Principles for Teaching Problem Solving
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Rob Foshay and Jamie Kirkley
2003-01-01
This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2013-01-01
This webpage offers some basic principles for teaching problem solving that foster critical thinking and decision-making skills. It includes a 5-step implementation model developed by D.R. Woods and a brief list of references. [The Forshay & Kirkley paper is cataloged separately and linked as a related resource.
Teaching Problem Solving to College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malouff, John M.
2011-01-01
This article describes steps of teaching problem solving to college students and provides examples in the context of a university course. The steps involve (1) identifying the types of problems and types of problem solving methods to be covered, (2) instructing the students in problem-recognition and problem solving methods, along with ways of…
Teaching Problem Solving in Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Byo, James L.
2004-01-01
Musicians practice to build endurance, flexibility, and dexterity. They practice to maintain good performance, to sight-read better, to memorize, and simply, to enjoy music making. There are other motivations for practice, but one, more than others, is a catalyst for consequential change in musical development--practicing to solve performance…
Teaching and Learning. A Problem-Solving Focus.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curcio, Frances R., Ed.
This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify Polya's art of…
Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M. G. M.; Broekkamp, H.
2001-04-01
The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a number of articles published between 1985 and 1995 in high-standard international journals, describing experimental research into the effectiveness of a wide variety of teaching strategies for science problem solving. To characterize the teaching strategies found, we used a model of the capacities needed for effective science problem solving, composed of a knowledge base and a skills base. The relations between the cognitive capacities required by the experimental or control treatments and those of the model were specified and used as independent variables. Other independent variables were learning conditions such as feedback and group work. As a dependent variable we used standardized learning effects. We identified 22 articles describing 40 experiments that met the standards we deemed necessary for a meta-analysis. These experiments were analyzed both with quantitative (correlational) methods and with a systematic qualitative method. A few of the independent variables were found to characterize effective strategies for teaching science problem solving. Effective treatments all gave attention to the structure and function (the schemata) of the knowledge base, whereas attention to knowledge of strategy and the practice of problem solving turned out to have little effect. As for learning conditions, both providing the learners with guidelines and criteria they can use in judging their own problem-solving process and products, and providing immediate feedback to them were found to be important prerequisites for the acquisition of problem-solving skills. Group work did not lead to positive effects unless combined with other variables, such as guidelines and feedback.
Teaching Problem-Solving as a Habit of Mind
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2011-01-01
Pat Wagener of Los Medanos College describes an inquiry project with his Developmental Math students: "Through my classroom inquiry into teaching problem-solving, I have shown that students can learn to solve problems in ways that help them develop "habits of mind" with problem solving processes with the following features in the instructional plan: Students get lots of problem solving practice, with an emphasis on long term learning of habits of mind Students are introduced to the idea of multiple representations early, and this approach is reinforced through the curriculum materials in meaningful ways and in all aspects of the course Students have many opportunities to share their problem solving publicly through board work "
Solving Quantitative Problems: Guidelines for Teaching Derived from Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kramers-Pals, H.; Pilot, A.
1988-01-01
Presents four guidelines for teaching quantitative problem-solving based on research results: analyze difficulties of students, develop a system of heuristics, select and map key relations, and design instruction with proper orientation, exercise, and feedback. Discusses the four guidelines and uses flow charts and diagrams to show how the…
THE INCLUSION OF ROBOTS WITHIN THE TEACHING OF PROBLEM-SOLVING: PRELIMINARY RESULTS
Hill, Gary
241 THE INCLUSION OF ROBOTS WITHIN THE TEACHING OF PROBLEM- SOLVING: PRELIMINARY RESULTS Scott.hill@northampton.ac.uk ABSTRACT This poster considers the first six months experience of using Mindstorm (LEGO, Denmark) robot kits to teach problem-solving. Robots were used as necessary foundation studies prior to teaching
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-01-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…
Puzzling Science: Using the Rubik's Cube to Teach Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rohrig, Brian
2010-01-01
A major goal of education is to help learners store information in long-term memory and use that information on later occasions to effectively solve problems (Vockell 2010). Therefore, this author began to use the Rubik's cube to help students learn to problem solve. There is something special about this colorful three-dimensional puzzle that…
Teaching Thinking and Problem Solving at University: A Course on TRIZ
Iouri Belski
2009-01-01
Thinking and problem solving skills are considered to be of significant importance in many professions. Surveys indicate that university education fails in appropriately enhancing these skills. This paper presents a concept of teaching thinking and problem solving as a separate course, based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). Student surveys showed that students' perception of their abilities in
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brandt, Barbara F.; Lubawy, William C.
1998-01-01
Microsituations teaching is a case-based, active learning tool developed from cognitive learning theory to teach problem-solving skills to large classes while conserving faculty and other resources. Since implementing this method in an endocrine pharmacology course at the University of Kentucky, student performance on problem-solving examinations…
Teaching Conceptual Model-Based Word Problem Story Grammar to Enhance Mathematics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xin, Yan Ping; Wiles, Ben; Lin, Yu-Ying
2008-01-01
Borrowing the concept of story grammar from reading comprehension literature, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of teaching "word problem (WP) story grammar" on arithmetic WP solving that emphasizes the algebraic expression of mathematical relations in conceptual models. Participants were five students in Grades 4 and 5 with or…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hong, Soo-Young; Diamond, Karen E.
2012-01-01
The present study examined the efficacy of two different approaches to teaching designed to facilitate children's learning about science concepts and vocabulary related to objects' floating and sinking and scientific problem-solving skills: responsive teaching (RT) and the combination of responsive teaching and explicit instruction (RT + EI).…
John Dewey--Problem Solving and History Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martorella, Peter H.
1978-01-01
Presents a model for introducing inquiry and problem-solving into middle grade history classes. It is based on an educational approach suggested by John Dewey. The author uses the model to explore two seemingly contradictory statements by Abraham Lincoln about slavery. (AV)
RAPTOR: a visual programming environment for teaching algorithmic problem solving
Martin C. Carlisle; Terry A. Wilson; Jeffrey W. Humphries; Steven M. Hadfield
2005-01-01
When students are learning to develop algorithms, they very often spend more time dealing with issues of syntax rather than solving the problem. Additionally, the textual nature of most programming environments works against the learning style of the majority of students. RAPTOR is a visual programming environment, designed specifically to help students envision their algorithms and avoid syntactic baggage. RAPTOR
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Anthony Rickard
2005-01-01
This case study shows how a teacher's middle school mathematics instruction evolved from teaching problem solving as computation exercises to teaching how to select and implement combinations of problem solving strategies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hedges, Lowell E.
This document contains 48 sample lesson plans that practicing teachers of vocational and academic education have developed to train vocational students to think critically and to solve problems. Discussed in the introduction are the following topics: critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making as the building blocks of teaching;…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gresens, Ay-Shin
2011-01-01
Teaching math problem solving has been a challenge for many educators, especially in Title I schools. Textbooks provided by the district under study were the primary source of math instructional material. Moreover, the instruction of computation was the method used for preparing students for success with later problem solving lessons. The lack of…
A problem-solving strategy for teaching biosciences to nursing majors.
Kumar, Ray
2005-01-01
The author outlines a problem-solving strategy for teaching human anatomy, physiology, and microbiology to nursing majors. In Spring 2005, students improved their academic performance in comparison to Spring 2003. The author plans to further expand and analyze this teaching approach during the next two semesters. PMID:16268201
Teaching Creative Problem Solving Methods to Undergraduate Economics and Business Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cancer, Vesna
2014-01-01
This paper seeks to explore the need for and possibility of teaching current and potential problem solvers--undergraduate students in the economic and business field to define problems, to generate and choose creative and useful ideas and to verify them. It aims to select an array of quick and easy-to-use creative problem solving (CPS) techniques.…
Applied mathematical problem solving
Richard Lesh
1981-01-01
A case is presented for the importance of focusing on (1) average ability students, (2) substantive mathematical content, (3) real problems, and (4) realistic settings and solution procedures for research in problem solving. It is suggested that effective instructional techniques for teaching applied mathematical problem solving resembles “mathematical laboratory” activities, done in small group problem solving settings.
Teaching Generalized Problem Solving and Science as a Process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Self, Charles C.
Two instructors at Bunker Hill Community College in Massachusetts have developed a unit of study designed to teach biology as a process, improve students' critical thinking and reasoning skills, and provide students with the opportunity to express these skills in writing. The instructional strategies employed in the unit are superimposed on a…
Teaching and Testing Mathematical Problem Solving by Offering Optional Assistance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meijer, Joost; Riemersma, Fre
2002-01-01
Discussion of transfer capability focuses on a study of secondary education students in the Netherlands that investigated transfer in mathematics education. Describes the construction of a computer-assisted program based on strengthening the connection of strategic and domain specific knowledge and offering hints during teaching as well as during…
How to Teach Procedures, Problem Solving, and Concepts in Microbial Genetics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bainbridge, Brian W.
1977-01-01
Flow-diagrams, algorithms, decision logic tables, and concept maps are presented in detail as methods for teaching practical procedures, problem solving, and basic concepts in microbial genetics. It is suggested that the flexible use of these methods should lead to an improved understanding of microbial genetics. (Author/MA)
A Teaching-Learning Method Enhancing Problem Solving and Motivation in Secondary Schools.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Markoczi-Revak, Ibolya
2003-01-01
Presents a teaching-learning method for enhancing problem solving and motivation for studying science in secondary schools. Emerges from a former survey which, found that the motivation of 14-18-year-olds as measured by the Kozekik-Entwistle test was at a rather low level. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)
Teaching Students with LD to Use Diagrams to Solve Mathematical Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Garderen, Delinda
2007-01-01
This study examined the effectiveness of instruction focused on teaching students with learning disabilities (LD) to solve 1- and 2-step word problems of varying types. Three students with LD in Grade 8 participated in the study. During the treatment, students received instruction in diagram generation and a strategy that incorporates diagrams as…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murray, Stephen L.; And Others
This report presents data collected about the impact of the Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) instructional system on the classrooms of teachers trained in two RUPS workshops, which were part of the Improving Teaching Competencies Program at the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. The report is divided into four chapters, the first…
Using Problem Solving to Teach a Programming Language.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Milbrandt, George
1995-01-01
Computer studies courses should incorporate as many computer concepts and programming language experiences as possible. A gradual increase in problem difficulty will help the student to understand various computer concepts, and the programming language's syntax and structure. A sidebar provides two examples of how to establish a learning…
Teaching law to non-law students: The use of problem solving models in legal teaching
Kristy Richardson; Eric Holm
2009-01-01
The use of problem solving models has been successfully applied and subject to evaluation in law school courses. However, the models have not been evaluated in terms of their application to law courses in which non-law (i.e., business) students are involved. This paper discusses the usefulness of such legal problem solving methods for non-law students from a technology use and
Techniques of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krantz, Steven G.
The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…
An interactive problem-solving approach to teach traumatology for medical students
2010-01-01
Aim We aimed to evaluate an interactive problem-solving approach for teaching traumatology from perspectives of students and consider its implications on Faculty development. Methods A two hour problem-solving, interactive tutorial on traumatology was structured to cover main topics in trauma management. The tutorial was based on real cases covering specific topics and objectives. Seven tutorials (5-9 students in each) were given by the same tutor with the same format for fourth and fifth year medical students in Auckland and UAE Universities (n = 50). A 16 item questionnaire, on a 7 point Likert-type scale, focusing on educational tools, tutor-based skills, and student-centered skills were answered by the students followed by open ended comments. Results The tutorials were highly ranked by the students. The mean values of educational tools was the highest followed by tutor-centered skills and finally student-centered skills. There was a significant increase of the rating of studied attributes over time (F = 3.9, p = 0.004, ANOVA). Students' open ended comments were highly supportive of the interactive problem-solving approach for teaching traumatology. Conclusions The interactive problem-solving approach for tutorials can be an effective enjoyable alternative or supplement to traditional instruction for teaching traumatology to medical students. Training for this approach should be encouraged for Faculty development. PMID:20707895
ILIAD as a Patient Case Simulator to Teach Medical Problem Solving
Cundick, Robert; Turner, Charles W.; Lincoln, Michael J.; Buchanan, James P.; Anderson, Curtis; Warner, Homer R.; Bouhaddou, Omar
1989-01-01
ILIAD is an expert system written in C for the Macintosh computer. The system operates in two modes: as an expert consultant to teach differential diagnosis and as a knowledge-based patient case simulator to teach and test medical problem solving. This paper describes ILIAD's simulation mode. Since relations between a disease and its manifestations are expressed in probabilistic terms within ILIAD's knowledge base, a wide variety of simulated cases can be generated automatically. The student's performance may then be evaluated by comparing his or her problem solving approach to an “optimal” strategy derived from the ILIAD knowledge base. This tool is especially valuable in providing experience with diseases that students otherwise are unlikely to see during their medical training.
Teaching genetics using hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoppe, Stephanie Ann
Teaching genetics can be challenging because of the difficulty of the content and misconceptions students might hold. This thesis focused on using hands-on model activities, problem solving, and inquiry-based teaching/learning methods in order to increase student understanding in an introductory biology class in the area of genetics. Various activities using these three methods were implemented into the classes to address any misconceptions and increase student learning of the difficult concepts. The activities that were implemented were shown to be successful based on pre-post assessment score comparison. The students were assessed on the subjects of inheritance patterns, meiosis, and protein synthesis and demonstrated growth in all of the areas. It was found that hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based activities were more successful in learning concepts in genetics and the students were more engaged than tradition styles of lecture.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
T. Michelle Jones-Wilson
2005-09-01
Promoting problem-solving skills is a challenge faced by all science instructors. Teaching students to integrate information without sacrificing content is critical. When taught with an active problem-centered teaching model, students' mean scores and score distributions on the American Chemical Society standardized exams were significantly improved without students' course content being sacrificed.
Theme: Is Problem-Solving Teaching and SAE Needed in Agricultural Education in the 21st Century?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wardlow, George, Ed.
1999-01-01
Nine articles in this theme issue address problem-solving teaching and supervised agricultural experience. Topics covered include systems approaches to SAE, SAE for Y2K, SAE for science, applied SAE, types of SAE, and examples of activities. (JOW)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Henderson, Charles
This webpage contains links to chapters of a doctoral dissertaion about a research program to understand faculty conceptions of problem solving, teaching and learning. Interviews with six physics faculty from a large research university were used to generate an initial explanatory model of faculty conceptions. The author found that for some of the general features, all six faculty had similar conceptions. For example, they all classify their students in terms of intelligence/natural ability and learning characteristics (e.g. motivation, study habits, etc.) and use these characteristics to explain why some students succeed and some students fail. For other general features, there is more than one distinct conception.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Sun A.; Wang, Peishi; Michaels, Craig A.
2015-01-01
This article investigates the effects of fraction word problem-solving instruction involving explicit teaching of the concrete-representational-abstract sequence with culturally relevant teaching examples for 3 low-performing Asian immigrant English learners who spoke a language other than English at home. We used a multiple probe design across…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Powers, S. E.
2001-12-01
An NSF-funded project-based program was implemented by Clarkson University in 2000 to increase the interest and knowledge of middle school students in science, math and technology through the solution of an environmental problem that is relevant to their local school community. Clarkson students developed curricula for 7th and 8th grade science and technology classes and then worked with the middle school students throughout the year to reduce to transform solid waste into healthy soil for plant growth. The solution to this problem provided a vehicle to teach fundamental science and math content as well as the process of doing science and solving problems. Placing college science and engineering students in the classroom proved to be a great mechanism for engaging students in science topics and providing mentoring experiences that differ greatly from those that a practicing professional can provide. It is clear, however, that the students must be well prepared for this experience to maximize the benefits of university - school district partnership programs. The objective of this presentation will be to describe the training program that has been developed to prepare Clarkson students to work effectively in middle school classrooms. The Clarkson students are trained for their classroom experiences during the summer before they enter the classroom. They receive three credits for the training, curriculum development, and teaching efforts. It is expected that the students have the necessary background in science and technology to teach themselves the content and environmental relevance of the problem they will be teaching. Lectures and workshops focus on how to transform this knowledge into a project-based curriculum that meets the needs of the teachers, while also exciting the students. Lecture/workshops include: team work; components of an effective class and teacher; project planning and management; problem solving process; inquiry based learning, deductive/inductive learning; creating unit/lesson plan; defining learning objectives; incorporating mentoring into program; NYS standards and science exam; and, assessment techniques. Journals are used to encourage the fellows to reflect on their learning and own educational experiences. An evaluation of the program by both Clarkson students and their partner teachers indicated that this training was appropriate for the students to enter the classroom as professional scientists and engineers. Their classroom interaction skills improved throughout the year.
Solving Trade Discount Word Problems
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Coonce, Carol
2008-01-01
This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez
2005-01-01
A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…
Teaching Methods for Systematic Inventive Problem-Solving: Evaluation of a Course for Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barak, Moshe
2006-01-01
Systematic inventive problem-solving is an approach for finding original and useful ideas by systematically examining alterations in existing components within a system, their attributes, functions or internal relationships. This method, which aims at complementing divergent thinking in problem-solving and design, is gaining increased attention in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Loji, K.
2012-01-01
Problem solving skills and abilities are critical in life and more specifically in the engineering field. Unfortunately, significant numbers of South African students who are accessing higher education lack problem solving skills and this results in poor academic performance jeopardizing their progress especially from first to second year. On the…
Teaching methods for systematic inventive problem-solving: evaluation of a course for teachers
Moshe Barak
2006-01-01
Systematic inventive problem-solving is an approach for finding original and useful ideas by systematically examining alterations in existing components within a system, their attributes, functions or internal relationships. This method, which aims at complementing divergent thinking in problem-solving and design, is gaining increased attention in industrial and academic frameworks. The current study examined how science and technology teachers learn, internalize
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charles, Randall I., Ed.; Silver, Edward A., Ed.
This document contains overviews of current research, insights from teachers and tutors, and considerations of such issues as metacognition, choice of operations, and the testing of problem-solving skills. Papers include: (1) "Historical Perspectives on Problem Solving in the Mathematics Curriculum" (George M. A. Stanic and Jeremy Kilpatrick); (2)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okechukwu, Rose N.
2010-01-01
The study examined the effect of concept-mapping and problem-solving teaching strategies on achievement in biology among Nigerian secondary school students. The method used for the study was a quasi-experimental pre-test treatment design. One hundred and thirteen senior secondary three (S.S. 111) students randomly selected from three mixed…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westlander, Meghan Joanne
Interactive engagement environments are critical to students' conceptual learning gains, and often the instructor is ultimately responsible for the creation of that environment in the classroom. When those instructors are graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), one of the primary ways in which they can promote interactive engagement is through their interactions with students. Much of the prior research on physics GTA-student interactions focuses on GTA training programs (e.g. Ezrailson (2004); Smith, Ward, and Rosenshein (1977)) or on GTAs' specific actions and beliefs (e.g. West, Paul, Webb, and Potter (2013); Goertzen (2010); Spike and Finkelstein (2012a)). Research on students' ideas and behaviors within and surrounding those interactions is limited but important to obtaining a more complete understanding of how GTAs promote an interactive environment. In order to begin understanding this area, I developed the Issues Framework to examine how GTA-student interactions are situated in students' processes during physics problem solving activities. Using grounded theory, the Issues Framework emerged from an analysis of the relationships between GTA-student interactions and the students procedures and expressions of physics content in and surrounding those interactions. This study is focused on introducing the Issues Framework and the insight it can provide into GTA-student interactions and students' processes. The framework is general in nature and has a visually friendly design making it a useful tool for consolidating complex data and quickly pattern-matching important pieces of a complex process. Four different categories of Issues emerged spanning the problem solving process: (1) Getting Started, (2) Solution Approach, (3) Unit Conversions, and (4) Other. The framework allowed for identification of the specific contents of the Issues in each category as well as revealing the common stories of students' processes and how the interactions were situated in those processes in each category. Through the stories, the Issues Framework revealed processes in which students often focused narrowly on procedures with the physics content expressed through their procedures and only sometimes through conceptual discussions. Interactions with the GTA affected changes in students' processes, typically leading students to correct their procedures. The interactions often focused narrowly on procedures as well but introduced conceptual discussions more often than students did surrounding the interactions. Comparing stories across GTAs instead of across categories revealed one GTA who, more often than other GTAs, used conceptual discussion and encouraged students' participation in the interactions. The Issues Framework still needs continued refinement and testing. However, it represents a significant step toward understanding GTA-student interactions from the perspective of students' processes in physics problem solving.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Jerilou Moore
2008-03-01
Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected. The activities described here promote scientific literacy by helping students appreciate science as a human endeavor and making connections between science, technology, and society.
Nozari, Ali Yazdanpanah; Siamian, Hasan
2014-01-01
Introduction: Nowadays, regarding the learners’ needs and social conditions, it is obviously needed to revise and reconsider the traditional methods and approaches in teaching. The problem solving approach is one of the new ways in Teaching and learning process. This study aimed at studying and examining the effect of “problem-solving” approach on creative thinking of high school female students. Methods: An experimental method is used for this research. In this research, 342 out of 3047 female-students from Sari high schools were randomly selected. These 342 students were divided into two groups (experimental and control) in which there were seven classrooms. The total number of students in every group was about 171. After testing them with Jamal Abedi creativity test, it was revealed that two groups were equal in creativity score. The tests were done through Requirements. The experimental group was taught by problem solving method for three months while the control group was taught by traditional method. Results: The research results showed that using descriptive indices and t-test for the two independent sample groups in which problem solving teaching method was used in teaching processes had an effect on creativity level in comparison with traditional method used in the control group. Conclusion: Considering the results of this study, the application of problem-solving teaching methods increased the creativity and its components (fluidity, expansion, originality and flexibility) in learners, therefore, it is recommended that students be encouraged to take classes on frequent responses on various topics (variability) and draw attention on different issues, and expand their analysis on elements in particular courses like art (expansion). To enhance the learner’s mental flexibility and attention to various aspects, they are encouraged to provide a variety of responses. PMID:25685077
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bushman, Bryan B.; Peacock, Gretchen Gimpel
2010-01-01
Problem-solving skills training (PSST) has been proposed as a potentially effective addition to behavioral parent training (PT). However, it is not clear whether PSST specifically increases the benefits provided by PT. In this study, PT + PSST was compared to PT + nondirective therapy in a sample of 26 families. All parents received PT. Following…
Facing Moral Problems in Teaching Multiculturalism: Using Pragmatism as a Problem-Solving Tool.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henry, Sue Ellen
This article applies pragmatic thinking to a moral problem in a multicultural classroom: how to draw together students' diverse experiences and familiarity with racial identity development for productive examination of white privilege, racial identity development, and the social construction of race in the United States. This analysis reveals…
Teaching Problem-Solving and Critical-Thinking Skills Online Using Problem-Based Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romero, Liz; Orzechowski, Agnes; Rahatka, Ola
2014-01-01
The availability of technological tools is promoting a shift toward more student-centered online instruction. This article describes the implementation of a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) model and the technological tools used to meet the expectations of the model as well as the needs of the students. The end product is a hybrid course with eight…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gallimore, Ronald; And Others
This paper describes a community research project which preceded the development of the Kamehameha Early Education Project (KEEP). The community project was designed to assist teachers in solving classroom behavior and academic problems. The initial focus on workshops and theories proved inadequate for dealing with daily classroom problems. A…
Teaching Third Graders about Real-Life Mathematical Problem Solving: A Randomized Controlled Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Finelli, Robin; Courey, Susan J.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Sones, Estelle M.; Hope, Susan K.
