2001-01-01

373

Water research: solving colorado's water problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several projects conducted by the Colorado Water Resources Research Institute are outlined. The report includes descriptive photographs and simplified procedural explanations designed for use by the general public. Sections of the report include: (1) high country irrigation reservoirs; (2) Colorado's economy - the role of water; (3) answering the flood control benefit question; (4) solving high country water and sewer

1977-01-01

374

Generalized and generative thinking in US and Chinese students’ mathematical problem solving and problem posing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined US and Chinese 6th grade students’ generalization skills in solving pattern-based problems, their generative thinking in problem posing, and the relationships between students’ performance on problem solving and problem posing tasks. Across the problem solving tasks, Chinese students had higher success rates than US students. The disparities appear to be related to students’ use of differing strategies.

Jinfa Cai; Stephen Hwang

2002-01-01

375

Serving Up Number Sense and Problem Solving: Dinner at the Panda Palace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes strategies for using literature to teach number sense and problem solving. Reports that the rich class discussions reflected some of the students' thinking, gave students opportunities to share their approaches and understandings, and gave the teacher additional insights into students' thinking. (JRH)|

Wickett, Maryann S.

1997-01-01

376

Developing Problem-Solving Skills through Retrosynthetic Analysis and Clickers in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique approach to teaching and learning problem-solving and critical-thinking skills in the context of retrosynthetic analysis is described. In this approach, introductory organic chemistry students, who typically see only simple organic structures, undertook partial retrosynthetic analyses of real and complex synthetic targets. Multiple…

Flynn, Alison B.

2011-01-01

377

Creative Problem Solving: The History, Development, and Implications for Gifted Education and Talent Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a summary of research, development, and applications of Creative Problem Solving (CPS) in educational settings and, more specifically, in gifted education. The CPS framework is widely known and applied as one important goal in contemporary gifted education, as well as in relation to initiatives for "teaching thinking" in the…

Treffinger, Donald J.; Isaksen, Scott G.

2005-01-01

378

Problem Solving with an Icon Oriented Programming Tool: A Case Study in Technology Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: In 1995, the authors started the Empirica Control for Technology Education (ECTE) project in the Department of Teacher Education at the University of Helsinki with the purpose of widening the possibilities for creative problem solving in technology education. First, an icon-oriented visual programming tool was developed to teach computer control technology, along with an appropriate computer interface. Authors developed

Jari M. Lavonen; Veijo P. Meisalo; Matti Lattu

2001-01-01

379

A Problem-Solving Template for Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Physics Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A problem-solving template enables a methodology of instruction that integrates aspects of both sequencing and conceptual learning. It is designed to enhance critical-thinking skills when used within the framework of a learner-centered approach to teaching, where regular, thorough assessments of student learning are key components of the…

Fink, Janice M.; Mankey, Gary J.

2010-01-01

380

Write Is Right: Using Graphic Organizers to Improve Student Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers have used graphic organizers successfully in teaching the writing process. This paper describes graphic organizers and their potential mathematics benefits for both students and teachers, elucidates a specific graphic organizer adaptation for mathematical problem solving, and discusses results using the "four-corners-and-a-diamond"…

Zollman, Alan

2012-01-01

381

The Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI), Grade Level, and Socioeconomic Status: A Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching

Cox, David W.

1985-01-01

382

The Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI), Grade Level, and Socioeconomic Status: A Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching

Cox, David W.

1985-01-01

383

Correlations among Knowledge Structures, Force Concept Inventory, and Problem-Solving Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The modeling instruction pedagogy for the teaching of physics has been proven to be quite effective at increasing the conceptual understanding and problem-solving abilities of students to a much greater extent than that of nonmodeling students. Little research has been conducted concerning the cognitive and metacognitive skills that modeling…

Malone, Kathy L.

2008-01-01

384

High Intensity Program in Mathematical Problem Solving: An elementary school case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the naturalistic study was to examine the implementation of selected aspects of the High Intensity Program in Mathematical Problem Solving by teachers and students in Kindergarten and grades one through five in an elementary school in southeastern Florida. The program was a staff development endeavor that emphasized three components: formal teacher education; demonstration teaching; and clinical supervision

Sally Cox Mayberry

1990-01-01

385

ASIT--A Problem Solving Strategy for Education and Eco-Friendly Sustainable Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is growing recognition of the role teaching and learning experiences in technology education can contribute to Education for Sustainable Development. It appears, however, that in the Technology Education classroom little or no change has been achieved to the practice of designing and problem solving strategies oriented towards sustainable…

Turner, Steve

2009-01-01

386

ASIT--A Problem Solving Strategy for Education and Eco-Friendly Sustainable Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing recognition of the role teaching and learning experiences in technology education can contribute to Education for Sustainable Development. It appears, however, that in the Technology Education classroom little or no change has been achieved to the practice of designing and problem solving strategies oriented towards sustainable…

Turner, Steve

2009-01-01

387

An Evaluation of the Introduction of Collaborative Problem Solving for Learning Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and evaluates a package of measures designed to introduce a collaborative problem-solving (CPS) approach to learning tutorials of a second-year university macroeconomics subject. Presents findings related to the influence of CPS on tutors' teaching experiences, students' attitudes attendance and hours of study, and academic achievement.…

Johnston, Carol G; James, Richard H.; Lye, Jenny N.; McDonald, Ian M.

2000-01-01

388

Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-life problems present several kinds of preferences. In this pa- per we focus on problems with both positive and negative preferences, that we call bipolar problems. Although seemingly specular notions, these two kinds of preferences should be dealt with differently to obtain the desired natural be- haviour. We technically address this by generalizing the soft constraint formalism, which is able

Stefano Bistarelli; Maria Silvia Pini; Francesca Rossi; K. Brent Venable

389

Dancing With Demons: Pathogenic Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the way in which we define and deal with social problems such as crime and proposes a new way of thinking about them. Criminality, poverty, illiteracy, addiction and child abuse are some of society's most acute and intractable problems. Despite countless attempted remedies, these complex social problems have continued to grow around the world. Although we have

Kathleen S. Long

390

Solving City Bus Scheduling Problems in Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of city bus scheduling problems is considered. The aim of this paper is to optimize the number of buses and their scheduling in the city. This leads to high-dimensional integer programming problems. The vehicle scheduling problem (VSP) can also be formulated through a graph-theoretical model, which is then transformed into an integer linear programming (ILP) model. There are

H. G. Bock; G. Reinelt; C. Surapholchai

391

A Framework for Problem Solving in a Distributed Processing Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of distributed problem solving, or the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely-coupled collection of knowledge-sources that operates in a distributed processor architecture is presented. Such architectures offer high-sp...

