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1

Teaching through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

2

Principles for Teaching Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

Kirkley, Rob F.

2003-01-01

3

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage offers some basic principles for teaching problem solving that foster critical thinking and decision-­making skills. It includes a 5-step implementation model developed by D.R. Woods and a brief list of references. [The Forshay & Kirkley paper is cataloged separately and linked as a related resource.

2013-01-01

4

Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…

Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.

2010-01-01

5

Teaching Problem Solving to College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes steps of teaching problem solving to college students and provides examples in the context of a university course. The steps involve (1) identifying the types of problems and types of problem solving methods to be covered, (2) instructing the students in problem-recognition and problem solving methods, along with ways of…

Malouff, John M.

2011-01-01

6

Teaching Problem Solving to Preservice Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes ways to help preservice teachers become good classroom instructors of problem solving. It is felt it is impossible to teach problem solving if teachers themselves are not adequate problem solvers. In all cases, preservice teachers should have opportunities to solve problems and identify strategies used. (MP)

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

1982-01-01

7

Teaching and Learning through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author relates some problem solving work with primary schools to Department for Children, Schools, and Families (DfES) support. In four primary schools in the West Midlands, the focus was teaching mathematics through problem solving, based on materials published on the DfES "standards" website. The author noticed the way…

Ollerton, Mike

2007-01-01

8

Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…

Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz

2009-01-01

9

Using PLATO to Teach Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the results of three studies which investigated the use of PLATO to teach problem solving. Subjects were 244 children from kindergarten through third grade. The first study explored the extent to which kindergartners and second graders used the knowledge about which answers were right and which were wrong to develop the correct strategy to solve a novel picture problem. The next study looked at the procedures used by kindergartners and second graders while they were in the process of trying to get the answer. The third study considered three conditions of teaching first and third graders the necessary problem solving skills: experience only, feedback consisting of a visual record of the student's work on the first five problems, and interactive instructional feedback on how to solve each problem that the child had done wrong. Abstracts, methods, results, and discussions are given for each of the studies. Results of this research led to a post hoc study which is described. Seven figures show sample displays and nine references are also given.

Steinberg, Esther R.

2006-12-07

10

Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…

Warren, Louis L.

2005-01-01

11

Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a

R. Taconis; M. G. M. Ferguson-Hessler; H. Broekkamp

2001-01-01

12

TEACHING TRIZ AS A SYSTEMATIC PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD: BREAKING MINDSETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present education has often a dysfunctional approach in that it gives students knowledge and examples of how to solve problems using that knowledge, and then assumes that the student will somehow by a process similar to osmosis understand how to solve further problems in that domain. In reality there appears to be little focus on 'teaching' how to solve problems

Paul R. Filmore

2007-01-01

13

Metaphors in the Teaching of Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a study1 that investigated the teaching of mathematical problem solving from a teacher's perspective. The study focused on three teachers and their way of making sense of teaching problem solving. Data collected through interviews and classroom observations were analyzed in the context of an interpretive qualitative study to understand the meanings of the participants' classroom processes.

Olive Chapman

1997-01-01

14

Teaching Creative Problem Solving Using the Fundamentals of Manufacturing Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing addresses the problem of converting raw materials into desired shapes with functional characteristics that are affected by the manufacturing processes themselves. Manufacturing problems were used to teach problem solving techniques in a Manufacturing Processes course at Gonzaga University. The students solved the problems to develop processes and the equipment to implement the processes. They analyzed and designed parts, and

Douglas L. Ramers

15

Teaching and Learning. A Problem-Solving Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify Polya's art of…

Curcio, Frances R., Ed.

16

Teaching Clinical Problem Solving in a Preclinical Operative Dentistry Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method developed at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine for teaching modification of cavity design to large numbers of preclinical students in operative dentistry is reported. It standardizes the learning process for this complex problem-solving skill. (MLW)

Silvestri, Anthony R., Jr.; Cohen, Steven N.

1981-01-01

17

Understanding and Teaching Problem-Solving in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes a systematic study of skills for solving problems in basic physics. Also discusses how detailed observations of individuals were used to formulate models for problem-solving processes in mechanics and applications for teaching basic college physics or engineering courses.

Larkin, Jill H.; Reif, Frederick

2006-06-22

18

Designing Teaching Materials for Learning Problem Solving in Technology Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of designing teaching materials for learning problem solving in technology education, domain-specific design specifications are considered important elements to raise learning outcomes with these materials. Two domain-specific design specifications were drawn up using a four-step procedure and were applied to improve existing teaching-learning packages. The study focused on a construction problem (open-ended) and an explanation problem (constrained).

B. G. Doornekamp

2001-01-01

19

Why Solve Problems?--Interviewing College Faculty about the Learning and Teaching of Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the design and initial data analysis of an ongoing study to determine the important elements, as perceived by faculty, of the learning and teaching of problem solving in the context of an introductory calculus-based physics course. To elicit instructors' beliefs that inform their instructional choices, an interview around…

Yerushalmi, E.; Heller, K.; Heller, P.; Henderson, C.; Kuo, V.

20

Teaching Creativity and Inventive Problem Solving in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence- based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used.

Robert L. DeHaan

2009-01-01

21

Teaching Problem-Solving as a Habit of Mind  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pat Wagener of Los Medanos College describes an inquiry project with his Developmental Math students: "Through my classroom inquiry into teaching problem-solving, I have shown that students can learn to solve problems in ways that help them develop "habits of mind" with problem solving processes with the following features in the instructional plan: Students get lots of problem solving practice, with an emphasis on long term learning of habits of mind Students are introduced to the idea of multiple representations early, and this approach is reinforced through the curriculum materials in meaningful ways and in all aspects of the course Students have many opportunities to share their problem solving publicly through board work "

2011-01-01

22

Designing Teaching Materials for Learning Problem Solving in Technology Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of designing teaching materials for learning problem solving in technology education, domain-specific design specifications are considered important elements to raise learning outcomes with these materials. Two domain-specific design specifications were drawn up using a four-step procedure and were applied to improve existing teaching-learning packages. The study focused on a construction problem (open-ended) and an explanation problem (constrained). Construction material (fischertechnik) was used to solve the problems. In two experiments, these newly designed teaching materials were compared with the existing teaching materials. In all, 600 pupils participated in these experiments. In the experiment with the construction problem, no learning gains were made at all: the small gain in quality of the product made by the pupils cost too much time. In the experiment with the explanation problem, the quality of the pupils' product was significantly better in less time. It is argued that strongly structured teaching materials for constrained problems are more suitable for learners with little experience with construction material.

Doornekamp, B. G.

2001-01-01

23

Problem-Solving Strategies for Teaching Mathematics to Deaf Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three teaching and learning strategies for problem solving were implemented with first- and second-year deaf college students enrolled in mathematics courses at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), Rochester Institute of Technology. These strategies involved the students in ( a ) giving an explanation to a peer observer in sign language, after which they would put their understanding

Keith Mousley; Ronald R. Kelly

1998-01-01

24

Teaching Math 3-5 Session 3 Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development session is from an Annenberg Learner course that explores the NCTM process standard of problem solving as a key means to introducing new material and building conceptual understanding in students grades 3-5. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, student responses and reflection opportunities. This session is eligible for graduate credit for a fee when taken in conjunction with the other Teaching Math sessions from this course.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

25

Teaching Math K-2 Session 3 Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development session is from an Annenberg Learner course that explores the NCTM process standard of problem solving as a key means to introducing new material and building conceptual understanding in students grades K-2. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, student responses and reflection opportunities. This session is eligible for graduate credit for a fee when taken in conjunction with the other Teaching Math sessions from this course.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

26

Why solve problems? Interviewing College Faculty About the Learning and Teaching of Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper was presented at the XVIII International GIREP Conference, held at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, during the week of August 28th-1st September 2000. The author describes the design and initial data analysis of an ongoing study to determine the important elements, as perceived by faculty, of the learning and teaching of problem solving in the context of an introductory calculus-based physics course. This paper discusses the preliminary results of a comparison of two instructors who are known to differ primarily in their approaches to the teaching of problem solving. To elicit instructors' beliefs that inform their instructional choices, an interview around three concrete situations was designed: instructors' solutions, students' solutions, and actual practice. There is evidence to suggest that the primary difference between the two instructors is not in their vision of the expert problem solving process, but in the presence and treatment of competing models of learning and instruction. This article, along with others, have been compiled in a book.

Yerushalmi, Edit; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia; Henderson, Charles R.; Kuo, H. V.

2006-09-14

27

Teaching general learning and problem-solving skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the investigation and teaching of two general cognitive skills important in introductory physics. We first analyzed the various abilities needed for understanding a relation (definition or law) well enough to use it appropriately. Then we developed two different instructional methods for teaching students the general learning skill of gaining such an understanding of any new relation. We further taught students a simple strategy for problem solving. Our results indicate that students can indeed be taught such general cognitive skills and that they can transfer these skills to areas outside of physics.

Reif, Frederick; Larkin, Jill H.; Brackett, George

2005-10-20

28

THE EFFECTS ON STUDENTS' PROBLEM SOLVING BEHAVIOUR OF LONG-TERM TEACHING THROUGH A PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students from two Year 9 classes at an Australian high school were interviewed as they worked on various mathematical problem solving questions. One class had for three years been taught by a teacher very committed to teaching through a problem solving approach and to demonstrating the everyday usefulness of mathematical ideas. The other class had received traditional instruction, with only

Kaye Stacey

29

Teaching Creativity and Inventive Problem Solving in Science  

PubMed Central

Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property. The creative process can be explained by reference to increasingly well-understood cognitive skills such as cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control that are widely distributed in the population. I explore the relationship between creativity and the higher-order cognitive skills, review assessment methods, and describe several instructional strategies for enhancing creative problem solving in the college classroom. Evidence suggests that instruction to support the development of creativity requires inquiry-based teaching that includes explicit strategies to promote cognitive flexibility. Students need to be repeatedly reminded and shown how to be creative, to integrate material across subject areas, to question their own assumptions, and to imagine other viewpoints and possibilities. Further research is required to determine whether college students' learning will be enhanced by these measures.

2009-01-01

30

Selective Problem Solving (sps): A Model for Teaching Creative Problem-Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving is an integral part of human life from mathematics and science to business, marketing, arts, technology and more. It is sometimes a form of creativity with discoveries and aesthetics. In fact, wherever a genuine problem exists novel behavior is needed on the part of the problem solver. The aim of this article was to describe and discuss the

Ugur Sak

2011-01-01

31

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

2012-01-01

32

Clinical problem analysis (CPA): a systematic approach to teaching complex medical problem solving.  

PubMed

The authors describe and discuss clinical problem analysis (CPA), an approach to solving complex clinical problems. They outline the five steps of the CPA model and the essential elements of each step. Next, they discuss the value of CPA's content-independent (methodical) approach and argue that teaching students to use CPA will enable them to avoid some common diagnostic reasoning errors and pitfalls. Finally, they compare CPA with two existing approaches to clinical problem solving. PMID:10724322

Custers, E J; Stuyt, P M; De Vries Robbé, P F

2000-03-01

33

Clinical Problem Analysis (CPA): A Systematic Approach To Teaching Complex Medical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses clinical problem analysis (CPA) in medical education, an approach to solving complex clinical problems. Outlines the five step CPA model and examines the value of CPA's content-independent (methodical) approach. Argues that teaching students to use CPA will enable them to avoid common diagnostic reasoning errors and pitfalls. Compares…

Custers, Eugene J. F. M.; Robbe, Peter F. De Vries; Stuyt, Paul M. J.

2000-01-01

34

Teaching to Enhance Problem Solving: It's More Than the Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates an instructional method in general chemistry that attempts to bridge the gap between algorithmic problem-solving abilities and conceptual understanding of chemistry students and emphasizes conceptual problem solving in the initial phase of a concept. Concludes that using a conceptual focus for the chemistry courses had many positive…

Phelps, Amy J.

1996-01-01

35

Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweller, J., Clark, R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 57, 1303-1304.

John Sweller; Richard Clark; Paul A. Kirschner

2010-01-01

36

Teaching Thinking and Problem Solving at University: A Course on TRIZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thinking and problem solving skills are considered to be of significant importance in many professions. Surveys indicate that university education fails in appropriately enhancing these skills. This paper presents a concept of teaching thinking and problem solving as a separate course, based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). Student surveys showed that students' perception of their abilities in

Iouri Belski

2009-01-01

37

Implementing a problem solving strategy in teaching mathematics in lower secondary classes in a private school  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study set out to explore the experiences of two practicing teachers trying to implement a problem solving strategy in mathematics teaching. During the data collection period, I worked very closely with two teachers, working in a private secondary school, to introduce the problem solving strategy in teaching mathematics in classes seven and six. I collected data for this study

Musoke Samuel

2002-01-01

38

Teaching Conceptual Model-Based Word Problem Story Grammar to Enhance Mathematics Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Borrowing the concept of story grammar from reading comprehension literature, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of teaching "word problem (WP) story grammar" on arithmetic WP solving that emphasizes the algebraic expression of mathematical relations in conceptual models. Participants were five students in Grades 4 and 5 with or…

Xin, Yan Ping; Wiles, Ben; Lin, Yu-Ying

2008-01-01

39

The Use of Problem Solving Strategies in Teaching Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the research literature suggests that teachers need to provide students with engaging problems, facilitate their discovery of analysis methods, and encourage classroom discussion and presentation of their approaches to solving problems. Two separate studies compared differences in mathematics test scores involving students randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions using a causal-comparative design. The results from both

Randall E. Schumacker

2000-01-01

40

Which Extreme Variant of the Problem-Solving Method of Teaching Should Be More Characteristic of the Many Teacher Variations of Problem-Solving Teaching?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the effects of two problem-solving teaching approaches. Lower ability students in an activity group demonstrated superior growth in basic science understanding, &roblem-solving skills, science interests, personal adjustment, and school attitudes. Neither method favored cognitive learning by higher ability students. (PR)

Mahan, Luther A.

1970-01-01

41

Proof, Mathematical Problem-Solving, and Explanation in Mathematics Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We expect mathematical proofs to explain why the propositions in question are true or why certain mathematical phenomena occur\\u000a in certain situations. In this paper, I reexamine explanation-building processes by taking them as problem-solvers’ understanding\\u000a processes and by referring to research that has analyzed the relationships between explorations, understandings, and explanations\\u000a in mathematical problem-solving. I discuss some interactive features among

Kazuhiko Nunokawa

42

John Dewey--Problem Solving and History Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model for introducing inquiry and problem-solving into middle grade history classes. It is based on an educational approach suggested by John Dewey. The author uses the model to explore two seemingly contradictory statements by Abraham Lincoln about slavery. (AV)

Martorella, Peter H.

1978-01-01

43

Two Approaches to Teaching Young Children Science Concepts, Vocabulary, and Scientific Problem-Solving Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the efficacy of two different approaches to teaching designed to facilitate children's learning about science concepts and vocabulary related to objects' floating and sinking and scientific problem-solving skills: responsive teaching (RT) and the combination of responsive teaching and explicit instruction (RT + EI).…

Hong, Soo-Young; Diamond, Karen E.

2012-01-01

44

Mathematics Through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes what it means to teach mathematics using a problem solving approach and goes on to explain why teaching via problem solving is important in the development of a studentâs mathematical thinking. Problem solving is presented as a way to be able to address three of the values of mathematics: functional, logical and aesthetic.

Taplin, Margaret

2011-01-01

45

Evolution of a Teacher's Problem Solving Instruction: A Case Study of Aligning Teaching Practice with Reform in Middle School Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study shows how a teacher's middle school mathematics instruction evolved from teaching problem solving as computation exercises to teaching how to select and implement combinations of problem solving strategies.

Rickard, Anthony

2005-01-01

46

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

K-12 Outreach,

47

Teaching Problem Solving to Year 6 Students: A New Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the effects of an instructional intervention derived from the Garofalo and Lester (1985) cognitive-metacognitive framework on the problem-solving performance of Year 6 students with different ability levels. A quasi-experimental design was employed using one experimental and two control classes. Four different techniques were applied to identify above average, average, and below average students. There

Assad Adibnia; Ian J. Putt

1998-01-01

48

Evolution of a Teacher's Problem Solving Instruction: A Case Study of Aligning Teaching Practice with Reform in Middle School Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving continues to be a major focus of K-12 mathematics education reform. This case study shows how a teacher's middle school mathematics instruction evolved from teaching problem solving as computation exercises to teaching how to select and implement combinations of problem solving strategies. The teacher's thinking about problem solving instruction also evolved to encompass different understandings about what a

Anthony Rickard

49

The New Sourcebook for Teaching Reasoning and Problem Solving in Elementary School. A Longwood Professional Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers and administrators have recognized that problem solving and reasoning represent two of the primary goals in the education of children. In order for teachers to achieve these goals, they must have appropriate materials available to them. This book includes materials to help teach and assess problem solving and reasoning. The first six…

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

50

Teaching for Connection: Critical Thinking Skills, Problem Solving, and Academic and Occupational Competencies. Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 48 sample lesson plans that practicing teachers of vocational and academic education have developed to train vocational students to think critically and to solve problems. Discussed in the introduction are the following topics: critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making as the building blocks of teaching;…

Hedges, Lowell E.

51

A Comparison of Two Methods of Teaching Mathematics Story Problem-Solving with Learning Disabled Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effectiveness of a diagrammatic and a keyword method of teaching mathematics problem solving to 70 learning-disabled junior high school students. Results indicated no significant difference between problem-solving performance by students taught with different methods. Potential factors explaining inconsistencies between…

Walker, David W.; Poteet, James A.

1990-01-01

52

Applied mathematical problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case is presented for the importance of focusing on (1) average ability students, (2) substantive mathematical content, (3) real problems, and (4) realistic settings and solution procedures for research in problem solving. It is suggested that effective instructional techniques for teaching applied mathematical problem solving resembles “mathematical laboratory” activities, done in small group problem solving settings.

Richard Lesh

1981-01-01

53

Classroom-tested Recommendations for Teaching Problem Solving within a Traditional College Course: Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both teachers and students alike acknowledge that genetics and genetics problem-solving are extremely difficult to learn and to teach. Therefore, a number of recommendations for teaching college genetics are offered. Although few of these ideas have as yet been tested in controlled experiments, they are supported by research and experience and may…

Smith, Mike U.

54

Cognitive conflict as a teaching strategy in solving chemistry problems: A dialectic-constructivist perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of teaching experiments within a dialectic-constructivist framework based on the following considerations: (a) Cognitive conflicts used in the teaching experiments must be based on problem-solving strategies that students find relatively convincing: (b) after having generated a cognitive conflict, it is essential that the students be provided with an experience

Mansoor Niaz

1995-01-01

55

Evolution of a Teacher's Problem Solving Instruction: A Case Study of Aligning Teaching Practice with Reform in Middle School Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving continues to be a major focus of K-12 mathematics education reform. This case study shows how a teacher's middle school mathematics instruction evolved from teaching problem solving as computation exercises to teaching how to select and implement combinations of problem solving strategies. The teacher's thinking about problem

Rickard, Anthony

2005-01-01

56

DISCOVER: An Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching Students with Learning Difficulties To Solve Word Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students with learning difficulties have trouble solving mathematical word problems. Presents DISCOVER, an intelligent tutoring system that teaches students this task with less failure and frustration. Features a review of literature on word problem instruction, an explanation of intelligent tutoring systems, and a description of DISCOVER.…

Steele, Marcee M.; Steele, John W.

1999-01-01

57

Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving to Middle School Students in Math, Technology Education, and Special Education Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared two approaches for teaching sixth-grade middle school students to solve math problems in math, technology education, and special education classrooms. A total of 17 students with disabilities and 76 students without disabilities were taught using either enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) or text-based instruction coupled with applied problems (TBI). Results showed that both EAI and TBI students benefited

Brian A. Bottge; Mary Heinrichs; Zara Dee Mehta; Enrique Rueda; Ya-Hui Hung

58

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to a systematic procedure for solving problems through a demonstration and then the application of the method to an everyday activity. The unit project is introduced to provide relevance to subsequent lessons.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

59

Simulation Technique in the Teaching and Testing of Problem-Solving Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation, by an invited speaker at the 46th annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, describes simulation techniques used in the medical education program at the University of Illinois. Medical students interact with simulated patients and acquire problem-solving competencies for use in working with…

McGuire, Christine

60

A Teaching-Learning Method Enhancing Problem Solving and Motivation in Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a teaching-learning method for enhancing problem solving and motivation for studying science in secondary schools. Emerges from a former survey which, found that the motivation of 14-18-year-olds as measured by the Kozekik-Entwistle test was at a rather low level. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

Markoczi-Revak, Ibolya

2003-01-01

61

Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving to Middle School Students in Math, Technology Education, and Special Education Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared two approaches for teaching sixth-grade middle school students to solve math problems in math, technology education, and special education classrooms. A total of 17 students with disabilities and 76 students without disabilities were taught using either enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) or text-based instruction coupled with…

Bottge, Brian A.; Heinrichs, Mary; Mehta, Zara Dee; Rueda, Enrique; Hung, Ya-Hui; Danneker, Jeanne

2004-01-01

62

Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving to Middle School Students in Math, Technology Education, and Special Education Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study compared two approaches for teaching sixth-grade middle school students to solve math problems in math, technology education, and special education classrooms. The performance level of students with disabilities was low in both groups, but additional small-group instruction in special education settings helped several students with disabilities achieve at levels commensurate with their peers without disabilities.

Bottge, Brian A.; Heinrichs, Mary; Mehta, Zara D.; Rueda, Enrique; Hung, Ya-Hui; Danneker, Jeanne

2004-01-01

63

Teaching Clinical Reasoning and Problem-solving Skills Using Human Patient Simulation  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses using human patient simulation (HPS) to expose students to complex dynamic patient cases that require clinical judgment, problem-solving skills, and teamwork skills for success. An example of an HPS exercise used to teach multifaceted clinical concepts in a therapeutics course also is provided.

Vyas, Deepti; Ottis, Erica J.; Caligiuri, Frank J.

2011-01-01

64

Teaching Students Problem Solving in Introductory Physics: Forming an Initial Hypothesis of Instructors' Beliefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, shares an initial hypothesis of instructors' beliefs about their role in helping students learn to solve problems in an introductory calculus-based physics course. Instructors see their teaching role as primarily providing resources and making suggestions, with little mentioning of how they influence the students to use the resources or follow the suggestions.

2010-07-27

65

Comparing Explicit and Implicit Teaching of Multiple Representation Use in Physics Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There exist both explicit and implicit approaches to teaching students how to solve physics problems involving multiple representations. In the former, students are taught explicit problem-solving approaches, such as lists of steps, and these approaches are emphasized throughout the course. In the latter, good problem-solving strategies are modeled for students by the instructor and homework and exams present problems that require multiple representation use, but students are rarely told explicitly to take a given approach. We report on comparative study of these two approaches; students at Rutgers University receive explicit instruction, while students from the University of Colorado receive implicit instruction. Students in each course solve five common electrostatics problems of varying difficulty. We compare student performances and their use of pictures and free-body diagrams. We also compare the instructional environments, looking at teaching approaches and the frequency of multiple-representation use in lectures and exams. We find that students learning via implicit instruction do slightly better and use multiple representations more often on the shorter problems, but that students learning via explicit instruction are more likely to generate correct free-body diagrams on the hardest problem.

Kohl, Patrick B.; Rosengrant, David; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2007-11-25

66

Strengthen Instructional Components in Peer-Lead Problem-Solving Workshop with eTEACH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics and mechanics are core topics that sometimes frighten beginning engineering students. Statistics have shown that an increasing number of students have given up engineering because of struggle in these courses. One common realization is a consensus among educators that the quality of teaching needs to be improved, and that traditional lectures, even with stellar instructors, fail to motivate students to meet learning challenges. One of the responses from the College of Engineering at UW-Madison has been comprehensive academic support services, specifically the Supplementary Instruction (SI) Program. SI, a student-lead problem-solving workshop has made a significant impact on teaching and learning in engineering for the past eight years. In this report, we describe how we develop eTEACH (an on-line teaching tool) to integrate features of subject- and problem-based learning. We discuss how we incorporate eTEACH to promote broader interactions between instructors and students, as well as among students. Our initial results showed that this change has assisted students with different learning preferences to improve problem-solving and learning strategies. We acknowledge support from Dr. G. Moses, Dr. D. Woolston, and the 2010 project in engineering college.

