Sample records for teaching problem solving

  1. Principles for Teaching Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rob Foshay and Jamie Kirkley

    2003-01-01

    This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

  2. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This webpage offers some basic principles for teaching problem solving that foster critical thinking and decision-­making skills. It includes a 5-step implementation model developed by D.R. Woods and a brief list of references. [The Forshay & Kirkley paper is cataloged separately and linked as a related resource.

  3. Problem Solving in Teaching Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Esa-Matti Jarvinen (University of Oulu)

    2012-01-16

    This chapter from the dissertation "Education About and Through Technology: In Search of More Appropriate Pedagogical Approaches to Technology Education" explores the importance and nature of problem solving in technology.

  4. Teaching through Collaborative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandford, A. E.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of a prototype intelligent education system called WOMBAT (Weighted Objectives Method by Arguing with the Tutor) focuses on dialogue and negotiation in collaborative problem solving. The results of a formative evaluation, in which the system was used by 10 subjects who commented on various aspects of the design, are presented. (Contains…

  5. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozwiak, Jim

    2004-01-01

    College teachers have done an excellent job over the years of teaching technical concepts, but they may not have done as good a job of teaching their adult students to be a good problem-solvers. Nine representatives from the technical industry and academia were interviewed in this study for their expert opinions on the subject of teaching

  6. Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Louis L.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…

  7. Teaching that Enhances Problem-Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Wayne D.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses three identifiable problem areas and teaching techniques that improve student performance regarding truss reactions and truss forces. Problems are as follows: (1) students fail to identify proper number of reaction forces; (2) students fail to consider applied and reactive forces; and (3) students fail to recognize where to cut the…

  8. Teaching and Learning. A Problem-Solving Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcio, Frances R., Ed.

    This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify Polya's art of…

  9. Teaching Kindergarten Children To Solve Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfield, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Investigated a kindergarten teacher's practice in order to understand her knowledge of her children's mathematical thinking, her method of knowledge acquisition, and the uses she made of that knowledge in making instructional decisions. Discusses the role of Cognitively Guided Instruction workshops in shaping the teacher's mathematical teaching.…

  10. Problem-solving strategies for teaching mathematics to deaf students.

    PubMed

    Mousley, K; Kelly, R R

    1998-10-01

    Three teaching and learning strategies for problem solving were implemented with first- and second-year deaf college students enrolled in mathematics courses at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), Rochester Institute of Technology. These strategies involved the students in (a) giving an explanation to a peer observer in sign language, after which they would put their understanding of a problem and its solution in writing; (b) visualizing the problem-solving process prior to starting to solve a problem; and (c) observing their teacher modeling the analytical process step by step for a sample problem prior to solving math word problems. The students were asked to solve two types of problems: typical word problems, and a visual/manipulative puzzle that would provide a problem-solving experience that would contrast with the experience of solving a problem presented in text format. The results showed that these kinds of instructional strategies can enhance the problem-solving performance of deaf and hard of hearing college students. PMID:9842060

  11. Teaching Problem-Solving as a Habit of Mind

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    Pat Wagener of Los Medanos College describes an inquiry project with his Developmental Math students: "Through my classroom inquiry into teaching problem-solving, I have shown that students can learn to solve problems in ways that help them develop "habits of mind" with problem solving processes with the following features in the instructional plan: Students get lots of problem solving practice, with an emphasis on long term learning of habits of mind Students are introduced to the idea of multiple representations early, and this approach is reinforced through the curriculum materials in meaningful ways and in all aspects of the course Students have many opportunities to share their problem solving publicly through board work "

  12. Teaching Problem Solving to At-Risk Students through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knights, Christine

    Using instructional system design, a unit of instruction for teaching problem solving through literature to at-risk students was developed to reduce frustrations, increase productive time on task, and show low-achieving students that they can have fun in an English classroom. The target population was a 7th-grade multi-ethnic English class of 28…

  13. Solving Quantitative Problems: Guidelines for Teaching Derived from Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramers-Pals, H.; Pilot, A.

    1988-01-01

    Presents four guidelines for teaching quantitative problem-solving based on research results: analyze difficulties of students, develop a system of heuristics, select and map key relations, and design instruction with proper orientation, exercise, and feedback. Discusses the four guidelines and uses flow charts and diagrams to show how the…

  14. Teaching Math K-2 Session 3 Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Boston

    2002-01-01

    This professional development session is from an Annenberg Learner course that explores the NCTM process standard of problem solving as a key means to introducing new material and building conceptual understanding in students grades K-2. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, student responses and reflection opportunities. This session is eligible for graduate credit for a fee when taken in conjunction with the other Teaching Math sessions from this course.

  15. Teaching creativity and inventive problem solving in science.

    PubMed

    DeHaan, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property. The creative process can be explained by reference to increasingly well-understood cognitive skills such as cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control that are widely distributed in the population. I explore the relationship between creativity and the higher-order cognitive skills, review assessment methods, and describe several instructional strategies for enhancing creative problem solving in the college classroom. Evidence suggests that instruction to support the development of creativity requires inquiry-based teaching that includes explicit strategies to promote cognitive flexibility. Students need to be repeatedly reminded and shown how to be creative, to integrate material across subject areas, to question their own assumptions, and to imagine other viewpoints and possibilities. Further research is required to determine whether college students' learning will be enhanced by these measures. PMID:19723812

  16. Problem Solving Information

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-01

    This page provides a summary of five topics on problems solving: What is a Problem?, What is Problem Solving?, Problem Solving Strategies, Why Teach Problem Solving?, Organizing the Teaching of Problem Solving and a reference section. Users can read more detailed information by accessing the 'More Information' link under each heading.

  17. Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.

    2010-01-01

    Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…

  18. Introductory Economic Geography: Problem-Solving or a Teaching Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, James O.

    Because economic geography is viewed as a field with too many different aspects for one person to master, teaching an introductory course in the subject poses the challenge of selecting an organizing theme. One specific approach, organized around higher level generalizations and theories, is the use of location theory. Coupling location theory…

  19. THE INCLUSION OF ROBOTS WITHIN THE TEACHING OF PROBLEM-SOLVING: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    E-print Network

    Hill, Gary

    241 THE INCLUSION OF ROBOTS WITHIN THE TEACHING OF PROBLEM- SOLVING: PRELIMINARY RESULTS Scott.hill@northampton.ac.uk ABSTRACT This poster considers the first six months experience of using Mindstorm (LEGO, Denmark) robot kits to teach problem-solving. Robots were used as necessary foundation studies prior to teaching

  20. Teaching Problem Solving to Year 6 Students: A New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adibnia, Assad; Putt, Ian J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of an instructional intervention derived from the Garofalo and Lester cognitive-metacognitive framework on the problem-solving performance of year six students with different ability levels. Concludes that there was significant improvement in problem-solving performance for the experimental class compared to the control…

  1. Puzzling Science: Using the Rubik's Cube to Teach Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrig, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A major goal of education is to help learners store information in long-term memory and use that information on later occasions to effectively solve problems (Vockell 2010). Therefore, this author began to use the Rubik's cube to help students learn to problem solve. There is something special about this colorful three-dimensional puzzle that…

  2. Microsituations as an Active-Learning Tool To Teach Endocrine Pharmacology and Problem-Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Barbara F.; Lubawy, William C.

    1998-01-01

    Microsituations teaching is a case-based, active learning tool developed from cognitive learning theory to teach problem-solving skills to large classes while conserving faculty and other resources. Since implementing this method in an endocrine pharmacology course at the University of Kentucky, student performance on problem-solving examinations…

  3. Teaching Pharmacy Students Problem-Solving: Theory and Present Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Raymond; Solad, Suzanne Wegener

    1990-01-01

    Two approaches for teaching a student how to define a problem, acquire pertinent data, generate possible solutions, and optimize them for the patient are described: guided design, originating in engineering education; and problem-based learning, which has roots in medical education. (Author/MLW)

  4. Teaching Conceptual Model-Based Word Problem Story Grammar to Enhance Mathematics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Yan Ping; Wiles, Ben; Lin, Yu-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Borrowing the concept of story grammar from reading comprehension literature, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of teaching "word problem (WP) story grammar" on arithmetic WP solving that emphasizes the algebraic expression of mathematical relations in conceptual models. Participants were five students in Grades 4 and 5 with or…

  5. History of Mathematics and Problem Solving: A Teaching Suggestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meavilla, V.; Flores, A.

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a teaching suggestion, using the history of mathematics, to give students from middle school and high school the possibility of facing problems found in old mathematics books and comparing their solutions with those given in those books. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  6. Teaching problem solving to year 6 students: A new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibnia, Assad; Putt, Ian J.

    1998-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of an instructional intervention derived from the Garofalo and Lester (1985) cognitive-metacognitive framework on the problem-solving performance of Year 6 students with different ability levels. A quasi-experimental design was employed using one experimental and two control classes. Four different techniques were applied to identify above average, average, and below average students. There was a significant improvement in problem-solving performance for the experimental class compared with both control classes. Furthermore, higher ability students appeared to gain more from the experimental instruction than lower ability students. Implications for instruction and research are explored.

  7. John Dewey--Problem Solving and History Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorella, Peter H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a model for introducing inquiry and problem-solving into middle grade history classes. It is based on an educational approach suggested by John Dewey. The author uses the model to explore two seemingly contradictory statements by Abraham Lincoln about slavery. (AV)

  8. Theory-Based Teaching: Problem Solving in Studio Art Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Jean C.

    The call for more empirical research in art education during the 1950s seems to be a precursor of the contemporary move toward more systematic instruction in the visual arts. If making art employs nonverbal aesthetic concepts, then conceptual consistency and problem solving within studio instruction can facilitate students' acquisition, retention,…

  9. Why Teach Cooperative Problem-Solving in Adult Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article explores aspects of the theory and practice of cooperative problem solving in education from the perspective of community-based adult learning. It describes how society can benefit from using collaborative and questioning approaches as a positive alternative to more confrontational methods of resolving differences and how collective…

  10. Teaming to Teach the Information Problem-Solving Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sine, Lynn; Murphy, Becky

    1992-01-01

    Explains a problem-solving format developed by a school media specialist and first grade teacher that used the framework of Eisenberg and Berkowitz's "Big Six Skills" for library media programs. The application of the format to a science unit on the senses is described. (two references) (MES)

  11. RAPTOR: a visual programming environment for teaching algorithmic problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin C. Carlisle; Terry A. Wilson; Jeffrey W. Humphries; Steven M. Hadfield

    2005-01-01

    When students are learning to develop algorithms, they very often spend more time dealing with issues of syntax rather than solving the problem. Additionally, the textual nature of most programming environments works against the learning style of the majority of students. RAPTOR is a visual programming environment, designed specifically to help students envision their algorithms and avoid syntactic baggage. RAPTOR

  12. Evolution of a Teacher's Problem Solving Instruction: A Case Study of Aligning Teaching Practice with Reform in Middle School Mathematics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anthony Rickard

    2005-01-01

    This case study shows how a teacher's middle school mathematics instruction evolved from teaching problem solving as computation exercises to teaching how to select and implement combinations of problem solving strategies.

  13. Mathematics Through Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Margaret Taplin

    2011-01-01

    This article describes what it means to teach mathematics using a problem solving approach and goes on to explain why teaching via problem solving is important in the development of a student’s mathematical thinking. Problem solving is presented as a way to be able to address three of the values of mathematics: functional, logical and aesthetic.

  14. ROBOTICS WITHIN THE TEACHING OF PROBLEM-SOLVING SCOTT TURNER AND GARY HILL

    E-print Network

    Hill, Gary

    ROBOTICS WITHIN THE TEACHING OF PROBLEM-SOLVING SCOTT TURNER AND GARY HILL DIVISION OF COMPUTING-solving approaches, are tasks using Mindstorm (LEGO, Denmark) robot kits. This is being done as a foundation step of a previous robot problem. Results of student evaluation and feedback will be presented and the use of two

  15. Effect of Teaching Comprehension Strategies on Improving Math Problem Solving Skills in a Title I School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresens, Ay-Shin

    2011-01-01

    Teaching math problem solving has been a challenge for many educators, especially in Title I schools. Textbooks provided by the district under study were the primary source of math instructional material. Moreover, the instruction of computation was the method used for preparing students for success with later problem solving lessons. The lack of…

  16. Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K-12 Outreach,

    Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

  17. Successful College Teaching: Problem-Solving Strategies of Distinguished Professors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiocco, Sharon A.; DeWaters, Jamie N.

    This book offers successful teaching approaches based on college surveys and interviews with 30 professors who have received awards for teaching excellence. Chapter 1 is an overview of the challenges of college teaching. Chapters 2 and 3 consider agents for change, institutional inertia, and an historical evaluation of faculty development.…

  18. Classroom-tested Recommendations for Teaching Problem Solving within a Traditional College Course: Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.

    Both teachers and students alike acknowledge that genetics and genetics problem-solving are extremely difficult to learn and to teach. Therefore, a number of recommendations for teaching college genetics are offered. Although few of these ideas have as yet been tested in controlled experiments, they are supported by research and experience and may…

  19. The Effect of Using an Explicit General Problem Solving Teaching Approach on Elementary Pre-Service Teachers' Ability to Solve Heat Transfer Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mataka, Lloyd M.; Cobern, William W.; Grunert, Megan L.; Mutambuki, Jacinta; Akom, George

    2014-01-01

    This study investigate the effectiveness of adding an "explicit general problem solving teaching strategy" (EGPS) to guided inquiry (GI) on pre-service elementary school teachers' ability to solve heat transfer problems. The pre-service elementary teachers in this study were enrolled in two sections of a chemistry course for…

  20. Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving to Middle School Students in Math, Technology Education, and Special Education Classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A. Bottge; Mary Heinrichs; Zara Dee Mehta; Enrique Rueda; Ya-Hui Hung

    This study compared two approaches for teaching sixth-grade middle school students to solve math problems in math, technology education, and special education classrooms. A total of 17 students with disabilities and 76 students without disabilities were taught using either enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) or text-based instruction coupled with applied problems (TBI). Results showed that both EAI and TBI students benefited

  1. Teaching and Testing Mathematical Problem Solving by Offering Optional Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Joost; Riemersma, Fre

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of transfer capability focuses on a study of secondary education students in the Netherlands that investigated transfer in mathematics education. Describes the construction of a computer-assisted program based on strengthening the connection of strategic and domain specific knowledge and offering hints during teaching as well as during…

  2. Teaching Students Problem Solving in Introductory Physics: Forming an Initial Hypothesis of Instructors' Beliefs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, shares an initial hypothesis of instructors' beliefs about their role in helping students learn to solve problems in an introductory calculus-based physics course. Instructors see their teaching role as primarily providing resources and making suggestions, with little mentioning of how they influence the students to use the resources or follow the suggestions.

  3. Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving to Middle School Students in Math, Technology Education, and Special Education Classrooms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian A. Bottge

    2004-01-01

    This study compared two approaches for teaching sixth-grade middle school students to solve math problems in math, technology education, and special education classrooms. The performance level of students with disabilities was low in both groups, but additional small-group instruction in special education settings helped several students with disabilities achieve at levels commensurate with their peers without disabilities.

  4. The Effectiveness of a CBI Program for Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Middle Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langholz, Judith; Smaldino, Sharon E.

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of "Solutions Unlimited," a computer software program developed to teach problem solving to middle level students. Fifty-one fourth, fifth, and sixth graders (21 girls and 30 boys) attending a private school in a small mid-west community were the subjects for this experiment; none had received prior training…

  5. Teaching Excel VBA as a problem solving tool for chemical engineering core courses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelvin W. W. Wong; John P. Barford

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to initiate the teaching of user-friendly Excel Visual Basic for Application (VBA) programming in chemical engineering at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) with the emphasis on relevant examples\\/projects selected from chemical engineering core courses. The course is designed with the emphasis on not only how to program, but also on problem solving and

  6. How to Teach Procedures, Problem Solving, and Concepts in Microbial Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, Brian W.

    1977-01-01

    Flow-diagrams, algorithms, decision logic tables, and concept maps are presented in detail as methods for teaching practical procedures, problem solving, and basic concepts in microbial genetics. It is suggested that the flexible use of these methods should lead to an improved understanding of microbial genetics. (Author/MA)

  7. A Teaching-Learning Method Enhancing Problem Solving and Motivation in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markoczi-Revak, Ibolya

    2003-01-01

    Presents a teaching-learning method for enhancing problem solving and motivation for studying science in secondary schools. Emerges from a former survey which, found that the motivation of 14-18-year-olds as measured by the Kozekik-Entwistle test was at a rather low level. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  8. Techniques of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Steven G.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

  9. Teaching genetics using hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, Stephanie Ann

    Teaching genetics can be challenging because of the difficulty of the content and misconceptions students might hold. This thesis focused on using hands-on model activities, problem solving, and inquiry-based teaching/learning methods in order to increase student understanding in an introductory biology class in the area of genetics. Various activities using these three methods were implemented into the classes to address any misconceptions and increase student learning of the difficult concepts. The activities that were implemented were shown to be successful based on pre-post assessment score comparison. The students were assessed on the subjects of inheritance patterns, meiosis, and protein synthesis and demonstrated growth in all of the areas. It was found that hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based activities were more successful in learning concepts in genetics and the students were more engaged than tradition styles of lecture.

  10. Integrating critical thinking and problem solving skills in the teaching of technical courses: The narrative of a Malaysian private university

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hairuzila Idrus; Hazadiah Mohd Dahan; Normah Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to discuss the teaching approaches employed by the lecturers at a private university in integrating one of the soft skills, which is critical thinking and problem solving skills in their teaching of technical courses. In addition , this paper also addresses lecturers' and students' perceptions on the integration of these skills in the teaching and learning of

  11. Use of a problem-based learning exercise to teach the lean 8-step problem-solving method.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Elizabeth G; Warshawsky, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Doctor of nursing practice (DNP) graduates must be prepared to lead quality improvement (QI) initiatives in health care settings; however, effective and feasible teaching strategies pose a challenge for many DNP program faculties. This article describes a successful and practical problem-based learning exercise for students to work through the QI process using the Lean 8-step problem-solving method. Suggestions for faculty and recommendations for future activities are discussed. PMID:25695501

  12. Mathematics programs1 teach individuals to use mathematical methods in solving problems. Students in mathematics may use

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Mathematics programs1 teach individuals to use mathematical methods in solving problems. Students in mathematics may use mathematical theory, computational techniques, algorithms, and the latest computer. Mathematics programs fall into two classes of mathematics, applied mathematics and theoretical (pure

  13. Faculty Conceptions About the Teaching and Learning of Problem Solving in Introductory Calculus-Based Physics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Henderson, Charles

    This webpage contains links to chapters of a doctoral dissertaion about a research program to understand faculty conceptions of problem solving, teaching and learning. Interviews with six physics faculty from a large research university were used to generate an initial explanatory model of faculty conceptions. The author found that for some of the general features, all six faculty had similar conceptions. For example, they all classify their students in terms of intelligence/natural ability and learning characteristics (e.g. motivation, study habits, etc.) and use these characteristics to explain why some students succeed and some students fail. For other general features, there is more than one distinct conception.

  14. A teaching learning based optimization based on orthogonal design for solving global optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, Suresh Chandra; Naik, Anima; Parvathi, K

    2013-12-01

    In searching for optimal solutions, teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) (Rao et al. 2011a; Rao et al. 2012; Rao & Savsani 2012a) algorithms, has been shown powerful. This paper presents an, improved version of TLBO algorithm based on orthogonal design, and we call it OTLBO (Orthogonal Teaching Learning Based Optimization). OTLBO makes TLBO faster and more robust. It uses orthogonal design and generates an optimal offspring by a statistical optimal method. A new selection strategy is applied to decrease the number of generations and make the algorithm converge faster. We evaluate OTLBO to solve some benchmark function optimization problems with a large number of local minima. Simulations indicate that OTLBO is able to find the near-optimal solutions in all cases. Compared to other state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms, OTLBO performs significantly better in terms of the quality, speed, and stability of the final solutions. PMID:23875125

  15. Preparing College Students to Teach an Environmental Problem Solving Curriculum to Middle School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, S. E.

    2001-12-01

    An NSF-funded project-based program was implemented by Clarkson University in 2000 to increase the interest and knowledge of middle school students in science, math and technology through the solution of an environmental problem that is relevant to their local school community. Clarkson students developed curricula for 7th and 8th grade science and technology classes and then worked with the middle school students throughout the year to reduce to transform solid waste into healthy soil for plant growth. The solution to this problem provided a vehicle to teach fundamental science and math content as well as the process of doing science and solving problems. Placing college science and engineering students in the classroom proved to be a great mechanism for engaging students in science topics and providing mentoring experiences that differ greatly from those that a practicing professional can provide. It is clear, however, that the students must be well prepared for this experience to maximize the benefits of university - school district partnership programs. The objective of this presentation will be to describe the training program that has been developed to prepare Clarkson students to work effectively in middle school classrooms. The Clarkson students are trained for their classroom experiences during the summer before they enter the classroom. They receive three credits for the training, curriculum development, and teaching efforts. It is expected that the students have the necessary background in science and technology to teach themselves the content and environmental relevance of the problem they will be teaching. Lectures and workshops focus on how to transform this knowledge into a project-based curriculum that meets the needs of the teachers, while also exciting the students. Lecture/workshops include: team work; components of an effective class and teacher; project planning and management; problem solving process; inquiry based learning, deductive/inductive learning; creating unit/lesson plan; defining learning objectives; incorporating mentoring into program; NYS standards and science exam; and, assessment techniques. Journals are used to encourage the fellows to reflect on their learning and own educational experiences. An evaluation of the program by both Clarkson students and their partner teachers indicated that this training was appropriate for the students to enter the classroom as professional scientists and engineers. Their classroom interaction skills improved throughout the year.

