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1

Teamwork skills, shared mental models, and performance in simulated trauma teams: an independent group design  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Non-technical skills are seen as an important contributor to reducing adverse events and improving medical management in healthcare teams. Previous research on the effectiveness of teams has suggested that shared mental models facilitate coordination and team performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether demonstrated teamwork skills and behaviour indicating shared mental models would be associated with

Heidi Kristina Westli; Bjørn Helge Johnsen; Jarle Eid; Ingvil Rasten; Guttorm Brattebø

2010-01-01

2

Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

2008-01-01

3

Transferable Team Skills for Accounting Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accounting educators are incorporating student teams in the classroom as a response to employers' demands that employees be able to work collaboratively. Although there are many studies in the accounting literature that explore factors (e.g. size, incentives) affecting student team performance, few address skills development for team members. This paper examines students' exposure to specific meeting management techniques (e.g. agendas,

Frances A. Kennedy; Richard B. Dull

2008-01-01

4

TEAM EMOTION RECOGNITION ACCURACY AND TEAM PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teams' emotional skills can be more than the sum of their individual parts. Although theory emphasizes emotion as an interpersonal adapta- tion, emotion recognition skill has long been conceptualized as an indi- vidual-level intelligence. We introduce the construct of team emotion recognition accuracy (TERA) - the ability of members to recognize teammates' emotions - and present preliminary evidence for its

Hillary Anger Elfenbein; Jeffrey T. Polzer; Nalini Ambady

5

Modeling team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of 3366 Bundesliga-match results aims at a considerable extension of previous analyses of football teamsperformance\\u000a on the playground. On the one hand, this extension is rooted in a comprehensive consideration of theoretical aspects that,\\u000a so far, have been neglected in the literature on football teams: Team composition and institutionalization processes. The\\u000a empirical results indicate that teams that

Nikolaus Beck; Mark Meyer

2012-01-01

6

Developing rapid high-pressure team decision-making skills. The integration of slow deliberate reflective learning within the competitive performance environment: A case study of elite netball  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the complexity of developing decision-making skills in elite netball. Using the attacking centre pass as a theme, we present a framework designed to develop decision-making capabilities of the coach, performers and the players collectively as a team. The paper exemplifies the integration of reflective practice principles into coaching strategies, as the cyclic link between the ‘off-court’ slow

Pam Richards; Dave Collins; Duncan R. D. Mascarenhas

2012-01-01

7

Examining a curvilinear relationship between communication frequency and team performance in cross-functional project teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a cross-functional team depends on the skillful and innovative combination of information and expertise from all team members. Communication is the medium through which team members share the information required for successful amalgamation. In this work, we postulate that both high and low levels of team communication can impede team performance, thus leading to a curvilinear relationship

Ralitza R. Patrashkova-Volzdoska; Sara A. McComb; Stephen G. Green; W. Dale Compton

2003-01-01

8

Constructing a team performance prediction model for sport teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In team sports, some constructs of the team process are important factors for team performance; therefore, exploring the group process of a team is crucial for improving team performance. The purpose of this article is to construct a team performance prediction model for sport teams, employing team-level variables. For this purpose, we reviewed the previous studies on group process in

Keita KAWAZU; Yoshio SUGIYAMA; Yuichi NAGAO; Masayuki YAMAZAKI; Xue Lian WANG; Eri KUMASAKI

2009-01-01

9

Case Study: A Team-Building Mental Skills Training Program with an Intercollegiate Equestrian Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively few mental skills training programs have solely focused on team-building issues. The purpose of this article is to briefly describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of a team building mental skills training program for an intercollegiate equestrian team. In particular, theoretical and methodological rationales for the team- building intervention are provided. The data are analyzed and future recommendations are

Gordon A. Bloom; Diane E. Stevens

2002-01-01

10

Developing Pupils' Performance in Team Invasion Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: To develop pupils' team invasion games (TIG) performance within physical education (PE), practitioners have traditionally adopted teacher-centred, skill-focused approaches. Teaching Games for Understanding and the Tactical approach are alternative approaches to TIG teaching that aim to develop overall game performance, including…

Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

2011-01-01

11

Will We Teach Leadership or Skilled Incompetence? The Challenge of Student Project Teams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defensive routines and tolerance of skilled incompetence can harm student team performance. Strategies to overcome these problems include emphasizing the importance of process learning, teaching team development, providing practice in communication skills, coaching individual students, and providing graded feedback for process quality. (Contains…

Holmer, Leanna L.

2001-01-01

12

Team Performance and Space Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses how space safety is influenced by the ability of teams to work and communicate effectively together. A multi-national team of six authors provides different perspectives on human systems, from both research and operational points of view. When operations involve teams whose members cross organizational and cultural boundaries as they do in current space operations, it is especially critical and challenging to facilitate the most effective team performance. Three key factors that affect team performance and space safety are discussed: (1) communication as related to team performance; (2) the influence of organizations, teams and culture and (3) team training interventions. Relevant research and current practices are described for each of the three areas and a summary in the form of recommendations is provided.

Kanki, B. G.; Rogers, D. G.; Bessone, L.; Parke, B.; Sandal, G. M.; Whiteley, I.

13

Tactical skills of world-class youth soccer teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the relationship between tactical skills and competitive standard of two youth soccer teams by comparing 18 players (age 18–20 years) from the Dutch and 19 players (age 18–23 years) from the Indonesian national youth team. All players completed the declarative and procedural knowledge scales of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sport (TACSIS). Multivariate analyses of

Rianne Kannekens; Marije T. Elferink-Gemser; Chris Visscher

2009-01-01

14

Student reading performance in relation to selected causal variables and a teaming process for improving higher order thinking skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was proposed to examine student motivation and teacher expectation for student performance in reading in relation to teachers' perceptions of instructional supervision, planning and preparation, instructional delivery, preservice college preparation, reading endorsement certification, teacher professional development, grade level teaching assignment and parental involvement. The results of a teacher survey indicated that student motivation was correlated with teacher expectation about

Sarah Kirksey Haynes

2009-01-01

15

Transformational leadership and team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite transformational leadership enjoying success and attention as an exceptional leadership theory, few scholars have investigated a specific link between transformational leadership theory and team performance. As such, we discuss how transformational leadership theory can provide a framework in which to investigate a leader's impact on team performance. We posit that idealized influence\\/inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration could

Shelley D. Dionne; Francis J. Yammarino; Leanne E. Atwater; William D. Spangler

2004-01-01

16

Developing Good Team-working Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article offers advice to educators on developing learners' collaboration skills through problem solving. The author presents six categories of tasks, each of which addresses a set of teamwork skills (e.g. listening, sharing, reflecting) and includes several tasks which could serve as the vehicle. Links to the tasks, printable materials, and other resources are included.

2010-05-01

17

Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex pro...

J. M. Orasanu

2009-01-01

18

Team Cognitive Ability as a Predictor of Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript presents two studies of the relationship between team cognitive ability (average Scholastic Aptitude Test score of team members) and team performance (a subjective coach's evaluation and an objective measure using Sagarin's Power Rankings) among NCAA Division 1 Men's Basketball teams. Study 1 was conducted following the 1991-92 season whereas Study 2 was conducted during the 1993-94 season. Both

Patrick M. Wright; Gary C. McMahan; Dennis Smart; Blaine McCormick

1997-01-01

19

Teaching Teams about Teamwork: Preparation, Practice, and Performance Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on preparation, practice, and performance review to teach teams about teamwork provides a well-supported and effective methodology that both enhances students' collaborative skills and contributes to an effective team project experience. Preparation includes aspects of coaching to introduce and explain effective group processes. After…

Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph

2009-01-01

20

Leading engineering teams: leader behaviors related to team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the relationship between leader behaviors and engineering team performance. Data were collected for 18 engineering teams (nine research, nine nonresearch) from manufacturing and aerospace organizations located in Rocky Mountain, Midwest, and East Coast regions of the United States. Results indicate that both team members and leaders believed that providing autonomy and initiating structure were important leader behaviors;

Judith A. Kolb

1993-01-01

21

Virtual Teams: The Impact of Advanced Knowledge and Process Collaboration Technologies on Software Development Team Processes and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual teams are becoming an important aspect of organisational life in many industries. In software development, virtual teams can be particularly useful as team members with the right skill set can generate code for a project no matter where they are in the world. However, this virtual setting often has limitations in terms of communication abilities, conflict, trust and performance.

Alistair McKinnon

22

Approach to team skills training of nuclear power plant control room crews  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of current team skills training practices and research was conducted by General Physics Corporation for the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The methodology used included a review of relevant team skills training literature and a workshop to collect inputs from team training practitioners and researchers from the public and private sectors. The workshop was attended by representatives from nuclear utility training organizations, the commercial airline industry, federal agencies, and defense training and research commands. The literature reviews and workshop results provided the input for a suggested approach to team skills training that can be integrated into existing training programs for control room operating crews. The approach includes five phases: (1) team skills objectives development, (2) basic team skills training, (3) team task training, (4) team skills evaluation, and (5) team training program evaluation. Supporting background information and a user-oriented description of the approach to team skills training are provided. 47 refs.

Davis, L.T.; Gaddy, C.D.; Turney, J.R.

1985-07-01

23

Team identification: a determining factor of performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to explore why some teams realize performance gains and others do not. Team identification is proposed as an explanatory mechanism of performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data from two longitudinal studies with 42 teams (270 individuals) are examined using regression analysis. Study 1 relies on student teams, while Study 2 is based on two field samples of

Stephanie T. Solansky

2011-01-01

24

LETTER REPORT SUMMARY RESULTS OF THE NRC TEAM INTERACTION SKILLS STUDY AT DIABLO CANYON POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information to participants in the Team Interaction Skills study conducted at Diablo Canyon Power Plant from September to November 1989. A study was conducted to develop and assess measures of team interaction skills of nuclear power plant control room crews in simulated emergency conditions. Data were collected at a boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWA) using three sets of rating scales; Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS), Behavioral Frequency rating scales, and Technical Performance rating scales. Diablo Canyon Power Plant agreed to serve as the PWR plant in the study. Obse!Vers consisting of contract license examiners, Diablo Canyon Power Plant training instructors, and project staff used the rating scales to provide assessments of team interaction skills and technical skills of control room crews during emerg-3ncy scenarios as part of license requalification training. Crew members were also asked to providH self-ratings of their performance to gather information regarding crew responses to the Team Interactions Skills rating scales.

Hauth, J. T.; Toquam, J. L.; Bramwell, A. T.; Fleming, T. E.

1990-12-01

25

Team Assembly Mechanisms Determine Collaboration Network Structure and Team Performance  

PubMed Central

Agents in creative enterprises are embedded in networks that inspire, support, and evaluate their work. Here, we investigate how the mechanisms by which creative teams self-assemble determine the structure of these collaboration networks. We propose a model for the self-assembly of creative teams that has its basis in three parameters: team size, the fraction of newcomers in new productions, and the tendency of incumbents to repeat previous collaborations. The model suggests that the emergence of a large connected community of practitioners can be described as a phase transition. We find that team assembly mechanisms determine both the structure of the collaboration network and team performance for teams derived from both artistic and scientific fields.

Guimera, Roger; Uzzi, Brian; Spiro, Jarrett; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.

2007-01-01

26

Team mental models and team performance: a field study of the effects of team mental model similarity and accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We conducted a field study of 71 action teams to examine the relationship between team mental model similarity and accuracy and the performance of real-world teams. We used Pathfinder to operationalize team members' taskwork mental models (describing team procedures, tasks, and equipment) and teamwork mental models (describing team interaction processes) and examined team performance as evaluated by expert team

Beng-Chong Lim; Katherine J. Klein

2006-01-01

27

On Teams, Teamwork, and Team Performance: Discoveries and Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We highlight some of the key discoveries and developments in the area of team performance over the past 50 years, especially as reflected in the pages of Human Factors.Background: Teams increasingly have become a way of life in many organizations, and research has kept up with the pace. Method: We have characterized progress in the field in terms of

Eduardo Salas; Nancy J. Cooke; Michael A. Rosen

2008-01-01

28

Testing the Effects of Team Processes on Team Member Schema Similarity and Team Performance: Examination of the Team Member Schema Similarity Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the relationships among team membership influences, team interaction processes, and team member schema similarity, and their potential impact on team performance. Team membership influences were assessed as the similarity of team memb...

J. Rentsch M. D. McNeese L. J. Pape D. D. Burnett D. M. Menard

1998-01-01

29

A Human Factors Analysis of Technical and Team Skills Among Surgical Trainees During Procedural Simulations in a Simulated Operating Theatre  

PubMed Central

Background: High-risk organizations such as aviation rely on simulations for the training and assessment of technical and team performance. The aim of this study was to develop a simulated environment for surgical trainees using similar principles. Methods: A total of 27 surgical trainees carried out a simulated procedure in a Simulated Operating Theatre with a standardized OR team. Observation of OR events was carried out by an unobtrusive data collection system: clinical data recorder. Assessment of performance consisted of blinded rating of technical skills, a checklist of technical events, an assessment of communication, and a global rating of team skills by a human factors expert and trained surgical research fellows. The participants underwent a debriefing session, and the face validity of the simulated environment was evaluated. Results: While technical skills rating discriminated between surgeons according to experience (P = 0.002), there were no differences in terms of the checklist and team skills (P = 0.70). While all trainees were observed to gown/glove and handle sharps correctly, low scores were observed for some key features of communication with other team members. Low scores were obtained by the entire cohort for vigilance. Interobserver reliability was 0.90 and 0.89 for technical and team skills ratings. Conclusions: The simulated operating theatre could serve as an environment for the development of surgical competence among surgical trainees. Objective, structured, and multimodal assessment of performance during simulated procedures could serve as a basis for focused feedback during training of technical and team skills.

Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Adams, Sally; Pandey, Vikas; Darzi, Ara

2005-01-01

30

Utility and assessment of non-technical skills for rapid response systems and medical emergency teams.  

PubMed

Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance. PMID:23611153

Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A

2013-09-01

31

An Analysis of Team Composition as It Affects Simulation Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the extent to which sex composition and average team academic achievement of student simulation teams affect team effectiveness. Seventy-four students in two sections of a marketing principles class were divided into 20 teams to test their decision-making skills. For 10 weeks, each team operated a simulated supermarket…

Krishnakumar, Parameswar; Chisholm, Thomas Alexander

32

Team performance in resuscitation teams: Comparison and critique of two recently developed scoring tools?  

PubMed Central

Background and aim Following high profile errors resulting in patient harm and attracting negative publicity, the healthcare sector has begun to focus on training non-technical teamworking skills as one way of reducing the rate of adverse events. Within the area of resuscitation, two tools have been developed recently aiming to assess these skillsTEAM and OSCAR. The aims of the study reported here were:1.To determine the inter-rater reliability of the tools in assessing performance within the context of resuscitation.2.To correlate scores of the same resuscitation teams episodes using both tools, thereby determining their concurrent validity within the context of resuscitation.3.To carry out a critique of both tools and establish how best each one may be utilised. Methods The study consisted of two phases – reliability assessment; and content comparison, and correlation. Assessments were made by two resuscitation experts, who watched 24 pre-recorded resuscitation simulations, and independently rated team behaviours using both tools. The tools were critically appraised, and correlation between overall score surrogates was assessed. Results Both OSCAR and TEAM achieved high levels of inter-rater reliability (in the form of adequate intra-class coefficients) and minor significant differences between Wilcoxon tests. Comparison of the scores from both tools demonstrated a high degree of correlation (and hence concurrent validity). Finally, critique of each tool highlighted differences in length and complexity. Conclusion Both OSCAR and TEAM can be used to assess resuscitation teams in a simulated environment, with the tools correlating well with one another. We envisage a role for both tools – with TEAM giving a quick, global assessment of the team, but OSCAR enabling more detailed breakdown of the assessment, facilitating feedback, and identifying areas of weakness for future training.

McKay, Anthony; Walker, Susanna T.; Brett, Stephen J.; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

2012-01-01

33

BEYOND THE INDIVIDUAL VICTIM: LINKING SEXUAL HARASSMENT, TEAM PROCESSES, AND TEAM PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous sexual harassment research and theory have focused primarily upon the individual level, with little attention to team- or organization-level outcomes. In this article, we extend research on outcomes associated with sexual harassment to the team level with an examination of the relationships between team ambient sexual harass- ment, team conflict, team cohesion, team citizenship behaviors, and team financial performance.

JANA L. RAVER; MICHELE J. GELFAND

2005-01-01

34

Embracing Transformational Leadership: Team Values and the Impact of Leader Behavior on Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and group performance in 218 financial services teams that were branches of a bank in Hong Kong and the United States. Transformational leadership influenced team performance through the mediating effect of team potency. The effect of transformational leadership on team potency was moderated by team power distance and team collectivism, such

John Schaubroeck; Simon S. K. Lam; Sandra E. Cha

2007-01-01

35

Systematic evaluation of nuclear operator team skills training: a progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on the development of a systematic evaluation process that will help nuclear utilities assess the effectiveness of their existing team skills training programs for control room operators. Research focuses on defining the specific behavioral and attitudinal objectives of team skills training. A working list of specific behavioral markers that reflect good communication, crew coordination, command responsibility, and

D. K. Harrington; J. E. Kello

1992-01-01

36

Basic Life Support Skills of Doctors in a Hospital Resuscitation Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

TOK, D., KELES ¸, G.T., TASYÜZ, T., YENTÜR, E.A. and TOPRAK, V. Basic Life Sup- port Skills of Doctors in a Hospital Resuscitation Team. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2004, 203 (2), 123-128 ?? The aim of the present study was to evaluate the basic life sup- port skills of doctors in a hospital resuscitation team and to identify potential factors

Demet Tok; Gönül Tezcan Keles; Taner Tasyüz; Emin Alp Yentür; Verda Toprak

2004-01-01

37

Armor/Anti-Armor Team Tactical Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of REALTRAIN engagement simulation training and to identify tactical team performances associated with mission accomplishment. Eight armor/anti-armor units received a pretraining tactical t...

T. D. Scott L. L. Meliza G. D. Hardy J. H. Banks

1979-01-01

38

Skill-dependent proximal-to-distal sequence in team-handball throwing.  