Lin, Jia-Ling; Choe, B.; Fowler, P.; Gilsdorf, R.; Kirchdoerfer, T.; Kokemoor, A.; Lucas, G.; Madsen, T. J.; Romens, A.; Springer, M.

2009-03-01

67

Teaching genetics using hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching genetics can be challenging because of the difficulty of the content and misconceptions students might hold. This thesis focused on using hands-on model activities, problem solving, and inquiry-based teaching/learning methods in order to increase student understanding in an introductory biology class in the area of genetics. Various activities using these three methods were implemented into the classes to address any misconceptions and increase student learning of the difficult concepts. The activities that were implemented were shown to be successful based on pre-post assessment score comparison. The students were assessed on the subjects of inheritance patterns, meiosis, and protein synthesis and demonstrated growth in all of the areas. It was found that hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based activities were more successful in learning concepts in genetics and the students were more engaged than tradition styles of lecture.

Hoppe, Stephanie Ann

68

Problem Solving: Tips for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents several suggestions for teaching problem-solving. They include: (1) using the "reduction" strategy (which permits students to solve problems involving a large number of cases or a very complex figure); (2) a problem for students in grades 4-8 to solve; and (3) ways of fostering a problem-solving climate. (JN)

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

1985-01-01

69

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills without Sacrificing Course Content: Marrying Traditional Lecture and Active Learning in an Organic Chemistry Class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Promoting problem-solving skills is a challenge faced by all science instructors. Teaching students to integrate information without sacrificing content is critical. When taught with an active problem-centered teaching model, students' mean scores and score distributions on the American Chemical Society standardized exams were significantly improved without students' course content being sacrificed.

Jones-Wilson, T. M.

2005-09-01

70

Theme: Is Problem-Solving Teaching and SAE Needed in Agricultural Education in the 21st Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine articles in this theme issue address problem-solving teaching and supervised agricultural experience. Topics covered include systems approaches to SAE, SAE for Y2K, SAE for science, applied SAE, types of SAE, and examples of activities. (JOW)

Wardlow, George, Ed.

1999-01-01

71

Problem Solving with Patents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

2008-01-01

72

Teacher's Edition, Teaching Children How to think; Synthesis, Interpretation and Evaluation of Research and Development on Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication was designed to help teachers learn about promising materials, methods, and techniques for teaching creative thinking and problem solving to disadvantaged elementary school children. Two kinds of reviews of published teaching materials for specific grade levels and subject areas are included: (1) reviews of commercially published…

Feldhusen, John F.; And Others

73

Inhibitors to Implementing a Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Elementary Science: Case Study of a Teacher in Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study conducted to investigate the subjective experiences of a teacher making the transition from a traditional textbook, content-dispensing approach to a problem-solving approach to teaching science. Although outward changes in teaching materials and strategy are evidenced, the teacher shows little change in beliefs about the teacher's…

Martens, Mary Lee

1992-01-01

74

Programming Objects To Think With: Logo and the Teaching and Learning of Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unfortunately, much of the research devoted to Logo and problem solving has not supported the claim that Logo provides an environment in which children will develop problem solving skills, but the literature suggests that direct instruction and mediated Logo programming practice can result in the acquisition and transfer of certain problem solving

Swan, Karen

75

Effects of Teaching Approach on Problem Solving Ability of Agricultural Education Students with Varying Learning Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One group of Illinois secondary agriculture students was taught using a problem-solving approach (PSA), the other with a subject-matter approach (SMA). A problem-solving posttest and Group Embedded Figures Test showed significantly higher problem-solving ability in the PSA group. Field independent learners in the PSA group significantly increased…

Dyer, James E.; Osborne, Edward W.

1996-01-01

76

Patterns of Problem Solving and Its Peer Teaching Program: An Interdisciplinary Innovation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interdisciplinary course in problem solving, entitled "patterns of problem solving," and its unique peer program offered at the University of California, Los Angeles, are described. The emphasis in the subject matter and approach is to expose the student to the wide range of alternative problem solving techniques and to enable the student to…

Manus, Lee Aura; Zipser, Dean

77

A Structured Approach to Teaching Applied Problem Solving through Technology Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach to problem solving based on real-world problems. Discusses problem analysis and definitions, preparation of briefing documents, solution finding techniques (brainstorming and synectics), solution evaluation and judgment, and implementation. (JM)

Fischbach, Fritz A.; Sell, Nancy J.

1986-01-01

78

Problem Solving with Patents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected. The activities described here promote scientific literacy by helping students appreciate science as a human endeavor and making connections between science, technology, and society.

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

2008-03-01

79

Teaching University-Level Technology Students via the Learning Preferences and Problem-Solving Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on how technology educators can challenge students to "think" about technical problems. A key aspect of success in quality problem solving is understanding learning preferences and problem-solving approaches. The Learning Style Inventory (LSI) can be used to assess an individual's ideal way to learn, in essence, a person's…

Scott, Sophia; Koch, Doug

2010-01-01

80

Teaching the Use of a Problem-Solving Process to Early Childhood Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preservice teachers and current teachers alike face daily challenges that necessitate problem-solving skills. Conducting problem solving as a part of a group of professionals and the child's family can be beneficial because it encourages the offering of many perspectives, which allows for better understanding of the problem context. However, a…

Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Cheatham, Gregory A.

2005-01-01

81

The Problem-Solving Approach in the Teaching of Number Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical problem solving is the mainstay of the mathematics curriculum for Singapore schools. In the preparation of prospective mathematics teachers, the authors, who are mathematics teacher educators, deem it important that pre-service mathematics teachers experience non-routine problem solving and acquire an attitude that predisposes them to…

Toh, Pee Choon; Leong, Yew Hoong; Toh, Tin Lam; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng; Tay, Eng Guan; Ho, Foo Him

2014-01-01

82

Pac Man Goes to School: Teaching Problem Solving in the Electronic Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents problem solving model based on "Pac Man," which is designed to help develop systematic, throughtful, and productive decision making skills. The model--including steps in problem solving process, suggested questions for teachers to ask students, anticipated student responses--and applications to new situations are discussed. Four…

Blank, Deborah E.

1982-01-01

83

The Teaching and Assessing of Mathematical Problem Solving. Research Agenda for Mathematics Education Series. Volume 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains overviews of current research, insights from teachers and tutors, and considerations of such issues as metacognition, choice of operations, and the testing of problem-solving skills. Papers include: (1) "Historical Perspectives on Problem Solving in the Mathematics Curriculum" (George M. A. Stanic and Jeremy Kilpatrick); (2)…

Charles, Randall I., Ed.; Silver, Edward A., Ed.

84

Comparison of Direct Instruction and Problem Solving Approach in Teaching Social Skills to Children with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was aimed at comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of direct instruction and problem solving approaches in teaching social skills to children with mental retardation. The design was adapted alternating treatment design. The subjects of the study consist of a girl and a boy between the ages of 11 and 13 who are mentally retarded. In…

Dagseven Emecen, Deniz

2011-01-01

85

The Microcomputer and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four goals of teaching for problem solving and the characteristics of microcomputers that could be used to further these goals are examined. The combination of an enthusiastic teacher and the new technology is expected to open up new vistas of possibilities for problem solving in the curriculum of the 1980's. (MP)

Kantowski, Mary Grace

1983-01-01

86

Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

Tolman, Richard R.

1982-01-01

87

Teaching Algorithmic Problem Solving or Conceptual Understanding: Role of Developmental Level, Mental Capacity, and Cognitive Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been shown previously that many students solve chemistry problems using only algorithmic strategies and do not understand the chemical concepts on which the problems are based. It is plausible to suggest that if the information is presented in differing formats the cognitive demand of a problem changes. The main objective of this study…

Niaz, Mansoor; Robinson, William R.

88

Explicitly Teaching for Transfer: Effects on Third-Grade Students' Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of explicitly teaching for transfer by (a) broadening the categories by which students group problems requiring the same solution methods and (b) prompting students to search novel problems for these broad categories. This transfer treatment was combined with instruction on solution methods. The effectiveness of a combined treatment (transfer-plus-solution instruction)

Lynn S. Fuchs; Douglas Fuchs; Karin Prentice; Mindy Burch; Carol L. Hamlett; Rhoda Owen; Michelle Hosp; Deborah Jancek

2003-01-01

89

Hypertexts as Educational Systems: Pedagogical Issues in Teaching and Learning Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present some research results on the relationship between new technologies (such as hypermedia systems) and learning; in particular we consider the case of learning how to solve calculus problems.

Laura Farinetti; Anna Rosa Scarafiotti

1996-01-01

90

Teaching Mathematical Word Problem Solving: The Quality of Evidence for Strategy Instruction Priming the Problem Structure.  

PubMed

This study examined the quality of the research base related to strategy instruction priming the underlying mathematical problem structure for students with learning disabilities and those at risk for mathematics difficulties. We evaluated the quality of methodological rigor of 18 group research studies using the criteria proposed by Gersten et al. and 10 single case design (SCD) research studies using criteria suggested by Horner et al. and the What Works Clearinghouse. Results indicated that 14 group design studies met the criteria for high-quality or acceptable research, whereas SCD studies did not meet the standards for an evidence-based practice. Based on these findings, strategy instruction priming the mathematics problem structure is considered an evidence-based practice using only group design methodological criteria. Implications for future research and for practice are discussed. PMID:23686999

Jitendra, Asha K; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Lein, Amy E; Zaslofsky, Anne F; Kunkel, Amy K; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Egan, Andrea M

2013-05-16

91

Development of Innovative Teaching Materials: Clinical Pharmacology Problem-Solving (CPPS) Units: Comparison with Patient-Oriented Problem-Solving Units and Problem-Based Learning—A 10Year Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The First Teaching Clinic in Clinical Pharmacology, sponsored by the American College of Clinical Pharmacology in September 1992, was designed for the preparation and development of new clinical pharmacology problem-solving (CPPS) units. CPPS units are case histories that illustrate pertinent principles in clinical pharmacology. Each unit consists of the following sections: introduction, learning objectives, pretest, four clinical pharmacology scenarios, posttest,

Claire M. Lathers; Cedric M. Smith

2002-01-01

92

GOAL-oriented Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving skills, although an important goal of many introductory science courses, are not easily mastered by many students. The GOAL approach is easy to recall and encourages students to Gather information about the problem, Organize an approach to the solution, Analyze the problem, and then Learn from their efforts. This mnemonic is based on the findings of other researchers who have studied how students solve problems and was conceived during development of an introductory physics text as a mental aid to avoid formula-centered problem solving and to teach skills employed by experienced problem solvers.

Beichner, Robert J.; Deardorff, Duane; Zhang, Binghua

2006-12-06

93

GOAL-oriented Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving skills, although an important goal of many introductory science courses, are not easily mastered by many students. The GOAL approach is easy to recall and encourages students to Gather information about the problem, Organize an approach to the solution, Analyze the problem, and then Learn from their efforts. This mnemonic is based on the findings of other researchers who have studied how students solve problems and was conceived during development of an introductory physics text as a mental aid to avoid formula-centered problem solving and to teach skills employed by experienced problem solvers.

Beichner, Robert J.; Deardorff, Duane; Zhang, Binghua

2010-11-08

94

A trial of patient-oriented problem-solving system for immunology teaching in China: a comparison with dialectic lectures  

PubMed Central

Background The most common teaching method used in China is lecturing, but recently, efforts have been widely undertaken to promote the transition from teacher-centered to student-centered education. The patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS) system is an innovative teaching-learning method that permits students to work in small groups to solve clinical problems, promotes self-learning, encourages clinical reasoning and develops long-lasting memory. To our best knowledge, however, POPS has never been applied in teaching immunology in China. The aim of this study was to develop POPS in teaching immunology and assess students’ and teachers’ perception to POPS. Methods 321?second-year medical students were divided into two groups: I and II. Group I, comprising 110 students, was taught by POPS, and 16 immunology teachers witnessed the whole teaching process. Group II including the remaining 211 students was taught through traditional lectures. The results of the pre- and post-test of both groups were compared. Group I students and teachers then completed a self-structured feedback questionnaire for analysis before a discussion meeting attended only by the teachers was held. Results Significant improvement in the mean difference between the pre- and post-test scores of those in Groups I and II was seen, demonstrating the effectiveness of POPS teaching. Most students responded that POPS facilitates self-learning, helps them to understand topics and creates interest, and 88.12% of students favored POPS over simple lectures. Moreover, while they responded that POPS facilitated student learning better than lectures, teachers pointed out that limited teaching resources would make it difficult for wide POPS application in China. Conclusions While POPS can break up the monotony of dialectic lectures and serve as a better teaching method, it may not be feasible for the current educational environment in China. The main reason for this is the relative shortage of teaching resources such as space, library facilities and well-trained teachers.

2013-01-01

95

Teaching Third Graders about Real-Life Mathematical Problem Solving: A Randomized Controlled Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of schema-broadening instruction (SBI), with and without explicit instruction in strategies for tackling the complexities involved in real-life (RL) math problems, on the math problem solving of third-grade students. Teachers (n = 30) were assigned randomly to 3 16-week conditions: control, SBI,…

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Finelli, Robin; Courey, Susan J.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Sones, Estelle M.; Hope, Susan K.

2006-01-01

96

Research and Teaching: Promoting the Use of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills in Qualitative Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a platform to encourage students to use HOCS in their Learn responses. The study focused on students' use of HOCS in these Learn responses regardless of whether HOCS were used in the actual solving of the problems or not. The results of this study suggest that consistent use of the Learn response in problem solving promotes reflection with an accompanied increase in use of HOCS by students during a semester.

Justice, Jason; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

2008-05-01

97

Creating Problem Solving Natives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post, the author discusses how valuable the problem-solving tool of drawing (or acting) out the problem is to help learners make sense of the problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of work from students who were successful and who were not successful in solving the problem are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "Schmoos ânâ Goos" (cataloged separately) that is best solved by drawing a picture.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-03-04

98

A Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Electrochemical Driving Force to Undergraduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach to teaching electrochemical driving force that helps students comprehend the forces that govern ion flux across biological membranes and sets the stage for more elaborate analysis of biochemical signals is presented. Background information and two sample problems and answers are included. (KR)

Nolan, William F.

1990-01-01

99

Cognitive Conflict as a Teaching Strategy in Solving Chemistry Problems: A Dialectic-Constructivist Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exposure of an experimental group of (n=33) college freshmen to teaching experiments dealing with stoichiometry problems based on the concept of limiting reagent showed greater improvement in posttests than the (n=39) student control group and observed that some students protect their core beliefs by ignoring conflicting data. (Author/MKR)

Niaz, Mansoor

1995-01-01

100

Teaching methods for systematic inventive problem-solving: evaluation of a course for teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systematic inventive problem-solving is an approach for finding original and useful ideas by systematically examining alterations in existing components within a system, their attributes, functions or internal relationships. This method, which aims at complementing divergent thinking in problem-solving and design, is gaining increased attention in industrial and academic frameworks. The current study examined how science and technology teachers learn, internalize and use the method within an academic course. Data were collected through pre-course and post-course quizzes and questionnaires, documentation of students’ activities, and interviews. The results showed that individuals can improve their problem-solving abilities by combining methods based on ‘ordered thinking’ and ‘disordered thinking,’ and that none of these approaches has preference over the other. Considerable additional work is required, however, to investigate how the proposed approach could be used to foster creative thinking in science and technology studies at school.

Barak, Moshe

2006-11-01

101

Adult Students' Reasoning in Geometry: Teaching Mathematics through Collaborative Problem Solving in Teacher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports research that is concerned with pre-service teachers2 working collaboratively in a problem-solving context without teacher involvement. The aim is to focus on the students' heuristic strategies employed in the solution process while working on two problems in geometry. Two episodes from the dialogues in one group of students with limited mathematical backgrounds have been chosen to illustrate

Raymond Bjuland

2007-01-01

102

Social Problem Solving through Science: An Approach to Critical, Place-Based, Science Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Social Problem Solving through Science (SPSS) project engaged middle school-aged youth in the study of local environmental challenges with implications for human health and well-being, both globally and locally. Students considered environmental risk factors in a series of structured activities to develop background knowledge on environmental…

Buxton, Cory A.

2010-01-01

103

An Individualized Problem-Solving Approach for Teaching Choral Phrase Shaping: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment tested a treatment designed to improve choral students' expressiveness regarding keyword emphasis and phrase shaping. The treatment was founded upon the constructivist belief that students actively construct conceptual knowledge through problem solving. Participants were 46 university students randomly selected from a nonauditioned…

Broomhead, Paul

2009-01-01

104

Teaching Methods for Inventive Problem-Solving in Junior High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fostering pupils' competencies in inventive thinking and problem-solving has remained a rather unresolved issue in traditional schooling, mainly because many people regard creative thinking as a God-given ability, something an individual either possesses or does not possess, but can only be slightly learned or improved. The current study is aimed…

Barak, Moshe; Mesika, Pnina

2007-01-01

105

Trends in Researching and Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics in Australia: 1997 - 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a brief summary of recent trends in the role of problem solving in school mathematics in Australia. Australia has a federal system of government and there are 8 independent major education systems. Policies about mathematics education and their implementation vary among these systems, although there are many commonalties. Generalisation is difficult and the observations following are not

Kaye Stacey

106

A Modeling Perspective on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the processes used by students when engaged in modeling activities and examined how students' abilities to solve modeling problems changed over time. Two student populations, one experimental and one control group, participated in the study. To examine students' modeling processes, the experimental group participated in an intervention program consisting of a sequence of six modeling activities. To

Nicholas G. Mousoulides; Constantinos Christou; Bharath Sriraman

2008-01-01

107

Using Logo to Develop Problem Solving Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes using computer programing teaching problem solving. Describes the problem-solving technique of Top-Down Design, discusses its application to LOGO, and provides examples of programs using LOGO. (MDH)

Denenberg, Stewart A.

1993-01-01

108

Teaching with Concrete and Abstract Visual Representations: Effects on Students' Problem Solving, Problem Representations, and Learning Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that…

Moreno, Roxana; Ozogul, Gamze; Reisslein, Martin

2011-01-01

109

Physics faculty beliefs and values about the teaching and learning of problem solving. II. Procedures for measurement and analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To identify and describe the basis upon which instructors make curricular and pedagogical decisions, we have developed an artifact-based interview and an analysis technique based on multilayered concept maps. The policy capturing technique used in the interview asks instructors to make judgments about concrete instructional artifacts similar to those they likely encounter in their teaching environment. The analysis procedure alternatively employs both an a priori systems view analysis and an emergent categorization to construct a multilayered concept map, which is a hierarchically arranged set of concept maps where child maps include more details than parent maps. Although our goal was to develop a model of physics faculty beliefs about the teaching and learning of problem solving in the context of an introductory calculus-based physics course, the techniques described here are applicable to a variety of situations in which instructors make decisions that influence teaching and learning.

Henderson, Charles R.; Yerushalmi, Edit; Kuo, H. V.; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia

2008-09-24

110

Physics faculty beliefs and values about the teaching and learning of problem solving. I. Mapping the common core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In higher education, instructors’ choices of both curricular material and pedagogy are determined by their beliefs about learning and teaching, the values of their profession, and perceived external constraints. Dissemination of research-based educational reforms is based on assumptions about that mental structure. This study reports the initial phase of an investigation of the beliefs and values of physics professors as they relate to the teaching and learning of problem solving in introductory physics. Based on an analysis of a series of structured interviews with six college physics faculty, a model of a common structure of such beliefs for all physics faculty teaching introductory physics was constructed. This preliminary model, when tested and modified by future research, can be used by curriculum developers to design materials, pedagogy, and professional development that gain acceptance among instructors.

Yerushalmi, E.; Henderson, C.; Heller, K.; Heller, P.; Kuo, V.

2007-12-01

111

Virtual microscopy system at Chinese medical university: an assisted teaching platform for promoting active learning and problem-solving skills  

PubMed Central

Background Chinese medical universities typically have a high number of students, a shortage of teachers and limited equipment, and as such histology courses have been taught using traditional lecture-based formats, with textbooks and conventional microscopy. This method, however, has reduced creativity and problem-solving skills training in the curriculum. The virtual microscope (VM) system has been shown to be an effective and efficient educational strategy. The present study aims to describe a VM system for undergraduates and to evaluate the effects of promoting active learning and problem-solving skills. Methods Two hundred and twenty-nine second-year undergraduate students in the Third Military Medical University were divided into two groups. The VM group contained 115 students and was taught using the VM system. The light microscope (LM) group consisted of 114 students and was taught using the LM system. Post-teaching performances were assessed by multiple-choice questions, short essay questions, case analysis questions and the identification of structure of tissue. Students’ teaching preferences and satisfaction were assessed using questionnaires. Results Test scores in the VM group showed a significant improvement compared with those in the LM group (p??0.05); however, there were notable differences in the mean score rate of case analysis questions and identification of structure of tissue (p?problem-solving skills as an assisted teaching platform.

2014-01-01

112

Pathways to Scientific Teaching, Chapter 4b of 7: Problem solving: a foundation for modeling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reading and discussing primary literature is central to communicating science. Students need practice in reading the literature for purposes beyond gaining information. Literature can be used to both increase knowledge and comprehension and to engage students in higher-level thinking (Bloom 1956; Levine 2001; Gillen et al. 2004; Finelli et al. 2005). Because science is also about making predictions and testing models, using information gained from reading to construct models allows students to develop problem-solving skills (Starfield et al. 1994). Ellison et al. [attached] provide information on how the removal of foundation species has affected the structure and function of a wide range of forest communities. In this article, we show how the Ellison et al. paper can be used to help students make connections between their prior knowledge and new information. Students explain the causes and effects of forest decline and the ecological processes involved by developing an explicit model that interconnects the data presented in the paper. They confer with their peers to explain and refine their models and then use the knowledge represented in their models to make predictions about novel situations. In this way, students actively develop their understanding of science and practice their ability to solve problems.

Ebert-May, Diane

2012-03-05

113

Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students…

Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez; Aznar, Mercedes Martinez

2005-01-01

114

Mathematics Teachers Circle around Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making problem solving a central part of teaching may be challenging to teachers who have limited experiences in learning and teaching mathematics in this way. Math Teachers' Circles were developed with the aim of establishing a "culture of problem solving" among middle school mathematics teachers. This culture could then be carried back into…

Fernandes, Anthony; Koehler, Jacob; Reiter, Harold

2011-01-01

115

Math problem solving model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers will find the information and tools in this module a useful introduction to teaching with open-ended problems. Information about related professional development opportunities is also available at the site.

Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL)

2002-01-01

116

A Weighty Problem Solved.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A word problem concerning weights of a pail containing different amounts of nails appeared in January 1997 issue of Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School. Teachers were invited to try the problem with classes and submit examples of students' work with a brief analysis. This article contains three student solutions. Argues that posing such…

McClain, Kay, Ed.

1997-01-01

117

Improving mathematical problem solving: A computerized approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction on domain-specific knowledge required in different episodes of problem solving. The first program is based on a direct instructional approach to learning,

Egbert G. Harskamp; Cor J. M. Suhre

2006-01-01

118

Problem Solving - Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn some basic math skills while at the same time learning some programming skills This short lesson focuses on solving simple math problem using computer programming. In this case, the examples given will be in Python (click on this link for more information: Official Tutorial for the Python programming language.). Computer programming can and has often been used to solve very complex mathematical problems along the lines of calculating ? ...