R. G. Smith

1978-01-01

392

Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

Jennifer Xu; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

393

Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social Contextual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

Jennifer Jie Xu; G. Alan Wang; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

2007-01-01

394

Assessing Problem Solving Strategy Differences within Online and Face-to-Face Courses and Their Relationship to Pre-Service Teachers' Competence and Confidence for Integrating Technology into Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This quantitative research study identifies the problem solving strategies pre-service teachers use in learning specific technology skills within an educational technology methods class which is offered both online and face to face. It also examines how such strategies differ by the format of this course, and to what extent these strategies…

Peterson, Sharon L.

2010-01-01

395

The Nature of Gestures' Beneficial Role in Spatial Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-thought gestures are hand movements produced in silent, noncommunicative, problem-solving situations. In the study, we investigated whether and how such gestures enhance performance in spatial visualization tasks such as a mental rotation task and a paper folding task. We found that participants gestured more often when they had difficulties solving mental rotation problems (Experiment 1). The gesture-encouraged group solved more

Mingyuan Chu; Sotaro Kita

2011-01-01

396

A Review of Problem Solving Capabilities in Lean Process Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human factor plays an important role in ensuring lean process management to be successful and provides good proposition for the success of the organization in the long run. One of the main elements of people is their problem solving capability in identifying and eliminating wastages. The purpose of this paper was to review problem solving capabilities in lean process management;

A. P. Puvanasvaran; S. H. Tang; M. R Muhamad; A. M. S. Hamouda

397

Urban African American PreAdolescent Social Problem Solving Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two studies focusing on the social problem solving skills of African American preadolescent youth are detailed. In the first study data from a sample of 150 African American children, ages 9 to 11 years, was used to examine the association between type of youth social problem solving approaches applied to hypothetical risk situations and time spent in

Dorian E. Traube; Kelly Taber Chasse; Mary M. McKay; Anjali M. Bhorade; Roberta Paikoff; Stacie D. Young

2007-01-01

398

Competitive Problem Solving and the Optimal Prize Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agents compete to solve a problem. Each agent knows own computational capacity as private information and simultaneously chooses either a risky or a safe problem solving method. This paper analyzes the optimal prize schemes from the perspective of the prize designer who wishes to find a solution as quick as possible. It is shown that (i) the winner- take-all scheme

Toru Suzuki

2010-01-01

399

Environmental Education for Empowerment: Action Research and Community Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book addresses the subject of environmental education in the context of educational and social change. It focuses on the synthesis of action research and community problem solving in the context of education. The result, Action Research and Community Problem Solving (ARCPS), can be defined as a process that enables students and teachers to…

Stapp, William B.; And Others

400

Introducing Problem Solving through Literature at the Elementary Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much publicity the past few years, regarding students' lack of basic skills, their inability to think clearly, and their poor use of problem solving strategies. To focus on this need, the following program has been designed to help elementary teachers introduce problem solving in an organized manner adding very little, if any extra material to the curriculum.

Peg Harbert

1989-01-01

401

The Problem-Solving Approach of Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem-solving approach in environmental education (EE), reports on EE programs and activities in selected foreign countries, and a report on the Asian Subregional Workshop on Teacher Training in EE are provided in this newsletter. The nature of the problem-solving approach and brief discussions of such methodologies as group discussion,…

Connect, 1983

1983-01-01

402

Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

2013-01-01

403

Expertise & Spatial Reasoning in Advanced Scientific Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization and other forms of spatial cognition are considered fundamental to learning and problem solving in science. This assumption is especially prevalent in organic chemistry where imagistic reasoning is considered to be a primary cognitive activity. While previous research has shown that students are aware of several analytical heuristics and imagistic strategies for problem solving, there have been no studies

Mike Stieff; Sonali Raje

404

Evaluating the levels of problem solving abilities in mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is a general agreement among mathematics educators that students need to acquire problem solving skill, learn to communicate using mathematical knowledge and skills, develop mathematical thinking and reasoning, to see the interconnectedness between mathematics and other disciplines. Based on this perspective, this research looked into the levels of problem solving ability amongst selected Malaysian secondary school students. A

NOOR AZLAN AHMAD

405

Ideational Fluency as a Predictor of Original Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Empirical validity of nonoverlapping scores of original problem solving on a lenient solution-standard predictor was evidenced in college students by high correlations with corresponding scores on stringent solution-standard criterion tasks. Findings support the construct validity of conceptualizations of original problem solving based on…

Milgram, Roberta M.; Arad, Rivka

1981-01-01

406

Introduction to LogoWriter and Problem Solving for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book about Logo programming and problem solving is designed to introduce preservice and inservice teachers to problem solving in a Logo programming environment. Such a unit of study can be an important part of an introductory computers in education course for educators. Although Logowriter--a version of Logo--was developed by Logo Computer…

Yoder, Sharon Burrowes; Moursund, Dave

407

Using Sentence and Picture Clues to Solve Verbal Insight Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pictures and sentences, designed to be equivalent in information content, were compared as clues for solving verbal insight problems. Solving insight problems may require creative thinking because a novel approach is required for their solution. A 2 (test condition: informed, uninformed) × 3 (clue type: picture, sentence, unrelated) between and within-subjects design was used. Participants (N = 144) completed, in order: an information acquisition

Patricia M. Schwert

2007-01-01

408

A Descriptive Model of Information Problem Solving while Using Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth…

Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber

2009-01-01

409

Expert Algorithmic and Imagistic Problem Solving Strategies in Advanced Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization and imagistic reasoning appear central to expert practice in science; however, expert use of these strategies on authentic tasks has not been examined in detail. This study documents how science experts use both algorithms and imagistic reasoning to solve problems. Using protocol analysis, we report expert chemists' preferential use of algorithms for solving spatial problems and imagistic reasoning for

Mike Stieff; Sonali Raje

2010-01-01

410

Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…

Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby

2011-01-01

411

Problem-Solving Appraisal: Helping Normal People Lead Better Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We are very grateful for the thoughtful, scholarly, and insightful comments of the reactants and appreciate the kind words about our Major Contribution. One of the goals of the Major Contribution was to review the existing literature on problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) (Heppner, 1988) and, subsequently,…

Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.

2004-01-01

412

Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the impact of robotics (computer-powered manipulative) to a battery-powered manipulative (novelty control) and traditionally taught science class on science achievement and problem solving of fourth through sixth graders. Found that the robotics group had higher scores on programming logic-problem solving than did the novelty control…

Wagner, Susan Preston

1999-01-01

413

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A NATIONAL CONFERENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of information on the use of GIS as a tool in environmental problem solving. Solving environmental problems has become more complex with consideration of cross-media pollutant transport and watershed-based decision-making. T...