PubMed

The importance of proximal-to-distal sequencing in human performance throwing has been reported previously. However, a comprehensive comparison of the proximal-to-distal sequence in team-handball throwing in athletes with different training experience and competition is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare the ball velocity and proximal-to-distal sequence in the team-handball standing throw with run-up of players of different skill (less experienced, experienced, and elite). Twenty-four male team-handball players (n = 8 for each group) performed five standing throws with run-up with maximal ball velocity and accuracy. Kinematics and ball trajectories were recorded with a Vicon motion capture system and joint movements were calculated. A specific proximal-to-distal sequence, where elbow flexion occurred before shoulder internal rotation, was found in all three groups. These results are in line with previous studies in team-handball. Furthermore, the results of the present study suggest that in the team-handball standing throw with run-up, increased playing experience is associated with an increase in ball velocity as well as a delayed start to trunk flexion. PMID:22111879

Wagner, Herbert; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Von Duvillard, Serge P; Müller, Erich

2011-11-23

39

Identifying and training non-technical skills of nuclear emergency response teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training of the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills that are crucial to safe and effective management by teams in emergency situations is an issue that is receiving increasing emphasis in many organisations, particularly in the nuclear power industry. As teams play a major role in emergency response organisations (ERO), effective functioning and interactions within, between and across teams is crucial,

M. T Crichton; R Flin

2004-01-01

40

Identifying the team skills required by nuclear power plant operations personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify the team skills required by nuclear power plant operations team members. An initial domain familiarization consisted of a review of company documentation, observations in the control room, on-plant and in the simulator, and role interviews. In the second phase, critical incident technique (CIT) interviews were carried out with 38 operations team members

Paul O’Connor; Angela O’Dea; Rhona Flin; Steve Belton

2008-01-01

41

An Effective Expert Team Formation in Social Networks Based on Skill Grading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel approach for forming an effective expert team in social network is proposed by using of skill grading and minimum communication cost. In this work, first a framework is recommended to determine skill level of experts based on their skill abilities and their collaboration among expert neighbors. Second, the existing diameter algorithm is extended to its

Farnoush Farhadi; Maryam Sorkhi; Sattar Hashemi; Ali Hamzeh

2011-01-01

42

Trends of tactical performance analysis in team sports: bridging the gap between research, training and competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance in Team Sports is carried out through a long term and methodical training process planned to improve skills and competence required to deal with competitive demands. Despite that tactical constraint play a major role in Team Sports performance the history of its scientific analysis has been driven by physiological and biomechanical approach, pay - ing little attention to the

Júlio Garganta

43

Interactions of Team Mental Models and Monitoring Behaviors Predict Team Performance in Simulated Anesthesia Inductions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present study, we investigated how two team mental model properties (similarity vs. accuracy) and two forms of monitoring behavior (team vs. systems) interacted to predict team performance in anesthesia. In particular, we were interested in whether the relationship between monitoring behavior and team performance was moderated by team

Burtscher, Michael J.; Kolbe, Michaela; Wacker, Johannes; Manser, Tanja

2011-01-01

44

Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators  

SciTech Connect

Previous research has shown the value of good team interaction skills to group performance, yet little progress has been made on in terms of how such skills can be measured. In this study rating scales developed previously (Montgomery, et al., 1990) were extensively revised and cast into a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) and a Behavioral Frequency format. Rating data were collected using 13 training instructors at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant, who rated three videotapes of simulator scenario performance during a day-long training session and later evaluated control room crews during requalification training. High levels of interrater agreement on both rating scales were found. However, the factor structure of the ratings was generally inconsistent with that hypothesized. Analysis of training ratings using Cronbach`s components of accuracy (Cronbach, 1955) indicated that BARS ratings generally exhibited less error than did the Behavioral Frequency ratings. The results are discussed in terms of both field and research implications.

Montgomery, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Toquam, J. [Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Gaddy, C. [General Physics Corp., Columbia, MD (United States)

1991-09-01

45

Affective assessment of team skills in agile CS1 labs: the good, the bad, and the ugly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team experiences can be important learning experiences, and industry highly values team skills in graduates. Low retention rates might also be improved with early team experiences because team experiences have been linked to increases in the sense of belonging, a key retention factor. Team experiences in upper-level courses could also benefit from earlier team experiences. The purpose of this paper

Dawn McKinney; Leo F. Denton

2005-01-01

46

Leadership in high-performance teams: a model for superior team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to explore how high performing teams create exponential growth. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Characteristics of the market within which the high-performance team operated are described as accelerated change (high velocity) and knowledge creation (innovation and research). These characteristics more often than not describe characteristics of firms operating in the global enterprise system. The opinions and experiences expressed are articulated

Linda S. Wing

2005-01-01

47

Speech acts, communication problems, and fighter pilot team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two aspects of team communication, speech acts and communication problems, and their relation to team performance in a team air combat simulator were studied. The purpose was to enhance the understanding of how team performance is related to team communication. Ten Swedish fighter pilots and four fighter controllers of varying experience participated. Data were collected during fighter simulator training involving

Jonathan Svensson; Jan Andersson

2006-01-01

48

Performance gains through diverse top management teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging and future changes in workforce diversity have caused a need to examine the potential impact of these changes on all areas of the firm. One area of special interest is that of top management team (TMT) diversity. With more diverse TMTs on the horizon, there is potential for both conflict and performance gains as a result of increased diversity

Charles M. Carson; Don C. Mosley; Scott L. Boyar

2004-01-01

49

Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills): Business and Industrial Supervisors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills) instructional materials consist of five units for use in training business and industrial supervisors. Unit 1 is designed to help managers in business or industry increase management skills in regard to leadership techniques, problem solving and decision making, and…

Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

50

Examining the Linkages between Team Learning Behaviors and Team Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey on learning processes received 90% response from 141 managers in Brunei. Individual learning was not significantly related to organizational learning. Learning within teams was partially related to organizational learning. Cross-functional team learning was significantly related to organizational learning. A three-factor model of…

Chan, Christopher C. A.; Lim, Lynn; Keasberry, Siew Kuan

2003-01-01

51

Building Leadership: Peak Performance Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the California School Leadership Academy and how it develops the attitudes and attributes needed by school leaders for the development of proactive leadership skills. Includes tables outlining the attributes. (MD)|

MacAdam, Millard

1986-01-01

52

Trust in Leadership and Team Performance: Evidence From NCAA Basketball  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study empirically examined the relationship between trust, leadership, and team performance with 2 objectives. The 1st objective was to empirically examine an assumption found in several literatures—that a team's trust in its leader has a significant effect on the team's performance. The 2nd objective was to explore a more complex and dynamic relationship between trust and team performance whereby

Kurt T. Dirks

2000-01-01

53

Effect of Personality Style and Team Organization on Team Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The continual advancement of technology and the increasing complexity of the operational environments for the military have necessitated the proliferation of team-based operations. The use of personality styles is one possible way to go beyond normal demo...

T. W. Hannen

2007-01-01

54

Distributed leadership in teams: The network of leadership perceptions and team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses social network analysis to examine distributed leadership in work teams. We used sociometric data from 28 field-based sales teams to investigate how the network structure of leadership perceptions considered at the team level of analysis was related to team performance. We failed to find support for the idea that the more leadership is distributed across the members

Ajay Mehra; Brett R. Smith; Andrea L. Dixon; Bruce Robertson

2006-01-01

55

Training High Performance Skills: Fallacies and Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high performance skill is defined as one which: over 100 hours of training are required, substantial numbers of individuals fail to develop proficiency, and the performance of the expert is qualitatively different from that of the novice. Training progr...

W. Schneider

1984-01-01

56

Is the Most Effective Team Leadership Shared? The Impact of Shared Leadership, Age Diversity, and Coordination on Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper we examine the moderating effects of age diversity and team coordination on the relationship between shared leadership and team performance. Using a field sample of 96 individuals in 26 consulting project teams, team members assessed their team’s shared leadership and coordination. Six to eight weeks later, supervisors rated their teamsperformance. Results indicated that shared leadership

Julia Elisabeth Hoch; Craig L. Pearce; Linda Welzel

2010-01-01

57

Imagery use of athletes in individual and team sports that require open and closed skill.  

PubMed

This study compared use of imagery in elite male and female athletes in open and closed and individual or team sports. A total of 151 elite Turkish athletes ages 15 to 29 years old (males' M age=20.7 yr., SD=3.3; females' M age=20.0 yr., SD=3.5) from open-team sports (n=66), open-individual sports (n=26), and closed-individual sports (n=59) completed the sport imagery questionnaire. A significant multivariate effect of sport type was found. Univariate analyses indicated that male and female athletes in team open-skill sports and individual closed-skill sports used more motivational general-mastery imagery than did athletes in individual open-skill sports. PMID:22913017

Kizildag, Esen; Tiryaki, M Sefik

2012-06-01

58

Relationship Between Psychological Skill Profiles and Soldier Physical Fitness Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the structure of soldier's psychological skills and assess the relationship between psychological skills profiles and physical performance with data from 427 soldiers from a Stryker Brigade. Exploratory factor analyses results provided empirical support for a three-factor structure that included foundation skills, psychosomatic skills, and cognitive skills. Cluster analysis revealed three emergent psychological skills profile groups: (a) strong skills,

Jon Hammermeister; Michael A. Pickering; Leigh McGraw; Carl Ohlson

2010-01-01

59

UNDERSTANDING TEAM COGNITION IN PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT TEAMS: A META ANALYSIS OF CHANGE IN SHARED MENTAL MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team cognition is comprised of several factors including shared knowledge or shared mental models (SMM). As there is little agreement about best methods for measuring SMM, this study utilized data from four previous studies and the ACSMM methodology for analysis of data. Findings about SMM in Performance Improvement teams indicate that changes in SMM take place during team task performance

Debra L. O'Connor; Tristan E. Johnson

60

Interaction mining and skill-dependent recommendations for multi-objective team composition  

PubMed Central

Web-based collaboration and virtual environments supported by various Web 2.0 concepts enable the application of numerous monitoring, mining and analysis tools to study human interactions and team formation processes. The composition of an effective team requires a balance between adequate skill fulfillment and sufficient team connectivity. The underlying interaction structure reflects social behavior and relations of individuals and determines to a large degree how well people can be expected to collaborate. In this paper we address an extended team formation problem that does not only require direct interactions to determine team connectivity but additionally uses implicit recommendations of collaboration partners to support even sparsely connected networks. We provide two heuristics based on Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing for discovering efficient team configurations that yield the best trade-off between skill coverage and team connectivity. Our self-adjusting mechanism aims to discover the best combination of direct interactions and recommendations when deriving connectivity. We evaluate our approach based on multiple configurations of a simulated collaboration network that features close resemblance to real world expert networks. We demonstrate that our algorithm successfully identifies efficient team configurations even when removing up to 40% of experts from various social network configurations.

Dorn, Christoph; Skopik, Florian; Schall, Daniel; Dustdar, Schahram

2011-01-01

61

Performance Implications of Leader Briefings and Team-Interaction Training for Team Adaptation to Novel Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined how leader briefings and team-interaction training influence team members' knowledge structures concerning processes related to effective performance in both routine and novel environments. Two-hundred thirty-seven undergraduates from a large mid-Atlantic university formed 79 three-member tank platoon teams and participated in a low-fidelity tank simulation. Team-interaction training, leader briefings, and novelty of performance environment were manipulated. Findings indicated

Michelle A. Marks; Stephen J. Zaccaro; John E. Mathieu

2000-01-01

62

Top Management Team Internationalization and Firm Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

• \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This paper develops a multi-dimensional construct of top management team (TMT) internationalization reflecting TMT ability\\u000a to deal with challenges of managing firm foreign operations in the process of ongoing globalization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Drawing upon upper echelons and firm internationalization theories, the relationships between TMT internationalization, foreign\\u000a market entry and performance are empirically investigated in a sample of 165 Swiss listed

Sabina Nielsen

2010-01-01

63

Individual Differences in Skilled Performance Errors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three studies were conducted to investigate questions concerning which type of individual is most susceptible to errors in skilled (highly practiced) cognitive task performance. The first study was a small pilot project conducted with university students....

D. J. Woltz M. K. Gardner B. G. Bell

1997-01-01

64

Self-managing selling teams and team performance: The complementary roles of empowerment and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is the first to examine systematically the influence of empowerment and control on the degree to which selling teams engage in desired self-managing behaviors. Further, this work is the first to propose the construct of desired self-managing behaviors in a selling team context, and empirically examine its influence on selling team performance. Our investigation indicates that control of

C. Jay Lambe; Kevin L. Webb; Chiharu Ishida

2009-01-01

65

Safety investigation of team performance in accidents.  

PubMed

The paper presents the capacities of the performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) method. Its practicability and efficiency are illustrated by retrospective human reliability analyse of the famous nuclear and maritime accidents. A quantitative assessment of operators' performance on the base of thermo-hydraulic (T/H) calculations and full-scope simulator data for set of NPP design basic accidents with WWER is demonstrated. The last data are obtained on the 'WWER-1000' full-scope simulator of Kozloduy NPP during the regular practical training of the operators' teams. An outlook on the "evaluation system of main control room (MCR) operators' reliability" project, based on simulator data of operators' training is given. PMID:15231353

Petkov, G; Todorov, V; Takov, T; Petrov, V; Stoychev, K; Vladimirov, V; Chukov, I

2004-07-26

66

Developing Team Skills with Self- and Peer Assessment: Are Benefits Inversely Related to Team Function?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Self- and peer assessment has proved effective in promoting the development of teamwork and other professional skills in undergraduate students. However, in previous research approximately 30 percent of students reported that its use produced no perceived improvement in their teamwork experience. It was hypothesised that a significant…

Willey, Keith; Gardner, Anne

2009-01-01

67

Enhancing Skills for a Competitive World. Report of the Action Team on Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication discusses reforms in lifelong learning undertaken in the 11 states represented on the National Governors' Association Action Team on Lifelong Learning. It is a catalog of initiatives to create greater opportunities for youth and adults to obtain skills needed to compete effectively in a global economy. The reforms discussed in…

National Governors' Association, Washington, DC.

68

Student self-assessed medication therapy management skills resulting from caring for uninsured patients using team-based care  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionStudent-delivered medication therapy management (MTM) skills can be enhanced using many aspects of team-based learning and active learning principles. The use of student care teams comprised of students from differing academic years of pharmacy education, in the care of underserved patients, can help to hone student MTM skills before graduation.

John R. Tomko; Autumn L. Runyon; Holly Lassila

2011-01-01

69

The impact of sports on team performance management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this editorial is to introduce the special issue on the relationship of performance management to sports teams. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper explains the importance of performance management to sports teams and justifies the need for the special issue. Findings – The paper finds that there are a variety of different types of teams that operate

Vanessa Ratten

2009-01-01

70

Using Linguistic Analysis to Identify High Performing Teams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective military teams assess ever-changing situations, generate ideas to improve situations, and make decisions, often in threatening environments. Being able to identify teams that perform these tasks effectively would be beneficial for supervisors, t...

L. G. Pierce M. T. Dzindolet

2006-01-01

71

How to create high-performing teams.  

PubMed

This article is intended to discuss inspirational aspects on how to lead a high-performance team. Cogent topics discussed include how to hire staff through methods of "topgrading" with reference to Geoff Smart and "getting the right people on the bus" referencing Jim Collins' work. In addition, once the staff is hired, this article covers how to separate the "eagles from the ducks" and how to inspire one's staff by creating the right culture with suggestions for further reading by Don Miguel Ruiz (The four agreements) and John Maxwell (21 Irrefutable laws of leadership). In addition, Simon Sinek's concept of "Start with Why" is elaborated to help a leader know what the core element should be with any superior culture. PMID:20127598

Lam, Samuel M

2010-02-01

72

Introductory Computer Programming: Performance and Language Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of student performance in an introductory college-level computer programming course described in this paper focuses on the relationship between student language skills as measured by the SAT test, an d test scores obtained on multiple-choice questions and word programming problems. 96 students enrolled in CS, EE, MIS majors participated in the study. Performance on the test was examined

Barbara T. Pioro

73

The relationship between intercultural effectiveness and perceived project team performance in the context of international development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working effectively in the development context—humanitarian aid or capacity building as in any intercultural context requires specific skills and abilities such as special knowledge of human relationships as these projects bring people together from different cultures, mentalities, and backgrounds. The research examines the relationship between intercultural effectiveness and project team performance in the international development field based on the Canadian

Diana Simkhovych

2009-01-01

74

Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

Miller, M.A.

1996-08-01

75

Gender and practical skill performance in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of 18 boys and 18 girls on four problem-solving tasks set in science contexts was compared. The tasks were administered in a one-to-one testing situation and assessments were made by direct observation, questioning, and by using written records. The tasks were valid and reliable, and the samples of boys and girls were matched for ability and curriculum background. Past studies have identified gender differences in performance on science tasks; however, this study found little evidence to support these findings. Few significant differences in performance were found. No gender differences were detected in observation, reporting, or planning skills, and there was no differential performance on the use of scientific language. Girls performed less well in relation to self-reliance, and performance differences on the interpretation skill approached significance with boys' performance superior.

Lock, Roger

76

The performance and assessment of hospital trauma teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the trauma team is to provide advanced simultaneous care from relevant specialists to the seriously injured trauma patient. When functioning well, the outcome of the trauma team performance should be greater than the sum of its parts. Trauma teams have been shown to reduce the time taken for resuscitation, as well as time to CT scan, to

Andrew Georgiou; David J Lockey

2010-01-01

77

Developing emotional intelligence as a means to increase team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of work teams continue to be an area receiving attention in academic fields. Team work, has, over the past few years, become integral component of many workplaces. One area which is emerging as a key indicator of team task performance is emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is the ability to accurately appraise and express emotion in oneself and others.

Lyn Murphy

2009-01-01

78

Achieving Management Skills. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prepared as part of Platte Technical Community College's project to help managers and supervisors develop practical, up-to-date managerial skills in a relatively short time, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations. Unit I focuses on time management, the causes and management of stress,…

Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

79

TeamSTEPPS™: Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS™) is a systematic approach developed by the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to integrate teamwork into practice. It is designed to improve the quality, safety, and the efficiency of health care. TeamSTEPPS is based on 25 years of research related to

Mary Salisbury

80

The evaluation of crew factors in aircrew team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the role of crew performance in the overall context of team performance and flight safety. The concept of cockpit resource management (CRM) is discussed, together with that of line-oriented flight training. Techniques for the enhancement of team performance as derived from research are reported. These include the effects of automation on cockpit resource management and the use

B. G. Kanki

1992-01-01

81

Performance factors in women's team handball: physical and physiological aspects--a review.  