  16. Solving Trade Discount Word Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Coonce, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

  17. Problem Solving with Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

  18. Solving Problems in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez

    2005-01-01

    A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…

  19. Solving Problems with Twenty Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on how student problem solving skills can be improved by teaching them a problem solving model. Includes a technique for developing student inquiry thinking using the game, Twenty Questions, or by examining conflicting statements. Includes the article, "Using Problem Solving Skills in a Fifth-Grade Classroom" (Alan Rock and Nicole…

  20. A four-tier problem-solving scaffold to teach pain management in dental school.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L

    2013-06-01

    Pain constitutes a major reason patients pursue dental treatment. This article presents a novel curriculum to provide dental students comprehensive training in the management of pain. The curriculum's four-tier scaffold combines traditional and problem-based learning to improve students' diagnostic, pharmacotherapeutic, and assessment skills to optimize decision making when treating pain. Tier 1 provides underpinning knowledge of pain mechanisms with traditional and contextualized instruction by integrating clinical correlations and studying worked cases that stimulate clinical thinking. Tier 2 develops critical decision making skills through self-directed learning and actively solving problem-based cases. Tier 3 exposes students to management approaches taken in allied health fields and cultivates interdisciplinary communication skills. Tier 4 provides a "knowledge and experience synthesis" by rotating students through community pain clinics to practice their assessment skills. This combined teaching approach aims to increase critical thinking and problem-solving skills to assist dental graduates in better management of pain throughout their careers. Dental curricula that have moved to comprehensive care/private practice models are well-suited for this educational approach. The goal of this article is to encourage dental schools to integrate pain management into their curricula, to develop pain management curriculum resources for dental students, and to provide leadership for change in pain management education. PMID:23740909

  1. Problem solving What is problem solving?

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    solving. There are problems all around us. · Much of our life is spent solving problems. Getting-defined problems. ­ Chess: After a few moves, there are too many possible moves and counter moves to consider all

  2. Problem Solving with Patents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jerilou Moore

    2008-03-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected. The activities described here promote scientific literacy by helping students appreciate science as a human endeavor and making connections between science, technology, and society.

  3. The Teaching and Assessing of Mathematical Problem Solving. Research Agenda for Mathematics Education Series. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Randall I., Ed.; Silver, Edward A., Ed.

    This document contains overviews of current research, insights from teachers and tutors, and considerations of such issues as metacognition, choice of operations, and the testing of problem-solving skills. Papers include: (1) "Historical Perspectives on Problem Solving in the Mathematics Curriculum" (George M. A. Stanic and Jeremy Kilpatrick); (2)…

  4. Knowledge-Based Instruction: Teaching Problem Solving in a Logo Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Karen; Black, John B.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of computer programming and knowledge-based instruction focuses on three studies of elementary and secondary school students which show that five particular problem-solving strategies can be developed in students explicitly taught the strategies and given practice applying them to solve LOGO programming problems. (Contains 53…

  5. The Effect of Concept Mapping and Problem Solving Teaching Strategies on Achievement in Biology among Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okechukwu, Rose N.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effect of concept-mapping and problem-solving teaching strategies on achievement in biology among Nigerian secondary school students. The method used for the study was a quasi-experimental pre-test treatment design. One hundred and thirteen senior secondary three (S.S. 111) students randomly selected from three mixed…

  6. Promoting Self-Determination in Early Elementary School: Teaching Self-Regulated Problem-Solving and Goal-Setting Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes and validates a model of teaching in early elementary grades that infuses the self-determination skills of problem solving and goal setting into existing curricula and programs. Use of the "Self-Determination Learning Model of Instruction with 5- and 6-year-olds found the model effective in identifying student interests,…

  7. Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

  8. Teaching Mathematical Word Problem Solving: The Quality of Evidence for Strategy Instruction Priming the Problem Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Lein, Amy E.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Kunkel, Amy K.; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Egan, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the quality of the research base related to strategy instruction priming the underlying mathematical problem structure for students with learning disabilities and those at risk for mathematics difficulties. We evaluated the quality of methodological rigor of 18 group research studies using the criteria proposed by Gersten et…

  9. Teaching mathematical word problem solving: the quality of evidence for strategy instruction priming the problem structure.

    PubMed

    Jitendra, Asha K; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Lein, Amy E; Zaslofsky, Anne F; Kunkel, Amy K; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Egan, Andrea M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the quality of the research base related to strategy instruction priming the underlying mathematical problem structure for students with learning disabilities and those at risk for mathematics difficulties. We evaluated the quality of methodological rigor of 18 group research studies using the criteria proposed by Gersten et al. and 10 single case design (SCD) research studies using criteria suggested by Horner et al. and the What Works Clearinghouse. Results indicated that 14 group design studies met the criteria for high-quality or acceptable research, whereas SCD studies did not meet the standards for an evidence-based practice. Based on these findings, strategy instruction priming the mathematics problem structure is considered an evidence-based practice using only group design methodological criteria. Implications for future research and for practice are discussed. PMID:23686999

  10. Faculty conceptions about the teaching and learning of problem-solving in introductory calculus-based physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Charles Roy

    Researchers and curriculum developers have developed a wide variety of curricular materials and instructional strategies that have been shown to be effective in improving student problem solving performance. Relatively few physics faculty, however, have chosen to use them. One likely reason is that these curricular materials and instructional strategies do not align with the ways that faculty think about the teaching and learning of problem solving. This study is the first stage of a research program to understand faculty conceptions of the teaching and learning of problem solving. Interviews with six physics faculty from a large research university were used to generate an initial explanatory model of faculty conceptions. The interview was designed around three types of concrete instructional artifacts (3 instructor solutions, 5 student solutions, 4 types of problems). Based on an in-depth analysis of the interview transcripts, a model of faculty conceptions was developed that consists of 14 general features. The basic relationships between these 14 general features are described in a concept map that is common to all six faculty. For example, there are three distinct ways that faculty think students can learn how to solve physics problems: (1) by solving problems on their own; (2) by using feedback while/after working on problems; (3) by watching someone else solve problems or describe how to solve problems. Concept maps are also used to describe each of the 14 general features. For some of the general features, all six faculty have similar conceptions. For example, they all classify their students in terms of intelligence/natural ability and learning characteristics (e.g. motivation, study habits, etc.) and use these characteristics to explain why some students succeed and some students fail. For other general features, there is more than one distinct conception. For example, the model shows three different ways that these faculty conceive of the problem solving process: (1) three think of it as a linear decision-making process; (2) two think of it as a process of exploration and trial and error; and (3) one thinks of it as an art form that is different for each problem.

  11. Conceptual Framework of Modes of Problem Solving Action (MPSA): Implications for Internet Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Su-Huei

    The conceptual framework of the Modes of Problem Solving Action (MPSA) model integrates Dewey's pragmatism, critical science theory, and theory regarding the three modes of inquiry. The MPSA model is formulated in the shape of a matrix. Horizontally, there are the following modes: technical, interpretive, and emancipating. Vertically, there are…

  12. Social Problem Solving through Science: An Approach to Critical, Place-Based, Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    The Social Problem Solving through Science (SPSS) project engaged middle school-aged youth in the study of local environmental challenges with implications for human health and well-being, both globally and locally. Students considered environmental risk factors in a series of structured activities to develop background knowledge on environmental…

  13. An Interpersonal Problem Solving Approach to Teaching Social Skills to Socially Rejected Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Lancelotta, Gary

    The effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral interpersonal problem solving (IPS) training program was evaluated with 35 poorly accepted second, third, and fourth graders. Group 1 received instruction in IPS and included only Ss low in peer acceptance; group 2 consisted of Ss low in peer acceptance who participated in IPS with same sex and grade Ss…

  14. Teaching Mathematics Problem Solving to Students with Limited English Proficiency through Nested Spiral Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyu, Chi-Oy W.

    The Nested Spiral Approach (NSA) is an integrated instructional approach used to promote the motivated learning of mathematics problem solving in limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. The NSA is described and a trial use is discussed. The approach extends, elaborates, and supplements existing education and instruction theories to help LEP…

  15. Teaching Young Children Decomposition Strategies to Solve Addition Problems: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Zi-Juan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to count has traditionally been considered an important milestone in children's development of number sense. However, using counting (e.g., counting on, counting all) strategies to solve addition problems is not the best way for children to achieve their full mathematical potential and to prepare them to develop more complex and…

  16. Teaching with Concrete and Abstract Visual Representations: Effects on Students' Problem Solving, Problem Representations, and Learning Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana; Ozogul, Gamze; Reisslein, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that…

  17. Physics faculty beliefs and values about the teaching and learning of problem solving. I. Mapping the common core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerushalmi, E.; Henderson, C.; Heller, K.; Heller, P.; Kuo, V.

    2007-12-01

    In higher education, instructors’ choices of both curricular material and pedagogy are determined by their beliefs about learning and teaching, the values of their profession, and perceived external constraints. Dissemination of research-based educational reforms is based on assumptions about that mental structure. This study reports the initial phase of an investigation of the beliefs and values of physics professors as they relate to the teaching and learning of problem solving in introductory physics. Based on an analysis of a series of structured interviews with six college physics faculty, a model of a common structure of such beliefs for all physics faculty teaching introductory physics was constructed. This preliminary model, when tested and modified by future research, can be used by curriculum developers to design materials, pedagogy, and professional development that gain acceptance among instructors.

  18. Virtual microscopy system at Chinese medical university: an assisted teaching platform for promoting active learning and problem-solving skills

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese medical universities typically have a high number of students, a shortage of teachers and limited equipment, and as such histology courses have been taught using traditional lecture-based formats, with textbooks and conventional microscopy. This method, however, has reduced creativity and problem-solving skills training in the curriculum. The virtual microscope (VM) system has been shown to be an effective and efficient educational strategy. The present study aims to describe a VM system for undergraduates and to evaluate the effects of promoting active learning and problem-solving skills. Methods Two hundred and twenty-nine second-year undergraduate students in the Third Military Medical University were divided into two groups. The VM group contained 115 students and was taught using the VM system. The light microscope (LM) group consisted of 114 students and was taught using the LM system. Post-teaching performances were assessed by multiple-choice questions, short essay questions, case analysis questions and the identification of structure of tissue. Students’ teaching preferences and satisfaction were assessed using questionnaires. Results Test scores in the VM group showed a significant improvement compared with those in the LM group (p??0.05); however, there were notable differences in the mean score rate of case analysis questions and identification of structure of tissue (p?problem-solving skills as an assisted teaching platform. PMID:24712715

  19. Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Charles

    The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…

  20. Problem Solving with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Howard; Brannigan, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    A sequence is suggested for teachers working with parents in solving problems. Steps include: problem definition; problem analysis; generation of alternatives; establishment of criteria for selecting solutions; and evaluation and selection of solutions. (CB)

  1. Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez; Aznar, Mercedes Martinez

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students…

  2. Problem Solving by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…

  3. Interactive insight problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Weller; Gaëlle Villejoubert; Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau

    2011-01-01

    Insight problem solving was investigated with the matchstick algebra problems developed by Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider, and Rhenius (1999). These problems are false equations expressed with Roman numerals that can be made true bymoving one matchstick. In a first group participants examined a static two-dimensional representation of the false algebraic expression and told the experimenter which matchstick should be moved. In

  4. Best Practices in Writing Instruction. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve, Ed.; MacArthur, Charles A., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Jill, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Highly practical and accessible, this indispensable book provides clear-cut strategies for improving K-12 writing instruction. The contributors are leading authorities who demonstrate proven ways to teach different aspects of writing, with chapters on planning, revision, sentence construction, handwriting, spelling, and motivation. The use of the…

  5. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  6. Problem-Solving Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

  7. Explaining Reading: A Resource for Teaching Concepts, Skills, and Strategies. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Gerald G.

    Exemplary teacher research has established that explicit teaching plays a vital role in the K-12 classroom, with particular benefits for struggling readers. This book is a practical resource for explaining reading to students who do not learn easily. The book identifies 22 major skills and strategies associated with vocabulary development,…

  8. Persistence in Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    In this 5-minute video third grade teacher Jean Saul demonstrates how she uses problem solving tasks to create a classroom climate that fosters persistence, independence, responsibility, and risk-taking. Students are asked to find three different methods for solving each problem and to record them on a Choose Three Ways graphic organizer. Through collaboration and presentation of their work to peers, students develop math language and discourse skills. A side bar provides reflection questions. Supporting materials include a transcript of the video (doc), the graphic organizer (doc), and two samples of student work (pdf).

  9. An Alternate Path To Stoichiometric Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    1997-01-01

    Discusses an alternate path to teaching introductory stoichiometry based on research findings. The recommendation is to use problems that can be solved easily by rapid mental calculation as well as by pure logic. (AIM)

  10. Activities to Enhance Social, Emotional, and Problem-Solving Skills: Seventy-Six Activities that Teach Children, Adolescents, and Adults Skills Crucial to Success in Life. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2007-01-01

    This book provides descriptions of 76 engaging activities that can be used to teach children, adolescents, and adults valuable social, emotional, and problem-solving skills. Some of the skills taught include identifying and expressing one's own emotions, identifying emotions in others, coping with stressors, making and keeping friends, setting…

  11. Problem Solving: Bubble Gum Contest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGHB Boston

    2013-01-01

    This professional development video clip presents students engaged in The Common Core Practice Standard #1—Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. The learners gather data for a bubble gum contest, as part of a larger activity involving recording data and writing up results. Students understand the problem and persevere with the task as they independently go to other classrooms to conduct their survey. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

  12. Preparing College Students to Teach an Environmental Problem Solving Curriculum to Middle School Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan E. Powers

    An NSF-funded project-based program was implemented by Clarkson University in 2000 to increase the interest and knowledge of middle school students in science, math and technology through the solution of an environmental problem that is relevant to their local school community. Clarkson students developed curricula for 7th and 8 th grade science and technology classes and then worked with the

  13. Preparing College Students to Teach an Environmental Problem Solving Curriculum to Middle School Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Powers

    2001-01-01

    An NSF-funded project-based program was implemented by Clarkson University in 2000 to increase the interest and knowledge of middle school students in science, math and technology through the solution of an environmental problem that is relevant to their local school community. Clarkson students developed curricula for 7th and 8th grade science and technology classes and then worked with the middle

  14. Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

  15. [Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

  16. Problem Solving with Spreadsheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterall, P.; Lewis, R.

    1985-01-01

    Documents the educational use of spreadsheets through a description of exploratory work which utilizes spreadsheets to achieve the objectives of Conway's Game of Life, a scientific method game for the development of problem-solving techniques. The implementation and classroom use of the spreadsheet programs are discussed. (MBR)

  17. Cooperative Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    , and Skeptic. When a student solves a homework or test problem, she has to be an executive manager, organizing to continually be skeptical, asking herself questions about each step -- "Am I sure that I am going in the right students to practice the different metacognitive actions individually. Students also have an opportunity

  18. The Effect of Teaching Sixth Graders with Learning Difficulties a Strategy for Solving Verbal Math Problems

    E-print Network

    Smith, Elaine M.; Alley, Gordon R.

    1981-04-01

    particular problems were chosen for the study. Math deficiencies were determined based on teacher recommendation and PlAT or~ Math scores of two years below grade level in math skills. The students had low-average to average IQ as measured by the WISC... difficulties. Insert Table 1 about here 3 Table 1 Subjects Student Sex CA Grade IQ* Math Grade Level vs PS FS Achievement I M 12 6.7 low low 3.2 (PlAT) ave. ave. ave. I I F 12 6.7 low below 4. 3 (~ ~·1ath) ave. ave . ave. I I I M 12 6. 7 low high 4...

  19. Clinical Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Christine; Nishino, Mizuki; Jagannathan, Jyothi; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Di Salvo, Donald; Krajewski, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    This review demonstrates the unique advantages of sonography in the oncologic setting. Although computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography are primary imaging modalities for evaluation of the oncologic patient, sonography is useful for evaluation of various conditions and clinical scenarios associated with cancer. The following article will illustrate the utility of sonography at a tertiary cancer center for diagnosis and problem solving. PMID:24371094

  20. The influence of contextual teaching with the problem solving method on students' knowledge and attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcher, Carrie Lynn

    2005-08-01

    Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0.0033). Students who were more actively involved in hands-on projects had higher attitude scores compared to students who were taught traditional methods alone. In demographic comparisons, females had more positive attitudes toward horticulture science than males; and students from varying ethnic backgrounds had statistically different achievement (p=0.0001). Ethnicity was determined with few students in each background, 8 in one ethnicity and 10 students in another. Youth organization membership such as FFA or 4-H had no significant bearing on achievement or attitude.

  1. Problem Solving Strategies for Pharmaceutical/Chemical Technology College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, George F.; Alexander, William E.

    Teaching problem solving strategies and steps to first year college students enrolled in the pharmaceutical/chemical technology program as a part of their first year chemistry course focused on teaching the students the basic steps in problem solving and encouraging them to plan carefully and focus on the problem solving process rather than to…

  2. Developing Cognitive Strategies through Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Karen P.; Reimer, Dauri

    1988-01-01

    A program designed to teach cognitive strategies through logical problem-solving and developed for elementary learning disabled students is presented. For each problem set, the instructional procedure involves a discovery activity, discussion, conclusion, follow-up activities, and integration. Five samples of the program's problem sets (e.g.,…

  3. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  4. Measuring Family Problem Solving: The Family Problem Solving Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieren, Dianne K.

    The development and use of the family problem-solving diary are described. The diary is one of several indicators and measures of family problem-solving behavior. It provides a record of each person's perception of day-to-day family problems (what the problem concerns, what happened, who got involved, what those involved did, how the problem

  5. Statistical Education Through Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Statistical Education Through Problem Solving (STEPS) was a collaborative project between seven universities throughout the United Kingdom "to develop problem-based teaching and learning materials for statistics." The materials draw on specific problems arising in Biology, Business, Geography and Psychology to help students learn that statistical issues are "important natural parts of the process of reaching conclusions." The software developed as a result of this project, which utilizes the computer and graphical illustration to support learning, is available to educational institutions free of charge and can be downloaded from this website. (Note that other organizations are expected to purchase the software.) A glossary of statistical terms is provided in the software program as well as on this website. Although the funding for the project ended in 1995 and the website was last updated in January 2004, the material is still current and useful for teaching statistics. The authors note that the STEPS modules are intended to be used to support existing coursework, and "not intended to replace lecturing staff or to provide a self-study course in statistics."

  6. Solving Math Word Problems: A Software Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiser, Leslie

    1988-01-01

    Reviewed are 11 software packages for the Apple II computer designed to help teach elementary and secondary school children how to solve mathword problems. Included in the review are hardware requirements, price, grade level, use of graphics, kinds of problems, tools provided, strengths, and weaknesses of each program. (CW)

  7. PROBLEM SOLVING FOR ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    ? Self ­ Assessment Exercise: Each of the nine items presents two opposing statements: - If you feel to understand Them better. 4. I do not do a careful analysis of the I do a careful analysis of the solved solved examples presented. examples presented to see how the concept is applied. 5. When I look at a solved

  8. Instructors' Ideas about Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has developed an interview tool to investigate physics faculty views about the learning and teaching of problem solving. In the part of the interview dealing with grading, faculty members were asked to evaluate a set of five student solutions and explain their reasons for the grades that they assigned. Preliminary analysis on two of the five student solutions was done on six physics faculty members from a large research university. The results indicate that faculty members hold conflicting beliefs when grading between valuing reasoning in student solutions and wanting to give students the benefit of the doubt. This paper illustrates the hypothesis that physics faculty hold conflicting values when grading, and describes how the research university faculty resolved their conflicts.

  9. Environmental Problem Solving: Theory, Practice and Possibilities in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardwell, Lisa V., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph is a resource for educators who wish to explore environmental problem solving. It consists of five parts. Chapter 1 presents a psychological perspective on problem solving and its implications for teaching problem solving skills in an interdisciplinary arena. Chapter 2 presents four approaches to developing environmental problem

  10. A Method for Solving Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Problem solving and decision making are considered to be keys to successful management. A normative method for problem solving is presented, suggesting that the analysis of the problem be structured along a five-step procedure: problem identification, analysis, decision alternatives, decision making, and decision implementation. Follow-up…

  11. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving

  12. Problem Solving Tips for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daffer, Phares G.

    1985-01-01

    The focus is on the problem-solving strategy of find a pattern, with a problem explored to illustrate how to use the strategy. Other tips concern classroom climate, checking skills, research, and type of problems. (MNS)

  13. Solving the Bargaining Problem

    E-print Network

    Schellenberg, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Mid-American Review of Sociology legitimately expected by each party), and for the ubiquitous failure of educatio?~ institutions to r~cognize, much less reward, excellence in teaching. Additional understanding of students' expectations of teachers....deme: Barriers. Facing the, Next. Academic Revolution." Teaching Sociology'17:161-175. ' ....-.', .. " ... _.,~...~-.,. ....., ... ,. '. . Rosch, Eleanor. 1977. "Human Categorization." In Studies in Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 1, edited by Neil Warren. London...

  14. Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…

  15. Problem Solving Style, Creative Thinking, and Problem Solving Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.

    2009-01-01

    Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…

  16. Problem Solving with a Small "p": A Teacher's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Rick

    This case study examined an experienced secondary school mathematics teacher's knowledge and teaching of problem solving, using interviews, classroom observations, teaching documents, and experimental tasks. The informant revealed a broad interpretation of problem solving, integrated with mathematics but widely applicable. This interpretation…

  17. Learning Impasses in Problem Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. P. E.

    1992-01-01

    Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

  18. Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

  19. A Personal Problem Solving Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Petersen, Chris H.

    Few studies have explicitly attended to the personal problem-solving process within the counseling literature, perhaps due in part to the dearth of relevant assessment instruments. To examine the dimensions underlying the applied problem-solving process, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from four samples of college…

  20. Common Core: Solve Math Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

  1. Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin F. Shakun

    2009-01-01

    Difficult polarizing problems\\/conflicts are pervasive in the United States and the world. Welcome to spiritual rationality\\/connectedness\\u000a problem solving and negotiation involving spirituality and rationality, and emphasizing connectedness in problem solving.\\u000a In particular, we develop CPSN-ESD—Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation (CPSN) through Evolutionary Systems Design\\u000a (ESD)—discussing spiritual rationality\\/connectedness and highlighting connectedness with One and with each other as values,\\u000a among others,

  2. Modeling Applied to Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-10-01

    Modeling Applied to Problem Solving (MAPS) is a pedagogy that helps students transfer instruction to problem solving in an expert-like manner. Declarative and Procedural syllabus content is organized and learned (not discovered) as a hierarchy of General Models. Students solve problems using an explicit Problem Modeling Rubric that begins with System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.). System and Interactions are emphasized as the key to a strategic description of the system and the identification of the appropriate General Model to apply to the problem. We have employed the pedagogy in a three-week review course for students who received a D in mechanics. The course was assessed by a final exam retest as well as pre and post C-LASS surveys, yielding a one standard deviation improvement in the students' ability to solve final exam problems and a statistically significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the C-LASS.