414

Toward Group Problem Solving Guidelines for 21st Century Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effective problem-solving skills are critical in dealing with ambiguous and often complex issues in the present-day leaner and globally diverse organizations. Yet respected, well-established problem-solving models may be misaligned within the current work environment, particularly within a team context. Models learned from a more bureaucratic,…

Ranieri, Kathryn L.

2004-01-01

415

Computer-Based Inquiry into Scientific Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem solving performance of individuals was compared with that of dyads at three levels of mental ability using a computer-based inquiry into the riddle of the frozen Wooly Mammoth. Results indicated significant interactions between grouping and mental ability for certain problem solving internal measures. (RAO)|

Berkowitz, Melissa S.; Szabo, Michael

1979-01-01

416

Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

2010-01-01

417

Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

2013-01-01

418

Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Problem-Solving Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive problem solving contributes to individual and family health and development. In this article, the effect of the cooperative family learning approach (CFLA) on group family problem solving and on cooperative parenting communication is described. A pretest or posttest experimental design was used. Participant families were recruited from Head Start programs and exhibited two or more risk factors. Participant preschool

Jane Drummond; Darcy Fleming; Linda Mcdonald; Gerard M. Kysela

2005-01-01

419

On solving facility layout problems using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tam and Chan (1998) present a parallel genetic algorithm approach to solve the facility layout problem. They adopt a slicing tree representation of a floor layout. The coding scheme represents a layout as a string with three parts. This paper demonstrates the difficulties in applying classical crossover and mutation operators for solving facility layout problems. The paper modifies the representation

L. Al-Hakim

2000-01-01

420

Introduction to LogoWriter and Problem Solving for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book about Logo programming and problem solving is designed to introduce preservice and inservice teachers to problem solving in a Logo programming environment. Such a unit of study can be an important part of an introductory computers in education course for educators. Although Logowriter--a version of Logo--was developed by Logo Computer…

Yoder, Sharon Burrowes; Moursund, Dave

421

Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…

Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby

2011-01-01

422

Granular problem solving and its applications in software engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulation is an important component of granular computing (GrC) as a problem solving paradigm. Specification and regulation of granulation are necessary in helping researchers and practitioners apply GrC into different applications. At present, there is insufficient investigation of this topic. This paper defines concepts and mechanisms of problem solving, investigates the fundamental principles and processes of granulation and demonstrates that

Haibin Zhu

2009-01-01

423

Students' Use of Technological Features while Solving a Mathematics Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design of technology tools has the potential to dramatically influence how students interact with tools, and these interactions, in turn, may influence students' mathematical problem solving. To better understand these interactions, we analyzed eighth grade students' problem solving as they used a java applet designed to specifically accompany…

Lee, Hollylynne Stohl; Hollebrands, Karen F.

2006-01-01

424

Designing Grid-based Problem Solving Environments and Portals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building Problem Solving environments in the emerging national-scale Computational Grid infrastructure is a cha l- lenging task. Accessing advanced Grid services, such as authentication, remote access to computers, resource man- agement, and directory services, is usually not a simple matter for problem solving environment developers. The Commodity Grid project is working to overcome this dif- ficulty by creating what we

Gregor Von Laszewski; Ian T. Foster; Jarek Gawor; Nell Rehn; Michael Russell

2001-01-01

425

Instructors' Ideas about Problem Solving--Setting Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents preliminary hypotheses about the relationship between faculty goals for the introductory calculus-based physics course and their beliefs about student learning of problem solving. All faculties have problem solving as a major goal for their courses. There appears to be however, an instructional paradox. When discussing how…

Henderson, Charles; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia; Kuo, Vince H.; Yerushalmi, Edit

426

Instructors' Beliefs and Values about Learning Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents preliminary hypotheses about a common core of faculty beliefs about how their students learn to solve problems in their introductory courses. Using a process of structured interviews and a concept map based analysis, we find that faculty appear to believe that students learn problem solving primarily through a process of…

Henderson, Charles; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia; Kuo, Vince H.; Yerushalmi, Edit

427

Is Conceptual Understanding Compromised By A Problem- Solving Emphasis In An Introductory Physics Course?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing competency in problem solving and enhancing conceptual understanding are primary objectives in introductory physics, and many techniques and tools are available to help instructors achieve them. Pedagogically, we use an easy-to-implement intervention, the ACCESS protocol, to develop and assess problem-solving skills in our SCALE-UP classroom environment for algebra-based physics. Based on our research and teaching experience, an important question has emerged: while primarily targeting improvements in problem-solving and cognitive development, is it necessary that conceptual understanding be compromised? To address this question, we gathered and analyzed information about student abilities, backgrounds, and instructional preferences. We report on our progress and give insights into matching the instructional tools to student profiles in order to achieve optimal learning in group-based active learning. The ultimate goal of our work is to integrate individual student learning needs into a pedagogy that moves students closer to expert-like status in problem solving.

Ridenour, Joshua; Feldman, Gerald; Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Medsker, Larry; Benmouna, Nawal

2013-07-18

428

Is conceptual understanding compromised by a problem-solving emphasis in an introductory physics course?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing competency in problem solving and enhancing conceptual understanding are primary objectives in introductory physics, and many techniques and tools are available to help instructors achieve them. Pedagogically, we use an easy-to-implement intervention, the ACCESS protocol, to develop and assess problem-solving skills in our SCALE-UP classroom environment for algebra-based physics. Based on our research and teaching experience, an important question has emerged: while primarily targeting improvements in problem-solving and cognitive development, is it necessary that conceptual understanding be compromised? To address this question, we gathered and analyzed information about student abilities, backgrounds, and instructional preferences. We report on our progress and give insights into matching the instructional tools to student profiles in order to achieve optimal learning in group-based active learning. The ultimate goal of our work is to integrate individual student learning needs into a pedagogy that moves students closer to expert-like status in problem solving.

Ridenour, J.; Feldman, G.; Teodorescu, R.; Medsker, L.; Benmouna, N.