Kajigga

2009-09-23

119

Problem Solving Seminar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course includes elements from an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. The material will help students develop their mathematical and problem solving skills. A few topics that are covered include probability, generating mathematical functions and polynomials. Course materials include student assignments and solutions. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Kedlaya, Kiran Sridhara, 1974-; Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-; Stanley, Richard

2010-12-22

120

Problem-Solving Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

1992-01-01

121

Best Practices in Writing Instruction. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highly practical and accessible, this indispensable book provides clear-cut strategies for improving K-12 writing instruction. The contributors are leading authorities who demonstrate proven ways to teach different aspects of writing, with chapters on planning, revision, sentence construction, handwriting, spelling, and motivation. The use of the…

Graham, Steve, Ed.; MacArthur, Charles A., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Jill, Ed.

2007-01-01

122

A Guide for Teaching Creative Thinking Skills and Creative Problem-Solving in the Gifted Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide offers elementary teachers narrative statements about creative thinking in teaching and learning and contains over 100 ideas for gifted classroom activities. Narratives address the following topics: rationale for creative thinking in the classroom, definition of creative thinking, individual development of creativity, teacher and learner…

Foster, Kathleen M.

123

The development of students' problem-solving skill from instruction emphasizing qualitative problem-solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful learning of introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. In the physics department at the University of Minnesota, this duality is understood and attempts are being made to teach successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a problem-solving strategy that

Thomas Michael Foster

2000-01-01

124

Solving Common Mathematical Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

Luz, Paul L.

2005-01-01

125

Preparing for Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeking more effective mathematics instruction, this author decided to incorporate Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI) into first-grade classroom lessons. Students in CGI mathematics classrooms are prompted to use their prior knowledge to solve new problems, establish cognitive structures to which new learning can be connected, and be driven by…

Holden, Becky

2007-01-01

126

Solving Energy Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The culminating energy project is introduced and the technical problem solving process is applied to get students started on the project. By the end of the class, students should have a good perspective on what they have already learned and what they still need to learn to complete the project.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

127

Problem Solving: Bubble Gum Contest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip presents students engaged in The Common Core Practice Standard #1âMake sense of problems and persevere in solving them. The learners gather data for a bubble gum contest, as part of a larger activity involving recording data and writing up results. Students understand the problem and persevere with the task as they independently go to other classrooms to conduct their survey. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

128

An Alternate Path To Stoichiometric Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an alternate path to teaching introductory stoichiometry based on research findings. The recommendation is to use problems that can be solved easily by rapid mental calculation as well as by pure logic. (AIM)

Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

1997-01-01

129

Workshop Three: Creativity, Problem Solving, and Constructivism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents salient features of workshop discussion examining good educational practice related to creative thinking and problem solving. Describes constructivist teaching, incorporating examples of classroom learning opportunities that use different forms of scaffolding and vignettes that illustrate constructive educational interactions. Explores…

Siraj-Blatchford, John; Brudenell, Iain MacLeod

1996-01-01

130

Pause for Reflection. Teaching the Impulsive Student Reflective Problem-Solving with Self-Instruction Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typical characteristics of impulsive children and adolescents are reviewed and strategies for changing this behavior are considered. Self-instruction training requires the child to verbalize a given problem, alternative approaches to resolution, and attentional strategies. Language becomes a mediator for self-monitoring and regulation. Cognitive…

Campbell, Donald S.

131

Environmental problem solving  

SciTech Connect

Human influences create both environmental problems and barriers to effective policy aimed at addressing those problems. In effect, environmental managers manage people as much as they manage the environment. Therefore, they must gain an understanding of the psychological and sociopolitical dimensions of environmental problems that they are attempting to resolve. The author reappraises conventional analyses of environmental problems using lessons from the psychosocial disciplines. The author combines the disciplines of ecology, political sociology and psychology to produce a more adaptive approach to problem-solving that is specifically geared toward the environmental field. Numerous case studies demonstrate the practical application of theory in a way that is useful to technical and scientific professionals as well as to policymakers and planners.

Miller, A. [Univ. of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)

1999-06-01

132

Problem Solving Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this workshop was to address multiple aspects of research on problem solving environments (PSEs), including design\\u000a and implementation issues, exploitation of enabling technologies, applications, and education issues. A PSE is a complete,\\u000a integrated computing environment for composing, compiling, and running applications in a specific area. A PSE may also incorporate\\u000a many features of an expert system and

David Walker; Ken Hawick; Domenico Laforenza; Efstratios Gallopoulos

133

The Spreadsheet: Solving Word Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents several examples of algebraic word problems and demonstrates how spreadsheets are used to solve the problems. Spreadsheet templates are included to illustrate how each problem is solved. (MBR)

Arad, Ofar S.

1987-01-01

134

The influence of contextual teaching with the problem solving method on students' knowledge and attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0.0033). Students who were more actively involved in hands-on projects had higher attitude scores compared to students who were taught traditional methods alone. In demographic comparisons, females had more positive attitudes toward horticulture science than males; and students from varying ethnic backgrounds had statistically different achievement (p=0.0001). Ethnicity was determined with few students in each background, 8 in one ethnicity and 10 students in another. Youth organization membership such as FFA or 4-H had no significant bearing on achievement or attitude.

Whitcher, Carrie Lynn

135

Genetics problem solving and worldview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

Dale, Esther

136

Depression and Social Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty depressed patients with major depressive disorder, 20 nondepressed matched control subjects, and 17 patients with anxiety disorders were compared in different measures of social problem solving. Problem solving was assessed with the Means–Ends Problem-Solving Test (Study 1), the solution of personal problems, and a problem-solving questionnaire (Study 2). Results showed that, as predicted, depressed subjects suffered from a deficit

Elisabeth M. Marx; J. Mark G. Williams; Gordon C. Claridge

1992-01-01

137

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills without Sacrificing Course Content: Marrying Traditional Lecture and Active Learning in an Organic Chemistry Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In traditional science teaching, teachers expect the average student to implicitly learn and apply subtle concepts and to connect seemingly disjointed information. Teachers expect them to actively assemble the building blocks of critical thinking, often without example (Meyers 1986). The critical analysis of issues and problems is second nature to…

Jones-Wilson, T. Michelle

2005-01-01

138

Problem Solving: A Classroom Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student problem solving, even with emotionally disturbed children, provides students and teachers with a way to deal with impulsive behavior. Outlines steps to respectful problem solving by introducing students to ways to reframe their thinking. (JPS)

Templeton, Rosalyn Anstine; Lorsbach, Anthony W.

1996-01-01

139

Correlates of Creative Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purposes of this research were to (a) identify individual differences related to unstructured problem-solving capability and (b) evaluate the effective- ness of a training course designed to enhance performance in solving unstructured problems. One gr...

S. R. Stewart D. C. Angle

1992-01-01

140

Solving Verbal Problems in Mathematics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video shows effective ways to promote verbal problem solving skills. Examples of teachers and pupils in action, using various problem solving techniques, are interspersed with examples of actual work which result from the use of multiple approaches. I...

1994-01-01

141

The Development of Students' Problem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

142

STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE PROBLEM-SOLVING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES WERE (A) TO DEVELOP A BATTERY OF INSIGHT-PROBLEMS FOR USE IN PROBLEM-SOLVING RESEARCH, (B) TO REPLICATE A TRAINING EXPERIMENT IN ORDER TO DETERMINE WHAT A SUBJECT MIGHT HAVE LEARNED IN A SPECIFIC SITUATION WHICH COULD INFLUENCE NONSPECIFIC SITUATIONS, AND (C) TO ATTEMPT TO TEACH SUBJECTS STRATEGY WHICH WILL ALLOW THEM TO…

DANIELS, PHILLIP B.

143

The influence of contextual teaching with the problem solving method on students' knowledge and attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students.

Carrie Lynn Whitcher

2005-01-01

144

The Transfusion Medicine Tutor: Using Expert Systems Technology to Teach Domain-Specific Problem-Solving Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides data regarding the effectiveness of the expert system-based Transfusion Medicine Tutor (TMT) when used by medical technology students to learn an important problem-solving task, the identification of alloantibodies in a patient's blood for the purpose of finding compatible blood for transfusion. The results show that the students who were taught by an instructor using TMT to provide

Jodi Heintz Obradovich; Philip J. Smith; Stephanie Guerlain; Sally Rudmann; Patricia Strohm; Jack W. Smith; Larry Sachs; Rebecca Denning

1996-01-01

145

Uniting Active and Deep Learning to Teach Problem-Solving Skills: Strategic Tools and the Learning Spiral  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an innovative strategic tools course designed to enhance the problem-solving skills of marketing majors. The course serves as a means of preparing students to capitalize on opportunities afforded by a case-based capstone course and to better meet the needs and expectations of prospective employers. The course format utilizes…

Diamond, Nina; Koernig, Stephen K.; Iqbal, Zafar

2008-01-01

146

Physics Problem Solving Research Using Protocols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents an overview of research on physics problem solving using verbal protocols. It asserts that the understanding of physics problem solving strategies enables researchers to write computer programs, which can automatically solve physics problems without the users having to be experts in physics. This, in turn, can generate more effective teaching methods for physics courses because such programs can be the basis for computer-assisted instruction, or CAI. This type of instruction combined with the program could answer questions about solving various physics problems and could also have the ability to analyze where the student went wrong in his or her solution(s). It is for reasons such as these that it is important to enhance the amount of research going into physics problem solving strategies. (Contains 12 references.)

Brekke, Stewart

2006-12-06

147

A Method for Solving Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving and decision making are considered to be keys to successful management. A normative method for problem solving is presented, suggesting that the analysis of the problem be structured along a five-step procedure: problem identification, analysis, decision alternatives, decision making, and decision implementation. Follow-up…

Knoop, Robert

1987-01-01

148

Problem Solving: A Handbook for Senior High School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of problem solving begins the moment a child first enters school and the senior high school plays a major role in the development of this skill since a number of students terminate their formal education at the end of this period. This book combines suggestions for the teaching of problem solving with activities, problems, and…

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

149

Problem Solving: A Handbook for Teachers. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past decade, problem solving has become a major focus of the mathematics curriculum. Many feel that in this era of increasing technology, it is important for students to learn how to approach a problem situation. This book was designed to help teachers teach problem solving. Chapter 1, "An Introduction to Problem Solving," deals with…

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

150

What is Distinctive in (Our Views about) Models & Modelling Perspectives on Mathematics Problem Solving, Learning, and Teaching?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the nature of typical problem-solving situations where elementary-but-powerful mathematical constructs and conceptual\\u000a systems are needed for success beyond school in a technology-based age of information? What kind of “mathematical thinking”\\u000a is emphasized in these situations? What does it mean to “understand” the most important ideas and abilities that are needed\\u000a in the preceding situations? How do these competencies

Richard Lesh; Caroline Yoon

151

Models of group problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the group problem solving process was investigated with college Ss working on Maier's horse trading problem (1952). 3 theoretical models were posited to be utilized to interpret the results: an independent model (group response will not differ from those of Ss working alone), a rational model (when one group member solves the problem, the group will adopt

Edwin J. Thomas; Clinton F. Fink

1961-01-01

152

Technological Problem Solving: A Proposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of newer technology education materials reveals two recurring themes: one relates to curriculum content, familiarizing students with technology, and another to a technique of classroom instruction, i.e., problem solving. A problem-solving framework for technical education has the following components: (1) define the problem; (2)…

Waetjen, Walter B.

153

Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of biology, and apply them to new sets of facts.

Wisehart, Gary; Mandell, Mark

2008-03-01

154

The Problem-Solving Nemesis: Mindless Manipulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indicates that only 21% of respondents (secondary school math teachers) used computer-assisted instruction for tutorial work, physical models to interpret abstract concepts, or real-life application of the arithmetic or algebraic manipulation. Recommends that creative teaching methods be applied to problem solving. (NKA)

Hawkins, Vincent J.

1987-01-01

155

Solving Cognitive Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... answering this, some consistent information has emerged. n Memory or recall problems. Problems with memory — the most ... of ways to compensate for cognitive changes: > Where memory is weak, try substituting organization. Get yourself a ...

156

Learning Impasses in Problem Solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

Hodgson, J. P. E.

1992-01-01

157

Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

Ernst, Jeremy V.

2009-01-01

158

Problem Solving on a Monorail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity was created to address a lack of problem-solving activities for elementary children. A "monorail" activity from the Evening Science Program for K-3 Students and Parents program is presented to illustrate the problem-solving format. Designed for performance at stations by groups of two students. (LZ)

Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others

1994-01-01

159

Problem Solving vis Soap Bubbles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a scientific phenomenon related to the concept of surface tension as an intriguing vehicle to direct attention to useful problem solving techniques. The need for a definite building process in attempts to solve mathematical problems is stressed. (EB)

Bader, William A.

1975-01-01

160

Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…

Lacy, Grace

161

The Future Problem Solving Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…

Crabbe, Anne B.

1989-01-01

162

Common Core: Solve Math Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

Strom, Erich

2012-01-01

163

On Solving "Problems"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counting and estimating are no doubt ancient survival skills. And yet, present educational methods tend to downplay these very skills. This breeds senseless innumeracy and social disruption. Jumbling inches with centimeters, for example, can cause a Mars mission to fail. With minor distortion, elementary and high schools (and beyond) teach that all fractions are simple, that all square roots are rational, and that trigonometric functions need be evaluated only for 30, 45, and 60 degrees. We thus inflict threefold damage on our children and students. First, they come to believe that numbers beyond 10 (except for current account deficits) are intuitively inaccessible; second, that answers to all mathematical questions are "formulas"; and third, that the art of estimation merely requires punching keys on a calculator—a dismal sort of black magic. These beliefs I wish to expose in the form of eight short numerical tales.

Ghez, Richard

2006-04-01

164

Modeling Applied to Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling Applied to Problem Solving (MAPS) is a pedagogy that helps students transfer instruction to problem solving in an expert-like manner. Declarative and Procedural syllabus content is organized and learned (not discovered) as a hierarchy of General Models. Students solve problems using an explicit Problem Modeling Rubric that begins with System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.). System and Interactions are emphasized as the key to a strategic description of the system and the identification of the appropriate General Model to apply to the problem. We have employed the pedagogy in a three-week review course for students who received a D in mechanics. The course was assessed by a final exam retest as well as pre and post C-LASS surveys, yielding a one standard deviation improvement in the students' ability to solve final exam problems and a statistically significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the C-LASS.

Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

2009-10-01

165

Effects of the Problem Solving and Subject Matter Approaches on the Problem Solving Ability of Secondary School Agricultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The approach used by teachers is very important to the success of the teaching process. This is why this study seeks to determine which teaching approaches--problem solving and subject-matter, would best improve the problem solving ability of selected secondary agricultural education students in Ikorodu Local Government Area. Ten classes and 150…

Olowa, O. W.

2009-01-01

166

Children Solve Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

De Bono, Edward

167

Teachers’ pedagogies and their impact on students’ mathematical problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the classroom practices of three teachers teaching mathematics at the 5th grade level in three Singapore schools. Using a video-coding scheme, a series of lessons was coded into relevant phases comprising problem solving, teaching concepts\\/skills, going over assigned work, and student activities. It explores the teachers’ pedagogical experimentation in their teaching of mathematical problem solving after an

Kai Fai Ho; John G. Hedberg

2005-01-01

168

Structural Understanding in Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A common instructional objective in domains of math and science is the capability to use formulas and arithmetic procedures to solve problems. Although students are explicitly taught the relevant formulas and principals, are shown worked-out examples, and...

M. Riley

1989-01-01

169

Problem Solving: A Handbook for Elementary School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book combines suggestions for the teaching of problem solving with activities and carefully discussed non-routine problems which students should find interesting as they gain valuable experience in problem solving. The over 300 activities and problems have been gleaned from a variety of sources and have been classroom tested by practicing…

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

170

Preparing Elementary Teachers to Teach Mathematics: A Problem-solving Approach. Final Report. Volume II: Content Component.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Preparing Elementary Teachers to Teach Mathematics (PETTM) Project" (1988-1991) was a cooperative university/school effort to improve the teaching of mathematics by elementary teachers with its primary focus on improving the university training of preservice teachers (PSTs) in mathematics. This document, volume II of the project's final…

Lester, Frank K., Jr.; And Others

171

The Effects of GO Solve Word Problems Math Intervention on Applied Problem Solving Skills of Low Performing Fifth Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigation examined the effects of "GO Solve Word Problems" math intervention on problem-solving skills of struggling 5th grade students. In a randomized controlled study, 16 5th grade students were given a 12-week intervention of "GO Solve", a computer-based program designed to teach schema-based instruction strategies (SBI.s) to…

Fede, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

172

Database Supported Cooperative Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of problems in office environments, medical diagnosis, and planningthat require cooperation among agents (either active or passive) for their solutions.Briefly, cooperative problem solving can be viewed as a complex activity requiringharmonious and dynamic interaction between active agents (typically humans -- providingsequencing, decision making, and coordination components) and passive agents(typically computing systems -- providing inferencing, algorithmic...

A. Tanaka; K. Karlapalem; S. B. Navathe; S. Chakravarthy

1992-01-01

173

Mathematical Problem Solving: Linking Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mathematical problem solving is the primary goal of school mathematics curriculum in Singapore. Prospective secondary school\\u000a mathematics teachers, as part of their teacher education at the National Institute of Education, undertake a 96 hour course\\u000a called Teaching and Learning of Mathematics. Throughout the course, as part of the study of content and pedagogy of various\\u000a topics of secondary mathematics, they are

Berinderjeet Kaur; Tin Lam Toh

174

Robot, computer problem solving system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.

Becker, J. D.

1972-01-01

175

Curriculum Units in Mathematics and Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute (YNHTI) is an educational partnership between Yale University and the New Haven Public Schools designed to strengthen teaching and learning in local schools. Produced by teachers participating in Institute seminars since 1978, the 100+ volumes containing the teaching units offer many ideas and procedures for teaching English, history, social studies, the languages, the arts, mathematics, and science in elementary, middle, and high schools. From the YNHTI home page, search for units or guides; a full list appears in the Directory of Volumes page. Mathematics curriculum units range from Integrating Mathematical Concepts in the Study of the Atmosphere to A Chronological History of Pi with Developmental Activities in Problem Solving to Practicing Precision: Lessons from Mathematical Language and Writing. Statistics curriculum units range from Paper Airplanes to Scaling the Natural World Using Dimensional Analysis. Each unit includes a guide (synopsis and recommendations), introduction, some lesson plans or sample problems, and bibliographies.

2007-03-10

176

Encouraging Meaningful Quantitative Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative problem-solving is a challenging aspect of any physical science course. Traditionally, students have been encouraged to pursue various techniques in an effort to provide structure to this task. While such methods may help students to generate numerical answers, they can become exercises in symbol manipulation that leave the student without a clear picture of the physical situation associated with the problem. This paper describes the efforts of a group of teachers to help college freshman chemistry students and high school science students to improve their problem-solving skills. The presentation includes several sets of questions intended to elucidate ideas and to involve the reader in the process of reflecting upon his or her own problem-solving strategies.

Cohen, Jeff; Kennedy-Justice, Meghan; Pai, Sunny; Torres, Carmen; Toomey, Rick; Depierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred

2000-09-01

177

Building Confidence through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-minute video demonstrates how students learn to persevere through challenging number puzzles and games. Headteacher Kate Frood discusses her philosophy and models teaching children to use core multiplication facts as tools for more complex problems. She differentiates tasks to accommodate advanced and struggling learners.

2012-01-01

178

Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

Man, Yiu-Kwong

2010-01-01

179

Assessment in a Problem Solving Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we elaborate on the ways for assessing problem solving that goes beyond the usual focus on the products of the problem solving process. We designed a 'practical' worksheet to guide the students through the problem solving process. The worksheet focuses the solver's attention on the key stages in problem solving. To assess the students' problem solving throughout

Khiok Seng; Dindyal Jaguthsing; Eng Guan

180

Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…

Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

2007-01-01

181

Organizing and Managing the Language Arts Block: A Professional Development Guide. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers essential guidance to preservice and inservice teachers seeking to create, revise, and/or add new strategies to the teaching of the language arts block. The book's focus is on how to implement effective strategies in the context of a well-planned classroom and smoothly choreographed daily schedule. A series of case studies in the…

Morrow, Lesley Mandel

182

Physics Faculty Beliefs and Values about the Teaching and Learning of Problem Solving. I. Mapping the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In higher education, instructors' choices of both curricular material and pedagogy are determined by their beliefs about learning and teaching, the values of their profession, and perceived external constraints. Dissemination of research-based educational reforms is based on assumptions about that mental structure. This study reports the initial…

Yerushalmi, E.; Henderson, C.; Heller, K.; Heller, P.; Kuo, V.

2007-01-01

183

Physics faculty beliefs and values about the teaching and learning of problem solving. I. Mapping the common core  

Microsoft Academic Search

In higher education, instructors' choices of both curricular material and pedagogy are determined by their beliefs about learning and teaching, the values of their profession, and perceived external constraints. Dissemination of research-based educational reforms is based on assumptions about that mental structure. This study reports the initial phase of an investigation of the beliefs and values of physics professors as

E. Yerushalmi; C. Henderson; K. Heller; P. Heller; V. Kuo

2007-01-01

184

Classroom Literacy Assessment. Making Sense of What Students Know and Do. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Showcasing assessment practices that can help teachers plan effective instruction, this book addresses the real-world complexities of teaching literacy in grades K-8. Leading contributors present trustworthy approaches that examine learning processes as well as learning products, that yield information on how the learning environment can be…

Paratore, Jeanne R. Ed.; McCormack, Rachel L. Ed.; Block, Cathy, Collins Ed.

2007-01-01

185

Soviet Studies in the Psychology of Learning and Teaching Mathematics, Volume XI: Analysis and Synthesis as Problem-Solving Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series that is a collection of translations from the extensive Soviet literature of the past 25 years on research in the psychology of mathematics instruction. It also includes works on methods of teaching mathematics directly influenced by the psychological research. Selected papers and books considered to be of value to the…

Kantowski, Mary Grace, Ed.; And Others

186

Knowledge Structure and Problem Solving in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article presents a prescriptive analysis of the kinds of knowledge and procedures leading to effective human problem solving in a quantitative science such as physics. The knowledge about such a science, explicated in the case of mechanics, specifies special descriptive concepts and relations described at various levels of abstractness, is organized hierarchically, and is accompanied by explicit guidelines specifying when and how this knowledge is to be applied. General problem-solving procedures, to be used in conjunction with such domain-specific knowledge, specify how initially to describe and analyze any problem so as to facilitate its subsequent solution; how to search for a solution by methods of constraint satisfaction used together with heuristic methods for decomposing problems and exploring decisions; and how to assess whether the resulting solution is correct and reasonably optimal. The preceding model of effective human problem solving is compared with some relevant observations and with special experiments designed to test such a prescriptive model. It also suggests methods for teaching students improved scientific problem-solving skills.

Reif, Frederick; Heller, Joan I.

2006-06-23

187

Customer Service & Team Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a six-session, site-specific training course in customer service and team problem solving for the Claretian Medical Center. The course outline is followed the six lesson plans. Components of each lesson plan include a list of objectives, an outline of activities and discussion topics for the lesson,…

Martin, Sabrina Budasi

188

Teacher Assistance in Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tenth graders solved mathematical problems assisted by varying amounts of help from their teacher. Significant differences occurred between students receiving aid and the unaided control group. Partial assistance resulted in better immediate performance, but this difference was less observable three weeks later. (Author/GDC)

Flener, Frederick O.