  3. Algebra Through Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hillman, Alexanderson

    A non-traditional Algebra text (high school and early college levels) placed on the Web by the Science Education Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Browse it on the Web or download a PDF version. Chapter headings include: The Pascal Triangle; The Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers; Factorials; Arithmetic and Geometric Progressions; Mathematical Induction; The Binomial Theorem; Combinations and Permutations; Polynomial Equations; Determinants; and Inequalities. Problems (and answers to the odd-numbered problems) are provided for each section.

  4. Transformation Problem Solving Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmel, Sarah Jane

    The relationship between transformation problem performance and Guilford Structure of Intellect (SI) abilities is explored. During two group sessions 42 females and 35 males, age 18-39, were administered 12 Guilford SI tests exemplifying all five symbolic content (numeric) operations, and three contents in the divergent production area. Logical…

  5. Problem solving: Waking and dreaming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalind D. Cartwright

    1974-01-01

    Investigated whether problem-solving ability is either quantitatively or qualitatively superior following an interval of sleep including dreaming than it is following an equal interval of waking time. 24 college students were tested on matched problems before and after these 2 conditions on 3 problem types: crossword puzzles, Remote Associates Test, and Thematic Apperception Test story completions. These were predicted to

  6. The Effects of GO Solve Word Problems Math Intervention on Applied Problem Solving Skills of Low Performing Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fede, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigation examined the effects of "GO Solve Word Problems" math intervention on problem-solving skills of struggling 5th grade students. In a randomized controlled study, 16 5th grade students were given a 12-week intervention of "GO Solve", a computer-based program designed to teach schema-based instruction strategies (SBI.s) to…

  7. Gender and Mathematical Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Duffy; Georg Gunther; Lloyd Walters

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between gender and mathematical problem-solving among high ability students depends on the attributes of the problem solving questions. This was evident in the present study of 12-year-olds. The children were from predominately White families. Eighty-three males and 76 females were tested in both the fall and the spring on the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales and on the Canadian

  8. Aging and skilled problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Charness

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relation of age and skill to problem solving in chess, using 34 16–64 yr old males in 2 experiments. Ss were selected to vary widely in age and skill such that these variables were uncorrelated. Problem-solving and memory tasks were administered. Skill level was the only significant predictor for accuracy in both a choose-a-move task and a speeded

  9. The influence of contextual teaching with the problem solving method on students' knowledge and attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school

    E-print Network

    Whitcher, Carrie Lynn

    2006-10-30

    with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through...

  10. Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

  11. Descriptive languages and problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Minsky

    1961-01-01

    Advances in machine problem solving may depend on use of internal languages for description and abstraction of the outcomes of experiments. As more complex problems are attempted there will have to be less trial and error and more systematic analysis of the results of each trial. Learning on the basis of experience will require a phase of refinement in which

  12. Handbook for Community Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Sara E.; Rossing, Boyd E.

    This handbook is a practical guide that can be used by an individual, group, or group leader in planning an active role in community development. Major topics covered are organizing the group; purpose and structure of your organization; how to identify the problem; planning an active program to solve a community problem; planning a large meeting…

  13. Robot, computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.

  14. Classroom Literacy Assessment. Making Sense of What Students Know and Do. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paratore, Jeanne R. Ed.; McCormack, Rachel L. Ed.; Block, Cathy, Collins Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Showcasing assessment practices that can help teachers plan effective instruction, this book addresses the real-world complexities of teaching literacy in grades K-8. Leading contributors present trustworthy approaches that examine learning processes as well as learning products, that yield information on how the learning environment can be…

  15. Physics faculty beliefs and values about the teaching and learning of problem solving. I. Mapping the common core

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Yerushalmi; C. Henderson; K. Heller; P. Heller; V. Kuo

    2007-01-01

    In higher education, instructors' choices of both curricular material and pedagogy are determined by their beliefs about learning and teaching, the values of their profession, and perceived external constraints. Dissemination of research-based educational reforms is based on assumptions about that mental structure. This study reports the initial phase of an investigation of the beliefs and values of physics professors as

  16. Physics Faculty Beliefs and Values about the Teaching and Learning of Problem Solving. I. Mapping the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerushalmi, E.; Henderson, C.; Heller, K.; Heller, P.; Kuo, V.

    2007-01-01

    In higher education, instructors' choices of both curricular material and pedagogy are determined by their beliefs about learning and teaching, the values of their profession, and perceived external constraints. Dissemination of research-based educational reforms is based on assumptions about that mental structure. This study reports the initial…

  17. Building Confidence through Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This 14-minute video demonstrates how students learn to persevere through challenging number puzzles and games. Headteacher Kate Frood discusses her philosophy and models teaching children to use core multiplication facts as tools for more complex problems. She differentiates tasks to accommodate advanced and struggling learners.

  18. Assessing Problem Solving with "Diana"

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Harper, Kathleen Andre

    This research paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, discusses an experiment in which expert and novice participants completed a task either completing a mechanics problem (novices) or evaluating the answer to the problem (experts). The results indicated that instructors were more likely to make specific criticisms if the students spoke in generalities. Additional evidence indicates that novice problem solving knowledge consists of both conscious and tacit pieces.

  19. Aging and skilled problem solving.

    PubMed

    Charness, N

    1981-03-01

    Information-processing models of problem solving too often are based on restrictive age ranges. On the other hand, gerontologists have investigated few problem-solving tasks and have rarely generated explicit models. As this article demonstrates, both fields can benefit by closer collaboration. One major issue in gerontology is whether aging is associated with irreversible decrement or developmental plasticity. If both processes occur, then an appropriate strategy for investigating aging is to equate age groups for molar problem-solving performance and search for differences in the underlying components. This strategy was adopted to examine the relation of age and skill to problem solving in chess. Chess players were selected to vary widely in age and skill such that these variables were uncorrelated. Problem-solving and memory tasks were administered. Skill level was the only significant predictor for accuracy in both a choose-a-move task and a speeded end-game evaluation task. Age (negatively) and skill (positively) jointly determined performance in an unexpected recall task. Efficient chunking in recall was positively related to skill, though negatively related to age. Recognition confidence, though not accuracy, was negatively related to age. Thus despite age-related declines in encoding and retrieval of information, older players match the problem-solving performance of equivalently skilled younger players. Apparently, they can search the problem space more efficiently, as evidenced by taking less time to select an equally good move. Models of chess skill that stress that role of encoding efficiency, as indexed by chunking in recall, need to be modified to account for performance over the life span. PMID:6453184

  20. Using Counterintuitive Problems in Teaching Physics

    E-print Network

    Campanario, Juan Miguel

    Using Counterintuitive Problems in Teaching Physics &fI h!kJW/ C~III/WW~O,Grupode Investigaciónen Aprendizajede las Ciencias,Departamentode Física, Universidadde Alcalá,28871Alcaláde Henares,Madrid, Spain;fscampanario@alcala.es 1n the teaching and leaming of science, problem-solv- ing exercises are part of the canon

  1. The Development of Students' Probllem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Foster, Thomas

    Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

  2. Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

    2007-01-01

    TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…

  3. Using a Self-Instructional Training Package To Teach Complex Problem-Solving Skills to Adults with Moderate and Severe Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambara, Linda M.; Gomez, Ophelia N.

    2001-01-01

    A study assessed effects of a self-instructional package on complex problem-solving skills by three adults with intellectual disabilities. Problem situations were embedded in the participants' daily routines that consisted of multiple task sequences. The training package was effective in producing generalized, complex correct problem solving in…

  4. Logo Programming, Problem Solving, and Knowledge-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Karen; Black, John B.

    The research reported in this paper was designed to investigate the hypothesis that computer programming may support the teaching and learning of problem solving, but that to do so, problem solving must be explicitly taught. Three studies involved students in several grades: 4th, 6th, 8th, 11th, and 12th. Findings collectively show that five…

  5. Introduction to Problem Solving: Strategies for the Elementary Math Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Susan

    This book is designed to help better understand problem-solving instruction. It presents information on helping students understand the problem-solving process as well as information on teaching specific strategies, including: Choose an Operation; Find a Pattern; Make a Table; Make an Organized List; Draw a Picture or Diagram; Guess, Check, and…

  6. Determining Students' Attitude towards Physics through Problem-Solving Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdemir, Naki

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of teacher-directed and self-directed problem-solving strategies on students' attitudes toward physics were explored. Problem-solving strategies were used with the experimental group, while the control group was instructed using traditional teaching methods. The study was conducted with 270 students at various high…

  7. The Role of Problem Solving in Complex Intraverbal Repertoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sautter, Rachael A.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Jay, Allison A.; Goldsmith, Tina R.; Carr, James E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until…

  8. Problem Solving Variations in an Online Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahimi, Alireza

    2007-01-01

    An observation on teaching introductory programming courses on SLN for a period of two terms led me to believe that online students try various ways to solve a problem. In the beginning, I got the impression that some of their approaches for a solution were wrong; but after a little investigation, I found that some of the problem-solving

  9. Computers and Problem Solving for Sixth-Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oughton, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a curriculum unit designed for average sixth-grade students intended to engage them in problem-solving experiences and to teach them problem-solving strategies. The curriculum consists of 20 sessions in which students engage in various activities using the following software packages: The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, Rescue at Boone's…

  10. Calculator solves pipe flow problems

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, C.P.

    1980-07-28

    For facilitating pipe-flow calculations that involve the horizontal flow of constant-density fluids, a simple program tailored to the TI-59 hand-held calculator uses the Darcy pressure-drop formula (modified for expressing the friction factor) to compute the unknown parameter needed to solve the fluid problem. Instead of several friction-factor equations applicable only in the individual flow regimes, the program uses a single, full-range friction-factor equation with three sets of coefficients to suit the conditions of the problem.

  11. THE ROLE OF PROBLEM SOLVING IN COMPLEX INTRAVERBAL REPERTOIRES

    PubMed Central

    Sautter, Rachael A; LeBlanc, Linda A; Jay, Allison A; Goldsmith, Tina R; Carr, James E

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until problem solving was modeled and prompted. Following the model and prompts, all participants showed immediate significant increases in intraverbal categorization, and all prompts were quickly eliminated. Use of audible self-prompts was evident initially for all participants, but declined over time for 3 of the 4 children. Within-session response patterns remained consistent with use of the problem-solving strategy even when self-prompts were not audible. These findings suggest that teaching and prompting a problem-solving strategy can be an effective way to produce intraverbal categorization responses. PMID:21709781

  12. Modeling Applied to Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-11-01

    We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and validate their own Models through guided discovery. Instead, students classify problems under the appropriate instructor-generated Model by selecting a system to consider and describing the interactions that are relevant to that system. We believe that this explicit System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.) problem modeling strategy represents a key simplification and clarification of the widely disseminated modeling approach originated by Hestenes and collaborators. Our narrower focus allows modeling physics to be integrated into (as opposed to replacing) a typical introductory college mechanics course, while preserving the emphasis on understanding systems and interactions that is the essence of modeling. We have employed the approach in a three-week review course for MIT freshmen who received a D in the fall mechanics course with very encouraging results.

  13. Toward a New Perspective on Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolff-Michael Roth; Michelle K. McGinn

    1997-01-01

    Educating students to become successful problem solvers has been a goal of education at least since Dewey. However, the kinds of problems students do in school to practice their problem-solving competence have little to do with the problems they will need to solve in everyday settings. We briefly critique traditional conceptions of problem solving, propose a different framework for theorizing

  14. Developing Problem Solving Skills for Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michelle Pauls

    2013-04-02

    In this blog post the author explores another tool for the problem-solving toolbox: Wish for an easier problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of ways students could use this strategy are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "One Step at a Time" that is best solved utilizing this strategy.

  15. King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchardt, Donald A.

    An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and applying…

  16. Big vs little problems : what is problem solving?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Judy Spicer

    2005-01-01

    In this web publication, the focus is on those problems--big and small--that encourage students to think, ask questions, try a variety of problem-solving approaches, and discuss their strategies and solutions. It points out the vast difference between numerical problems dressed up as episodes of everyday life and real mathematics used every day to facilitate understanding and decision making. Built on the ideas found in the NCTM Standards, the Background section offers pedagogical examples and resources to expand teachers' understanding of mathematics and problem solving. The Activities sections feature selected online resources that are useful in expanding student thinking as they learn to become problem solvers in math class and beyond. The highlighted resources are from collections in the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). Information about each resource includes links to the catalog record and to the resource's original NSDL collection. The publication's final Standards section ties the problem solving standard to the other four NCTM process standards as the foundation for high quality mathematics teaching. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  17. Strategies of Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie J. Cammarata; David Mcarthur; Randall Steeb

    1983-01-01

    Distributed Artificial Intelligence is concerned with problem solving in which groups solve tasks. In this paper we describe stra­ tegies of cooperation that groups require to solve shared tasks effectively. We discuss such strategies in the context of a specific group problem solving application: collision avoidance in air traffic control. Experimental findings with four distinct air-traffic control systems, each implementing

  18. Grade 1 Practice Problems: Reasoning, Problem Solving & Communication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This is a set of 46 problems that focus on reasoning and problem solving skills. Successful solving requires careful reading of the problems. Math content topics include applications of basic operations, multistep problems, and comparing quantities and attributes.

  19. Physics Problem Solving Research Using Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Stewart E.

    This paper presents an overview of research on physics problem solving using verbal protocols. It asserts that the understanding of physics problem solving strategies enables researchers to write computer programs, which can automatically solve physics problems without the users having to be experts in physics. This, in turn, can generate more…

  20. LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

  1. Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen

    2008-01-01

    A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includes…

  2. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Hugh

    1979-01-01

    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  3. Community-powered problem solving.

    PubMed

    Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections. PMID:23593769

  4. Grade 2 Practice Problems: Reasoning, Problem Solving & Communication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This is a set of 13 problems that focus on reasoning and problem solving skills. Successful solving requires careful reading of the problems. Math content topics include basic operations, counting, halving and doubling, money and measuring.

  5. Using Problem-Solving Approaches in Vocational Education. Practice Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    The problem-solving approach to teaching and learning has proved especially useful in vocational education as a way to relate classroom learning to real-life situations or problems. The problem-solving method of teaching places the responsibility for learning on students. Educators and special reform groups in other subject areas refer to a…

  6. Effective Teaching in Case-Based Education: Patterns in Teacher Behavior and Their Impact on the Students' Clinical Problem Solving and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaekers, Stephan; van Keulen, Hanno; Kremer, Wim; Pilot, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Case-based learning formats, in which relevant case information is provided just in time, require teachers to combine their scaffolding role with an information-providing one. The objective of this study is to establish how this combination of roles affects teacher behavior and that, in turn, mediates students' reasoning and problem solving. Data…

  7. Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a metatheory of problem solving. Describes differences among problems in terms of their structured ness, domain specificity (abstractness), and complexity; describes individual differences that affect problem solving; and presents a typology of problems, each of which engages different cognitive, affective, and conative process and…

  8. Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billionniere, Elodie V.

    Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.

  9. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem

  10. Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil

    1993-01-01

    The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.

  11. Insightful Problem Solving in an Asian Elephant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preston Foerder; Marie Galloway; Tony Barthel; Donald E. Moore; Diana Reiss

    2011-01-01

    The “aha” moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three

  12. Doing Right: Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin F. Shakun

    \\u000a We discuss individual and multiagent (group) problem solving and negotiation. We consider connectedness, a dynamic subjective\\u000a relation experience of consciousness involving awareness\\/qualia experience – as cognition, emotion, social, conation, holistic,\\u000a etc. We develop Connectedness Problem Solving and Negotiation (CPSN) for doing right meaning defining\\/solving a validated\\u000a “right” problem\\/solution, as discussed in the chapter. The validated solution constitutes right action. CPSN

  13. Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

  14. Ontological Support in Modeling Learners' Problem Solving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chun-Hung; Wu, Chia-Wei; Wu, Shih-Hung; Chiou, Guey-Fa; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new model for simulating procedural knowledge in the problem solving process with our ontological system, InfoMap. The method divides procedural knowledge into two parts: process control and action performer. By adopting InfoMap, we hope to help teachers construct curricula (declarative knowledge) and teaching strategies by…

  15. Preparing Teachers of Gifted Students to Solve Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Theresa M.; Georgiades, William Den Hartog

    1986-01-01

    Teachers have successfully used three Principles of Teacher Training (Curry Sato, 1984) as guidelines for identifying and solving instructional problems with gifted students. Teaching styles were changed through training, which was (1) reinforced through appropriate materials; (2) attempted to meet participants' specific needs; and (3) was…

  16. Problem Solving in Social Studies: A Model Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma City Public School System, OK.

    These model lessons from the primary grades are on the techniques of advertising drawn from a unit on, "Creating and Producing Tools and Techniques". They include behaviorial objectives, teaching and motivational strategies, evaluation techniques. The model lessons follow the problem solving inquiry approach in social studies using multimedia…

  17. Problem Solving: Physics Modeling-Based Interactive Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how modeling-based instruction combined with an interactive-engagement teaching approach promotes students' problem solving abilities. I focused on students in a calculus-based introductory physics course, based on the matter and interactions curriculum of Chabay & Sherwood (2002) at a large state…

  18. Make Sense of Problems and Persevere in Solving Them

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-01

    This site from the Tennessee Early Grades Math Tool Kit provides a rationale for fostering the CCSS Math Practice Standard. Included is a four-step model for learners to follow when solving a mathematical problem, teaching strategies and helpful questions for developing mathematical thinking. Also includes are additional resources (videos, articles and websites) that foster this habit of mind with learners.

  19. Prospective Teachers' Problem Solving in Online Peer-Led Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Suzanne E.; Fauske, Janice R.; Thompson, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    In this self-study of a secondary teacher education course, the authors investigated whether there was evidence of critically reflective problem solving on the part of prospective teachers who participated in a peer-led online discussion of a teaching case about English-language learners. They also examined what approaches to multicultural…

  20. Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills. PMID:19592762

  1. Problem Solving of Newton's Second Law through a System of Total Mass Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Helmi

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, many researchers discovered various effective strategies in teaching physics, from traditional to modern strategy. However, research on physics problem solving is still inadequate. Physics problem is an integral part of physics learning and requires strategy to solve it. Besides that, problem solving is the best way to convey principle,…

  2. Implementing Problem Solving Technology into Classrooms: Four Case Studies of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Haneghan, James P.; Stofflett, Rene T.

    1995-01-01

    Presents four case studies of fifth grade teachers who have implemented the Jasper Woodbury Problem Solving Series, a videodisc problem-solving curriculum, in their classrooms, and proposes a model for problem-solving instruction. Discusses curriculum and teaching styles before and after the studies. Teacher interview questions are appended. (JMV)

  3. Su Doku and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintyre, Tom

    2006-01-01

    A lot has been made of the topical puzzle Su Doku, with various claims that it can support development of mathematical abilities. The latest, in March this year, came from the Training and Development Agency when a giant puzzle was used to attract graduates into a career of maths teaching. A giant Su Doku puzzle toured busy city centres with the…

  4. Environmental Problem Solving Using GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Lehman; Eric Ray

    CITYgreen by American Forest, an extension to ArcView, is being used by almost four hundred K-12 schools and universities around the country to assist in teaching science, geography, math, communications, and conservation. The software statistically analyzes the ecosystem services of trees and vegetation to calculate the dollar benefi ts based on site conditions. This paper describes the lesson plans created

  5. Problem-Based Learning: Student Engagement, Learning and Contextualized Problem-Solving. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mossuto, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The adoption of problem-based learning as a teaching method in the advertising and public relations programs offered by the Business TAFE (Technical and Further Education) School at RMIT University is explored in this paper. The effect of problem-based learning on student engagement, student learning and contextualised problem-solving was…

  6. Analyzing patterns in experts' approaches to solving experimental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?an?ula, Maja Poklinek; Planinši?, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    We report detailed observations of three pairs of expert scientists and a pair of advanced undergraduate students solving an experimental optics problem. Using a new method ("transition graphs") of visualizing sequences of logical steps, we were able to compare the groups and identify patterns that could not be found using previously existing methods. While the problem solving of undergraduates significantly differed from that of experts at the beginning of the process, it gradually became more similar to the expert problem solving. We mapped problem solving steps and their sequence to the elements of an approach to teaching and learning physics called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE), and we speculate that the ISLE educational framework closely represents the actual work of physicists.

  7. Collective Problem Solving through Coordinated Reaction

    E-print Network

    Yu, Bin

    of problem solving is con­ straint satisfaction problems. We have applied the method­ ology to job shop scheduling, an NP­complete constraint satisfaction problem. Experimental results on a benchmark suite on problems of larger sizes and showed favorable scaling­up characteristics. KeyW ords--- Collective Problem

  8. Some Helpful Problem-Solving Heuristics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-01

    This page from the site "Stella's Stunners" presents twenty-five thinking strategies that are useful in solving problems. They help students monitor their thought processes and thus help learners become better problem solvers.