2006-01-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of schema-broadening instruction (SBI), with and without explicit instruction in strategies for tackling the complexities involved in real-life (RL) math problems, on the math problem solving of third-grade students. Teachers (n = 30) were assigned randomly to 3 16-week conditions: control, SBI,…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Jason Justice
2008-05-01
A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a platform to encourage students to use HOCS in their Learn responses. The study focused on students' use of HOCS in these Learn responses regardless of whether HOCS were used in the actual solving of the problems or not. The results of this study suggest that consistent use of the Learn response in problem solving promotes reflection with an accompanied increase in use of HOCS by students during a semester.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lai, Su-Huei
The conceptual framework of the Modes of Problem Solving Action (MPSA) model integrates Dewey's pragmatism, critical science theory, and theory regarding the three modes of inquiry. The MPSA model is formulated in the shape of a matrix. Horizontally, there are the following modes: technical, interpretive, and emancipating. Vertically, there are…
An Interpersonal Problem Solving Approach to Teaching Social Skills to Socially Rejected Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vaughn, Sharon; Lancelotta, Gary
The effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral interpersonal problem solving (IPS) training program was evaluated with 35 poorly accepted second, third, and fourth graders. Group 1 received instruction in IPS and included only Ss low in peer acceptance; group 2 consisted of Ss low in peer acceptance who participated in IPS with same sex and grade Ss…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalelioglu, Filiz; Gülbahar, Yasemin
2014-01-01
Computer programming is perceived as an important competence for the development of problem solving skills in addition to logical reasoning. Hence, its integration throughout all educational levels, as well as the early ages, is considered valuable and research studies are carried out to explore the phenomenon in more detail. In light of these…
An Individualized Problem-Solving Approach for Teaching Choral Phrase Shaping: An Experimental Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Broomhead, Paul
2009-01-01
This experiment tested a treatment designed to improve choral students' expressiveness regarding keyword emphasis and phrase shaping. The treatment was founded upon the constructivist belief that students actively construct conceptual knowledge through problem solving. Participants were 46 university students randomly selected from a nonauditioned…
A Modeling Perspective on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mousoulides, Nicholas G.; Christou, Constantinos; Sriraman, Bharath
2008-01-01
This study analyzed the processes used by students when engaged in modeling activities and examined how students' abilities to solve modeling problems changed over time. Two student populations, one experimental and one control group, participated in the study. To examine students' modeling processes, the experimental group participated in an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chyu, Chi-Oy W.
The Nested Spiral Approach (NSA) is an integrated instructional approach used to promote the motivated learning of mathematics problem solving in limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. The NSA is described and a trial use is discussed. The approach extends, elaborates, and supplements existing education and instruction theories to help LEP…
Anne Marchant; William Marchant
2007-01-01
The ability to do advanced research can be nurtured through the development of problem solving skills at the undergraduate level. As with any information technology project, IT research is most often done in teams. This paper describes an undergraduate team-based project to build and integrate the payload for an uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV). The class mission was to survey a
Teaching Young Children Decomposition Strategies to Solve Addition Problems: An Experimental Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheng, Zi-Juan
2012-01-01
The ability to count has traditionally been considered an important milestone in children's development of number sense. However, using counting (e.g., counting on, counting all) strategies to solve addition problems is not the best way for children to achieve their full mathematical potential and to prepare them to develop more complex and…
Virginia, University of
IN TRANSFUSION MEDICINE Jodi Heinz Obradovich*, Philip 3. Smith*, Stephanie A. Cuerlain**, Sally Rudman*, Jack W tool to assist with tutoring in a class laboratory setting, useof the Transfusion Medicine Tutor (TMT-system, the Transfusion Medicine Tutor (TMT), by medical technology studentsto learn an important problem-solving task
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henderson, Charles; Yerushalmi, Edit; Kuo, Vince H.; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia
2007-12-01
To identify and describe the basis upon which instructors make curricular and pedagogical decisions, we have developed an artifact-based interview and an analysis technique based on multilayered concept maps. The policy capturing technique used in the interview asks instructors to make judgments about concrete instructional artifacts similar to those they likely encounter in their teaching environment. The analysis procedure alternatively employs both an a priori systems view analysis and an emergent categorization to construct a multilayered concept map, which is a hierarchically arranged set of concept maps where child maps include more details than parent maps. Although our goal was to develop a model of physics faculty beliefs about the teaching and learning of problem solving in the context of an introductory calculus-based physics course, the techniques described here are applicable to a variety of situations in which instructors make decisions that influence teaching and learning.
Problem Solving. Research Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muir, Mike
2004-01-01
No longer solely the domain of Mathematics, problem solving permeates every area of today's curricula. Ideally students are applying heuristics strategies in varied contexts and novel situations in every subject taught. The ability to solve problems is a basic life skill and is essential to understanding technical subjects. Problem-solving is a…
2014-01-01
Background Chinese medical universities typically have a high number of students, a shortage of teachers and limited equipment, and as such histology courses have been taught using traditional lecture-based formats, with textbooks and conventional microscopy. This method, however, has reduced creativity and problem-solving skills training in the curriculum. The virtual microscope (VM) system has been shown to be an effective and efficient educational strategy. The present study aims to describe a VM system for undergraduates and to evaluate the effects of promoting active learning and problem-solving skills. Methods Two hundred and twenty-nine second-year undergraduate students in the Third Military Medical University were divided into two groups. The VM group contained 115 students and was taught using the VM system. The light microscope (LM) group consisted of 114 students and was taught using the LM system. Post-teaching performances were assessed by multiple-choice questions, short essay questions, case analysis questions and the identification of structure of tissue. Students’ teaching preferences and satisfaction were assessed using questionnaires. Results Test scores in the VM group showed a significant improvement compared with those in the LM group (p??0.05); however, there were notable differences in the mean score rate of case analysis questions and identification of structure of tissue (p?problem-solving skills as an assisted teaching platform. PMID:24712715
Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Funkhouser, Charles
The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…
Applied Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lesh, Richard
1981-01-01
A case is presented for the importance of focusing on: (1) average ability students; (2) substantive mathematical content; (3) real problems; and (4) realistic settings and solution procedures for research in problem solving. Suggestions for ways to modify existing applied problem solving materials are given. (MP)
Applied Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lesh, Richard, Ed.; And Others
This collection of nine papers, prepared for a conference held at Northwestern University in 1978, presents varied perspectives on applied problem solving. Assessing applied problem solving, planning for interest and motivation, developing a theory, reviewing research findings, considering learning disabilities, analyzing through information…
Improving mathematical problem solving: A computerized approach
Egbert G. Harskamp; Cor J. M. Suhre
2006-01-01
Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction on domain-specific knowledge required in different episodes of problem solving. The first program is based on a direct instructional approach to learning,
A Different Approach to Teaching Multiculturalism: Pragmatism as a Pedagogy and Problem-Solving Tool
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henry, Sue Ellen
2005-01-01
This article explores the moral imperative for teaching multiculturalism from a classically pragmatic point of view. Through an examination of the principles of classical pragmatism, embodied in the work of John Dewey, this analysis suggests that approaching multiculturalism from a pragmatic perspective lends a necessary moral foundation for the…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Brenda M. Capobianco
2009-10-01
In a unique school--university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem
Interactive insight problem solving
Anna Weller; Gaëlle Villejoubert; Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau
2011-01-01
Insight problem solving was investigated with the matchstick algebra problems developed by Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider, and Rhenius (1999). These problems are false equations expressed with Roman numerals that can be made true bymoving one matchstick. In a first group participants examined a static two-dimensional representation of the false algebraic expression and told the experimenter which matchstick should be moved. In
NSDL National Science Digital Library
kajigga
2009-09-23
Learn some basic math skills while at the same time learning some programming skills This short lesson focuses on solving simple math problem using computer programming. In this case, the examples given will be in Python (click on this link for more information: Official Tutorial for the Python programming language.). Computer programming can and has often been used to solve very complex mathematical problems along the lines of calculating ? ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorson, Annette, Ed.
1999-01-01
This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…
Problem Solving in Electricity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias
Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…
Solving Algebra Word Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berger, Dale E.; Wilde, Jeffrey M.
Algebra word problems were analyzed in terms of the information integration tasks that are required to solve the problems. These tasks were classified into three levels: value assignment, value derivation, and equation construction. Novices (35 first year algebra students) and experts (13 analytic geometry students) were compared on the proportion…
Solving Problems through Circles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
Solving Common Mathematical Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luz, Paul L.
2005-01-01
Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Office of Educational Partnerships,
The culminating energy project is introduced and the technical problem solving process is applied to get students started on the project. By the end of the class, students should have a good perspective on what they have already learned and what they still need to learn to complete the project.
PROBLEM SOLVING FOR ENGINEERING
? Self Assessment Exercise: Each of the nine items presents two opposing statements: - If you feel of formulas involve learning how to apply basic concepts and principles. 2. When I am learning a new concept in When I am learning a new concept, a problem solving course, I do not I focus on learning
John P. Gallagher
1981-01-01
Two prominent design features of an Artificial Intelligence CAI (AI CAI) System for teaching problem-solving skills were experimentally evaluated. Seventy-six subjects were randomly assigned to four treatment groups formed by factorially combining two values each of two system design variables. The variables were the ability\\/lack of ability of the system to answer specific student generated questions regarding the current problem
Whitcher, Carrie Lynn
2006-10-30
Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitcher, Carrie Lynn
2005-08-01
Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0.0033). Students who were more actively involved in hands-on projects had higher attitude scores compared to students who were taught traditional methods alone. In demographic comparisons, females had more positive attitudes toward horticulture science than males; and students from varying ethnic backgrounds had statistically different achievement (p=0.0001). Ethnicity was determined with few students in each background, 8 in one ethnicity and 10 students in another. Youth organization membership such as FFA or 4-H had no significant bearing on achievement or attitude.
Problem Solving: Pencil Box Staining
NSDL National Science Digital Library
WGHB Boston
2013-01-01
This professional development video clip shows students engaged in the first Common Core Practice Standard—Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them as learners make a decision about how much stain will be needed to cover the surface area of twenty-six completed boxes. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video. A related clip (cataloged separately) shows the same exploration by the same students but Common Core Practice Standard # #5-Use appropriate tools strategically is evident.
Akram Parand; Ahmad Ahmadi
2011-01-01
The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the efficacy of problem solving workshops designed for parents of pre-teens. In these workshops topics such as understanding others’ emotions, ideas, and motivations, as well as finding various solutions for a problem, were taught. Participants included 96 mothers of students in private schools. These mothers were instructed in five workshops lasted
Nina Diamond; Stephen K. Koernig; Zafar Iqbal
2008-01-01
This article describes an innovative strategic tools course designed to enhance the problem-solving skills of marketing majors. The course serves as a means of preparing students to capitalize on opportunities afforded by a case-based capstone course and to better meet the needs and expectations of prospective employers. The course format utilizes active and deep learning to provide students with the
Modeling applied to problem solving
Pawl, Andrew
We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and ...
Statistical Education Through Problem Solving
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Statistical Education Through Problem Solving (STEPS) was a collaborative project between seven universities throughout the United Kingdom "to develop problem-based teaching and learning materials for statistics." The materials draw on specific problems arising in Biology, Business, Geography and Psychology to help students learn that statistical issues are "important natural parts of the process of reaching conclusions." The software developed as a result of this project, which utilizes the computer and graphical illustration to support learning, is available to educational institutions free of charge and can be downloaded from this website. (Note that other organizations are expected to purchase the software.) A glossary of statistical terms is provided in the software program as well as on this website. Although the funding for the project ended in 1995 and the website was last updated in January 2004, the material is still current and useful for teaching statistics. The authors note that the STEPS modules are intended to be used to support existing coursework, and "not intended to replace lecturing staff or to provide a self-study course in statistics."
Problem Solving and Beginning Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McAllister, Alan
Based on current models of problem solving within cognitive psychology, this study focused on the spontaneous problem solving strategies used by children as they first learned LOGO computer programming, and on strategy transformations that took place during the problem solving process. The research consisted of a six weeks programming training…
The Problem-Solving Revolution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bardige, Art
1983-01-01
Discusses the use of microcomputers and software as problem-solving tools, including comments on "TK! Solver," automatic problem-solving program (reviewed in detail on pp.84-86 in this same issue). Also discusses problem-solving approaches to bridge the disciplines, such as music/physics, junior high science/mathematics (genetics),…
The place of problem solving in contemporary mathematics curriculum documents
Kaye Stacey
2005-01-01
This paper reviews the presentation of problem solving and process aspects of mathematics in curriculum documents from Australia, UK, USA and Singapore. The place of problem solving in the documents is reviewed and contrasted, and illustrative problems from teachers’ support materials are used to demonstrate how problem solving is now more often treated as a teaching method, rather than a
Instructors' Ideas about Problem Solving
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has developed an interview tool to investigate physics faculty views about the learning and teaching of problem solving. In the part of the interview dealing with grading, faculty members were asked to evaluate a set of five student solutions and explain their reasons for the grades that they assigned. Preliminary analysis on two of the five student solutions was done on six physics faculty members from a large research university. The results indicate that faculty members hold conflicting beliefs when grading between valuing reasoning in student solutions and wanting to give students the benefit of the doubt. This paper illustrates the hypothesis that physics faculty hold conflicting values when grading, and describes how the research university faculty resolved their conflicts.
Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Shih-Yin
2012-01-01
Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…
Problem Solving 1 NCTM National Mathematics Standards
Lee, Carl
a foundation for school mathematics programs by considering the broad issues of equity, curriculum, teachingProblem Solving 1 NCTM National Mathematics Standards The following comes from the website standards.nctm.org/document/chapter1/index.htm Introduction We live in a mathematical world. Whenever we
Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Gary Wisehart
2008-03-01
A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of biology, and apply them to new sets of facts.
Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisehart, Gary; Mandell, Mark
2008-01-01
A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of…
Creating Expert Problem Solving Systems
David W. Eccles; Paul T. Groth
2005-01-01
This paper describes how human-technology interaction in modern ambient technology environments can be best informed by conceptualizing of such environments as problem solving systems. Typically, such systems comprise multiple human and technological agents that meet the demands imposed by problem constraints through dynamic collaboration. A key assertion is that the design of expert problem solving systems can benefit from an
Algorithms and Problem Solving Introduction
Razak, Saquib
Unit 16 1 Algorithms and Problem Solving · Introduction · What is an Algorithm? · Algorithm Properties · Example · Exercises #12;Unit 16 2 What is an Algorithm? What is an Algorithm? · An algorithm. · The algorithm must be general, that is, it should solve the problem for all possible input sets to the problem
Problem Solving in Technology Education: A Taoist Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flowers, Jim
1998-01-01
Offers a new approach to teaching problem solving in technology education that encourages students to apply problem-solving skills to improving the human condition. Suggests that technology teachers incorporate elements of a Taoist approach in teaching by viewing technology as a tool with a goal of living a harmonious life. (JOW)
Minnesota, University of
solving framework and answer sheet you design during TA Orientation. The second tool is the Warm. How do I form cooperative groups? 27 III. What criteria do I use to assign students to groups? 31 IV of the group role sheets are available on the bookshelf in room 146, or you can make copies of the following
Adolescent problem-solving thinking
Jerome J Platt
1974-01-01
Tested the hypothesis that adolescent psychiatric patients would be deficient with respect to normal controls in their interpersonal problem-solving skills by comparing 33 patients and 53 high school student controls on 7 tasks reflecting different aspects of problem solving. With IQ covaried out, controls obtained significantly higher scores on the tasks evaluating optional thinking, social means-ends thinking, and role taking,
Learning Impasses in Problem Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodgson, J. P. E.
1992-01-01
Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.
A Personal Problem Solving Inventory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heppner, P. Paul; Petersen, Chris H.
Few studies have explicitly attended to the personal problem-solving process within the counseling literature, perhaps due in part to the dearth of relevant assessment instruments. To examine the dimensions underlying the applied problem-solving process, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from four samples of college…
Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lacy, Grace
The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…
The Future Problem Solving Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crabbe, Anne B.
1989-01-01
Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…
Solving the Promotion Problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Musella, Donald
1985-01-01
Concludes most organizations have administrator promotion and selection problems. Suggests good selection procedures produce valid, reliable, job-related information; exhibit fairness/are perceived as "fair"; and fit "political" realities. Examines Hamilton and Dufferin-Peel selection procedure models, which also incorporate use of assessment…
Solving Playground Network Problems
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Exploratorium
2010-01-01
In this activity, learners use cooperation and logical thinking to find solutions to network problems on the playground. Learners act both as computer routers, figuring out with each other how to effectively get data to the place it's being sent, and as the actual data, because the learners travel various edges of a network to get to their destination or "home" point. Learners use geometry skills to determine the most efficient routes in the network.
Functional Knowledge in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greeno, James G.; Berger, Daniel
An experiment compared solving of operational and diagnostic problems after different instruction about a fictitious device. Solution of both kinds of problems was facilitated by instruction (1) that focused on functional relations among components of the device or (2) that focused on states of the individual components. For operational problems,…
Explosives solve downhole problems
Defrank, P.
1981-11-01
Shaped charges were first used more than 30 years ago to perforate casing, cement sheath and reservoir to provide selective communication between the reservoir and well bore. Since then, advances have been made in design of shaped charge sand ancillary equipment. Penetration has increased considerably. Miniaturization of equipment allows passing through relatively small restrictions and effectively communicating with reservoirs. Gun debris has been drastically reduced and in some designs eliminated. Deep reservoirs can be effectively penetrated under down-hole environments exceeding 500 F and 20,000 psi. This work covers the problems encountered and reviews successful devices employing shaped charge and explosive technology.
Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2010-01-01
In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…
Problem solving in science and technology education
Patricia Murphy; Robert McCormick
1997-01-01
Both science and technology education have a commitment to teaching process; investigations or scientific method in science,\\u000a design in technology, and problem solving in both areas. The separate debates in science and technology education reveal different\\u000a curricular emphases in processes and content, reflecting different goals, and pedagogic and educational research traditions.\\u000a This paper explores these differences and argues that each
Henderson, Charles
than parent maps. Although our goal was to develop a model of physics faculty beliefs about of educational practices in the teaching of introductory college physics that have been characterized acceptance if they are to displace widespread traditional practices. In the commercial world, product
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Anthony; Kimball, Robert; Melendez, Barbra; Myers, Lem; Rhea, Karen; Travis, Betty
2009-01-01
This article views all educational approaches as either traditional (teacher-centered) or non-traditional (learner-centered), with not much emphasis placed on differentiating between the non-traditional models. The purpose of this paper is to describe the impediments to changing one's approach to teaching and some strategies to overcome those…
Promote Problem-Solving Discourse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bostic, Jonathan; Jacobbe, Tim
2010-01-01
Fourteen fifth-grade students gather at the front of the classroom as their summer school instructor introduces Jonathan Bostic as the mathematics teacher for the week. Before examining any math problems, Bostic sits at eye level with the students and informs them that they will solve problems over the next four days by working individually as…
Robot, computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.
1972-01-01
The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.
Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor
2007-01-01
TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Barbara Cooper
2002-01-01
This article discusses the use of a scenario-based assessment tool in two environmental geoscience in-service programs for middle school and high school teachers. This tool served both to guide instructional techniques and as a method to evaluate the success of the instructional approach. In each case, participants were assessed before the workshops to reveal misconceptions that could be addressed in program activities and afterwards to reveal shifts in their understanding of concepts and approaches. The researchers noted that this scenario-based assessment was effective in providing guidance in refining instructional techniques and as a method to evaluate the effectiveness of an instructional program. In addition, participating teachers reported significant changes in their teaching as a result of the program.
Problem Solving Variations in an Online Programming Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebrahimi, Alireza
2007-01-01
An observation on teaching introductory programming courses on SLN for a period of two terms led me to believe that online students try various ways to solve a problem. In the beginning, I got the impression that some of their approaches for a solution were wrong; but after a little investigation, I found that some of the problem-solving…
ACCESSING KNOWLEDGE FOR PROBLEM SOLVING
Joanna MAMONA-DOWNS
This paper studies the modes of thought that occur during the act of solving problems in mathematics. It examines the two main instantiations of mathematical knowledge, the conceptual and the structural, and their role in the afore said act. It claims that awareness of mathematical structure is the lever that educes mathematical knowledge existing in the mind in response to
Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)
Nizkorodov, Sergey
PSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN COMPUTER MODELS An air pollution model is a computer program that computes how the different chemical emissions or decreasing car use. An air pollution model is never exact in its attempt to simulate
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1974-01-01
The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.
Looking Back in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cai, Jinfa; Brook, Michael
2006-01-01
Often after students solve a problem they believe they have accomplished their mission and stop further exploration. The purpose of this article is to discuss ways to encourage students to "look back" so as to maximise their learning opportunities. According to Polya, by "looking back" at a completed solution, by reconsidering and re-examining the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Del Favero, Laura; Boscolo, Pietro; Vidotto, Giulio; Vicentini, Marco
2007-01-01
In this study, 100 Italian eighth graders were divided into two groups to compare the effects of two instructional interventions--the first based on problem-solving through discussion, the second on individual problem-solving--on students' learning of two historical topics (World War I and the economic boom), interest and self-perception of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, David F.; And Others
Recent research has demonstrated the promise of graphing software as an aid to teaching graphs in two content areas: line graphs of aspects of motion and graphs of algebraic functions. This study attempted to generalize the idea of computer-assisted graphing to include the use of several kinds of graphs to solve a wider range of problems. A unit…
Rubloff, Gary W.