1979-01-01

189

Robot computer problem solving system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

1974-01-01

190

Looking Back in Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Often after students solve a problem they believe they have accomplished their mission and stop further exploration. The purpose of this article is to discuss ways to encourage students to "look back" so as to maximise their learning opportunities. According to Polya, by "looking back" at a completed solution, by reconsidering and re-examining the…

Cai, Jinfa; Brook, Michael

2006-01-01

191

The Development of Students' Probllem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas

2011-03-03

192

Toward the problem-centered classroom: trends in mathematical problem solving in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I summarize the influence of mathematical problem solving on mathematics education in Japan. During the 1980-1990s, many studies had been conducted under the title of problem solving, and, therefore, even until now, the curriculum, textbook, evaluation and teaching have been changing. Considering these, it is pos- sible to identify several influences. They include that mathematical problem solving

Keiko Hino

2007-01-01

193

ENLIVENING PROBLEMS WITH HEURISTICS THROUGH LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND PROBLEM SOLVING (LAPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving receives much emphasis in the mathematics curriculum. The use of heuristics as an approach to problem solving is equally significant. From the time Polya (1946) introduced heuristics to the present, there has been a significant change in the way teaching mathematics has been delivered. LAPS, which stands for Learning Activities and Problem Solving is an intervention strategy using

Jerome A. Chavez

2007-01-01

194

It's the Thought that Counts: Reflecting on Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses how metacognitive skills contribute to the teaching and learning of problem solving in mathematics. It describes the development and use of a metacognitive journal activity in the classroom. (Contains 2 figures.)

Roberts, Sally; Tayeh, Carla

2007-01-01

195

Childhood Physical Punishment and Problem Solving in Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from social learning theories and symbolic interactionist understandings of social life, the authors suggest that physical punishment teaches aggressive and controlling strategies for solving the problems of living together and hinders the development of important problem-solving skills, specifically the ability to role take with others.…

Cast, Alicia D.; Schweingruber, David; Berns, Nancy

2006-01-01

196

Determining Students' Attitude towards Physics through Problem-Solving Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effects of teacher-directed and self-directed problem-solving strategies on students' attitudes toward physics were explored. Problem-solving strategies were used with the experimental group, while the control group was instructed using traditional teaching methods. The study was conducted with 270 students at various high…

Erdemir, Naki

2009-01-01

197

Using Manipulatives in Mathematical Problem Solving: A Performance Based Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores problem solving in elementary classrooms while focusing on how children use (perform tasks) manipulatives and\\/or tools in problem solving while working on mathematical tasks. Ways for teachers to assess children's learning through performance-based tool (manipulative) use will also be examined and suggested. Current research reveals that teachers need to teach and assess children's mathematical knowledge in ways

Catherine A. Kelly

2006-01-01

198

Using a Self-Instructional Training Package To Teach Complex Problem-Solving Skills to Adults with Moderate and Severe Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study assessed effects of a self-instructional package on complex problem-solving skills by three adults with intellectual disabilities. Problem situations were embedded in the participants' daily routines that consisted of multiple task sequences. The training package was effective in producing generalized, complex correct problem solving in…

Bambara, Linda M.; Gomez, Ophelia N.

2001-01-01

199

Problem Solving and Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, presents a framework for thinking about knowledge and its organization that can account for known expert-novice differences in knowledge storage and problem solving behavior. The author argues that interpreting any relationship between the ability to answer qualitative and quantitative questions requires a model of cognition, and that PER should seek to develop assessments that monitor component aspects of developing expertise.

Gerace, William J.

2006-12-06

200

Problem Solving and Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, presents a framework for thinking about knowledge and its organization that can account for known expert-novice differences in knowledge storage and problem solving behavior. The author argues that interpreting any relationship between the ability to answer qualitative and quantitative questions requires a model of cognition, and that PER should seek to develop assessments that monitor component aspects of developing expertise.

Gerace, William J.

2010-04-30

201

The contribution of external representations in pre-school mathematical problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Could problem solving be the object of teaching in early education? Could appropriate teaching interventions develop to scaffold children's efforts to solve problems? These were the central questions of this article. The sample consisted of 18 children attending public pre-school in Cyprus. The problem they were asked to solve was to find all solutions of the pentomino. The children's problem

Maria Angela Shiakalli; Konstantinos Zacharos

2012-01-01

202

Classroom Discussion and Individual Problem-Solving in the Teaching of History: Do Different Instructional Approaches Affect Interest in Different Ways?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 100 Italian eighth graders were divided into two groups to compare the effects of two instructional interventions--the first based on problem-solving through discussion, the second on individual problem-solving--on students' learning of two historical topics (World War I and the economic boom), interest and self-perception of…

Del Favero, Laura; Boscolo, Pietro; Vidotto, Giulio; Vicentini, Marco

2007-01-01

203

Teachers' Pedagogies and Their Impact on Students' Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the classroom practices of three teachers teaching mathematics at the 5th grade level in three Singapore schools. Using a video-coding scheme, a series of lessons was coded into relevant phases comprising problem solving, teaching concepts/skills, going over assigned work, and student activities. It explores the teachers'…

Ho, Kai Fai; Hedberg, John G.

2005-01-01

204

THE ROLE OF PROBLEM SOLVING IN COMPLEX INTRAVERBAL REPERTOIRES  

PubMed Central

We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until problem solving was modeled and prompted. Following the model and prompts, all participants showed immediate significant increases in intraverbal categorization, and all prompts were quickly eliminated. Use of audible self-prompts was evident initially for all participants, but declined over time for 3 of the 4 children. Within-session response patterns remained consistent with use of the problem-solving strategy even when self-prompts were not audible. These findings suggest that teaching and prompting a problem-solving strategy can be an effective way to produce intraverbal categorization responses.

Sautter, Rachael A; LeBlanc, Linda A; Jay, Allison A; Goldsmith, Tina R; Carr, James E

2011-01-01

205

Toward a New Perspective on Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educating students to become successful problem solvers has been a goal of education at least since Dewey. However, the kinds of problems students do in school to practice their problem-solving competence have little to do with the problems they will need to solve in everyday settings. We briefly critique traditional conceptions of problem solving, propose a different framework for theorizing

Wolff-Michael Roth; Michelle K. McGinn

1997-01-01

206

Problem solving ability of parkinsonians.  

PubMed

The hypothesis to be verified is that the cognitive defects in nondemented and nondepressed Parkinsonians are due solely to a bilateral nigrostriatal disorder that causes motor slowing. It was tested on 26 mildly disabled patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease optimally controlled with L-Dopa, nondemented and nondepressed and not receiving anticholinergic. The test used was a simplified version of the London Towers Test of problem-solving ability, designed to measure a facet of prefrontally-induced bradyphrenia, already calibrated on 131 healthy subjects. The results revealed no significant difference between the Parkinsonians and controls, thus providing no support for the hypothesis in question. PMID:3356523

Alberoni, M; Della Salla, S; Pasetti, C; Spinnler, H

1988-02-01

207

The Contribution of External Representations in Pre-School Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Could problem solving be the object of teaching in early education? Could appropriate teaching interventions develop to scaffold children's efforts to solve problems? These were the central questions of this article. The sample consisted of 18 children attending public pre-school in Cyprus. The problem they were asked to solve was to find all…

Shiakalli, Maria Angela; Zacharos, Konstantinos

2012-01-01

208

Using Self-Guided Treatment Software (ePST) to Teach Clinicians How to Deliver Problem-Solving Treatment for Depression  

PubMed Central

Problem-solving treatment (PST) offers a promising approach to the depression care; however, few PST training opportunities exist. A computer-guided, interactive media program has been developed to deliver PST electronically (ePST), directly to patients. The program is a six-session, weekly intervention modeled on an evidence-based PST protocol. Users are guided through each session by a clinician who is presented via hundreds of branching audio and video clips. Because expert clinician behaviors are modeled in the program, not only does the ePST program have the potential to deliver PST to patients but it may also serve as a training tool to teach clinicians how to deliver PST. Thirteen social workers and trainees used ePST self-instructionally and subsequently attended a day-long workshop on PST. Participants' PST knowledge level increased significantly from baseline to post-ePST (P = .001) and did not increase significantly further after attending the subsequent workshop. Additionally, attending the workshop did not significantly increase the participants' skill at performing PST beyond the use of the ePST program. Using the ePST program appears to train novices to a sufficient level of competence to begin practicing PST under supervision. This self-instructional training method could enable PST for depression to be widely disseminated, although follow-up supervision is still required.

Cartreine, James A.; Chang, Trina E.; Seville, Janette L.; Sandoval, Luis; Moore, John B.; Xu, Shuai; Hegel, Mark T.

2012-01-01

209

Principles of asking effective questions during student problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using effective teaching practices is a high priority for educators. One important pedagogical skill for computer science instructors is asking effective questions. This paper presents a set of instructional principles for effective question asking during guided problem solving. We illustrate these principles with results from classifying the questions that untrained human tutors asked while working with students solving an introductory

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer; William Lahti; Robert Phillips; Michael D. Wallis; Mladen A. Vouk; James C. Lester

2010-01-01

210

Virtual Human Problem Solving Environments  

SciTech Connect

Abstract. Interest in complex integrated digital or virtual human modeling has seen a significant increase over the last decade. Coincident with that increased interest, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) initiated the development of a human simulation tool, the Virtual Human. The Virtual Human includes a problem-solving environment (PSE) for implementing the integration of physiological models in different programming languages and connecting physiological function to anatomy. The Virtual Human PSE (VHPSE) provides the computational framework with which to develop the concept of a "Virtual Human." Supporting the framework is a data definition for modeling parameters, PhysioML, a Virtual Human Database (VHDB), and a Web-based graphical user interface (GUI) developed using Java. Following description of the VHPSE, we discuss four example implementations of models within the framework. Further expansion of a human modeling environment was carried out in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Virtual Soldier Project. SCIRun served as the Virtual Soldier problem solving environment (VSPSE). We review and compare specific developments in these projects that have significant potential for the future of Virtual Human modeling and simulation. We conclude with an evaluation of areas of future work that will provide important extensions to the VHPSE and VSPSE and make possible a fully-integrated environment for human anatomical and physiological modeling: the Virtual Human.

Ward, Richard C [ORNL; Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; Fischer, Sarah Kathleen [ORNL

2008-01-01

211

Facilitating Students' Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of students' ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on students' common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on students' problem solving abilities.

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2010-10-01

212

Developing Problem Solving Skills for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post the author explores another tool for the problem-solving toolbox: Wish for an easier problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of ways students could use this strategy are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "One Step at a Time" that is best solved utilizing this strategy.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-04-02

213

Research on Computers and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight articles review and report on research involving computers and problem solving skills. Topics discussed include research design; problem solving skills and programing languages, including BASIC and LOGO; computer anxiety; diagnostic programs for arithmetic problems; and relationships between ability and problem solving scores and between…

Burton, John K.; And Others

1988-01-01

214

King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and applying…

Borchardt, Donald A.

215

Key Issues in Technical Problem Solving Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems facing society today have reached a level of complexity far beyond that faced by previous generations, such that it exceeds the ability of one person to solve the problems on their own, and it is becoming more common to see teams of people come together to solve problems. Before being able to understand problem solving leadership, first one

Rebecca Silverman

216

PlanAlyzer, an Interactive Computer-Assisted Program to Teach Clinical Problem-Solving in Diagnosing Anemia and Coronary Artery Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The computer-based PlanAlyzer program was designed to teach clinical diagnosis to medical students, taking into account several characteristics common to the clinical problem solver: limited capacity for short-term memory; use of heuristic strategies; sequential information seeking; and problem conceptualization. Six years of development and…

Lyon, Harold C.; And Others

1992-01-01

217

Strategies of Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Artificial Intelligence is concerned with problem solving in which groups solve tasks. In this paper we describe stra­ tegies of cooperation that groups require to solve shared tasks effectively. We discuss such strategies in the context of a specific group problem solving application: collision avoidance in air traffic control. Experimental findings with four distinct air-traffic control systems, each implementing

Stephanie J. Cammarata; David Mcarthur; Randall Steeb

1983-01-01

218

Robot computer problem solving system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robot computer problem solving system which represents a robot exploration vehicle in a simulated Mars environment is described. The model exhibits changes and improvements made on a previously designed robot in a city environment. The Martian environment is modeled in Cartesian coordinates; objects are scattered about a plane; arbitrary restrictions on the robot's vision have been removed; and the robot's path contains arbitrary curves. New environmental features, particularly the visual occlusion of objects by other objects, were added to the model. Two different algorithms were developed for computing occlusion. Movement and vision capabilities of the robot were established in the Mars environment, using LISP/FORTRAN interface for computational efficiency. The graphical display program was redesigned to reflect the change to the Mars-like environment.

Merriam, E. W.; Becker, J. D.

1973-01-01

219

Grade 1 Practice Problems: Reasoning, Problem Solving & Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of 46 problems that focus on reasoning and problem solving skills. Successful solving requires careful reading of the problems. Math content topics include applications of basic operations, multistep problems, and comparing quantities and attributes.

2011-01-01

220

Students' Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate students' difficulties with multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first semester calculus-based physics course. Each student was interviewed four times during the semester, each time after they had completed an exam in class. During these interviews students were first asked to solve a problem they had seen on the exam, followed by problems that differed in context and type of representation from the exam problem. Students were provided verbal scaffolding to solve the new problems. We discuss the common difficulties that students encountered when attempting to transfer their problem solving skills across problems in different representations.

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2009-11-01

221

Training Metacognitive Skills for Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metacognitive skills that involve monitoring and control of cognitive skills like problem solving develop in expert executives and lead to great improvement in the problem-solving process. In this report, we review theory and research on metacognition to ...

J. Geiwitz

1994-01-01

222

Flexibility in Problem Solving: The Case of Equation Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on…

Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

2008-01-01

223

Physics Problem Solving Research Using Protocols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an overview of research on physics problem solving using verbal protocols. It asserts that the understanding of physics problem solving strategies enables researchers to write computer programs, which can automatically solve physics problems without the users having to be experts in physics. This, in turn, can generate more…

Brekke, Stewart E.

224

Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2013-01-01

225

Group Metacognition During Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although various studies have shown that groups are more productive than individuals in complex mathematical problem solving, not all groups work together cooperatively. This review highlights that addressing organisational and cognitive factors to help scaffold group mathematical problem solving is necessary but not sufficient. Successful group problem solving also needs to incorporate metacognitive factors in order for groups to reflect

Christina Chalmers

2009-01-01

226

LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

2011-01-01

227

Stabilization: A Descriptive Framework for Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative description of problem solving was tested against the think-aloud protocols of twelve introductory calculus-based physics students. Think-aloud protocols are transcripts of problem-solving sessions during which participants are asked to verbalize their thoughts as they attempt to solve a problem. The stabilization model tested considers perceptions of problem difficulty to be related to four primary factors: categorization, goal interpretation, resource relevance, and complexity. A fifth superordinate factor, stabilization, considers the shifting relationships between the four primary factors over the problem-solving process. Problem solving is then described in terms of a search for a stable relationship among the four primary factors. Results from the study to be presented suggest that with further refinement, the stabilization model could be an effective alternative model of problem solving. Results related to the observed problem-solving processes undertaken by the participants will also be presented.

Savrda, Sherry L.

2006-12-01

228

Grade 2 Practice Problems: Reasoning, Problem Solving & Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of 13 problems that focus on reasoning and problem solving skills. Successful solving requires careful reading of the problems. Math content topics include basic operations, counting, halving and doubling, money and measuring.

2011-01-01

229

Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.

Billionniere, Elodie V.

230

Super 7: Daily Exercises in Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a year-long program of daily exercises in problem solving for 2nd and 3rd grade students that presents 144 lessons, each with seven problems. The problems cover number sense, computation, measurements, geometry, problem solving, and patterns. The material is presented in a sequential fashion with concepts repeated and expanded, and…

Hamilton, Octavia

231

Lp-based combinatorial problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tutorial outline of the polyhedral theory that underlies linear programming (LP)-based combinatorial problem solving is given. Design aspects of a combinatorial problem solver are discussed in general terms. Three computational studies in combinatorial problem solving using the polyhedral theory developed in the past fifteen years are surveyed: one addresses the symmetric traveling salesman problem, another the optimal triangulation of

K. Hoffman; M. Padberg

1985-01-01

232

Assessment of Student Problem Solving Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is a complex process important both in itself and as a tool for learning physics. Currently there is no standard way to measure problem solving that is independent of physics topic, pedagogy, and problem characteristics. At Minnesota we have been developing a rubric to evaluate studentsâ written solutions to physics problems that is easy to use and reasonably valid and reliable. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: useful description, physics approach, specific application of physics, math procedures, and logical progression. An important test of the instrument is to check whether these categories as represented in studentsâ written solutions correspond to processes students engage in during problem solving. Eight problem-solving interviews were conducted with students enrolled in an introductory university physics course to compare what students write down during problem solving with what they say they were thinking about as determined by their interview statements.

Docktor, Jennifer; Heller, Kenneth

2010-01-19

233

Assessment of Student Problem Solving Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem solving is a complex process important both in itself and as a tool for learning physics. Currently there is no standard way to measure problem solving that is independent of physics topic, pedagogy, and problem characteristics. At Minnesota we have been developing a rubric to evaluate students' written solutions to physics problems that is easy to use and reasonably valid and reliable. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: useful description, physics approach, specific application of physics, math procedures, and logical progression. An important test of the instrument is to check whether these categories as represented in students' written solutions correspond to processes students engage in during problem solving. Eight problem-solving interviews were conducted with students enrolled in an introductory university physics course to compare what students write down during problem solving with what they say they were thinking about as determined by their interview statements.

Docktor, Jennifer; Heller, Kenneth

2009-11-01

234

Using Problem-Solving Approaches in Vocational Education. Practice Application Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem-solving approach to teaching and learning has proved especially useful in vocational education as a way to relate classroom learning to real-life situations or problems. The problem-solving method of teaching places the responsibility for learning on students. Educators and special reform groups in other subject areas refer to a…

Brown, Bettina Lankard

235

Understanding Undergraduates' Problem-Solving Processes †  

PubMed Central

Fostering effective problem-solving skills is one of the most longstanding and widely agreed upon goals of biology education. Nevertheless, undergraduate biology educators have yet to leverage many major findings about problem-solving processes from the educational and cognitive science research literatures. This article highlights key facets of problem-solving processes and introduces methodologies that may be used to reveal how undergraduate students perceive and represent biological problems. Overall, successful problem-solving entails a keen sensitivity to problem contexts, disciplined internal representation or modeling of the problem, and the principled management and deployment of cognitive resources. Context recognition tasks, problem representation practice, and cognitive resource management receive remarkably little emphasis in the biology curriculum, despite their central roles in problem-solving success.

Nehm, Ross H.

2010-01-01

236

Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

Szeberenyi, Jozsef

2013-01-01

237

Promoting Students' Problem Solving Skills and Knowledge of STEM Concepts in a Data-Rich Learning Environment: Using Online Data as a Tool for Teaching about Renewable Energy Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study sought to compare a data-rich learning (DRL) environment that utilized online data as a tool for teaching about renewable energy technologies (RET) to a lecture-based learning environment to determine the impact of the learning environment on students' knowledge of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) concepts related to renewable energy technologies and students' problem solving skills. Two purposefully selected Advanced Placement (AP) Environmental Science teachers were included in the study. Each teacher taught one class about RET in a lecture-based environment (control) and another class in a DRL environment (treatment), for a total of four classes of students (n=128). This study utilized a quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest, control-group design. The initial hypothesis that the treatment group would have a significant gain in knowledge of STEM concepts related to RET and be better able to solve problems when compared to the control group was not supported by the data. Although students in the DRL environment had a significant gain in knowledge after instruction, posttest score comparisons of the control and treatment groups revealed no significant differences between the groups. Further, no significant differences were noted in students' problem solving abilities as measured by scores on a problem-based activity and self-reported abilities on a reflective questionnaire. This suggests that the DRL environment is at least as effective as the lecture-based learning environment in teaching AP Environmental Science students about RET and fostering the development of problem solving skills. As this was a small scale study, further research is needed to provide information about effectiveness of DRL environments in promoting students' knowledge of STEM concepts and problem-solving skills.

Thurmond, Brandi

238

Solving Word Problems. Math in Action. Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook was designed as an easy-to-read, slower-paced text for students who have learning, reading, and language problems. As one of five workbooks to aid low achievers in problem solving, it focuses on strategies for solving one step and multistep word problems in mathematics. Students use skills learned in the four previous workbooks in…

Echaore, Susan D.; Roderman, Winifred Ho

239

Fast Algorithms for Solving Path Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G = (V, E) be a directed graph with a distinguished source vertex s. The single-source path expression problem is to find, for each vertex v, a regular expression P(s, v) which represents the set of all paths in G from s to v A solution to this problem can be used to solve shortest path problems, solve sparse

Robert Endre Tarjan

1981-01-01

240

Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.

Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil

1993-01-01

241

Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem

Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

2013-01-01

242

Problem-solving in open environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

ipants. The problem can then be solved as before using a centralized constraint solver. Work in the database commu-With the increasing use of the internet, many problem-solving tasks such as resource allocation, scheduling, plan-ning, and configur ation pose themselves in an open set-ting involving multiple participants. Existing search-based problem-solving techniques are based on the closed-world assumption and require that all

Santiago Macho-gonzalez; Boi Faltings

2003-01-01

243

Inservice Teacher Development in Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

A humanistic perspective provided the basis for a problem-solving oriented teacher inservice program. The program was designed\\u000a to provide opportunities that allowed elementary teachers to focus on personal experience as a way of achieving self-understanding\\u000a and a way of reconstructing their personal meanings about problem solving and problem-solving instruction. Impact of the program\\u000a was studied through interviews with the six

Olive Chapman

1999-01-01

244

Cultivating Problem Solving Skills via a New Problem Categorization Scheme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When one looks at STEM disciplines as a whole, the need for effective problem solving skills is a commonality. However, studies indicate that the bulk of students who graduate from problem-solving intensive programs display little increase in their problem solving abilities. Also, there is little evidence for transfer of general skills from one subject area to another. Furthermore, the types of problems typically encountered in introductory STEM courses do not often cultivate the skills students will need when solving âreal-worldâ problems. Initial efforts to develop and implement an interdisciplinary problem categorization matrix as a tool for instructional design are described. The matrix, which is independent of content, shows promise as a means for promoting useful problem-solving discussion among faculty, designing problem-solving intensive courses, and instructing students in developing real-world problem solving skills.

Harper, Kathleen A.; Freuler, Richard; Demel, John

2007-11-25

245

Reflections on Multicultural Curriculum. Building Community through Global Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the importance of teaching students empathy for and understanding of cultural differences, explaining how to build community through shared responsibility in global problem solving. Three examples of this type of curricular exercise, which focus on nutrition, economic structures, and ecology, are presented. Curricular considerations when…

Lenaghan, Arlene

2000-01-01

246

Solving Drug-Related Problems in the Professional Experience Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effectiveness of using the Pharmacist's Work-up of Drug Therapy (PWDT) in teaching 91 pharmacy students in a clinical clerkship program to identify and solve drug-related problems. Because the instructional technique was recently implemented, the study looked at effects of 3 different quantities of training (0, 1, and 3…

Kane, Michael P.; And Others

1993-01-01

247

Problem Solving: Physics Modeling-Based Interactive Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate how modeling-based instruction combined with an interactive-engagement teaching approach promotes students' problem solving abilities. I focused on students in a calculus-based introductory physics course, based on the matter and interactions curriculum of Chabay & Sherwood (2002) at a large state…

Ornek, Funda

2009-01-01

248

Ontological Support in Modeling Learners' Problem Solving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a new model for simulating procedural knowledge in the problem solving process with our ontological system, InfoMap. The method divides procedural knowledge into two parts: process control and action performer. By adopting InfoMap, we hope to help teachers construct curricula (declarative knowledge) and teaching strategies by…

Lu, Chun-Hung; Wu, Chia-Wei; Wu, Shih-Hung; Chiou, Guey-Fa; Hsu, Wen-Lian

2005-01-01

249

Prescribing effective human problem solving processes: Problem description in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A theoretical model specifying the underlying knowledge and procedures whereby human subjects can generate effective initial descriptions of scientific problems was formulated. The model is prescriptive since it does not necessarily try to simulate the behavior of actual experts nor assume that their performance is optimal. The model, elaborated in the domain of mechanics, specifies explicit procedures for redescribing problems in terms of a relevant knowledge base. To test the model, carefully controlled experiments were devised where human subjects were induced to act in accordance with alternative models and where their resulting performance was observed in detail. Such experiments, carried out with undergraduate physics students, showed that the proposed model is sufficient to generate excellent problem descriptions, that these markedly improve subsequent problem solutions, and that most components of the model are indeed necessary for good performance. Detailed data analysis also showed how the model predictably prevents the occurrence of many common errors. Such a validated model of effective problem description provides a useful basis for teaching students improved scientific problem-solving skills.