2013-01-01

429

Problem-solving skills in high school biology: The effectiveness of the IMMEX problem-solving assessment software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Problem-solving through reflective thinking should be both the method and valuable outcome of science instruction in America's schools" proclaimed John Dewey (Gabel, 1995). If the development of problem-solving is a primary goal of science education, more problem-solving opportunities must be an integral part of K-16 education. To examine the effective use of technology in developing and assessing problem-solving skills, a problem-solving authoring, learning, and assessment software, the UCLA IMMEX Program-Interactive Multimedia Exercises-was investigated. This study was a twenty-week quasi-experimental study that was implemented as a control-group time series design among 120 tenth grade students. Both the experimental group (n = 60) and the control group (n = 60) participated in a problem-based learning curriculum; however, the experimental group received regular intensive experiences with IMMEX problem-solving and the control group did not. Problem-solving pretest and posttest were administered to all students. The instruments used were a 35-item Processes of Biological Inquiry Test and an IMMEX problem-solving assessment test, True Roots. Students who participated in the IMMEX Program achieved significant (p <.05) gains in problem-solving skills on both problem-solving assessment instruments. This study provided evidence that IMMEX software is highly efficient in evaluating salient elements of problem-solving. Outputs of students' problem-solving strategies revealed that unsuccessful problem solvers primarily used the following four strategies: (1) no data search strategy, students simply guessed; (2) limited data search strategy leading to insufficient data and premature closing; (3) irrelevant data search strategy, students focus in areas bearing no substantive data; and (4) extensive data search strategy with inadequate integration and analysis. On the contrary, successful problem solvers used the following strategies; (1) focused search strategy coupled with the ability to fill in knowledge gaps by accessing the appropriate resources; (2) targeted search strategy coupled with high level of analytical and integration skills; and (3) focused search strategy coupled with superior discrimination, analytical, and integration skills. The strategies of students who were successful and unsuccessful solving IMMEX problems were consistent with those of expert and novice problem solvers identified in the literature on problem-solving.

Palacio-Cayetano, Joycelin

430

Solving Pseudo-Boolean Problems with scip?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudo-Boolean problems generalize SAT problems by allow- ing linear constraints and a linear objective function. Dierent solvers, mainly having their roots in the SAT domain, have been proposed and compared, for instance, in Pseudo-Boolean evaluations. One can also for- mulate Pseudo-Boolean models as integer programming models. That is, Pseudo-Boolean problems lie on the border between the SAT domain and the

Timo Berthold; Stefan Heinz; Marc E. Pfetsch

431

Homology and hierarchies: Problems solved and unresolved  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homology as a topic in phylogenetic analysis has to do with what is conserved in evolution. The problem of homology in systematics - to find homologues, and in so doing, to identify taxa - is distinct from the problem of identifying what kinds of features tend to be conserved, how and why. The two sets of issues are fundamentally interdependent

V. Louise Roth

432

Solving Facility Layout Problems Using Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research applies techniques and toolsfrom Genetic Programming (GP) to the facilitylayout problem. The facility layoutproblem (FLP) is an NP-complete combinatorialoptimization problem that hasapplications to efficient facility design formanufacturing and service industries. Afacility layout is represented as a collectionof rectangular blocks using a slicing treestructure (STS). We use a multiple purposegenetic programming kernel to generateslicing trees that are...

Jaime Garces-perez; Dale A. Schoenefeld; Roger L. Wainwright

1996-01-01

433

On retrieving analogues when solving problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

After criticism of the precision of previous experimental procedures for testing analogue retrieval, a new procedure that overcomes the proposed inadequacies is described. This procedure is then employed in two experiments that test aspects of the general hypothesis that base analogues that are semantically remote from a target problem (Duncker's radiation problem) are more difficult to retrieve than those that

Mark Keane

1987-01-01

434

Solve valve noise and cavitation problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clear understanding of aerodynamic noise theory and cavitation will avoid most major valve problems in process plants and allow the valve engineer to design out potential problems. On the other hand, the plant owner has to recognize that such valves may require a cost premium. However, such a premium will be recovered in a small amount of time because

1997-01-01

435

An Investigation on Chinese Teachers' Realistic Problem Posing and Problem Solving Ability and Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present study, which is a part of a research project about realistic word problem solving and problem posing in Chinese elementary schools, a problem solving and a problem posing test were administered to 128 pre-service and in-service elementary school teachers from Tianjin City in China, wherein the teachers were asked to solve 3…

Chen, Limin; Van Dooren, Wim; Chen, Qi; Verschaffel, Lieven

2011-01-01

436

Word Problem Structure and Its Effect on the Transfer of Learning to Solve Algebra Word Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem in learning to solve mathematics word problems students have been facing is to transfer the learned problem-solving knowledge from one story context to another story context. Some studies have provided evidence showing that structure facilitates transfer of learning to solve word problems. However, it is still under development for what…

Chang, Kuo-Liang

2010-01-01

437

Using spectral analysis to probe the continuum of problem solving ability among practicing organic chemists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project sought to describe problem solving behaviors of organic chemists when they are faced with combined spectral analysis problems. Graduate students and organic chemistry faculty were asked to solve five combined spectral analysis (IR and 1H NMR) problems using the think aloud technique. Participant performance on these tasks was ranked by a grading rubric generating groupings of less successful and more successful participants. The more successful participants adopted consistent problem solving approaches to the problems, relied more heavily on coupling information in 1H NMR interpretation, and drew molecular fragments as they were deduced in the problem solving process. Less successful participants demonstrated varied approaches to solving problems of this type, tended to draw entire molecules soon in the solution attempt, and to not consistently calculate the degree of unsaturation in a molecule. Experience from research and teaching also were found to be important influences on success rate. The outcomes of this study indicated that among graduate students and organic chemistry faculty, there are differences in problem solving ability. The key differences between the more and less successful participants are the consistency of problem attack, drawing molecular structures in their entirety versus in a piecemeal fashion, and the use of coupling information from the NMR spectrum.

Cartrette, David Paul

438

Solving a Problem With or Without a Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve a problem, an ordinary computer system executes an existing program. When no such program is available, an AGI system may still be able to solve a concrete problem instance. This paper introduces a new approach to do so in a reasoning system that adapts to its environment and works with insuffcient knowledge and resources. The related approaches are compared, and several conceptual issues are analyzed. It is concluded that an AGI system can solve a problem with or without a problem-specific program, and therefore can have human-like creativity and exibility.

Wang, Pei

2013-01-01

439

Do prescribed prompts prime sensemaking during group problem solving?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many researchers and textbooks have promoted the use of rigid prescribed strategies for encouraging development of expert-like problem-solving behavior in novice students. The University of British Columbia's introductory algebra-based course for non-physics majors uses Context-Rich problems with a prescribed six-step strategy. We have coded audio recordings of group problem-solving sessions to analyze students' epistemological framing based on the implicit goal of their discussions. By treating the goal of "understanding the physics of the situation" as sensemaking, we argue that prescribed problem-solving prompts are not sufficient to induce subsequent sensemaking discussion.