PubMed

Team handball is an Olympic sport played professionally in many European countries. Nevertheless, a scientific knowledge regarding women's elite team handball demands is limited. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 33) on physical characteristics, physiological attributes, physical attributes, throwing velocity, and on-court performances of women's team handball players. Such empirical and practical information is essential to design and implement successful short-term and long-term training programs for women's team handball players. Our review revealed that (a) players that have a higher skill level are taller and have a higher fat-free mass; (b) players who are more aerobically resistant are at an advantage in international level women team handball; (c) strength and power exercises should be emphasized in conditioning programs, because they are associated with both sprint performance and throwing velocity; (d) speed drills should also be implemented in conditioning programs but after a decrease in physical training volume; (e) a time-motion analysis is an effective method of quantifying the demands of team handball and provides a conceptual framework for the specific physical preparation of players. According to our results, there are only few studies on on-court performance and time-motion analysis for women's team handball players, especially concerning acceleration profiles. More studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of different training programs of women's team handball players' physiological and physical attributes. PMID:23439330

Manchado, Carmen; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan; Vila, Helena; Ferragut, Carmen; Platen, Petra

2013-06-01

82

Emotional intelligence competencies in the team and team leader : A multi-level examination of the impact of emotional intelligence on team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships among team leader emotional intelligence competencies, team level emotional intelligence, and team performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – It is argued here that the team leader's emotional intelligence (EI) will influence the development of group level emotional intelligence (GEI), which was measured by a team's emotionally competent group norms (ECGN). Second,

Elizabeth Stubbs Koman; Steven B. Wolff

2008-01-01

83

Communication and Performance in Co-Located and Distributed Teams: An Issue of Shared Mental Models of Team Members?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to test whether the shared mental models of team members have an effect on team performance, communication, and physical arousal in two distributed teams in pursuit of a common goal. A sample (N = 15) of newly formed navy teams was compared with a sample (N = 13) of seasoned navy teams. The

Roar Espevik; Bjørn Helge Johnsen; Jarle Eid

2011-01-01

84

Shirt color and team performance in sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color of sportswear has a decisive influence on the likelihood of winning in many individual sports contests such as boxing, tae kwon do, wrestling, or judo. Analyzing data from the German Bundesliga, we show that this effect does not exist in one of the most popular team sports, namely (European) football. Possible reasons for the different influence of the

Matthias Sutter; Martin G. Kocher

85

Comparison of manufacturing performance of three team structures in semiconductor plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing programs aimed at improving performance often feature employee teams that address production problems at the shop-floor level. According to cognitive models of participation, performance under such programs is improved via the better utilization of skills and knowledge that occurs as employees are allowed greater decision making in their tasks. The authors examine the cognitive-model premise in a high-technology industry

Diane E. Bailey

1998-01-01

86

A study of collaborative learning style and team learning performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Self-directed work teams are seen as an important mechanism for dealing with today's complex and rapidly changing business environment. Team learning is an attempt to prepare students to real-world experiences. But, not all teamwork is effective. This paper aims to examine the influence of learning style preferences on team learning performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Style

Hulya Julie Yazici

2005-01-01

87

Leadership is the essential non-technical skill in the trauma team - results of a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of death for young people in Norway. Studies indicate that several of these deaths are avoidable if the patient receives correct initial treatment. The trauma team is responsible for initial hospital treatment of traumatized patients, and team members have previously reported that non-technical skills as communication, leadership and cooperation are the major challenges. Better

Magnus Hjortdahl; Amund H Ringen; Anne-Cathrine Naess; Torben Wisborg

2009-01-01

88

Team shared mental model as a contributing factor to team performance and students’ course satisfaction in blended courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine how team shared mental model (SMM), team performance, and students’ course satisfaction change over time and how Team-SMM affects team performance and students’ course satisfaction. Forty-eight preservice teachers from two undergraduate blended courses participated in this study. The data were obtained via two online questionnaires (shared mental model instrument and Course Satisfaction

Tristan E. Johnson; Ercan Top; Erman Yukselturk

2011-01-01

89

Physical Fitness, Injuries, and Team Performance in Soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ARNASON, A., S. B. SIGURDSSON, A. GUDMUNDSSON, I. HOLME, L. ENGEBRETSEN, and R. BAHR. Physical Fitness, Injuries, and Team Performance in Soccer. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 278 -285, 2004. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between physical fitness and team success in soccer, and to test for differences in physical fitness between different player positions. Methods:

ARNI ARNASON; STEFAN B. SIGURDSSON; ARNI GUDMUNDSSON; INGAR HOLME; LARS ENGEBRETSEN; ROALD BAHR

2004-01-01

90

Modeling and Analyzing Cultural Influences on Project Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on international joint ventures (IJV) finds managers experience difficulties in working with cross-cultural teams. Our research aims to understand how cultural differences between Japanese and American firms in IJV projects effect team performance through computational experimentation. We characterize culture and cultural differences using two dimensions: practices and values.Practices refer to each cultures typical organization style, such as centralization of

Tamaki Horii; Yan Jin; Raymond E. Levitt

2005-01-01

91

Effective Team Performance in Military Environments. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identification of psychological factors influencing team performance in the chemical, biological, and radiological defense (CBR-D) environment were identified by a system for task classification: (1) combining Herold's task demands and Holland's taxonomy of work environments and (2) describing the development and evaluation of team tasks. This…

Hogan, Robert; And Others

92

Developing observational measures of performance in surgical teams  

PubMed Central

Team performance is increasingly recognised as an essential foundation of good surgical care and a determinant of good surgical outcome. To understand team performance and to develop team training, reliable and valid measures of team performance are necessary. Currently there is no firm consensus on how to measure teamwork, partly because of a lack of empirical data to validate measures. The input–process–output model provides a framework for surgical team studies. Objective observational measures are needed in surgery as a basis for interdisciplinary team assessment and training. The "observational teamwork assessment for surgery" (OTAS) tool assesses two facets of the surgical process. Observer 1 monitors specific tasks carried out by team members, under the categories patient, environment, equipment, provisions, and communications. Observer 2 uses a behavioural observation scale to rate behaviour for the three surgical phases (pre-operative, operative, and post-operative) with components of teamwork: cooperation, leadership, coordination, awareness, and communication. Illustrative data from an initial series of 50 cases is presented here. The OTAS tool enables two independent observers, a surgeon and psychologist, to record detailed information both on what the theatre team does and how they do it, and has the potential to identify constraints on performance that might relate to surgical outcome.

Healey, A; Undre, S; Vincent, C

2004-01-01

93

Speech acts, communication problems, and fighter pilot team performance.  

PubMed

Two aspects of team communication, speech acts and communication problems, and their relation to team performance in a team air combat simulator were studied. The purpose was to enhance the understanding of how team performance is related to team communication. Ten Swedish fighter pilots and four fighter controllers of varying experience participated. Data were collected during fighter simulator training involving four pilots and one fighter controller in each of two teams. Speech acts were collapsed over seven categories and communication problems over five categories. Communication was studied from two perspectives: critical situation outcome and mission outcome. Some problems were closely related to particular speech acts. Speech act frequency, especially meta-communications and tactics, was highest when winning. However, the timing of tactics in critical situations needs further research. Communication problem frequency was highest for runs which ended equally. The most common problem was simultaneous speech, possibly because of the simulator radio system. The number of speech acts was related to enhanced performance but in a complex manner. Thus in order to work efficiently team members need to communicate, but to communicate sufficiently and at appropriate times. This work has applications for fighter pilot and controller team training and the development of communication standards. PMID:17008254

Svensson, Jonathan; Andersson, Jan

94

Team Behavior During Trauma Resuscitation: A Simulation-Based Performance Assessment  

PubMed Central

Introduction Trauma resuscitations require a coordinated response from a diverse group of health care providers. Currently, there are no widely accepted methods of assessing team effectiveness in this setting. Simulation affords a method to assess team effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to use a simulation setting to develop a specialized assessment instrument for team response in trauma resuscitation. Methods We developed our assessment instrument using clinical simulation. Four teams of 3 postgraduate year–2 surgical trainees in conjunction with scripted confederates were videotaped enacting 6 separate trauma resuscitation scenarios that mirrored clinical conditions encountered at our level 1 trauma center. Ten of the resulting videotaped scenarios represented a spectrum of team behavior (ineffective to effective) and were scored by 8 experienced clinicians using the Mayo High Performance Teamwork Scale. Results Based in part on the Mayo High Performance Teamwork Scale, we created a prototype trauma team assessment tool consisting of 7 attributes that we scored in binary fashion (present/absent). We validated this prototype by assigning a normalized ranking score to each of the 10 scenarios based on the score supplied by each rater. The presence/absence of the 7 attributes varied significantly among scenarios (52.5% to 93.8%; P?team effectiveness during trauma resuscitations. This instrument may prove useful for assessing team competency skills, providing timely feedback to teams, and examining the relationship between effective team function and clinically important outcomes. Further, it may be applicable to other high-acuity, time-sensitive clinical situations.

Hamilton, Nicholas; Freeman, Bradley D.; Woodhouse, Julie; Ridley, Clare; Murray, David; Klingensmith, Mary E.

2009-01-01

95

Computer-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Cognitive Approach to Team Training and Performance Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes progress related to a program of research in computer-based team training. We describe an approach to development of computer-based team training systems based on principles of cognitive skill acquisition and a functional conceptualiz...

J. W. Regian L. R. Elliott

2001-01-01

96

THE IMPACT OF TEAM EMPOWERMENT ON VIRTUAL TEAM PERFORMANCE: THE MODERATING ROLE OF FACE-TO-FACE INTERACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between team empowerment and virtual team performance and the moderating role of the extent of face-to-face interaction using 35 sales and service virtual teams in a high-technology organization. Team empowerment was positively related to two independent assessments of virtual team performance— process improvement and customer satisfaction. Further, the number of face-to-face meetings moderated the relationship between

Bradley L. Kirkman; BENSON ROSEN; PAUL E. TESLUK; CRISTINA B. GIBSON

2004-01-01

97

Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning.…

Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.

2012-01-01

98

Improving medical emergency team (MET) performance using a novel curriculum and a computerized human patient simulator  

PubMed Central

??Problem: Advance cardiac life support (ACLS) training does not address coordination of team resources to improve the ability of teams to deliver needed treatments reliably and rapidly. Our objective was to use a human simulation training educational environment to develop multidisciplinary team skills and improve medical emergency team (MET) performance. We report findings of a crisis team training course that is focused on organization. Setting: Large center for human simulation training at a university affiliated tertiary care hospital. Participants: Ten courses were delivered and 138 clinically experienced individuals were trained (69 critical care nurses, 48 physicians, and 21 respiratory therapists). All participants were ACLS trained and experienced in responding to cardiac arrest situations. Course design: Each course had four components: (1) a web based presentation and pretest before the course; (2) a brief reinforcing didactic session on the day of the course; (3) three of five different simulated scenarios; each followed by (4) debriefing and analysis with the team. Three of five simulator scenarios were used; scenario selection and order was random. Trainees did not repeat any scenario or role during the training. Participants were video recorded to assist debriefing. Debriefing focused on reinforcing organizational aspects of team performance: assuming designated roles independently, completing goals (tasks) assigned to each role, and directed communication. Measures for improvement: Participants graded their performance of specific organizational and treatment tasks within specified time intervals by consensus. Simulator "survival" depended on supporting oxygenation, ventilation, circulation within 60 seconds, and delivering the definitive treatment within 3 minutes. Effects of change: Simulated survival (following predetermined criteria for death) increased from 0% to 89%. The initial team task completion rate was 10–45% and rose to 80–95% during the third session. Lessons learnt: Training multidisciplinary teams to organize using simulation technology is feasible. This preliminary report warrants more detailed inquiry.

DeVita, M; Schaefer, J; Lutz, J; Wang, H; Dongilli, T

2005-01-01

99

Team Communication and Performance during Sustained Working Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of prolonged working conditions on individual performance are well documented. In addition, military field studies, sports team studies, and field expeditions have been conducted in a sustained context. However, there have been few controlled,...

D. L. Harville N. Lopez L. R. Elliott C. Barnes

2005-01-01

100

Tools for evaluating team performance in simulation-based training  

PubMed Central

Teamwork training constitutes one of the core approaches for moving healthcare systems toward increased levels of quality and safety, and simulation provides a powerful method of delivering this training, especially for face-paced and dynamic specialty areas such as Emergency Medicine. Team performance measurement and evaluation plays an integral role in ensuring that simulation-based training for teams (SBTT) is systematic and effective. However, this component of SBTT systems is overlooked frequently. This article addresses this gap by providing a review and practical introduction to the process of developing and implementing evaluation systems in SBTT. First, an overview of team performance evaluation is provided. Second, best practices for measuring team performance in simulation are reviewed. Third, some of the prominent measurement tools in the literature are summarized and discussed relative to the best practices. Subsequently, implications of the review are discussed for the practice of training teamwork in Emergency Medicine.

Rosen, Michael A; Weaver, Sallie J; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Salas, Eduardo; Wu, Teresa; Silvestri, Salvatore; Schiebel, Nicola; Almeida, Sandra; King, Heidi B

2010-01-01

101

Music Experience Influences Laparoscopic Skills Performance  

PubMed Central

Background: Music education affects the mathematical and visuo-spatial skills of school-age children. Visuo-spatial abilities have a significant effect on laparoscopic suturing performance. We hypothesize that prior music experience influences the performance of laparoscopic suturing tasks. Methods: Thirty novices observed a laparoscopic suturing task video. Each performed 3 timed suturing task trials. Demographics were recorded. A repeated measures linear mixed model was used to examine the effects of prior music experience on suturing task time. Results: Twelve women and 18 men completed the tasks. When adjusted for video game experience, participants who currently played an instrument performed significantly faster than those who did not (P<0.001). The model showed a significant sex by instrument interaction. Men who had never played an instrument or were currently playing an instrument performed better than women in the same group (P=0.002 and P<0.001). There was no sex difference in the performance of participants who had played an instrument in the past (P=0.29). Conclusion: This study attempted to investigate the effect of music experience on the laparoscopic suturing abilities of surgical novices. The visuo-spatial abilities used in laparoscopic suturing may be enhanced in those involved in playing an instrument.

Boyd, Tanner; Jung, Inkyung; Van Sickle, Kent; Schwesinger, Wayne; Michalek, Joel

2008-01-01

102

Attentional Focus, Dispositional Reinvestment, and Skilled Motor Performance Under Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attentional processes governing skilled motor behavior were examined in two studies. In Experiment 1, fi eld hockey players performed a dribbling task under single-task, dual-task, and skill-focused conditions under both low and high pressure situations. In Experiment 2, skilled soccer players performed a dribbling task under single-task, skill-focused, and process-goal conditions, again under low and high pressure situations. Results replicated

Robin C. Jackson; Kelly J. Ashford; Glen Norsworthy

103

Quantifying the Performance of Individual Players in a Team Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Teamwork is a fundamental aspect of many human activities, from business to art and from sports to science. Recent research suggest that team work is of crucial importance to cutting-edge scientific research, but little is known about how teamwork leads to greater creativity. Indeed, for many team activities, it is not even clear how to assign credit to individual team members. Remarkably, at least in the context of sports, there is usually a broad consensus on who are the top performers and on what qualifies as an outstanding performance. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to determine how individual features can be quantified, and as a test bed for other team-based human activities, we analyze the performance of players in the European Cup 2008 soccer tournament. We develop a network approach that provides a powerful quantification of the contributions of individual players and of overall team performance. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that generalizations of our approach could be useful in other contexts where quantification of the contributions of individual team members is important.

Duch, Jordi; Waitzman, Joshua S.; Amaral, Luis A. Nunes

2010-01-01

104

The Power of "We": Effects of Psychological Collectivism on Team Performance over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined the influences of different facets of psychological collectivism (Preference, Reliance, Concern, Norm Acceptance, and Goal Priority) on team functioning at 3 different performance depictions: initial team performance, end-state team performance, and team performance change over time. We also tested the extent to which team-member…

Dierdorff, Erich C.; Bell, Suzanne T.; Belohlav, James A.

2011-01-01

105

TEAM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including the…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

106

Safety investigation of team performance in accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the capacities of the performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) method. Its practicability and efficiency are illustrated by retrospective human reliability analyse of the famous nuclear and maritime accidents. A quantitative assessment of operators’ performance on the base of thermo-hydraulic (T\\/H) calculations and full-scope simulator data for set of NPP design basic accidents with WWER is demonstrated. The

G Petkov; V Todorov; T Takov; V Petrov; K Stoychev; V Vladimirov; I Chukov

2004-01-01

107

Getting Groups to Develop Good Strategies: Effects of Reflexivity Interventions on Team Process, Team Performance, and Shared Mental Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the effect of guided reflection on team processes and performance, based on West's (1996, 2000) concept of reflexivity. Communicating via e-mail, 49 hierarchically structured teams (one commander and two specialists) performed seven 15 min shifts of a simulated team-based military air-surveillance task (TAST) in two meetings,…

Gurtner, Andrea; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K.; Nagele, Christof

2007-01-01

108

Effects of empowering leadership on performance in management team : Mediating effects of knowledge sharing and team cohesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to extend an integrated model of the antecedents that help explain and predict team performance in relation to empowering leadership behaviors. To this end, the authors examine the intervening roles of knowledge sharing and team cohesion in the relationship between empowering leadership and performance in teams. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were obtained from

Hui-Ling Tung; Yu-Hsuan Chang

2011-01-01

109

Performance Management of Agile Software Development Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the same time as the emergence of agile methods as a formalized concept, the management accounting literature introduced the concept of Beyond Budgeting as a performance management model for a changing business environment. Both concepts share many similarities with both having a distinctly agile or adaptive perspective. The Beyond Budgeting model promises to enable companies to keep pace with

Garry Lohan; Michael Lang; Kieran Conboy

110

Teaming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaming is a method of grouping students so they share the same set of teachers for their core subject areas--science, math, language arts, social studies, and sometimes physical education and health. Most often, teams are created when an entire grade is broken into groups who share the same set of teachers. Small schools that do not have enough students to form teams can create a grade-level team or multigrade-level teams. The core subject teachers usually share a common planning period and, in many situations, also share a team planning period. Teaming is most often used in middle grades education because its positive outcomes are particularly appropriate to the developmental needs of young adolescents.