  9. Characteristics of problem solving success in physics 

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Marsali Beth

    2014-06-28

    Skills in problem solving, including finding and applying the appropriate knowledge to a problem, are important learning outcomes from the completion of a Physics degree at University. This thesis investigates the ...

  10. Strengthening Programs through Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes a secondary agricultural education program that was a dumping ground for academically disadvantaged students. Discusses how such a program can be improved by identifying problems and symptoms, treating problems, and goal setting. (JOW)

  11. Mathematics As Problem Solving Math250....

    E-print Network

    Mathematics As Problem Solving Math250.... Instructor: Dr. M. Shiyyab, mathematics Dept. (637 Office Text: Curriculum and Evaluation Standards. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1989, or 1999. Course Objective: 1. To improve your mathematical problem solving ability, including reasoning. 2

  12. Presenting a Model of Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    Two questions are dealt with: (1) Can those strategies or behaviors which enable experts to solve problems well be characterized, and (2) Can students be trained to use such strategies? A problem-solving course for college students is described and the model on which the course is based is outlined in an attempt to answer these questions. The…

  13. Class Meetings: Young Children Solving Problems Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Emily; Weaver, Patricia Jimenez

    When young children can solve problems in a nonthreatening classroom environment, they feel emotionally safe and can focus their efforts on learning. This book describes the use of class meetings in which early childhood teachers provide guidance in solving a problem or resolving a conflict to help children reach a solution that all can accept.…

  14. When problem solving prevents organizational learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita L. Tucker; Amy C. Edmondson; Steven Spear

    2002-01-01

    We propose that research on problem-solving behavior can provide critical insight into mechanisms through which organizations resist learning and change. In this paper, we describe typical front-line responses to obstacles that hinder workers’ effectiveness and argue that this pattern of behavior creates an important and overlooked barrier to organizational change. Past research on quality improvement and problem solving has found

  15. Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…

  16. Problem Solving in Automata, Languages, and Complexity

    E-print Network

    Ko, Ker-I

    .3 Graph Representations for Regular Expressions 2 Finite Automata 2.1 Deterministic Finite Automata 2Problem Solving in Automata, Languages, and Complexity c Copyright, 2001 Ding-Zhu Du Department@cs.sunysb.edu #12; Problem Solving in Automata, Languages, and Complexity c 2001 Ding-Zhu Du and Ker-I Ko CONTENTS

  17. Children Solving Problems. The Developing Child Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Stephanie

    The developmental increase in the ability to solve problems is a puzzle. Does it come from basic changes in mental skills, or is it a matter of practice? This book from the Developing Child series synthesizes recent research examining children's problem-solving skills development. Chapter 1 presents the major themes: (1) there is increasing…

  18. Geographic Information Systems: Implications for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Richard H.; Abegg, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    Compares expert-/novice-based problem-solving behaviors with a Geographic Information Systems program. Uses naturalistic methods to analyze problem-solving strategies for occurrence of thematic elements. Reports that experts relied on logical formulations to query the database while novices used trial-and-error methods and midlevel cognitive…

  19. Analysing Cognitive or Non-Cognitive Factors Involved in the Process of Physics Problem-Solving in an Everyday Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jongwon; Lee, Limook

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the importance of an everyday context in physics learning, teaching, and problem-solving has been emphasized. However, do students or physics educators really want to learn or teach physics problem-solving in an everyday context? Are there not any obstructive factors to be considered in solving the everyday context physics problems? To…

  20. Worrying, social problem-solving abilities, and social problem-solving confidence.

    PubMed

    Davey, G C

    1994-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between worrying and two features of social problem solving: problem-solving ability and confidence. However, while levels of worrying were significantly related to both poor problem-solving confidence and poor perceived control over the problem-solving process, worrying was unrelated to problem-solving ability per se. The failure to find a relationship between worrying and social problem-solving skills was found separately at both low and high levels of worrying, and also when levels of trait anxiety had been controlled for. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that chronic worrying results from poor social problem-solving abilities, but the results are consistent with the belief that worrying is primarily an anxiety-related phenomenon with any problem-solving deficits occurring at the level of solution implementation rather than solution generation. PMID:8192632

  1. Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)

  2. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving. PMID:12102132

  3. Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

    2009-01-01

    How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

  4. Algorithms For Solving Near Point Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F Connor

    2011-01-01

    Near point problems are widely used in computational geometry as well as a variety of other scientific fields. This work examines four common near point problems and presents original algorithms that solve them.\\u000aPlanar nearest neighbor searching is highly motivated by geographic information system and sensor network problems. Efficient data structures to solve near neighbor queries in the plane can

  5. Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...

  6. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  7. Solving the Tulsa ozone problem

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, K.K. [Atmospheric Information Systems, Norman, OK (United States); Wilson, J.D. [Wilson Consulting Group, Tulsa, OK (United States); Gibeau, E. [Aeromet Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.

  8. Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi

    2011-01-01

    This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

  9. Optimistic Problem Solving Susan L. Epstein

    E-print Network

    Epstein, Susan L.

    Optimistic Problem Solving Susan L. Epstein Computer Science Department, Hunter College and The Graduate Center of The City University of New York 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA susan.epstein

  10. Problem solving and mathematical knowledge Joseph Corneli

    E-print Network

    Problem solving and mathematical knowledge Joseph Corneli December 15, 2010 Abstract This report activity pat- terns correlate with indicators of learning, and a set of narratives that assemble these key

  11. Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E

    2012-10-01

    Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

  12. Learning to Solve Complex Planning Problems: Finding Useful Auxiliary Problems

    E-print Network

    Stone, Peter

    Learning to Solve Complex Planning Problems: Finding Useful Auxiliary Problems Peter Stone,veloso@cs.cmu.edu Abstract Learning from past experience allows a problem solver to increaseits solvability horizon from is extracted from simple problems. But how are these simple problems constructed? All cur- rent learning

  13. Learning to Solve Complex Planning Problems: Finding Useful Auxiliary Problems

    E-print Network

    Stone, Peter

    Learning to Solve Complex Planning Problems: Finding Useful Auxiliary Problems Peter Stone,veloso@cs.cmu.edu Abstract Learning from past experience allows a problem solver to increase its solvability horizon from is extracted from simple problems. But how are these simple problems constructed? All cur­ rent learning

  14. A Comparison of Two Mathematics Problem-Solving Strategies: Facilitate Algebra-Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Yan Ping; Zhang, Dake; Park, Joo Young; Tom, Kinsey; Whipple, Amanda; Si, Luo

    2011-01-01

    The authors compared a conceptual model-based problem-solving (COMPS) approach with a general heuristic instructional approach for teaching multiplication-division word-problem solving to elementary students with learning problems (LP). The results indicate that only the COMPS group significantly improved, from pretests to posttests, their…

  15. Interior point method for solving optimization problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiong Zhang; Ji Zhou

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a nonlinear optimization method for solving engineering optimal design problems. In addition to maintaining main advantages of typical recursive quadratic methods, our algorithm uses an interior point quadratic programming (QP) subroutine as its QP solver. An implementation of the algorithm proposed in the paper has been applied to standard test problems and real engineering design

  16. PULSATION DAMPER SOLVES ANALYZER PROBLEM (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the use of a pulsation damper to solve a severe output signal interference problem with a Beckman Model 402 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer. The analyzer was used in a computerized data-gathering system. The problem was traced to compressions/decompressions of flow...

  17. Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasetti, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…

  18. Complex Problem Solving in a Workplace Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Studied complex problem solving in the hospitality industry through interviews with six office staff members and managers. Findings show it is possible to construct a taxonomy of problem types and that the most common approach can be termed "trial and error." (SLD)

  19. Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search Readings: Chapter 3 of Russell & Norvig. Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/89 Example: Romania Problem: On holiday in Romania; currently in Arad. Flight, Bucharest Artificial Intelligence ­ p.2/89 Example: Romania Giurgiu Urziceni Hirsova Eforie Neamt Oradea

  20. Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search Readings: Chapter 3 of Russell & Norvig. Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/89 #12;Example: Romania Problem: On holiday in Romania; currently in Arad, Fagaras, Bucharest Artificial Intelligence ­ p.2/89 #12;Example: Romania Giurgiu Urziceni Hirsova Eforie

  1. GIS Live and Web Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.

    2007-01-01

    GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…

  2. Solving Word Problems Using Story Structure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-16

    In this lesson, students will learn how to use their knowledge of beginning, middle, and end to solve word problems that include result unknown, change unknown, and start unknown. They will learn how to use a modified story map to write an equation to represent the problem.

  3. Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A.; Hegarty, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naive students were administered kinematics problems and…

  4. Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, José N.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…

  5. Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The activities in this series may be used as stand-alone exercises but are designed to support Math Forum's Problems of the Week and to help students develop, formalize, and reflect on their problem-solving strategies. Membership subscription is required.

  6. Values in Principals' Thinking when Solving Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaridou, Angeliki

    2007-01-01

    The values that school principals use when solving organisational problems were studied. Data were collected by a think aloud procedure, in which the participants verbalised their thoughts while working on a set of five administrative problems. The results show that the principals referred to seven values that had subtle but important sub-texts:…

  7. Solving combinatorial optimization problems using Karmarkar's algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Mitchell; Michael J. Todd

    1992-01-01

    We describe a cutting plane algorithm for solving combinatorial optimization problems. The primal projective standard-form variant of Karmarkar's algorithm for linear programming is applied to the duals of a sequence of linear programming relaxations of the combinatorial optimization problem.

  8. Effective Metaroutines for Organizational Problem Solving EFFECTIVE METAROUTINES FOR ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING

    E-print Network

    Sobek II, Durward K.

    of the economy, but one that continues to grapple with systemic issues (Tucker 2004). Healthcare organizations, Organizational Problem Solving, Healthcare, A3 Process #12;Effective Metaroutines for Organizational Problem, and thus sustainable improvement, as "second-order problem solving." Improving healthcare work processes

  9. How to encourage university students to solve physics problems requiring mathematical skills: the 'adventurous problem solving' approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frits F. M. DeMul; Cristina Martin i. Batlle; Imme DeBruijn; Kees Rinzema

    2004-01-01

    Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior\\/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential expressions and multi-dimensional integrations, and the Gauss and Ampère laws learnt in electromagnetism courses. To

  10. Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.

  11. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy C. Payne

    2006-11-01

    Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of "real" scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.

  12. Predicting Positive Self-Efficacy in Group Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kay N.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 288 hospital employees engaged in problem-solving groups found that previous group problem-solving experience, educational level, work expertise, and problem-solving confidence were the best predictors of self-efficacy. (SK)

  13. Developing Problem-Solving Skills of Students Taking Introductory Physics via Web-Based Tutorials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chandralekha Singh

    2010-03-01

    Science teaching and learning can be made both engaging and student-centered using pedagogical, computer-based learning tools. The authors have developed self-paced interactive problem-solving tutorials for introductory physics. These tutorials can provid

  14. Insightful Problem Solving in an Asian Elephant

    PubMed Central

    Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E.; Reiss, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The “aha” moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food. PMID:21876741

  15. Extending problem-solving procedures through reflection.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Fincham, Jon M

    2014-11-01

    A large-sample (n=75) fMRI study guided the development of a theory of how people extend their problem-solving procedures by reflecting on them. Both children and adults were trained on a new mathematical procedure and then were challenged with novel problems that required them to change and extend their procedure to solve these problems. The fMRI data were analyzed using a combination of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA). This HMM-MVPA analysis revealed the existence of 4 stages: Encoding, Planning, Solving, and Responding. Using this analysis as a guide, an ACT-R model was developed that improved the performance of the HMM-MVPA and explained the variation in the durations of the stages across 128 different problems. The model assumes that participants can reflect on declarative representations of the steps of their problem-solving procedures. A Metacognitive module can hold these steps, modify them, create new declarative steps, and rehearse them. The Metacognitive module is associated with activity in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). The ACT-R model predicts the activity in the RLPFC and other regions associated with its other cognitive modules (e.g., vision, retrieval). Differences between children and adults seemed related to differences in background knowledge and computational fluency, but not to the differences in their capability to modify procedures. PMID:25063939

  16. Measures of Problem-Solving Performance and of Problem-Solving Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    Some easily graded measures of problem-solving processes are introduced, and the impact of a month-long intensive problem-solving course on a selected group of college freshmen and sophomores is demonstrated. The measures are thought to have shown themselves to be both reliable and informative. (MP)

  17. Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…

  18. Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Aerts, Diederik, E-mail: diraerts@vub.ac.be [Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies and Department of Mathematics, Brussels Free University, Brussels (Belgium); Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano, E-mail: autoricerca@gmail.com [Laboratorio di Autoricerca di Base, Lugano (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an “easy” problem and a “hard” problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible “ways of selecting” an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible “ways of selecting” an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.

  19. An In-Service Teachers' Workshop on Mathematical Problem Solving through Activity-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Tin Lam

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an in-service professional development course in introducing creative approaches to teach mathematics for teachers from the private-funded schools in Java, Indonesia. The course focused on introducing teachers to problem-solving processes and skills, and samples of activity-based worksheet on problem solving through secondary…

  20. Mathematical Problem Solving among Latina/o Kindergartners: An Analysis of Opportunities to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Erin E.; Celedon-Pattichis, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores opportunities to learn mathematics problem solving for Latina/o students in 3 kindergarten classrooms in the southwest. Mixed methods were used to examine teaching practices that engaged Latina/o students in problem solving and supported their learning. Findings indicate that although students in all 3 classrooms showed growth…

  1. The Effects of Differentiating Instruction by Learning Styles on Problem Solving in Cooperative Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Amy F.

    2011-01-01

    It can be difficult to find adequate strategies when teaching problem solving in a standard based mathematics classroom. The purpose of this study was to improve students' problem solving skills and attitudes through differentiated instruction when working on lengthy performance tasks in cooperative groups. This action research studied for 15 days…

  2. Improving Mathematics Problem Solving Skills for English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Diane Torres-Velasquez

    2005-01-01

    In this article the authors provide before, during, and after problem solving strategies and instructional suggestions for teachers. The focus of the article is to improve the ability of students with disabilities that are also English as a second language (ESL) learners to solve word problems. The authors provide multiple teaching strategies, questioning techniques, and links to lesson resources.

  3. Technology Confidence, Competence and Problem Solving Strategies: Differences within Online and Face-to-Face Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon L.; Palmer, Louann Bierlein

    2011-01-01

    This study identified the problem solving strategies used by students within a university course designed to teach pre-service teachers educational technology, and whether those strategies were influenced by the format of the course (i.e., face-to-face computer lab vs. online). It also examined to what extent the type of problem solving strategies…

  4. Design, Development and Validation of a Model of Problem Solving for Egyptian Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahat, Mohamed A.; Ohle, Annika; Treagust, David F.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2013-01-01

    Educators and policymakers envision the future of education in Egypt as enabling learners to acquire scientific inquiry and problem-solving skills. In this article, we describe the validation of a model for problem solving and the design of instruments for evaluating new teaching methods in Egyptian science classes. The instruments were based on…

  5. SELF-REGULATION STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM SOLVING FOR STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie Montague

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a review of research in cognitive strategy instruction for improving mathematical problem solving for students with learning disabilities (LD). The particular focus is on one of the salient components of this instructional approach - self-regulation. Seven studies utilizing this approach for teaching problem solving to students with LD were previously evaluated to determine its status as evidence-based

  6. TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 Problem Solving: Cowboy Bob Problem

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 Problem Solving: Cowboy Bob Problem Page 61 Below is a problem from the outlaws. #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 6 (continued) Page 62 Notes: #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 7. #12;TA Orientation 2005 Activity 7 (continued) Page 64 Answer Sheet for Activity 7 1. Examine your

  7. Effective Practices (Part 4): Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moursund, Dave

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of computers to help with problem solving. Topics include information science, including effective procedure and procedural thinking; templates; artificially intelligent agents and expert systems; and applications in education, including the goal of computer literacy for all students, and integrated software packages such as…

  8. Stoichiometric Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to create and test questions on stoichiometry with number ratios for quick mental calculations and to identify students' problem-solving strategies. The present study was a component of a more comprehensive investigation in which 7,441 German senior high school students were asked to work on 154 test items…

  9. Raise the Bar on Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englard, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS…

  10. Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…

  11. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

  12. Should Children Learn to Solve Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this comparative essay, the author discusses the opposing educational theories of John Dewey and Gregory Bateson. While Dewey believed that the scientific method was the dominant method of solving problems and thereby acquiring knowledge that mattered, Bateson warned that this one-sided approach would lead to actions that could destroy the…

  13. Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…

  14. Will Biotech Crops Solve World Problems?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College; )

    2003-02-01

    This lesson examines implications of biotechnology on agriculture. Students can discuss the pro & con arguments and economics of GM food labeling, create a dinner menu of GM food, develop a GM crop testing company, submit ideas for a GM crop that may solve a selected nation's problem, update statistics & data used in the original article... and more!

  15. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  16. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  17. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  18. Introduction to Ocean Acoustics: Guided Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joceline Boucher

    Students learn about sound propagation in the ocean through instructor-guided problem solving. The activity promotes a conceptual understanding of the physical and chemical factors that influence ocean acoustics, with applications to how whales communicate over long distances. The activity serves as a way to introduce the topic of ocean sound.

  19. Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James

    1983-01-01

    Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)

  20. Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems

    E-print Network

    Libre de Bruxelles, Université

    Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems Marco Dorigo IRIDIA Universit´e Libre de Bruxelles 50 Avenue F. Roosevelt B-1050 Brussels, Belgium mdorigo@ulb.ac.be Abstract. The ant algorithms research field builds on the idea that the study of the behavior of ant colonies or other social insects

  1. Gun violence and police problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George W Burruss; Scott H Decker

    2002-01-01

    This article uses gun seizure data from the gun lab of the St. Louis Police Department to examine a problem-solving approach to seizing illegal firearms. Further, it explores narrative data from the police reports to understand the context surrounding 113 firearms seizure. The most important findings are that most illegal firearms are seized by the police department in the course

  2. Dynamical systems that solve linear programming problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Faybusovich

    1992-01-01

    The author introduces and studies a class of vector fields which are defined on a given polyhedron and solve linear programming problems. A Dikin-type algorithm is constructed. Relationships with double-bracket equations and entropy-type barrier functions are established

  3. Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Liselore

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

  4. A SURVEY OF PROBLEM-SOLVING COURSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDWARDS, M.O.

    TO DETERMINE THE DESIRABILITY OF HAVING ITS OWN CREATIVITY COURSE, THE STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE SURVEYED 43 ORGANIZATIONS ON THEIR PROBLEM SOLVING COURSES. FIFTEEN INDUSTRIAL CORPORATIONS, FOUR CONSULTING FIRMS, A GOVERNMENT AGENCY, A RESEARCH CORPORATION, AND NINE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES RESPONDED WITH SPECIFIC INFORMATION ON COURSE LENGTH…

  5. Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.

  6. Role of multiple representations in physics problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru

    This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role in the initial stages of conceptual analysis and planning of the problem solution. Findings suggest that students who draw productive diagrams are more successful problem solvers even if their approach is primarily mathematical. Furthermore, students provided with a diagram of the physical situation presented in a problem sometimes exhibited deteriorated performance. Think-aloud interviews suggest that this deteriorated performance is in part due to reduced conceptual planning time which caused students to jump to the implementation stage without fully understanding the problem and planning problem solution. Another study investigated two interventions aimed at improving introductory students' representational consistency between mathematical and graphical representations and revealed that excessive scaffolding can have a detrimental effect. The detrimental effect was partly due to increased cognitive load brought on by the additional steps and instructions. Moreover, students who exhibited representational consistency also showed improved problem solving performance. The final investigation is centered on a problem solving task designed to provide information about the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of graduate student teaching assistants (TAs). In particular, the TAs identified what they considered to be the most common difficulties of introductory physics students related to graphical representations of kinematics concepts as they occur in the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K). As an extension, the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was also used to assess this aspect of PCK related to knowledge of student difficulties of both physics instructors and TAs. We find that teaching an independent course and recent teaching experience do not correlate with improved PCK. In addition, the performance of American TAs, Chinese TAs and other foreign TAs in identifying common student difficulties both in the context of the TUG-K and in the context of the FCI is similar. Moreover, there were many common difficulties of introductory physics students that were not identified by many instructors and TAs.

  7. Problem Solving in the Mathematics Curriculum. A Report, Recommendations, and an Annotated Bibliography. MAA Notes, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    This report, prepared for and published by the Mathematical Association of America's Committee on the Teaching of Undergraduate Mathematics, includes a description of the state of the art on problem solving, lists available resources, and makes recommendations regarding the place of problem solving in the college curriculum and ways to teach it.…

  8. Convergence and translation: attitudes to inter-professional learning and teaching of creative problem-solving among medical and engineering students and staff

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. Methods A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. Results We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. Conclusions The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution. PMID:24450310

  9. Episodes and Executive Decisions in Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    The research described here seeks to characterize the "managerial" aspects of expert and novice problem-solving behavior, and to describe the impact of managerial or "executive" actions on success or failure in problem solving. A framework for analyzing protocols of problem-solving sessions based on "episodes" of problem-solving behavior and…

  10. Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.

  11. Collaborative Research: Bringing Problem Solving in the Field into the Classroom: Developing and Assessing Virtual Field Trips for Teaching Sedimentary and Introductory Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Caldwell, M.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal Florida offers a unique setting for the facilitation of learning about a variety of modern sedimentary environments. Despite the conflicting concept of "virtual" and "actual" field trip, and the uncertainties associated with the implementation and effectiveness, virtual trips provide likely the only way to reach a large diversified student population and eliminate travel time and expenses. In addition, with rapidly improving web and visualization technology, field trips can be simulated virtually. It is therefore essential to systematically develop and assess the educational effectiveness of virtual field trips. This project is developing, implementing, and assessing a series of virtual field trips for teaching undergraduate sedimentary geology at a large four-year research university and introductory geology at a large two-year community college. The virtual field trip is based on a four-day actual field trip for a senior level sedimentary geology class. Two versions of the virtual field trip, one for advanced class and one for introductory class, are being produced. The educational outcome of the virtual field trip will be compared to that from actual field trip. This presentation summarizes Year 1 achievements of the three-year project. The filming, editing, and initial production of the virtual field trip have been completed. Formative assessments were conducted by the Coalition for Science Literacy at the University of South Florida. Once tested and refined, the virtual field trips will be disseminated through broadly used web portals and workshops at regional and national meetings.