Mathew "Sandy" Martinuk; Ives, Joss

2012-05-15

440

Solving global environmental problems through technological innovation  

SciTech Connect

Much of the environment problems arise from the supply and utilization of energy for industrial, transportation and domestic markets. The use of fossil fuels can result in environmental, atmospheric, and terrestrial problems, including organic, acid rain, and global warming hazards. Here I will address the CO{sub 2} global greenhouse problem and touch upon the nuclear industry and its dilemma as well. We recognize the possibility of global natural feedback phenomena which may limit and mitigate anthropomorphic global greenhouse climate change, however, here I am limiting the discussion to anthropomorphic (man made) technological mitigation process as opposed to adaptation which means adapting to change.

Steinberg, M.

1990-03-01

441

Problem solving performance and learning strategies of undergraduate students who solved microbiology problems using IMMEX educational software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p < .10) related to ability to solve "Creeping Crud". Peer learning strategy showed a positive significant (p < .10) relationship with scores obtained from solving "Creeping Crud". Students' declared major made a significant (p < .05) difference on the ability to solve "Microquest". A subset (18) volunteered for a think aloud method to determine decision-making process. High achievers used fewer steps, and had more focused approach than low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.

Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota

442

Identifying, analysing and solving problems in practice.  

PubMed

When a problem is identified in practice, it is important to clarify exactly what it is and establish the cause before seeking a solution. This solution-seeking process should include input from those directly involved in the problematic situation, to enable individuals to contribute their perspective, appreciate why any change in practice is necessary and what will be achieved by the change. This article describes some approaches to identifying and analysing problems in practice so that effective solutions can be devised. It includes a case study and examples of how the Five Whys analysis, fishbone diagram, problem tree analysis, and Seven-S Model can be used to analyse a problem. PMID:22848969

Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

443

Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)

DeFilippo, Shirley

1975-01-01

444

Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)|

DeFilippo, Shirley

1975-01-01

445

Solving Word Problems using Schemas: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students are taught to recognize problems as falling within word-problem types and to apply a problem solution method that matches that problem type. This review highlights two schema approaches for 2nd- and 3rd-grade students at-risk for or with LD: schema-based instruction and schema-broadening instruction. A total of 12 schema studies were reviewed and synthesized. Both types of schema approaches enhanced the word-problem skill of students at-risk for or with LD. Based on the review, suggestions are provided for incorporating word-problem instruction using schemas.

Powell, Sarah R.

2011-01-01

446

A Study of the Problem Solving Abilities of Seventh Grade Students Who Receive Anchored Problem Solving Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…

Griesser, Sara Anne

447

Collaborative tool for solving human factors problems in the manufacturing environment: the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Technique (TRIZ) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study an analysis is made regarding the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Technique (TRIZ), which emerged in Russia in 1946 and has been commonly used in the USA and Europe in the past few last decades. TRIZ is a method that is used successfully to solve the problems arising during the process of product development. Within this study

D. Akay; A. Dem?ray; M. Kurt

2008-01-01

448

A Study of the Problem Solving Abilities of Seventh Grade Students Who Receive Anchored Problem Solving Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…

Griesser, Sara Anne

449

Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.

Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer

1993-12-01

450

Solving an Inverse Problem of Erosive Burning Rate Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for an experimental study of burning processes in condensed substances is suggested, based on the statement and solution of inverse problems. An inverse problem of reconstructing the erosive burning rate of solid propellants from experimental data is formulated. The choice of an approach to solving the problem by the joint application of well-known methods for inverse problem

V. A. Arkhipov; E. A. Zverev; D. A. Zimin

2002-01-01

451

The Lagrangian Relaxation Method for Solving Integer Programming Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most computationally useful ideas of the 1970s is the observation that many hard integer programming problems can be viewed as easy problems complicated by a relatively small set of side constraints. Dualizing the side constraints produces a Lagrangian problem that is easy to solve and whose optimal value is a lower bound (for minimization problems) on the

Marshall L. Fisher

1981-01-01

452

A new genetic algorithm for solving nonconvex nonlinear programming problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nonlinear programming problems (especially nonconvex problems), attaining the global optimum is crucial. To reach this purpose, the current paper represents a new genetic algorithm for solving nonconvex nonlinear programming problems. The new method is simpler and more intuitive than the existing models and finds the global optimum of the problem in a reasonable time. The proposed technique, to attain

M. B. Aryanezhad; Mohammad Hemati

2008-01-01

453

When the solution is part of the problem: problem solving in elderly suicide attempters  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives Depression, loss, and physical illness are associated with suicide in the elderly. However, the nature of individual vulnerability remains poorly understood. Poor problem solving has been suggested as a risk factor for suicide in younger adults. Unresolved problems may create an accumulation of stressors. Thus, those with perceived deficits in problem-solving ability may be predisposed to suicidal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether elderly suicide attempters perceived their problem solving as deficient. Methods Sixty-four individuals aged 60 and older participated in the study including depressed suicide attempters, depressed non-attempters, and non-depressed controls. The social problem solving inventory-revised: short-version was used to measure participants' perceived social problem solving, assessing both adaptive problem-solving dimensions (positive problem orientation and rational problem solving) and dysfunctional dimensions (negative problem orientation, impulsivity/carelessness, and avoidance). Results Depressed elderly who had attempted suicide perceived their overall problem solving as deficient, compared to non-suicidal depressed and non-depressed elderly. Suicide attempters perceived their problems more negatively and approached them in a more impulsive manner. On rational problem solving and avoidant style sub-scales, suicide attempters did not differ from non-suicidal depressed. However, both depressed groups reported lower rational problem solving and higher avoidance compared to non-depressed controls. Conclusions A perception of life problems as threatening and unsolvable and an impulsive approach to problem solving appear to predispose vulnerable elderly to suicide attempts.