Swango, C. J.; Steward, Sally B.

2003-01-01

111

Oxytocin and the biopsychology of performance in team sports.  

PubMed

Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport. PMID:22997498

Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J

2012-09-10

112

Getting groups to develop good strategies: Effects of reflexivity interventions on team process, team performance, and shared mental models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of guided reflection on team processes and performance, based on West’s (1996, 2000) concept of reflexivity. Communicating via e-mail, 49 hierarchically structured teams (one commander and two specialists) performed seven 15min shifts of a simulated team-based military air-surveillance task (TAST) in two meetings, a week apart. At the beginning of the second meeting, teams were

Andrea Gurtner; Franziska Tschan; Norbert K. Semmer; Christof Nägele

2007-01-01

113

78 FR 58567 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...improved advanced mine rescue training for coal mine rescue teams...exercises to provide more hands-on skills training to enhance team performance...instruction guide to add realistic hands-on exercises for skills training on equipment. The...

2013-09-24

114

Match score affects activity profile and skill performance in professional Australian Football players.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence of quarter outcome and the margin of the score differential on both the physical activity profile and skill performance of players during professional Australian Football matches. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal. METHODS: Physical activity profiles were assessed via microtechnology (Global Positioning System and accelerometer) from 40 professional AF players from the same team during 15 Australian Football League games. Skill performance measures (involvement and effectiveness) and player rank scores (Champion Data(©) Rank) were provided by a commercial statistical provider. The physical performance variables, skill involvements and individual player performance scores were expressed relative to playing time for each quarter. The influence of the quarter result (i.e. win vs. loss) and score margin (i.e. small: <9 points, moderate: 10-18 points, and large: >19 points) on activity profile and skill involvements and skill efficiency performance of players were examined. RESULTS: Skill involvements (total disposals/min, long kicks/min, marks/min, running bounces/min and player rank/min) were greater in quarters won (all p<0.01). In contrast, the players high speed running distance per minute (>14.5kmh(-1), HSR/min), sprints/min and peak speed were higher in losing quarters (all p<0.01). Smaller score margins were associated with increased physical activity (m/min, HSR/min, and body load/min, all p<0.05) and decreased skill efficiency (handball clangers/min and player rank/min, all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Professional AF players are likely to have an increased physical activity profile and decreased skill involvement and proficiency when their team is less successful. PMID:23770325

Sullivan, Courtney; Bilsborough, Johann C; Cianciosi, Michael; Hocking, Joel; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

2013-06-13

115

Motivating Your Team: Coaching for Performance in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to help you get the best out of your team, this practical book shows you how to motivate and engage people through the effective design, application and review of performance management. Checklists and practical guidance notes are provided to help you understand the principles and practice of effective performance management and how the…

Taylor, Peter R.

2007-01-01

116

Team Performance Prediction in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we propose a comprehensive performance management tool for measuring and reporting operational activities of teams. This study uses performance data of game players and teams in EverQuest II, a popular MMORPG developed by Sony Online Entertainment, to build performance prediction models for task performing teams. The prediction models provide a projection of task performing team's future performance

Kyong Jin Shim; Jaideep Srivastava

2010-01-01

117

Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects On Team Shared Mental Models And Team Performance In An Undergraduate Meteorology Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared mental models (SMM) are defined as “knowledge structure(s) held by each member of a team that enables them to form accurate explanations and expectations for the [team and task], and in turn, to coordinate their actions and adapt their behavior to demands of the task and other team members”(Cannon-Bowers, Salas, & Converse, 1993, p. 228). Team member knowledge and

Eric Glen Sikorski

2009-01-01

118

The performance environment of the England youth soccer teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a semi-structured protocol with a prospective sample, national coaches (n = 6), sport scientists (n = 3), and players (n = 4) were interviewed directly following international tournaments about the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. Qualitative content analysis revealed the following factors as major positive influences on performance:

Matthew A. Pain; Chris Harwood

2007-01-01

119

Using the stepladder technique to improve team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests whether the stepladder technique, in which the entry of members to a group is structured and every member is forced to contribute, can improve team performance in managerial problem solving. After completing the problem (the NASA moon landing exercise) individually, 160 management students were randomly assigned to one of 40 four-member groups in either the stepladder condition or the

Christopher Orpen

1995-01-01

120

The Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource improves performance of practical skills: a controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background E-learning is a common and popular mode of educational delivery, but little is known about its effectiveness in teaching practical skills. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource in addition to usual teaching improved the performance of practical skills in physiotherapy students. Method This study was a non-randomised controlled trial. The participants were graduate entry physiotherapy students enrolled in consecutive semesters of a neurological physiotherapy unit of study. The experimental group received the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource as well as usual teaching. The Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource is an online resource incorporating (i) video-clips of patient-therapist simulations; (ii) supportive text describing the aim, rationale, equipment, key points, common errors and methods of progression; and (iii) a downloadable PDF document incorporating the online text information and a still image of the video-clip for each practical skill. The control group received usual teaching only. The primary outcomes were the overall performance of practical skills as well as their individual components, measured using a practical examination. Results The implementation of the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource resulted in an increase of 1.6 out of 25 (95% CI ?0.1 to 3.3) in the experimental group compared with the control group. In addition, the experimental group scored 0.5 points out of 4 (95% CI 0 to 1.1) higher than the control group for ‘effectiveness of the practical skill’ and 0.6 points out of 4 (95% CI 0.1 to 1.1) higher for ‘rationale for the practical skill’. Conclusion There was improvement in performance of practical skills in students who had access to the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource in addition to usual teaching. Students considered the resource to be very useful for learning.

2012-01-01

121

Sports teams as superorganisms: implications of sociobiological models of behaviour for research and practice in team sports performance analysis.  

PubMed

Significant criticisms have emerged on the way that collective behaviours in team sports have been traditionally evaluated. A major recommendation has been for future research and practice to focus on the interpersonal relationships developed between team players during performance. Most research has typically investigated team game performance in subunits (attack or defence), rather than considering the interactions of performers within the whole team. In this paper, we offer the view that team performance analysis could benefit from the adoption of biological models used to explain how repeated interactions between grouping individuals scale to emergent social collective behaviours. We highlight the advantages of conceptualizing sports teams as functional integrated 'super-organisms' and discuss innovative measurement tools, which might be used to capture the superorganismic properties of sports teams. These tools are suitable for revealing the idiosyncratic collective behaviours underlying the cooperative and competitive tendencies of different sports teams, particularly their coordination of labour and the most frequent channels of communication and patterns of interaction between team players. The principles and tools presented here can serve as the basis for novel approaches and applications of performance analysis devoted to understanding sports teams as cohesive, functioning, high-order organisms exhibiting their own peculiar behavioural patterns. PMID:22715927

Duarte, Ricardo; Araújo, Duarte; Correia, Vanda; Davids, Keith

2012-08-01

122

Improving Training and Performance of Navy Teams: A Design for a Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design for a large-scale research program on improving Navy team effectiveness. The report assesses the most critical Navy teams, identifies deficiencies in the performance of these teams, and recommends new research that could lead to significant impro...

P. W. Thorndyke M. G. Weiner P. Carpenter-Huffman T. Donaldson R. S. Gaines

1980-01-01

123

Impacts of dairy diagnostic teams on herd performance.  

PubMed

This study evaluated impacts of educational diagnostic teams of consultants used to transfer technology to dairy farms. Herd management performance changes were measured by comparing Dairy Herd Improvement data from 38 project farms to data from herds that were geographical contemporaries. The value of focused goals for effecting change was also assessed. Interviews provided producers' perception of project outcomes and insight on organization and conduct of dairy diagnostic teams. Changes observed in project herds were small compared with controls with tendencies for increased herd size and improved milk production per cow. Focused goals had greater impacts on increasing herd size, milk per cow, first lactation peak milk, reducing age at first calving, and percentages of cows with subclinical mastitis. Time, money, facility limitations, labor, and alternative priorities were the most cited constraints to implementing changes. Satisfaction scores of producers were significantly related to the degree that team recommendations were followed. Improved attitudes, quality of life, and financial well-being were benefits listed by a majority of producers from participation in the project. If similar projects were to be offered, 83% said they would participate again, and 69% indicated they would pay at least some of the costs. Project farms served as demonstration farms for 1930 other producers in their respective locales, resulting in a multiplier effect of original advice given by consultant teams. Suggestions by farmer participants for improvements in dairy diagnostic teams included needs for at least some unbiased team members, more frequent meetings, more follow-up on recommendations, and consistency of recommendations with family goals. PMID:12778597

Weinand, D; Conlin, B J

2003-05-01

124

Age, Psychological Skills, and Golf Performance: A Prospective Investigation.  

PubMed

This study explored the influence of age in understanding mental skills utilization in the context of performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who ranged in age and in skill level, included 1,150 male and 170 female amateur golfers competing in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Championship in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Measures targeted general mental skills used in competitions, golf-specific skills, and competitive trait anxiety. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to explore the potential moderating role that chronological age may play in influencing the impact of psychological skills and anxiety on competitive tournament performance across the adult life span. Findings suggested no significant age-moderating effects and instead pointed to the importance of developing golf-specific psychological skills to enhance or maintain performance, irrespective of age. Although automaticity (performance feels "automatic") predicted performance for all golfers, commitment to the game and confidence in one's putting did so only for the men. These findings reinforce the age-irrelevant role of such skills in fostering the experience of peak performance in a competitive sport context and underscore the importance of interventions targeting older players to help maintain or facilitate the use of psychological skills in helping them manage their games. PMID:23525546

Hayslip, Bert; Petrie, Trent A

2013-03-22

125

Coach Succession and Team Performance: The Impact of Ability and Timing -- Swedish Ice Hockey Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to identify a function for the team performance for professional ice hockey teams in Sweden. In order to understand how team performance relates to key variables such as coaching ability and coaching experience and succession, the OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) and the more robust quantile regression techniques are used to estimate team performance for

Khalik Salman; Leif Arnesson; Ghazi Shukur

2009-01-01

126

Schneider Skills Enhancement Program. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Schneider Skills Enhancement Program is a workplace literacy partnership between the medical manufacturing firm Schneider, Inc., and the Adult Academic Program of the Robbinsdale Area Schools in Minnesota. A literacy audit of 39 Schneider employees established a need for instruction in literacy, numeracy, and English as a Second Language (ESL)…

Schneider (USA), Inc., Plymouth, MN.

127

Understanding Changes in Team-Related and Task-Related Mental Models and their Effects on Team and Individual Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study originated from efforts to find ways to enhance team and individual performance in team-based projects. Through literature reviews, it was recognized that the theory of shared mental models has explained the close relationship between shared mental models and performance. Even though many researchers have studied shared mental models, the field of studies is still developing. From building a

Mi Young Lee

2007-01-01

128

The Port of Baltimore Workplace Skills Development Project. Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Port of Baltimore Workplace Skills Development Project had the following objectives: perform literacy audits on at least 20 job titles within the port-related industries; develop curriculum modules providing literacy skill instruction using a functional context approach reflecting the Port of Baltimore needs; offer instructional services to…

Amarantides, Niki; Blumner, Ellen

129

Stimulating the Potential: Creative Performance and Communication in Innovation Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creativity is essential to successful new product development efforts. Teams constitute the organizing principle in most modern innovation activities. Although creativity research has revealed many factors influencing individual creativity, little is known about how team-level creativity is determined. Since the creative innovation task requires teams to combine and integrate input from multiple team members, the team's communication pattern is an

Jan Kratzer; oger Th. A. J. Leenders; Jo M. L. van Engelen

2004-01-01

130

The performance environment of the England youth soccer teams.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a semi-structured protocol with a prospective sample, national coaches (n = 6), sport scientists (n = 3), and players (n = 4) were interviewed directly following international tournaments about the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. Qualitative content analysis revealed the following factors as major positive influences on performance: adhering to a consistent tournament strategy, player understanding, strong team cohesion, organized entertainment activities, detailed knowledge of opposition, an effective physical rest/recovery strategy, and previous tournament experience. Major factors perceived to have negatively influenced performance included: over-coaching, player boredom, player anxiety, physical superiority of the opposition, physical fatigue over the tournament, problems sleeping, and lack of information on the opposition. Eight overall dimensions emerged to describe the performance environment: planning and organization, physical environment, tactical factors, development and performance philosophy, psychological factors, physical factors, social factors, and coaching. The findings support recent work that suggests the performance environment is multifaceted, with performance being contingent upon a broad range of interacting factors that go beyond the traditional psychosocial and physical domains. PMID:17786684

Pain, Matthew A; Harwood, Chris

2007-10-01

131

SHARED MENTAL MODELS AND SHARED DISPLAYS: AN EMPIRICAL EVALUATION OF TEAM PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study experimentally tested the use of shared mental models and shared displays as a means of enhancing team situation awareness (SA). Teams were tested using a simulation that incorporated features of a distributed team architecture. As hypothesized, the presence of shared displays and shared mental models improved team performance. However, the mechanism whereby the shared displays aided performance was

Cheryl A. Bolstad; Mica R. Endsley

132

Prosocial bonuses increase employee satisfaction and team performance.  

PubMed

In three field studies, we explore the impact of providing employees and teammates with prosocial bonuses, a novel type of bonus spent on others rather than on oneself. In Experiment 1, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of donations to charity lead to happier and more satisfied employees at an Australian bank. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of expenditures on teammates lead to better performance in both sports teams in Canada and pharmaceutical sales teams in Belgium. These results suggest that a minor adjustment to employee bonuses - shifting the focus from the self to others - can produce measurable benefits for employees and organizations. PMID:24058691

Anik, Lalin; Aknin, Lara B; Norton, Michael I; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Quoidbach, Jordi

2013-09-18

133

Prosocial Bonuses Increase Employee Satisfaction and Team Performance  

PubMed Central

In three field studies, we explore the impact of providing employees and teammates with prosocial bonuses, a novel type of bonus spent on others rather than on oneself. In Experiment 1, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of donations to charity lead to happier and more satisfied employees at an Australian bank. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of expenditures on teammates lead to better performance in both sports teams in Canada and pharmaceutical sales teams in Belgium. These results suggest that a minor adjustment to employee bonuses – shifting the focus from the self to others – can produce measurable benefits for employees and organizations.

Anik, Lalin; Aknin, Lara B.; Norton, Michael I.; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Quoidbach, Jordi

2013-01-01

134

The effects of dynamic team behavior and task complexity on team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teams have become a permanent part of the industrial work place. Semi-autonomous work groups are in place to staff production systems; executive teams are working together to lead organizations; cross-functional teams are solving a myriad of problems at various levels within companies. The purpose of this research is to better understand how cross-functional project teams work together to successfully complete

Sara Ann McComb

1998-01-01

135

Development of a Notational Analysis System for Selected Soccer Skills of a Women's College Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to develop a notational system to evaluate passing, dribbling, first touch, and individual defensive skills as they relate to success during women's soccer games and to develop a statistical model to weigh the importance of each skill on creating scoring opportunities. Sequences of skills in ten games of a National…

Thomas, Camille; Fellingham, Gilbert; Vehrs, Pat

2009-01-01

136

49 CFR 240.127 - Criteria for examining skill performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.127 Criteria for examining skill performance. (a) Each railroad's...

2011-10-01

137

Does Virtual Team Composition Matter? Trait and Problem-Solving Configuration Effects on Team Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Due to the increased importance and usage of self-managed virtual teams, many recent studies have examined factors that affect their success. One such factor that merits examination is the configuration or composition of virtual teams. This article tackles this point by (1) empirically testing trait-configuration effects on virtual team

Turel, Ofir; Zhang, Yi

2010-01-01

138

Nemesis Team Description 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our study, we tried to develop our teams in such a way that machine learning techniques and advanced artificial intelligence tools have the main role in improving skills and increasing team performance. We consider soccer simulation platform as an uncertain and dynamic environment, so we develop learning algorithms according to this important feature and agent's partial observability.

Mehrab Norouzitallab; M. M Korjani; S. M. A Salehizadeh; Ahmad Pourshoghi; Danial Khashabi; Abbas Razaghpanah; Pooria Kaviani; Meisam Vosoughpour

2009-01-01

139

Movement, planning, and music: Motion coordinates of skilled performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skilled musicians are capable of fast, fluent performance of complex musical sequences whose motor demands can shape sequential aspects of performance, similar to principles of coarticulation in speech. We address how performers' motor systems can influence the ways in which melodies are performed, both in motion and sound. In contrast to energy conservation models that favor small movements at fast

Caroline Palmer; Christine Carter; Erik Koopmans; Janeen D. Loehr

2007-01-01

140

Transactive Memory System Links Work Team Characteristics and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teamwork and coordination of expertise among team members with different backgrounds are increasingly recognized as important for team effectiveness. Recently, researchers have examined how team members rely on transactive memory system (TMS; D. M. Wegner, 1987) to share their distributed knowledge and expertise. To establish the ecological validity and generality of TMS research findings, this study sampled 104 work teams

Zhi-Xue Zhang; Paul S. Hempel; Yu-Lan Han; Dean Tjosvold

2007-01-01

141

A Framework for Cross-Disciplinary Team Learning and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct of teamwork has been of considerable interest to researchers and practitioners across domains. The literature on teams includes many studies related to team composition, processes, and roles, but it pays much less attention to how teams learn and innovate. Studies examining how cross-disciplinary teams interact during projects are…

Schaffer, Scott P.; Lei, Kimfong; Paulino, Lisette Reyes

2008-01-01

142

Ready to rumble: how team personality composition and task conflict interact to improve performance.  