  12. Big vs little problems :What is Problem Solving?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Judy Spicer

    This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. In this wiki page, the focus is on those problems--big and small--that encourage students to think, ask questions, try a variety of problem-solving approaches, and discuss their strategies and solutions. It points out the vast difference between numerical problems dressed up as episodes of everyday life and real mathematics used every day to facilitate understanding and decision making. Built on the ideas found in the NCTM Standards, the Background section offers pedagogical examples and resources to expand teachers' understanding of mathematics and problem solving. The Activities sections feature selected online resources that are useful in expanding student thinking as they learn to become problem solvers in math class and beyond.

  13. Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).

  14. Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2012-01-01

    Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…

  15. Negotiation as a Metaphor for Distributed Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall Davis; Reid G. Smith

    1983-01-01

    We describe the concept of distributed problem solving and define it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. We present a framework called the contract net that specifies

  16. Context, Connection and Opportunity in Environmental Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses increasing emphasis on connectivity in the field of environmental problem solving. Touches on several major environmental problems as it discusses multidisciplinarity, marketization, and democratization as aspects of a new paradigm for environmental problem solving. (LZ)

  17. Temperature, pressure measurements solve column operating problems

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, S.W. [Process Consulting Services Inc., Grapevine, TX (United States)

    1995-12-25

    Refinery process engineers use computer modeling to design, monitor, operate, and troubleshoot refinery units. Basic chemical engineering principles, coupled with these high-technology tools, offer the engineer opportunities to identify and fix process unit problems. Pressure, temperature, and composition profiles are fundamental process measurements. But these simple tools that identify system design and operating problems are often lost among the more sophisticated high-tech tools. The details of three operations will show how these basic chemical engineering tools can be used to identify and solve operating problems in refinery distillation columns. Case 1 is an overhead crude unit; the second is a deethanizer reboiler; and the third is a crude atmospheric column.

  18. Data completion problems solved as Nash games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habbal, A.; Kallel, M.

    2012-09-01

    The Cauchy problem for an elliptic operator is formulated as a two-player Nash game. Player (1) is given the known Dirichlet data, and uses as strategy variable the Neumann condition prescribed over the inaccessible part of the boundary. Player (2) is given the known Neumann data, and plays with the Dirichlet condition prescribed over the inaccessible boundary. The two players solve in parallel the associated Boundary Value Problems. Their respective objectives involve the gap between the non used Neumann/Dirichlet known data and the traces of the BVP's solutions over the accessible boundary, and are coupled through a difference term. We prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium, which turns out to be the reconstructed data when the Cauchy problem has a solution. We also prove that the completion algorithm is stable with respect to noise, and present two 3D experiments which illustrate the efficiency and stability of our algorithm.

  19. Strategy switch costs in arithmetic problem solving.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick; Lecacheur, Mireille

    2010-04-01

    Three experiments tested whether switching between strategies involves a cost. In three experiments, participants had to give approximate products to two-digit multiplication problems (e.g., 47 x 76). They were told which strategy to use (Experiments 1 and 2) or could choose among strategies (Experiment 3). The participants showed poorer performance when they used different strategies on two consecutive trials than when they used the same strategy. They also used the same strategy over two consecutive problems more often than they used different strategies. These effects, termed strategy switch costs, were found when the participants executed the easiest strategy and when they solved easy problems. We discuss possible processes underlying these strategy switch costs and the implications of these strategy switch costs for models of strategy choices. PMID:20234022

  20. The effects of verbal scaffolding instruction on young children's private speech and problem-solving capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Stephen White; Brenda H. Manning

    1994-01-01

    This investigation examined the efficacy of a verbal scaffolding instructional program designed to teach young children how to use private speech while working on school tasks and problems. Two different contexts for solving problems were used; common school tasks and analogical reasoning problems. Thirty-four 5-year olds who attended public school kindergartens were assigned to either the comparison group or the

  1. Using the Solving Problems Together Psychoeducational Group Counseling Model as an Intervention for Negative Peer Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri Lynn; Khurshid, Ayesha

    2011-01-01

    Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), that focuses on working with students who struggle with negative peer pressure. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…

  2. Problem-solving deficits in depressed children, adolescents, and adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard A. Doerfler; Larry L. Mullins; Nora J. Griffin; Lawrence J. Siegel; C. Steven Richards

    1984-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of interpersonal problems with depression. It has been hypothesized that deficits in interpersonal problem-solving skills may account for many of these problems. Three studies that examined the relationship between problem-solving skills and depression are reported. Problem-solving skills among children, adolescents, and adults were assessed by the Means-Ends Problem Solving Test. Contrary to prediction, there

  3. March 23, 2008 ICS102: Prob. solving 2 1 Problem Solving 2

    E-print Network

    Adam, Salah

    March 23, 2008 ICS102: Prob. solving 2 1 Problem Solving 2 #12;March 23, 2008 ICS102: Prob. solving A GPA ICS102: Prob. solving 500 and under 5000 5 % of SALES 5000 and over 8 % of SALES #12;March 23, 2008 ICS102: Prob. solving 2

  4. Design Guidelines for Social Problem-Solving Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. McCann

    1983-01-01

    Two or more social actors-individuals, groups, and organizations-engage in social problem solving when resolving or managing a shared problem. Social problem solving poses significant conceptual and control difficulties that make it highly episodic and prone to setbacks. This paper proposes a framework for understanding social problem solving and offers four guidelines for designing interventions to facilitate the process. A case

  5. Problem solving and chemical equilibrium: Successful versus unsuccessful performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moises Camacho; Ron Good

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the problem-solving behaviors of experts and novices engaged in solving seven chemical equilibrium problems. Thirteen novices (five high-school students, five undergraduate majors, and three nonmajors) and ten experts (six doctoral students and four faculty members) were videotaped as they individually solved standard chemical equilibrium problems. The nature of the problems was such

  6. Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus).

    PubMed

    Seed, Amanda M; Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2008-06-22

    Recent work has shown that captive rooks, like chimpanzees and other primates, develop cooperative alliances with their conspecifics. Furthermore, the pressures hypothesized to have favoured social intelligence in primates also apply to corvids. We tested cooperative problem-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. Without training, eight rooks quickly solved a problem in which two individuals had to pull both ends of a string simultaneously in order to pull in a food platform. Similar to chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, performance was better when within-dyad tolerance levels were higher. In contrast to chimpanzees, rooks did not delay acting on the apparatus while their partner gained access to the test room. Furthermore, given a choice between an apparatus that could be operated individually over one that required the action of two individuals, four out of six individuals showed no preference. These results may indicate that cooperation in chimpanzees is underpinned by more complex cognitive processes than that in rooks. Such a difference may arise from the fact that while both chimpanzees and rooks form cooperative alliances, chimpanzees, but not rooks, live in a variable social network made up of competitive and cooperative relationships. PMID:18364318

  7. Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.

  8. An Assessment Model for a Design Approach to Technological Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Burtke, Barry N.

    Education reform has focused increasingly on critical thinking processes, including problem solving and student assessment. Correspondingly, curriculum and professional development efforts are directed toward developing problem solving abilities through authentic learning and problem-based teaching methodologies. The development of problem solving abilities is pivotal to technological literacy. Problem solving is a critical thinking skill necessary for addressing issues related to technology and for developing effective solutions to practical problems. According to the Rationale and Structure for the Study of Technology (ITEA, 1996), technologically literate persons "are capable problem solvers who consider technological issues from different points of view and in relationship to a variety of contexts"(p. 11). Waetjen (1989) cited problem solving as an important skill necessary for optimizing technological innovation and for developing technological literacy. Whether for economic competitiveness (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983), technical means for survival (Savage & Sterry, 1990), or to develop common sense knowledge of technology and how it evolves to meet human needs (DeLuca, 1992), problem solving is deemed an essential skill for a productive life. With problem solving a major theme in technology education, there is a need for detailed assessments to determine how students solve problems and at what levels of expertise. This study sought to develop a model for assessing problem solving using a design approach to the study of technology. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

  9. Problem Solving and Project Planned Base Curricular Enhancement in Manufacturing Engineering Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Al-Ubaidi, Muthar

    The "lean" trend in business and industry is to expand capacity and quality while decreasing overall costs through continuous problem solving. More problems to solve, with fewer staff, places a premium on employees with problem solving skills. Universities excel at teaching technical topics and how to solve textbook problems within each technical discipline. However, little effort is directed to methods of problem solving for problems outside the textbook, even though this is becoming a major occupation of engineers in industry. Therefore it is important for engineering and technical programs to include more problem solving and project planning and management components in the curriculum. There are experts on structured methods of problem solving, some with extensive industry experience. These professionals can easily prove that a structured process will yield better solutions to problems than an off-the-wall approach, and that anyones problem solving skills can be improved. Similarly, most engineers spend much of their time involved in projects, but few have been trained in project planning and management by actually doing projects. Structured problem solving and project management are both skills that are learned more by actual practice than by textbook study. So it is necessary to incorporate significant project practice using both skills into curriculum as a part of normal course work. This paper will discuss the strategies and processes of curriculum enhancement for our manufacturing program, and investigate and integrate more practical industry-related components into the manufacturing curriculum.

  10. Effects of a Problem-Based Structure of Physics Contents on Conceptual Learning and the Ability to Solve Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra-Labra, Carlos; Gras-Marti, Albert; Torregrosa, Joaquin Martinez

    2012-01-01

    A model of teaching/learning is proposed based on a "problem-based structure" of the contents of the course, in combination with a training in paper and pencil problem solving that emphasizes discussion and quantitative analysis, rather than formulae plug-in. The aim is to reverse the high failure and attrition rate among engineering…

  11. What We Know (and What We Don't Know) about Training of Cognitive Strategies for Technical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshay, Wellesley R.

    The topic of teaching troubleshooting is examined as an example of the teaching of cognitive strategies for technical problem solving. The traditional behavioral approach to teaching troubleshooting has essentially been algorithmic. Recent cognitive research suggests an approach founded first on task analysis and characterized by: (1) analysis of…

  12. 18.S34 Problem Solving Seminar, Fall 2004

    E-print Network

    Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-

    This course,which is geared toward Freshmen, is an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. It is intended for students who enjoy solving challenging mathematical problems and who are interested in learning ...

  13. Integrating video and animation with physics problem- solving exercises on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Aaron Patrick

    1998-10-01

    Problem solving is of paramount importance in teaching and learning physics. An important step in solving a problem is visualization. To help students visualize a problem, we included video clips with homework questions delivered via the World Wide Web. Although including video with physics problems has a positive effect with some problems, we found that this may not be the best way to integrate multimedia with physics problems since improving visualization is probably not as helpful as changing students' approach. To challenge how students solve problems and to help them develop a more expert-like approach, we developed a type of physics exercise called a multimedia-focused problem where students take data from an animation in order to solve a problem. Because numbers suggestive of a solution are not given in the text of the question, students have to consider the problem conceptually before analyzing it mathematically. As a result, we found that students had difficulty solving such problems compared to traditional textbook-like problems. Students' survey responses showed that students indeed had difficulty determining what was needed to solve a problem when it was not explicitly given to them in the text of the question. Analyzing think-aloud interviews where students verbalized their thoughts while solving problems, we found that multimedia-focused problems indeed required solid conceptual understanding in order for them to be solved correctly. As a result, we believe that when integrated with instruction, multimedia-focused problems can be a valuable tool in helping students develop better conceptual understanding and more expert-like problem solving skills by challenging novice beliefs and problem solving approaches. Multimedia-focused problems may also be useful for diagnosing conceptual understanding and problem skills.

  14. Teaching with Technology. Problem-Solving Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Denise

    1996-01-01

    Reviews two CD-ROMS and one computer game: "Explore Yellowstone," science activities on CD to earn badges toward becoming a ranger; "Oval Office: Challenge of the Presidency," in which students role play presidential responsibilities such as proposing budgets; and "Strategy Games of the World," in which students match their skills against game…

  15. Teaching Kindergarten Children to Solve Word Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Warfield

    2001-01-01

    A kindergarten teacher's practice was investigated in order to understand her knowledge of her children's mathematical thinking, the ways in which she acquired that knowledge, and the uses she made of that knowledge in making instructional decisions. The focus of the investigation was the teacher's knowledge of her children's thinking about numbers, including counting and addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

  16. Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941

  17. Problem Solving in the School Curriculum from a Design Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Tin Lam; Leong, Yew Hoong; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng

    2010-01-01

    In this symposium, the participants discuss some preliminary data collected from their problem solving project which uses a design experiment approach. Their approach to problem solving in the school curriculum is in tandem with what Schoenfeld (2007) claimed: "Crafting instruction that would make a wide range of problem-solving strategies…

  18. Solving Word Problems Using Schemas: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students…

  19. On the Analysis of Two-Person Problem Solving Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    Methodological issues in the use of protocol analysis for research into human problem solving processes are examined through a case study in which two students were videotaped as they worked together to solve mathematical problems "out loud." The students' chosen strategic or executive behavior in examining and solving a problem was studied,…

  20. Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

  1. Basic Processes in Simple Problem Solving. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Guy J.

    This paper presents the results of three experiments studying routine problem-solving tasks in simple addition and subtraction. Indications are that children tend to solve such problems by internalized counting procedures which may be learned independently as a consequence of practice in problem solving. Brief descriptions of exploratory studies…

  2. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  3. The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…

  4. A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…

  5. Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-01-01

    Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

  6. Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)

  7. Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Woei

    2013-01-01

    Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

  8. Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Sweller

    1988-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that domain specific knowledge in the form of schemes is the primary factor distinguishing experts from novices in problem- solving skill. Evidence that conventional problem-solving activity is not effective in schema acquisition is also accumulating. It is suggested that a major reason for the ineffectiveness of problem solving as a learning device, is that the cognitive processes

  9. Human Resource Management: A Problem-Solving Approach Linked to ISLLC Standards. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jerry R.; Doran, Madeleine S.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that adult learners prefer a problem-solving approach to learning, rather than a subject-centered approach. This book provides a non-traditional approach to teaching and learning the basics of human resource management through a series of 125 in-basket exercises and guided questions. These exercises focus on real-life problems

  10. Mathematical Practice 1. Make Sense of Problems and Persevere in Solving Them

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-01

    This 5-minute video of a fourth grade classroom depicts the teaching strategy of modeling the four step problem solving process during direct instruction. The narrator, Robin Silby, states that learners will benefit from frequently thinking and talking aloud as a group to understand the important information so they can make sense of the problem.

  11. Engineering Applications for Demonstrating Mathematical Problem-Solving Methods at the Secondary Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Joel P.; Mauch, Elizabeth K.

    2006-01-01

    A method for teaching problem-solving skills to mathematics students is presented. By subtly incorporating engineering applications, the students are simultaneously exposed to an effective outreach programme. The process includes offering a complex problem that challenges students' abilities. Before allowing the students to become frustrated, the…

  12. Averaging Schemes for Solving Fived Point and Variational Inequality Problems

    E-print Network

    Magnanti, Thomas L.

    We develop and study averaging schemes for solving fixed point and variational inequality problems. Typically, researchers have established convergence results for solution methods for these problems by establishing ...

  13. Young children's analogical problem solving: gaining insights from video displays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S

    2013-12-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. The sample of 2- and 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older, but not younger, toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video and spontaneously transferred the strategy to solve isomorphic problems. Transfer by analogy from the video was evident only when the video illustrated the complete problem goal structure, including the character's intention and the action needed to achieve a goal. The same action isolated from the problem-solving context did not serve as an effective source analogue. These results illuminate the development of early representation and processes involved in analogical problem solving. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:24077465

  14. Children use salience to solve coordination problems.

    PubMed

    Grueneisen, Sebastian; Wyman, Emily; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Humans are routinely required to coordinate with others. When communication is not possible, adults often achieve this by using salient cues in the environment (e.g. going to the Eiffel Tower, as an obvious meeting point). To explore the development of this capacity, we presented dyads of 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds (N = 144) with a coordination problem: Two balls had to be inserted into the same of four boxes to obtain a reward. Identical pictures were attached to three boxes whereas a unique - and thus salient - picture was attached to the fourth. Children either received one ball each, and so had to choose the same box (experimental condition), or they received both balls and could get the reward independently (control condition). In all cases, children could neither communicate nor see each other's choices. Children were significantly more likely to choose the salient option in the experimental condition than in the control condition. However, only the two older age groups chose the salient box above chance levels. This study is the first to show that children from at least age 5 can solve coordination problems by converging on a salient solution. PMID:25066201

  15. Effect of Explicit Problem Solving Instructions on the Problem Solving Performance and Conceptual Understanding of Introductory College Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numan, Muhammad; Sobolewski, Stanley

    1998-04-01

    Two sections of introductory non-calculus general physics lecture courses, with a total enrolment of 120 students, were used to investigate the impact of explicit problem solving instruction on students' problem solving ability and conceptual understanding. The comparison group was instructed in textbook style problem solving strategy. Students' conceptual understanding was assessed by adminstering the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) at the begening and end of the semester. Required written rationale for multiple choice questions and responses to multistep problems were analyzed to further assess conceptual understanding and problem solving skills of the students in the two groups. A significant difference was noted in both understanding and problem solving performance.

  16. The Effects of Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving on High School Students' Chemistry Problem-Solving Performance and Verbal Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Kyungmoon; Huffman, Douglas; Noh, Taehee

    2005-01-01

    A problem solving strategy, Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS), developed by Arthur Whimbey to help students monitor and understand their own thought process is presented. The TAPPS strategy encouraged the students interact verbally with each other to solve chemistry problems and improve the achievements in chemistry.

  17. Teachers of Mathematics as Problem-Solving Applied Mathematicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen; Stacey, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    Some of mathematics teaching is routine, like an exercise from a textbook for which you have received instruction and already know what to do. On other occasions, however, teaching mathematics is challenging, involving problems of teaching for which the solutions may not be readily apparent. These situations require the application of mathematical…

  18. Investigating the Effect of Mental Set on Insight Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Öllinger; Gary Jones; Günther Knoblich

    2008-01-01

    Mental set is the tendency to solve certain problems in a fixed way based on previous solutions to similar problems. The moment of insight occurs when a problem cannot be solved using solution methods suggested by prior experience and the problem solver suddenly realizes that the solution requires different solution methods. Mental set and insight have often been linked together

  19. Solving the Quorumcast Routing Problem as a Mixed Integer Program

    E-print Network

    Deville, Yves

    Solving the Quorumcast Routing Problem as a Mixed Integer Program Quoc Trung BUI1 , Quang Dung PHAM on a given undirected weighted graph. In this paper, we solve this problem as a mixed integer program In this paper, we propose four mathematical formulations for QRP and use them to solve QRP as a mixed integer

  20. The quadratic interior point method solving power system optimization problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Momoh; S. X. Guo; E. C. Ogbuobiri; R. Adapa

    1994-01-01

    Karmarkar's interior point method as a computation method for solving linear programming (LP) has attracted interest in the operation research community, due to its efficiency, reliability, and accuracy. This paper presents an extended quadratic interior point (EQIP) method, based on improvement of initial condition for solving both linear and quadratic programming problems, to solve power system optimization problem (PSOP), such

  1. A New Method for Solving Hard Satisfiability Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Selman; Hector J. Levesque; David G. Mitchell

    1992-01-01

    We introduce a greedy local search procedure called GSAT for solving propositional satisfiability problems.Our experiments show that this procedure can be used to solve hard, randomly generated problems that are an order of magnitude larger than those that can be handled by more traditional approaches such as the Davis-Putnam procedure or resolution. We also show that GSAT can solve structured

  2. Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.

    PubMed

    Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge. PMID:25000309

  3. Age and gender differences in social problem-solving ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. D'Zurilla; Albert Maydeu-Olivares; Gail L. Kant

    1998-01-01

    Age and gender differences in social problem-solving ability were examined using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (D'Zurilla et al., 1998). In general, the results suggest that social problem-solving ability increases from young adulthood (ages 17–20) to middle-age (ages 40–55) and then decreases in older age (ages 60–80). Specifically, compared to younger adults, middle-aged individuals scored higher on positive problem orientation and

  4. Computer Based Collaborative Problem Solving for Introductory Courses in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Carolina; Lee, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    We discuss collaborative problem solving computer-based recitation style. The course is designed by Lee [1], and the idea was proposed before by Christian, Belloni and Titus [2,3]. The students find the problems on a web-page containing simulations (physlets) and they write the solutions on an accompanying worksheet after discussing it with a classmate. Physlets have the advantage of being much more like real-world problems than textbook problems. We also compare two protocols for web-based instruction using simulations in an introductory physics class [1]. The inquiry protocol allowed students to control input parameters while the worked example protocol did not. We will discuss which of the two methods is more efficient in relation to Scientific Discovery Learning and Cognitive Load Theory. 1. Lee, Kevin M., Nicoll, Gayle and Brooks, Dave W. (2004). ``A Comparison of Inquiry and Worked Example Web-Based Instruction Using Physlets'', Journal of Science Education and Technology 13, No. 1: 81-88. 2. Christian, W., and Belloni, M. (2001). Physlets: Teaching Physics With Interactive Curricular Material, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 3. Christian,W., and Titus,A. (1998). ``Developing web-based curricula using Java Physlets.'' Computers in Physics 12: 227--232.

  5. An Assessment of Problem Solving Processes in Undergraduate Statics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Four well-articulated models that offer structured approaches to problem solving were identified in the engineering research literature. These models provided a conceptual base for the study reported here. Four undergraduates enrolled in statics and two engineering faculty members provided think-aloud data as they solved two statics problems. The data were used to develop a coding system for characterizing engineering students behavioral and cognitive processes. These codes were used to analyze students problem solving procedures in a detailed manner, particularly differences between good and not-so-good problem solvers. The analyses provide a picture of how students and faculty solve problems at a cognitive level, and indicate that published problem-solving models are incomplete in describing actual problem-solving processes.