Gibbs, Lawrence M.; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Morse, Jennifer; Siegle, Greg J.; Houck, Patricia R.; Szanto, Katalin

2011-01-01

454

Enhancing problem solving and nursing diagnosis in year III Bachelor of Nursing students.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The School of Nursing in which this research was conducted uses a problem based learning approach in clinical nursing courses. Although the skills required for problem solving, and those in nursing care planning, are similar and therefore, support each other in the learning environment, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of this teaching strategy on problem solving and nursing care planning. AIM: The aim of this study was to implement a change in the clinical nursing course in the third year of the Bachelor of Nursing (BN) programme and determine if this change improved students' problem solving and care planning. METHOD: A nine-step problem solving process to deal with problem scenarios was introduced. We hoped that consistent use of this systematic process would improve students' problem solving and care planning skills in the classroom and the clinical area. In order to determine change in problem solving and care planning skills we compared (a) the previous third year student performance on semester I and II assessments with those of the study participants and (b) results at the end of semester I with end of semester II within the study cohort. Findings from these analyses are presented in this paper. PMID:19056154

Lee, Marilyn B; Brysiewicz, Petra

2008-12-03

455

A Generic Library of Problem Solving Methods for Scheduling Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a generic library of problem-solving methods for scheduling applications. Although some attempts have been made in the past at developing the libraries of scheduling problem-solvers, these only provide limited coverage. Many lack generality, as they subscribe to a particular scheduling domain. Others simply implement a particular problem-solving technique, which may be applicable only to a

Dnyanesh G. Rajpathak; Enrico Motta; Zdenek Zdráhal; Rajkumar Roy

2006-01-01

456

An Algorithm for Solving the Job-Shop Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a branch and bound method for solving the job-shop problem. It is based on one-machine scheduling problems and is made more efficient by several propositions which limit the search tree by using immediate selections. It solved for the first time the famous 10 \\\\times 10 job-shop problem proposed by Muth and Thompson in 1963.

J. Carlier; E. Pinson

1989-01-01

457

Coalition dynamics in environmental problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper aims at examining the dynamics of coalitions that form under the pressure of environmental problems. Coalitions form as soon as a minimal set of players nd it is either convenient or necessary to join a coalition, last for some more or less long periods of time and then may either widen or shrink so that a coalition

Lorenzo Cioni

458

Solving the multiple competitive facilities location problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose five heuristic procedures for the solution of the multiple competitive facilities location problem. A franchise of several facilities is to be located in a trade area where competing facilities already exist. The objective is to maximize the market share captured by the franchise as a whole. We perform extensive computational tests and conclude that a

Tammy Drezner; Zvi Drezner; Said Salhi

2002-01-01

459

SOLVING A HYDTROTREATER FEED FILTER FOULING PROBLEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feed filters were installed in Syncrude hydrotreater units to protect the catalyst beds from plugging by fine solids in the feed. Severe filter fouling occurred after a process flow sheet change. The root cause of fouling was revealed through a step-by-step scientific investigation. It was first confirmed that the fouling problem was related to a process flow sheet change that

X. A. Wu; K. H. Chung

2008-01-01

460

Largest biomass burner solves environmental problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the efforts of provincial government, the local utility, the sawmill owners, and the general public to resolve air pollution problems caused by woodwaste burners at five sawmills in the Williams Lake community of British Columbia, Canada. The topics of the article include the challenges to the project, woodwaste handling, boiler and auxiliary systems design, and turbine generator

Ford

1994-01-01

461

Roadmap for complex decisions. [Utility problem solving  

SciTech Connect

Decision makers need a way of capturing the essence of complex problems, and they are increasingly turning to the formal techniques of decision analysis to frame critical decisions, ranging from national policy to building a power plant. 4 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Douglas, J.; Richels, R.

1983-09-01

462

Metacognitive macroevaluations in mathematical problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the role of evaluation in mathematics in 749 elementary school children. The macroevaluative skills and calibration scores of high versus low mathematical problem solvers were contrasted as measures of metacognition. No relevant calibration differences were found for gender. In addition, the performances of children with mathematics learning disabilities could not be explained according to the maturational

Annemie Desoete; Herbert Roeyers

2006-01-01

463

Hydraulic lift can solve many production problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over five decades, hydraulic pumping systems have offered creative solutions for operators faced with a wide array of producing problems. Today, the well-developed and proven capabilities of this lift method continue to provide innovative approaches in dealing with oil well production, testing and evaluation requirements. The performance characteristics of the system give it unique adaptability to a wide range

1990-01-01

464

Combined methods for solving inductive coupling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of induced AC voltages on pipelines has always been with us, and the interference caused by power transmission lines to buried gas pipelines is under investigation for many years. Situations where a pipeline is influenced by power lines in a right-of-way are more frequent nowadays. Even under normal operating conditions, voltages and currents are induced on the pipeline

Denisa Stet; Dan Doru Micu; Camelia Avram; Laura Darabant

2011-01-01

465

Are We Solving the Big Problems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2000, as part of an invited symposium celebrating the start of the new millennium, the author was asked to write an article for "School Psychology Review" in which he tried to look ahead to where the field of school psychology needed to focus its energy in addressing the academic skills problems of children in schools. The article noted that…

Shapiro, Edward S.

2006-01-01

466

The Policy Sciences and Problem-Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concern with the complexity of social problems and of public policy designed to cope with them has led to the identification of an interdisciplinary focus called the policy sciences. The concept includes both governmental and non-governmental decisions. The social sciences have provided structure with new methods such as operations research,…

Benson, Oliver

1971-01-01

467

Solving Regression Problems Using Competitive Ensemble Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ensemble models in many problem domains has increased significantly in the last few years. The ensemble modeling, in particularly boosting, has shown a great promise in improving predictive performance of a model. Com- bining the ensemble members is normally done in a co-operative fashion where each of the ensemble members performs the same task and their predictions

Yakov Frayman; Bernard F. Rolfe; Geoffrey I. Webb

2002-01-01

468

Evolutionary strategies for solving optimization problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will give a survey of applications of thermodynamically and biologically oriented evolutionary strategies for optimization problems. Primarily, we investigate the solution of discrete optimization problems, most of combinatorial type, using a certain class of coupled differential equations. The problem is to find the minimum on a large set of real numbers (the potential) Ui, defined on the integer set i = 1 ...s, where s is an extremely large nu mber. The stationary states of the system correspond to relative optima on the discrete set. First, several elementary evolutionary strategies are described by simple deterministic equations, leading to a high-dimensional system of coupled differential equations. The known equations for thermodynamic search processes and for simple models of biological evolution are unified by defining a two-parameter family of equations which embed both cases. The unified equations model mixed Boltzmann/Darwin- strategies including basic elements of thermodynamical and biological evolution as well. In a next step a master equation model in the occupation number space is defined. We investigate the transition probabilities and the convergence properties using tools from the theory of stochastic processes. Several examples are analyzed. In particular we study the optimization of theoretical model sequences with simple valuation rules. In order to demonstrate that the strategies developed here may also be used to investigate realistic problems we present an example application to RNA folding (search for a minimum free energy configuration).