PubMed

Although prior work has proposed a number of conditions under which task conflict in teams may improve performance, composition variables have been left unexplored. Given the effects of personality traits on team processes and outcomes demonstrated in prior work, investigating whether specific personality compositions influence the effect of task conflict on team performance is critical to researchers' understanding of conflict in teams. Our results indicate that team-level averages of both openness to experience and emotional stability function as moderators of the relationship between task conflict and team performance. Specifically, task conflict had a positive impact on performance in teams with high levels of openness or emotional stability; in contrast, task conflict had a negative impact on performance in teams with low levels of openness or emotional stability. Thus, when task conflict emerges, teams composed of members who are open minded or emotionally stable are best able to leverage conflict to improve performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:22963513

Bradley, Bret H; Klotz, Anthony C; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Brown, Kenneth G

2012-09-10

143

How far is too far? Lessons for business from ultra-high-performing military teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management in organizations has a common focus on achieving goals in the most productive, efficient way. Many managers use teams as powerful tools in focusing on and achieving goals. It has been claimed that everyone in an organization belongs to one or more teams. In parallel to the development of business teams, the US military has developed high-performance teams to

James D. Eggensperger

2004-01-01

144

Research on the influencing mechanism of transformational leadership on team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pa per is intended to explore the influencing mechanism of transformational leadership on team performance from the perspective of team efficacy and team cohesion by making an investigation of 12 working groups in Chinese enterprises and using structural equation modeling to analyze the collected data. The research results imply that transformational leadership has a positive correlation with team cohesion,

Huang Qing

2011-01-01

145

The Relationship between Shared Mental Models and Task Performance in an Online Team- Based Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an effort to better understand learning teams, this study examines the effects of shared mental models on team and individual performance. The results indicate that each team's shared mental model changed significantly over the time that subjects participated in team-based learning activities. The results also showed that the shared mental…

Johnson, Tristan E.; Lee, Youngmin

2008-01-01

146

Performance feedback: An exploratory study to examine the acceptability and impact for interdisciplinary primary care teams  

PubMed Central

Background This mixed methods study was designed to explore the acceptability and impact of feedback of team performance data to primary care interdisciplinary teams. Methods Seven interdisciplinary teams were offered a one-hour, facilitated performance feedback session presenting data from a comprehensive, previously-conducted evaluation, selecting highlights such as performance on chronic disease management, access, patient satisfaction and team function. Results Several recurrent themes emerged from participants' surveys and two rounds of interviews within three months of the feedback session. Team performance measurement and feedback was welcomed across teams and disciplines. This feedback could build the team, the culture, and the capacity for quality improvement. However, existing performance indicators do not equally reflect the role of different disciplines within an interdisciplinary team. Finally, the effect of team performance feedback on intentions to improve performance was hindered by a poor understanding of how the team could use the data. Conclusions The findings further our understanding of how performance feedback may engage interdisciplinary team members in improving the quality of primary care and the unique challenges specific to these settings. There is a need to develop a shared sense of responsibility and agenda for quality improvement. Therefore, more efforts to develop flexible and interactive performance-reporting structures (that better reflect contributions from all team members) in which teams could specify the information and audience may assist in promoting quality improvement.

2011-01-01

147

Experience with Training a Remotely Located Performance Test Team in a Quasi-agile Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe our experience of training a remotely located team of developers and testers to prepare and execute performance tests. The team is located in India. The lead performance engineer and the test project manager are based in New Jersey. The team members had little or no prior experience of performance testing. We describe how we overcame cultural differences and

André B. Bondi; Johannes P. Ros

2009-01-01

148

Team versus individual training, training task fidelity, and task organization effects on transfer performance by three-man teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer performance of teams was measured in a simulated radar-controlled aerial intercept task. Superior performance occurred after training on an independently organized task (as compared to that after training which required verbal interaction among controllers), and superior performance occurred in an independently organized transfer task. However, these 2 variables interacted such that performance on an interaction condition of the transfer

George E. Briggs; James C. Naylor

1965-01-01

149

Personality, Political Skill, and Job Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction [Hogan, R. (1991). Personality and personality assessment. In M. D. Dunnette, L. Hough, (Eds.), "Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology" (2nd ed., pp. 873-919). Chicago: Rand McNally; Hogan, R., & Shelton, D. (1998). A socioanalytic perspective on job performance.…

Blickle, Gerhard; Meurs, James A.; Zettler, Ingo; Solga, Jutta; Noethen, Daniela; Kramer, Jochen; Ferris, Gerald R.

2008-01-01

150

Relationship of Individual Difference and Group Process Variables with Self-Managed Team Performance: A Field Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficacy of dispositional individual difference team composition and group process variables in explaining team performance was examined for 1, 030 military officers working in 92 teams over a 5-week period. The teams were assessed on both input varia...

M. H. Jordan

2001-01-01

151

Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica.  

PubMed

Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars. PMID:12190074

Stuster, J

1998-09-01

152

Dynamically Formed Human-Robot Teams Performing Coordinated Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this new era of space exploration where human-robot teams are envisioned maintaining a long-term presence on other planets, effective coordination of human-robot teams is paramount. Two critical research challenges that must be solved to realize this vision are the human-robot team chal- lenge and the pickup-team challenge. In this paper, we ad- dress these two challenges, propose a novel

M. B. Dias; T. K. Harris; B. Browning; E. G. Jones; B. Argall; M. Veloso; A. Stentz; A. Rudnicky

153

A Study of Collaborative Learning Style and Team Learning Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose ? Self-directed work teams are seen as an important mechanism for dealing with today's complex and rapidly changing business environment. Team learning is an attempt to prepare students to real-world experiences. But, not all teamwork is effective. This paper aims to examine the influence of learning style preferences on team learning…

Julie Yazici, Hulya

2005-01-01

154

A Study of Collaborative Learning Style and Team Learning Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose ? Self-directed work teams are seen as an important mechanism for dealing with today's complex and rapidly changing business environment. Team learning is an attempt to prepare students to real-world experiences. But, not all teamwork is effective. This paper aims to examine the influence of learning style preferences on team learning…

Julie Yazici, Hulya

2005-01-01

155

Assessment of Individual Student Performance in Online Team Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of team projects has been shown to be beneficial in higher education. There is also general agreement that team efforts should be assessed and that the grading ought to represent both (1) the quality of the product developed jointly by the team, as well as (2) the degree of participation and quality of contribution by each individual…

Alden, Jay

2011-01-01

156

Examining the Critical Factors of Success in Virtual Team Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Virtual teams are a burgeoning presence in the corporate environment today. Research shows that virtual teams have begun to surpass conventional teams in meeting the demands of organizations that are increasingly called on to apply and respond to new technologies that support, and in some cases, require a virtual teamwork approach. In order to…

Booth, Brent

2011-01-01

157

Measuring Interdisciplinary Team Performance in a Long-Term Care Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to test the reliability and the validity of a survey instrument for assessing interdiscipli- nary team performance in long-term care settings and to measure team performance in the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). Research Design and Methods: The analysis is based on 1220 surveys completed by team members of 26

Helena Temkin-Greener; Diane Gross; Stephen J. Kunitz; Dana Mukamel

2004-01-01

158

Team Performance Assessment and Measurement: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Series in Applied Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume presents thoughts on measuring team performance written by experts currently working with teams in fields such as training, evaluation, and process consultation. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview of Team Performance Measurement" (Michael T. Brannick and Carolyn Prince); (2) "A Conceptual Framework for Teamwork Measurement" (Terry L.…

Brannick, Michael T., Ed.; Salas, Eduardo, Ed.; Prince, Carolyn, Ed.

159

Empowerment in project teams: a multilevel examination of the job performance implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrative multilevel model of empowerment and job performance behaviours is advanced, building on social cognitive theory (SCT). Empowerment climate is hypothesized as influencing individual and team performance behaviours directly and partially through individual and team (psychological) empowerment. Using survey responses from 380 individuals, nested in 115 project management teams, we tested the direct, indirect and cross?level relationships delineated in

Martin Morgan Tuuli; Steve Rowlinson

2009-01-01

160

The Relationships Among Coaches' and Athletes' Perceptions of Coaching Staff Cohesion, Team Cohesion, and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored coaches' and athletes' perceptions of coaching staff cohesion (CSC) and their relationships with team cohesion and performance. Eighteen NCAA Division I, II, and III teams participated. Coaches completed the Coaching Staff Cohesion Scale (CSCS; Martin, 2002). Athletes completed a modified CSCS, the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, 1985), and an item of perceived team performance. Significant differences

Rebecca A. Zakrajsek; Christiaan G. Abildsoa; Jennifer R. Hurst; Jack C. Watson

161

Crosstraining and Team Performance Further Investigation (Crosstraining en teamprestatie: een nadere verkenning).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment is described in which the effects of three different methods for crosstraining on team performance and communication within teams are examined. The methods for crosstraining differ in information contents about the tasks, activities and info...

A. M. Schaafstal M. J. Bots

1997-01-01

162

Impact of Hybrid Team Structures on Performance and Adaptation: Beyond Mechanistic and Organic Prototypes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Building on the idea of asymmetric adaptability, this study focused on structural and compositional ways to arrange teams in order to maximize both initial performance and structural adaptability. Based on 64 teams that completed a command and control sim...

D. K. Jundt D. R. Ilgen J. R. Hollenbeck S. E. Humphrey M. D. Johnson

2004-01-01

163

Role of a Multidimensional Concept of Trust in the Performance of Global Virtual Teams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper focuses on the concept of trust as an important ingredient of effective global virtual team performance. Definitions of trust and virtual teams are presented. The concept of trust is developed from its unilateral application (trust, absence of ...

J. M. Stecklein N. M. Bodensteiner

2002-01-01

164

Study of Crew Coordination and Performance in Hierarchical Team Decision Making.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the theoretical foundations, methodology, and initial results of an ongoing empirical investigation of team decision making. The theoretical foundations are based on the team process and performance literature, which is discussed in ...

C. A. Bowers J. M. Urban B. B. Morgan

1992-01-01

165

Manual skill, hand skill asymmetry, and neuropsychological test performance in schoolchildren with spastic cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Bilateral hand skill assessment with a computerised version of the Peg Moving Task, and neuropsychological testing, were performed in 30 children aged 7 to 8 years with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and without mental retardation, diplegia (n = 10), right hemiplegia (n = 10), or left hemiplegia (n = 10), and in 30 controls. Compared to controls: (i) 30% of the hemiplegic children showed impairment of the unaffected hand and 70% of the diplegic children showed impairment in both hands; (ii) children with CP were impaired only in oral repetition and in visual-motor tasks. Results of neuropsychological testing were not significantly different between the three groups of children with CP. Right minus left asymmetry in hand skill was not related to neuropsychological testing; however, degree of impairment of the right hand was associated with phonological and metaphonological skills, and of the left hand with visuospatial and counting performance. Hand skill was related to the ability to perform many daily living manual activities. It is concluded that impairment of hand function, rather than the side of the more affected hand, is related to neuropsychological deficits in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:15849032

Dellatolas, Georges; Filho, Gilberto Nunes; Souza, Lígia; Nunes, Luiz Guilherme; Braga, Lucia Willadino

2005-03-01

166

The interactive effects of person-focused citizenship behaviour, task interdependence, and virtuality on team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multifactorial between-groups experiment examined the effects of person-focused organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBP) on the performance of teams characterized by different levels of virtuality and task interdependence. Results reveal in low virtual teams the moderating effects of task interdependence on the OCBP–team performance relationship are positive; however, these effects are reversed in high virtual teams. Using social presence and task–technology

Ramon Rico; Daniel G Bachrach; Miriam Sánchez-Manzanares; Brian J Collins

2011-01-01

167

Using brain-based measures to compose teams: How individual capabilities and team collaboration strategies jointly shape performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in understanding neural processes open the possibility of using brain-based measures to compose collaborative work teams. Neuroimaging studies have shown that individual differences in patterns of brain activity can predict differences in performance of specific tasks. We extended this finding by examining performance not simply by a single brain, but by pairs of brains. We used measures derived from

Anita Williams Woolley; J. Richard Hackman; Thomas E. Jerde; Christopher F. Chabris; Sean L. Bennett; Stephen M. Kosslyn

2007-01-01

168

Dynamically formed Heterogeneous Robot Teams Performing Tightly-coordinated Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we progress towards a world where robots play an integral role in society, a critical problem that remains to be solved is the Pickup Team Challenge; that is, dynamically formed heterogeneous robot teams executing coordinated tasks where little information is known a priori about the tasks, the robots, and the environments in which they will operate. Successful solutions to

E. Gil Jones; Brett Browning; M. Bernardine Dias; Brenna Argall; Manuela M. Veloso; Anthony Stentz

2006-01-01

169

Evaluating Team Work on Student Projects: The Use of Behaviorally Anchored Scales To Evaluate Student Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the biggest problems students face in team projects is social loafing, a situation in which students may view team projects as a free ride. Social loafers let others do the work, knowing that the professor will only grade the completed project. This research examined the performance of students grading other student team members on a group…

Levi, Daniel; Cadiz, David

170

The Effects of Programmed Culture Training Upon the Performance of Volunteer Medical Teams in Central America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compares the performance of volunteer medical teams who received a programmed culture assimilator test with teams who did not receive the assimilator. All team members, citizens of the United States, worked for three-week periods in Honduras and Guatemala and were rated on their success in conducting clinics and managing community…

O'Brien, Gordon E.; And Others

171

Shared Mental Models on the Performance of e-Learning Content Development Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary purpose of the study was to investigate team-based e-Learning content development projects from the perspective of the shared mental model (SMM) theory. The researcher conducted a study of 79 e-Learning content development teams in Korea to examine the relationship between taskwork and teamwork SMMs and the performance of the teams.…

Jo, Il-Hyun

2012-01-01

172

Uncovering And Exploring The Mobilization And Launch Phase Of High And Low Performing Project Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a larger study, this analysis, first, uncovers a previously alluded to, but heretofore un-explicated, phase of project team development (PTD) -- dubbed mobilization and launch -- and, then, explores the ways in which activities and outputs of this phase relate to project team effectiveness (PTE) by comparing them across three high and three low performing teams. The

Jeff Ericksen; Lee Dyer

2002-01-01

173

Health Care Administrators. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The result of a project to develop short courses to help health care administrators and supervisors in developing practical, up-to-date management skills, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations. Unit I covers the following leadership considerations: self-awareness, time management,…

Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

174

Business and Industrial Supervisors. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The result of a project to develop short courses to help business and industrial supervisors in developing practical, up-to-date managerial skills, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations. Unit I covers the following aspects of management: leadership techniques, problem solving, decision…

Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

175

TRAINING FOR WAR: TEACHING AND SKILL-RETENTION FOR THE DEPLOYED SURGICAL TEAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Afghanistan and Iraq in 2008 the daily surgical workload can be enormous with the surgical case-mix involving skills out with those of the normal NHS Consultant (1-8). The historical priorities of the Defence Medical Education and Training Agency (DMETA) - now the Joint Medical Command (JMC) have been of elective secondary care provision to the pre- deployment military force.

P Parker

176

Detailed Analysis of Team Movement and Communication Affecting Team Performance in the America's Army Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted the second data analysis with a new game log record dataset and focused on what the optimal team structure is in terms of communication and movement. We utilized regression analyses and correspondence analyses to make the optimal network, and we identified several important features of optimal networks from those analyses. Furthermore we coded 'Network Fitter' and used it

Il-Chul Moon; Kathleen M. Carley; Mike Schneider; Oleg Shigiltchoff

177

Team Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Round Rock Pilot Project on Team Incentives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education policymakers have shown increased interest in incentive programs for teachers based on the outcomes of their students. This article examines a program in which bonuses were awarded to teams of middle school teachers based on their collective contribution to student test score gains. The study employs a randomized controlled trial to…

Springer, Matthew G.; Pane, John F.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Burns, Susan Freeman; Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian

2012-01-01

178

Cognition-Based and Affect-Based Trust as Mediators of Leader Behavior Influences on Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based trust and team psychological safety. Transformational

John Schaubroeck; Simon S. K. Lam; Ann Chunyan Peng

2011-01-01

179

Performance of psychomotor skills: a comparison of two teaching strategies.  

PubMed

This study compares two teaching strategies: textbook assignment and videotape with no faculty assistance, and textbook assignment and videotape with faculty assistance (demonstration of skills and supervised practice) to determine their effect on outcome performance (measurement of blood pressure) and on the student's perceived level of confidence. The intent of the study was to ascertain if the use of mediated instruction without faculty input would decrease faculty-student contact time without adversely affecting performance outcomes. Results of the study revealed that faculty contact is an important factor when students are learning to perform a basic psychomotor skill. It was concluded that mediated instruction is not appropriate as a complete substitute for faculty contact. PMID:1658271

Baldwin, D; Hill, P; Hanson, G

1991-10-01

180

Effect of Various Methods for Crosstraining on Team Performance (Het effect van drie verschillende methoden voor crosstraining op het presteren van teams).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment is described in which the effects of three different methods for crosstraining on team performance and communication within teams are examined. The methods for crosstraining differ in information contents about the tasks, activities and info...

A. M. Schaafstal M. J. Bots

1997-01-01

181

Incorporating Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) knowledge and skills into the daily work of police officers: a focus group study.  

PubMed

This qualitative focus group study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training for police officers. Thematic analysis of transcripts of focus group discussions revealed that officers report increased knowledge of mental illnesses (which manifests as an improved ability to recognize and respond, reduced stereotyping/stigmatization, greater empathy toward consumers and their caregivers, more patience when dealing with consumers, and fewer arrests/more redirection toward treatment), as well as practical application of learned skills (evidenced by an ability to put individuals with mental illnesses at ease, reduced unpredictability of the crisis situation, and reduced risk of injury). Results highlight the potential for collaboration between law enforcement (and other public safety/criminal justice professions) and the mental health professions in the expanding CIT collaborative model. PMID:18465226

Hanafi, Sonya; Bahora, Masuma; Demir, Berivan N; Compton, Michael T

2008-05-09

182

The influence of shared mental models on team process and performance.  