ISR develops, applies and teaches advanced methodologies of design and analysis to solve complex and government. ISR is a permanent institute of the University of Maryland, within the Glenn L. Martin Institute Research Center. Web site http://www.isr.umd.edu I RINSTITUTE FOR SYSTEMS RESEARCH TECHNICAL RESEARCH
Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains
Rus, Teodor
Outline Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains Natural Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains Natural Language of the Domain Domain Dedicated Virtual Machine Optimizing DDVM Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyon, Harold C.; And Others
1992-01-01
The computer-based PlanAlyzer program was designed to teach clinical diagnosis to medical students, taking into account several characteristics common to the clinical problem solver: limited capacity for short-term memory; use of heuristic strategies; sequential information seeking; and problem conceptualization. Six years of development and…
Geogebra for Solving Problems of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kllogjeri, Pellumb; Kllogjeri, Adrian
Today is highly speed progressing the computer-based education, which allowes educators and students to use educational programming language and e-tutors to teach and learn, to interact with one another and share together the results of their work. In this paper we will be concentrated on the use of GeoGebra programme for solving problems of physics. We have brought an example from physics of how can be used GeoGebra for finding the center of mass(centroid) of a picture(or system of polygons). After the problem is solved graphically, there is an application of finding the center of a real object(a plate)by firstly, scanning the object and secondly, by inserting its scanned picture into the drawing pad of GeoGebra window and lastly, by finding its centroid. GeoGebra serve as effective tool in problem-solving. There are many other applications of GeoGebra in the problems of physics, and many more in different fields of mathematics.
Facilitating Students' Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay
2010-10-01
Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of students' ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on students' common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on students' problem solving abilities.
Can Problem Solving Affect the Understanding of Rational Numbers in the Middle School Setting?
Meredith, Krystal B.
2010-07-14
In this study, problem solving provided deeper meaning and understanding through the implementation of a structured problem solving strategy with the teaching of rational numbers. This action-research study was designed as a quasi-experimental model...
Students' Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay
2009-11-01
Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate students' difficulties with multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first semester calculus-based physics course. Each student was interviewed four times during the semester, each time after they had completed an exam in class. During these interviews students were first asked to solve a problem they had seen on the exam, followed by problems that differed in context and type of representation from the exam problem. Students were provided verbal scaffolding to solve the new problems. We discuss the common difficulties that students encountered when attempting to transfer their problem solving skills across problems in different representations.
Problem Solving in the General Mathematics Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troutman, Andria Price; Lichtenberg, Betty Plunkett
1974-01-01
Five steps common to different problem solving models are listed. Next, seven specific abilities related to solving problems are discussed and examples given. Sample activities, appropriate to help in developing these specific abilities, are suggested. (LS)
Students' Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations
Zollman, Dean
Students' Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations Dong-Hai Nguyen and N-2601 Abstract. Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate students' difficulties with multiple
Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen
2008-01-01
A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includes…
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merriam, E. W.; Becker, J. D.
1973-01-01
A robot computer problem solving system which represents a robot exploration vehicle in a simulated Mars environment is described. The model exhibits changes and improvements made on a previously designed robot in a city environment. The Martian environment is modeled in Cartesian coordinates; objects are scattered about a plane; arbitrary restrictions on the robot's vision have been removed; and the robot's path contains arbitrary curves. New environmental features, particularly the visual occlusion of objects by other objects, were added to the model. Two different algorithms were developed for computing occlusion. Movement and vision capabilities of the robot were established in the Mars environment, using LISP/FORTRAN interface for computational efficiency. The graphical display program was redesigned to reflect the change to the Mars-like environment.
Problem Solving, Creative Librarianship, and Search Behavior.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nahl-Jakobovits, Diane; Jakobovits, Leon A.
1988-01-01
Discusses the need for library science to examine users' search behaviors in the context of social cognition and creative problem solving. Topics covered include the psychology of search behavior, problem solving approaches to library instruction in online searching, and problem solving protocols. (29 references) (CLB)
Inservice Teacher Development in Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chapman, Olive
1999-01-01
Describes a problem-solving-oriented teacher-inservice program designed to provide opportunities that allow elementary teachers to focus on personal experience as a way of achieving self-understanding and a way of reconstructing their personal meanings about problem solving and problem-solving instruction. Concludes that the program had positive…
Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ouellette, Hugh
1979-01-01
A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)
Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billionniere, Elodie V.
Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.
Lp-based combinatorial problem solving
K. Hoffman; M. Padberg
1985-01-01
A tutorial outline of the polyhedral theory that underlies linear programming (LP)-based combinatorial problem solving is given. Design aspects of a combinatorial problem solver are discussed in general terms. Three computational studies in combinatorial problem solving using the polyhedral theory developed in the past fifteen years are surveyed: one addresses the symmetric traveling salesman problem, another the optimal triangulation of
Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.
1993-01-01
Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.
Problem Solving with an Icon Oriented Programming Tool: A Case Study in Technology Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lavonen, Jari M.; Lattu, Matti; Meisalo, Veijo P.
2001-01-01
Finnish eighth graders used computer control software to find creative solutions to technological problems. The learning environment encouraged problem-centered and creative approaches. More systematic teaching of programming skills before problem solving was recommended. (Contains 32 references.) (SK)
Problem Solving: Physics Modeling-Based Interactive Engagement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ornek, Funda
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate how modeling-based instruction combined with an interactive-engagement teaching approach promotes students' problem solving abilities. I focused on students in a calculus-based introductory physics course, based on the matter and interactions curriculum of Chabay & Sherwood (2002) at a large state…
Evaluation Design for Social Conflict and Negotiative Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.
Social Conflict and Negotiative Problem Solving is an instructional system currently under development by the Improving Teaching Competencies Program (ITCP) of Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL). In accordance with the Resource Allocation Management Plan (RAMP, 1975) of ITCP, this report presents a plan of evaluation activities for…
Surface Features, Representations and Tutorial Interventions in Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Julo, Jean
1990-01-01
Examines didactic interventions and claims their impact on pupil behavior aids the study of cognitive processes. Studies problem solving in teaching mathematics. Examines the functions of tutorial interventions in surface features and instability of representation. Finds tutorial interventions demonstrate a substantial increase in performance…
Problem Solving in Social Studies: A Model Lesson.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oklahoma City Public School System, OK.
These model lessons from the primary grades are on the techniques of advertising drawn from a unit on, "Creating and Producing Tools and Techniques". They include behaviorial objectives, teaching and motivational strategies, evaluation techniques. The model lessons follow the problem solving inquiry approach in social studies using multimedia…
PROBLEM SOLVING AND WEB RESOURCES AT TERTIARY LEVEL
Claire Cazes; Ghislaine Gueudet; Magali Hersant; Fabrice Vandebrouck
We organised two experimental teaching designs involving web resources in two different French universities. In this paper, we describe these experiments and analyse the students' behaviours. Our aim is to observe whether the use of specific online resources favours the development of problem-solving activities.
How To Solve Typical School Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ohle, Nancy; Morley, Cindy Lakin
This book presents interactive problem-solving situations based on the principles of Total Quality Management. Following the introductory chapter, the second chapter describes the two stages of the problem-solving process: (1) analysis of the problem and its causes, and (2) identification of a solution. Each stage is comprised of three…
Learning to Solve Problems in Primary Grades
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David J.
2008-01-01
Problem solving lies at the heart of mathematical learning. Children need opportunities to write, discuss, and solve problems on a regular basis. The problems must incorporate grade-appropriate content and be "accessible and engaging to the students, building on what they know and can do." Teachers also play a key role in establishing a classroom…
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-01-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem…
FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR PROBLEM SOLVING RESEARCH AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Lyn English; Richard Lesh; Thomas Fennewald
Since the 1960s, numerous studies on problem solving have revealed the complexity of the domain and the difficulty in translating research findings into practice. The literature suggests that the impact of problem solving research on the mathematics curriculum has been limited. Furthermore, our accumulation of knowledge on the teaching of problem solving is lagging. In this first discussion paper we
Using ICT for transfer of knowledge with application in solving technical science problems
Luka Lugari ´; Zvonko Kostanj
Educating students in technical science requires teaching critical thinking and making students capable of compiling knowledge from several courses. Students are usually educated on how to solve most simple problems and often fail when confronted with complex ones. We describe a concept for teaching students how to solve problems from domain of technical science that are both theoretical and real-life,
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mossuto, Mark
2009-01-01
The adoption of problem-based learning as a teaching method in the advertising and public relations programs offered by the Business TAFE (Technical and Further Education) School at RMIT University is explored in this paper. The effect of problem-based learning on student engagement, student learning and contextualised problem-solving was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macintyre, Tom
2006-01-01
A lot has been made of the topical puzzle Su Doku, with various claims that it can support development of mathematical abilities. The latest, in March this year, came from the Training and Development Agency when a giant puzzle was used to attract graduates into a career of maths teaching. A giant Su Doku puzzle toured busy city centres with the…
Solving multiple criteria problems by interactive decomposition
Rafael Lazimy
1986-01-01
An interactive decomposition method is developed for solving the multiple criteria (MC) problem. Based on nonlinear programming duality theory, the MC problem is decomposed into a series of subproblems and relaxed master problems. Each subproblem is a bicriterion problem, and each relaxed master problem is a standard linear program. The prime objective of the decomposition is to simplify and facilitate
Climate-Change Problem Solving: Structured Approaches
Wright, Dawn Jeannine
problem solving · Key to development of successful strategies: iterative process or co- development of the necessary information to address the problem. · Analysis is the consideration of the nature of the information: deconstruction - breaking down the information, identifying relationships, determination
Some Helpful Problem-Solving Heuristics
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2014-01-01
This page from the site "Stella's Stunners" presents twenty-five thinking strategies that are useful in solving problems. They help students monitor their thought processes and thus help learners become better problem solvers.
Neural Network Solves "Traveling-Salesman" Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thakoor, Anilkumar P.; Moopenn, Alexander W.
1990-01-01
Experimental electronic neural network solves "traveling-salesman" problem. Plans round trip of minimum distance among N cities, visiting every city once and only once (without backtracking). This problem is paradigm of many problems of global optimization (e.g., routing or allocation of resources) occuring in industry, business, and government. Applied to large number of cities (or resources), circuits of this kind expected to solve problem faster and more cheaply.
Detecting and Solving Hyperbolic Quadratic Eigenvalue Problems
Higham, Nicholas J.
, overdamped, weakly overdamped, quadratic matrix polynomial, quadratic matrix equation, solvent, cyclicDetecting and Solving Hyperbolic Quadratic Eigenvalue Problems Chun-Hua Guo, Nicholas J. Higham1613 DETECTING AND SOLVING HYPERBOLIC QUADRATIC EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS CHUN-HUA GUO, NICHOLAS J. HIGHAM, AND FRANC
RIDGES: A Problem-Solving Math Strategy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snyder, Kathleen
1988-01-01
RIDGES is a mnemonic device designed to give upper elementary and high school students a structure to follow when solving word problems. RIDGES stands for Read the problem; I know statement; Draw a picture; Goal statement; Equation development; and Solve the equation. (VW)
Problem Solving and Technology. ACESIA Monograph 2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lomon, Earle L.; And Others
1977-01-01
The two articles dealing with problem solving and technology in this publication should be useful to those developing the kinds of materials, experiences, and thinking that elementary school industrial arts offers children. The first article accepts problem solving as an educational goal and reports a timely and universally acceptable approach.…
Dialectical and devil's advocate problem-solving
Michael N. Chanin; Harris J. Shapiro
1984-01-01
In recent years an increasing amount of interest has been generated in the application of dialectical methodology to strategic and operational problem-solving. This paper first examines the existing research evidence and then introduces the Dialectical Problem-Solving Technology (DPST) based on the Dialectical Materialism Inquiry System. The results of an empirical investigation into the effectiveness and impact of High Structure (DPST),
Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.
2015-01-01
Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…
Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…
Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Wayne
2007-01-01
Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…
Mathematical Problem Solving. Issues in Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lester, Frank K., Jr., Ed.; Garofalo, Joe, Ed.
This set of papers was originally developed for a conference on Issues and Directions in Mathematics Problem Solving Research held at Indiana University in May 1981. The purpose is to contribute to the clear formulation of the key issues in mathematical problem-solving research by presenting the ideas of actively involved researchers. An…
Solving Problems with Charts & Tables. Pipefitter.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.
Developed as part of the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, this instructional module is designed to help individuals employed as pipefitters learn to solve problems with charts and tables. Outlined in the first section is a five-step procedure for solving problems involving tables and/or charts: identifying the question to…
About solving hybrid optimal control problems
P. Riedinger; J. Daafouz; C. Iung
The main objective of this paper is to discuss nu- merical difculties in solving hybrid optimal control problems and to propose a multiple phase-multiple shooting formula- tion for hybrid optimal control design. Such a formulation allows to solve directly the problem using nonlinear program- ming techniques. In the case of switched systems, it is shown that the switching rule can
Presenting a Model of Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
Two questions are dealt with: (1) Can those strategies or behaviors which enable experts to solve problems well be characterized, and (2) Can students be trained to use such strategies? A problem-solving course for college students is described and the model on which the course is based is outlined in an attempt to answer these questions. The…
The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.
Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N
2002-01-01
This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving. PMID:12102132
Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda
2008-01-01
This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)
The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene
2005-01-01
This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has four…
Solving problems in robotics with semantic networks.
Agarwal, K K
1983-02-01
Robot problems are examined in the context of semantic networks which are used to represent the state of a problem and the operators useful for solving it. Graph transformation algorithms are discussed as an aid to problem solving. Although these form only a small subset of the first-order predicate calculus based systems, considerations such as subgoal circularity, partially specified states and multiple manipulators sharing the same environment may warrant this simplification. PMID:21869103
Declarative Problem Solving through Abduction
Moraitis, Pavlos
's features: · Declarative modelling · Rich expressive power (close to human one) · Computational and Formal the poison), i.e. that he is mortal. Can we conclude anything? #12;12 Reasoning for Declarative Problem
Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)
... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-05-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.
Sour landfill gas problem solved
Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)
1996-05-01
In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.
Solving inversion problems with neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.
1990-01-01
A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.
SOLVING NP SEARCH PROBLEMS MODEL EXPANSION
Mitchell, David G.
SOLVING NP SEARCH PROBLEMS WITH MODEL EXPANSION by Faraz Hach B.Sc., Sharif University of Science in the School of Computing Science c Faraz Hach 2007 SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY Fall 2007 All rights the permission of the author. #12;APPROVAL Name: Faraz Hach Degree: Master of Science Title of thesis: SOLVING NP
Frameworks for Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving
REID G. SM; Randall Davis
1981-01-01
Two forms of cooperation in distributed problem solving are considered: task-sharing and result-sharing. In the former, nodes assist each other by sharing the computational load for the execution of subtasks of the overall problem. In the latter, nodes assist each other by sharing partial results which are based on somewhat different perspectives on the overall problem. Different perspectives arise because
Error Analysis in Solving Algebra Word Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Travis, Betty P.
This document deals with the observation of students in a direct translation scheme in the solution of word problems in a university freshman-level Intermediate Algebra class. It is felt that since successful problem solvers of algebraic equations often have as much difficulty in solving word problems as do other students in the classes, the…
The Case for Problem Solving in Second Language Learning. CLCS Occasional Paper No. 33.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bourke, James Mannes
A study undertaken in Ireland investigated the effectiveness of a second language teaching strategy that focused on grammatical problem-solving. In this approach, the problems are located within the target language system, and the problem-solving involves induction of grammatical rules and use of those rules. Learners are confronted with instances…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Wendy Kristine
The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.
Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Andrew J.
Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was developed to further evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards problem solving. The survey responses suggest that introductory students and even graduate students have different attitudes and approaches to problem solving on several important measures compared to physics faculty members. Furthermore, responses to individual survey questions suggest that expert and novice attitudes and approaches to problem solving may be more complex than naively considered.
Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Contreras, José N.
2014-01-01
The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…
Model Formulation for Physics Problem Solving. Draft.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novak, Gordon S., Jr.
The major task in solving a physics problem is to construct an appropriate model of the problem in terms of physical principles. The functions performed by such a model, the information which needs to be represented, and the knowledge used in selecting and instantiating an appropriate model are discussed. An example of a model for a mechanics…
Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sriraman, Bharath
2004-01-01
An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.
Problem-Solving Competitions: Just the Solution!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riley, Tracy L.; Karnes, Frances A.
2005-01-01
This article describes competitions across a range of curricular areas that develop students' problem solving skills by setting authentic, real-world tasks. As individuals or members of a team, students in these competitions are challenged with finding solutions to problems faced not only in today's scientific and technological world, but also in…
Preservice Teachers' Problem-Solving Processes
Margaret Taplin
1998-01-01
The purpose of the study reported in this paper is to explore some of the common difficulties with mathematical word problems experienced by preservice primary teachers. It examines weaknesses in students' content and procedural knowledge, with a particular focus on how they apply these aspects of knowledge to solving closed word problems\\
Solving Word Problems Using Story Structure
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-10-16
In this lesson, students will learn how to use their knowledge of beginning, middle, and end to solve word problems that include result unknown, change unknown, and start unknown. They will learn how to use a modified story map to write an equation to represent the problem.
Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blasetti, Sean M.
2010-01-01
This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…
GIS Live and Web Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.
2007-01-01
GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeMul, Frits F. M.; Batlle, Cristina Martin i.; DeBruijn, Imme; Rinzema, Kees
2004-01-01
Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential expressions and multi-dimensional integrations, and the Gauss and Ampère laws learnt in electromagnetism courses. To enhance those skills in a quick and efficient way we have developed 'Integrating Mathematics in University Physics', in which students are provided with a selection of problems (exercises) that explicitly deal with the relation between physics and mathematics. The project is based on computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and available via the Internet (http://tnweb.tn.utwente.nl/onderwijs/; or http://www.utwente.nl/; search or click to: CONECT). Normally, in CAI a predefined student-guiding sequence for problem solving is used (systematic problem solving). For self-learning this approach was found to be far too rigid. Therefore, we developed the 'adventurous problem solving' (APS) method. In this new approach, the student has to find the solution by developing his own problem-solving strategy in an interactive way. The assessment of mathematical answers to physical questions is performed using a background link with an algebraic symbolic language interpreter. This manuscript concentrates on the subject of APS.
Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho
2014-09-01
This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Amy C. Payne
2006-11-01
Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of "real" scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.
Developing Problem-Solving Skills of Students Taking Introductory Physics via Web-Based Tutorials
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Chandralekha Singh
2010-03-01
Science teaching and learning can be made both engaging and student-centered using pedagogical, computer-based learning tools. The authors have developed self-paced interactive problem-solving tutorials for introductory physics. These tutorials can provid
An In-Service Teachers' Workshop on Mathematical Problem Solving through Activity-Based Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toh, Tin Lam
2007-01-01
This paper describes an in-service professional development course in introducing creative approaches to teach mathematics for teachers from the private-funded schools in Java, Indonesia. The course focused on introducing teachers to problem-solving processes and skills, and samples of activity-based worksheet on problem solving through secondary…
Design, Development and Validation of a Model of Problem Solving for Egyptian Science Classes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shahat, Mohamed A.; Ohle, Annika; Treagust, David F.; Fischer, Hans E.
2013-01-01
Educators and policymakers envision the future of education in Egypt as enabling learners to acquire scientific inquiry and problem-solving skills. In this article, we describe the validation of a model for problem solving and the design of instruments for evaluating new teaching methods in Egyptian science classes. The instruments were based on…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westbrook, Amy F.
2011-01-01
It can be difficult to find adequate strategies when teaching problem solving in a standard based mathematics classroom. The purpose of this study was to improve students' problem solving skills and attitudes through differentiated instruction when working on lengthy performance tasks in cooperative groups. This action research studied for 15 days…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Diane Torres-Velasquez
2005-01-01
In this article the authors provide before, during, and after problem solving strategies and instructional suggestions for teachers. The focus of the article is to improve the ability of students with disabilities that are also English as a second language (ESL) learners to solve word problems. The authors provide multiple teaching strategies, questioning techniques, and links to lesson resources.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montague, Marjorie
2008-01-01
This article provides a review of research in cognitive strategy instruction for improving mathematical problem solving for students with learning disabilities (LD). The particular focus is on one of the salient components of this instructional approach--self-regulation. Seven studies utilizing this approach for teaching problem solving to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wuttke, Eveline; Wolf, Karsten D.
2007-01-01
Increasing people's ability to solve complex problems is more and more often being seen as an integral part of vocational education. While there have been numerous empirically-based approaches to the didactic structuring of teaching and learning arrangements by which students' ability to solve problems can be increased, knowledge of how to…
Measures of Problem-Solving Performance and of Problem-Solving Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
1982-01-01
Some easily graded measures of problem-solving processes are introduced, and the impact of a month-long intensive problem-solving course on a selected group of college freshmen and sophomores is demonstrated. The measures are thought to have shown themselves to be both reliable and informative. (MP)
Solving the Hard Problem of Bertrand's Paradox
Diederik Aerts; Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi
2014-06-27
Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an "easy" problem and a "hard" problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible "ways of selecting" an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible "ways of selecting" an interaction, which we call a 'universal average'. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.
Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox
Aerts, Diederik, E-mail: diraerts@vub.ac.be [Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies and Department of Mathematics, Brussels Free University, Brussels (Belgium); Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano, E-mail: autoricerca@gmail.com [Laboratorio di Autoricerca di Base, Lugano (Switzerland)
2014-08-15
Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an “easy” problem and a “hard” problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible “ways of selecting” an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible “ways of selecting” an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.
TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 Problem Solving: Cowboy Bob Problem
Minnesota, University of
TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 Problem Solving: Cowboy Bob Problem Page 61 Below is a problem from the outlaws. #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 (continued) Page 62 Notes: #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 7. #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 7 (continued) Page 64 Answer Sheet for Activity 7 1. Examine your
Retrieval and Learning in Analogical Problem Solving
Randolph M. Jones; Pat Langley
1995-01-01
EUREK A is a problem-solving system that operates through a form of analogical reasoning. The system was designed to study how relatively low-level memory, reasoning, and learn- ing mechanisms can account for high-level learning in human problem solvers. Thus, EUREK A's design has focused on is- sues of memory representation and retrieval of analogies, a t the expense of complex
Problem Solving by Spatial Conformation Chatavut Viriyasuthee
Dudek, Gregory
-term pleasure. ii #12;ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS There were many individuals whose contribution had solidified this thesis with solving the problem directly that can be costly or even infeasible. The concept of reduction is not only`ere efficace, comparemment `a essayer de le r´esoudre directement, ce qui pour- rait ^etre co^uteux ou m
Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems
Libre de Bruxelles, Université
Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems Marco Dorigo IRIDIA Universit´e Libre de Bruxelles 50 Avenue F. Roosevelt B-1050 Brussels, Belgium mdorigo@ulb.ac.be Abstract. The ant algorithms research field builds on the idea that the study of the behavior of ant colonies or other social insects
Creative Problem Solving in the Classroom.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ayers, Samuel J.
Second and third grade students used the creative problem solving strategy developed by Sidney Parnes and Alex Osborn in their social studies classes. The second graders, finding few biographies written for students reading on a first or second grade level, interviewed community members, collected photographs of them, and wrote their biographies,…
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
2006-01-01
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
Raise the Bar on Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Englard, Lisa
2010-01-01
In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS…
Dynamical systems that solve linear programming problems
L. Faybusovich
1992-01-01
The author introduces and studies a class of vector fields which are defined on a given polyhedron and solve linear programming problems. A Dikin-type algorithm is constructed. Relationships with double-bracket equations and entropy-type barrier functions are established
THE ROLE OF EMOTION IN PROBLEM SOLVING
Roman V Belavkin
2001-01-01
Performance and data from some cognitive models suggested that emotions, experienced during problem solving, should be taken into account. Moreover, it is proposed that the cognitive science approach using both theoretical and experi- mental data may lead to a better understanding of the phenomena. A closer investigation of ACT-R cognitive architecture (Anderson 1993) revealed some properties analogous to phenomena known
Computer Assisted Problem Solving in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piele, Donald T.
Arguments for and against the use of computers in mathematics classes have centered on whether students benefit from or are merely hindered by practicing computational skills. This paper claims that the true essence of mathematics lies not in computation, basically a mechanical operation, but in problem-solving. Since no amount of computational…
Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…
Partial Metacognitive Blindness in Collaborative Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ng, Kit Ee Dawn
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the impact of group dynamics on metacognitive behaviours of students (aged 13-14) during group collaborative problem solving attempts involving a design-based real-world applications project. It was discovered that group dynamics mediated the impact of metacognitive judgments related red flag situations and metacognitive…
How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.
2013-01-01
This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…
Models of Strategy for Solving Physics Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Larkin, Jill H.
A set of computer implemented models are presented which can assist in developing problem solving strategies. The three levels of expertise which are covered are beginners (those who have completed at least one university physics course), intermediates (university level physics majors in their third year of study), and professionals (university…
Appendix M. Research Utilization and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jung, Charles
The Research Utilization and Problem Solving (RUPS) Model--an instructional system designed to provide the needed competencies for an entire staff to engage in systems analysis and systems synthesis procedures prior to assessing educational needs and developing curriculum to meet the needs identified--is intended to facilitate the development of…
Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil
2011-01-01
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
This report, prepared for and published by the Mathematical Association of America's Committee on the Teaching of Undergraduate Mathematics, includes a description of the state of the art on problem solving, lists available resources, and makes recommendations regarding the place of problem solving in the college curriculum and ways to teach it.…
2014-01-01
Background Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. Methods A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. Results We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. Conclusions The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution. PMID:24450310
Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg
2008-01-01
CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.
Problem Solving and Problem Orientation in Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Robert Ladouceur; France Blais; Mark H. Freeston; Michel J. Dugas
1998-01-01
The present study’s main objective is to examine whether problem orientation and problem-solving skills differ according to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptom level or clinical status (seeking help for GAD). Its secondary goal is to examine whether two cognitive variables (intolerance of uncertainty and beliefs about worry) vary according to GAD symptom level or clinical status. Three groups of subjects
Technological and Personal Problem Solving Styles: Is There a Difference?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Tain-Fung; And Others
1996-01-01
Three groups of 50 freshman and 50 seniors each, majoring in technology, engineering, and humanities, completed the Personal Problem-Solving Inventory and the Technological Problem-Solving Inventory. There were few differences in personal problem solving but significant differences by major in technological problem solving. Few differences between…
Episodes and Executive Decisions in Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
The research described here seeks to characterize the "managerial" aspects of expert and novice problem-solving behavior, and to describe the impact of managerial or "executive" actions on success or failure in problem solving. A framework for analyzing protocols of problem-solving sessions based on "episodes" of problem-solving behavior and…
Harmony Theory: Problem Solving, Parallel Cognitive Models, and Thermal Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smolensky, Paul; Riley, Mary S.
This document consists of three papers. The first, "A Parallel Model of (Sequential) Problem Solving," describes a parallel model designed to solve a class of relatively simple problems from elementary physics and discusses implications for models of problem-solving in general. It is shown that one of the most salient features of problem solving,…
Solving Some Discrepancy Problems in NC
Sanjeev Mahajan; Edgar A. Ramos; K. V. Subrahmanyam
2001-01-01
. We show that several discrepancy-like problems can be solved in NC nearly achieving the discrepancies guaranteed by a probabilistic analysis and achievable sequentially. For example, we describe an NC algorithm that given\\u000a a set system (X, S) , where X is a ground set and S?2\\u000a \\u000a X\\u000a , computes a set R?X so that for each S?\\u000a S
Josephine Itota Ebomoyi
2004-01-01
The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX)
Why and How We Made a Problem Oriented AV Teaching Unit for Chemistry Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mulder, T. H. M.; Verdonk, A. H.
1984-01-01
Describes an audiovisual teaching unit on the chemical laboratory technique of recrystallization which was developed along problem-solving lines and based on observation of student laboratory behavior. Discussion includes usual procedures for developing such units, how this unit solves problems typically associated with teaching, and its general…
Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin
2006-01-01
Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).
Problem-solving analysis: A piagetian study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hale, James P.
Fifty-nine second-year medical students were asked to solve 12 Piagetian formal operational tasks. The purpose was to describe the formal logical characteristics of this medical student sample (59 of a total 65 possible) in terms of their abilities to solve problems in four formal logical schemata-combinatorial logic, probabilistic reasoning, propositional logic, and proportional reasoning. These tasks were presented as videotape demonstrations or in written form, depending on whether or not equipment manipulation was required, and were scored using conventional, prespecified scoring criteria. The results of this study show approximately 96% of the sample function at the transitional (Piaget's 3A level) stage of formal operations on all tasks and approximately 4% function at the full formal (Piaget's 3B level) stage of formal operations on all tasks. This sample demonstrates formal level thinking to a much greater degree than other samples reported in the literature to date and suggests these students are adequately prepared and developed to meet the challenge of their training (i.e., medical problem solving).
Negotiation as a Metaphor for Distributed Problem Solving
Randall Davis; Reid G. Smith
1983-01-01
We describe the concept of distributed problem solving and define it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. We present a framework called the contract net that specifies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Right to Read Program.
This guide presents a classroom problem solving model designed to help teachers conduct their own classroom research. It suggests developing a procedure for identifying the instructional problems influencing reading achievement. The model is presented in steps that can be used independently or in concert with other steps. Practice activities are…
Problem solving and chemical equilibrium: Successful versus unsuccessful performance
Moises Camacho; Ron Good
1989-01-01
The purpose of this study was to describe the problem-solving behaviors of experts and novices engaged in solving seven chemical equilibrium problems. Thirteen novices (five high-school students, five undergraduate majors, and three nonmajors) and ten experts (six doctoral students and four faculty members) were videotaped as they individually solved standard chemical equilibrium problems. The nature of the problems was such
Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus).
Seed, Amanda M; Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J
2008-06-22
Recent work has shown that captive rooks, like chimpanzees and other primates, develop cooperative alliances with their conspecifics. Furthermore, the pressures hypothesized to have favoured social intelligence in primates also apply to corvids. We tested cooperative problem-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. Without training, eight rooks quickly solved a problem in which two individuals had to pull both ends of a string simultaneously in order to pull in a food platform. Similar to chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, performance was better when within-dyad tolerance levels were higher. In contrast to chimpanzees, rooks did not delay acting on the apparatus while their partner gained access to the test room. Furthermore, given a choice between an apparatus that could be operated individually over one that required the action of two individuals, four out of six individuals showed no preference. These results may indicate that cooperation in chimpanzees is underpinned by more complex cognitive processes than that in rooks. Such a difference may arise from the fact that while both chimpanzees and rooks form cooperative alliances, chimpanzees, but not rooks, live in a variable social network made up of competitive and cooperative relationships. PMID:18364318
Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.
1988-01-01
This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.
Teaching with Technology. Problem-Solving Strategies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allen, Denise
1996-01-01
Reviews two CD-ROMS and one computer game: "Explore Yellowstone," science activities on CD to earn badges toward becoming a ranger; "Oval Office: Challenge of the Presidency," in which students role play presidential responsibilities such as proposing budgets; and "Strategy Games of the World," in which students match their skills against game…
Teaching Problem-Solving at Rensselaer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burr, A. A.; Sandor, G. N.
1974-01-01
Discusses the characteristics of the Rensselaer design educational programs which emphasize the use of computer-oriented laboratories and linear algebraic equations as analytical tools. Effects of the Sloan Foundation grant are studied. (CC)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Al-Ubaidi, Muthar
The "lean" trend in business and industry is to expand capacity and quality while decreasing overall costs through continuous problem solving. More problems to solve, with fewer staff, places a premium on employees with problem solving skills. Universities excel at teaching technical topics and how to solve textbook problems within each technical discipline. However, little effort is directed to methods of problem solving for problems outside the textbook, even though this is becoming a major occupation of engineers in industry. Therefore it is important for engineering and technical programs to include more problem solving and project planning and management components in the curriculum. There are experts on structured methods of problem solving, some with extensive industry experience. These professionals can easily prove that a structured process will yield better solutions to problems than an off-the-wall approach, and that anyones problem solving skills can be improved. Similarly, most engineers spend much of their time involved in projects, but few have been trained in project planning and management by actually doing projects. Structured problem solving and project management are both skills that are learned more by actual practice than by textbook study. So it is necessary to incorporate significant project practice using both skills into curriculum as a part of normal course work. This paper will discuss the strategies and processes of curriculum enhancement for our manufacturing program, and investigate and integrate more practical industry-related components into the manufacturing curriculum.
Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lederman, Eric
2009-01-01
In "How to Solve It", accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santi, Terri
This book contains a classroom-tested approach to the teaching of problem solving to all students in Grades 6-8, regardless of ability. Information on problem solving in general is provided, then mathematical problems on logic, exponents, fractions, pre-algebra, algebra, geometry, number theory, set theory, ratio, proportion, percent, probability,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santi, Terri
This book contains a classroom-tested approach to the teaching of problem solving to all students in Grades 4-6, regardless of ability. Information on problem solving in general is provided, then mathematical problems on logic, whole numbers, number theory, fractions, decimals, geometry, ratio, proportion, percent, probability, sets, and…
Idea Focusing versus Idea Generating: A Course for Teachers on Inventive Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barak, Moshe
2009-01-01
This paper deals with a course intended to teach individuals a method of convergent thinking, or "idea focusing", in seeking inventive solutions to problems and designing innovative artefacts. The course participants (mathematics, science, or technology teachers) learned a range of "inventive principles" often used for problem-solving in…
Mathematical Practice 1. Make Sense of Problems and Persevere in Solving Them
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2014-01-01
This 5-minute video of a fourth grade classroom depicts the teaching strategy of modeling the four step problem solving process during direct instruction. The narrator, Robin Silby, states that learners will benefit from frequently thinking and talking aloud as a group to understand the important information so they can make sense of the problem.
Problem Solving: An Overview of the Theory and a Course Attempting to Apply It.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mertz, Donald W.
Problem solving is viewed as an increasing area of interest that focuses on the theory, research, and teaching of general cognitive skills which are applicable to broad problem classes. This document gives an overview of some important aspects of the theory and research in order to identify what general cognitive skills ought to be taught. Modern…
Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems
Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.
2013-01-01
EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941
The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bahar, Abdulkadir
2013-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…
Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth
1979-01-01
Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)
Development of a Content Coding System for Marital Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winemiller, David R.; Mitchell, M. Ellen
While much research has focused on the processes of marital problem solving, the content of marital problem solving has received considerably less attention. This study examined the initial efforts to develop a method for assessing marital problem solving content. Married individuals (N=36) completed a demographic information sheet, the Dyadic…
Personal Problem-Solving Activities of Black University Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reeder, Bonita Lynne; Heppner, P. Paul
1985-01-01
Examined personal problem solving activities of Black undergraduates (N=84) using three measures: Problem Solving Inventory; Level of Problem Solving Skills Estimate Form; and Ways of Coping Scale. Results indicated no racial (Black versus White) or geographic (urban versus rural) differences in responses. (BL)
Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning
John Sweller
1988-01-01
Considerable evidence indicates that domain specific knowledge in the form of schemes is the primary factor distinguishing experts from novices in problem- solving skill. Evidence that conventional problem-solving activity is not effective in schema acquisition is also accumulating. It is suggested that a major reason for the ineffectiveness of problem solving as a learning device, is that the cognitive processes
Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne
2012-01-01
The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…
PROBLEM-SOLVING REQUEST FORM CLASSIFIED BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY
Barrash, Warren
PROBLEM-SOLVING REQUEST FORM CLASSIFIED BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY Reference BSU Policy 5550-C.F.2;DEAN / DEPARTMENT DIRECTOR'S RESPONSE Problem Solving Request Classified Reference BSU Policy 5550-C/Director, Provost/VP, Employee #12;PROVOST / VICE-PRESIDENT'S FINAL DECISION Problem Solving Request Classified
Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.
2005-01-01
Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…
Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William
2005-01-01
Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…
On the Analysis of Two-Person Problem Solving Protocols.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
Methodological issues in the use of protocol analysis for research into human problem solving processes are examined through a case study in which two students were videotaped as they worked together to solve mathematical problems "out loud." The students' chosen strategic or executive behavior in examining and solving a problem was studied,…
The Integration Of TRIZ Problem Solving Techniques With Other Problem Solving And Assessment Tools
Jack Hipple
TRIZ, as a problem-solving process, is seldom used or brought into an organization in a vacuum. There is almost always an existing structure of tools and processes in use into which TRIZ enters. TRIZ can be brought into an organization as a replacement, or in collaboration with the most commonly used innovation and creativity tools in use such as Creative
Young children's analogical problem solving: gaining insights from video displays.
Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S
2013-12-01
This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. The sample of 2- and 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older, but not younger, toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video and spontaneously transferred the strategy to solve isomorphic problems. Transfer by analogy from the video was evident only when the video illustrated the complete problem goal structure, including the character's intention and the action needed to achieve a goal. The same action isolated from the problem-solving context did not serve as an effective source analogue. These results illuminate the development of early representation and processes involved in analogical problem solving. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:24077465
Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja
2014-01-01
In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.
The Problem-Solving Power of Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sacks, Ariel
2013-01-01
Risk takers of all kinds have joined the effort to find new and better ways to structure nearly every aspect of teaching and learning. But as teacher leader and blogger Ariel Sacks notes, "Sadly, most of the experiments in education reform come from the imaginations of people who don't actually teach children." Top-down experiments…
A Distributed Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for Scientific Computing
Shigeo Kawata; Hideaki Fuju; Hideaki Sugiura; Yuichi Saitoh; Yoshikazu Hayase; Takayuki Teramoto; Takashi Kikuchi
2005-01-01
A distributed Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is proposed to help users solve partial differential equation (PDE) based problems in scientific computing. The system inputs a problem description and outputs a program flow, a C-language source code for the problem and also a document for the program. Each module is distributed on distributed computers. The PSE contains all the information of
Cognitive Variables in Problem Solving in Chemistry: A Revisited Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Kam-Wah Lucille; And Others
1996-01-01
Presents results from Singaporean and Australian studies on the relationships between the cognitive variables and problem solving performance in three electrochemistry problems of different degrees of familiarity for comparisons. Concludes that idea association, problem translating skill, prior problem solving experience, specific knowledge, and…
Comparison of Recent Engineering Problem-Solving Models
E. E. Anderson; R. Taraban
Models of the cognitions used by engineering students to solve problems have always been a part of engineering education. Many, such as the engineering mechanics model (select free-body, draw vector diagram, write equilibrium equations, and solve equilibrium equations), have been part of the introduction of students to engineering topics for a long time. More recently, student problem-solving processes are being
A New Method for Solving Hard Satisfiability Problems
Bart Selman; Hector J. Levesque; David G. Mitchell
1992-01-01
We introduce a greedy local search procedure called GSAT for solving propositional satisfiability problems.Our experiments show that this procedure can be used to solve hard, randomly generated problems that are an order of magnitude larger than those that can be handled by more traditional approaches such as the Davis-Putnam procedure or resolution. We also show that GSAT can solve structured
Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.
Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John
2014-09-01
Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge. PMID:25000309
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yeotis, Catherine; Hosticka, Alice
1980-01-01
Described is a three-phase model for teaching problem solving to the middle school student. Phases include cue attendance, thinking aloud, and developing diagrams of steps to solutions. Because middle school students are in a transitional period in their cognitive processes, implementation of problem solving skills seems appropriate. (Author/DS)
An Assessment of Problem Solving Processes in Undergraduate Statics
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Four well-articulated models that offer structured approaches to problem solving were identified in the engineering research literature. These models provided a conceptual base for the study reported here. Four undergraduates enrolled in statics and two engineering faculty members provided think-aloud data as they solved two statics problems. The data were used to develop a coding system for characterizing engineering students behavioral and cognitive processes. These codes were used to analyze students problem solving procedures in a detailed manner, particularly differences between good and not-so-good problem solvers. The analyses provide a picture of how students and faculty solve problems at a cognitive level, and indicate that published problem-solving models are incomplete in describing actual problem-solving processes.
High school students' problem-solving performance on realistic genetics problems
Susie Johnston Slack; Jim Stewart
1990-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as a valuable educational experience in science. Thus genetics, essentially a problem-solving science included in almost all high school biology courses, offers a fruitful area for studying student problem-solving performance. The research reported in this article describes the performance of 30 high school students solving 119 problems generated by the computer program GENETICS CONSTRUCTION KIT (Jungck
Wikispaces (Wikis) and Group Problem Solving (GPS) sessions in Physics classes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohottala, Hashini
2013-03-01
We report the combine use of Wikispaces (Wikis) and Group Problem Solving (GPS) sessions conducted in the introductory level and upper level physics classes. This method gradually evolved from the combine use of Wikis and Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) practiced over the past years. As a part of this new teaching method, some essay type problems, parallel to the chapter in discussion, were posted on the Wikis at the beginning of each week and students were encouraged to visit the pages and do the work without providing numerical final answers but the steps. At the end of each week students were evaluated on the problem solving skills opening up more opportunity for peer interaction by putting them into small groups and letting them solve one selected problem. A class of 30 students is divided into 6 groups and as a whole four lengthy essay problems are discussed - each group is given to solve one problem. The problem numbers are drawn in a raffle and the groups are excited to find out what they get each week. The required skills to solve a problem are gained from the weekly given Wiki exercises. Wiki provides a user-friendly platform to make this effort a success. GPS sessions help the professor identify the failing students earlier and help them before it's too late.
The interparental relationship and family problem solving with preadolescent males.
Vuchinich, S; Vuchinich, R; Wood, B
1993-10-01
This study examines associations between the quality of the interparental relationship and how well 68 family triads (mother, father, preadolescent son) solved salient problems which arose at home. Four aspects of the interparental relationship (marital satisfaction, parental agreement, conflict during family problem solving, and parental coalitions) were included in a regression analysis which controlled for family structure and child externalizing. A longitudinal design assessed families when mean child age was 9.7 years and 2 years later. Parental agreement consistently facilitated family problem solving. However, strong parental coalitions inhibited family problem solving, which may be attributed to frustrated autonomy needs of preadolescent males in response to the parental coalition. Stepfamilies had less effective problem solving at Time 1. The results confirm the benefits of parental agreement to child outcomes via enhanced family problem solving but show a reverse effect when agreement occurs in the context of coalitions against a preadolescent son. PMID:8222879
Promoting Reasoned Argumentation, Problem-Solving and Learning during Small-Group Work
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gillies, Robyn M.; Khan, Asaduzzaman
2009-01-01
Teaching children to ask and answer questions is critically important if they are to engage in reasoned argumentation, problem-solving and learning. This study describes how teachers can be taught to challenge children's cognitive and metacognitive thinking during cooperative learning and the affect this has on children's discourse and follow-up…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smeets, Paul M.; And Others
1984-01-01
The study evaluated an errorless procedure for teaching nine educable mentally retarded students to solve missing minuend problems. Seven Ss acquired the target skill in a nearly errorless fashion in 75 to 172 minutes of individual training time. The other Ss required programatic alterations. (Author/CL)
ASIT--A Problem Solving Strategy for Education and Eco-Friendly Sustainable Design
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turner, Steve
2009-01-01
There is growing recognition of the role teaching and learning experiences in technology education can contribute to Education for Sustainable Development. It appears, however, that in the Technology Education classroom little or no change has been achieved to the practice of designing and problem solving strategies oriented towards sustainable…
Effects of the TIP Strategy on Problem Solving Skills of Young Adults with Intellectual Disability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Lucas, Kristin G.; Therrien, William J.
2015-01-01
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching a three-step cognitive strategy (TIP) using the schema broadening procedures on functional mathematical problem solving skills of young adults with intellectual disability (ID). We randomly assigned 14 learners with ID to the control and experimental group before the…
Write Is Right: Using Graphic Organizers to Improve Student Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zollman, Alan
2012-01-01
Teachers have used graphic organizers successfully in teaching the writing process. This paper describes graphic organizers and their potential mathematics benefits for both students and teachers, elucidates a specific graphic organizer adaptation for mathematical problem solving, and discusses results using the "four-corners-and-a-diamond"…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hirschy, Sharon Thompson
2008-01-01
Offering training to promote positive change seems easy, but getting teachers to implement real change in their classrooms is not. Many administrators are using action research--which many teachers use to improve teaching--to address training issues and to facilitate problem solving. In this article, the author shares her experience with using…
Solving quadratic programming problems with linear Hopfield networks
Evgeny Dudnikov
2001-01-01
We consider a linear Hopfield network for solving quadratic programming problems with equation constraints. The problem is reduced to the solution of ordinary linear differential equations with arbitrary square matrix. Because of some properties of this matrix special methods are required for good convergence of the system. After some comparative studies of neural network models for solving this problem we
Theory of Constructions and Set in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greeno, James G.; And Others
Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning knowledge, is described. Perdix' planning knowledge enables it to augment the problem space it is given by constructing auxiliary lines. The planning system also…
Creative problem-solving: an approach to generating ideas.