Ebeling, Werner; Reimann, Axel; Molgedey, Lutz

469

Social Problem Solving, Conduct Problems, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between social problem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits\\u000a in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7–12 years. Social problem solving was\\u000a evaluated using the Social Problem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produce solutions to eight hypothetical\\u000a social problems, including five problems involving acquiring a desired

Daniel A. Waschbusch; Trudi M. Walsh; Brendan F. Andrade; Sara King; Normand J. Carrey

2007-01-01

470

Webotherapy: reading web resources for problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to indicate that when webotherapy is applied, it can be of benefit to clients in giving them insight into their problems, resulting in a change of behavior. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Webotherapy, which can be conducted with individuals or groups, refers to the use of web resources or other online reading material (e.g. e-books,

Alireza Noruzi

2007-01-01

471

Solving Connected Subgraph Problems in Wildlife Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We investigate mathematical formulations and solution techniques for a variant of the Connected Subgraph Problem. Given a\\u000a connected graph with costs and profits associated with the nodes, the goal is to find a connected subgraph that contains a\\u000a subset of distinguished vertices. In this work we focus on the budget-constrained version, where we maximize the total profit\\u000a of the nodes

Bistra N. Dilkina; Carla P. Gomes

2010-01-01

472

Time to completion reveals problem-solving transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two equally skilled groups of students taking introductory mechanics solve related physics problem pairs in reverse order with respect to each other, using the web-based Socratic tutor, MasteringPhysics. In tutorial problems containing help in the form of requestable hints, descriptive text, and feedback, twice as many students were able to complete problems correctly in real-time compared to problems that did not provide any help (end-of-chapter problems). The prepared group in a given related pair was able to solve it in ~15% less time on average compared to the unprepared group. Furthermore, the prepared group requests ~7% fewer hints on average than the unprepared group. We conclude that shorter completion times and problem-solving transfer are facilitated through tutorial problems.

Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

2009-11-30

473

Time to completion reveals problem-solving transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two equally skilled groups of students taking introductory mechanics solve related physics problem pairs in reverse order with respect to each other, using the web-based Socratic tutor, MasteringPhysics. In tutorial problems containing help in the form of requestable hints, descriptive text, and feedback, twice as many students were able to complete problems correctly in real-time compared to problems that did not provide any help (end-of-chapter problems). The prepared group in a given related pair was able to solve it in ~15% less time on average compared to the unprepared group. Furthermore, the prepared group requests ~7% fewer hints on average than the unprepared group. We conclude that shorter completion times and problem-solving transfer are facilitated through tutorial problems.

Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

2005-09-01

474

Quantum Algorithm for Solving an NP-Complete Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a probe qubit is coupled to a quantum register that represents a physical system, the probe qubit will exhibit a dynamical response only when it is resonant with a transition in the system. Using this principle, we propose a quantum algorithm for solving a specific NP-complete problem, the 3-bit Exact Cover problem, EC3. We show that on a quantum computer, the number of qubits increases linearly with the size of the EC3 problem, while the efficiency of the algorithm is independent of the size of the problem. Our results indicate that quantum computers may be able to outperform classical computers in solving NP-complete problems.

Wang, Hefeng; Li, Fuli

2013-03-01

475

Self-Regulated Problem-Solving Awareness among Korean Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Korean children's knowledge of appropriate self-regulated behaviors related to the solving of school-based or nonschool-based programs was studied. An attempt was made to determine the grade level (kindergarten, first, third, and fifth) differences in perceptions of appropriate problem-solving behaviors from the perspective of self-regulation…

Gorrell, Jeffrey; And Others

476

Creativity in Problem Solving: Uncovering the Origin of New Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovation and enterprise depend for their success on the development of new ideas. But from where do new ideas come? How do they arise? Finding solutions to such questions is at the heart of creativity research and the solving of novel problems. Reflection, not only in cognitive processes but also in the non-cognitive ones used in solving novel…

Aldous, Carol R.

2005-01-01

477

Control drilling solves surface hole problems  

SciTech Connect

Drilling surface hole offshore is one aspect of drilling practice that should command greater planning and design. Surface hole could be crucial if the well is in an area with a chance of shallow gas, or if it is required to run a 30-in. pin corrector and a long string of riser back to surface. The problem grows more critical with deeper water and a longer riser which in turn gives a longer column of drilling fluid. Consequently, the hydrostatic pressure is much higher at the 30-in. casing shoe. Higher pressure increases the chance of exceeding the fracture gradient and may result in the loss of returns around the 30-in. shoe. This article describes a simple practice which can eliminate some surface hole problems. A control-drilling equation sets the maximum drilling rate (MDR) based on maximum permitted pressures at the casing shoe. Eliminating lost circulation will ultimately save rig downtime due to retrieving the conductor pipe and base plate, relocating the rig, and respudding the hole after suffering losses. This technique also has been successful while drilling out below drive pipe on jack ups and platform wells. Control drilling is most effectively used on these types of wells because only a friction seal (instead of cement coverage) exists around the bottom of the drive pipe.

Jean, T.W.

1986-08-01

478

Solving Simple Planning Problems with More Inference and No Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many benchmark domains in AI planning including Blocks, Logistics, Gripper, Satellite, and others lack the interactions that char- acterize puzzles and can be solved non-optimally in low polynomial time. They are indeed easy problems for people, although as with many other problems in AI, not always easy for machines. In this paper, we address the question of whether simple problems

Vincent Vidal; Hector Geffner

2005-01-01

479

Assigned Responsibility to Clients for Causing and Solving Their Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on two studies in which college students rated the degree to which clients were responsible for causing and solving their problems. Study 1 revealed that men held male clients responsible for problems. Study 2 demonstrated that clients with schizophrenia were evaluated differently than those with problems of anxiety and personal…

Kleinke, Chris L.; Kane, Joseph C.

1997-01-01

480

Numerical methods for solving linear least squares problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common problem in a Computer Laboratory is that of finding linear least squares solutions. These problems arise in a variety of areas and in a variety of contexts. Linear least squares problems are particularly difficult to solve because they frequently involve large quantities of data, and they are ill-conditioned by their very nature. In this paper, we shall consider

G. G. Golub

1965-01-01

481

Solving satisfiability problems by the ground-state quantum computer  

SciTech Connect

A quantum algorithm is proposed to solve the satisfiability (SAT) problems by the ground-state quantum computer. The scale of the energy gap of the ground-state quantum computer is analyzed for the 3-bit exact cover problem. The time cost of this algorithm on the general SAT problems is discussed.