PubMed

The influence of teammates' shared mental models on team processes and performance was tested using 56 undergraduate dyads who "flew" a series of missions on a personal-computer-based flight-combat simulation. The authors both conceptually and empirically distinguished between teammates' task- and team-based mental models and indexed their convergence or "sharedness" using individually completed paired-comparisons matrices analyzed using a network-based algorithm. The results illustrated that both shared-team- and task-based mental models related positively to subsequent team process and performance. Furthermore, team processes fully mediated the relationship between mental model convergence and team effectiveness. Results are discussed in terms of the role of shared cognitions in team effectiveness and the applicability of different interventions designed to achieve such convergence. PMID:10783543

Mathieu, J E; Heffner, T S; Goodwin, G F; Salas, E; Cannon-Bowers, J A

2000-04-01

183

Carbohydrate ingestion and soccer skill performance during prolonged intermittent exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution, during the 90-min Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test, on soccer skill performance. Seventeen male soccer players ingested either a 6.4% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or placebo solution equivalent to 8 ml · kg body mass before exercise and 3 ml · kg body mass after every 15 min of exercise, in a double-blind randomized cross-over

Ajmol Ali; Clyde Williams

2009-01-01

184

The demographic antecedents and performance consequences of the social-network structure in work teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Businesses are increasingly using teams as their fundamental organisational unit. This paper aims to explore the impact of demographic antecedents and the social-network structure, measured in terms of task-related advice-network density, centralisation and fragmentation, on work-team performance. The paper seeks to examine: the impact of the social-network structure (dense, fragmented or centralised) on work-team performance and the origins

Kaisa Henttonen; Minna Janhonen; Jan-Erik Johanson; Kaisu Puumalainen

2010-01-01

185

Teacher team commitment, teamwork and trust: exploring associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To investigate relationships between teamwork, trust and teacher team commitment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Research has confirmed the value-added effects of organizational commitment in terms of job performance, organizational effectiveness, and employee retention. This study focused on teacher teams as the unit of analysis, and posited associations between teamwork, viewed as team skills, trust and teacher team commitment. Data were

Sungmin Park; Alan B. Henkin; Robert Egley

2005-01-01

186

Catching Moods and Hitting Runs: Mood Linkage and Subjective Performance in Professional Sport Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are the moods and subjective performances of professional sports players associated with the ongoing collective moods of their teammates? Players from 2 professional cricket teams used pocket computers to provide ratings of their moods and performances 3 times a day for 4 days during a competitive match between the teams. Pooled time-series analysis showed significant associations between the average of

Peter Totterdell

2000-01-01

187

Measures for Evaluation of Team Processes and Performance in Experiments and Exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical need exists for a solid understanding of the factors that influence team decision making and performance in order to identify interventions that can affect the decision making process and improve performance (Klinger et al., 1993; Salas, Bowers, and Cannon-Bowers, 1995; Hall and Regian, 1996). In this paper we describe a variety of team-based measures we have used to

Elliot E. Entin; Eileen B. Entin

188

Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team

Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

2010-01-01

189

Expertise, extraversion and group interaction styles as performance indicators in virtual teams: how do perceptions of IT's performance get formed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how a personality trait and expertise affect virtual teams interaction, and how that interaction leads to different levels of performance (e.g., solution quality, solution acceptance, cohesion). Teams have been shown to exhibit constructive, aggressive\\/defensive, or passive\\/defensive interaction styles that affect communication and thus team performance by facilitating or hindering the exchange of information among group members. These

Pierre A. Balthazard; Richard E. Potter; John Warren

2004-01-01

190

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE SOCCER TEAMS IN BRAZIL USING DEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) based ranking for Brazilian soccer teams. Ranking is a major issue for the soccer clubs, either when looking for sponsorship or expanding their supportive group. We first include value judgements, applying a method to consolidate the results of the national and international matches. Then we use both aggregate results as

Guilherme Marques Calôba; Marcos Pereira Estellita Lins

2006-01-01

191

Team-Based Learning Enhances Performance in Introductory Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the problems associated with the traditional lecture method, the constraints associated with large classes, and the effectiveness of active learning, continued development and testing of efficient student-centered learning approaches are needed. This study explores the effectiveness of team-based learning (TBL) in a large-enrollment…

Carmichael, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

192

The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2010-01-01

193

A Longitudinal Examination of the Effects of LMX, Ability, and Differentiation on Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) theory posits that effective leaders form dyadic relationships with followers that differ in\\u000a quality, and that differentiation positively affects team performance. The purpose of this study was to test the notion that\\u000a leader differentiation positively impacts team performance, and to investigate whether such effects differ at different points\\u000a in the team’s lifecycle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design\\/methodology\\/approach  Longitudinal data from three studies

Loren J. NaidooCharles; Charles A. Scherbaum; Harold W. Goldstein; George B. Graen

194

Self-monitoring, and individual expectation of performance-norms in sport teams.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-monitoring and individuals' expectation of performance-norms, the attitudes shared among team members about how high a performance the group should achieve in team sports. A secondary purpose was to assess whether the relationship between self-monitoring and individual expectation of performance-norms would be moderated by the type of group selected. Analysis suggests that for an elite sport team there is no difference between the performance-norm for the team and individuals' expectations in terms of self-monitoring. For recreational sport teams, however, those high on self-monitoring had higher individual expectations of performance-norms than the low self-monitors. PMID:10710761

Kim, M S

1999-12-01

195

The Effect from National Diversity on Team Production – Empirical Evidence from the Sports Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the effect of national diversity on sports team performance. Due to language barriers, we expect the team’s productivity to decrease with the number of nationalities, but that the introduction of further nations and further aspects of different cultures might lead to additional skills within the team. We test our hypothesis on a seasonal individual team basis. We do

Leif Brandes; Egon Franck; Philipp Theiler

2009-01-01

196

Global leaders are team players: Developing global leaders through membership on global teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global teams today make an increasing number of decisions in multinational organizations, addressing challenges broad in scope and critical to performance. An additional role of global teams is discussed here—providing ideal training for future global leaders. After reviewing the knowledge and skills global leaders need, the article describes three group processes for global team effectiveness: mapping, bridging, and Integrating. The

Martha L. Maznevski; Joseph J. Distefano

2000-01-01

197

Searing sentiment or cold calculation? the effects of leader emotional displays on team performance depend on follower epistemic motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined how leader emotional displays affect team performance. We developed and tested the idea that effects of leader displays of anger versus happiness depend on followers' epistemic motivation, which is the desire to develop a thorough understanding of a situation. Experimental data on four-person teams engaged in an interdependent team task showed that teams with higher epistemic motivation performed

Kleef van G. A; A. C. Homan; B. Beersma; Knippenberg van D; Knippenberg van B; F. Damen

2009-01-01

198

In-service elementary teachers' familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge, and performance on science process skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purposes of this research study were to determine (a) in-service elementary teachers' familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge of , and performance on science process skills and (b) how in-service elementary teachers' familiarity with, interest in conceptual knowledge of and performance on science process skills relate to each other. The science process skills include the basic skills [observation, classification, measuring, predicting, inferring, and communication,] and the integrated skills [hypothesizing, experimenting, identifying and controlling variables, formulating models, interpreting data, and graphing]. Twenty-four in-service elementary teachers enrolled in a master of math and science education degree program participated in this study. Participants completed questionnaires on their familiarity and interest in the science process skills, a science processes conceptual knowledge test, and a performance test on science process skills. Results indicate that these teachers were highly familiar with the science process skills, but moderately interested in these skills. Results also indicate that teachers were more interested in learning more about integrated process skills than basic process skills. Teachers possessed very low conceptual knowledge of the science process skills. However, teachers performed well on science process skills performance test. Significant correlations among the four constructs (familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge and performance) were only significant between familiarity and interest. The implications, discussion and recommendations for future research and instruction on science process skills in teacher education programs have been presented.

Miles, Erin

199

Do team processes really have an effect on clinical performance? A systematic literature review.  

PubMed

There is a growing literature on the relationship between team processes and clinical performance. The purpose of this review is to summarize these articles and examine the impact of team process behaviours on clinical performance. We conducted a literature search in five major databases. Inclusion criteria were: English peer-reviewed papers published between January 2001 and May 2012, which showed or tried to show (i) a statistical relationship of a team process variable and clinical performance or (ii) an improvement of a performance variable through a team process intervention. Study quality was assessed using predefined quality indicators. For every study, we calculated the relevant effect sizes. We included 28 studies in the review, seven of which were intervention studies. Every study reported at least one significant relationship between team processes or an intervention and performance. Also, some non-significant effects were reported. Most of the reported effect sizes were large or medium. The study quality ranged from medium to high. The studies are highly diverse regarding the specific team process behaviours investigated and also regarding the methods used. However, they suggest that team process behaviours do influence clinical performance and that training results in increased performance. Future research should rely on existing theoretical frameworks, valid, and reliable methods to assess processes such as teamwork or coordination and focus on the development of adequate tools to assess process performance, linking them with outcomes in the clinical setting. PMID:23454826

Schmutz, J; Manser, T

2013-03-01

200

The effects of individual and team competitions on performance, emotions, and effort.  

PubMed

It is well documented that competition can affect performance and emotion in sport. However, our understanding of the comparative effects of individual and team competitions on performance and emotion is limited. We also know little about emotion-based mechanisms underlying the effects of different types of competition on performance. To address these issues, 64 participants completed a handgrip endurance task during time-trial, one-on-one, two-on-two, and four-on-four competitions while self-report and possible corroborative physiological measures of enjoyment, anxiety, and effort were assessed. Results indicated that performance, enjoyment, anxiety, and effort increased from individual to team competitions. The observed increases in performance were mediated by increased enjoyment and effort. Our findings illustrate differential effects of individual and team competitions on performance and emotion. Moreover, they indicate that both enjoyment-based and anxiety-based mechanisms can explain changes in performance among different types of individual and team competition. PMID:23535972

Cooke, Andrew; Kavussanu, Maria; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher

2013-04-01

201

Beyond Status: Relating Status Inequality to Performance and Health in Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status…

Christie, Amy M.; Barling, Julian

2010-01-01

202

Structural determinants of team performance: the mutual influences of learning culture, creativity, and knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of supportive learning culture, team creativity, and collaborative knowledge creating practices on team performance. A survey was used to collect data from a total of 228 knowledge workers from nine Korean organizations. Analyses included measuring item internal consistency, validating proposed constructs, and examining structural relationships using Structural Equation Modelling. The proposed research model was validated

Seung Won Yoon; Ji Hoon Song; Doo Hun Lim; Baek-Kyoo Joo

2010-01-01

203

Team performance in process control: influences of interface design and staffing levels.  

PubMed

A study performed at the OECD Halden Reactor Project compared the effects of interface design and staffing levels on various aspects of team performance. Teams of nuclear power plant operators participated in challenging simulator scenarios, working in either a simulated conventional plant, with a hard-control interface, or in a simulated advanced plant, with a computerized interface. Two-team staffing levels, normal and minimum, were evaluated in each plant condition. All teams participated in the same five study conditions, lasting 1-3 h each. Several measures assessed team performance: situation awareness, workload, rated team interactions, rated overall performance and objective performance. The findings revealed that combinations of interface design and staffing levels supported different aspects of performance. Larger crews consistently performed better than smaller crews in the conventional plant. In the advanced plant, both crew types performed equally well; however, smaller crews had better situation awareness than larger crews. In general, performance was better for crews using the advanced plant interface, but workload was higher. Workload also was consistently higher in the smaller crews than in the larger crews, regardless of interface type. Links between the performance measures were also noted. PMID:10975181

Sebok, A

2000-08-01

204

Team Training and Retention of Skills Acquired Above Real Time Training on a Flight Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments related to training of pilots performed by NASA engineers (Kolf in 1973, Hoey in 1976) an...

S. F. Ali D. Guckenberger P. Crane M. Rossi M. Williams J. Williams M. Archer

2000-01-01

205

Quiet eye training: The acquisition, refinement and resilient performance of targeting skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

How we learn and refine motor skills in the most effective manner and how we prevent performance breakdown in pressurised or demanding circumstances are among the most important questions within the sport psychology and skill acquisition literature. The quiet eye (QE) has emerged as a characteristic of highly skilled perceptual and motor performance in visually guided motor tasks. Defined as

Samuel J. Vine; Lee J. Moore; Mark R. Wilson

2012-01-01

206

Hand dominance and performance in a laparoscopic skills curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study evaluated the influence of hand dominance on skill acquisition during a basic laparoscopic skills curriculum. Methods: A total of 27 surgical residents (5 postgraduate year 3 [PGY-3] and 22 PGY-2 residents) participated in a 4-week laparoscopic skills curriculum. The residents were pre- and posttested on six laparoscopic tasks during weeks 1 and 4. During weeks 2 and

T. W. Powers; D. J. Bentrem; A. P. Nagle; M. T. Toyama; S. A. Murphy; K. M. Murayama

2005-01-01

207

Effects of Interdependence on Motivation, Inter-Team Interaction Processes, and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This dissertation explored the performance effects of task interdependence and pay interdependence at the level of analysis of the division, defined here as an organizational unit composed of multiple teams. The study also examined relationships among tas...

C. C. Durham

1997-01-01

208

Team Research at the Biology-Mathematics Interface: Project Management Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics…

Milton, John G.; Radunskaya, Ami E.; Lee, Arthur H.; de Pillis, Lisette G.; Bartlett, Diana F.

2010-01-01

209

Self-leadership behavioural-focused strategies and team performance : The mediating influence of job satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Examines the relationship between the dimensions of self-leadership behavioural-focused strategies, job satisfaction and team performance. It also evaluates the extent to which job satisfaction mediates the influence of self-leadership behavioural-focused strategies on team performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Involves a questionnaire-based survey of employees from a manufacturing organisation operating in Australia. A total of 304 useable questionnaires were received from

John D. Politis

2006-01-01

210

Structural correlates of skilled performance on a motor sequence task  

PubMed Central

The brain regions functionally engaged in motor sequence performance are well-established, but the structural characteristics of these regions and the fiber pathways involved have been less well studied. In addition, relatively few studies have combined multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and behavioral performance measures in the same sample. Therefore, the current study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), probabilistic tractography, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to determine the structural correlates of skilled motor performance. Further, we compared these findings with fMRI results in the same sample. We correlated final performance and rate of improvement measures on a temporal motor sequence task (TMST) with skeletonized fractional anisotropy (FA) and whole brain gray matter (GM) volume. Final synchronization performance was negatively correlated with FA in white matter (WM) underlying bilateral sensorimotor cortex—an effect that was mediated by a positive correlation with radial diffusivity. Multi-fiber tractography indicated that this region contained crossing fibers from the corticospinal tract (CST) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). The identified SLF pathway linked parietal and auditory cortical regions that have been shown to be functionally engaged in this task. Thus, we hypothesize that enhanced synchronization performance on this task may be related to greater fiber integrity of the SLF. Rate of improvement on synchronization was positively correlated with GM volume in cerebellar lobules HVI and V—regions that showed training-related decreases in activity in the same sample. Taken together, our results link individual differences in brain structure and function to motor sequence performance on the same task. Further, our study illustrates the utility of using multiple MR measures and analysis techniques to specify the interpretation of structural findings.

Steele, Christopher J.; Scholz, Jan; Douaud, Gwenaelle; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Penhune, Virginia B.

2012-01-01

211

The impact of subgroup type and subgroup configurational properties on work team performance.  

PubMed

Scholars have invoked subgroups in a number of theories related to teams, yet certain tensions in the literature remain unresolved. In this article, we address 2 of these tensions, both relating to how subgroups are configured in work teams: (a) whether teams perform better with a greater number of subgroups and (b) whether teams perform better when they have imbalanced subgroups (majorities and minorities are present) or balanced subgroups (subgroups are of equal size). We predict that the impact of the number and balance of subgroups depends on the type of subgroup-whether subgroups are formed according to social identity (i.e., identity-based subgroups) or information processing (i.e., knowledge-based subgroups). We first propose that teams are more adversely affected by 2 identity-based subgroups than by any other number, yet the uniquely negative impact of a 2-subgroup configuration is not apparent for knowledge-based subgroups. Instead, a larger number of knowledge-based subgroups is beneficial for performance, such that 2 subgroups is worse for performance when compared with 3 or more subgroups but better for performance when compared with no subgroups or 1 subgroup. Second, we argue that teams perform better when identity-based subgroups are imbalanced yet knowledge-based subgroups are balanced. We also suggest that there are interactive effects between the number and balance of subgroups-however, the nature of this interaction depends on the type of subgroup. To test these predictions, we developed and validated an algorithm that measures the configurational properties of subgroups in organizational work teams. Results of a field study of 326 work teams from a multinational organization support our predictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23915429

Carton, Andrew M; Cummings, Jonathon N

2013-08-05

212

Peer-based control in self-managing teams: linking rational and normative influence with individual and group performance.  