Heller, Joan I.; Reif, Frederick

2006-06-09

250

Problem Posing and Solving with Mathematical Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical modeling is explored as both problem posing and problem solving from two perspectives, that of the child and the teacher. Mathematical modeling provides rich learning experiences for elementary school children and their teachers.

English, Lyn D.; Fox, Jillian L.; Watters, James J.

2005-01-01

251

Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)

Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette

2003-01-01

252

Problem Solving Software for Math Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are 10 computer software programs for problem solving related to mathematics. Programs described are: (1) Box Solves Story Problems; (2) Safari Search; (3) Puzzle Tanks; (4) The King's Rule; (5) The Factory; (6) The Royal Rules; (7) The Enchanted Forest; (8) Gears; (9) The Super Factory; and (10) Creativity Unlimited. (RH)

Troutner, Joanne

1987-01-01

253

Activities: Developing Problem-Solving Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity for students in grades 7-10 (with ready-to-copy worksheets and overhead projector transparency masters) designed to develop the problem-solving skills of making and reading an organized list and searching for a pattern, and to provide practice in using the general heuristics of the problem-solving process. (JN)

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

1985-01-01

254

Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…

Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim

2012-01-01

255

THE FUNCTIONS OF PICTURES IN PROBLEM SOLVING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we assert that pictures serve four functions in problem solving: decorative, representational, organizational and informational. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pictures based on their functions in mathematical problem solving (MPS), by high achievement students of Grade 6 in Cyprus, in a communication setting. A number of tasks were developed and techniques of observation and interviews

Iliada Elia; George Philippou

256

Solving Problems with Charts & Tables. Pipefitter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, this instructional module is designed to help individuals employed as pipefitters learn to solve problems with charts and tables. Outlined in the first section is a five-step procedure for solving problems involving tables and/or charts: identifying the question to…

Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

257

Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…

Brown, Wayne

2007-01-01

258

When problem solving prevents organizational learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose that research on problem-solving behavior can provide critical insight into mechanisms through which organizations resist learning and change. In this paper, we describe typical front-line responses to obstacles that hinder workers’ effectiveness and argue that this pattern of behavior creates an important and overlooked barrier to organizational change. Past research on quality improvement and problem solving has found

Anita L. Tucker; Amy C. Edmondson; Steven Spear

2002-01-01

259

Model of Frustration during Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A central theme of Mandler's theory of emotion is that the interruption of a cognitive activity sets the stage for emotion. Mandler's theory is particularly applicable to mathematical problem-solving experiences. Mandler's linking of emotion to perception also makes emotion during problem solving an excellent candidate to be modeled with…

Allen, Bradford D.

260

Alternative Generation in Marital Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of two types of instruction to investigate how proficiency in generating alternatives in marital problem solving can be improved, using a sample of 44 Canadian couples. Results showed increased generation of alternatives. Communication skills training did not enhance creativity in problem solving. (Author/JAC)

Warmbrod, Mary Taylor

1982-01-01

261

Diagnostic Assessment in Mathematics Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has recently seen falling test scores for mathematics problem solving in comparison to other countries. This paper reviews cur- rent approaches to diagnosing mathematics problem solving, and then introduces emerging technologies being developed at Educational Testing Service that address open areas found in the review. The application of these technologies to assessment design must be weighed against

VALERIE SHUTE; JODY UNDERWOOD

2006-01-01

262

The Functions of Pictures in Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we assert that pictures serve four functions in problem solving: decorative, representational, organizational and informational. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pictures based on their functions in mathematical problem solving (MPS), by high achievement students of Grade 6 in Cyprus, in a communication setting. A…

Elia, Iliada; Philippou, George

2004-01-01

263

Problem Solving Interactions on Electronic Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguing that electronic networking provides a medium which is qualitatively superior to the traditional classroom for conducting certain types of problem solving exercises, this paper details the Water Problem Solving Project, which was conducted on the InterCultural Learning Network in 1985 and 1986 with students from the United States, Mexico,…

Waugh, Michael; And Others

264

FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR PROBLEM SOLVING RESEARCH AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1960s, numerous studies on problem solving have revealed the complexity of the domain and the difficulty in translating research findings into practice. The literature suggests that the impact of problem solving research on the mathematics curriculum has been limited. Furthermore, our accumulation of knowledge on the teaching of problem solving is lagging. In this first discussion paper we

Lyn English; Richard Lesh; Thomas Fennewald

265

Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)

Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda

2008-01-01

266

The Effects of Simplified Schema-Based Instruction on Elementary Students' Mathematical Word Problem Solving Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an evidence-based mathematical intervention in word problem solving for elementary students. One of the purposes of teaching mathematics is to help students apply mathematics to real life situations. As we know, teaching word problem solving is a very suitable format for this purpose. Schema-based instruction (SBI) is one of the most…

Fang, Houbin Lewis

2012-01-01

267

Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 33-question research-based multiple-choice survey is designed to evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards physics problem solving. The survey is based on investigations of responses from introductory physics students, graduate students, and faculty members. It expands upon the Attitudes towards Problem Solving survey (Marx and Cummings, 2007) to also consider approaches to problem solving and different levels of problem solving expertise. Statistical results have shown the survey to be reliable and valid. A summary of the construction and analysis of the survey is available in A. J. Mason and C. Singh, "Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving", PRST-PER, 6 (2), 020124 (2010). This survey is free for use by instructors in their classroom. The expert-like responses to the survey are enclosed.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-05-10

268

Solving the Pallet Loading Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents new bounds, heuristics, and an exact algorithm for the Pallet Loading Problem (PLP). PLP maximizes the number of boxes placed on a rectangular pallet. All boxes have identical rectangular dimensions and, when placed, must be located co...

G. H. Martins R. F. Dell

2008-01-01

269

Solving the Multicommodity Transshipment Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We examine two categories of solution algorithms for the large-scale multicommodity transshipment problem (MCTP): resource direction and price direction. In the former category we construct RDLB, a new algorithm which uses a simplified projection method i...

C. J. Staniec

1987-01-01

270

Application of Theorem Proving to Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how an extension of the resolution proof procedure can be used to con­ struct problem solutions. The extended proof procedure can solve problems involving state transformations. The paper explores several alternate problem representations and provides a discussion of solutions to sample problems including the \\

C. Cordell Green

1969-01-01

271

Sour landfill gas problem solved  

SciTech Connect

In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

1996-05-01

272

Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

2009-01-01

273

The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has four…

Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene

2005-01-01

274

The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.  

PubMed Central

This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

2002-01-01

275

The ideal science student and problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between students' social mental models of the ideal science student, science epistemological beliefs, problem solving strategies used, and problem solving ability in a robotics environment. Participants were twenty-six academically advanced eleven and twelve year old students attending the Center for Talented Youth summer camp. Survey data was collected from the students including demographic background, views of the ideal science student, and science epistemological beliefs. Students also solved a robotics challenge. This problem solving session was videotaped and students were asked to think aloud as they solved the problem. Two social mental models were identified, a traits-based social mental model and a robust social mental model. A significant association was found between social mental model group and strategy usage. The robust social mental model group is more likely to use domain specific strategies than the traits-based group. Additionally, the robust social mental model group achieved significantly higher scores on their final solution than the traits-based social mental model group. Science epistemological beliefs do not appear to be associated with students' social mental model of the ideal science student. While students with a puzzle-solver view of science were more likely to use domain specific strategies in the planning phase of the problem solving session, there was no significant difference in problem solving ability between this group and students who have a dynamic view of the nature of science knowledge. This difference in strategy usage and problem solving performance may be due to a difference in the students' views of learning and cognition. The robust social mental model group evidenced a situative view of learning and cognition. These students made excellent use of the tools available in the task environment. The traits-based social mental model group displayed an information processing view of learning and cognition. These students were more likely to attempt to solve the problem based only on their mental representations of the problems.

Sullivan, Florence R.

276

Analysing Cognitive or Non-Cognitive Factors Involved in the Process of Physics Problem-Solving in an Everyday Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, the importance of an everyday context in physics learning, teaching, and problem-solving has been emphasized. However, do students or physics educators really want to learn or teach physics problem-solving in an everyday context? Are there not any obstructive factors to be considered in solving the everyday context physics problems? To…

Park, Jongwon; Lee, Limook

2004-01-01

277

Resource Activation Patterns In Expert Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes the analysis of video recordings of physics experts solving novel problems involving solar cells, which involved such advanced physics topics as complex circuits and semiconductors. By performing a fine grained analysis using a resource based model of cognition, we determined what resources experts use while reasoning in the current context and how they used them. By analyzing critical events in the problem solving process, we searched for meaningful patterns of resource activation to help gain insight into expert problem solving processes.

Jones, Darrick C.; Malysheva, Marina; Richards, Aj; Planinĺˇic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

2014-01-31

278

The Effects of Problem-Based Learning on Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study found that participants (n=78) in Science, Society and the Future, a problem-based course for gifted high school students, exhibited significant improvement in problem-solving schemes compared to a group of 42 gifted nonparticipants. The pattern of change was not consistent across problem-solving steps. (JDD)

Gallagher, Shelagh A.; And Others

1992-01-01

279

Mass collaboration problem solving: A new approach to wicked problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system that would harness the brainpower of vast numbers of humans and orchestrate their efforts could be used to solve hard problems that are beyond the reach of computational methods. This paper describes such a system. This system will use a recursive problem solving life cycle model based on a continuously evolving distributed supply chain infrastructure. The problems to

Andrew Potter; Melody McClure; Ken Sellers

2010-01-01

280

A Vehicle Routing Problem Solved by Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this study is to find out a good solution to the vehicle routing problem considering heterogeneous vehicles. This problem tries to solve the generation of paths and the assignment of buses on these routes. The objective of this problem is to minimize the number of vehicles required and to maximize the number of demands transported. This

Maria Belén Vaquerizo García

2009-01-01

281

Solving Probability Problems Using Monte Carlo Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a strategy that allows students to experiment with probability without applying formulas to solve problems. Students are able to intuitively develop concepts of probability before formal definitions and properties. Sample problems are included along with BASIC programs for some of the problems. (KR)

Rudolph, William B.; Tvrdik, Debra

1991-01-01

282

Representation Processes in Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the construct of problem representation and the processes used by learners to construct or modify problem representations in problem-solving situations. Students (n=14) from freshman calculus courses at the University of California at San Diego participated in videotaped interviews in which they were asked to think aloud as…

Cifarelli, Victor

283

Helping graduate assistants teach physics: problems and solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes a "Basics of Teaching Physics" course as an approach to training teaching assistants (TAs) in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) departments. The regular graduate course is based on constructivist learning: TAs construct their own understanding through guided questions, problem solving, reading and analyzing papers, discussions of their teaching experience, and group work.

Etkina, Eugenia

2006-05-17

284

Developing Creative Problem-Solving Talent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First itemizing the barriers to creative thinking, the author proceeds to suggest brainstorming, morphology, and a method of alternating circles as procedures to encourage creativity. Courses in problem-solving have proven successful. (AG)

O'Reilly, A. P.

1973-01-01

285

Titration Calculations -- A Problem-Solving Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem-solving network (flow chart) constructed for use in calculating titration is described. Points out that use of the network has greatly improved student confidence and skill in performing these calculations. (Author/JN)

Waddling, Robin E. L.

1983-01-01

286

Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas  

PubMed Central

Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals.

Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.

2012-01-01

287

A Problem Solving Model for Use in Science Student Teacher Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and suggests the use of a problem-solving model that improves communication between student teachers and supervisors through the student teaching practicum. The aim of the model is to promote experimentation with various teaching techniques and to stimulate thinking among student teachers about their teaching experiences. (PR)

Cavallo, Ann M. L.; Tice, Craig J.

1993-01-01

288

PULSATION DAMPER SOLVES ANALYZER PROBLEM (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the use of a pulsation damper to solve a severe output signal interference problem with a Beckman Model 402 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer. The analyzer was used in a computerized data-gathering system. The problem was traced to compressions/decompressions of flow...

289

Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The activities in this series may be used as stand-alone exercises but are designed to support Math Forum's Problems of the Week and to help students develop, formalize, and reflect on their problem-solving strategies. Membership subscription is required.

290

Reflect ... for Better Problem Solving and Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elaborates the final step of Polya's heuristic model, reflecting, to improve students' problem-solving performance. After checking answers for accuracy, the following steps are suggested: (1) test reasonableness and practicality; (2) write a summary paragraph; (3) find other solutions; (4) change the conditions; and (5) extend the problem. (MKR)

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

1994-01-01

291

Using Programmable Calculators to Solve Electrostatics Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a simple routine which allows first-year physics students to use programmable calculators to solve otherwise complex electrostatic problems. These problems involve finding electrostatic potential and electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring. Modest programing skills are required of students. (DH)

Yerian, Stephen C.; Denker, Dennis A.

1985-01-01

292

Connecting Concepts to Problem-solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, offers a new way to approach homework problems in electrostatics through the use of âÂÂbridging exercisesâ as part of studentsâ homework. These exercises encourage students to solve problems by starting with developed physics concepts and models.

Kanim, Stephen

2010-06-18

293

Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naive students were administered kinematics problems and…

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A.; Hegarty, Mary

2007-01-01

294

Solving graph problems with dynamic computation structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce dynamic computation structures (DCS), a compilation technique to produce dynamic code for reconfigurable computing. DCS specializes directed graph instances into user-level hardware for reconfigurable architectures. Several problems such as shortest path and transitive closure exhibit the general properties of closed semirings, an algebraic structure for solving directed paths. Motivating our application domain choice of closed semiring problems is

Jonathan W. Babb; Matthew I. Frank; Anant Agarwal

1996-01-01

295

Solving a Deconvolution Problem in Photon Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We solve numerically a deconvolution problem to extract the undisturbed spectrum from the measured distribution contaminated by the finite resolution of the measuring device. A problem of this kind emerges when one wants to infer the momentum distribution of the neutral pions by detecting the ?0 decay photons using the photon spectrometer of the ALICE LHC experiment at CERN [1].

D. Aleksandrov; J. Alme; V. Basmanov; B. Batyunya; D. Blau; M. Bogolyubsky; V. Budilov; D. Budnikov; J. I. Buskenes; X. Cai; F. Chuman; A. Deloff; V. Demanov; O. Djuvsland; T. Dobrowolski; M. Faltys; D. Fehlker; S. Fil’chagin; A. Hiei; P. T. Hille; T. Horaguchi; M. Huang; R. Il’kaev; I. Ilkiv; M. Ippolitov; T. Iwasaki; A. Kazantsev; K. Karadzhev; Y. Kharlov; Y. Kucheryaev; P. Kurashvili; A. Kuryakin; D. T. Larsen; S. Lindal; L. Liu; G. Lovhoiden; K. Ma; A. Mamonov; V. Manko; Y. Mao; J. Mares; Y. Maruyama; H. Müller; K. Mizoguchi; S. Nazarenko; G. Nazarov; S. Nikolaev; S. Nikolaev; P. Nomokonov; J. Nystrand; A. Pavlinov; D. Peresunko; V. Petrov; K. Polak; B. Polichtchouk; T. Potcheptsov; V. Punin; H. Qvigstad; K. Redlich; D. Roehrich; S. Sadovsky; V. Senko; K. Shigaki; I. Sibiryak; T. Siemiarczuk; B. Skaali; K. Skjerdal; G. Shabratova; A. Soloviev; P. Stolpovsky; T. Sugitate; M. Sukhorukov; H. Torii; T. Tveter; K. Ullaland; J. Wikne; O. Vikhlyantsev; A. Vinogradov; Y. Vinogradov; A. Vodopyanov; R. Wan; Y. Wang; G. Wilk; D. Wang; C. Xu; Z. Yin; V. Yanovsky; X. Yuan; S. Zaporozhets; A. Zenin; X. Zhang; D. Zhou

2010-01-01

296

Problem-Solving Competitions: Just the Solution!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes competitions across a range of curricular areas that develop students' problem solving skills by setting authentic, real-world tasks. As individuals or members of a team, students in these competitions are challenged with finding solutions to problems faced not only in today's scientific and technological world, but also in…

Riley, Tracy L.; Karnes, Frances A.

2005-01-01

297

Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…

Blasetti, Sean M.

2010-01-01

298

Teacher Preparation for a Problem Solving Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the teacher is central to the success of any curriculum innovation. Thus, teachers' professional development has become an increasingly important subject of discussion in recent education literature. In the design and implementation of the project reported here, teachers' preparation for the problem-solving curriculum featured prominently. This paper discusses the challenges of selecting a suitable problem and ways

Khiok Seng; Jaguthsing Dindyal; Eng Guan

2009-01-01

299

GIS Live and Web Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…

Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.

2007-01-01

300

Analogy Generation in Scientific Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The spontaneous use of analogies in problem-solving occurs when a subject first spontaneously shifts his attention to a situation (B) which differs in some significant way from an original problem situation (A), and then tries to apply findings from B to A. This paper describes research on the process with 10 scientifically trained subjects…

Clement, John

301

PERM for solving circle packing problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a new algorithm that incorporates the improved PERM into an already existing simple deterministic heuristic, the principle of maximum cave degree for corner-occupying actions, to solve the problem of packing equal or unequal circles into a larger circle container. We compare the performance of our algorithm on several problem instances taken from the literature with

Lü Zhipeng; Wenqi Huang

2008-01-01

302

Solving Problems of Practice in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the many complexities involved in the translation of scientific information in the social sciences into forms usable for solving problems of practice in education. Prescribes a series of stages to be followed from the advent of a practitioner's situational problem to the design of a response to it. (Author/JN)

Boyd, Robert D.; Menlo, Allen

1984-01-01

303

Novel Problem Solving - The NASA Solution Mechanism Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past five years, the Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has conducted a number of pilot and ongoing projects in collaboration and open innovation. These projects involved the use of novel open innovation competitions that sought solutions from "the crowd", non-traditional problem solvers. The projects expanded to include virtual collaboration centers such as the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) and more recently a collaborative research project between NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). These novel problem-solving tools produced effective results and the HH&P wanted to capture the knowledge from these new tools, to teach the results to the directorate, and to implement new project management tools and coursework. The need to capture and teach the results of these novel problem solving tools, the HH&P decided to create a web-based tool to capture best practices and case studies, to teach novice users how to use new problem solving tools and to change project management training/. This web-based tool was developed with a small, multi-disciplinary group and named the Solution Mechanism Guide (SMG). An alpha version was developed that was tested against several sessions of user groups to get feedback on the SMG and determine a future course for development. The feedback was very positive and the HH&P decided to move to the beta-phase of development. To develop the web-based tool, the HH&P utilized the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL) to develop the software with TopCoder under an existing contract. In this way, the HH&P is using one new tool (the NTL and TopCoder) to develop the next generation tool, the SMG. The beta-phase of the SMG is planed for release in the spring of 2014 and results of the beta-phase testing will be available for the IAC meeting in September. The SMG is intended to disrupt the way problem solvers and project managers approach problem solving and to increase the use of novel and more cost and time effective problem solving tools such as open innovation, collaborative research, and virtual collaborative project centers. The HH&P envisions changing project management coursework by including the SMG in the teaching of project management problem solving tools.

Keeton, Kathryn E.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

2014-01-01

304

Problem solving and decisionmaking: An integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt was made to redress a critical fault of decisionmaking and problem solving research-a lack of a standard method to classify problem or decision states or conditions. A basic model was identified and expanded to indicate a possible taxonomy of conditions which may be used in reviewing previous research or for systematically pursuing new research designs. A generalization of the basic conditions was then made to indicate that the conditions are essentially the same for both concepts, problem solving and decisionmaking.

Dieterly, D. L.

1980-01-01

305

Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was developed to further evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards problem solving. The survey responses suggest that introductory students and even graduate students have different attitudes and approaches to problem solving on several important measures compared to physics faculty members. Furthermore, responses to individual survey questions suggest that expert and novice attitudes and approaches to problem solving may be more complex than naively considered.

Mason, Andrew J.

306

Development of a problem solving evaluation instrument; Untangling of specific problem solving skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. The work is also unique due to its diversity of individuals examined and the range of tasks it evaluates. Chapter 1 includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science. Chapter 2 contains information about studies involving the PhET Interactive Simulations and presents design guidelines for interface design. Chapter 3 contains information on the development and validation of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for physics. Chapter 4 describes the work done by the author to develop and validate the Colorado Assessment of Problem Solving (CAPS). This problem solving evaluation tool identifies 44 separate skills (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show the skills identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same skills that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. A discussion is included about how this work extends what is currently understood about the skills that students use to solve problems and which of these skills are applicable in other disciplines. Understanding this set of component skills will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

Adams, Wendy K.

2010-06-29

307

Problem-solving analysis: A piagetian study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-nine second-year medical students were asked to solve 12 Piagetian formal operational tasks. The purpose was to describe the formal logical characteristics of this medical student sample (59 of a total 65 possible) in terms of their abilities to solve problems in four formal logical schemata-combinatorial logic, probabilistic reasoning, propositional logic, and proportional reasoning. These tasks were presented as videotape

James P. Hale

1983-01-01

308

A Comparison of Two Mathematics Problem-Solving Strategies: Facilitate Algebra-Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors compared a conceptual model-based problem-solving (COMPS) approach with a general heuristic instructional approach for teaching multiplication-division word-problem solving to elementary students with learning problems (LP). The results indicate that only the COMPS group significantly improved, from pretests to posttests, their…

Xin, Yan Ping; Zhang, Dake; Park, Joo Young; Tom, Kinsey; Whipple, Amanda; Si, Luo

2011-01-01

309

Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of "real" scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.

Payne, Amy C.; Zenner, Greta; Sammel, Lauren M.; Hemling, Melissa A.; Crone, Wendy C.

2006-11-01

310

How to encourage university students to solve physics problems requiring mathematical skills: the ‘adventurous problem solving’ approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior\\/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential expressions and multi-dimensional integrations, and the Gauss and Ampčre laws learnt in electromagnetism courses. To

Frits F M De Mul; Cristina Martin i Batlle; Imme De Bruijn; Kees Rinzema

2004-01-01

311

How to encourage university students to solve physics problems requiring mathematical skills: the 'adventurous problem solving' approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential expressions and multi-dimensional integrations, and the Gauss and Ampčre laws learnt in electromagnetism courses. To enhance those skills in a quick and efficient way we have developed 'Integrating Mathematics in University Physics', in which students are provided with a selection of problems (exercises) that explicitly deal with the relation between physics and mathematics. The project is based on computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and available via the Internet (http://tnweb.tn.utwente.nl/onderwijs/; or http://www.utwente.nl/; search or click to: CONECT). Normally, in CAI a predefined student-guiding sequence for problem solving is used (systematic problem solving). For self-learning this approach was found to be far too rigid. Therefore, we developed the 'adventurous problem solving' (APS) method. In this new approach, the student has to find the solution by developing his own problem-solving strategy in an interactive way. The assessment of mathematical answers to physical questions is performed using a background link with an algebraic symbolic language interpreter. This manuscript concentrates on the subject of APS.

DeMul, Frits F. M.; Batlle, Cristina Martin i.; DeBruijn, Imme; Rinzema, Kees

2004-01-01

312

Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.

Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui

1991-01-01

313

Chemistry Problem-Solving: Symbol, Macro, Micro, and Process Aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article summarizes a paper by Yehudit J. Dori and Mira Hameiri, "Multidimensional Analysis System for Quantitative Chemistry Problems: Symbol, Macro, Micro, and Process Aspects" (J. Res. Sci. Teach. 2003, 40, 278-333), which describes the Multidimensional Analysis System (MAS), an approach to constructing, classifying, and analyzing introductory stoichiometry problems. In a comparison study the research population used the MAS problem solving approach for nine weeks on a particular topic; the control group studied the same topic for the same duration using a traditional instructional approach. Experimental group students scored significantly higher on an exit examination than their control group peers on the same examination. Students who had mathematics skills at the basic level benefited significantly more from MAS-based teaching than those whose mathematics level was more advanced.

Robinson, William R.

2003-09-01

314

Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…

Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.

2014-01-01

315

Understanding Individual Problem-Solving Style: A Key to Learning and Applying Creative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…

Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.

2008-01-01

316

Understanding individual problem-solving style: A key to learning and applying creative problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process tools more effectively, and when

Donald J. Treffinger; Edwin C. Selby; Scott G. Isaksen

2008-01-01

317

Problem-Solving Models for Computer Literacy: Getting Smarter at Solving Problems. Student Lessons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended for use as a student guide. It is about human problem solving and provides information on how the mind works, placing a major emphasis on the role of computers as an aid in problem solving. The book is written with the underlying philosophy of discovery-based learning based on two premises: first, through the appropriate…

Moursund, David

318

Assessing Affect after Mathematical Problem Solving Tasks: Validating the Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…

Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.

2013-01-01

319

A Conceptual Approach to Physics Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in introductory physics courses treat problem solving as an exercise in manipulating equations, symbols, and quantities with the goal of obtaining the correct answer. Although this approach is efficient for getting answers, it is far from optimal for learning how conceptual knowledge is applied in the problem-solving process. The goal of this study is to refine and evaluate an approach that encourages students to begin by writing a strategic analysis of a problem based on principles and procedures, and then to follow with a documented problem solution that exhibits, side-by-side, how concepts and equations go together in a solution. We will discuss the implementation and effectiveness of this approach in four local high school classrooms.

Docktor, Jennifer; Strand, Natalie; Mestre, Jose P.; Ross, Brian H.

2011-01-01

320

Solving problems of an injection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full-scale waterflooding, at the rate of 200,000 bpd, is proceeding smoothly at a Mexican field after some inital operating problems. There have been successfully solved by Petroleos Mexicanos. Main problems and their solutions were: (1) Salt-water damage of key pump components, and electrolitic corrosion--water-well tubings were internally coated with epoxy and pump were protected with magnesium anodes. (2) Galvanic corrosion

Mascorro

1971-01-01

321

A meta Problem Solving Environment (PSE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a new framework called PSE Park for constructing a Problem Solving Environment (PSE); it enables us to construct PSEs easily. PSE Park outputs PSEs depending on user's demand\\/input. In this sense, PSE Park is a kind of PSE for PSE, and helps users to construct PSEs. PSE Park consists of four engines: PIPE server, core,

Hiromichi Kobashi; S. Kawata; M. Matsumoto; H. Usami; D. Barada

2010-01-01

322

Introduction to Ocean Acoustics: Guided Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about sound propagation in the ocean through instructor-guided problem solving. The activity promotes a conceptual understanding of the physical and chemical factors that influence ocean acoustics, with applications to how whales communicate over long distances. The activity serves as a way to introduce the topic of ocean sound.

Boucher, Joceline

323

Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

2006-01-01

324

ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

Borg, Suzanne

2009-01-01

325

ARPACK: Solving large scale eigenvalue problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARPACK is a collection of Fortran77 subroutines designed to solve large scale eigenvalue problems. The package is designed to compute a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a general n by n matrix A. It is most appropriate for large sparse or structured matrices A where structured means that a matrix-vector product w

Lehoucq, Rich; Maschhoff, Kristi; Sorensen, Danny; Yang, Chao

2013-11-01

326

Supporting Distance Learners for Collaborative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a computer-supported environment designed to facilitate distance learning through collaborative problem-solving. The goal is to encourage distance learning students to work together, in order to promote both learning of collaboration and learning through collaboration. Collaboration is defined as working together on a common…

Verdejo, M. F.; Barros, B.; Abad, M. T.

327

Developing students' physics problem-solving skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes a protocol designed to help students taking their first undergraduate physics course in acquiring the basic skills of physics problem-solving. The educational effectiveness of this protocol for mature students in distance education has been extensively evaluated, and it is now being used as the basis for an interactive multimedia learning package.

Bolton, John; Ross, Shelagh

2005-11-03

328

Developing Students' Physics Problem-Solving Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a protocol designed to help students taking their first undergraduate physics course acquire the basic skills of physics problem solving. Discusses the evaluation of the educational effectiveness of this protocol and its use in an interactive multimedia learning package. Contains 16 references. (Author/JRH)

Bolton, John; Ross, Shelagh

1997-01-01

329

Effective Practices (Part 4): Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of computers to help with problem solving. Topics include information science, including effective procedure and procedural thinking; templates; artificially intelligent agents and expert systems; and applications in education, including the goal of computer literacy for all students, and integrated software packages such as…

Moursund, Dave

1996-01-01

330

Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

Polland, Mark J.

331

How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…

Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

2013-01-01

332

Processes Involved in Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This clinical, exploratory study describes processes used by 8 ninth-graders learning to solve non-routine geometry problems and changes in those processes as instruction in heuristic methods was given. Directions for future research are indicated, and several hypotheses to be investigated are suggested. (DT)

Kantowski, Mary Grace

1977-01-01

333

Using Problem-Solving Conversation With Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal communication is a major tool for parents and educators who want to influence children's behavior and development. Although the literature concerning interviewing skills is extensive, only a few authors address conversation techniques, specifically processes that may be used with children. Problem-solving conversation (PSC) with children comprises a structured interview that parents, educators, counselors, and therapists can implement. It consists

Marwan Dwairy

2005-01-01

334

The Power of Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To make the best use of one's creativity in problem solving, it is important to first create an atmosphere in which creativity can flourish. Two methods that can be used to generate ideas are brainstorming and analogizing. After generating ideas, the best solution must be chosen and then the chosen ideas must be implemented. (MLW)

Standley, Thad

1990-01-01

335

Partial Metacognitive Blindness in Collaborative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the impact of group dynamics on metacognitive behaviours of students (aged 13-14) during group collaborative problem solving attempts involving a design-based real-world applications project. It was discovered that group dynamics mediated the impact of metacognitive judgments related red flag situations and metacognitive…

Ng, Kit Ee Dawn

2010-01-01

336

Creative Problem Solving in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second and third grade students used the creative problem solving strategy developed by Sidney Parnes and Alex Osborn in their social studies classes. The second graders, finding few biographies written for students reading on a first or second grade level, interviewed community members, collected photographs of them, and wrote their biographies,…

Ayers, Samuel J.

337

Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)

Stewart, James

1983-01-01

338

Computer Simulation Helps Solve Refinery Combustion Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulation played a key role in solving a difficult combustion problem in a vertical cylindrical furnace used in an oil refinery. Low NOx burners, arranged in a circle, were retrofitted in the furnace floor. The new burner installation created unexpected and undesirable flame merging, creating unacceptable flame lengths and high temperature peaks resulting in excessive NOx emissions. Computational fluid

Roberto Ruiz

2006-01-01

339

Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…

Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

2012-01-01

340

Learning to Solve Complex Problems in Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an instructional exercise at the University of Newcastle (Australia), social work students, staff, and organizations role-play in a simulated city to solve complex problems in a realistic but safe learning context. Experience suggests the extended simulation technique is effective. (MSE)

Hughes, Ian

1992-01-01

341

Structured Development of Problem Solving Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract . Problem solving methods (PSMs) are domain-independent reasoning components, which specify patterns of behavior which can be reused across applications. While the availability of extensive PSM libraries and the emerging consensus on PSM specification languages indicate the maturity of the field, a number of important research issues are still open. In particular, very little progress has been achieved on

Dieter Fensel; Enrico Motta

2001-01-01

342

Conceptual Structures in Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The processes by which conceptual knowledge is constructed during mathematical problem solving were studied, focusing on the cognitive activity of learners (i.e., the ways they elaborate, reorganize, and reconceptualize their solution activity). Underlying this research is the view that learners' mathematical conceptions evolve from their activity…

Cifarelli, Victor

343

Developing Problem-Solving Skills of Students Taking Introductory Physics via Web-Based Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science teaching and learning can be made both engaging and student-centered using pedagogical, computer-based learning tools. The authors have developed self-paced interactive problem-solving tutorials for introductory physics. These tutorials can provid

Singh, Chandralekha; Haileselassie, Daniel

2010-03-01

344

Real-Life Problem-Solving Thinking and Social Adjustment: Intervention for Preschool and Kindergarten Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive and evaluative information is presented about the Interpersonal Cognitive Problem Solving (ICPS) program, which utilizes sequenced games and dialogs to teach young children new ways of thinking about and coping with interpersonal difficulties. (SJL)

Shure, Myrna Beth

1979-01-01

345

Discovering the structure of mathematical problem solving.  

PubMed

The goal of this research is to discover the stages of mathematical problem solving, the factors that influence the duration of these stages, and how these stages are related to the learning of a new mathematical competence. Using a combination of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and hidden Markov models (HMM), we found that participants went through 5 major phases in solving a class of problems: A Define Phase where they identified the problem to be solved, an Encode Phase where they encoded the needed information, a Compute Phase where they performed the necessary arithmetic calculations, a Transform Phase where they performed any mathematical transformations, and a Respond Phase where they entered an answer. The Define Phase is characterized by activity in visual attention and default network regions, the Encode Phase by activity in visual regions, the Compute Phase by activity in regions active in mathematical tasks, the Transform Phase by activity in mathematical and response regions, and the Respond phase by activity in motor regions. The duration of the Compute and Transform Phases were the only ones that varied with condition. Two features distinguished the mastery trials on which participants came to understand a new problem type. First, the duration of late phases of the problem solution increased. Second, there was increased activation in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and angular gyrus (AG), regions associated with metacognition. This indicates the importance of reflection to successful learning. PMID:24746954

Anderson, John R; Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M

2014-08-15

346

Mathematical Problem Solving among Latina/o Kindergartners: An Analysis of Opportunities to Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores opportunities to learn mathematics problem solving for Latina/o students in 3 kindergarten classrooms in the southwest. Mixed methods were used to examine teaching practices that engaged Latina/o students in problem solving and supported their learning. Findings indicate that although students in all 3 classrooms showed growth…

Turner, Erin E.; Celedon-Pattichis, Sylvia

2011-01-01

347

The Effects of an Explicit Problem-Solving Approach on Mathematical Chemistry Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated effects of teaching an explicit approach to problem solving on the mathematical chemistry achievement of preparatory college students (with a control group being taught dimensional analysis as its problem-solving strategy). No difference in cumulative achievement between the groups was found. Interpretations of the results obtained…

Bunce, Diane M.; Heikkinen, Henry

1986-01-01

348

SELF-REGULATION STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM SOLVING FOR STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a review of research in cognitive strategy instruction for improving mathematical problem solving for students with learning disabilities (LD). The particular focus is on one of the salient components of this instructional approach - self-regulation. Seven studies utilizing this approach for teaching problem solving to students with LD were previously evaluated to determine its status as evidence-based

Marjorie Montague

2008-01-01

349

Improving Mathematics Problem Solving Skills for English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article the authors provide before, during, and after problem solving strategies and instructional suggestions for teachers. The focus of the article is to improve the ability of students with disabilities that are also English as a second language (ESL) learners to solve word problems. The authors provide multiple teaching strategies, questioning techniques, and links to lesson resources.

Torres-Velasquez, Diane; Rodriguez, Diane

2005-01-01

350

The Effects of Differentiating Instruction by Learning Styles on Problem Solving in Cooperative Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It can be difficult to find adequate strategies when teaching problem solving in a standard based mathematics classroom. The purpose of this study was to improve students' problem solving skills and attitudes through differentiated instruction when working on lengthy performance tasks in cooperative groups. This action research studied for 15 days…

Westbrook, Amy F.

2011-01-01

351

Broadcast Search in Problem Solving: Attracting Solutions From the Periphery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to explore an alternative mechanism of problem solving that focuses on broadcasting problems to diverse and peripheral problem solvers, what I call broadcast search. Broadcasting problems is a radical departure from traditional problem solving as it involves problem holders engaging in as little problem-solving as possible - instead they attempt to interest a heterogeneous

Karim R. Lakhani

2006-01-01

352

Problem Solving and Problem Orientation in Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study’s main objective is to examine whether problem orientation and problem-solving skills differ according to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptom level or clinical status (seeking help for GAD). Its secondary goal is to examine whether two cognitive variables (intolerance of uncertainty and beliefs about worry) vary according to GAD symptom level or clinical status. Three groups of subjects

Robert Ladouceur; France Blais; Mark H. Freeston; Michel J. Dugas

1998-01-01

353

Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…

Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.

2012-01-01

354

Helping Graduate Assistants Teach Physics: Problems and Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a "Basics of Teaching Physics" course as an approach to training teaching assistants (TAs) in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) departments. The regular graduate course is based on constructivist learning: TAs construct their own understanding through guided questions, problem solving, reading and analyzing papers,…

Etkina, Eugenia

2000-01-01

355

Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.

Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana

2009-01-24

356

Federal policies and technological problem-solving  

SciTech Connect

The Report addresses the question of whether existing policies either enhance or inhibit the achievement of a new policy's primary objective; namely, to solve public interest problems at the least cost and risk to taxpayers. (See: How to Motivate Private Investment in Public Goods, NTIS Accession No. PB92-106731). The Report's Appendix briefly describes the new policy and its several techno-economic objectives. Only two existing policies are analyzed: OMB Circular 76, Performance of Commercial Activities, and Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs). The Report concludes that both policies are irrelevant to the new policy since neither enhances nor inhibits achievement of the new policy's objectives, and that a new federal policy is needed to cost-effectively solve the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ecological and environmental preservation problems.

Soergel, G.

1992-01-01

357

On Generating Solved Instances of Computational Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

)M. AbadiE. AllenderyA. BroderJ. FeigenbaumzL. HemachandraxAbstract: We consider the efficient generation of solved instances of computational problems. Inparticular, we consider invulnerable generators. Let S be a subset of f0; 1gand M be a TuringMachine that accepts S; an accepting computation w of M on input x is called a "witness" thatx 2 S. Informally, a program is an ff-invulnerable generator

Martín Abadi; Eric Allendert; Andrei Z. Broder; Joan Feigenbaum

1988-01-01

358

Employing Human Knowledge to Solve Integrated Coordination Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An Integrated Coordination Problem involves solving multiple related subproblems that collectively satisfy the requirements of a user, including subproblems that depend on the user's participation to solve. Fundamental challenges in solving such a problem...

D. Mihalcik E. Durfee K. Tang W. Chen Y. Tang

2010-01-01

359

Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

360

Exploring the role of conceptual scaffolding in solving synthesis problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC) problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiring a solver to conduct a general search for underlying concepts. Hypothesizing that complete reliance on EOC problems trains students to rely on a nonexpert approach, we designed and implemented âsynthesisâ problems, each combining two major concepts that are broadly separated in the teaching timeline. To provide students with guided conceptual scaffolding, we encapsulated each synthesis problem into a sequence with two preceding conceptually based multiple-choice questions. Each question contained one of the major concepts covered in the subsequent synthesis problem. Results from a small-scale interview study and two large-scale written tests showed that the scaffolding encouraged students to search for and apply appropriate fundamental principles in solving synthesis problems, and that repeated training using scaffolded synthesis problems also helped students to make cross-topic transfers.

Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

2012-05-21

361

Exploring the role of conceptual scaffolding in solving synthesis problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC) problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiring a solver to conduct a general search for underlying concepts. Hypothesizing that complete reliance on EOC problems trains students to rely on a nonexpert approach, we designed and implemented “synthesis” problems, each combining two major concepts that are broadly separated in the teaching timeline. To provide students with guided conceptual scaffolding, we encapsulated each synthesis problem into a sequence with two preceding conceptually based multiple-choice questions. Each question contained one of the major concepts covered in the subsequent synthesis problem. Results from a small-scale interview study and two large-scale written tests showed that the scaffolding encouraged students to search for and apply appropriate fundamental principles in solving synthesis problems, and that repeated training using scaffolded synthesis problems also helped students to make cross-topic transfers.

Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

2011-12-01

362

Worry and problem solving: Evidence of a specific relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that worry is related to deficient problem-solving ability. This paper presents the relationship between worry and problem solving. Worry was measured with the Worry Domains Questionnaire (Tallis, Eysenck, & Mathews, 1992) and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (Meyer, Miller, Metzger, & Borkovec, 1990); problem solving was assessed with the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (D'Zurilla & Nezu, 1990) and

Michel J. Dugas; Hélčne Letarte; Josée Rhéaume; Mark H. Freeston; Robert Ladouceur

1995-01-01

363

Getting Started with Information Problem-Solving Isn't a Problem When One Begins with a Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to use Jean Fritz's book "George Washington's Breakfast" to teach the Big6 process of information problem solving to first graders. Six modified terms used in teaching the lesson with the first-grade classes are: task=what, strategy=how, locate=where, use=look, synthesis=show, and evaluation=well.(LRW)

Ray, Sally

1998-01-01

364

Convergence and translation: attitudes to inter-professional learning and teaching of creative problem-solving among medical and engineering students and staff  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. Methods A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. Results We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. Conclusions The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution.

2014-01-01

365

Effects of Variability of Teaching on Responsiveness to the Didactic Contract in Arithmetic Problem-Solving among Pupils of 9-10 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can it be explained that, aside from inter-individual differences, pupils in certain classes are more responsive than others to the formal aspects of a problem that has been set? The author puts forward the hypothesis that teachers differ in their ability to operate relevant variations in the conception of problems. The differences in…

Sarrazy, Bernard

2002-01-01

366

Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).

Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin

2006-01-01

367

Big vs little problems :What is Problem Solving?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. In this wiki page, the focus is on those problems--big and small--that encourage students to think, ask questions, try a variety of problem-solving approaches, and discuss their strategies and solutions. It points out the vast difference between numerical problems dressed up as episodes of everyday life and real mathematics used every day to facilitate understanding and decision making. Built on the ideas found in the NCTM Standards, the Background section offers pedagogical examples and resources to expand teachers' understanding of mathematics and problem solving. The Activities sections feature selected online resources that are useful in expanding student thinking as they learn to become problem solvers in math class and beyond.

Spicer, Judy

2005-03-01

368

Problem-solving analysis: A piagetian study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifty-nine second-year medical students were asked to solve 12 Piagetian formal operational tasks. The purpose was to describe the formal logical characteristics of this medical student sample (59 of a total 65 possible) in terms of their abilities to solve problems in four formal logical schemata-combinatorial logic, probabilistic reasoning, propositional logic, and proportional reasoning. These tasks were presented as videotape demonstrations or in written form, depending on whether or not equipment manipulation was required, and were scored using conventional, prespecified scoring criteria. The results of this study show approximately 96% of the sample function at the transitional (Piaget's 3A level) stage of formal operations on all tasks and approximately 4% function at the full formal (Piaget's 3B level) stage of formal operations on all tasks. This sample demonstrates formal level thinking to a much greater degree than other samples reported in the literature to date and suggests these students are adequately prepared and developed to meet the challenge of their training (i.e., medical problem solving).

Hale, James P.

369

A Comparison of Two Mathematics Problem-Solving Strategies: Facilitate Algebra-Readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compared a conceptual model- based problem-solving (COMPS) approach with a general heuristic instructional approach for teaching multiplication–division word-problem solving to elementary students with learning problems (LP). The results indicate that only the COMPS group significantly improved, from pretests to posttests, their performance on the criterion test (that involves equal groups and multiplicative compare problems) and the prealgebra model

Yan Ping Xin; Dake Zhang; Joo Young Park; Kinsey Tom; Amanda Whipple; Luo Si

2011-01-01

370

Strategies in subtraction problem solving in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the strategies used by third graders in solving the 81 elementary subtractions that are the inverses of the one-digit additions with addends from 1 to 9 recently studied by Barrouillet and Lépine. Although the pattern of relationship between individual differences in working memory, on the one hand, and strategy choices and response times, on the other, was the same in both operations, subtraction and addition differed in two important ways. First, the strategy of direct retrieval was less frequent in subtraction than in addition and was even less frequent in subtraction solving than the recourse to the corresponding additive fact. Second, contrary to addition, the retrieval of subtractive answers is confined to some peculiar problems involving 1 as the subtrahend or the remainder. The implications of these findings for developmental theories of mental arithmetic are discussed. PMID:18241880

Barrouillet, Pierre; Mignon, Mathilde; Thevenot, Catherine

2008-04-01

371

Habits of Mind: Mathematics Problem Solving Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These roughly 200 lesson plans are related to mathematical problem solving and are provided by the non-profit Education Development Center. The lesson plans are designed to help students develop both deep conceptual mathematical understandings and technical skills. The plans are provided both as PDF files and in HTML, and teacher comments are also provided. Topics covered include modeling / mathematizing; finding analogies / structural similarities / isomorphisms; working with graphs; working with units/dimensional analysis; proving; formulating conjectures / generalizing / abstracting; finding and using invariants; creating / analyzing an algorithm; dealing with non-unique solutions; visualization; solving by special cases; verifying / interpreting results; analyzing parameters; estimating; inventing and using notation. This is an extensive and thorough resource for first-cycle college mathematics teachers and teachers of advanced high school math.

2007-11-12

372

How Do College Students Solve Proportion Problems?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problems which could be solved using proportional reasoning were administered nationwide by college faculty to their own science classes during a three year period. The reasoning of more than 8000 students covering three sections of the country was classified as concrete, transitional, or formal using Piagetian categories. Data from the West closely replicated that from the Midwest on similar metric conversion tasks. Student performance changed noticeably with a different problem format. The percentages of students using a ratio formula, ratio attempt, or intuitive methods of solution held approximately constant over time, task, and section of the country. The data shows the use of additive and conversion methods of solution depends upon the problem presentation.

Thornton, Melvin C.; Fuller, Robert G.

2012-05-15

373

Physics Problem Solving in Cooperative Learning Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research investigated the process of argument co-construction in 14 cooperative problem-solving groups in an algebra-based, college level, introductory physics course. The results of the research provide a rich description of argument co-construction, which, while predicted in previous literature, has not been systematically described. The research was a qualitative, case-study analysis of each group's discussion of the "physics description" portion of the group's problem solution. In a physics description physics concepts and principles are use to qualitatively analyze the problem. Transcripts were made from videotapes and the analysis focused on sequential groups of statements, called episodes, instead of isolated, individual statements. The groups' episodes were analyzed and described in terms of Stephen Toulmin's argument structure which consists of claims, grounds, warrants, and backings.

Hollabaugh, Mark

2010-01-06

374

Physics Problem Solving in Cooperative Learning Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research investigated the process of argument co-construction in 14 cooperative problem-solving groups in an algebra-based, college level, introductory physics course. The results of the research provide a rich description of argument co-construction, which, while predicted in previous literature, has not been systematically described. The research was a qualitative, case-study analysis of each group's discussion of the "physics description" portion of the group's problem solution. In a physics description physics concepts and principles are use to qualitatively analyze the problem. Transcripts were made from videotapes and the analysis focused on sequential groups of statements, called episodes, instead of isolated, individual statements. The groups' episodes were analyzed and described in terms of Stephen Toulmin's argument structure which consists of claims, grounds, warrants, and backings.