Mao Wenjin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA and 20 Hearthstone Drive, Edison, New Jersey 08820 (United States)

2005-11-15

482

Experiments using interval analysis for solving a circuit design problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

An already classical attempt at solving a circuit design problem leads to a system of 9 nonlinear equations in 9 variables. The sensitivity of the problem to small perturbations is extraordinarily high. Since 1974 several investigations have been made into this problem and they hint at one solution in the restricted domain of the nonnegative reals. The investigations did not

H. Ratschek; J. Rokne

1993-01-01

483

Deconstructing Insight: EEG Correlates of Insightful Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCognitive insight phenomenon lies at the core of numerous discoveries. Behavioral research indicates four salient features of insightful problem solving: (i) mental impasse, followed by (ii) restructuring of the problem representation, which leads to (iii) a deeper understanding of the problem, and finally culminates in (iv) an “Aha!” feeling of suddenness and obviousness of the solution. However, until now no

Simone Sandkühler; Joydeep Bhattacharya; Paul Zak

2008-01-01

484

Representation of models for solving real-world physics problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program called a physics expert (APEX) has been developed to investigate the nature and contents of real-world physics problem models. As the representational primitives of the domain, two types of models are defined: canonical physical objects and physical models. During problem solving, the problem is represented in the form of a data connection network which is progressively augmented

H. J. Kook

1990-01-01

485

A problem-solving approach to usability test planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to usability testing is described that can help ensure user-based designs: it places usability testing in a problem-solving context. Attention is given to areas in the test development process where problems may occur, problems that pull the focus of the test away from the user. Finally, the author suggests some research needed in usability testing if one is

M. Dieli

1988-01-01

486

Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…

Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.

2005-01-01

487

Getting beyond Conflict: The Art of Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sets forth the nine major steps of problem solving in a proactive, future-focused, and vision-oriented way: defining the problem, identifying the contributing factors, stating why this is a problem, stating the preferred scenario, brainstorming possible alternatives, evaluating pros and cons of the alternatives, choosing an alternative, developing…

Hughes, SC, Patrice

1999-01-01

488

Hydraulic lift can solve many production problems  

SciTech Connect

For over five decades, hydraulic pumping systems have offered creative solutions for operators faced with a wide array of producing problems. Today, the well-developed and proven capabilities of this lift method continue to provide innovative approaches in dealing with oil well production, testing and evaluation requirements. The performance characteristics of the system give it unique adaptability to a wide range of changing well conditions, to effective use in shallow to extreme lifting depths, along with the convenient ability to install and retrieve the downhole pump through fluid circulation versus the use of a pulling unit. Hydraulic piston pumps are used in producing from low volumes up to 8,000 bpd. Jet pumps are used to produce up to 80,000 bpd.

Jackson, P.G. (Trico Industries, Inc., Huntington Park, CA (US))

1990-05-01

489

Open-Ended, Problem-Solving Investigations--Getting Started.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ways in which linear lesson sequences can be modified to provide increased opportunities for open-ended activities especially with problem solving are considered. Examples drawn from chemistry and plant reproduction, seeds, and germination are given. (KR)|

Lock, Roger

1991-01-01

490

Solving Decomposition Problems: Alternative Techniques and Description of Supporting Tools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interactive software system specially designed to solve the kind of set decomposition problems that arise in the investigation of a systematic approach for the early phases of the system development process is presented. Traditional cluster analytic al...

R. C. Andreu

1977-01-01

491

Distributed Problem Solving in Seismic Event Analysis: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The accuracy of analyses for seismic events visible to more than one monitoring station can be improved by combining data from several stations and ''triangulating'' analyses. This sort of analysis is a natural candidate for distributed problem-solving ap...

L. Gasser

1987-01-01

492

Epidemiological Approach to Health Planning and Problem Solving in Indonesia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1982 a USAID-funded project (CHIPPS) has supported an experiment in Aceh, Indonesia involving decentralized health planning and problem solving. The fundamental approaches of the project were to provide training in applied epidemiology for health of...

S. L. Solter A. A. Hasibuan B. Yusuf

1986-01-01

493

A Clinical-Experimental Analysis of Design Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two studies of design problem solving are reported. Experiment 1 presents an observational study of an actual client-designer work session. Analysis of the session transcript reveals a systematically structured interaction. The client and the designer dec...

A. Malhotra J. C. Thomas J. M. Carroll

1978-01-01

494

Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Advanced Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson plan, students learn how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, then apply what they’ve learned in activities that are based on real-world scenarios.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-10-25

495

A Rationale for and the Development of a Problem Solving Model of Instruction in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses problem solving and how science educators can integrate problem solving into their instruction. The Search, Solve, Create, and Share (SSCS) model was developed based on the findings of problem solving research. (YP)

Pizzini, Edward L.; And Others

1989-01-01

496

Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Global Optimization Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential Evolution (DE) is a novel evolutionary approach capable of handling non-differentiable, non-linear and multi-modal objective functions. DE has been consistently ranked as one of the best search algorithm for solving global optimization problems in several case studies. This paper presents a simple and modified hybridized Differential Evolution algorithm for solving global optimization problems. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid

Radha Thangaraj; Millie Pant; Ajith Abraham; Youakim Badr

2009-01-01

497

Cybernetics of solvability applied to problem-solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims at defining solvability at the cross-roads of cybernetics and problem-solving. The cases of solvability being focussed on are generated by intervention, and as a result, their approach encounters circular and undisciplinary solving problems. This is why definitions of the third-order circularity and the undisciplinary framework are analytical and restrictive. The second part of the study is particularly

Marilena Lunca

1999-01-01

498

A Workflow-Based Grid Portal for Problem Solving Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we present a Workflow-based grId portal for problem Solving Environment(WISE) which has been developed by integrating\\u000a workflow, Grid and web technology to provide an enhanced powerful approach for problem solving environment. Workflow technology\\u000a supports coordinated execution of multiple application tasks on Grid resources by enabling users to describe a workflow by\\u000a composing many existing applications and new

Yong-won Kwon; So-hyun Ryu; Jin-sung Park; Chang-sung Jeong

2004-01-01

499

The Deming and Goldratt Approaches To Problem Solving: A Contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality movement's original problem-solving model was the Plan-Do-Check-Act model of Shewhart and popularized by Deming. Whether called the problem-solving process (Xerox), the Quality Improvement Cycle (AT&T), or the quality-Improvement story (Florida Power & Light), these more recent models are basically variations of the scientific method and the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle. They offer a systematic approach, a standardization to the

Joseph G. Van Matre; Rexford H. Draman

500

Lawyering and Learning in Problem-Solving Courts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Article, Paul Holland presents a deft and provocative analysis of the role of problem-solving courts in providing an alternative, team-based approach to dispute resolution that both provides therapeutic justice and deeply refocuses legal advocacy. Largely an innovation of the twentieth century, problem-solving courts are not without their critics, especially in the academy and among clinicians, but Holland provides

Paul Holland

2010-01-01