Tomas, S
1999-05-01
An excellent starting point for exercising creativity is the area of problem solving. With a bag of creative problem solving tools and techniques, problems will no longer represent setbacks but instead, opportunities to introduce innovations that will support the company's initiative of continuous improvement. PMID:10387779
Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pescetti, D.
2008-01-01
The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…
A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.
2003-01-01
Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)
Feasibility of a Web-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schacter, John; And Others
This feasibility study explored the automated data collection, scoring, and reporting of children's complex problem-solving processes and performance in Web-based information-rich environments. Problem solving was studied using realistic problems in realistic contexts demanding multiple cognitive processes in the domain of environmental science.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ng, Connie S. L.; Tan, Charlene
2006-01-01
Background: Solving ill-structured problems is an important aspect in many professions, including the teaching profession. It is therefore appropriate to engage pre-service teachers in solving ill-structured problems. Aim: This study investigates the ill-structured problem-solving processes in an un-moderated asynchronous discussion for one group…
Beyond the Problem-Solving Approach to Sustainable Rural Development
Ann Braun
The tacit mental models of many research and development institutions dedicated to sustainable rural development is that they exist to solve development problems. This has led to a diagnostic and often reactive problem-solving mode of action, and to a culture of trouble-shooting experts who develop solutions. When practiced exclusively, the problem-solving mode is self-limiting because the energy that could create
SOLVING CURVED DETONATION RIEMANN PROBLEMS Bruce Bukiet
Bukiet, Bruce
the one parameter family of behind states comprising the burned Hugoniot and wave curves. For curved and show how the curved detonation jump conditions can be solved to compute the curved detonation Hugoniot
Rhetorical Problem Solving: Cognition and Professional Writing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flower, Linda
The task of teaching writing to students in business, engineering, design, computer science, accounting, and other professional areas raises the question of what knowledge the writers call upon to create a rhetorically effective writing plan. Research suggests three plausible answers: their knowledge of schemata, the structure of their topic…
Teaching Computer Science through Problems, Not Solutions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fee, Samuel B.; Holland-Minkley, Amanda M.
2010-01-01
Regardless of the course topic, every instructor in a computing field endeavors to engage their students in deep problem-solving and critical thinking. One of the specific learning outcomes throughout our computer science curriculum is the development of independent, capable problem solving--and we believe good pedagogy can bring such about. Our…
A Decision Support System for Solving Multiple Criteria Optimization Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Filatovas, Ernestas; Kurasova, Olga
2011-01-01
In this paper, multiple criteria optimization has been investigated. A new decision support system (DSS) has been developed for interactive solving of multiple criteria optimization problems (MOPs). The weighted-sum (WS) approach is implemented to solve the MOPs. The MOPs are solved by selecting different weight coefficient values for the criteria…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zuckerman, June T.
Various researchers have associated meaningful problem solving with methods guided directly by a conceptual knowledge base. By contast, a meaningless solving course, or sequence of operations, is essentially independent of the solver's conceptual understanding of the problem under consideration. This paper is the first to document a meaningless,…
Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social Contextual Information
Jennifer Jie Xu; G. Alan Wang; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau
2007-01-01
Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime
Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social
Jennifer Xu; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau
Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime
Introduction to algorithms and problem solving
Michael L. Nelson; David Rice
2000-01-01
Language and paradigm choice for teaching computer programming is an on-going debate. We have been using Visual Basic for the introductory course and C++ for the advanced course. Unfortunately, many of our students struggle in the introductory course. We are currently re-engineering our degree. While our introductory course should ideally be language-independent, we feel that students will gain a better
A Singular Function: A Problem-Solving Parable.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vanden Bosch, Peter
1997-01-01
Presents a scenario in which two people solve a programming problem by discussing various number sequences and functions. The problem is redefined as one related to number theory and operations research. (DDR)
POLYA PROBLEM-SOLVING SEMINAR WEEK 7: MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS, AND PROBLEM-SOLVING
Vakil, Ravi
't be afraid of a little algebra. Sleep on it if need be. Ask. The Problems. 1. Let f(n) be the number N be the set of positive integers. Define f on n by f(1) = 1, f(2n) = f(n) and f(2n + 1) = f(n) + 1
Solving Multiobjective Optimization Problems using Evolutionary Algorithm
Coello, Carlos A. Coello
. Abbass, and Charles Newton School of Computer Science, University of New South Wales, ADFA Campus to be useful for solving MOPs (Zitzler and Thiele 1999). EAs have some advantages over traditional results when compared with the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA) (Zitzler and Thiele 1999
Tucson Teachers' Circle Mathematical Problem Solving
Zakharov, Vladimir
in the standard school curriculum. These sessions stimulated interest in mathematics and helped students compete the ideas. The American Institute of Mathematics continues to support the training of new teams to create solving related to the night's theme. Rich mathematical discussions ensue as teachers explore new ideas
Trends in problem-solving research - Twelve recently described tasks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coates, G. D.; Alluisi, E. A.; Morgan, B. B., Jr.
1971-01-01
Review of descriptions of the 12 problem-solving tasks developed since the last review (Ray, 1955) of this topic, indicating that the newer tasks are more sophisticated in design and provide for better experimental control than those used prior to 1953. Validity, reliability, sensitivity, trainability, problem structure, and problem difficulty are discussed as criteria for the selection of tasks to be used in studies of skilled problem-solving performance.
Dancing With Demons: Pathogenic Problem Solving
Kathleen S. Long
This paper explores the way in which we define and deal with social problems such as crime and proposes a new way of thinking about them. Criminality, poverty, illiteracy, addiction and child abuse are some of society's most acute and intractable problems. Despite countless attempted remedies, these complex social problems have continued to grow around the world. Although we have
Solving Employee Timetabling Problems Using Boolean Satisfiability
Fadi Aloul; Bashar Al-Rawi; Anas Al-Farra; Basel Al-Roh
2006-01-01
The employee timetabling problem (ETP) is concerned with assigning a number of employees into a given set of shifts over a fixed period of time, e.g. a week, while meeting the employee's preferences and organizational work regulations. The problem also attempts to optimize the performance criteria and distribute the shifts equally among the employees. The problem is considered a classical
Problem solving in Chinese mathematics education: research and practice
Jinfa Cai; Bikai Nie
2007-01-01
This paper is an attempt to paint a picture of problem solving in Chinese mathematics education, where problem solving has been viewed both as an instructional goal and as an instructional approach. In discussing prob- lem-solving research from four perspectives, it is found that the research in China has been much more content and experience-based than cognitive and empirical-based. We
Exploiting grid computation for solving the Vehicle Routing Problem
Fabian Lecron; Pierre Manneback; Daniel Tuyttens
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to solve the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW) on Grid'5000 using the ParadisEO framework. In this respect, four packages developed in ParadisEO are exploited. First, EO package (Evolving Objects) is used to create an evolutionary algorithm to solve the mono-objective CVRPTW. Then, a related multi-objective problem is solved with MOEO package
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayden, H. Emily; Chiu, Ming Ming
2015-01-01
We explore development of elementary preservice teachers' reflective practices as they solved problems encountered while teaching in a reading clinic. Written reflections (N = 175) were collected across 8 weeks from 23 preservice teachers and analyzed to investigate relationships among problem exploration, teaching adaptations, and problem…
Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Problem-Solving Intervention
Jane Drummond; Darcy Fleming; Linda Mcdonald; Gerard M. Kysela
2005-01-01
Adaptive problem solving contributes to individual and family health and development. In this article, the effect of the cooperative family learning approach (CFLA) on group family problem solving and on cooperative parenting communication is described. A pretest or posttest experimental design was used. Participant families were recruited from Head Start programs and exhibited two or more risk factors. Participant preschool
Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wagner, Susan Preston
1998-01-01
Examined whether use of robotics had a greater effect on elementary school children's achievement in science concepts and problem-solving abilities than use of battery-powered motorized manipulatives or no manipulatives. Found no significant difference in achievement from use of robotics except in programming language problem solving. Both…
Solving quadratic programming problems with linear Hopfield networks
Evgeny Dudnikov
2003-01-01
We consider a linear Hopfield network for solving quadratic programming problems with equation constraints. The problem is reduced to the solution of the ordinary linear differential equations with arbitrary square matrix. Because of some properties of this matrix the special methods are required for good convergence of the system. After some comparative study of neural network models for solving this
Understanding students' poor performance on mathematical problem solving in physics
Understanding students' poor performance on mathematical problem solving in physics Jonathan introductory, algebra-based physics students perform poorly on mathematical problem solving tasks in physics. There are at least two possible, distinct reasons for this poor performance: (1) Students lack the mathematical
An ESD Computer Culture for Intercultural Problem Solving and Negotiation
Melvin F. Shakun
1999-01-01
Intercultural problem solving and negotiation involves interaction of two or more cultures. These processes may be formally modeled using the Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD) framework implemented by appropriate computer group support systems (GSS). The ESD\\/GSS combination provides an ESD computer culture for intercultural problem solving and negotiation in a same place\\/same time or telework mode. With this, players in a
Crafting Rules: Context-Reflective Data Quality Problem Solving
Yang W. Lee
2004-01-01
Motivated by the growing importance of data quality in data-intensive, global business environments and by burgeoning data quality activities, this study builds a conceptual model of data quality problem solving. The study analyzes data quality activities at five organizations via a five-year longitudinal study. The study finds that experienced practitioners solve data quality problems by re- flecting on and explicating
A Descriptive Model of Information Problem Solving while Using Internet
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber
2009-01-01
This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth analyses…
The Effects of Iliad on Medical Student Problem Solving
Turner, Charles W.; Williamson, John; Lincoln, Michael J.; Haug, Peter J.; Buchanan, James; Anderson, Curtis; Grant, Morgan; Cundick, Robert; Warner, Homer R.
1990-01-01
The present study examined the effects of the Iliad expert system on diagnostic problem solving of third-year (n = 97) medical students. Students used Iliad to work-up simulated cases to supplement the education they received in their medicine clerkship. The results of the research provided evidence that the Iliad expert system did improve student diagnostic problem solving and decision making.
Assessing Creative Problem-Solving with Automated Text Grading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Hao-Chuan; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Tsai-Yen
2008-01-01
The work aims to improve the assessment of creative problem-solving in science education by employing language technologies and computational-statistical machine learning methods to grade students' natural language responses automatically. To evaluate constructs like creative problem-solving with validity, open-ended questions that elicit…
Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others
1997-01-01
Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…
Problem Solving: Getting to the Heart of Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jarrett, Denise, Ed.
2000-01-01
This publication features articles that illustrate how several Northwest teachers are using problem solving to achieve rigorous and imaginative learning in their classrooms. Articles include: (1) "Open-Ended Problem Solving: Weaving a Web of Ideas" (Denise Jarrett); (2) "Teenager or Tyke, Students Learn Best by Tackling Challenging Math" (Suzie…
Connectedness Indicators and the Prediction of Problem Solving Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yu-Shattuck, Sharon X.
2009-01-01
In this study, it was hypothesized that problem solving success is dependent upon two related but district types of mathematical knowledge, content indicators and connectedness indicators. Results did indeed display that the problem solving success of 188 undergraduate students was related to these two indicators. The correlations of content…
Introducing Problem Solving through Literature at the Elementary Level
Peg Harbert
1989-01-01
There has been much publicity the past few years, regarding students' lack of basic skills, their inability to think clearly, and their poor use of problem solving strategies. To focus on this need, the following program has been designed to help elementary teachers introduce problem solving in an organized manner adding very little, if any extra material to the curriculum.
High school students' understanding and problem solving in population genetics
Patti D. Soderberg
2005-01-01
This study is an investigation of student understanding of population genetics and how students developed, used and revised conceptual models to solve problems. The students in this study participated in three rounds of problem solving. The first round involved the use of a population genetics model to predict the number of carriers in a population. The second round required them
Solving the Course Timetabling Problem with a Hybrid Heuristic Algorithm
Hao, Jin-Kao
known results on two problem formulations. Keywords: Timetabling, hybrid heuristic, tabu searchSolving the Course Timetabling Problem with a Hybrid Heuristic Algorithm Zhipeng L¨u1,2 and Jin, iterated local search, constraint solving. 1 Introduction In recent decades, timetabling has become an area
A Longitudinal Study of Database-Assisted Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wildemuth, Barbara M.; Friedman, Charles P.; Keyes, John; Downs, Stephen M.
2000-01-01
Examines the effects of database assistance on clinical problem solving across three cohorts of medical students and two database interfaces. Discusses the relationship between personal domain knowledge and problem solving, personal domain knowledge and database searching, and comparisons of different interface styles in information retrieval…
Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna
2007-01-01
Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…
Formalizing the Cooperative Problem Solving Process Michael J. Wooldridge
Woolridge, Mike
Formalizing the Cooperative Problem Solving Process Michael J. Wooldridge Dept. of Computing research is to build systems that are capable of cooperative problem solving. To this end, a number process: no mathematical model of the entire process has yet been de scribed. In this paper, we rectify
Problem solving within professional services: evidence from the medical field
Elina Jaakkola; Aino Halinen
2006-01-01
Purpose – To test the validity of the presumed characteristics of professional services by studying their manifestation in the problem solving that occurs in service production. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses medical research as secondary data to study the existence of associations between the presumed characteristics of professional services and problem solving in the medical context. A systematic review of
A Semantic-Linguistic Method of Solving Verbal Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoggard, Franklin R.
1987-01-01
Suggests a method for solving verbal problems in chemistry using a linguistic algorithm that is partly adapted from two artificial intelligence languages. Provides examples of problems solved using the mental concepts of translation, rotation, mirror image symmetry, superpositioning, disjoininng, and conjoining. (TW)
A Markov Model Analysis of Problem-Solving Progress.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vendlinski, Terry
This study used a computerized simulation and problem-solving tool along with artificial neural networks (ANN) as pattern recognizers to identify the common types of strategies high school and college undergraduate chemistry students would use to solve qualitative chemistry problems. Participants were 134 high school chemistry students who used…
A Review of Problem Solving Capabilities in Lean Process Management
A. P. Puvanasvaran; S. H. Tang; M. R Muhamad; A. M. S. Hamouda
Human factor plays an important role in ensuring lean process management to be successful and provides good proposition for the success of the organization in the long run. One of the main elements of people is their problem solving capability in identifying and eliminating wastages. The purpose of this paper was to review problem solving capabilities in lean process management;
Engineering students' experiences and perceptions of workplace problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Rui
In this study, I interviewed 22 engineering Co-Op students about their workplace problem solving experiences and reflections and explored: 1) Of Co-Op students who experienced workplace problem solving, what are the different ways in which students experience workplace problem solving? 2) How do students perceive a) the differences between workplace problem solving and classroom problem solving and b) in what areas are they prepared by their college education to solve workplace problems? To answer my first research question, I analyzed data through the lens of phenomenography and I conducted thematic analysis to answer my second research question. The results of this study have implications for engineering education and engineering practice. Specifically, the results reveal the different ways students experience workplace problem solving, which provide engineering educators and practicing engineers a better understanding of the nature of workplace engineering. In addition, the results indicate that there is still a gap between classroom engineering and workplace engineering. For engineering educators who aspire to prepare students to be future engineers, it is imperative to design problem solving experiences that can better prepare students with workplace competency.
New Testing Methods to Assess Technical Problem-Solving Ability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hambleton, Ronald K.; And Others
Tests to assess problem-solving ability being provided for the Air Force are described, and some details on the development and validation of these computer-administered diagnostic achievement tests are discussed. Three measurement approaches were employed: (1) sequential problem solving; (2) context-free assessment of fundamental skills and…
Investigating students' confidence in programming and problem solving
Johan Eliasson; Lena Kallin Westin; Marie Nordström
2006-01-01
Many students feel insecure making their first attempts to solve programming problems. Despite finishing the introductory programming course successfully, these students refrain from pursuing their CS studies. Hence, this aversion towards problem solving and programming is not fully explained by lack of subject understanding and performance. In order to better understand the components of students' comfort, a first attempt to
Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie
2010-01-01
We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…
Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.
2012-01-01
Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…
An Approach to Simulate Understanding Student Problem-Solving Behavior.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Z. W.; Willoughby, T. L.
1991-01-01
This paper describes a method of understanding student problem-solving behavior during computer-assisted instruction using trigonometry as the example domain. Instead of attempting to model the student's process for solving problems, techniques which infer the equivalence between two adjacent steps in the student's process are used to determine…
Using Sentence and Picture Clues to Solve Verbal Insight Problems
Patricia M. Schwert
2007-01-01
Pictures and sentences, designed to be equivalent in information content, were compared as clues for solving verbal insight problems. Solving insight problems may require creative thinking because a novel approach is required for their solution. A 2 (test condition: informed, uninformed) × 3 (clue type: picture, sentence, unrelated) between and within-subjects design was used. Participants (N = 144) completed, in order: an information acquisition
Treatment of problem solving in Alzheimer's disease: A short report
Robert C. Marshall; Gilson J. Capilouto; Jennifer M. McBride
2007-01-01
Background: Treatments to help persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) improve and\\/or compensate for deteriorating functional abilities have largely focused on cognitive rather than executive functions. Problem solving is an executive function integral to most activities of daily living that is compromised by AD. Successful treatment of problem?solving deficits in persons with AD could potentially increase the amount of time a
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Leader's Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jung, Charles; And Others
This manual is to be used by leaders of RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops for school or district administrators. The workshop's goal is for administrators to develop problem solving skills by using the RUPS simulation situations in a teamwork setting. Although workshop leaders should be familiar with the RUPS materials and…
Does Incubation Enhance Problem Solving? A Meta-Analytic Review
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sio, Ut Na; Ormerod, Thomas C.
2009-01-01
A meta-analytic review of empirical studies that have investigated incubation effects on problem solving is reported. Although some researchers have reported increased solution rates after an incubation period (i.e., a period of time in which a problem is set aside prior to further attempts to solve), others have failed to find effects. The…
Word Problem Structure and Its Effect on the Transfer of Learning to Solve Algebra Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chang, Kuo-Liang
2010-01-01
A problem in learning to solve mathematics word problems students have been facing is to transfer the learned problem-solving knowledge from one story context to another story context. Some studies have provided evidence showing that structure facilitates transfer of learning to solve word problems. However, it is still under development for what…
Effects of subliminal hints on insight problem solving.
Hattori, Masasi; Sloman, Steven A; Orita, Ryo
2013-08-01
Two experiments tested a total of 509 participants on insight problems (the radiation problem and the nine-dot problem). Half of the participants were first exposed to a 1-min movie that included a subliminal hint. The hint raised the solution rate of people who did not recognize it. In addition, the way they solved the problem was affected by the hint. In Experiment 3, a novel technique was introduced to address some methodological concerns raised by Experiments 1 and 2. A total of 80 participants solved the 10-coin problem, and half of them were exposed to a subliminal hint. The hint facilitated solving the problem, and it shortened the solution time. Some implications of subliminal priming for research on and theorizing about insight problem solving are discussed. PMID:23392651
K-5 Standards for Mathematical Practice - 1.Make Sense of Problems and Persevere in Solving Them
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-01-01
This 11-minute Flash presentation explains CCSS Mathematical Practice 61and illustrates how it applies in the K-5 classroom. It addresses Implications for classroom instruction such as the need to build vocabulary and comprehension skills, to teach a problem solving process and the need to try a new strategy if the first or second doesn't work the first time. Practical strategies for implementation and sample problems are included. A transcript of the audio is available for download (PDF).
Solving Random Satisfiability Problems with Quantum Computers
Tad Hogg
2001-04-09
Quantum computer algorithms can exploit the structure of random satisfiability problems. This paper extends a previous empirical evaluation of such an algorithm and gives an approximate asymptotic analysis accounting for both the average and variation of amplitudes among search states with the same costs. The analysis predicts good performance, on average, for a variety of problems including those near a phase transition associated with a high concentration of hard cases. Based on empirical evaluation for small problems, modifying the algorithm in light of this analysis improves its performance. The algorithm improves on both GSAT, a commonly used conventional heuristic, and quantum algorithms ignoring problem structure.
Problems in teaching family therapy
Rodney J. Shapiro
1975-01-01
Discusses the increasing recognition of the importance of family therapy as part of the training in departments of psychiatry and clinical psychology. It is argued, however, that the differences between family therapy and traditional psychotherapy have to be taken into account when teaching the theoretical assumptions and techniques of this modality; therapists must shift the focus of attention from the
Solving a Problem With or Without a Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Pei
2013-01-01
To solve a problem, an ordinary computer system executes an existing program. When no such program is available, an AGI system may still be able to solve a concrete problem instance. This paper introduces a new approach to do so in a reasoning system that adapts to its environment and works with insuffcient knowledge and resources. The related approaches are compared, and several conceptual issues are analyzed. It is concluded that an AGI system can solve a problem with or without a problem-specific program, and therefore can have human-like creativity and exibility.