Hollabaugh, Mark

2007-01-01

375

Problem Solving Experiences of Student Mathematics Teachers through Cabri: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a case study dealing with teacher?student reaction and cooperation during problem-solving activities within a class setting. The aim is to familiarize student mathematics teachers with the process of mathematics teaching with computers and to help them re-examine their traditional views of mathematics learning and teaching.…

Baki, Adnan

2004-01-01

376

Resource Letter RPS-1: Research in problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research in problem solving, especially in physics. The references were compiled with two audiences in mind: physicists who are (or might become) engaged in research on problem solving, and physics instructors who are interested in using research results to improve their students' learning of problem solving. In addition to general references, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: cognitive aspects of problem solving, expert-novice problem-solver characteristics, problem solving in mathematics, alternative problem types, curricular interventions, and the use of computers in problem solving.

Hsu, Leonardo; Brewe, Eric; Foster, Thomas M.; Harper, Kathleen A.

2004-09-01

377

Individual differences in solving arithmetic word problems  

PubMed Central

Background With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at 3 T, we investigated the neural correlates of visualization and verbalization during arithmetic word problem solving. In the domain of arithmetic, visualization might mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate) results while calculating, and verbalization might mean that numbers and (intermediate) results are verbally repeated during calculation. If the brain areas involved in number processing are domain-specific as assumed, that is, that the left angular gyrus (AG) shows an affinity to the verbal domain, and that the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) shows an affinity to the visual domain, the activation of these areas should show a dependency on an individual’s cognitive style. Methods 36 healthy young adults participated in the fMRI study. The participants habitual use of visualization and verbalization during solving arithmetic word problems was assessed with a short self-report assessment. During the fMRI measurement, arithmetic word problems that had to be solved by the participants were presented in an event-related design. Results We found that visualizers showed greater brain activation in brain areas involved in visual processing, and that verbalizers showed greater brain activation within the left angular gyrus. Conclusions Our results indicate that cognitive styles or preferences play an important role in understanding brain activation. Our results confirm, that strong visualizers use mental imagery more strongly than weak visualizers during calculation. Moreover, our results suggest that the left AG shows a specific affinity to the verbal domain and subserves number processing in a modality-specific way.

2013-01-01

378

Collaborative Research: Bringing Problem Solving in the Field into the Classroom: Developing and Assessing Virtual Field Trips for Teaching Sedimentary and Introductory Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal Florida offers a unique setting for the facilitation of learning about a variety of modern sedimentary environments. Despite the conflicting concept of "virtual" and "actual" field trip, and the uncertainties associated with the implementation and effectiveness, virtual trips provide likely the only way to reach a large diversified student population and eliminate travel time and expenses. In addition, with rapidly improving web and visualization technology, field trips can be simulated virtually. It is therefore essential to systematically develop and assess the educational effectiveness of virtual field trips. This project is developing, implementing, and assessing a series of virtual field trips for teaching undergraduate sedimentary geology at a large four-year research university and introductory geology at a large two-year community college. The virtual field trip is based on a four-day actual field trip for a senior level sedimentary geology class. Two versions of the virtual field trip, one for advanced class and one for introductory class, are being produced. The educational outcome of the virtual field trip will be compared to that from actual field trip. This presentation summarizes Year 1 achievements of the three-year project. The filming, editing, and initial production of the virtual field trip have been completed. Formative assessments were conducted by the Coalition for Science Literacy at the University of South Florida. Once tested and refined, the virtual field trips will be disseminated through broadly used web portals and workshops at regional and national meetings.

Wang, P.; Caldwell, M.

2012-12-01

379

Negotiation as a Metaphor for Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the concept of distributed problem solving and define it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. We present a framework called the contract net that specifies

Randall Davis; Reid G. Smith

1983-01-01

380

A Problem Set for the Investigation of Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Polya claims that true problem solving is accompanied by the cognitive activities of mobilization, organization, isolation and combination, and by the evaluations of relevancy, proximity, and quality. Evaluations occur as a result of monitoring cognitive activities. According to Polya, these particular cognitive activities are a necessary part of…

Allen, Bradford D.; Carifio, James

381

Solving large sparse eigenvalue problems on supercomputers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important problem in scientific computing consists in finding a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a very large and sparse matrix. The most popular methods to solve these problems are based on projection techniques on appropriate subspaces. The main attraction of these methods is that they only require the use of the matrix in the form of matrix by vector multiplications. The implementations on supercomputers of two such methods for symmetric matrices, namely Lanczos' method and Davidson's method are compared. Since one of the most important operations in these two methods is the multiplication of vectors by the sparse matrix, methods of performing this operation efficiently are discussed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each method are compared and implementation aspects are discussed. Numerical experiments on a one processor CRAY 2 and CRAY X-MP are reported. Possible parallel implementations are also discussed.

Philippe, Bernard; Saad, Youcef

1988-01-01

382

Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus).  

PubMed

Recent work has shown that captive rooks, like chimpanzees and other primates, develop cooperative alliances with their conspecifics. Furthermore, the pressures hypothesized to have favoured social intelligence in primates also apply to corvids. We tested cooperative problem-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. Without training, eight rooks quickly solved a problem in which two individuals had to pull both ends of a string simultaneously in order to pull in a food platform. Similar to chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, performance was better when within-dyad tolerance levels were higher. In contrast to chimpanzees, rooks did not delay acting on the apparatus while their partner gained access to the test room. Furthermore, given a choice between an apparatus that could be operated individually over one that required the action of two individuals, four out of six individuals showed no preference. These results may indicate that cooperation in chimpanzees is underpinned by more complex cognitive processes than that in rooks. Such a difference may arise from the fact that while both chimpanzees and rooks form cooperative alliances, chimpanzees, but not rooks, live in a variable social network made up of competitive and cooperative relationships. PMID:18364318

Seed, Amanda M; Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

2008-06-22

383

Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.

Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.

1988-01-01

384

Physics Graduate Studentsâ Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly inluence their motivation to learn and their development of expertise. We administered an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to physics graduate students and analyzed their responses about problem solving in their own graduate level courses vs. problem solving in introductory physics. The physics graduate students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory students and physics faculty. Survey responses suggest that graduate students' attitudes about graduate level problem solving sometimes has similar patterns to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Singh, Chandralekha; Mason, Andrew J.

2010-01-18

385

Problem solving and chemical equilibrium: Successful versus unsuccessful performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the problem-solving behaviors of experts and novices engaged in solving seven chemical equilibrium problems. Thirteen novices (five high-school students, five undergraduate majors, and three nonmajors) and ten experts (six doctoral students and four faculty members) were videotaped as they individually solved standard chemical equilibrium problems. The nature of the problems was such

Moises Camacho; Ron Good

1989-01-01

386

Novice use of qualitative versus quantitative problem solving in electrostatics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the problem-solving behaviors of six novice subjects attempting to solve an electrostatics problem in calculus-based college physics. The level of qualitative thinking exhibited by these novices was determined. Sound procedural knowledge and problem representation were suggested as an integral part of skilled problem solving in physics.

Mcmillan, Claude; Swadener, Marc

2006-06-19

387

Integrating video and animation with physics problem solving exercises on the World Wide Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is of paramount importance in teaching and learning physics. An important step in solving a problem is visualization. To help students visualize a problem, we included video clips with homework questions delivered via the World Wide Web. Although including video with physics problems has a positive effect with some problems, we found that this may not be the best way to integrate multimedia with physics problems since improving visualization is probably not as helpful as changing students' approach. To challenge how students solve problems and to help them develop a more expert-like approach, we developed a type of physics exercise called a multimedia focused problem where students take data from an animation in order to solve a problem. Because numbers suggestive of a solution are not given in the text of the question, students have to consider the problem conceptually before analyzing it mathematically. As a result, we found that students had difficulty solving such problems compared to traditional textbook-like problems. Students' survey responses showed that students indeed had difficulty determining what was needed to solve a problem when it was not explicitly given to them in the text of the question. Analyzing think-aloud interviews where students verbalized their thoughts while solving problems, we found that multimedia-focused problems indeed required solid conceptual understanding in order for them to be solved correctly.

Titus, Aaron

2005-10-17

388

Employing human knowledge to solve integrated coordination problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Integrated Coordination Problem involves solving multiple related subproblems that collectively satisfy the requirements of a user, including subproblems that depend on the user's participation to solve. Fundamental challenges in solving such a problem include defining mechanisms to solve the individual subproblems, formulating the information and control flow between these mechanisms that supports flexible end-to-end problem-solving, and providing access for

Wei Chen; Kaizhi Tang; David Mihalcik; Yunshen Tang; Edmund Durfee; Melanie Dumas

2010-01-01

389

The Importance of Appropriate Problems in the Teaching of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion is focused on standard teaching procedures that contain the elements of modern mathematics. Of the various methods which have been tested, it is concluded that the solving of problems remains the most effective basic activity. A sample collection of problems is presented to indicate relationships and the principles they illustrate. (RP)

Georgescu-Buzau, E.; And Others

1970-01-01

390

Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).

Brewe, Eric

2006-12-01

391

Effective vs. Efficient: Teaching Methods of Solving Linear Equations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The choice of teaching an effective method--one that most students can master--or an efficient method--one that takes the fewest steps--occurs daily in Algebra I classrooms. This decision may not be made in the abstract, however, but rather in a ready-to-hand mode. This study examines how teachers solve linear equations when the purpose is…

Ivey, Kathy M. C.

2003-01-01

392

Method of Solving the Isoperimetric Problem of Isotope Irradiation Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The algorithm of solving the reactor optimization problem with isoperimetric conditions is drawn. The problem is solved in terms of the iterative method directly using the maximum principle. The thermal and resonance neutron fluxes which ensure maximum yi...

A. I. Volovik

1977-01-01

393

The Integration Of TRIZ Problem Solving Techniques With Other Problem Solving And Assessment Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

TRIZ, as a problem-solving process, is seldom used or brought into an organization in a vacuum. There is almost always an existing structure of tools and processes in use into which TRIZ enters. TRIZ can be brought into an organization as a replacement, or in collaboration with the most commonly used innovation and creativity tools in use such as Creative

Jack Hipple

394

Students' Use of Imagery in Solving Qualitative Problems in Kinematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes a study that investigated the relationship between mental imagery and problem solving in physics, specifically in kinematics. A distinction is made between visual imagery and spatial imagery used in solving physics problems. The results of this study indicate that while spatial imagery may promote problem solving success, the use of visual imagery presents an obstacle to problem solving in kinematics. (Contains 23 references.)

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Hegarty, Mary; Mayer, Richard

2006-06-16

395

Effects of a Problem-Based Structure of Physics Contents on Conceptual Learning and the Ability to Solve Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of teaching/learning is proposed based on a "problem-based structure" of the contents of the course, in combination with a training in paper and pencil problem solving that emphasizes discussion and quantitative analysis, rather than formulae plug-in. The aim is to reverse the high failure and attrition rate among engineering…

Becerra-Labra, Carlos; Gras-Marti, Albert; Torregrosa, Joaquin Martinez

2012-01-01

396

Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.

Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja

2014-01-01

397

A BASIC Programming Curriculum for Enhancing Problem-Solving Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum is proposed to enhance problem-solving ability through learning to program in BASIC. Current research shows development of problem-solving skills from learning to program in BASIC. Successful treatments have been based on contemporary problem-solving theory, top-down, modular programing, and rigorous length and intensity. The…

Overbaugh, Richard C.

398

Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

2012-01-01

399

Enhancing Mathematical Problem Solving for Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the research program on mathematical problem solving conducted by the Center on Accelerating Student Learning (CASL). First, a subset of CASL themes, illustrated in the mathematical problem-solving studies, is highlighted. Then, the theoretical underpinnings of the mathematical problem-solving intervention methods are…

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs,Douglas

2005-01-01

400

CONSTRUCTING PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE OF PROBLEM SOLVING: PRESERVICE MATHEMATICS TEACHERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports a study of the knowledge preservice secondary school mathematics teachers (PSSMT) hold of problem solving and the role of a reflective-inquiry approach in creating self-awareness of, and in enhancing, this knowledge. The approach included solving problems, narratives, flow charts and observations. The finding shows that the participants were able to construct a deeper understanding of problem solving.

Olive Chapman

401

Math Problem Solving and Mental Discipline: The Myth of Transferability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is alleged by math teachers and their supporters that math problem solving actually transfers to skills in real or applied problem solving (RAPS). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issue of math problem solving and the concomitant concept of mental discipline/transfer of learning. The mental discipline theory and evidence to support…

Lemire, David

402

Problem Solving in the Treatment of Childhood Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study randomized obese children from 67 families to groups that received a 6-month family-based behavioral weight-control program plus parent and child problem solving, child problem solving, or standard treatment with no additional problem solving. The standard group showed larger body mass index (BMI) decreases than the parent + child group through 2 years, with significant differences in the percentage

Leonard H. Epstein; Rocco A. Paluch; Constance C. Gordy; Brian E. Saelens; Michelle M. Ernst

2000-01-01

403

Maximum/Minimum Problems Solved Using an Algebraic Way  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes some problems of the maximum/minimum type, which are generally solved using calculus at secondary school, but which here are solved algebraically. We prove six algebraic properties and then apply them to this kind of problem. This didactic approach allows pupils to solve these problems even at the beginning of secondary…

Modica, Erasmo

2010-01-01

404

Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

Hung, Woei

2013-01-01

405

Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

2012-01-01

406

Solving Word Problems Using Schemas: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students…

Powell, Sarah R.

2011-01-01

407

A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…

Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.

2005-01-01

408

Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

2012-01-01

409

What We Know (and What We Don't Know) about Training of Cognitive Strategies for Technical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of teaching troubleshooting is examined as an example of the teaching of cognitive strategies for technical problem solving. The traditional behavioral approach to teaching troubleshooting has essentially been algorithmic. Recent cognitive research suggests an approach founded first on task analysis and characterized by: (1) analysis of…

Foshay, Wellesley R.

410

Research and Teaching: Problem Solving in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews current research in the application of the Neo-Piagetian theory of Pascual-Leone and shows how it provides the science teacher new implements. Hypothesizes that the role of the environment and creativity, if emphasized adequately, can help make science instruction more effective. (Contains 45 references.) (PR)

Niaz, Mansoor

1993-01-01

411

Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a companion paper, we discuss studentsâ ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss studentsâ ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two- step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2011-01-01

412

Why and How We Made a Problem Oriented AV Teaching Unit for Chemistry Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an audiovisual teaching unit on the chemical laboratory technique of recrystallization which was developed along problem-solving lines and based on observation of student laboratory behavior. Discussion includes usual procedures for developing such units, how this unit solves problems typically associated with teaching, and its general…

Mulder, T. H. M.; Verdonk, A. H.

1984-01-01

413

Problem Orientation in Physical Geography Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that the introduction of real, quantitative problems in classroom and field teaching improves scientific rigor and leads more directly to applied studies. Examines the use of problems in an introductory hydrology course, presenting teaching objectives and the full course structure to illustrate their integration with other teaching modes.…

Church, Michael

1988-01-01

414

Engineering Applications for Demonstrating Mathematical Problem-Solving Methods at the Secondary Education Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for teaching problem-solving skills to mathematics students is presented. By subtly incorporating engineering applications, the students are simultaneously exposed to an effective outreach programme. The process includes offering a complex problem that challenges students' abilities. Before allowing the students to become frustrated, the…

Kuehner, Joel P.; Mauch, Elizabeth K.

2006-01-01

415

Mathematical Practice 1. Make Sense of Problems and Persevere in Solving Them  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 5-minute video of a fourth grade classroom depicts the teaching strategy of modeling the four step problem solving process during direct instruction. The narrator, Robin Silby, states that learners will benefit from frequently thinking and talking aloud as a group to understand the important information so they can make sense of the problem.

2014-01-01

416

Human Resource Management: A Problem-Solving Approach Linked to ISLLC Standards. Revised Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that adult learners prefer a problem-solving approach to learning, rather than a subject-centered approach. This book provides a non-traditional approach to teaching and learning the basics of human resource management through a series of 125 in-basket exercises and guided questions. These exercises focus on real-life problems

Baker, Jerry R.; Doran, Madeleine S.

2006-01-01

417

An Exploratory Study Contrasting High- and Low-Achieving Students' Percent Word Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated whether schema-based instruction (SBI), a promising method for teaching students to represent and solve mathematical word problems, impacted the learning of percent word problems. Of particular interest was the extent that SBI improved high- and low-achieving students' learning and to a lesser degree on the indirect effect of…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.

2012-01-01

418

Strategies and Precise Vocabulary Knowledge: Exploring the Relationships Among Mathematics Vocabulary, Problem Solving, and Confidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this action research study I focused on my eighth grade pre-algebra students’ abilities to attack problems with enthusiasm and self confidence whether they completely understand the concepts or not. I wanted to teach them specific strategies and introduce and use precise vocabulary as a part of the problem solving process in hopes that I would see students’ confidence improve

Deb Borgelt

2008-01-01

419

Mathematical Problem Solving Among Latina\\/o Kindergartners: An Analysis of Opportunities to Learn  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores opportunities to learn mathematics problem solving for Latina\\/o students in 3 kindergarten classrooms in the southwest. Mixed methods were used to examine teaching practices that engaged Latina\\/o students in problem solving and supported their learning. Findings indicate that although students in all 3 classrooms showed growth on pre-\\/postassessment measures, students in Ms. Arenas's classroom outperformed students in

Erin E. Turner; Sylvia Celedón-Pattichis

2011-01-01

420

Technological and Personal Problem Solving Styles: Is there a Difference?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving, and technological problem solving in particular, is clearly a critical survival skill in our technologically advanced world. Government, business, vocational and technology education leaders have increasingly called for more emphasis on higher-order thinking skills and problem solving in both general and technological areas. The American technology education profession has identified problem solving as the technological method (Savage & Sterry, 1990). Authors outside technology education have also suggested that both general and technology teachers would be well advised to focus on enhancing problem solving skills. Given this, the authors sought to examine several key aspects of problem solving in more depth. Of these, the first was problem solving style. Problem-solving style is defined as a tendency to respond in a certain way while addressing problems and not as the steps employed in actually solving the problem. It has been operationally defined by Heppner (1988) in terms of three distinct dimensions which can be measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). Collectively, these dimensions (problem-solving confidence, approach/avoidance, and personal control) comprise problem-solving style. Although many educators claim to address problem solving, if the increasing frequency of mention in the literature is to be believed, the portion of citizens who have developed adequate problem solving capabilities is insufficient. It is no coincidence that this inadequacy is occurring at the same time when our society is experiencing a decrease in technological literacy. This problem is all the more critical given that the pace of technological growth is escalating (Dyrenfurth, 1991; Johnson, 1989). Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Custer, Rodney L.; Dyrenfurth, Michael J.; Wu, Tain-Fung

2009-10-20

421

Effect of Explicit Problem Solving Instructions on the Problem Solving Performance and Conceptual Understanding of Introductory College Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two sections of introductory non-calculus general physics lecture courses, with a total enrolment of 120 students, were used to investigate the impact of explicit problem solving instruction on students' problem solving ability and conceptual understanding. The comparison group was instructed in textbook style problem solving strategy. Students' conceptual understanding was assessed by adminstering the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) at the begening and end of the semester. Required written rationale for multiple choice questions and responses to multistep problems were analyzed to further assess conceptual understanding and problem solving skills of the students in the two groups. A significant difference was noted in both understanding and problem solving performance.

Numan, Muhammad; Sobolewski, Stanley

1998-04-01

422

The Effects of Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving on High School Students' Chemistry Problem-Solving Performance and Verbal Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem solving strategy, Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS), developed by Arthur Whimbey to help students monitor and understand their own thought process is presented. The TAPPS strategy encouraged the students interact verbally with each other to solve chemistry problems and improve the achievements in chemistry.

Jeon, Kyungmoon; Huffman, Douglas; Noh, Taehee

2005-01-01

423

Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In How to Solve It, accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to mathematicians but of interest to cognitive psychologists and problem solvers in all fields. I had the good fortune to be introduced to Polya's ideas in my first undergraduate class in physics.

Lederman, Eric

2009-02-01

424

Effects of Training in Problem Solving on the Problem-Solving Abilities of Gifted Fourth Graders: A Comparison of the Future Problem Solving and Instrumental Enrichment Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differential effects of two different types of problem-solving training on the problem-solving abilities of gifted fourth graders were studied. Two successive classes of gifted fourth graders from Weslaco Independent School District (Texas) were pretested with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Thinking Creatively With Pictures…

Dufner, Hillrey A.; Alexander, Patricia A.

425

An instructional model for training competence in solving clinical problems.  

PubMed

We examined the design of a course that aims to ease the transition from pre-clinical learning into clinical work. This course is based on the premise that many of the difficulties with which students are confronted in this transition result from a lack of experience in applying knowledge in real practice situations. It is focused on the development of competence in solving clinical problems; uses an instructional model with alternating clinical practicals, demonstrations, and tutorials; and extends throughout the last pre-clinical year. We used a "proof-of-concept" approach to establish whether the core principles of the course design are feasible with regard to achieving the intended results. With the learning functions and processes as a frame of reference, retrospective analysis of the course's design features shows that this design matches the conditions from theories of the development of competence in solving clinical problems and instructional design. Three areas of uncertainty in the design are identified: the quality of the cases (information, openness), effective teaching (student and teacher roles), and adjustment to the development of competence (progress, coherence). PMID:22130412

Ramaekers, Stephan P J; van Beukelen, Peter; Kremer, Wim D J; van Keulen, Hanno; Pilot, Albert

2011-01-01

426

A Distributed Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for Scientific Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is proposed to help users solve partial differential equation (PDE) based problems in scientific computing. The system inputs a problem description and outputs a program flow, a C-language source code for the problem and also a document for the program. Each module is distributed on distributed computers. The PSE contains all the information of

Shigeo Kawata; Hideaki Fuju; Hideaki Sugiura; Yuichi Saitoh; Yoshikazu Hayase; Takayuki Teramoto; Takashi Kikuchi

2005-01-01

427

Cognitive process validation of an online problem solving assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we tested a novel cognitive validation strategy that yoked participants' verbal protocols with their clickstream data using a problem solving assessment (IMMEX—Interactive Multimedia Exercises). Participants were presented with a scenario and provided with relevant and irrelevant information to solve the task. Participants could access the information in any order and attempt to solve the problem at any

Gregory K. W. K Chung; Linda F de Vries; Alicia M Cheak; Ronald H Stevens; William L Bewley

2002-01-01

428

Measuring Problem Solving with Technology: A Demonstration Study for NAEP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study intended to demonstrate how an emerging skill, problem solving with technology, might be measured in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Two computer-delivered assessment scenarios were designed, one on solving science-related problems through electronic information search and the other on solving

Bennett, Randy Elliot; Persky, Hilary; Weiss, Andy; Jenkins, Frank

2010-01-01

429

Application of Photorefractive Crystals to Solve Matrix Algebra Problems Optically.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals for the project are to solve matrix algebraic problems at high speed by applying photorefractive crystals in optical processing systems, and to study the photorefractives for such application. Although our interest was primarily on solving matri...

S. H. Lee

1992-01-01

430

Computer Based Collaborative Problem Solving for Introductory Courses in Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss collaborative problem solving computer-based recitation style. The course is designed by Lee [1], and the idea was proposed before by Christian, Belloni and Titus [2,3]. The students find the problems on a web-page containing simulations (physlets) and they write the solutions on an accompanying worksheet after discussing it with a classmate. Physlets have the advantage of being much more like real-world problems than textbook problems. We also compare two protocols for web-based instruction using simulations in an introductory physics class [1]. The inquiry protocol allowed students to control input parameters while the worked example protocol did not. We will discuss which of the two methods is more efficient in relation to Scientific Discovery Learning and Cognitive Load Theory. 1. Lee, Kevin M., Nicoll, Gayle and Brooks, Dave W. (2004). ``A Comparison of Inquiry and Worked Example Web-Based Instruction Using Physlets'', Journal of Science Education and Technology 13, No. 1: 81-88. 2. Christian, W., and Belloni, M. (2001). Physlets: Teaching Physics With Interactive Curricular Material, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 3. Christian,W., and Titus,A. (1998). ``Developing web-based curricula using Java Physlets.'' Computers in Physics 12: 227--232.