  6. Can Teachers in Primary Education Implement a Metacognitive Computer Programme for Word Problem Solving in Their Mathematics Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kock, Willem D.; Harskamp, Egbert G.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers in primary education experience difficulties in teaching word problem solving in their mathematics classes. However, during controlled experiments with a metacognitive computer programme, students' problem-solving skills improved. Also without the supervision of researchers, metacognitive computer programmes can be beneficial in a…

  7. Assessing Problem Solving Strategy Differences within Online and Face-to-Face Courses and Their Relationship to Pre-Service Teachers' Competence and Confidence for Integrating Technology into Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative research study identifies the problem solving strategies pre-service teachers use in learning specific technology skills within an educational technology methods class which is offered both online and face to face. It also examines how such strategies differ by the format of this course, and to what extent these strategies and/or…

  8. Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Lynda R.

    2008-01-01

    Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…

  9. A Rubric for Assessing Students' Experimental Problem-Solving Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadle, Susan E.; Brown, Eric C.; Towns, Marcy H.; Warner, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to couple problem solving both to the understanding of chemical concepts and to laboratory practices is an essential skill for undergraduate chemistry programs to foster in our students. Therefore, chemistry programs must offer opportunities to answer real problems that require use of problem-solving processes used by practicing…

  10. Sequential Methods in Solving Economic Power Flow Problems

    E-print Network

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    Sequential Methods in Solving Economic Power Flow Problems William D. Rosehart Claudio A. Ca and an interior point quadratic programmingalgorithm that are used to solve the opti- mal power ow problem of the problem. Two methods to reduce the oscillations are discussed and implemented on a six bus test system

  11. Schema Induction in Problem Solving: A Multidimensional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhe; Mo, Lei

    2004-01-01

    The present research examined the processes of schema formation in problem solving. In 4 experiments, participants experienced a series of tasks analogous to A. S. Luchins' (1942) water jar problems before attempting to solve isomorphic target problems. Juxtaposing illustrative source instances varying in procedural features along multiple…

  12. Right Problem Solving: Doing the Right Thing Right

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin F. Shakun

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses right problem solving to define\\/solve a right problem for doing the right thing right. In so doing, the paper operationally considers purposeful complex adaptive systems (PCAS), Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD), group\\/negotiation support systems, consciousness, connectedness, spirituality, rationality, problems, and right rationality in theory and practice. System agents may be natural (human) and\\/or artificial.

  13. A. Grothey Solving Large Financial Planning Problems School of Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Grothey, Andreas

    . Grothey Solving Large Financial Planning Problems Portfolio Optimization: Asset and Liability Management Large Financial Planning Problems Asset and Liability Management as Stochastic Program With every node i-31 August 2007 1 #12;A. Grothey Solving Large Financial Planning Problems Overview · Asset and Liability

  14. Strategies for Creative Problem Solving: Interactive Computer Modules

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fogler, H. Scott

    These Interactive Computer Modules (ICMs) are contained on the Strategies for Creative Problem Solving CD-ROM, but are also freely available to download from the website. The ICMs offer participatory problem solving activities for students, intended to supplement the text. The website also includes summary notes from each text chapter and sample problems.

  15. A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

  16. Theory of Constructions and Set in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.; And Others

    Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning knowledge, is described. Perdix' planning knowledge enables it to augment the problem space it is given by constructing auxiliary lines. The planning system also…

  17. Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

  18. Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pescetti, D.

    2008-01-01

    The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…

  19. Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University

    1997-01-01

    Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…

  20. Solving Accounting Problems: Differences Between Accounting Experts and Novices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Douglas Marshall

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated the extent to which accounting experts and accounting novices differ in their application of accounting principles to solve accounting problems. Results show that 90 accounting experts applied more accounting principles in solving problems than did 60 accounting novices. There were no important differences in the type of accounting principles applied to problem facts and

  1. The Acquisition of Problem-Solving Skills in Mathematics: How Animations Can Aid Understanding of Structural Problem Features and Solution Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Schuh, Julia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the augmentation of worked examples with animations for teaching problem-solving skills in mathematics is advocated as an effective instructional method. First, in a cognitive task analysis different knowledge prerequisites are identified for solving mathematical word problems. Second, it is argued that so called hybrid animations…

  2. Phenomenographic study of students' problem solving approaches in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert G.; Bowe, Brian

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study is a hierarchical set of categories that describe the students’ problem solving approaches in the context of introductory physics.

  3. CORRELATIVE SPARSITY IN SOLVING OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunyoung Kim

    Exploiting sparsity has been a key issue in solving large-scale optimization pro blems. The most time-consuming part of primal-dual interior-point methods for linear programs, second-order cone programs, and semidefinite programs is solving the Schur complement equation at each iteration, usually by the Cholesky factorization. The computational efficiency is greatly affected by the sparsity of the coefficient matrix of the equation

  4. Problem Solving in a Middle School Robotics Design Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Stephen J.; McRobbie, Campbell J.; Ginns, Ian S.

    2007-07-01

    Little research has been conducted on how students work when they are required to plan, build and evaluate artefacts in technology rich learning environments such as those supported by tools including flow charts, Labview programming and Lego construction. In this study, activity theory was used as an analytic tool to examine the social construction of meaning. There was a focus on the effect of teachers’ goals and the rules they enacted upon student use of the flow chart planning tool, and the tools of the programming language Labview and Lego construction. It was found that the articulation of a teacher’s goals via rules and divisions of labour helped to form distinct communities of learning and influenced the development of different problem solving strategies. The use of the planning tool flow charting was associated with continuity of approach, integration of problem solutions including appreciation of the nexus between construction and programming, and greater educational transformation. Students who flow charted defined problems in a more holistic way and demonstrated more methodical, insightful and integrated approaches to their use of tools. The findings have implications for teaching in design dominated learning environments.

  5. Technology for a Purpose: Technology for Information Problem-Solving with the Big6[R].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Mike B

    2003-01-01

    Explains the Big6 model of information problem solving as a conceptual framework for learning and teaching information and technology skills. Highlights include information skills; examples of integrating technology in Big6 contexts; and the Big6 and the Internet, including email, listservs, chat, Web browsers, search engines, portals, Web…

  6. Creating and Fostering a Learning Environment That Promotes Creative Thinking and Problem Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Khalid; Nash, William R.

    How teachers create and foster a learning environment that promotes creative thinking and problem solving skills in students was investigated in a 1-year study in a community college in Texas. The study explored the teaching methods and classroom climates created by eight exemplary teachers who demonstrated exceptional approaches to promote…

  7. Empathy and Critical Thinking: Primary Students Solving Local Environmental Problems through Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampuero, David; Miranda, Christian E.; Delgado, Luisa E.; Goyen, Samantha; Weaver, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores the outcomes of teaching empathy and critical thinking to solve environmental problems. This investigation was done throughout the duration of an environmental education course within a primary school located in central Chile. A community-based research methodology was used to understand the formation of empathy and…

  8. Developing Problem-Solving Skills through Retrosynthetic Analysis and Clickers in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Alison B.

    2011-01-01

    A unique approach to teaching and learning problem-solving and critical-thinking skills in the context of retrosynthetic analysis is described. In this approach, introductory organic chemistry students, who typically see only simple organic structures, undertook partial retrosynthetic analyses of real and complex synthetic targets. Multiple…

  9. A Problem-Solving Template for Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Physics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Janice M.; Mankey, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    A problem-solving template enables a methodology of instruction that integrates aspects of both sequencing and conceptual learning. It is designed to enhance critical-thinking skills when used within the framework of a learner-centered approach to teaching, where regular, thorough assessments of student learning are key components of the…

  10. The Effects of Training Preservice Teacher in Creative Problem Solving and Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannells, Tammy C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching a specific creative problem solving model to preservice teachers. The study included 74 participants, 67 females and 7 males enrolled in an undergraduate educational psychology course in a Mid-western university. In a 2 x 2 full factorial design, participants were randomly…

  11. ASIT--A Problem Solving Strategy for Education and Eco-Friendly Sustainable Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Steve

    2009-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the role teaching and learning experiences in technology education can contribute to Education for Sustainable Development. It appears, however, that in the Technology Education classroom little or no change has been achieved to the practice of designing and problem solving strategies oriented towards sustainable…

  12. Serving Up Number Sense and Problem Solving: Dinner at the Panda Palace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, Maryann S.

    1997-01-01

    Describes strategies for using literature to teach number sense and problem solving. Reports that the rich class discussions reflected some of the students' thinking, gave students opportunities to share their approaches and understandings, and gave the teacher additional insights into students' thinking. (JRH)

  13. Effects of Cognitive-Based Instruction on Mathematical Problem Solving by Learners with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Tam, Y. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effects of different approaches to teaching learners with mild intellectual disabilities to solve mathematical word problems. Method: Thirty Chinese students with mild intellectual disabilities from a special school in Hong Kong were taught using conventional instruction, worked example instruction, and…

  14. The Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI), Grade Level, and Socioeconomic Status: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, David W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching

  15. Concept-Rich Mathematics Instruction: Building a Strong Foundation for Reasoning and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Hur, Meir

    2006-01-01

    Fact-filled textbooks that stress memorization and drilling are not very good for teaching students how to think mathematically and solve problems. But this is a book that comes to the rescue with an instructional approach that helps students in every grade level truly understand math concepts so they can apply them on high-stakes assessments,…

  16. MIS 304: Intro to Problem Solving and Programming Spring 2014 Unique Numbers: 04130 and 04135

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Joydeep

    MIS 304: Intro to Problem Solving and Programming Spring 2014 ­ Unique Numbers: 04130 and 04135 MOD Lab ­ CBA 5.304 ­ see schedule Office CBA 3.408 (near the south side of wide escalators on 3rd://piazza.com/utexas/spring2014/mis304/home Teaching Assistants Jace Barton, Carson Jones and Catherine King TA Email kgrayta

  17. Write Is Right: Using Graphic Organizers to Improve Student Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have used graphic organizers successfully in teaching the writing process. This paper describes graphic organizers and their potential mathematics benefits for both students and teachers, elucidates a specific graphic organizer adaptation for mathematical problem solving, and discusses results using the "four-corners-and-a-diamond"…

  18. Addressing Students' Difficulties with Faraday's Law: A Guided Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2014-01-01

    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article…

  19. Investigating Singapore Pre-Service Teachers' Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Processes in an Asynchronous Online Environment: Implications for Reflective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Connie S. L.; Tan, Charlene

    2006-01-01

    Background: Solving ill-structured problems is an important aspect in many professions, including the teaching profession. It is therefore appropriate to engage pre-service teachers in solving ill-structured problems. Aim: This study investigates the ill-structured problem-solving processes in an un-moderated asynchronous discussion for one group…

  20. Real-Life Math Problem Solving: 40 Exciting, Classroom-Tested Problems with Annotated Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Mark

    Students better understand problem solving when the basis for the problems are real-life situations. This book, geared for grades 4-8, offers multi-step, real-life problems to encourage students to think flexibly, creatively, and analytically about problem solving. It includes ideas for setting up a problem-solving classroom and assessment…

  1. Learning New Problem-Solving Strategies Leads to Changes in Problem Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alibali, Martha W.; Phillips, Karin M. O.; Fischer, Allison D.

    2009-01-01

    Children sometimes solve problems incorrectly because they fail to represent key features of the problems. One potential source of improvements in children's problem representations is learning new problem-solving strategies. Ninety-one 3rd- and 4th-grade students solved mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3+4+6=3+__) and completed a…

  2. Same Old Problem, New Name? Alerting Students to the Nature of the Problem-Solving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Magen, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Students frequently misconceive the process of problem-solving, expecting the linear process required for solving an exercise, rather than the convoluted search process required to solve a genuine problem. In this paper we present an activity designed to foster in students realization and appreciation of the nature of the problem-solving process,…

  3. How Indirect Supportive Digital Help during and after Solving Physics Problems Can Improve Problem-Solving Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…

  4. A Meaningless but Nonalgorithmic Solving Course: Solving a Graphing Problem about Osmosis by Analogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, June T.

    Various researchers have associated meaningful problem solving with methods guided directly by a conceptual knowledge base. By contast, a meaningless solving course, or sequence of operations, is essentially independent of the solver's conceptual understanding of the problem under consideration. This paper is the first to document a meaningless,…

  5. Subject mediation approach for scientific problem solving in Virtual Observatories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonid Kalinichenko

    2007-01-01

    There exist two principally different approaches to the organization of problem solving in VO: (i) information resources driven approach (choice and integrated definition of resources are made independently of the problem specification); and (ii) scientific problem driven approach (a specification of a problem domain is created, the relevant to the problem resources are identified and semantically mapped into the domain).

  6. Digit Delight: Problem-solving Activities Using 0 through 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balka, Don S.

    1988-01-01

    Several problem-solving activities involving only 0-9 to be used with sets of ceramic tiles are presented. Finding specified sums, differences, or products is the object of most of the problems. (MNS)

  7. Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberényi, József

    2014-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…

  8. Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus)

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    , UK 2 Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max-Planck Institut fu¨r evolutiona¨re Anthropologie, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany 3 Sub-Department of Animal Behaviour, University-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. Without training, eight rooks quickly

  9. Using Microcomputers to Solve Probability Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, William E.

    1985-01-01

    Use of the computer to simulate or imitate probability problems that are difficult to analyze in any other way is discussed. How the Monte Carlo method works is clarified, with sample problems and programs. (MNS)

  10. Using spectral analysis to probe the continuum of problem solving ability among practicing organic chemists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartrette, David Paul

    This project sought to describe problem solving behaviors of organic chemists when they are faced with combined spectral analysis problems. Graduate students and organic chemistry faculty were asked to solve five combined spectral analysis (IR and 1H NMR) problems using the think aloud technique. Participant performance on these tasks was ranked by a grading rubric generating groupings of less successful and more successful participants. The more successful participants adopted consistent problem solving approaches to the problems, relied more heavily on coupling information in 1H NMR interpretation, and drew molecular fragments as they were deduced in the problem solving process. Less successful participants demonstrated varied approaches to solving problems of this type, tended to draw entire molecules soon in the solution attempt, and to not consistently calculate the degree of unsaturation in a molecule. Experience from research and teaching also were found to be important influences on success rate. The outcomes of this study indicated that among graduate students and organic chemistry faculty, there are differences in problem solving ability. The key differences between the more and less successful participants are the consistency of problem attack, drawing molecular structures in their entirety versus in a piecemeal fashion, and the use of coupling information from the NMR spectrum.

  11. Bioinformatics education dissemination with an evolutionary problem solving perspective.

    PubMed

    Jungck, John R; Donovan, Samuel S; Weisstein, Anton E; Khiripet, Noppadon; Everse, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Bioinformatics is central to biology education in the 21st century. With the generation of terabytes of data per day, the application of computer-based tools to stored and distributed data is fundamentally changing research and its application to problems in medicine, agriculture, conservation and forensics. In light of this 'information revolution,' undergraduate biology curricula must be redesigned to prepare the next generation of informed citizens as well as those who will pursue careers in the life sciences. The BEDROCK initiative (Bioinformatics Education Dissemination: Reaching Out, Connecting and Knitting together) has fostered an international community of bioinformatics educators. The initiative's goals are to: (i) Identify and support faculty who can take leadership roles in bioinformatics education; (ii) Highlight and distribute innovative approaches to incorporating evolutionary bioinformatics data and techniques throughout undergraduate education; (iii) Establish mechanisms for the broad dissemination of bioinformatics resource materials and teaching models; (iv) Emphasize phylogenetic thinking and problem solving; and (v) Develop and publish new software tools to help students develop and test evolutionary hypotheses. Since 2002, BEDROCK has offered more than 50 faculty workshops around the world, published many resources and supported an environment for developing and sharing bioinformatics education approaches. The BEDROCK initiative builds on the established pedagogical philosophy and academic community of the BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium to assemble the diverse intellectual and human resources required to sustain an international reform effort in undergraduate bioinformatics education. PMID:21036947

  12. Roulette wheel Graph Colouring for Solving Examination Timetabling Problems

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    Roulette wheel Graph Colouring for Solving Examination Timetabling Problems Nasser R. Sabar1 heuristic that employs a roulette wheel selection mechanism for solving examination timetabling problems. We determines the size of a segment in a roulette wheel, with a larger degree giving a larger segment

  13. M. Bahrami ENSC388, Help Session 1 Solving Thermodynamics Problems

    E-print Network

    Bahrami, Majid

    M. Bahrami ENSC388, Help Session 1 Solving Thermodynamics Problems Solving thermodynamic problems conservation of energy to process (1st law of thermodynamics) For a control mass/closed system: WQE properties using Tables or models, such as ideal gas relationship 11.Substitute numbers into equation

  14. ROBOTS IN PROBLEM-SOLVING AND PROGRAMMING. Scott Turner

    E-print Network

    Hill, Gary

    82 ROBOTS IN PROBLEM-SOLVING AND PROGRAMMING. Scott Turner University of Northampton Avenue Campus based on using Mindstorm (LEGO, Denmark) robot kits. This is being done as a foundation step before experience, problem-solving, robots, Java. INTRODUCTION Mindstorm based robots have been used previously

  15. "Opportunities in Work Clothes": Online Problem-Solving Project Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judi

    1994-01-01

    Provides activity structures for and gives examples of problem-solving projects to be used with educational telecomputing. Highlights include information searches, electronic process writing, sequential creations, parallel problem solving, simulations, social action projects, and instructions for accessing information about these and other…

  16. The Winning Edge: Tips for Creative Problem-Solving Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safris, Richard

    Intended for coaches of school competitive problem-solving teams, this publication details 70 suggestions for building, motivating, and training problem-solving teams in grades 4 to 8. The tips cover a range of topics related to preparing for competition, the competition itself, and post-competition. The pre-competition suggestions include: (1)…

  17. An Application Driven Problem Solving Methodology Teodor Rus1

    E-print Network

    Rus, Teodor

    for application-domain structuring using ontology engineering tools; this will enable the design of domain-driven of a domain driven approach to problem solving with a computer system that integrates computer educationAn Application Driven Problem Solving Methodology Teodor Rus1 , PI, Department of Computer Science

  18. Problem Solving in Social Studies: Concepts and Critiques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sickle, Ronald L.; Hoge, John D.

    Recent developments in the field of cognitive psychology, particularly in the area of information processing, have shed light on the way people think in order to make decisions and solve problems. In addition, cooperative learning research has provided evidence of the effectiveness of cooperatively structured group work aimed at problem solving.…

  19. Secondary 2 Students' Difficulties in Solving Non-Routine Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study on mathematical problem solving of secondary 2 (13- to 14-years old) students in Singapore, 56 Secondary two students from ten secondary schools participated in this study. The purpose of this paper is to explore difficulties faced by 56 Secondary 2 students when solving problems. These interviews were analysed using the…

  20. Solving Natural Gas Loadflow Problems Using Electric Loadflow Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Li; Seungwon An; Thomas W. Gedra

    Methods to solve natural gas loadflow problems using electric loadflow techniques are presented. The motivation is to integrate a natural gas network with an electric power transmission network so that the network analysis for a combined natural gas and electric power distribution network can be performed in a consistent manner. The issues arising from solving gas loadflow problems are discussed

  1. Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…

  2. Ideational Fluency as a Predictor of Original Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Roberta M.; Arad, Rivka

    1981-01-01

    Empirical validity of nonoverlapping scores of original problem solving on a lenient solution-standard predictor was evidenced in college students by high correlations with corresponding scores on stringent solution-standard criterion tasks. Findings support the construct validity of conceptualizations of original problem solving based on…

  3. Transfer of Learning: Connecting Concepts during Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Raymond A.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    A concern of many educators and managers is students' ability to transfer concepts and procedures learned in school to the work environment. When children are taught a skill, such as solving a mathematical problem, they often fail to recognize that their new skill can be used to solve a similar problem outside of school. In other cases, students…

  4. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  5. Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

  6. Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

  7. The Effects of Age on Perceptual Problem-Solving Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jo Ann; Pollack, Robert H.

    Witkin's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) was used to measure the changes with age in field dependence and problem-solving ability. Qualitative data concerning problem-solving strategies and quantitative data were collected. EFT was administered to 12 females in each of the following decades: 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s. All subjects were moderately…

  8. An ESD Computer Culture for Intercultural Problem Solving and Negotiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin F. Shakun

    1999-01-01

    Intercultural problem solving and negotiation involves interaction of two or more cultures. These processes may be formally modeled using the Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD) framework implemented by appropriate computer group support systems (GSS). The ESD\\/GSS combination provides an ESD computer culture for intercultural problem solving and negotiation in a same place\\/same time or telework mode. With this, players in a

  9. Problem Solving, Reasoning, and Analytical Thinking in a Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Joanne K.

    2011-01-01

    Problem solving, reasoning, and analytical thinking are defined and described as teachable repertoires. This paper describes work performed at a school serving special needs children, Morningside Academy, that has resulted in specific procedures developed over the past 15 years. These procedures include modifying "Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving"…

  10. Structured Collaboration versus Individual Learning in Solving Physics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning

    2006-01-01

    The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld's problem-solving episodes. Students took a pre-test and a post-test and had the…

  11. Problem Solving and the Development of Expertise in Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Fredrick B.

    This study investigated novice and expert problem solving behavior in management to examine the role of domain specific knowledge on problem solving processes. Forty-one middle level marketing managers in a large petrochemical organization provided think aloud protocols in response to two hypothetical management scenarios. Protocol analysis…

  12. NEOS and Condor: solving optimization problems over the Internet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Ferris; Michael P. Mesnier; Jorge J. Moré

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the use of Condor, a distributed resource management system, as a provider of computational resources for NEOS, an environment for solving optimization problems over the Internet. We also describe how problems are submitted and processed by NEOS, and then scheduled and solved by Condor on available (idle) workstations

  13. Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…

  14. Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Dae S.