Algorithm for Solving the School Timetabling Problem
D. Abramson; J. Abela
Genetic algorithms (GA) have been applied to a number of optimisation problems with some success (1). The algorithms mimic the process of natural selection, with the effect of creating a number of potentially optimal solutions to some complex search problem. One of the major disadvantages of genetic algorithms is that they are very slow. In this paper we discuss the
Modelling and Solving Employee Timetabling Problems
Amnon Meisels; Andrea Schaerf
2003-01-01
Employee timetabling is the operation of assigning employees to tasks in a set of shifts during a fixed period of time, typically a week. We present a general definition of employee timetabling problems (ETPs) that captures many real-world problem formulations and includes complex constraints. The proposed model of ETPs can be represented in a tabular form that is both intuitive
Solving Domination Problems with Mathematical Programming
van der Torre, Leon
of optimization problems 4 Why these problems? Dominating Sets (DS) and its variants Connected Dominating Sets, they are often used to create virtual backbones Why this approach? #12;Definition: Dominating Set 5 A Dominating one member of D by some edge. Dominators Dominatees #12;Definition: Dominating Set 5 A Dominating Set
Personal Problem Solving: A Descriptive Study of Individual Differences.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heppner, P. Paul; And Others
1982-01-01
Examined differences between students who perceived themselves as "successful" and "unsuccessful" problem solvers. Results revealed "successful" and "unsuccessful" problem solvers differed in number of problems acknowledged, on self-report ratings about the personal problem solving process, and on ratings made by interviewers on several cognitive…
Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems Stefano Bistarelli1
Rossi, Francesca
Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems Stefano Bistarelli1 , Maria Silvia Pini2 with both positive and negative preferences, that we call bipolar problems. Although seemingly specular with bipolar problems. 1 Introduction Many real-life problems contain statements which can be expressed
D. Akay; A. Dem?ray; M. Kurt
2008-01-01
In this study an analysis is made regarding the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Technique (TRIZ), which emerged in Russia in 1946 and has been commonly used in the USA and Europe in the past few last decades. TRIZ is a method that is used successfully to solve the problems arising during the process of product development. Within this study
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Ernest Valveny1 Miquel Ferrer1 Centre de Visió per Computador, Dep (Barcelona), Spain {ernest,mferrer@cvc.uab.cat} Résumé : Graphs have very interesting properties for ob- ject
Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu Ryan, Qing
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.
When the solution is part of the problem: problem solving in elderly suicide attempters
Gibbs, Lawrence M.; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Morse, Jennifer; Siegle, Greg J.; Houck, Patricia R.; Szanto, Katalin
2011-01-01
SUMMARY Objectives Depression, loss, and physical illness are associated with suicide in the elderly. However, the nature of individual vulnerability remains poorly understood. Poor problem solving has been suggested as a risk factor for suicide in younger adults. Unresolved problems may create an accumulation of stressors. Thus, those with perceived deficits in problem-solving ability may be predisposed to suicidal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether elderly suicide attempters perceived their problem solving as deficient. Methods Sixty-four individuals aged 60 and older participated in the study including depressed suicide attempters, depressed non-attempters, and non-depressed controls. The social problem solving inventory-revised: short-version was used to measure participants' perceived social problem solving, assessing both adaptive problem-solving dimensions (positive problem orientation and rational problem solving) and dysfunctional dimensions (negative problem orientation, impulsivity/carelessness, and avoidance). Results Depressed elderly who had attempted suicide perceived their overall problem solving as deficient, compared to non-suicidal depressed and non-depressed elderly. Suicide attempters perceived their problems more negatively and approached them in a more impulsive manner. On rational problem solving and avoidant style sub-scales, suicide attempters did not differ from non-suicidal depressed. However, both depressed groups reported lower rational problem solving and higher avoidance compared to non-depressed controls. Conclusions A perception of life problems as threatening and unsolvable and an impulsive approach to problem solving appear to predispose vulnerable elderly to suicide attempts. PMID:19405045
Real-Life-Type Problem-Solving in Asperger's Syndrome
Shelley Channon; Tony Charman; Jane Heap; Sarah Crawford; Patricia Rios
2001-01-01
This study compared adolescents with Asperger's syndrome with typically developing adolescents on a novel problem-solving task that presented videotaped scenarios in real-life-type social contexts. The Asperger's group was impaired in several aspects of problem-solving, including recounting the pertinent facts, generating possible high-quality problem solutions, and selecting optimal and preferred solutions. This group's solutions differed most from those of the typically
An Algorithm for Solving the Job-Shop Problem
J. Carlier; E. Pinson
1989-01-01
In this paper, we propose a branch and bound method for solving the job-shop problem. It is based on one-machine scheduling problems and is made more efficient by several propositions which limit the search tree by using immediate selections. It solved for the first time the famous 10 \\\\times 10 job-shop problem proposed by Muth and Thompson in 1963.
Identifying, analysing and solving problems in practice.
Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui
When a problem is identified in practice, it is important to clarify exactly what it is and establish the cause before seeking a solution. This solution-seeking process should include input from those directly involved in the problematic situation, to enable individuals to contribute their perspective, appreciate why any change in practice is necessary and what will be achieved by the change. This article describes some approaches to identifying and analysing problems in practice so that effective solutions can be devised. It includes a case study and examples of how the Five Whys analysis, fishbone diagram, problem tree analysis, and Seven-S Model can be used to analyse a problem. PMID:22848969
Problem Solving in the Chemistry Laboratory
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Adam Wolfer
2002-02-01
In a pilot project implemented at the University of Kansas, a team of instructors from the education and chemistry departments modified the introductory chemistry laboratory curriculum to center on problem-based inquiry learning units. The new laboratory
An amoeboid algorithm for solving linear transportation problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Cai; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zili; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong
2014-03-01
Transportation Problem (TP) is one of the basic operational research problems, which plays an important role in many practical applications. In this paper, a bio-inspired mathematical model is proposed to handle the Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) in directed networks by modifying the original amoeba model Physarum Solver. Several examples are used to prove that the provided model can effectively solve Balanced Transportation Problem (BTP), Unbalanced Transportation Problem (UTP), especially the Generalized Transportation Problem (GTP), in a nondiscrete way.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bray, Lynne M.
In this project, a plan for solving word problems based on the students' level of development was developed. A 10-week implementation of a plan for solving word problems at the concrete level of development included the use of a flow chart or plan to map out and solve word problems. Students then used the flow chart and manipulatives to develop…
Visual Attention Modulates Insight Versus Analytic Solving of Verbal Problems
Wegbreit, Ezra; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark
2013-01-01
Behavioral and neuroimaging findings indicate that distinct cognitive and neural processes underlie solving problems with sudden insight. Moreover, people with less focused attention sometimes perform better on tests of insight and creative problem solving. However, it remains unclear whether different states of attention, within individuals, influence the likelihood of solving problems with insight or with analysis. In this experiment, participants (N = 40) performed a baseline block of verbal problems, then performed one of two visual tasks, each emphasizing a distinct aspect of visual attention, followed by a second block of verbal problems to assess change in performance. After participants engaged in a center-focused flanker task requiring relatively focused visual attention, they reported solving more verbal problems with analytic processing. In contrast, after participants engaged in a rapid object identification task requiring attention to broad space and weak associations, they reported solving more verbal problems with insight. These results suggest that general attention mechanisms influence both visual attention task performance and verbal problem solving. PMID:24459538
SOLVING MIXED INTEGER BILINEAR PROBLEMS USING MILP ...
2013-01-29
†School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. ...... credence to our primary motivation for this study: that on certain class of problems, ... [7] P. Belotti, Couenne: a user's manual, June 2012. .... disjunctions and bilinear covering sets, Mathematical Programming, 124 (2010), pp.
Phenolic problems solved with hydrogen peroxide oxidation
E. J. Keating; R. A. Brown; E. S. Greenberg
1978-01-01
Major industrial sources of phenolic waste discharges are: insulation fiberglass manufacturing, petroleum refineries, smelting and slag operations, organic products manufacture, synthetic resin manufacture, textile mills, steel-making, paint stripping, plywood, hardboard, and wood preserving. Phenolic discharges create problems in three areas: toxicity to marine life, taste and odor disturbances, and oxygen depletion of the receiving water. Methods for analyzing phenols are
SOLVING A HYDTROTREATER FEED FILTER FOULING PROBLEM
X. A. Wu; K. H. Chung
2008-01-01
Feed filters were installed in Syncrude hydrotreater units to protect the catalyst beds from plugging by fine solids in the feed. Severe filter fouling occurred after a process flow sheet change. The root cause of fouling was revealed through a step-by-step scientific investigation. It was first confirmed that the fouling problem was related to a process flow sheet change that
Solving Various Weighted Matching Problems with Constraints
Yves Caseau; Francois Laburthe
2000-01-01
This paper studies the resolution of (augmented) weighted matching problems within a constraint programming (CP) framework. The first contribution of the paper is a set of techniques that improves substantially the performance of branch-and-bound algorithms based on constraint propagation and the second contribution is the introduction of weighted matching as a global constraint ( WeightedMatching), that can be propagated using
Solving Various Weighted Matching Problems with Constraints
Yves Caseau; François Laburthe
1997-01-01
A b s t r ac t This paper studies the resolution of (augmented) weighted matching problems within a constraint programming framework. The first contribution of the paper is a set of branch-and-bound techniques that improves substantially the performance of algorithms based on constraint propagation and the second contribution is the introduction of weighted matching as a global constraint (
Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hilton, Michael
1998-01-01
Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,…
Bodily movement as related to problem solving
A. D. Grinsted
1941-01-01
All bodily movements made by 51 undergraduate and 2 graduate students were recorded during the solution of mental problems of the type included in the average adult level of the latest revision of the Stanford-Binet scale in which the task is to specify how a given number of pints of water can be measured by means of 2 containers of
Solving the Minimum Weighted Integer Coloring Problem
Jue Xue
1998-01-01
In this paper, we present, as we are aware of, the first combinatorialalgorithm specifically designed for the minimum weighted integercoloring problem (MWIP). We test the algorithm on randomly generated graphs with integer weights uniformly drawn from intervals [1, 1], [1, 2], [1, 5], [1, 10], [1, 15], and [1, 20]. We also use theproposed algorithm to test the quality of
Solving Inverse Problems with Spectral Data
Joyce R. McLaughlin
2001-01-01
We consider a two dimensional membrane. The goal is to flnd properties of the membrane or properties of a force on the membrane. The data is natural fre- quencies or mode shape measurements. As a result, the functional relationship between the data and the solution of our inverse problem is both indirect and nonlinear. In this paper we describe three
Can AI planners solve practical problems?
David E. Wilkins
1990-01-01
While there has been recent interest in research on planning and reasoning about actions,nearly all research results have been theoretical. We know of no previous examples of aplanning system that has made a significant impact on a problem of practical importance.One of the primary goals during the development of the SIPE-2 planning system has beenthe balancing of efficiency with expressiveness
Using Ant Colony Optimization algorithm for solving project management problems
Hazem Abdallah; Hassan M. Emara; Hassan T. Dorrah; Ahmed Bahgat
2009-01-01
Network analysis provides an effective practical system for planning and controlling large projects in construction and many other fields. Ant Colony System is a recent approach used for solving path minimization problems. This paper presents the use of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) system for solving and calculating both deterministic and probabilistic CPM\\/PERT networks. The proposed method is investigated for a
Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.
2015-01-01
This study's hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of…
Use of Ontology for Solving Interoperability Problems between Enterprises
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Use of Ontology for Solving Interoperability Problems between Enterprises Hui Liu1,2 , Anne enterprises, the semantic issues are important. To date, they are more and more focused on ontology. This paper presents how to use ontology in the PBMEI method, aimed at solving enterprise interoperability
How Problem Solving Can Develop an Algebraic Perspective of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Windsor, Will
2011-01-01
SProblem solving has a long and successful history in mathematics education and is valued by many teachers as a way to engage and facilitate learning within their classrooms. The potential benefit for using problem solving in the development of algebraic thinking is that "it may broaden and develop students' mathematical thinking beyond the…
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Classroom Version. Leader's Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jung, Charles; And Others
This training manual is for teachers participating in the Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) workshops. The workshops last for four and one-half days and are designed to improve the school setting and to increase teamwork skills. The teachers participate in simulation exercises in which they help a fictitious teacher or principal solve a…
Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.
2014-01-01
Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…
Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines
Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines Yuval Emek, Tobias Langner, Jara + D) #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced by Feinerman, Korman, Lotker, Sereni [PODC 2012] = #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced
An Information-Processing Approach to Personal Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heppner, P. Paul; Krauskopf, Charles J.
1987-01-01
Presents an information processing view of personal problem solving which involves how people take in information, process information into plans for solutions to personal problems, and carry out plans. Presents a definition of "problem." Offers suggestions for research and for counseling. (Author/NB)
Working memory demands in insight versus analytic problem solving
Jessica I. Fleck
2008-01-01
Working memory is one of the cognitive processes thought to differentiate insight and analytic forms of problem solving. The present research examined memory involvement in the solution of insight versus analytic problems. Participants completed verbal and spatial working memory and short-term memory measures and a series of analytic and insight problems. Results demonstrated a relationship between working-memory capacity and the
A new method for solving a linear programming problem
Yoshihiro Yamamoto
2010-01-01
This paper presents a new method for solving a linear programming problem, which is an extended version of the one previously presented by the author. The optimal solution of a linear programming problem is composed of some inequality constraints in their equality form. Then, it is possible to recognize the problem of finding the equality constraints which constitute the optimal
Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…
On optimization techniques for solving nonlinear inverse problems
Eldad Haber; Uri M. Ascher; Doug Oldenburg
2000-01-01
This paper considers optimization techniques for the solution of nonlinear inverse problems where the forward problems, like those encountered in electromagnetics, are modelled by differential equations. Such problems are often solved by utilizing a Gauss-Newton method in which the forward model constraints are implicitly incorporated. Variants of Newton's method which use second-derivative information are rarely employed because their perceived disadvantage
A global optimization approach for solving the maximum clique problem
P. M. Pardalos; A. T. Phillips
1990-01-01
The problem of finding a maximum clique of an undirected graph is formulated and solved as a linearly constrained indefinite quadratic global optimization problem. Theoretical upper and lower bounds on the size k of the maximum clique are derived from the global optimization formulation, and a relationship between the set of distinct global maxima of the optimization problem and the
Bipolar preference problems: framework, properties and solving techniques
Rossi, Francesca
Bipolar preference problems: framework, properties and solving techniques Stefano Bistarelli1 preferences, that we call bipolar prefer- ence problems. Although seemingly specular notions, these two kinds the notion of arc consis- tency to bipolar problems, and we show how branch and bound (with or without
Integrating Computers into the Problem-Solving Process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lowther, Deborah L.; Morrison, Gary R.
2003-01-01
Asserts that within the context of problem-based learning environments, professors can encourage students to use computers as problem-solving tools. The ten-step Integrating Technology for InQuiry (NteQ) model guides professors through the process of integrating computers into problem-based learning activities. (SWM)
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Advanced Manufacturing
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2011-05-02
In this media-rich lesson plan, students learn how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, then apply what they’ve learned in activities that are based on real-world scenarios.
Solving the Material Interface Reconstruction Problem using Genetic Programming
Fernandez, Thomas
Solving the Material Interface Reconstruction Problem using Genetic Programming Jeremy Meredith-422-1197 Abstract: This paper develops enhanced material interface reconstruction techniques using genetic programming. Material interface reconstruction is the attempt to recreate high resolution material placement
Developing a Pedagogical Domain Theory of Early Algebra Problem Solving
Kenneth R. Koedinger; Benjamin A. MacLaren
We describe a theory of quantitative representations and processes that makes novel predictions about student problem-solving and learning during the transition from arithmetic to algebraic competence or \\
Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes,
Waikato, University of
Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes, and making products to improve the quality of human life and shape the economy. Mechanical engineers apply, from power stations to cars, robots and computers. The professional training mechanical engineers
Unified Particle Swarm Optimization for Solving Constrained Engineering Optimization Problems
Parsopoulos, Konstantinos
Unified Particle Swarm Optimization for Solving Constrained Engineering Optimization Problems K investigate the performance of the recently proposed Uni- fied Particle Swarm Optimization method and global variant of Particle Swarm Optimization are re- ported and discussed. 1 Introduction Many
Solving search problems by strongly simulating quantum circuits.
Johnson, T H; Biamonte, J D; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D
2013-01-01
Simulating quantum circuits using classical computers lets us analyse the inner workings of quantum algorithms. The most complete type of simulation, strong simulation, is believed to be generally inefficient. Nevertheless, several efficient strong simulation techniques are known for restricted families of quantum circuits and we develop an additional technique in this article. Further, we show that strong simulation algorithms perform another fundamental task: solving search problems. Efficient strong simulation techniques allow solutions to a class of search problems to be counted and found efficiently. This enhances the utility of strong simulation methods, known or yet to be discovered, and extends the class of search problems known to be efficiently simulable. Relating strong simulation to search problems also bounds the computational power of efficiently strongly simulable circuits; if they could solve all problems in P this would imply that all problems in NP and #P could be solved in polynomial time. PMID:23390585
Solving search problems by strongly simulating quantum circuits
Johnson, T. H.; Biamonte, J. D.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.
2013-01-01
Simulating quantum circuits using classical computers lets us analyse the inner workings of quantum algorithms. The most complete type of simulation, strong simulation, is believed to be generally inefficient. Nevertheless, several efficient strong simulation techniques are known for restricted families of quantum circuits and we develop an additional technique in this article. Further, we show that strong simulation algorithms perform another fundamental task: solving search problems. Efficient strong simulation techniques allow solutions to a class of search problems to be counted and found efficiently. This enhances the utility of strong simulation methods, known or yet to be discovered, and extends the class of search problems known to be efficiently simulable. Relating strong simulation to search problems also bounds the computational power of efficiently strongly simulable circuits; if they could solve all problems in P this would imply that all problems in NP and #P could be solved in polynomial time. PMID:23390585
Solving Maximal Clique Problem through Genetic Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajawat, Shalini; Hemrajani, Naveen; Menghani, Ekta
2010-11-01
Genetic algorithm is one of the most interesting heuristic search techniques. It depends basically on three operations; selection, crossover and mutation. The outcome of the three operations is a new population for the next generation. Repeating these operations until the termination condition is reached. All the operations in the algorithm are accessible with today's molecular biotechnology. The simulations show that with this new computing algorithm, it is possible to get a solution from a very small initial data pool, avoiding enumerating all candidate solutions. For randomly generated problems, genetic algorithm can give correct solution within a few cycles at high probability.
The Deming and Goldratt Approaches To Problem Solving: A Contrast
Joseph G. Van Matre; Rexford H. Draman
The quality movement's original problem-solving model was the Plan-Do-Check-Act model of Shewhart and popularized by Deming. Whether called the problem-solving process (Xerox), the Quality Improvement Cycle (AT&T), or the quality-Improvement story (Florida Power & Light), these more recent models are basically variations of the scientific method and the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle. They offer a systematic approach, a standardization to the
Problem-solving types among high-risk IDUs
Jerome J. Platt; Stephen D. Husband; Robert A. Steer; Martin Y. Iguchi
1995-01-01
This research investigated whether high-risk injection drug users (IDUs) manifest distinct types, or profiles, of interpersonal cognitive problem-solving (ICPS) abilities. Four measures of ICPS, the Means-Ends Problem-Solving procedure (MEPS), Optional Thinking Test (OTT), Awareness of Consequences Test (ACT), and Causal Thinking Test (CTT), were administered to 140 IDUs who volunteered for NIDA Demonstration Projects in Newark and Jersey City, NJ,
Measure Your Sew - How: Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems.
Rhoades, Beverly
1981-01-01
DOC TA24S.7 873 0.1264 --","--- Measure Your Sew-How Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems Texas Agricultural Extension Service . The Texas A&M University System . Daniel C . Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas "'164 [Blank Page... in Original Bulletin] ~. 'I \\ ! fri SOLVING COMMON SEWING MACHINE PROBLEMS Beverly Rhoades* Machine Parts ? Former Extension clothing specialist, The Texas A&M University System. Sewing can be a relaxing, creative and money-saving talent when...
On solving linear complementarity problems as linear programs
Richard W. Cottle; Jong-Shi Pang
Recently, Mangasarian [18, 19] has discussed the idea of solving certain classes of linear complementarity problems as linear\\u000a programs. The present paper (1) demonstrates how these complementarity problems are related to the theory of polyhedral sets\\u000a having least elements and (2) discusses the question of whether the linear programming approach can be recommended for solving\\u000a them.
Solving the state assignment problem for signal transition graphs
Luciano Lavagno; Cho W. Moon; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
1992-01-01
Wepropose a novel framework to solve the state assignment problem arising from the signal transition graph (STG) representation of an asynchronous circw”t. Wefirst establish a relation between STGS ad finite state machines (R3ds). Then we solve the STG state assignment problem by minittdzing the number of states in the corresponding F3vl and by using a critical racefree state assignment technique.
Measure Your Sew - How: Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems.
Rhoades, Beverly
1981-01-01
DOC TA24S.7 873 0.1264 --","--- Measure Your Sew-How Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems Texas Agricultural Extension Service . The Texas A&M University System . Daniel C . Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas "'164 [Blank Page... in Original Bulletin] ~. 'I \\ ! fri SOLVING COMMON SEWING MACHINE PROBLEMS Beverly Rhoades* Machine Parts ? Former Extension clothing specialist, The Texas A&M University System. Sewing can be a relaxing, creative and money-saving talent when...
Patterns of problem-solving in children's literacy and arithmetic.
Farrington-Flint, Lee; Vanuxem-Cotterill, Sophie; Stiller, James
2009-11-01
Patterns of problem-solving among 5-to-7 year-olds' were examined on a range of literacy (reading and spelling) and arithmetic-based (addition and subtraction) problem-solving tasks using verbal self-reports to monitor strategy choice. The results showed higher levels of variability in the children's strategy choice across Years I and 2 on the arithmetic (addition and subtraction) than literacy-based tasks (reading and spelling). However, across all four tasks, the children showed a tendency to move from less sophisticated procedural-based strategies, which included phonological strategies for reading and spelling and counting-all and finger modellingfor addition and subtraction, to more efficient retrieval methods from Years I to 2. Distinct patterns in children's problem-solving skill were identified on the literacy and arithmetic tasks using two separate cluster analyses. There was a strong association between these two profiles showing that those children with more advanced problem-solving skills on the arithmetic tasks also showed more advanced profiles on the literacy tasks. The results highlight how different-aged children show flexibility in their use of problem-solving strategies across literacy and arithmetical contexts and reinforce the importance of studying variations in children's problem-solving skill across different educational contexts. PMID:19994481
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751
Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress
Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751
Why decoherence solves the measurement problem
Art Hobson
2013-08-19
Although the solution, within standard quantum physics, of the problem of outcomes has been published several times, many authors continue to treat measurement as an unsolved fundamental dilemma. The solution lies in the formation of entangled subsystems, the non-local nature of the measurement state, and the resulting distinction between mixed-state local outcomes and the pure-state global outcome. Upon "measurement" (i.e. entanglement), the quantum system and its measurement apparatus both decohere and collapse into local mixed states while the unitarily-evolving global state remains coherent and un-collapsed. The states we observe are the local, collapsed states. Considerable experimental evidence supports this conclusion. Theoretical objections to this conclusion are rebutted, and a new perspective on measurement and entanglement is noted.