PubMed

The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how peer-based rational control, which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with the more commonly studied normative control force of group cohesion to explain both individual and collective performance in teams. On the basis of data from 587 factory workers in 45 self-managing teams at 3 organizations, peer-based rational control corresponded with higher performance for both individuals and collective teams. Results further demonstrated that the rational and normative mechanism of peer-based control interacted to explain performance at both the individual and team levels. Increased peer-based rational control corresponded with higher individual and collective performance in teams with low cohesion, but the positive effects on performance were attenuated in cohesive teams. PMID:21895352

Stewart, Greg L; Courtright, Stephen H; Barrick, Murray R

2011-09-05

213

Beyond Budgeting: A Performance Management Model for Software Development Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Beyond Budgeting performance management model enables companies to keep pace with changing environments, to quickly create\\u000a and adapt strategy and to empower people throughout the organisation to make effective choices. We argue that this performance\\u000a management model may be ideal for agile software development. Although drawn from different disciplines, both are designed\\u000a for a customer-orientated, fast-changing operating environment and

Garry Lohan; Kieran Conboy; Michael Lang

2010-01-01

214

PLATT: A flexible platform for experimental research on team performance in complex environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article introduces PLATT, a recently developed task environment for controlled experimental research on team performance\\u000a in complex environments. PLATT was developed to meet the research demands posed by the complexity that present-day teams face.\\u000a It consists of a flexible, modular software architecture and research-specific scenarios. The scenarios can target various\\u000a types of tasks (e.g., planning, problem solving, and

Wim Kamphuis; Peter J. M. D. Essens; Kees Houttuin; Anthony W. K. Gaillard

2010-01-01

215

Contribution of cross-functional teams to the improvement in operational performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of cross-functional teams in the alignment between system effectiveness and operational effectiveness after the implementation of enterprise information systems (EIS). In addition, it aims to explore the contribution of cross-functional teams to improvement in operational performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods,

Ricardo Santa; Mario Ferrer; Phil Bretherton; Paul Hyland

2010-01-01

216

Behavioral and Brain Dynamics of Team Coordination Part II: Neurobehavioral Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this study, pairs of subjects performed a team-intensive task with the shared goal of clearing a virtual room from threats.\\u000a The neurobehavioral dynamics of both subjects was analyzed to identify signatures of efficient team work. An ecologically\\u000a valid task of room clearing was designed and a novel analysis framework was developed to address the challenge of understanding\\u000a complex, continuous

E. Tognoli; A. J. Kovacs; B. Suutari; D. Afergan; J. Coyne; G. Gibson; R. Stripling; J. A. S. Kelso

217

Top management team heterogeneity and firm performance: An empirical research on Chinese listed companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical study of the 2001–2002 data from 356 Chinese companies listed in the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges indicates\\u000a that within the social context of China the characteristics of a firm’s top management team have a different impact on firm\\u000a performance from those of foreign countries. Also, the tenure heterogeneity and functional experience heterogeneity of the\\u000a top management team

Ping Zhang

2007-01-01

218

Effects of cooperative learning on performance, attitude, and group behaviors in a technical team environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on performance, attitude toward\\u000a working in teams, and group interaction behaviors in a technical training context. Participants were 274 engineering employees\\u000a enrolled in a required training class that focused on communicating technical procedures in plant operations. Participants\\u000a were divided into small groups and cooperative teams. Instruction

Jamie C. Cavalier; James D. Klein; Frank J. Cavalier

1995-01-01

219

Basic Math Skills and Performance in an Introductory Economics Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors measure math skills with a broader set of explanatory variables than have been used in previous studies. To identify what math skills are important for student success in introductory microeconomics, they examine (1) the student's score on the mathematics portion of the ACT Assessment Test, (2) whether the student has taken calculus,…

Ballard, Charles L.; Johnson, Marianne F.

2004-01-01

220

Monitoring and Planning Capacities in the Acquisition of Music Performance Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate changes in cognitive capacities that occur as musicians acquire performance skills. Previous studies suggest that skilled behaviour is characterized by advanced abilities to monitor one’s own performance or to plan upcoming events. We first report a study of child pianists (aged 6–14 years old) of beginning and intermediate skill levels who performed well-learned musical pieces. Computer-detected pitch errors

CAROLINE PALMER; CAROLYN DRAKE

1997-01-01

221

Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

Elder, Stephen D.

2010-01-01

222

Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

Elder, Stephen D.

2010-01-01

223

Trauma performance improvement and patient safety committee: fostering an effective team.  

PubMed

Trauma programs that are verified by the American College of Surgeons are required to have a multidisciplinary committee that examines trauma-related patient care operations. To facilitate a potentially large number of issues relevant to patient care, the Trauma Performance Improvement and Patient Safety Committee can apply team principles to promote success. A literature review concerning effective teams was conducted. Eleven principles were identified as essential for developing an effective committee that can properly respond to and resolve performance issues in complex trauma care. This article describes and applies these 11 principles to the Trauma Performance Improvement and Patient Safety Committee. PMID:22157529

Berg, Gina M; Acuna, David; Lee, Felecia; Clark, Daniel; Lippoldt, Diana

224

Modelling the Progression of Competitive Performance of an Academy's Soccer Teams  

PubMed Central

Progression of a team’s performance is a key issue in competitive sport, but there appears to have been no published research on team progression for periods longer than a season. In this study we report the game-score progression of three teams of a youth talent-development academy over five seasons using a novel analytic approach based on generalised mixed modelling. The teams consisted of players born in 1991, 1992 and 1993; they played totals of 115, 107 and 122 games in Asia and Europe between 2005 and 2010 against teams differing in age by up to 3 years. Game scores predicted by the mixed model were assumed to have an over-dispersed Poisson distribution. The fixed effects in the model estimated an annual linear pro-gression for Aspire and for the other teams (grouped as a single opponent) with adjustment for home-ground advantage and for a linear effect of age difference between competing teams. A random effect allowed for different mean scores for Aspire and opposition teams. All effects were estimated as factors via log-transformation and presented as percent differences in scores. Inferences were based on the span of 90% confidence intervals in relation to thresholds for small factor effects of x/÷1.10 (+10%/-9%). Most effects were clear only when data for the three teams were combined. Older teams showed a small 27% increase in goals scored per year of age difference (90% confidence interval 13 to 42%). Aspire experienced a small home-ground advantage of 16% (-5 to 41%), whereas opposition teams experienced 31% (7 to 60%) on their own ground. After adjustment for these effects, the Aspire teams scored on average 1.5 goals per match, with little change in the five years of their existence, whereas their opponents’ scores fell from 1.4 in their first year to 1.0 in their last. The difference in progression was trivial over one year (7%, -4 to 20%), small over two years (15%, -8 to 44%), but unclear over >2 years. In conclusion, the generalized mixed model has marginal utility for estimating progression of soccer scores, owing to the uncertainty arising from low game scores. The estimates are likely to be more precise and useful in sports with higher game scores. Key pointsA generalized linear mixed model is the approach for tracking game scores, key performance indicators or other measures of performance based on counts in sports where changes within and/or between games/seasons have to be considered.Game scores in soccer could be useful to track performance progression of teams, but hundreds of games are needed.Fewer games will be needed for tracking performance represented by counts with high scores, such as game scores in rugby or key performance indicators based on frequent events or player actions in any team sport.

Malcata, Rita M.; Hopkins, Will G; Richardson, Scott

2012-01-01

225

Cognition-based and affect-based trust as mediators of leader behavior influences on team performance.  

PubMed

We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based trust and team psychological safety. Transformational leadership influenced team performance indirectly through cognition-based trust. Cognition-based trust directly influenced team potency and indirectly (through affect-based trust) influenced team psychological safety. The effects of leader behavior on team performance were fully mediated through the trust in leader variables and the team psychological states. Servant leadership explained an additional 10% of the variance in team performance beyond the effect of transformational leadership. We discuss implications of these results for research on the relationship between leader behavior and team performance, and for efforts to enhance leader development by combining knowledge from different leadership theories. PMID:21299271

Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Peng, Ann Chunyan

2011-07-01

226

Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

2013-01-01

227

Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.  

PubMed

Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

2013-03-01

228

Influence of attentional focus on skilled motor performance: Performance decrement under unfamiliar focus conditions.  

PubMed

Recent studies have demonstrated that the direction of attentional focus exerts a substantial influence on motor performance. We argue that in well-learned skills, this variable might be confounded with athletes' familiarity with focus conditions. We studied the effect of familiarity and the direction of attentional focus on performance in two experiments using 2 (familiarity)×2 (direction) within-subject designs. A significant main effect of familiarity-that is, better performance under familiar compared with unfamiliar focus conditions-confirmed the influence of familiarity on motor performance. Results are consistent with existing concepts, but lead to different consequences when applied to sport and exercise. PMID:23830490

Maurer, Heiko; Munzert, Jörn

2013-07-02

229

Cognitive diversity and team performance in a complex multiple task environment.  

PubMed

This article examines the multiple effects of cognitive diversity in teams operating complex human-machine-systems. The study employed a PC-based multiple-task environment, called the Cabin Air Management System, which models a process control task in the operational context of a spacecraft's life support system. Two types of cognitive diversity were examined: system understanding and team specialization. System understanding referred to the depth of understanding team members were given during training (low-level procedure-oriented vs. high level knowledge-oriented training). Team specialization referred to the degree to which knowledge about system fault scenarios was distributed between team members (specialized vs. non-specialized). A total of 72 participants took part in the study. After having received 4.5 h of training on an individual basis, participants completed a 1-h experimental session, in which they worked in two-person teams on a series of fault scenarios of varying difficulty. Measures were taken of primary and secondary task performance, system intervention and information sampling strategies, system knowledge, subjective operator state, communication patterns and conflict. The results provided evidence for the benefits of cognitive diversity with regard to system understanding. This manifested itself in better primary task performance and more efficient manual system control. No advantages were found for cognitive diversity with regard to specialization. There was no effect of cognitive diversity on intra-team conflict, with conflict levels generally being very low. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of the findings for the engineering of cognitive diversity in teams operating complex human-machine-systems. PMID:16803725

Sauer, Jürgen; Felsing, Tobias; Franke, Holger; Rüttinger, Bruno

2006-08-15

230

The performance environment of the England youth soccer teams: A quantitative investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a conceptually grounded questionnaire developed from the themes identified by Pain and Harwood (2007), 82 players and 23 national coaches and support staff were surveyed directly following international tournaments regarding the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. The survey enabled data to be captured regarding both the

Matthew A. Pain; Chris G. Harwood

2008-01-01

231

Two-Sided Search, Heterogeneous Skills and Labor Market Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative model of two-sided search with ex-ante heterogeneity in both worker and entrepreneurial skills is proposed. It is possible to characterize both the competitive equilibrium and the optimal solution numerically. The competitive equilibrium is shown to be suboptimal. Less-skilled workers and firms are too selective, not matching with their comparable counterparts. High-types, on the other hand, are not selective

Samuel Danthine

2005-01-01

232

Coach mid-season replacement and team performance in professional soccer.  

PubMed

The coaching carousel or turnover is an extreme but frequently occurring phenomenon in soccer. Among the reasons for firing a coach, the most common is the existence of a shock-effect: a new coach would be able to motivate the players better and therefore to improve results. Using data from the Spanish Soccer League during the seasons from 1997-1998 to 2006-2007, this paper investigates the relationship between team performance and coach change over time. The empirical analysis shows that the shock effect of a turnover has a positive impact on team performance in the short term. Results reveal no impact of coach turnover in the long term. The favourable short-term impact on team performance of a coach turnover is followed by continued gradual worsening of results. The turnover effect is nonexistent when the comparison between the new coach and the old coach is done over 10, 15 or 20 matches before and after termination. PMID:23487177

Lago-Peñas, Carlos

2011-07-04

233

How can surgical training benefit from theories of skilled motor development, musical skill acquisition and performance psychology?  

PubMed

Trainee surgeons must acquire expert status in the context of reduced hours, reduced operating room time and the need to learn complex skills involving screen-mediated techniques, computers and robotics. Ever more sophisticated surgical simulation strategies have been helpful in providing surgeons with the opportunity to practise, but not all of these strategies are widely available. Similarities in the motor skills required in skilled musical performance and surgery suggest that models of music learning, and particularly skilled motor development, may be applicable in training surgeons. More attention should be paid to factors associated with optimal arousal and optimal performance in surgical training - lessons learned from helping anxious musicians optimise performance and manage anxiety may also be transferable to trainee surgeons. The ways in which the trainee surgeon moves from novice to expert need to be better understood so that this process can be expedited using current knowledge in other disciplines requiring the performance of complex fine motor tasks with high cognitive load under pressure. PMID:21534904

McCaskie, Andrew W; Kenny, Dianna T; Deshmukh, Sandeep

2011-05-01

234

Oral Communication Skills in Higher Education: Using a Performance-Based Evaluation Rubric to Assess Communication Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used "The Competent Speaker", a rubric developed by the National Communication Association (S. P. Morreale, M. R. Moore, K. P. Taylor, D. Surges-Tatum, & R. Hulbert-Johnson, 1993), to evaluate student performance in general education public speaking courses as a case study of student skills and programmatic assessment. Results indicate…

Dunbar, Norah E.; Brooks, Catherine F.; Kubicka-Miller, Tara

2006-01-01

235

Oral Communication Skills in Higher Education: Using a Performance-Based Evaluation Rubric to Assess Communication Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used The Competent Speaker, a rubric developed by the National Communication Association (S. P. Morreale, M. R. Moore, K. P. Taylor, D. Surges-Tatum, & R. Hulbert-Johnson, 1993), to evaluate student performance in general education public speaking courses as a case study of student skills and programmatic assessment. Results indicate that students taking the general education public speaking course

Norah E. Dunbar; Catherine F. Brooks; Tara Kubicka-Miller

2006-01-01

236

Oral Communication Skills in Higher Education: Using a Performance-Based Evaluation Rubric to Assess Communication Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study used "The Competent Speaker", a rubric developed by the National Communication Association (S. P. Morreale, M. R. Moore, K. P. Taylor, D. Surges-Tatum, & R. Hulbert-Johnson, 1993), to evaluate student performance in general education public speaking courses as a case study of student skills and programmatic assessment. Results indicate…

Dunbar, Norah E.; Brooks, Catherine F.; Kubicka-Miller, Tara

2006-01-01

237

Testing the Causality between Team Performance and Payroll: The Cases of Major League Baseball and English Soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link between team payroll and competitive balance plays a central role in the theory of team sports but is seldom investigated empirically. This paper uses data on team payrolls in Major League Baseball between 1980 and 2000 to examine the link and implements Granger causality tests to establish whether the relationship runs from payroll to performance or vice versa.

Stephen Hall; Stefan Szymanski; Andrew S. Zimbalist

2002-01-01

238

Limits on the Predictive Power of Domain-Specific Experience and Knowledge in Skilled Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is clear from decades of research that, to a very large degree, success in music, games, sports, science, and other complex domains reflects knowledge and skills acquired through experience. However, it is equally clear that basic abilities, which are known to be substantially heritable, also contribute to performance differences in many domains, even among highly skilled performers. As we

David Z. Hambrick; Elizabeth J. Meinz

2011-01-01

239

Separate neural substrates for skill learning and performance in the ventral and dorsal striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that the striatum of the basal ganglia is a primary substrate for the learning and performance of skills. We provide evidence that two regions of the rat striatum, ventral and dorsal, play distinct roles in instrumental conditioning (skill learning), with the ventral striatum being critical for learning and the dorsal striatum being important for performance but,

Dan Lopez-Paniagua; Jerry W Rudy; Hisham E Atallah; Randall C O'Reilly

2006-01-01

240

Job demands as a moderator of the political skill-job performance relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine whether political skill is equally effective in its prediction of job performance for different job demands. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses self-report sources of employee performance and self-report of political skill after several weeks along with three ratings of target individuals' job demands. Findings – Results support the hypothesis that

Gerhard Blickle; Jochen Kramer; Ingo Zettler; Tassilo Momm; James K. Summers; Timothy P. Munyon; Gerald R. Ferris

2009-01-01

241

The Effects of an Intervention Strategy on Children's Heart Rates and Skill Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of a fitness infusion instructional strategy (FI) on children's activity levels and skill performance scores. This strategy included aerobic activity within the skill practice tasks and game play. In other words, students performed short bouts of activity between the practice and…

Ignico, Arlene; Corson, Arleen; Vidoni, Carla

2006-01-01

242

Speeding Up Team Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of 16 cardiac surgery teams looked at how the teams adapted to new ways of working. The challenge of team management is to implement new processes as quickly as possible. Steps for creating a learning team include selecting a mix of skills and expertise, framing the challenge, and creating an environment of psychological safety. (JOW)|

Edmondson, Amy; Bohmer, Richard; Pisano, Gary

2001-01-01

243

The CS Freiburg Robotic Soccer Team: Reliable Self-Localization, Multirobot Sensor Integration, and Basic Soccer Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Robotic soccer is a challenging research domain because problemsin robotics, artificial intelligence, multi-agent systems and real-timereasoning have to be solved in order to create a successful team of roboticsoccer players. In this paper, we describe the key components of the CSFreiburg team. We focus on the self-localization and object recognitionmethod based on using laser range finders and the integration

Jens-steffen Gutmann; Wolfgang Hatzack; Immanuel Herrmann; Bernhard Nebel; Frank Rittinger; Augustinus Topor; Thilo Weigel; Bruno Welsch

1998-01-01

244

BILAYER AGENT-BASED MODEL OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR: HOW TEMPERAMENT INFLUENCE ON TEAM PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the evaluation of computational mind model based on temperamental decision algorithms with emotional behaviors. Our computational model of emotion is inspired on appraisal theory and on superior nervous system characteristics. We define the model for temperamental agent with emotions. In this paper we prove that teams of the agents with different temperaments have different performances in the

Daria Barteneva; Nuno Lau

245

The Impact of Trait Emotional Intelligence on Nursing Team Performance and Cohesiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claims about the positive influence of emotional intelligence (EI) on work team performance are very numerous, both in commercial and scientific literature. However, despite the huge interest that media and business consultants put in EI and its fast-growing use in organizations, there is very little empirical evidence to support these claims. In this study, we investigated the relationships between EI,

Jordi Quoidbach; Michel Hansenne

2009-01-01

246

Training methods of military dog handlers and their effects on the team's performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

While only a few studies have analysed training methods used on working dogs, a recent survey in 303 Belgian military handlers revealed the use of harsh training methods on military working dogs (MWD). The present work aims at analysing the training methods used on Belgian MWD and the behaviour of handlers to objectify the performances of the dog handlers teams

A. Haverbeke; B. Laporte; E. Depiereux; J.-M. Giffroy; C. Diederich

2008-01-01

247

Measurement of Transformational Leadership and its Relationship with Team Cohesion and Performance Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the construct validity of a Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory and its relationship with team cohesion and performance level. Three hundred and nine club standard ultimate Frisbee players in the United Kingdom (mean age = 24.30 years, SD = 3.90) completed an adapted version of Hardy, Arthur, Jones, Shariff, Munnoch, Isaacs, and Allsopp et al.'s (in press)

Nichola Callow; Matthew J. Smith; Lew Hardy; Calum A. Arthur; James Hardy

2009-01-01

248

Skilled Migration and Economic Performances: evidence from OECD countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effects of immigration flows and their skill content on per capita GDP in 24 OECD host countries. Theoretical models concludes that the effect of immigrants in host country's income depends on the capital content of migrants (Benhabib 1996); empirically the question is still open and this paper contributes to make light on this. So we propose

Gianluca OREFICE

2010-01-01

249

The Cafeteria Workers' Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A program was conducted by the Food and Beverage Workers Union in Washington, D.C., to provide workplace literacy classes for food service workers in the city's government agencies, universities, and museums. A curriculum for workplace literacy skills was developed, sites were selected, and students were recruited. From a target audience of…

Burt, Miriam

250

Research Article The Effects of Speed on Skilled Chess Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of mechanisms may underlie chess skill: fast mechanisms, such as recognition, and slow mechanisms, such as search through the space of possible moves and responses. Speed distinguishes these mechanisms, so I examined archival data on blitz chess (5 min for the whole game), in which the opportunities for search are greatly reduced. If variation in fast processes accounts

Bruce D. Burns

251

Avenger team performance during engagement operations in a chemical environment. Final report, November 1991-February 1993  

SciTech Connect

For this report, the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on Avenger weapon system operation were tested in an engagement simulation facility. Two experiments were conducted, each using the Avenger system in a different mode of operation. The same teams participated in each experiment, but team members switched duty positions for the second experiment. The team chief's ability to identify aircraft was significantly impaired by the MOPP gear in both modes of weapon system operation. The reduced field of view (FOV) created by the chemical protective (CP) mask is believed to have caused the MOPP4 performance decrement. The gunner, on the other hand, was not affected by the CP clothing, regardless of mode of weapon system operation. The advanced technology available to the gunner (easily seen displays and aids) seems to overcome the adverse effects of the MOPP gear. Chemical protective (CP) clothing, Avenger, Forward area air defense (FAAD), Range target system (RTS), Mission oriented protective posture (MOPP).