Ilie, Carolina; Lee, Kevin

2010-03-01

431

Problem Solving Skill Evaluation Instrument â Validation Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have created several tools for evaluating conceptual understanding as well as students' attitudes and beliefs about physics; however, the field of problem solving is sorely lacking a broad use evaluation tool. This missing tool is an indication of the complexity of the field. The most obvious and largest hurdle to evaluating physics problem solving skills is untangling the skills from the physics content knowledge necessary to solve problems. We are tackling this problem by looking for the physics problem solving skills that are useful in other disciplines as well as physics. We report on the results of a series of interviews comparing physics students' skills when solving physics problems with their anonymous completion of the problem solving instrument.

Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

2007-11-25

432

Multilevel projection algorithm for solving obstacle problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstacle problems are nonlinear free boundary problems and the computation of approximate solutions can be difficult and expensive. Little work has been done on effective numerical methods of such problems. This paper addresses some aspects of this issue. Discretizing the problem in a continuous piecewise linear finite element space gives a quadratic programming problem with inequality constraints. A new method,

Yongmin Zhang

2001-01-01

433

The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities, post recitation interviews, and a modified version of the CLASS survey taken at the beginning and end of the semester. I assessed the skills and strategies students used to solve problems, characterized how they framed the activity of problem solving, and then evaluated how these frames shifted through a semester of instruction. Findings indicate that the M&I curriculum helped all the students shift towards a deliberate, more productive problem solving frame. Results also show that beliefs and expectations, as well as knowledge of problem solving skills and strategies must be aligned for students to shift to a productive frame.

Wampler, Wendi N.

434

Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress  

PubMed Central

High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.

Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.

2013-01-01

435

Pedagogy and/or technology: Making difference in improving students' problem solving skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pen input computers combined with interactive software may have substantial potential for promoting active instructional methodologies and for facilitating students' problem solving ability. An excellent example is a study in which introductory physics students improved retention, conceptual understanding and problem solving abilities when one of three weekly lectures was replaced with group problem solving sessions facilitated with Tablet PCs and DyKnow software [1,2]. The research goal of the present study was to isolate the effect of the methodology itself (using additional time to teach problem solving) from that of the involved technology. In Fall 2011 we compared the performance of students taking the same introductory physics lecture course while enrolled in two separate problem-solving sections. One section used pen-based computing to facilitate group problem solving while the other section used low-tech methods for one third of the semester (covering Kinematics), and then traded technologies for the middle third of the term (covering Dynamics). Analysis of quiz, exam and standardized pre-post test results indicated no significant difference in scores of the two groups. Combining this result with those of previous studies implies primacy of pedagogy (collaborative problem solving itself) over technology for student learning in problem solving recitations.

Hrepic, Zdeslav; Lodder, Katherine; Shaw, Kimberly A.

2013-01-01

436

Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

2011-01-01

437

Problem Solving Treatment for Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past thirty years, Problem Solving Therapy (PST) has been shown to be an effective treatment for many different problems and patient populations (Nezu, 2004). Among its many clinical applications, PST interventions were developed for persons with intellectually disabilities (ID), where improving problem-solving skills led to adaptive…

Nezu, Christine Maguth; Fiore, Alicia A.; Nezu, Arthur M.

2006-01-01

438

A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

2003-01-01

439

Developing authentic problem solving skills in introductory computing classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to solve problems is the key to developing software, and it is an ability that can be difficult to learn. Introductory Computer Science students are often taught syntax and semantics, along with simple problems designed to develop logical, structured thinking, but authentic problem-solving skills are rarely developed at these early stages. In this paper we describe an approach

Katrina Falkner; Edward Palmer

2009-01-01

440

Right Problem Solving: Doing the Right Thing Right  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses right problem solving to define\\/solve a right problem for doing the right thing right. In so doing, the paper operationally considers purposeful complex adaptive systems (PCAS), Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD), group\\/negotiation support systems, consciousness, connectedness, spirituality, rationality, problems, and right rationality in theory and practice. System agents may be natural (human) and\\/or artificial.

Melvin F. Shakun

2003-01-01

441

Phenomenographic study of studentsâ problem solving approaches in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study is a hierarchical set of categories that describe the studentsâ problem solving approaches in the context of introductory physics.

Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert; Bowe, Brian

2008-09-24

442

PRESERVICE AGRICULTURAL EDUCATORS' ABILITY TO SOLVE AGRICULTURALLY RELATED MATHEMATICS PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to apply academic skills to agriculture is increasingly important. Even so, studies have shown that students and teachers of agricultural education lack competence in solving agriculture-related mathematics problems. The purpose of this correlational study was to explain variance in the mathematical problem-solving ability of preservice agricultural educators. Findings show a lack of competence in mathematical problem-solving among the

Greg Miller; Joe A. Gliem

443

Problem Solving in a Middle School Robotics Design Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little research has been conducted on how students work when they are required to plan, build and evaluate artefacts in technology rich learning environments such as those supported by tools including flow charts, Labview programming and Lego construction. In this study, activity theory was used as an analytic tool to examine the social construction of meaning. There was a focus on the effect of teachers’ goals and the rules they enacted upon student use of the flow chart planning tool, and the tools of the programming language Labview and Lego construction. It was found that the articulation of a teacher’s goals via rules and divisions of labour helped to form distinct communities of learning and influenced the development of different problem solving strategies. The use of the planning tool flow charting was associated with continuity of approach, integration of problem solutions including appreciation of the nexus between construction and programming, and greater educational transformation. Students who flow charted defined problems in a more holistic way and demonstrated more methodical, insightful and integrated approaches to their use of tools. The findings have implications for teaching in design dominated learning environments.

Norton, Stephen J.; McRobbie, Campbell J.; Ginns, Ian S.

2007-07-01

444

A problem solving approach to nutrition education and counseling.  

PubMed

This report applies problem-solving principles to the design and implementation of nutrition education and counseling programs. A framework is proposed that builds on an extensive body of research in mental health and health education that has demonstrated the efficacy of a problem-solving approach to helping people cope with stressful life events. Our framework uses problem-solving principles in helping participants in nutrition education or counseling programs to overcome obstacles they experience in changing their nutrition behaviors. Both research and clinical experience suggest that incorporating problem-solving techniques in nutrition education and counseling will increase long term change in nutrition behaviors. PMID:16785096

Peter, Houts; Shankar, Sharada; Sharada, Shankar; Klassen, Ann C; Robinson, Ellen B; McCarthy, Marline

2006-01-01

445

Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studentsâ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate studentsâ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate studentsâ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate studentsâ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-01-20

446

The Impact of Overcoming Fixation and Gender on Divergent Thinking in Solving Maths Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of fixation in solving math problems and that of gender on divergent thinking has been studied in this paper. The study was made in the academic year of 2006-2007, Fall Semester, at Necatibey Faculty of Education, Balikesir University. 229 first and second-year students at the Dept of Primary Math Teaching have been participated in the…

Kandemir, Mehmet Ali

2007-01-01

447

Interim Milestone Cycle 1 Evaluation Progress Report. Social Conflict and Negotiative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This progress report contains a summary of an evaluation of the Cycle I field trial of the Social Conflict and Negotiative Problem Solving instructional system, which was developed by the Improving Teaching Competencies Program of the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. The evaluation was done to document the field trial workshop, collect…

Milczarek, Gary

448

Correlations among Knowledge Structures, Force Concept Inventory, and Problem-Solving Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The modeling instruction pedagogy for the teaching of physics has been proven to be quite effective at increasing the conceptual understanding and problem-solving abilities of students to a much greater extent than that of nonmodeling students. Little research has been conducted concerning the cognitive and metacognitive skills that modeling…

Malone, Kathy L.

2008-01-01

449

Developing Problem-Solving Skills through Retrosynthetic Analysis and Clickers in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique approach to teaching and learning problem-solving and critical-thinking skills in the context of retrosynthetic analysis is described. In this approach, introductory organic chemistry students, who typically see only simple organic structures, undertook partial retrosynthetic analyses of real and complex synthetic targets. Multiple…

Flynn, Alison B.

2011-01-01

450

ASIT--A Problem Solving Strategy for Education and Eco-Friendly Sustainable Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing recognition of the role teaching and learning experiences in technology education can contribute to Education for Sustainable Development. It appears, however, that in the Technology Education classroom little or no change has been achieved to the practice of designing and problem solving strategies oriented towards sustainable…

Turner, Steve

2009-01-01

451

An Evaluation of the Introduction of Collaborative Problem Solving for Learning Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and evaluates a package of measures designed to introduce a collaborative problem-solving (CPS) approach to learning tutorials of a second-year university macroeconomics subject. Presents findings related to the influence of CPS on tutors' teaching experiences, students' attitudes attendance and hours of study, and academic achievement.…

Johnston, Carol G; James, Richard H.; Lye, Jenny N.; McDonald, Ian M.

2000-01-01

452

Effects of Language Features, Templates, and Procedural Skills on Problem-Solving In Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study that investigates the knowledge and skills that relate to computer programing. Finds that knowledge and procedural skills are related to computer programing. Recommends that since instruction in computer programing facilitates problem-solving, computer programing courses should be augmented to include teaching template and…

Kong, Siu Cheung; Chung, Choi Man

1989-01-01

453

Action Research: A Valuable Framework for Developing Staff Training and Solving Administrative Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offering training to promote positive change seems easy, but getting teachers to implement real change in their classrooms is not. Many administrators are using action research--which many teachers use to improve teaching--to address training issues and to facilitate problem solving. In this article, the author shares her experience with using…

Hirschy, Sharon Thompson

2008-01-01

454

High Intensity Program in Mathematical Problem Solving: An elementary school case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the naturalistic study was to examine the implementation of selected aspects of the High Intensity Program in Mathematical Problem Solving by teachers and students in Kindergarten and grades one through five in an elementary school in southeastern Florida. The program was a staff development endeavor that emphasized three components: formal teacher education; demonstration teaching; and clinical supervision

Sally Cox Mayberry

1990-01-01

455

Serving Up Number Sense and Problem Solving: Dinner at the Panda Palace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes strategies for using literature to teach number sense and problem solving. Reports that the rich class discussions reflected some of the students' thinking, gave students opportunities to share their approaches and understandings, and gave the teacher additional insights into students' thinking. (JRH)

Wickett, Maryann S.

1997-01-01

456

Studies of Clinical Problem Solving Behavior in Reading Diagnosis. Research Series No. 42.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ongoing investigation of the process of reading diagnosis and remediation based on a theory of clinical problem solving called the "inquiry theory" has been undertaken by the Clinical Studies Group at the Institute for Research on Teaching. A review of several observational, computer simulation, and training studies conducted as part of the…

Gil, Doron; And Others

457

Formulating and Solving Problems in Computational Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considered are the main elements of computational chemistry problems and how these elements can be used to formulate the problems mathematically. Techniques that are useful in devising an appropriate solution are also considered. (Author/TG)

Norris, A. C.

1980-01-01

458

Understanding the Problem. Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series. The Math Forum: Problems of the Week  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…

Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009

2009-01-01

459

How Indirect Supportive Digital Help during and after Solving Physics Problems Can Improve Problem-Solving Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…

Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

2009-01-01

460

Mechanisms of Incubation in Creative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjects worked on a problem, engaged in an intervening activity, and then resumed work on the problem. Different intervening activities represented various mechanisms that produce incubation (e.g., set breaking, facilitation by analogy, review of the problem's elements). These various treatment groups were compared to a control group that worked…

Olton, Robert M.; Johnson, David M.

1976-01-01

461

A Meaningless but Nonalgorithmic Solving Course: Solving a Graphing Problem about Osmosis by Analogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various researchers have associated meaningful problem solving with methods guided directly by a conceptual knowledge base. By contast, a meaningless solving course, or sequence of operations, is essentially independent of the solver's conceptual understanding of the problem under consideration. This paper is the first to document a meaningless,…

Zuckerman, June T.

462

Subject mediation approach for scientific problem solving in Virtual Observatories  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exist two principally different approaches to the organization of problem solving in VO: (i) information resources driven approach (choice and integrated definition of resources are made independently of the problem specification); and (ii) scientific problem driven approach (a specification of a problem domain is created, the relevant to the problem resources are identified and semantically mapped into the domain).

Leonid Kalinichenko

2007-01-01

463

Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social Contextual Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

Jennifer Jie Xu; G. Alan Wang; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

2007-01-01

464

Complex Problem Solving: Identity Matching Based on Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex problems like drug crimes often involve a large number of variables interacting with each other. A complex problem may be solved by breaking it into parts (i.e., sub-problems), which can be tackled more easily. The identity matching problem, for example, is a part of the problem of drug and other types of crimes. It is often encountered during crime

Jennifer Xu; Jiexun Li; Michael Chau

465

A Framework for Problem Solving in a Distributed Processing Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of distributed problem solving, or the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely-coupled collection of knowledge-sources that operates in a distributed processor architecture is presented. Such architectures offer high-sp...

R. G. Smith

1978-01-01

466

Creativity and Problem Solving: The Challenge for HRD Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses these questions: Who can solve problems? What is creativity? How can human resource development foster an environment that nourishes creativity? Describes approaches--problem centering, encouraging learning-theory perspective, mentoring, and diversity. (SK)

King, Susan C.

1998-01-01

467

Exploring the Episodic Structure of Algebra Story Problem Solving. Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper analyzes the quantitative and situational structure of algebra story problems, uses these materials to propose an interpretive framework for written problem-solving protocols, and then presents an exploratory study of the episodic structure of ...

C. Truxaw D. Kibler E. Wenger R. Hall

1989-01-01

468

Is conceptual understanding compromised by a problem-solving emphasis in an introductory physics course?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing competency in problem solving and enhancing conceptual understanding are primary objectives in introductory physics, and many techniques and tools are available to help instructors achieve them. Pedagogically, we use an easy-to-implement intervention, the ACCESS protocol, to develop and assess problem-solving skills in our SCALE-UP classroom environment for algebra-based physics. Based on our research and teaching experience, an important question has emerged: while primarily targeting improvements in problem-solving and cognitive development, is it necessary that conceptual understanding be compromised? To address this question, we gathered and analyzed information about student abilities, backgrounds, and instructional preferences. We report on our progress and give insights into matching the instructional tools to student profiles in order to achieve optimal learning in group-based active learning. The ultimate goal of our work is to integrate individual student learning needs into a pedagogy that moves students closer to expert-like status in problem solving.

Ridenour, J.; Feldman, G.; Teodorescu, R.; Medsker, L.; Benmouna, N.

2013-01-01

469

Cooperative group problem solving laboratories for introductory classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving laboratories comprise an important part of our introductory physics courses at Minnesota. These courses emphasize learning fundamental physics through problem solving using cooperative groups. This paper outlines the structure and rationale for both the algebra-based and calculus-based introductory courses. The sample class is one of four laboratory problems on the topic of forces. A section of our student laboratory manual, including the introduction and this problem, is given in this paper.

Heller, Patricia; Foster, Thomas M.; Heller, Kenneth

2006-05-31

470

Does Incubation Enhance Problem Solving? A Meta-Analytic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analytic review of empirical studies that have investigated incubation effects on problem solving is reported. Although some researchers have reported increased solution rates after an incubation period (i.e., a period of time in which a problem is set aside prior to further attempts to solve), others have failed to find effects. The…

Sio, Ut Na; Ormerod, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

471

Prospective Teachers' Problem Solving Skills and Self-Confidence Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basic objective of the research is to determine whether the education that prospective teachers in different fields receive is related to their levels of problem solving skills and self-confidence. Within the mentioned framework, the prospective teachers' problem solving and self-confidence levels have been examined under several variables.…

Gursen Otacioglu, Sena

2008-01-01

472

Introduction to LogoWriter and Problem Solving for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book about Logo programming and problem solving is designed to introduce preservice and inservice teachers to problem solving in a Logo programming environment. Such a unit of study can be an important part of an introductory computers in education course for educators. Although Logowriter--a version of Logo--was developed by Logo Computer…

Yoder, Sharon Burrowes; Moursund, Dave

473

Representations in Problem Solving in Science: Directions for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we focus on some of the findings of the science education research community in the area of representations and problem solving. Problem solving depends on the construction and manipulation of mental models (internal representations) in the mind. A large knowledge base (declarative, procedural, strategic, situational, and schematic…

Solaz-Portoles, Joan Josep; Lopez, Vicent Sanjose

2007-01-01

474

Problem Solving in Genetics: Conceptual and Procedural Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore prospective biology teachers' understandings of fundamental genetics concepts and the association between misconceptions and genetics problem solving abilities. Specifically, the study describes conceptual and procedural difficulties which influence prospective biology teachers' genetics problem solving

Karagoz, Meryem; Cakir, Mustafa

2011-01-01

475

Introducing Problem Solving through Literature at the Elementary Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much publicity the past few years, regarding students' lack of basic skills, their inability to think clearly, and their poor use of problem solving strategies. To focus on this need, the following program has been designed to help elementary teachers introduce problem solving in an organized manner adding very little, if any extra material to the curriculum.

Peg Harbert

1989-01-01

476

Agent based Service Integration for Distributed Problem Solving Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-disciplinary problem solving environments (M-PSEs) are developed to support sharing of services across multiple application domains. A PSE is, by definition, aimed to support problem solving in a given application domain. However, the infrastructure used to maintain and develop a PSE is not, and various common themes emerge when considering applications across domains. This is the predominant reason for developing

Omer F. Rana; David W. Walker

2001-01-01

477

Peer Instruction Enhanced Meaningful Learning: Ability to Solve Novel Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students must be able to interpret, relate, and incorporate new information with existing knowledge and apply the new information to solve novel problems. Peer instruction is a cooperative learning technique that promotes critical thinking, problem solving, and decision-making skills. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that peer instruction…

Cortright, Ronald N.; Collins, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

2005-01-01

478

Hierarchical Problem Solving as a Means of Promoting Expertise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the effects of structuring problem solving activities of novices in the domain of physics in a way consistent with the problem solving approaches used by experts. A total of 42 undergraduate students who completed a first semester physics course and received a grade of B or better participated in this study. The treatment…

Mestre, Jose; And Others

479

Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

2013-01-01

480

Heuristics - intelligent search strategies for computer problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heuristics stand for strategies using readily accessible information to control problem-solving processes in man and machine. This book presents an analysis of the nature and the power of typical heuristic methods, primarily those used in artificial intelligence and operations research, to solve problems in areas such as reasoning, design, scheduling, planning, signal interpretation, symbolic computation, and combinatorial optimization. It is

Judea Pearl

1984-01-01

481

Problem-Solving Appraisal: Helping Normal People Lead Better Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We are very grateful for the thoughtful, scholarly, and insightful comments of the reactants and appreciate the kind words about our Major Contribution. One of the goals of the Major Contribution was to review the existing literature on problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) (Heppner, 1988) and, subsequently,…

Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.

2004-01-01

482

Structured Collaboration versus Individual Learning in Solving Physics Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld's problem-solving episodes. Students took a pre-test and a post-test and had the…

Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning

2006-01-01

483

Competence Development Learning by Problem Solving. No. 74.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dialogue between two secondary school students engaged in solving a problem is the basis for the assertion that the students differ in their problem solving capabilities; that is, they reduce the complexity of the situation in different ways. The discussion also suggests that students do not use the same form of competence. They make sense of…

Bang, Jytte; Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup

484

Transfer of Learning: Connecting Concepts during Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A concern of many educators and managers is students' ability to transfer concepts and procedures learned in school to the work environment. When children are taught a skill, such as solving a mathematical problem, they often fail to recognize that their new skill can be used to solve a similar problem outside of school. In other cases, students…

Dixon, Raymond A.; Brown, Ryan A.

2012-01-01

485

Computational Steering and the SCIRun Integrated Problem Solving Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCIRun is a problem solving environment that allows the interactive construction, debugging, and steering of large-scale scientific computations. We review related systems and introduce a taxonomy that explores different computational steering solutions. Considering these approaches, we discuss why a tightly integrated problem solving environment, such as SCIRun, simplifies the design and debugging phases of computational science applications and how such

Steven G. Parker; Michelle Miller; Charles D. Hansen; Christopher R. Johnson

1997-01-01

486

Future Problem Solving: Taking It beyond the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A former participant in the Future Problem Solving Program reminisces about his experience in local and national competitions, describes the program's unique features (its emphasis on creativity and focus on the future), and notes the usefulness of the problem-solving process in his work with the Corporate Audit Staff of General Electric. (JDD)

Hibel, John

1991-01-01

487

Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…

Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby

2011-01-01

488

Problem Solving and the Development of Expertise in Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated novice and expert problem solving behavior in management to examine the role of domain specific knowledge on problem solving processes. Forty-one middle level marketing managers in a large petrochemical organization provided think aloud protocols in response to two hypothetical management scenarios. Protocol analysis…

Lash, Fredrick B.

489

Administrator Participation in Promoting Effective Problem-Solving Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the participation of administrators in problem-solving consultation teams is frequently mentioned in the literature as an important factor in the effectiveness of those teams, there has been little research into the impact of administrators on such teams. The impact of administrator participation on problem-solving consultation teams…

Rafoth, Mary Ann; Foriska, Terry

2006-01-01

490

PIPS: A Problem-Solving Model for Practicum and Internship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that practicum and internship programs in a counselor education department may encounter two basic types of problems: those which require structural change and those which do not. Presents the Practicum-Internship Problem Solving (PIPS) model, a model that combines systems concepts with consultative approach to help to identify and solve

Pitts, James H.

1992-01-01

491

Software Tools for Geometrical Problem Solving: Potentials and Pitfalls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the role of software tools in geometry problem solving and how these tools, in interaction with activities that embed the goals of teachers and students, mediate the problem solving process. Through analysis of successful student responses, shows how dynamic software tools can not only scaffold the solution process but also help students…

Healy, Lulu; Hoyles, Celia

2001-01-01

492

A Descriptive Model of Information Problem Solving while Using Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth analyses…

Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber

2009-01-01

493

A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…

Gok, Tolga

2010-01-01

494

Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…

Hong, Dae S.

2011-01-01

495

Problem-Solving Correlates of New Assessment Forms in Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Figural response (FR) items in architecture were compared with multiple-choice (MC) counterparts for their ability to predict architectural problem-solving proficiency of 33 practicing architects, 34 architecture interns, and 53 architecture students. Although both FR and MC predicted verbal design problem solving, only FR scores predicted…

Martinez, Michael E.

1993-01-01

496

On solving facility layout problems using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tam and Chan (1998) present a parallel genetic algorithm approach to solve the facility layout problem. They adopt a slicing tree representation of a floor layout. The coding scheme represents a layout as a string with three parts. This paper demonstrates the difficulties in applying classical crossover and mutation operators for solving facility layout problems. The paper modifies the representation

L. Al-Hakim

2000-01-01

497

Granular problem solving and its applications in software engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulation is an important component of granular computing (GrC) as a problem solving paradigm. Specification and regulation of granulation are necessary in helping researchers and practitioners apply GrC into different applications. At present, there is insufficient investigation of this topic. This paper defines concepts and mechanisms of problem solving, investigates the fundamental principles and processes of granulation and demonstrates that

Haibin Zhu

2009-01-01

498

Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational skills in problem solving. Cognitive skills include instructional objectives, components in a learning hierarchy, and components in information processing. Metacognitive skills include strategies for reading comprehension, writing, and mathematics. Motivational skills include motivation based on interest, self-efficacy, and attributions. All three kinds of skills are required for successful problem solving

RICHARD E. MAYER

1998-01-01

499

High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…

Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy

2001-01-01

500

Mathematical problem solving: an evolving research and practice domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research programs in mathematical problem solving have evolved with the development and availability of computational tools. I review and discuss research pro- grams that have influenced and shaped the development of mathematical education in Mexico and elsewhere. An overarching principle that distinguishes the problem solv- ing approach to develop and learn mathematics is to conceptualize the discipline as a set

Manuel Santos-Trigo

2007-01-01