    2011-01-01

    In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…

  15. Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Susan Preston

    1999-01-01

    Compared the impact of robotics (computer-powered manipulative) to a battery-powered manipulative (novelty control) and traditionally taught science class on science achievement and problem solving of fourth through sixth graders. Found that the robotics group had higher scores on programming logic-problem solving than did the novelty control…

  16. Future Problem Solving: Taking It beyond the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibel, John

    1991-01-01

    A former participant in the Future Problem Solving Program reminisces about his experience in local and national competitions, describes the program's unique features (its emphasis on creativity and focus on the future), and notes the usefulness of the problem-solving process in his work with the Corporate Audit Staff of General Electric. (JDD)

  17. SOLVING THE SIMPLE PLANT LOCATION PROBLEM BY GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jozef Kratica; Vladimir Filipovi; Ivana Ljubi; P. Tolla

    2001-01-01

    The simple plant location problem (SPLP) is considered and a genetic algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. By using the developed algorithm it is possible to solve SPLP with more than 1000 facility sites and customers. Computational results are presented and compared to dual based algorithms.

  18. Solving The Simple Plant Location Problem By Genetic Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jozef Kratica; Dusan Tosic; Vladimir Filipovic; Ivana Ljubic

    2001-01-01

    The simple plant location problem (SPLP) is consideredand a genetic algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. By usingthe developed algorithm it is possible to solve SPLP with more than1000 facility sites and customers. Computational results are presentedand compared to dual based algorithms.

  19. High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy

    2001-01-01

    Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…

  20. Heuristics - intelligent search strategies for computer problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judea Pearl

    1984-01-01

    Heuristics stand for strategies using readily accessible information to control problem-solving processes in man and machine. This book presents an analysis of the nature and the power of typical heuristic methods, primarily those used in artificial intelligence and operations research, to solve problems in areas such as reasoning, design, scheduling, planning, signal interpretation, symbolic computation, and combinatorial optimization. It is

  1. Students' Metaphors for Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the metaphors used by students to describe mathematical problem solving. This study focused on identifying how students interpret and perceive mathematical problem solving via conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). These perceptions and interpretations were coded and analyzed qualitatively and…

  2. Engineering students' experiences and perceptions of workplace problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Rui

    In this study, I interviewed 22 engineering Co-Op students about their workplace problem solving experiences and reflections and explored: 1) Of Co-Op students who experienced workplace problem solving, what are the different ways in which students experience workplace problem solving? 2) How do students perceive a) the differences between workplace problem solving and classroom problem solving and b) in what areas are they prepared by their college education to solve workplace problems? To answer my first research question, I analyzed data through the lens of phenomenography and I conducted thematic analysis to answer my second research question. The results of this study have implications for engineering education and engineering practice. Specifically, the results reveal the different ways students experience workplace problem solving, which provide engineering educators and practicing engineers a better understanding of the nature of workplace engineering. In addition, the results indicate that there is still a gap between classroom engineering and workplace engineering. For engineering educators who aspire to prepare students to be future engineers, it is imperative to design problem solving experiences that can better prepare students with workplace competency.

  3. A Markov Model Analysis of Problem-Solving Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendlinski, Terry

    This study used a computerized simulation and problem-solving tool along with artificial neural networks (ANN) as pattern recognizers to identify the common types of strategies high school and college undergraduate chemistry students would use to solve qualitative chemistry problems. Participants were 134 high school chemistry students who used…

  4. Problem Solving in Genetics: Conceptual and Procedural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagoz, Meryem; Cakir, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore prospective biology teachers' understandings of fundamental genetics concepts and the association between misconceptions and genetics problem solving abilities. Specifically, the study describes conceptual and procedural difficulties which influence prospective biology teachers' genetics problem solving

  5. Social Problem Solving, Conduct Problems, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Walsh, Trudi M.; Andrade, Brendan F.; King, Sara; Carrey, Normand J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between social problem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7-12 years. Social problem solving was evaluated using the Social Problem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produce…

  6. K-5 Standards for Mathematical Practice - 1.Make Sense of Problems and Persevere in Solving Them

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This 11-minute Flash presentation explains CCSS Mathematical Practice 61and illustrates how it applies in the K-5 classroom. It addresses Implications for classroom instruction such as the need to build vocabulary and comprehension skills, to teach a problem solving process and the need to try a new strategy if the first or second doesn't work the first time. Practical strategies for implementation and sample problems are included. A transcript of the audio is available for download (PDF).

  7. Field-dependent-independent cognitive style in solving dynamics problems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Xin; Ren, Ming-Zhang

    2003-06-01

    251 senior middle school (Grade 11) students were tested on the Chinese Group Embedded Figures Test and Dynamic Problems Test. A 2 (cognitive style) x 2 (sex) analysis of variance indicated a nonsignificant effect with respect to cognitive style in solving easier Dynamics problems but a main significant effect in solving complex Dynamics problems. Multiple comparisons (post hoc t tests) indicated that cognitive style is a significant factor among boys but not girls. The difference between Field-independent students and Field-dependent students in solving complex Dynamics problems may be that the former students more easily form a clear map of motion than the latter students. PMID:12841460

  8. Problem Solved: How To Coach Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krynock, Karoline; Robb, Louise

    1999-01-01

    When faced with real-world problems, students devise accurate, logical, and creative solutions using skills connecting to different subject areas. Students are intrigued by assignments involving preservation of species and design of environmentally friendly products and transit systems. Problem-based learning depends on coaching, modeling, and…

  9. Climate-Change Problem Solving: Structured Approaches

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    : Major Design Considerations · Draw a single thread through a complex problem #12;Knowledge System · Need of the necessary information to address the problem. · Analysis is the consideration of the nature with a content management system ­How to extend this to support · Analysis · Evaluation · Synthesis Itera3ve

  10. Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer

    1993-12-01

    Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.

  11. Problem solving performance and learning strategies of undergraduate students who solved microbiology problems using IMMEX educational software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p < .10) related to ability to solve "Creeping Crud". Peer learning strategy showed a positive significant (p < .10) relationship with scores obtained from solving "Creeping Crud". Students' declared major made a significant (p < .05) difference on the ability to solve "Microquest". A subset (18) volunteered for a think aloud method to determine decision-making process. High achievers used fewer steps, and had more focused approach than low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.

  12. The Lagrangian Relaxation Method for Solving Integer Programming Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall L. Fisher

    1981-01-01

    One of the most computationally useful ideas of the 1970s is the observation that many hard integer programming problems can be viewed as easy problems complicated by a relatively small set of side constraints. Dualizing the side constraints produces a Lagrangian problem that is easy to solve and whose optimal value is a lower bound (for minimization problems) on the

  13. Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems Stefano Bistarelli1

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Francesca

    Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems Stefano Bistarelli1 , Maria Silvia Pini2 with both positive and negative preferences, that we call bipolar problems. Although seemingly specular with bipolar problems. 1 Introduction Many real-life problems contain statements which can be expressed

  14. Solving an Inverse Problem of Erosive Burning Rate Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Arkhipov; E. A. Zverev; D. A. Zimin

    2002-01-01

    A new method for an experimental study of burning processes in condensed substances is suggested, based on the statement and solution of inverse problems. An inverse problem of reconstructing the erosive burning rate of solid propellants from experimental data is formulated. The choice of an approach to solving the problem by the joint application of well-known methods for inverse problem

  15. Solving Physics Problems--How Do We Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses three avenues of problem-solving research: misconceiving natural laws, processing information, and constructing solutions. Suggests that the change in emphasis from problem to problem solver and the key role of "physics" problems are unifying aspects of the research. (JN)

  16. Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    an approximate median graph using real databases containing large graphs. Mots-clés : Graph Matching, GraphApplication of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Ernest Valveny1 ­ Miquel Ferrer1 Centre de Visió per Computador, Dep

  17. A Study of the Problem Solving Abilities of Seventh Grade Students Who Receive Anchored Problem Solving Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesser, Sara Anne

    Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…

  18. SOLVING MIXED INTEGER BILINEAR PROBLEMS USING MILP ...

    E-print Network

    2013-01-29

    Key words. bilinear problems, McCormick envelopes, binary expansion, ...... However, we found no performance gain with this approach. ...... [22] R. Karuppiah and I.E. Grossmann, Global optimization for the synthesis of integrated water.

  19. Toward an Inventory Assessing Expert Problem Solving Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-10-01

    We describe some of the challenges inherent in constructing a standardized instrument assessing problem solving skills, and suggest ways to overcome these challenges. We present items from a conceptual multiple choice instrument assessing problem solving skills relevant to freshman mechanics that we are developing. This instrument is inspired in part by Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning and Van Domelen's Problem Decomposition Diagnostic. We seek teachers who are interested in testing the preliminary version!

  20. 5 Principles for a Problem-Solving Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gerald Aungst

    2014-08-10

    The author presents five principles of developing a problem solving culture that he believes will allow students to grow into mathematical thinkers and sophisticated problem solvers: conjecture, communication, collaboration, chaos, and celebration. Each of these principles encompasses several mindsets and practices, which enable the teacher to build that culture in the classroom. The author includes a link to his webinar on this topic, "Creating a Culture of Problem Solving in Your School or Classroom" (cataloged separately).

  1. An Algorithm for Solving the Job-Shop Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Carlier; E. Pinson

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a branch and bound method for solving the job-shop problem. It is based on one-machine scheduling problems and is made more efficient by several propositions which limit the search tree by using immediate selections. It solved for the first time the famous 10 \\\\times 10 job-shop problem proposed by Muth and Thompson in 1963.

  2. An amoeboid algorithm for solving linear transportation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cai; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zili; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Transportation Problem (TP) is one of the basic operational research problems, which plays an important role in many practical applications. In this paper, a bio-inspired mathematical model is proposed to handle the Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) in directed networks by modifying the original amoeba model Physarum Solver. Several examples are used to prove that the provided model can effectively solve Balanced Transportation Problem (BTP), Unbalanced Transportation Problem (UTP), especially the Generalized Transportation Problem (GTP), in a nondiscrete way.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF VIDEO MODELING ON STAFF IMPLEMENTATION OF A PROBLEM-SOLVING INTERVENTION WITH ADULTS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Shawnee; Higbee, Thomas S; Salzberg, Charles L

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of video modeling on the percentage of correctly implemented problem-solving steps by staff in a group home for adults with developmental disabilities, using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants. The treatment consisted of staff watching a video model demonstrating the correct implementation of a problem-solving intervention (i.e., teaching clients to identify problems, possible solutions, and consequences to each solution, and to choose the best solution). The percentage of correctly implemented problem-solving steps increased for all participants, and the effect was maintained over time, generalized to novel problems, and generalized from role play with a researcher to actual clients. PMID:20514193

  4. Conceptual and procedural knowledge community college students use when solving a complex science problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen-Eibensteiner, Janice Lee

    2006-07-01

    A strong science knowledge base and problem solving skills have always been highly valued for employment in the science industry. Skills currently needed for employment include being able to problem solve (Overtoom, 2000). Academia also recognizes the need for effectively teaching students to apply problem solving skills in clinical settings. This thesis investigates how students solve complex science problems in an academic setting in order to inform the development of problem solving skills for the workplace. Students' use of problem solving skills in the form of learned concepts and procedural knowledge was studied as students completed a problem that might come up in real life. Students were taking a community college sophomore biology course, Human Anatomy & Physiology II. The problem topic was negative feedback inhibition of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The research questions answered were (1) How well do community college students use a complex of conceptual knowledge when solving a complex science problem? (2) What conceptual knowledge are community college students using correctly, incorrectly, or not using when solving a complex science problem? (3) What problem solving procedural knowledge are community college students using successfully, unsuccessfully, or not using when solving a complex science problem? From the whole class the high academic level participants performed at a mean of 72% correct on chapter test questions which was a low average to fair grade of C-. The middle and low academic participants both failed (F) the test questions (37% and 30% respectively); 29% (9/31) of the students show only a fair performance while 71% (22/31) fail. From the subset sample population of 2 students each from the high, middle, and low academic levels selected from the whole class 35% (8/23) of the concepts were used effectively, 22% (5/23) marginally, and 43% (10/23) poorly. Only 1 concept was used incorrectly by 3/6 of the students and identified as a misconception. One of 21 (5%) problem-solving pathway characteristics was used effectively, 7 (33%) marginally, and 13 (62%) poorly. There were very few (0 to 4) problem-solving pathway characteristics used unsuccessfully most were simply not used.

  5. Experimental Research on Mathematics Teaching of "Situated Creation and Problem-Based Instruction" in Chinese Primary and Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Xiaogang; Lu, Chuanhan; Wang, Bingyi; Song, Yunming

    2007-01-01

    This research tends to make the experimental study on the mathematics teaching model of "situated creation and problem-based instruction" (SCPBI), namely, the teaching process of "creating situations--posing problems--solving problems--applying mathematics". It is aimed at changing the situation where students generally lack problem-based learning…

  6. Solving optimal control problems with generating functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Scheeres; Vincent Guibout

    The optimal control of a spacecraft as it transitions between specified states in a fixed amount of time is studied. We approach the solution to our optimal control problem with a novel technique, treating the resulting system for the state and adjoints as a Hamiltonian system. We show that the optimal control for this system can be found once the

  7. SOLVING CONGRUENT CIRCLES PROBLEM USING INVERSION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rovilson MAFALDA; Alexandre KAWANO

    Geometric constructions are known since ancient times and its history confuses itself with the raising of Geometry. In this history, a theme that deserves special attention is the one of tangency problems which can be summarized in this way: as we have three elements, combinations of point, line or circle, find a circle or circles that can be tangent with

  8. Metacognitive Macroevaluations in Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of evaluation in mathematics in 749 elementary school children. The macroevaluative skills and calibration scores of high versus low mathematical problem solvers were contrasted as measures of metacognition. No relevant calibration differences were found for gender. In addition, the performances of children with…

  9. Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,…

  10. Human problem solving performance in a fault diagnosis task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    It is proposed that humans in automated systems will be asked to assume the role of troubleshooter or problem solver and that the problems which they will be asked to solve in such systems will not be amenable to rote solution. The design of visual displays for problem solving in such situations is considered, and the results of two experimental investigations of human problem solving performance in the diagnosis of faults in graphically displayed network problems are discussed. The effects of problem size, forced-pacing, computer aiding, and training are considered. Results indicate that human performance deviates from optimality as problem size increases. Forced-pacing appears to cause the human to adopt fairly brute force strategies, as compared to those adopted in self-paced situations. Computer aiding substantially lessens the number of mistaken diagnoses by performing the bookkeeping portions of the task.

  11. Solving subsurface structural problems using a computer

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, D.M. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA))

    1987-02-01

    Until recently, the solution of subsurface structural problems has required a combination of graphical construction, trigonometry, time, and patience. Recent advances in software available for both mainframe and microcomputers now reduce the time and potential error of these calculations by an order of magnitude. Software for analysis of deviated wells, three point problems, apparent dip, apparent thickness, and the intersection of two planes, as well as the plotting and interpretation of these data can be used to allow timely and accurate exploration or operational decisions. The available computer software provides a set of utilities, or tools, rather than a comprehensive, intelligent system. The burden for selection of appropriate techniques, computation methods, and interpretations still lies with the explorationist user.

  12. Can AI planners solve practical problems?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Wilkins

    1990-01-01

    While there has been recent interest in research on planning and reasoning about actions,nearly all research results have been theoretical. We know of no previous examples of aplanning system that has made a significant impact on a problem of practical importance.One of the primary goals during the development of the SIPE-2 planning system has beenthe balancing of efficiency with expressiveness

  13. PROBLEM SOLVING IN GAME PLAYING: COMPUTER CHESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BARBARA PERNICI

    1982-01-01

    This paper contains a historical review on computer chess, from 1950 to the present. Several methods have been proposed to make a computer playing chess, some of them making use of artificial intelligence techniques: state-space, production-systems, semantic-networks, problem-reduction, analysis with a data base. These methods in computer chess are examined and for each method its deficiencies for a “solution” of

  14. Solve valve noise and cavitation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, H.D. [Fisher Controls International, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A clear understanding of aerodynamic noise theory and cavitation will avoid most major valve problems in process plants and allow the valve engineer to design out potential problems. On the other hand, the plant owner has to recognize that such valves may require a cost premium. However, such a premium will be recovered in a small amount of time because of the savings from reduced downtime and lower maintenance costs. Pressure reducing valves used on gases or high pressure steam valves, such as turbine bypass valves, convert substantial energy into heat and a lower pressure level. Unfortunately, this can only be done by accelerating the gas in one or more orifices and then decelerating it rapidly again through a turbulence mechanism or super-sonic shock cells. This causes a lot of noise and vibration. Valve engineering science has made substantial strides in the past few years, and one is now able to predict cavitation and aerodynamic sound levels before a valve is purchased. Similarly, newer valve sizes incorporate features that reduce noise and cavitation effects. Some other minor problems are resonant plug vibration and flashing. The paper discusses how to predict aerodynamic sound, how close can one estimate the sound level, cavitation, and incorrect installation.

  15. Do New Caledonian crows solve physical problems through causal reasoning?

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    is contentious. The benchmark test for this ability has been the trap-tube task. We presented New Caledonian crows with a series of two-trap versions of this problem. Three out of six crows solved the initial trap-tube were in the tube. In contrast to a recent primate study, the three crows then solved a causally

  16. Solving distance geometry problems for protein structure determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atilla Sit

    2010-01-01

    A well-known problem in protein modeling is the determination of the structure of a protein with a given set of interatomic distances obtained from either physical experiments or theoretical estimates. A more general form of this problem is known as the distance geometry problem in mathematics, which can be solved in polynomial time if a complete set of exact distances

  17. Imitation: is cognitive neuroscience solving the correspondence problem?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Brass; Cecilia Heyes

    2005-01-01

    Imitation poses a unique problem: how does the imi- tator know what pattern of motor activation will make their action look like that of the model? Specialist theories suggest that this correspondence problem has a unique solution; there are functional and neurological mechanisms dedicated to controlling imitation. General- ist theories propose that the problem is solved by general mechanisms of

  18. Numerical methods for solving linear least squares problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Golub

    1965-01-01

    A common problem in a Computer Laboratory is that of finding linear least squares solutions. These problems arise in a variety of areas and in a variety of contexts. Linear least squares problems are particularly difficult to solve because they frequently involve large quantities of data, and they are ill-conditioned by their very nature. In this paper, we shall consider

  19. Solving Customer-Driven Microgrid Optimization Problems as DCOPs

    E-print Network

    Yeoh, William

    Solving Customer-Driven Microgrid Optimization Problems as DCOPs Saurabh Gupta , Palak Jain common customer-driven microgrid (CDMG) optimization problems ­ a comprehensive CDMG optimization problem that there is an urgent need to move away from fossil fuel to renewable energy resources given that the demand for fossil

  20. Bipolar preference problems: framework, properties and solving techniques

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Francesca

    Bipolar preference problems: framework, properties and solving techniques Stefano Bistarelli1 preferences, that we call bipolar prefer- ence problems. Although seemingly specular notions, these two kinds the notion of arc consis- tency to bipolar problems, and we show how branch and bound (with or without

  1. Evaluative factors in social problem solving by aggressive boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy G. Guerra; Ronald G. Slaby

    1989-01-01

    Components of social problem solving (problem definition, generation and prioritization of solutions, and generation and evaluation of consequences) were assessed in high aggressive and low aggressive boys from grades 2– 3 and 5–6. When compared with their low aggressive peers, high aggressive boys at both grade levels were more likely to (1) define social problems based on the perception that

  2. Solving the brachistochrone and other variational problems with soap films

    E-print Network

    Criado, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We show a method to solve the problem of the brachistochrone as well as other variational problems with the help of the soap films that are formed between two suitable surfaces. We also show the interesting connection between some variational problems of dynamics, statics, optics, and elasticity.

  3. Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines

    E-print Network

    Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines Yuval Emek, Tobias Langner, Jara + D) #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced by Feinerman, Korman, Lotker, Sereni [PODC 2012] = #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced

  4. Working memory demands in insight versus analytic problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica I. Fleck

    2008-01-01

    Working memory is one of the cognitive processes thought to differentiate insight and analytic forms of problem solving. The present research examined memory involvement in the solution of insight versus analytic problems. Participants completed verbal and spatial working memory and short-term memory measures and a series of analytic and insight problems. Results demonstrated a relationship between working-memory capacity and the

  5. Numerical methods for solving applied optimal control problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornov, A. Yu.; Tyatyushkin, A. I.; Finkelstein, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    For an optimal control problem with state constraints, an iterative solution method is described based on reduction to a finite-dimensional problem, followed by applying a successive linearization algorithm with the use of an augmented Lagrangian. The efficiency of taking into account state constraints in optimal control computation is illustrated by numerically solving several application problems.

  6. A new method for solving a linear programming problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for solving a linear programming problem, which is an extended version of the one previously presented by the author. The optimal solution of a linear programming problem is composed of some inequality constraints in their equality form. Then, it is possible to recognize the problem of finding the equality constraints which constitute the optimal

  7. The Senior Experience: Applied, Team Problem Solving in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, Leonard M.

    1995-01-01

    A yearlong senior experience course requires teams of business students to solve real problems for organizations in the community. Students enhanced responsibility, confidence, and organizational skills. Problems centered on differentiating the course from internships and improving staffing. Students had problems with group dynamics, team…

  8. Problem Solving as Metaphor: Negotiation and Identity Conflict

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice Gross Stein

    1999-01-01

    Interactive problem solving is generally conceived as an important complement to official processes of negotiation. The two, though related, occupied distinct domains, with demarcated boundaries. Kelman, in his article, \\

  9. Open-Ended, Problem-Solving Investigations--Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Ways in which linear lesson sequences can be modified to provide increased opportunities for open-ended activities especially with problem solving are considered. Examples drawn from chemistry and plant reproduction, seeds, and germination are given. (KR)

  10. Planning and problem solving: From neuropsychology to functional neuroimaging

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    . The following sections will focus on the role of the prefrontal cortex in planning and problem solving and on disorders of these functions in patients with frontal-lobe lesions. Specific emphasis will be placed

  11. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. ...