Towards Solving the Inverse Protein Folding Problem
Hong, Yoojin; Bhardwaj, Gaurav; Zhang, Zhenhai; van Rossum, Damian B; Patterson, Randen L
2010-01-01
Accurately assigning folds for divergent protein sequences is a major obstacle to structural studies and underlies the inverse protein folding problem. Herein, we outline our theories for fold-recognition in the "twilight-zone" of sequence similarity (<25% identity). Our analyses demonstrate that structural sequence profiles built using Position-Specific Scoring Matrices (PSSMs) significantly outperform multiple popular homology-modeling algorithms for relating and predicting structures given only their amino acid sequences. Importantly, structural sequence profiles reconstitute SCOP fold classifications in control and test datasets. Results from our experiments suggest that structural sequence profiles can be used to rapidly annotate protein folds at proteomic scales. We propose that encoding the entire Protein DataBank (~1070 folds) into structural sequence profiles would extract interoperable information capable of improving most if not all methods of structural modeling.
Meshless method for solving fixed boundary problem of plasma equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi
2015-07-01
This study solves the Grad-Shafranov equation with a fixed plasma boundary by utilizing a meshless method for the first time. Previous studies have utilized a finite element method (FEM) to solve an equilibrium inside the fixed separatrix. In order to avoid difficulties of FEM (such as mesh problem, difficulty of coding, expensive calculation cost), this study focuses on the meshless methods, especially RBF-MFS and KANSA's method to solve the fixed boundary problem. The results showed that CPU time of the meshless methods was ten to one hundred times shorter than that of FEM to obtain the same accuracy.
Web-Based Problem-Solving Environment for Line Balancing Automated Manufacturing Systems
Sheng-Jen Hsieh; Hyejeong Kim
2005-01-01
This paper describes a web-based problem-solving environment designed to teach line balancing of automated manufacturing systems. This environment was designed based on analytic and simulation models of an assembly line. Simulation models were first designed and used to derive data about work-in-process amounts, workstation utilization, cycle times and amount of finished product under different parameter settings, such as processing time
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capraro, Mary Margaret; An, Song A.; Ma, Tingting; Rangel-Chavez, A. Fabiola; Harbaugh, Adam
2012-01-01
Open-ended problems have been regarded as powerful tools for teaching mathematics. This study examined the problem solving of eight mathematics/science middle-school teachers. A semi-structured interview was conducted with (PTs) after completing an open-ended triangle task with four unique solutions. Of particular emphasis was how the PTs used a…
Photography helps solve distribution lightning problems
Barker, P.; Burns, C.W.
1993-06-01
This article describes the research project, which is being performed for NMPC by Power Technologies, Inc., involving the use of lightning-activated camera systems to photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photographs can allow the precise location of the lightning flash and power system flashovers to be observed, they are extremely valuable to engineers who are trying to make better sense of the lightning damage problem. When electrical measurements, such as fault and surge recordings, are combined with photographic data, an overall understanding of each lightning flash and its impact on the system is attained. This can hopefully lead to improved lightning protection practices and systems. The study is being performed on a 13.2 kV distribution system that is located on an exposed plateau near Little Falls, NY (about 80 miles northwest of Albany, NY). Four automated camera systems and a substation fault recorder are utilized. All camera locations afford excellent views of lines and equipment likely to be struck by lightning. The fault recorder is used to measure the fault currents and voltage sags which occur during line flashovers. Also, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) is used to confirm storm activity and camera triggering efficiency. After each storm, all data is analyzed to determine how lightning affected the power system. Areas being investigated include: What are the relative portions of lightning flashovers caused by induced surges (nearby strikes) and direct lightning hits to the line How often do shielding failures occur What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices are problematic
English Preservice Teaching: Problems and Suggested Solutions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Naeem, Marwa Ahmed Refat
2014-01-01
The present study investigated the problems faced by Egyptian EFL prospective teachers during their first encounter with preservice teaching. The sample for the study included 135 prospective EFL teachers trained in five preparatory (middle) schools in Kafr El-Sheikh city, Egypt. At the end of their first year training course, the prospective…
Multiple Modes of Reasoning in Physics Problem Solving, with Implications for Instruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana; Adams, Betty
2007-11-01
Problem-solving is an important part of physics teaching, learning and assessment. It is widely assumed that the way that experts solve problems, and students should, is by systematic application of basic physics principles. Model solutions are laid out this way, and teaching of problem-solving usually consists of `going over' such solutions step by step. However, while this does represent the physics structure of the final solution, it does not adequately reflect how people actually think when tackling problems. Real cognition is complex. This study was prompted by students trying to `map across' result features recalled from previous cases instead of working from basics. Since our instruction emphasizes the power and generality of basic principles, our first response was to re-emphasize principles, but we found that experts in fact draw extensively and effectively on rich compiled case knowledge. We investigated cognition in detail for geometrical optics. Research methods included analysis of written solutions, reflections on thinking, and interviews. Cognitive modes emerged from the initial research stages, and were then used to code individuals' problem-solving pathways. Learners and experts alike used multiple modes of cognition, significantly principle-based reasoning, case-based reasoning and experiential-intuitive reasoning. Case-based reasoning using pre-compiled knowledge played a pervasive role in conjunction with, and sometimes in conflict with, principle-based reasoning. The implications for instruction are that it should reflect what we know about cognition and expertise, and hence include teaching case-based as well as principle-based reasoning. We are doing this in optics, by using cases and variations, identifying topic knowledge schema `sub-assemblies', and modeling their use in problems.
The Role of an Incubation Period in Creative Problem Solving
Ut Na Sio; Elisabeth Rudowicz
2007-01-01
This experimental study tested the spreading-activation hypothesis that an incubation period helps to sensitize problem solvers to relevant concepts. The study also tested the selective forgetting hypothesis that an incubation period helps to desensitize problem solvers to irrelevant concepts. Chinese Chess GO players, 28 experts and 29 novices, solved 18 remote association tasks (RAT) and lexical decision tasks (LDTs) under
COMPLEX WAVELET REGULARIZATION FOR SOLVING INVERSE PROBLEMS IN REMOTE SENSING
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
) [1], zooming [2] or denoising [3]. Usually, finding the origi- nal image u from the observation g a comparison between two common priors in image processing for wavelet regularized problems. inria-00417708COMPLEX WAVELET REGULARIZATION FOR SOLVING INVERSE PROBLEMS IN REMOTE SENSING Mika¨el Carlavan
A Problem-Solving Oral Examination for Family Medicine
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Wart, Arthur D.
1974-01-01
The College of Family Physicians of Canada has used in its certification examination a new type of structured problem-solving examination called the Formal Oral. A series of preselected problem areas such as the complaint, relevant data base, investigation, and treatment are scored by two examiners. (Editor/PG)
Creative Problem-Solving Exercises and Training in FCS
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marcketti, Sara B.; Karpova, Elena; Barker, Jessica
2009-01-01
Creative problem-solving has been linked to successful adjustment to the demands of daily life. The ability to recognize problems as opportunities can be an essential skill when dealing with uncertainty and adapting to continuous changes, both in personal and professional lives. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals should strive to…
Diffusion: Diffusive initial value problems and how to solve them
Spiegelman, Marc W.
84 #12;Chapter 6 Diffusion: Diffusive initial value problems and how to solve them Selected Reading of the simplest partial dif- ferential equations for diffusive initial value problems in the absence of advection be written T t = · T (6.0.1) where T is the temperature and = k/(cP ) is the thermal diffusivity (which has
a Problem Solving Diagnostic Instrument for Physics Thermodynamics Concepts
Steven Iona
1994-01-01
Changes in conceptual representations of physics thermodynamics concepts by high school physics students was examined throughout an instructional sequence. The knowledge structures identified were characterized and also compared to problem-solving strategies used by the students on physics problems. Over sixty students from four intact classes completed seven measures including three computer-administered concept relatedness tasks, a test of logical thinking, identification
A Functional Analysis of Real-Life, Personal Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heppner, P. Paul; And Others
The personal problem-solving process can be functionally analyzed from a cognitive-behavioral perspective into at least four major performance classes: (1) decision making; (2) problem exploration, differentiation, and definition; (3) identification of response alternatives; and (4) performance of an intended solution response. The personal…
Can AI Planners Solve Practical Problems? David E. Wilkins
Wilkins, David E.
Can AI Planners Solve Practical Problems? by David E. Wilkins Arti cial Intelligence Center SRI of a planning system that has made a signi cant impact on a problem of practical importance. One of the primary Institute, and SRI International. Research performed at the Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford
Successful and Unsuccessful Problem Solving in Classical Genetic Pedigrees.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Mike U.
1988-01-01
Examines successful/unsuccessful distinctions between novices and experts in problem solving in terms of genetic knowledge, use of production rules, strategy selection, use of critical cues, use of logic, understanding of probability, and the thinking process itself. Suggests five implications for genetics instruction and provides three problems…
Solving the GPS problem in almost linear Shamgar Gurevich
Weinberger, Hans
Solving the GPS problem in almost linear complexity Shamgar Gurevich University of Wisconsin. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was built to fulfill this task. It works as follows: Satellites send white noise. The GPS Problem is: Design S, and an effective method of extracting (b, 0) from S and R
Using GRASP to Solve the Unit Commitment Problem
Ana Viana; Jorge Pinho De Sousa; Manuel Matos
2003-01-01
In this paper, the Unit Commitment (UC) problem is presented and solved, following an innovative approach based on a metaheuristic procedure. The problem consists on deciding which electric generators must be committed, over a given planning horizon, and on defining the production levels that are required for each generator, so that load and spinning reserve requirements are verified, at minimum
Finding and solving problems in software new product development
Willow A. Sheremata
2002-01-01
New product development is notoriously difficult, and software new product development particularly so. Although a great deal of research has investigated new product development, projects developing new software products continue to have problems meeting their goals. In fact, one line of research proposes new product development is difficult because it must solve an ongoing stream of complex problems. I integrate
Solving the Permutation Problem in Convolutive Blind Source Separation
LÃ¼beck, UniversitÃ¤t zu
Solving the Permutation Problem in Convolutive Blind Source Separation Radoslaw Mazur and Alfred between neighboring bins for the detection of correct permutations. 1 Introduction Blind Source Separation source separation. When trans- formed to the frequency domain, the source separation problem reduces
Solving the Small Sample Size Problem of LDA
Rui Huang; Qingshan Liu; Hanqing Lu; Songde Ma
2002-01-01
The small sample size problem is often encountered in pattern recognition. It results in the singularity of the within-class scatter matrix Sw in Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Different methods have been proposed to solve this problem in face recognition literature. Some methods reduce the dimension of the original sample space and hence unavoidably remove the null space of Sw, which
SOLVING THE PERMUTATION PROBLEM USING PHASE LINEARITY AND FREQUENCY CORRELATION
Plumbley, Mark
analysis (ICA), permutation problem, spatial aliasing, linearity, phase response. 1 INTRODUCTION Blind (1) where f represents frequency, t is the frame index, Hlk(f) is the frequency response from sourceSOLVING THE PERMUTATION PROBLEM USING PHASE LINEARITY AND FREQUENCY CORRELATION Keisuke Toyama1
Solving Posynomial Geometric Programming Problems via Generalized Linear Programming
Jayant Rajgopal; Dennis L. Bricker
2002-01-01
This paper revisits an efficient procedure for solving posynomial geometric programming (GP) problems, which was initially developed by Avriel et al. The procedure, which used the concept of condensation, was embedded within an algorithm for the more general (signomial) GP problem. It is shown here that a computationally equivalent dual-based algorithm may be independently derived based on some more recent
Sequential methods in solving economic power flow problems
W. D. Rosehart; C. A. Canizares; A. Vannelli
1997-01-01
This paper compares two linear interior point programming algorithms and an interior point quadratic programming algorithm that are used to solve the optimal power flow problem. The paper focuses on the numerical oscillations that occur because of the sequential linearization of the problem. Two methods to reduce the oscillations are discussed and implemented on a six bus test system
Help your child to health: problem-solving without recourse
Qiu, Weigang
Help your child to health: problem-solving without recourse to drugs or treatment $99 Does your child have problems learning? Is your child able to follow through tasks? Could your child be suffering, health, and learning and shows you how to help your child to achieve balanced activity in each without
Exploring the Role of Conceptual Scaffolding in Solving Synthesis Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei
2011-01-01
It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC) problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiring…
Paradigms and Problem-Solving: A Literature Review.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berner, Eta S.
1984-01-01
Thomas Kuhn's conceptions of the influence of paradigms on the progress of science form the framework for analyzing how medical educators have approached research on medical problem solving. A new paradigm emphasizing multiple types of problems with varied solution strategies is proposed. (Author/MLW)
A Problem-Solving Simulation for Classical Genetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, Jim
1996-01-01
Presents a genetics simulation that uses a noncomputer version of BioQUEST's Genetics Construction Kit. Provides students with opportunities for solving realistic genetics problems and allows them to experience how classical geneticists think. Discusses the problem's search space, thinking qualitatively, hypothesis generation and testing, thinking…
Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS
Utrecht, Universiteit
Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS Steven van Dijk Dirk Thierens Mark de in Geographical Information Systems (GIS's). The framework is especially suited for geographical problems since as well. 1 Introduction Geographic Information Systems (GIS's for short) combine a geographical database
Solving quadratic programming problems by delayed projection neural network.
Yang, Yongqing; Cao, Jinde
2006-11-01
In this letter, the delayed projection neural network for solving convex quadratic programming problems is proposed. The neural network is proved to be globally exponentially stable and can converge to an optimal solution of the optimization problem. Three examples show the effectiveness of the proposed network. PMID:17131675
Representation Use and Strategy Choice in Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Cock, Mieke
2012-01-01
In this paper, we examine student success on three variants of a test item given in different representational formats (verbal, pictorial, and graphical), with an isomorphic problem statement. We confirm results from recent papers where it is mentioned that physics students' problem-solving competence can vary with representational format and that…
A Simple Level Set Method for Solving Stefan Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, S.; Merriman, B.; Osher, S.; Smereka, P.
1997-07-01
A simple level set method for solving Stefan problems is presented. This method can be applied to problems involving dendritic solidification. Our method consists of an implicit finite difference scheme for solving the heat equation and a level set approach for capturing the front between solid and liquid phases of a pure substance. Our method is accurate with respect to some exact solutions of the Stefan problem. Results indicate that this method can handle topology changes and complicated interfacial shapes and that it can numerically simulate many of the physical features of dendritic solidification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gulland, E.-K.; Veenendaal, B.; Schut, A. G. T.
2012-07-01
Problem-solving knowledge and skills are an important attribute of spatial sciences graduates. The challenge of higher education is to build a teaching and learning environment that enables students to acquire these skills in relevant and authentic applications. This study investigates the effectiveness of traditional face-to-face teaching and online learning technologies in supporting the student learning of problem-solving and computer programming skills, techniques and solutions. The student cohort considered for this study involves students in the surveying as well as geographic information science (GISc) disciplines. Also, students studying across a range of learning modes including on-campus, distance and blended, are considered in this study. Student feedback and past studies reveal a lack of student interest and engagement in problem solving and computer programming. Many students do not see such skills as directly relevant and applicable to their perceptions of what future spatial careers hold. A range of teaching and learning methods for both face-to-face teaching and distance learning were introduced to address some of the perceived weaknesses of the learning environment. These included initiating greater student interaction in lectures, modifying assessments to provide greater feedback and student accountability, and the provision of more interactive and engaging online learning resources. The paper presents and evaluates the teaching methods used to support the student learning environment. Responses of students in relation to their learning experiences were collected via two anonymous, online surveys and these results were analysed with respect to student pass and retention rates. The study found a clear distinction between expectations and engagement of surveying students in comparison to GISc students. A further outcome revealed that students who were already engaged in their learning benefited the most from the interactive learning resources and opportunities provided.
A New Approach for Solving the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pop, P. C.; Matei, O.; Sabo, C.
The generalized traveling problem (GTSP) is an extension of the classical traveling salesman problem. The GTSP is known to be an NP-hard problem and has many interesting applications. In this paper we present a local-global approach for the generalized traveling salesman problem. Based on this approach we describe a novel hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for solving the problem using genetic algorithms. Computational results are reported for Euclidean TSPlib instances and compared with the existing ones. The obtained results point out that our hybrid algorithm is an appropriate method to explore the search space of this complex problem and leads to good solutions in a reasonable amount of time.
Review on solving the forward problem in EEG source analysis
Hallez, Hans; Vanrumste, Bart; Grech, Roberta; Muscat, Joseph; De Clercq, Wim; Vergult, Anneleen; D'Asseler, Yves; Camilleri, Kenneth P; Fabri, Simon G; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lemahieu, Ignace
2007-01-01
Background The aim of electroencephalogram (EEG) source localization is to find the brain areas responsible for EEG waves of interest. It consists of solving forward and inverse problems. The forward problem is solved by starting from a given electrical source and calculating the potentials at the electrodes. These evaluations are necessary to solve the inverse problem which is defined as finding brain sources which are responsible for the measured potentials at the EEG electrodes. Methods While other reviews give an extensive summary of the both forward and inverse problem, this review article focuses on different aspects of solving the forward problem and it is intended for newcomers in this research field. Results It starts with focusing on the generators of the EEG: the post-synaptic potentials in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. These cells generate an extracellular current which can be modeled by Poisson's differential equation, and Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The compartments in which these currents flow can be anisotropic (e.g. skull and white matter). In a three-shell spherical head model an analytical expression exists to solve the forward problem. During the last two decades researchers have tried to solve Poisson's equation in a realistically shaped head model obtained from 3D medical images, which requires numerical methods. The following methods are compared with each other: the boundary element method (BEM), the finite element method (FEM) and the finite difference method (FDM). In the last two methods anisotropic conducting compartments can conveniently be introduced. Then the focus will be set on the use of reciprocity in EEG source localization. It is introduced to speed up the forward calculations which are here performed for each electrode position rather than for each dipole position. Solving Poisson's equation utilizing FEM and FDM corresponds to solving a large sparse linear system. Iterative methods are required to solve these sparse linear systems. The following iterative methods are discussed: successive over-relaxation, conjugate gradients method and algebraic multigrid method. Conclusion Solving the forward problem has been well documented in the past decades. In the past simplified spherical head models are used, whereas nowadays a combination of imaging modalities are used to accurately describe the geometry of the head model. Efforts have been done on realistically describing the shape of the head model, as well as the heterogenity of the tissue types and realistically determining the conductivity. However, the determination and validation of the in vivo conductivity values is still an important topic in this field. In addition, more studies have to be done on the influence of all the parameters of the head model and of the numerical techniques on the solution of the forward problem. PMID:18053144
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Browne, Kerry Patrick
Presented here is a case study of the problem-solving behaviors of upper-division undergraduate physics majors. This study explores the role of visual representations in students' problem solving and provides a foundation for investigating how students' use of visualization changes in the upper-division physics major. Three independent studies were conducted on similar samples of students. At the time of these studies, all of the subjects were junior physics majors participating in the Paradigms in Physics curriculum at Oregon State University. In the first study, we found that while the students all scored very high on the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the correlation between test scores and their grades in physics was not statistically significant. In the second study (N = 5) and the third study (N = 15), we conducted think-aloud interviews in which students solved electrostatics problems. Based on the interviews in the third study, we develop a model that describes the process by which students construct knowledge while solving the interview problems. We then use this model as a framework to propose hypotheses about students' problem-solving behavior. In addition, we identify several difficulties students have with the concepts of electric field and flux. In particular, we describe student difficulties that arise from confusing the vector and field line representations of electric field. Finally, we suggest some teaching strategies that may help to assuage the student difficulties we observed.
Construction and Validation of Family Problem Solving Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar; Raiisi, Fateme
The aim of the present research was to indices and characteristics of scale validation for family problem solving scale. The sample size of 55 couples (110 people) were selected among married men and women in Tehran and assigned to adjusted/compatible and maladjusted/incompatible groups. ENRICH marital satisfaction scale and the new FPS scale was used as research tools. Analysis of the aspects revealed 2 aspects out of 30: communication and problem solving. Studying internal correlation of total scores of the scales and subscales showed the association rate between total score and the aspects of communication and problem solving was 0.95. Reliability index of total score re-test was 0.91 and that of communication and problem solving was 0.78 and 2.89, respectively. Internal correlation of total score, communication and problem solving was 0.91, 0.78 and 0.83, respectively. As this scale is significantly associated with ENRICH marital satisfaction scale, is permanent and can distinguish adjusted/compatible and maladjusted/incompatible couples, it can be applied for clinical and research purposes.
Action Research: Helping Student Teachers Understand and Solve Classroom Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lind, Karen K.
The progress of a group of student teachers who used action research techniques in their student teaching experience was studied. Action research is designed to yield practical results that are immediately applicable to a specific situation or problem. Action research strategies were used by student teachers to identify and find effective ways of…
A Heuristic Framework to Solve a General Delivery Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lian, Lian; Castelain, Emmanuel
2010-06-01
This paper presents a new distribution and route planning problem, General Delivery Problem (GDP) which is more general than the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem. To solve a GDP, a three-phase framework heuristic approach based on decomposition techniques is introduced. The decomposition techniques are employed to divide an original problem into a set of sub-problems, which can reduce the problem size. A kind of decomposition technique, Capacity Clustering Algorithm (CCA), is embedded into the framework with Simulated Annealing (SA) to solve a special GDP. The proposed three-phase framework with the above two algorithms is compared with five other decomposition methods in a distribution instance of the Regional Fire and Emergency Center in the north of France.
Evolutionary algorithms for solving multi-objective travelling salesman problem
Vui Ann Shim; Kay Chen Tan; Jun Yong Chia; Jin Kiat Chong
2011-01-01
This paper studies the application of evolutionary algorithms for bi-objective travelling salesman problem. Two evolutionary\\u000a algorithms, including estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) and genetic algorithm (GA), are considered. The solution\\u000a to this problem is a set of trade-off alternatives. The problem is solved by optimizing the order of the cities so as to simultaneously\\u000a minimize the two objectives of travelling
Preference-Based Problem Solving for Constraint Programming
Ulrich Junker
2007-01-01
Combinatorial problems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and configuration may involve many attributes that can be\\u000a subject of user preferences. Traditional optimization approaches compile those preferences into a single utility function\\u000a and use it as the optimization objective when solving the problem, but neither explain why the resulting solution satisfies\\u000a the original preferences, nor indicate the trade-offs made during problem
Problem Solving Styles Among Children Working in Small Groups on Mathematical Word Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gilbert, Kathleen; Leitz, Steven
This document focuses on four children in a small group, solving word problems aloud. Different aspects of how children in small groups approach problems were revealed; certain characteristics of their attempts to solve problems suggest a variety of questions for further research. These pupils were part of a project that involved six groups of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sriraman, Bharath
2003-01-01
Nine freshmen in a ninth-grade accelerated algebra class were asked to solve five nonroutine combinatorial problems. The four mathematically gifted students were successful in discovering and verbalizing the generality that characterized the solutions to the five problems, whereas the five nongifted students were unable to discover the hidden…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beaver, John F.