  12. Structured Planning and Debugging: A Linguistic Approach to Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    Miller, Mark L.

    1976-06-08

    A structured approach to planning and debugging is obtained by using an Augmented Transition Network (ATN) to model the problem solving process. This proves to be a perspicuous representation for planning concepts including ...

  13. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Advanced Manufacturing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-02

    In this media-rich lesson plan, students learn how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, then apply what they’ve learned in activities that are based on real-world scenarios.

  14. Hybrid Discontinuous Galerkin methods for solving incompressible flow problems

    E-print Network

    Hybrid Discontinuous Galerkin methods for solving incompressible flow problems Diplomarbeit zur, discussion and analysis of the Hybrid (exactly divergence-free) Discontinuous Galerkin method which results of Discontinuous Galerkin Methods is proposed resulting in the Hybrid Discontinuous Galerkin Method which

  15. Solving search problems by strongly simulating quantum circuits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, T. H.; Biamonte, J. D.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.

    2013-01-01

    Simulating quantum circuits using classical computers lets us analyse the inner workings of quantum algorithms. The most complete type of simulation, strong simulation, is believed to be generally inefficient. Nevertheless, several efficient strong simulation techniques are known for restricted families of quantum circuits and we develop an additional technique in this article. Further, we show that strong simulation algorithms perform another fundamental task: solving search problems. Efficient strong simulation techniques allow solutions to a class of search problems to be counted and found efficiently. This enhances the utility of strong simulation methods, known or yet to be discovered, and extends the class of search problems known to be efficiently simulable. Relating strong simulation to search problems also bounds the computational power of efficiently strongly simulable circuits; if they could solve all problems in P this would imply that all problems in NP and #P could be solved in polynomial time. PMID:23390585

  16. Solving unit commitment problems with general ramp constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Frangioni; Claudio Gentile; Fabrizio Lacalandra

    2008-01-01

    Lagrangian relaxation (LR) algorithms are among the most successful approaches for solving large-scale hydro-thermal unit commitment (UC) problems; this is largely due to the fact that the single-unit commitment (1UC) problems resulting from the decomposition, incorporating many kinds of technical constraints such as minimum up- and down-time requirements and time-dependent startup costs, can be efficiently solved by dynamic programming (DP)

  17. Measure Your Sew - How: Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems.

    E-print Network

    Rhoades, Beverly

    1981-01-01

    DOC TA24S.7 873 0.1264 --","--- Measure Your Sew-How Solving Common Sewing Machine Problems Texas Agricultural Extension Service . The Texas A&M University System . Daniel C . Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas "'164 [Blank Page... in Original Bulletin] ~. 'I \\ ! fri SOLVING COMMON SEWING MACHINE PROBLEMS Beverly Rhoades* Machine Parts ? Former Extension clothing specialist, The Texas A&M University System. Sewing can be a relaxing, creative and money-saving talent when...

  18. Use of Spreadsheets in Solving Heat Conduction Problems in Fins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Karimi, Amir

    Excel is an effective and inexpensive tool available on all computers equipped with Microsoft Office. This software has the necessary functions for solving a large class of engineering problems, including those related to heat transfer. This paper provides several examples to demonstrate the application of Excel in solving problems involving one-dimensional heat conduction in various fin configurations. It provides formulas for the temperature distribution and heat transfer for several different fin profiles.

  19. Individual Differences in Need for Cognition and Complex Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Unnikrishnan Nair; S. Ramnarayan

    2000-01-01

    This article reports an empirical study investigating the relation between Need for cognition of individuals and their effectiveness in solving complex problems. A complex, long-duration, computer-simulated, multifaceted cognitive task was presented to 45 managers from a very large Indian metal-processing unit. Problem-solving effectiveness was assessed on success, consistency, and crisis-free nature. Need for cognition was assessed using the 18-item, short-form

  20. On solving linear complementarity problems as linear programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Cottle; Jong-Shi Pang

    Recently, Mangasarian [18, 19] has discussed the idea of solving certain classes of linear complementarity problems as linear\\u000a programs. The present paper (1) demonstrates how these complementarity problems are related to the theory of polyhedral sets\\u000a having least elements and (2) discusses the question of whether the linear programming approach can be recommended for solving\\u000a them.

  1. Rumination and social problem-solving in depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ed Watkins; Simona Baracaia

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that impaired social problem solving in depression is a consequence of state-oriented rumination, which can be ameliorated by improving awareness of mental processes. 32 currently depressed, 26 recovered depressed, and 26 never depressed participants completed the Means Ends Problem Solving Test while randomly allocated to no questions, state-oriented ruminative questions, (e.g. focusing on why you have

  2. Solving MPCC Problem with the Hyperbolic Penalty Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Teófilo; Monteiro, M. Teresa T.; Matias, João

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this work is to solve mathematical program with complementarity constraints (MPCC) using nonlinear programming techniques (NLP). An hyperbolic penalty function is used to solve MPCC problems by including the complementarity constraints in the penalty term. This penalty function [1] is twice continuously differentiable and combines features of both exterior and interior penalty methods. A set of AMPL problems from MacMPEC [2] are tested and a comparative study is performed.

  3. Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Global Optimization Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radha Thangaraj; Millie Pant; Ajith Abraham; Youakim Badr

    2009-01-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) is a novel evolutionary approach capable of handling non-differentiable, non-linear and multi-modal objective functions. DE has been consistently ranked as one of the best search algorithm for solving global optimization problems in several case studies. This paper presents a simple and modified hybridized Differential Evolution algorithm for solving global optimization problems. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid

  4. The influence of nonreportable primes on problem solving

    E-print Network

    Schumacher, Jay Scott

    1994-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF NONREPORTABLE PRIMES ON PROBLEM SOLVING A Thesis by JAY SCOTT SCHUMACHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1994 Major Subject: Psychology THE INFLUENCE OF NONREPORTABLE PRIMES ON PROBLEM SOLVING A Thesis JAY SCOTT SCHUMACHER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

  5. The evaluation of a kindergarten social problem solving program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice I. Winer; Pamela L. Hilpert; Ellis L. Gesten; Emory L. Cowen; Wendy E. Schubin

    1982-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a Social Problem Solving (SPS) competence training program for kindergartners, and examined relationships between SPS skill and adjustment gains. Subjects included 63 suburban middle-classSs from three classes, who participated in the 42 lesson program, and 46 comparisonSs from two classes, who did not. Subjects were evaluated on problem solving, peer sociometric and teacher

  6. Using accumulators to solve hydraulic circuit problems

    SciTech Connect

    Mordas, J.B. (Hydac Corp., Bethlehem, PA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Accumulators can be useful to the plant engineer. Hydropneumatic or gas-charged version are used effectively in hydraulic circuits for auxiliary power, energy storage, emergency operation, leakage compensation or makeup fluid, and motor soft starts. Accumulators are also applied for shock absorption in pressure and tank lines, pulsation dampening, elimination of pump cavitation, and noise attenuation. The first reaction to a malfunction in a hydraulic circuit is to check the pump and valves. Many times the problem may be flow related, either too much or too little. Jeffrey B. Mordas of Hydac Corp. explains how an accumulator resolves difficulties with fluid circuits and provides auxiliary power, energy storage, shock absorption, pulsation dampening, and noise attenuation.

  7. Using Clickers to Facilitate Development of Problem-Solving Skills

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Aime A.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom response systems, or clickers, have become pedagogical staples of the undergraduate science curriculum at many universities. In this study, the effectiveness of clickers in promoting problem-solving skills in a genetics class was investigated. Students were presented with problems requiring application of concepts covered in lecture and were polled for the correct answer. A histogram of class responses was displayed, and students were encouraged to discuss the problem, which enabled them to better understand the correct answer. Students were then presented with a similar problem and were again polled. My results indicate that those students who were initially unable to solve the problem were then able to figure out how to solve similar types of problems through a combination of trial and error and class discussion. This was reflected in student performance on exams, where there was a statistically significant positive correlation between grades and the percentage of clicker questions answered. Interestingly, there was no clear correlation between exam grades and the percentage of clicker questions answered correctly. These results suggest that students who attempt to solve problems in class are better equipped to solve problems on exams. PMID:22135374

  8. How chimpanzees solve collective action problems

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Anna-Claire; Melis, Alicia P.; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We presented small groups of chimpanzees with two collective action situations, in which action was necessary for reward but there was a disincentive for individuals to act owing to the possibility of free-riding on the efforts of others. We found that in simpler scenarios (experiment 1) in which group size was small, there was a positive relationship between rank and action with more dominant individuals volunteering to act more often, particularly when the reward was less dispersed. Social tolerance also seemed to mediate action whereby higher tolerance levels within a group resulted in individuals of lower ranks sometimes acting and appropriating more of the reward. In more complex scenarios, when group size was larger and cooperation was necessary (experiment 2), overcoming the problem was more challenging. There was highly significant variability in the action rates of different individuals as well as between dyads, suggesting success was more greatly influenced by the individual personalities and personal relationships present in the group. PMID:23075841

  9. Work in progress — Improving problem-solving skills via dynamically worked-out problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asad Azemi; Roxanne Toto; Thomas Litzinger

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes our continued work in creating a set of narrated dynamically worked-out problems for the Electric Circuits students using a Tablet PC. The examples are intended to improve problem-solving skills by enhancing understanding of the key concepts and the way that they should be utilized in solving circuits' problems. A detailed explanation of how these worked out problems

  10. Photography helps solve distribution lightning problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, P.; Burns, C.W.

    1993-06-01

    This article describes the research project, which is being performed for NMPC by Power Technologies, Inc., involving the use of lightning-activated camera systems to photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photographs can allow the precise location of the lightning flash and power system flashovers to be observed, they are extremely valuable to engineers who are trying to make better sense of the lightning damage problem. When electrical measurements, such as fault and surge recordings, are combined with photographic data, an overall understanding of each lightning flash and its impact on the system is attained. This can hopefully lead to improved lightning protection practices and systems. The study is being performed on a 13.2 kV distribution system that is located on an exposed plateau near Little Falls, NY (about 80 miles northwest of Albany, NY). Four automated camera systems and a substation fault recorder are utilized. All camera locations afford excellent views of lines and equipment likely to be struck by lightning. The fault recorder is used to measure the fault currents and voltage sags which occur during line flashovers. Also, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) is used to confirm storm activity and camera triggering efficiency. After each storm, all data is analyzed to determine how lightning affected the power system. Areas being investigated include: What are the relative portions of lightning flashovers caused by induced surges (nearby strikes) and direct lightning hits to the line How often do shielding failures occur What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices are problematic

  11. A Problem Solving Intervention for Hospice Caregivers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Parker Oliver, Debra; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive–behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area. PMID:20649438

  12. An Investigation of Preservice Teachers' Use of Guess and Check in Solving a Semi Open-Ended Mathematics Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Mary Margaret; An, Song A.; Ma, Tingting; Rangel-Chavez, A. Fabiola; Harbaugh, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Open-ended problems have been regarded as powerful tools for teaching mathematics. This study examined the problem solving of eight mathematics/science middle-school teachers. A semi-structured interview was conducted with (PTs) after completing an open-ended triangle task with four unique solutions. Of particular emphasis was how the PTs used a…

  13. Problem-Based Learning: A New Approach for Teaching Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mary Ruth

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the use of problem-based learning (PBL) with gifted students, in which the focus of the curriculum is "ill-structured" problems. Particular advantages of PBL with these students include effectiveness in teaching the art of problem finding and solving, active learning, higher order thinking skills, and using interdisciplinary…

  14. A new genetic approach for solving the unit commitment problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debjani Ganguly; Vaskar Sarkar; Jagadish Pal

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new genetic approach for solving the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem. A parallel system model has been developed to handle the infeasibility problem in a structured way and thus to provide an effective search. Typical constraints like minimum up and down times, start up and shut down ramps, must run and must not run have been

  15. A new approach for solving extended unit commitment problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ruzic; N. Rajakovic

    1991-01-01

    An original approach is presented for solving the extended unit commitment problem using the Lagrangian relaxation method. The unit ramp rates have been incorporated into a dual optimization algorithm, making it possible to use the feasible direction method for primal problem solution. The mathematical model developed also includes transmission capacity limits, regulation reserve requirements of a prespecified group of units,

  16. Technologically Mediated Complex Problem-Solving on a Statistics Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Eileen; Blake, Canan; Joiner, Richard; O'Shea, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Simulations on computers can allow many experiments to be conducted quickly to help students develop an understanding of statistical topics. We used a simulation of a challenging problem in statistics as the focus of an exploration of situations where members of a problem-solving group are physically separated then reconnected via combinations of…

  17. Solving LEGO brick layout problem using Evolutionary Algorithms1

    E-print Network

    Petrovic, Pavel

    Solving LEGO brick layout problem using Evolutionary Algorithms1 Qhry�Qrvþ Evolutionary Computation and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway, pavel.petrovic@idi.ntnu.no Abstract. LEGO® presented the following problem at the SCAI'01 conference in February 2001: Given any 3D body, how can it be built from LEGO

  18. Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS Steven van Dijk Dirk Thierens Mark de in Geographical Information Systems (GIS's). The framework is especially suited for geographical problems since as well. 1 Introduction Geographic Information Systems (GIS's for short) combine a geographical database

  19. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Advanced Manufacturing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For an advanced manufacturing system to function efficiently, all workers must know how to identify problems within their departments and develop solutions for them. Today's employers expect technicians entering the workplace to possess "soft skills." These include the ability to analyze a problem logically and formulate a solution, but also the ability to work in teams and to effectively communicate with others.This lesson uses real-world scenarios to encourage critical thinking and improve problem-solving skills. The lesson begins with an invitation to explore the many different areas and career paths within advanced manufacturing. Following a brief small-group discussion on how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, students review a handout that lays out some guidelines for how to approach problem solving. Students watch a video about a manufacturing supervisor, and then begin to relate problem solving to other workplace scenarios. Then, through two short activities, they have a chance to demonstrate their ability to think critically. An optional extension activity has students apply what they've learned by researching an industry of their choice and assessing the problems that are likely to come up. Students prepare a report that includes their analysis of the problems, probable causes, and a possible solution to one of them. They then present their report to the rest of the class.

  20. Formulating and Solving Nonlinear Programs as Mixed Complementarity Problems ?

    E-print Network

    Ferris, Michael C.

    optimization problems to be communicated to solvers in an efficient form, carrying out data manipulations of interior point methods for linear programming by Karmarkar [21] in 1984, as a practical alternativeFormulating and Solving Nonlinear Programs as Mixed Complementarity Problems ? Michael C. Ferris 1

  1. Cognitive Principles of Problem Solving and Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.; And Others

    Research in this project studied cognitive processes involved in understanding and solving problems used in instruction in the domain of mathematics, and explored implications of these cognitive analyses for the design of instruction. Three general issues were addressed: knowledge required for understanding problems, knowledge of the conditions…

  2. Experimental Model for Stimulating Creative Problem Solving by Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Harold L.

    A heuristic model designed to improve creative problem-solving by engineering students was studied. Ten students majoring in industrial engineering were pre-tested to establish the range and accuracy of their performance prior to training and to identify stereotyped thinking. The test was an adventure scenario with 50 embedded problems along with…

  3. Solar Neutrinos: Solved and Unsolved Problems John N. Bahcall

    E-print Network

    Bahcall, John

    Chapter 10 Solar Neutrinos: Solved and Unsolved Problems John N. Bahcall Institute for Advanced study solar neutrinos? What does the combined standard model (solar plus electroweak) predict for solar neutrinos? Why are the calculations of neutrino fluxes robust? What are the three solar neutrino problems

  4. Solving an Air Conditioning System Problem using Constraint Satisfaction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Solving an Air Conditioning System Problem using Constraint Satisfaction Raphaël Chenouard1 An air conditioning system problem 1.1 Context The design process is a sequence of phases ranging from States (2007)" DOI : 10.1007/978-3-540-74970-7_4 #12;In this paper, an air conditioning system (ACS

  5. Applications of Fitzpatrick functions for solving optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashed, Z.; Raykov, I.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents applications of Fitzparick functions to optimization problems. The main purpose of the present work is to introduce applications of the Fitzpatrick functions, involving their specific properties as the maximal monotonicity, or the proper, convex and lower semi-continuity, for solving optimization problems.

  6. Solving Euclidean Distance Matrix Completion Problems Via Semidefinite Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdo Y. Alfakih; Amir Khandani; Henry Wolkowicz

    1999-01-01

    Given a partial symmetric matrix A with only certain elements specified, the Euclidean distance matrix completion problem (EDMCP) is to find the unspecified elements of A that make A a Euclidean distance matrix (EDM). In this paper, we follow the successful approach in [20] and solve the EDMCP by generalizing the completion problem to allow for approximate completions. In particular,

  7. Representation Use and Strategy Choice in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cock, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine student success on three variants of a test item given in different representational formats (verbal, pictorial, and graphical), with an isomorphic problem statement. We confirm results from recent papers where it is mentioned that physics students' problem-solving competence can vary with representational format and that…

  8. Two Aspects of Meaningful Problem Solving in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James

    1982-01-01

    Presents a model for solving genetics problems when problem statements include information on which alleles are dominant/recessive and on what forms of a trait are coded for by the alleles. Includes procedural steps employed in a solution and conceptual knowledge of genetics/meiosis allowing students to justify what they have done. (Author/JN)

  9. Fuzzy expert system for solving lost circulation problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonid Sheremetov; Ildar Z. Batyrshin; Denis Filatov; Jorge Martinez; Hector Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    Lost circulation is the most common problem encountered while drilling oil wells. This paper describes a distributed fuzzy expert system, called Smart-Drill, aimed in helping petroleum engineers to diagnose and solve lost circulation problems. To represent and manipulate perception-based evaluations of uncertainties of facts and rules, the expert system uses an uncertainty model with qualitative scales of plausibility values and

  10. Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines

    E-print Network

    Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines Yuval Emek1 , Tobias Langner2 the Ants Nearby Treasure Search (ANTS) problem introduced by Feinerman, Korman, Lotker, and Sereni (PODC-time of any ANTS algorithm. 1 Introduction "They operate without any central control. Their collective

  11. Assessing Group Process during Collaborative Problem-Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Bontrager, Terry; Ventrone, Paula; Correia, Margaret

    This study developed a method to assess group process in a collaborative problem-solving situation. Participants were 32 fifth- and sixth-grade students. Students in seven collaborative groups worked on a two-part mathematics problem first individually, then in groups, and finally individually again. Groups engaging in behaviors that facilitated…

  12. Social Problem Solving of Children With and Without Mental Retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Jacobs; Lisa A. Turner; Mark Faust; Margaret Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Social skills and social status are important aspects of development that are likely to be influenced by an individual's ability to appropriately solve social problems. In this investigation, children (9–13 year olds) with and without mental retardation were asked to provide solutions to three types of social problems. Students were first asked to respond to open-ended questions and then were

  13. Paradigms and Problem-Solving: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berner, Eta S.

    1984-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's conceptions of the influence of paradigms on the progress of science form the framework for analyzing how medical educators have approached research on medical problem solving. A new paradigm emphasizing multiple types of problems with varied solution strategies is proposed. (Author/MLW)

  14. Diffusion: Diffusive initial value problems and how to solve them

    E-print Network

    Spiegelman, Marc W.

    84 #12;Chapter 6 Diffusion: Diffusive initial value problems and how to solve them Selected Reading of the simplest partial dif- ferential equations for diffusive initial value problems in the absence of advection be written T t = · T (6.0.1) where T is the temperature and = k/(cP ) is the thermal diffusivity (which has

  15. Non-Mathematical Problem Solving in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartrette, David P.; Bodner, George M.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in problem-solving ability among organic chemistry graduate students and faculty were studied within the domain of problems that involved the determination of the structure of a molecule from the molecular formula of the compound and a combination of IR and [to the first power]H NMR spectra. The participants' performance on these tasks…

  16. New computer program solves wide variety of heat flow problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almond, J. C.

    1966-01-01

    Boeing Engineering Thermal Analyzer /BETA/ computer program uses numerical methods to provide accurate heat transfer solutions to a wide variety of heat flow problems. The program solves steady-state and transient problems in almost any situation that can be represented by a resistance-capacitance network.

  17. Effects of Instruction on Verbal Interactions during Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoek, Dirk J.; Seegers, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    During one school year, data were collected for vocational education students while they worked collaboratively on open-ended mathematics problems. In collaboration with participating teachers, instructional activities were designed with a twofold goal of modelling the process of problem solving and improving collaboration. Instructional…

  18. Problems and problem solving among aging White and Black Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara M Barer; Colleen L Johnson

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the problems of growing older among Whites and Blacks in two age groups: the younger old, ages 70–84, and the oldest old, 85 years and older. Despite differences in age, education, occupational opportunities, and the experiences of prejudice and discrimination among the Blacks, the majority of all respondents reported similar concerns. Problems with decreasing health, finances, and

  19. Teaching Geometry through Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schettino, Carmel

    2011-01-01

    About seven years ago, the mathematics teachers at the author's secondary school came to the conclusion that they were not satisfied with their rather traditional geometry textbook. The author had already begun using a problem-based approach to teaching geometry in her classes, a transition for her and her students that inspired her to write about…

  20. English Preservice Teaching: Problems and Suggested Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeem, Marwa Ahmed Refat

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the problems faced by Egyptian EFL prospective teachers during their first encounter with preservice teaching. The sample for the study included 135 prospective EFL teachers trained in five preparatory (middle) schools in Kafr El-Sheikh city, Egypt. At the end of their first year training course, the prospective…