This book is designed to provide elementary and middle school teachers with motivating problem-solving activities to use with their students. The text contains interesting and challenging problems from mathematics, language arts, social studies, and natural science which are divided into sections of activities of short, middle, and longer duration…
New Hybrid Matheuristics for Solving the Multidimensional Knapsack Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanafi, Saïd; Lazi?, Jasmina; Mladenovi?, Nenad; Wilbaut, Christophe; Crévits, Igor
In this paper we propose new hybrid methods for solving the multidimensional knapsack problem. They can be viewed as matheuristics that combine mathematical programming with the variable neighbourhood decomposition search heuristic. In each iteration a relaxation of the problem is solved to guide the generation of the neighbourhoods. Then the problem is enriched with a pseudo-cut to produce a sequence of not only lower, but also upper bounds of the problem, so that integrality gap is reduced. The results obtained on two sets of the large scale multidimensional knapsack problem instances are comparable with the current state-of-the-art heuristics. Moreover, a few best known results are reported for some large, long-studied instances.
Dynamic application of problem solving strategies : dependency-based flow control
Jacobi, Ian Campbell
2013-01-01
While humans may solve problems by applying any one of a number of different problem solving strategies, computerized problem solving is typically brittle, limited in the number of available strategies and ways of combining ...
On the Union of Problem Solving and Information Processing: Will They Live Happily Ever After?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Horan, John J.
1987-01-01
Responds to Heppner and Krauskopf's article on an information processing approach to personal problem solving. Presents a four-point summary model of problem solving and examines what information processing adds to the area of problem solving. (NB)
Multiple Solutions to Problems in Mathematics Teaching: Do Teachers Really Value Them?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bingolbali, Erhan
2011-01-01
Solving problems in different ways is strongly advised for mathematics learning and teaching. There is, however, little data available on the examination of teachers' openness to and evaluation of different solutions to the problems. In this paper, the author examines classroom teachers' openness to different solutions (or to what extent they…
Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving
Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.
1988-01-01
Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).
Analysis of precurrent skills in solving mathematics story problems.
Neef, Nancy A; Nelles, Diane E; Iwata, Brian A; Page, Terry J
2003-01-01
We conducted an analysis of precurrent skills (responses that increase the effectiveness of a subsequent or "current" behavior in obtaining a reinforcer) to facilitate the solution of arithmetic word (story) problems. Two students with developmental disabilities were taught four precurrent responses (identifying the initial value, change value, operation, and resulting value) in a sequential manner. Results of a multiple baseline design across behaviors showed that the teaching procedures were effective in increasing correct performance of each of the precurrent behaviors with untaught problems during probes and that once the precurrent behaviors were established, the number of correct problem solutions increased. PMID:12723864
Problem decomposition How to solve a complex problem
Cockshott, W. Paul
't worry this is a common enough first reaction. But to be come competent at programming you have to get to the problems you see. These smaller tasks can be handled either by Â separate programs you write Â methods you tokens by frequency of occurrence 3)Print out in order most frequent first #12;Split the input
Ant colony optimization for solving university facility layout problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohd Jani, Nurul Hafiza; Mohd Radzi, Nor Haizan; Ngadiman, Mohd Salihin
2013-04-01
Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAP) is classified as the NP hard problem. It has been used to model a lot of problem in several areas such as operational research, combinatorial data analysis and also parallel and distributed computing, optimization problem such as graph portioning and Travel Salesman Problem (TSP). In the literature, researcher use exact algorithm, heuristics algorithm and metaheuristic approaches to solve QAP problem. QAP is largely applied in facility layout problem (FLP). In this paper we used QAP to model university facility layout problem. There are 8 facilities that need to be assigned to 8 locations. Hence we have modeled a QAP problem with n ? 10 and developed an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to solve the university facility layout problem. The objective is to assign n facilities to n locations such that the minimum product of flows and distances is obtained. Flow is the movement from one to another facility, whereas distance is the distance between one locations of a facility to other facilities locations. The objective of the QAP is to obtain minimum total walking (flow) of lecturers from one destination to another (distance).
Creative problem solving with root cause failure analysis
Gano, D.L. [Apollo Associated Services, Richland, WA (United States)
1996-11-01
This paper will discuss the conventional wisdom that limits one`s problem solving effectiveness and then explore new and unique knowledge and skills that help one break out of the old paradigms. One will discover how there is no such thing as a single right answer; how there is an infinite set of solutions to any problem; and how to find the most creative and innovative solutions such that the problem does not recur. One will see how these new methods can be used by almost anyone on any event-based problem. Several recent examples will be presented to support understanding of this new approach.
Solving complex band structure problems with the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laux, S. E.
2012-08-01
With straightforward extension, the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm [Polizzi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115112 (2009)] is capable of solving the generalized eigenvalue problems representing traveling-wave problems—as exemplified by the complex band-structure problem—even though the matrices involved are complex, non-Hermitian, and singular, and hence outside the originally stated range of applicability of the algorithm. The obtained eigenvalues/eigenvectors, however, contain spurious solutions which must be detected and removed. The efficiency and parallel structure of the original algorithm are unaltered. The complex band structures of Si layers of varying thicknesses and InAs nanowires of varying radii are computed as test problems.
The Yo-Yo Problem: Solving Linear Equations
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2007-12-12
In this lesson, students explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and the graphing calculator. The lesson starts with the presentation of the yo-yo problem. Students then complete a hands-on activity involving a design created with pennies that allows them to explore a linear pattern and express that pattern in symbolic form. Algebra tiles are introduced as the students practice solving linear equations. Working from the concrete to the abstract is especially important for students who have difficulty with mathematics, and algebra tiles help students make this transition. In addition to using algebra tiles, students also use symbolic manipulation and the graphing calculator. Finally, the students return to solve the yo-yo problem. A feature of this lesson is the effective use of peer tutors in this inclusion classroom. Student worksheets are included to print.
A Historical Perspective on Problems in Botany Teaching.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hershey, David R.
1996-01-01
Discusses how the many problems in botany teaching are interrelated and most have existed since at least the early 1900s. Considers botany teaching at both the precollege and introductory college levels. Discusses botany neglect in biology teaching, botanical illiteracy, uninteresting or irrelevant botany teaching, zoochauvinism, research…
Metacognitive factors in scientific problem-solving strategies
Paulette Rozencwajg
2003-01-01
The aim of this study on 42 seventh graders (ages 12–13) was to determine whether and to what extent students’ metacognitive\\u000a level is linked to their conceptualization and performance in problem solving at school, especially science problems. This\\u000a hypothesis is supported by a number of studies showing that metacognition is a factor in learning. Two indexes were devised\\u000a for the
A Problem Solving Approach to the Introduction of Chemistry
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Stepan, Thelma
A 4-6 week unit for use with college-bound high school students, combining the introduction of chemistry with a methodical method of problem solving and a review of the mathematics needed for high school chemistry. It includes the vocabulary used in describing the physical properties of matter, the metric system and decimals, a progression of problems dealing with the derived quantities of density and heat, and the calculation of percentage of error.
Solving a multistage partial inspection problem using genetic algorithms
Heredia-Langner, Alejandro (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Montgomery, D C.(Arizona State University) [Arizona State University; Carlyle, W M.(Naval Postgraduate School) [Naval Postgraduate School
2002-01-01
Traditionally, the multistage inspection problem has been formulated as consisting of a decision schedule where some manufacturing stages receive full inspection and the rest none. Dynamic programming and heuristic methods (like local search) are the most commonly used solution techniques. A highly constrained multistage inspection problem is presented where all stages must receive partial rectifying inspection and it is solved using a real-valued genetic algorithm. This solution technique can handle multiple objectives and quality constraints effectively.
Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method
Gao, Weiguo; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.
2009-07-02
We examine the possibility of using the standard Newton's method for solving a class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems arising from electronic structure calculation. We show that the Jacobian matrix associated with this nonlinear system has a special structure that can be exploited to reduce the computational complexity of the Newton's method. Preliminary numerical experiments indicate that the Newton's method can be more efficient for small problems in which a few smallest eigenpairs are needed.
Solving the Multiple Instance Problem with Axis-Parallel Rectangles
Thomas G. Dietterich; Richard H. Lathrop; Tomás Lozano-pérez
1997-01-01
The multiple instance problem arises in tasks where the training examples are ambiguous: asingle example object may have many alternative feature vectors (instances) that describe it,and yet only one of those feature vectors may be responsible for the observed classification ofthe object. This paper describes and compares three kinds of algorithms that learn axis-parallelrectangles to solve the multiple-instance problem. Algorithms
Algorithm for Solving Tridiagonal Matrix Problems in Parallel
Nathan Mattor; Timothy J. Williams; Dennis W. Hewett
1995-01-01
A new algorithm is presented, designed to solve tridiagonal matrix problems efficiently withparallel computers (multiple instruction stream, multiple data stream (MIMD) machines withdistributed memory). The algorithm is designed to be extendable to higher order bandeddiagonal systems.I. IntroductionCurrently, there are several popular methods for parallelization of the tridiagonal problem.The "most important" of these have recently been described with a unified approach,through
The use of interactive graphics to solve numerical problems
Lyle B. Smith
1970-01-01
With the advent of on-line (time-sharing) computer systems and graphic terminals, we have available a new dimension in numerical problem solving capabilities. Rather than simply use the new power to achieve fast turnaround, we can develop interactive routines which are easy to use and also take advantage of the insight and visual capabilities of the human problem solver. Several on-line
An improved ant colony algorithm to solve knapsack problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shuang; Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Qiuming
2006-10-01
Ant colony optimization algorithm is a novel simulated evolutionary algorithm, which provides a new method for complicated combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper the algorithm is used for solving the knapsack problem. It is improved in selection strategy and information modification, so that it can not easily run into the local optimum and can converge at the global optimum. The experiments show the robustness and the potential power of this kind of meta-heuristic algorithm.
Engineering problem solving and knowledge creation: An epistemological perspective
Rachel Itabashi-Campbell; Sheri Perelli; Julia Gluesing
2011-01-01
This study—to our knowledge the first to model the dynamics of knowledge creation in an engineering problem solving context—addresses a gap in the literature by illustrating “engineering epistemology,” nurtured by “ba,” as a critical knowledge asset that facilitates superior problem resolution. Rich narratives generated by phenomenological interviews with US product engineers were interpreted using Nonaka and Takeuchi’s knowledge-creation model and
ALPS: BRINGING ACTIVE INQUIRY INTO ACTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING
Interview. KEYWORDS Cognitive Tutor Virtual Agent Active Learning 1. INTRODUCTION K12 mathematics The ALPS project (Active Learning in Problem Solving) is building and evaluating an educational technology goal is to develop an ``active learning'' environment that rivals the effectiveness of human tutors
ALPS: BRINGING ACTIVE INQUIRY INTO ACTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING
Interview. KEYWORDS Cognitive Tutor Virtual Agent Active Learning 1. INTRODUCTION K-12 mathematics The ALPS project (Active Learning in Problem Solving) is building and evaluating an educational technology goal is to develop an "active learning" environment that rivals the effectiveness of human tutors
Integrating perception and problem solving to predict complex object behaviours
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyons, Damian M.; Chaudhry, Sirhan; Agica, Marius; Monaco, John Vincent
2010-04-01
One of the objectives of Cognitive Robotics is to construct robot systems that can be directed to achieve realworld goals by high-level directions rather than complex, low-level robot programming. Such a system must have the ability to represent, problem-solve and learn about its environment as well as communicate with other agents. In previous work, we have proposed ADAPT, a Cognitive Architecture that views perception as top-down and goaloriented and part of the problem solving process. Our approach is linked to a SOAR-based problem-solving and learning framework. In this paper, we present an architecture for the perceptive and world modelling components of ADAPT and report on experimental results using this architecture to predict complex object behaviour. A novel aspect of our approach is a 'mirror system' that ensures that the modelled background and foreground objects are synchronized with observations and task-based expectations. This is based on our prior work on comparing real and synthetic images. We show results for a moving object that collides and rebounds from its environment, hence showing that this perception-based problem solving approach has the potential to be used to predict complex object motions.
Problem solving is a process similar to working your way
Minnesota, University of
obtained Recall memorized pattern of actions and specific formulas for solving problem type #12;7 Height Axes If Acceleration If Equilibrium Knowledge Organization of Expert #12;6 Novice Pattern Matching with your knowledge of similar behavior, within limits that you understand. 4. Look Back4. Look Back Polya
Solving the Robots Gathering Problem Mark Cieliebak1
Flocchini, Paola
Solving the Robots Gathering Problem Mark Cieliebak1 , Paola Flocchini2 , Giuseppe Prencipe3 a set of n > 2 simple autonomous mobile robots (decentralized, asyn- chronous, no common coordinate, deterministic) moving freely in the plane and able to sense the positions of the other robots. We study
Dialogical Perspectives on Narratives in Collaborative Mathematics Problem-Solving
Johann SARMIENTO; Stefan TRAUSAN-MATU; Gerry STAHL
Our approach to the study of learning of mathematical problem-solving extends the notion of narrative learning environments to include the dynamics of collaborative dialogs and related emergent narratives. This perspective favours the conception of the dialogical aspects of interaction as shared achievements of co- participants and as central meaning-making procedures, based on our qualitative analysis of transcripts from online collaborative
Cognitive Transfer of Computer Programming Skills and Analogous Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jang, Younghee
This study investigated the cognitive benefits of learning how to program by determining the degree of cognitive transfer of programming skills at a construct level to solving analogous problems in other domains. Subjects, who were students enrolled in four sections of the beginning Pascal programming course and two sections of a calculus course,…
Wastewater odor problem solving. process modification versus air treatment
R. E. Kenson; V. G. Boscak; G. T. Brookman
1978-01-01
A three-phase plan was developed to solve any waste water odor problem, e.g., those encountered in the chemical manufacturing industry. Phase 1 consists of an evaluation of the odor emissions from both stack and open (fugitive) sources and their impact on ambient odors. The critical odor sources and their required degree of control are thereby defined. Phase 2 consists of
Problem Solving Teams in a Total Quality Management Environment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Towler, Constance F.
1993-01-01
Outlines the problem-solving team training process used at Harvard University (Massachusetts), including the size and formation of teams, roles, and time commitment. Components of the process are explained, including introduction to Total Quality Management (TQM), customer satisfaction, meeting management, Parker Team Player Survey, interactive…
Some Finance Problems Solved with Nonsmooth Optimization Techniques
Vinter, Richard
Some Finance Problems Solved with Nonsmooth Optimization Techniques R. B. VINTER 1 AND H. ZHENG 2 analysis and mathematical finance communities to the scope for applications of nonsmooth optimization to finance, by studying in detail two illustrative examples. The first concerns the maximization of a ter
Solving Bin Packing Related Problems Using an Arc Flow Formulation
Filipe BrandÃ£o
2012-04-13
Apr 13, 2012 ... Solving Bin Packing Related Problems Using an Arc Flow Formulation ... cutting stock, cardinality constrained bin packing, and 2D-vector bin packing. ... a large advantage of this formulation with respect to the traditional ones. ... Category 2: Applications -- OR and Management Sciences (Transportation ).
Assessment for Intervention: A Problem-Solving Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown-Chidsey, Rachel, Ed.
2005-01-01
This cutting-edge volume offers a complete primer on conducting problem-solving based assessments in school or clinical settings. Presented are an effective framework and up-to-date tools for identifying and remediating the many environmental factors that may contribute to a student's academic, emotional, or behavioral difficulties, and for…
Learning Styles and Problem Solving Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gencel, Ilke Evin
2015-01-01
Global changes in educational discourse have an impact on educational systems, so teacher education programs need to be transformed to better train teachers and to contribute to their professional development. In this process learning styles and problem solving skills should be considered as individual differences which have an impact in…
1998 Proceedings: Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Proceedings of the 1998 Puerto Rico conference on Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research (sponsored in part by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations) are available at this Website. The proceedings include the program, abstracts from presentations and posters, and contact information for presenters.
Learning to Learn: Algorithmic Inspirations from Human Problem Solving
Horvitz, Eric
learning. Our work comes in the context of growing interest in interactive, human-in-the-loop learning that people formulate to refine the behavior of a system. We focus on analyzing and learning within Ensemble describe a study we ran to observe human problem solving behavior with the system, review insights we
Solving Permutation Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Artificial Ants
Solnon, Christine
Solving Permutation Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Artificial Ants Christine Solnon 1 Abstract. We describe in this paper AntÂPÂsolver, a generic conÂ straint solver based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) metaÂ heuristic. The ACO metaheuristic takes inspiration on the observaÂ tion of real ants
A Technique for Assessing Mathematical Problem-Solving Ability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collis, Kevin F.; And Others
1986-01-01
Described are procedures followed in developing, administering, and scoring a set of mathematical problem-solving superitems and examining their construct validity through a recently developed evaluation technique associated with a taxonomy of the structure of learned outcomes. Data strongly support the validity of the underlying theoretical…
Extending Fibonacci Numbers to Negative Subscripts through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abramovich, Sergei
2010-01-01
This classroom note shows how Fibonacci numbers with negative subscripts emerge from a problem-solving context enhanced by the use of an electronic spreadsheet. It reflects the author's work with prospective K-12 teachers in a number of mathematics content courses. (Contains 4 figures.)
New paradigms in problem solving environments for scientific computing
George Chin Jr.; L. Ruby Leung; Karen L. Schuchardt; Deborah K. Gracio
2002-01-01
Computer and computational scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are studying and designing collaborative problem solving environments (CPSEs) for scientific computing in various domains. Where most scientific computing efforts focus at the level of the scientific codes, file systems, data archives, and networked computers, our analysis and design efforts are aimed at developing enabling technologies that are directly meaningful
Reasoning Processes Used by Paramedics to Solve Clinical Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alexander, Melissa
2009-01-01
The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to determine the reasoning processes used by paramedics to solve clinical problems. Existing research documents concern over the accuracy of paramedics' clinical decision-making, but no research was found that examines the cognitive processes by which paramedics make either faulty or accurate…
Creating Alien Life Forms: Problem Solving in Biology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grimnes, Karin A.
1996-01-01
Describes a project that helps students integrate biological concepts using both creativity and higher-order problem-solving skills. Involves students playing the roles of junior scientists aboard a starship in orbit around a class M planet and using a description of habitats, seasonal details, and a surface map of prominent geographic features to…
Assisting students with argumentation plans when solving problems in CSCL
Ariel Monteserin; Silvia N. Schiaffino; Analía Amandi
2010-01-01
In CSCL systems, students who are solving problems in group have to negotiate with each other by exchanging proposals and arguments in order to resolve the conflicts and generate a shared solution. In this context, argument construction assistance is necessary to facilitate reaching to a consensus. This assistance is usually provided with isolated arguments by demand, but this does not
Secondary School Genetics Instruction: Making Problem Solving Explicit and Meaningful.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomson, Norman; Stewart, James
1985-01-01
Explains an algorithm which details procedures for solving a broad class of genetics problems common to pre-college biology. Several flow charts (developed from the algorithm) are given with sample questions and suggestions for student use. Conclusions are based on the authors' research (which includes student interviews and textbook analyses).…
Hemispheric Contributions to Nonverbal Abstract Reasoning and Problem Solving
Daniel N. Allen; Gregory P. Strauss; Karen A. Kemtes; Gerald Goldstein
2007-01-01
Hemispheric involvement in reasoning abilities has been debated for some time, and it remains unclear whether the right hemisphere's involvement in problem solving is modality specific or dependent on the type of spatial reasoning required. In the current study, 2 types of nonverbal reasoning abilities were examined, spatial reasoning and proportional reasoning, in 109 patients with cerebrovascular disease that was
Automating Computational Molecular Genetics: Solving the Microsatellite Genotyping Problem
of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh This research was sponsored in part by the NIH National, molecular genetics, microsatellite genotyping, pattern matching, FASTMAP. #12; #12; ABSTRACT The HumanAutomating Computational Molecular Genetics: Solving the Microsatellite Genotyping Problem See
Automating Computational Molecular Genetics: Solving the Microsatellite Genotyping Problem
of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh This research was sponsored in part by the NIH National, molecular genetics, microsatellite genotyping, pattern matching, FAST-MAP. #12;#12;ABSTRACT The Human GenomeAutomating Computational Molecular Genetics: Solving the Microsatellite Genotyping Problem See
Learning and Problem Solving Strategies of ESL Students
Anna Uhl Chamot; Marsha Dale; J. Michael OMalley; George A. Spanos
1992-01-01
The mathematics problem solving approaches of a group of elementary and secondary ESL students were investigated through a performance assessment accompanied by think-aloud procedures. Students were enrolled in ESL mathematics classes in a Title VII project implementing the Cognitive Academic Learning Approach (CALLA). In this approach, curriculum content is used to develop academic language and learning strategies are taught explicitly
Creativity and Inspiration for Problem Solving in Engineering Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nordstrom, Katrina; Korpelainen, Paivi
2011-01-01
Problem solving is a critical skill for engineering students and essential to development of creativity and innovativeness. Essential to such learning is an ease of communication and allowing students to address the issues at hand via the terminology, attitudes, humor and empathy, which is inherent to their frame of mind as novices, without the…
Technologies for Literacy: Using Technologies in a Problem Solving Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Chwee Beng
2014-01-01
As technologies have become an integral part of our lives, the way we read and understand text has changed drastically. In this paper, we discuss how various technologies support learners' reading and writing skills within the context of meaningful learning. Next, using elaborated cases, we argue that situating learners in problem solving…
A Collaborative Problem-Solving Process through Environmental Field Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Mijung; Tan, Hoe Teck
2013-01-01
This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students ("n" =?16; age 14) and high-school students…