Silver, J.D.; Lockhart, J.M.

1993-06-01

252

Effective training and assessment of surgical skills, and the correlates of performance.  

PubMed

This report briefly describes the University of Toronto Surgical Skills Centre and summarizes research in technical skills conducted at that site. This includes work on curriculum evaluation, the development and validation of assessment instruments, the retention of technical skills after training, and the prediction of success in surgery. These studies benefited from the large number of participants made available by the Surgical Skills Centre, allowing for randomized controlled studies or correlation studies where larger numbers are necessary for adequate statistical power. Recent emphasis has been on the further development of objective means of assessment and the exploration of correlates of surgical performance. Ongoing research is also aimed at simulator validation. PMID:15846449

Hamstra, Stanley J; Dubrowski, Adam

2005-03-01

253

Developing a Performance-Based Assessment of Students' Critical Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers questions about how a performance-based assessment of critical thinking skills would correlate with a multiple-choice measure of students' critical thinking skills. Determines whether students' critical thinking abilities would improve after completing a general education course focused on critical thinking and after completing a core…

Blattner, Nancy H.; Frazier, Christina L.

2002-01-01

254

The Performance of Alabama College System Students on the Alabama Basic Skills Test. Chancellor's Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the performance of Alabama College System (ACS) students on a Basic Skills Test (BST) and compared it with non-ACS students' scores to determine whether there were significant differences in achievement. The Alabama Basic Skills Test is required of all students seeking admission to teacher education programs at Alabama…

Alabama State Dept. of Postsecondary Education, Montgomery.

255

Effectiveness of Instruction Performed through Activity Schedules on Leisure Skills of Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the influences of instruction performed through activity schedules on engaging-in the schedule skill and fulfilling the activity skills of pre-school children with autism; along with investigating the influence of schedule observation and instruction on children's engagement in activities. Participants were three male…

Cuhadar, Selmin; Diken, Ibrahim H.

2011-01-01

256

Information and Strategic Internet Skills of Secondary Students: A Performance Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the information and strategic Internet skills of Dutch secondary students were measured in a performance test. Participating students were asked to complete assignments on the Internet. The findings reveal that the levels of both information and strategic Internet skills have much room for improvement. Of the variables that…

van Deursen, A. J. A. M.; van Diepen, S.

2013-01-01

257

Developing a Performance-Based Assessment of Students' Critical Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Answers questions about how a performance-based assessment of critical thinking skills would correlate with a multiple-choice measure of students' critical thinking skills. Determines whether students' critical thinking abilities would improve after completing a general education course focused on critical thinking and after completing a core…

Blattner, Nancy H.; Frazier, Christina L.

2002-01-01

258

National Skill Standards for Advanced High Performance Manufacturing. Version 2.1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents and discusses the national skill standards for advanced high-performance manufacturing that were developed during a project that was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Education. The introduction explains the need for national skill standards. Discussed in the next three sections are the following: benefits of national…

National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing, Washington, DC.

259

Predictive Validity of Critical Thinking Skills for Initial Clinical Dental Hygiene Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study collected validity evidence on the utility of critical thinking skills and critical thinking disposition in predicting initial clinical performance. The predictive value of critical thinking skills scores and disposition scores was examined to determine their unique contribution beyond that provided by traditional predictors: grade point average, age, and number of college hours. The study involved three phases: establishing

Karen B. Williams; Douglas R. Glasnapp; Terri S. I. Tilliss; Joy Osborn; Kris Wilkins; Shannon Mitchell; Wendy Kershbaum; Colleen Schmidt

260

Skills, division of labor and performance in collective inventions: Evidence from open source software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the skills and the division of labor among participants in collective inventions. Our analysis draws on a large sample of projects registered at Sourceforge.net, the world's largest incubator of open source software activity. We test the hypothesis that skill variety of participants is associated with project performance. We also explore whether the level of modularization of project

Paola Giuri; Matteo Ploner; Francesco Rullani; Salvatore Torrisi

2010-01-01

261

Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate

Christiano Robles Rodrigues Alves; Leonardo Pasqua; Guilherme Gianinni Artioli; Marina Solis; Gabriel Tobias; Christian Klansener; Rômulo Bertuzzi; Emerson Franchini; Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior; Bruno Gualano

2012-01-01

262

Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate

Christiano Robles Rodrigues Alves; Leonardo Pasqua; Guilherme Gianinni Artioli; Marina Solis; Gabriel Tobias; Christian Klansener; Rômulo Bertuzzi; Emerson Franchini; Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior; Bruno Gualano

2011-01-01

263

Survival of the Fittest: Implications of Self-Reliance and Coping for Leaders and Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a laboratory methodology, the authors sought to establish an association between self-reliance (based on attachment theory) and team performance and satisfaction. Three hypotheses (direct effect, mediator, and moderator) were tested. With a sample of 187 students, the authors compared leader self-reliance characteristics with group member self-reliance characteristics (group n = 50) as predictors of group performance and satisfaction. Only

Catherine S. Daus; Janice R. W. Joplin

1999-01-01

264

The effects of teamwork on individual learning and perceptions of team performance : A comparison of face-to-face and online project settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In light of contradictory research findings, the purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating effects of team setting (face-to-face or online) on the relationship that team member affect and interaction processes have on individual team source learning, and at the team level on the relationship between group cohesiveness and perceived team performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Students enrolled

Ethlyn A. Williams; Stephanie L. Castro

2010-01-01

265

Integrating Engineering Design Heuristics into a First Year Engineering Course to Enhance Problem Solving and Team Building Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to integrating a module on design into a first year engineering course with goals to facilitate student s' systematic methodology to design while building tea m skills. At the beginning of their academic careers students are usually competent in basic science and math, but have limitations in integrating this knowledge with solving a practical problem.

Kathleen M. Leonard; Joseph J. Mastromonico

266

Internet Skills Performance Tests: Are People Ready for eHealth?  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the amount of online health information, there are several barriers that limit the Internet’s adoption as a source of health information. One of these barriers is highlighted in conceptualizations of the digital divide which include the differential possession of Internet skills, or “eHealth literacy”. Most measures of Internet skills among populations at large use self-assessments. The research discussed here applies a multifaceted definition of Internet skills and uses actual performance tests. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess how ready a sample of the general population is for eHealth. More specifically, four types of Internet skills were measured in a performance test in which subjects had to complete health-related assignments on the Internet. Methods From November 1, 2009, through February 28, 2010, 88 subjects participated in the study. Subjects were randomly selected from a telephone directory. A selective quota sample was used divided over equal subsamples of gender, age, and education. Each subject had to accomplish assignments on the Internet. The Internet skills accounted for were categorized as operational (basic skills to use the Internet), formal (navigation and orientation), information (finding information), and strategic (using the information for personal benefits). The tests took approximately 1.5 hours and were conducted in a University office, making the setting equally new for all. Successful completion and time spent on the assignments—the two main outcomes—were directly measured by the test leader. Results The subjects successfully completed an average of 73% (5.8/8) of the operational Internet skill tasks and an average of 73% (2.9/4) of the formal Internet skill tasks. Of the information Internet skills tasks, an average of 50% (1.5/3) was completed successfully and, of the strategic Internet skills tasks, 35% (0.7/2). Only 28% (25/88) of the subjects were able to successfully complete all operational skills tasks, 39% (34/88) all formal skills tasks, 13% (11/88) all information skills tasks, and 20% (18/88) both the strategic skill tasks. The time spent on the assignments varied substantially. Age and education were the most important contributors to the operational and formal Internet skills. Regarding the formal Internet skills, years of Internet experience also had some influence. Educational level of attainment was the most important contributor to the information and strategic Internet skills. Conclusions Although the amount of online health-related information and services is consistently growing, it appears that the general population lacks the skills to keep up. Most problematic appear to be the lack of information and strategic Internet skills, which, in the context of health, are very important. The lack of these skills is also problematic for members of younger generations, who are often considered skilled Internet users. This primarily seems to account for the operational and formal Internet skills. The results of the study strongly call for policies to increase the level of Internet skills.

van Dijk, Jan A G M

2011-01-01

267

Team performance in the emergency room: assessment of inter-disciplinary attitudes.  

PubMed

In-hospital emergency medicine in central Europe relies on inter-disciplinary co-operation. To improve team performance in the emergency room (ER), a questionnaire for assessment of attitudes and judgements in resuscitation procedures was developed. A total of 43 items were evaluated according to a five-point Likert scale. With a response rate of 81%, 143 questionnaires were evaluated. Assessment of data was performed with regard to professional speciality and level in the medical hierarchy. Factorial analysis identified four main factors: Assessment of 'quality of performance' (F1), 'importance of structure' (F2), 'quality of team culture' (F3), and 'importance of hierarchy' (F4). Influences from the categories 'speciality' and 'hierarchy' and from the covariate 'gender' on these main factors were evaluated by two-factorial analysis of variance. For all four factors, 'speciality' produced significant differences. Surgeons accorded high values to F1 and low values to F2, whereas anaesthesiologists accorded low values to F1 and high values to F2. F3 showed a low ranking from within the ER nursing staff and the residents in internal medicine, whereas F4 received high scores by medical residents and staff members. For F1 and F3, there was a tendency towards hierarchy dependency, whereas no factor was influenced by gender. In conclusion, team performance in the ER is mainly influenced by different perceptions and attitudes of the different disciplines involved in the resuscitation process. PMID:11334690

Ummenhofer, W; Amsler, F; Sutter, P M; Martina, B; Martin, J; Scheidegger, D

2001-04-01

268

Information Processing Capabilities in Performers Differing in Levels of Motor Skill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More proficient and less proficient performers of motor skills differ in many ways. Some factors explored in this paper were differences in cognitive controls, learner strategies, and information-processing. This was done using an information-processing s...

R. N. Singer R. F. Gerson K. W. Kim

1979-01-01

269

29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring...

2013-07-01

270

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...form will reduce but not eliminate subjectivity. Any skill performance test will contain some amount of subjectivity. While compliance with the...attempt to reduce or eliminate such subjectivity through use of some type of...

2009-10-01

271

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...form will reduce but not eliminate subjectivity. Any skill performance test will contain some amount of subjectivity. While compliance with the...attempt to reduce or eliminate such subjectivity through use of some type of...

2010-10-01

272

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...form will reduce but not eliminate subjectivity. Any skill performance test will contain some amount of subjectivity. While compliance with the...attempt to reduce or eliminate such subjectivity through use of some type of...

2011-10-01

273

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...form will reduce but not eliminate subjectivity. Any skill performance test will contain some amount of subjectivity. While compliance with the...attempt to reduce or eliminate such subjectivity through use of some type of...

2008-10-01

274

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...form will reduce but not eliminate subjectivity. Any skill performance test will contain some amount of subjectivity. While compliance with...attempt to reduce or eliminate such subjectivity through use of some type of...

2002-10-01

275

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...form will reduce but not eliminate subjectivity. Any skill performance test will contain some amount of subjectivity. While compliance with...attempt to reduce or eliminate such subjectivity through use of some type of...

2003-10-01

276

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...form will reduce but not eliminate subjectivity. Any skill performance test will contain some amount of subjectivity. While compliance with the...attempt to reduce or eliminate such subjectivity through use of some type of...

2007-10-01

277

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...form will reduce but not eliminate subjectivity. Any skill performance test will contain some amount of subjectivity. While compliance with...attempt to reduce or eliminate such subjectivity through use of some type of...

2000-10-01

278

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...form will reduce but not eliminate subjectivity. Any skill performance test will contain some amount of subjectivity. While compliance with the...attempt to reduce or eliminate such subjectivity through use of some type of...

1998-10-01

279

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...form will reduce but not eliminate subjectivity. Any skill performance test will contain some amount of subjectivity. While compliance with the...attempt to reduce or eliminate such subjectivity through use of some type of...

1999-10-01

280

High-intensity intermittent running and field hockey skill performance in the heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine well-trained, unacclimatized female hockey players performed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) interspersed with three field hockey skill tests in hot (30°C, 38% relative humidity) and moderate (19°C, 51% relative humidity) environmental conditions. Field hockey skill performance declined in both the hot and moderate conditions following 30 and 60?min of the LIST compared with pre-LIST values (P ?

Caroline Sunderland; Mary E Nevill

2005-01-01

281

The Attention Skills and Academic Performance of Aggressive\\/Rejected and Low Aggressive\\/Popular Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: Aggressive\\/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these skills in children's academic performance. Kindergarten and 1st-grade children (n = 54, 52% female) were identified

Beverly J. Wilson; Holly Petaja; Larissa Mancil

2011-01-01

282

Does participatory decision-making in top management teams enhance decision effectiveness and firm performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how participatory decision-making processes in top management teams (TMT) influence strategic decision effectiveness and firm performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data from 94 TMTs are collected from structured surveys. Each firm's CEO provides data on strategic decision effectiveness, and a senior executive member of the TMT provided data on participatory decision-making processes

Abraham Carmeli; Zachary Sheaffer; Meyrav Yitzack Halevi

2009-01-01

283

College Athletes' Perceptions of Effective Coaching Behaviors and How Perceptions Influence Individual Performance and Team Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study collected data both quantitatively and qualitatively on athletes’ perceptions of their current coaches and whether these perceptions influenced individual performance and team satisfaction as perceived by the athlete. Athletes at two community colleges participated (n=145) in the quantitative portion, the Athletes’ Perceptions of Effective Coaching Traits Questionnaire (APECT-Q), along with five being interviewed. Overall, on the APECT-Q it

David Brent Holstein

2010-01-01

284

A comparison of muscle damage, soreness and performance following a simulated contact and non-contact team sport activity circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to compare the effect of a simulated team sport activity circuit (reflective of the activity demands of Australian football) either with or without body ‘contact’ on muscle soreness, damage, and performance when the circuit was repeated 48h later. Eleven male, team-sport athletes completed a ‘non-contact’ (NCON) and a ‘contact’ (CON) version of the team sport activity circuit

Tarveen K. R. Singh; Kym J. Guelfi; Grant Landers; Brian Dawson; David Bishop

2011-01-01

285

Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills in relation to cognition and academic performance in children - a review.  

PubMed

Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies. PMID:23717355

Haapala, Eero A

2013-03-28

286

Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the team members. The self-directed team was more motivated to learn their topic than was the manager-directed team, but they struggled with their path in following their vision whereas the manager-directed team kept their focus under the guidance of their manager. Finally, both teams are in fact effective; however specific circumstances may be an important objective when deciding to utilize either a self-directed or manager-directed team.

Erlick, Katherine

287

Clinical performance and skill retention after simulation-based education for nephrology fellows.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that simulation-based education (SBE) improved temporary hemodialysis catheter (THDC) insertion skills by nephrology fellows. SBE, featuring deliberate practice and rigorous achievement standards, was a powerful method to enhance THDC insertion skills in nephrology fellows. However, experts have called for further research to evaluate skill transfer from the simulated environment to actual clinical care and skill retention. This is a prospective observational cohort study of THDC insertion skills. Twelve nephrology fellows from three academic centers in Chicago were evaluated using a skills checklist from July 2008 to June 2009. Simulator-trained fellows were tested after the SBE intervention and expected to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) set by an expert panel. To assess transfer of skill to clinical care, three simulator-trained fellows were assessed at 6 months on actual patient THDC insertions using the checklist. To assess retention of skill, 11 of 12 simulator-trained fellows were reassessed at 1 year using the checklist and central venous catheter simulator. Outcomes were determined by THDC insertion skill performance. Simulator-trained fellows scored similarly during 6-month THDC insertions on actual patients and immediate posttest (M = 86.2%, SD = 22.3% vs. M = 93.5%, SD = 5.3%, p = 0.32). However, 1 year after SBE, simulated THDC insertion scores were significantly lower than at immediate posttest (M = 73.4%, SD = 22.2% vs. M = 93.5%, SD = 5.3%, p = 0.01). Our results show that nephrology fellows who completed SBE displayed high levels of performance during THDC insertions on actual patients 6 months later. At 1 year, there was statistically significant skills decay. We recommend booster training at 6 months. PMID:22309946

Ahya, Shubhada N; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Tuazon, Jennifer; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B

2012-02-07

288

Predictors of Performance in Navy Electronics Skills: The Effect of Mathematical Skills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort is part of a project designed to identify mathematical requirements relevant to Navy electronics training. The relationship between mathematics ability and electronics performance in the Navy's Basic Electricity and Electronics (BE/E), Class '...

M. S. Baker

1983-01-01

289

When Paying Attention Becomes Counterproductive: Impact of Divided Versus Skill-Focused Attention on Novice and Experienced Performance of Sensorimotor Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined the impact of attention on sensorimotor skills. In Experiment 1, experienced golfers putted under dual-task conditions designed to distract attention from putting and under skill-focused conditions that prompted attention to step-by-step putting performance. Dual-task condition putting was more accurate. In Experiment 2, right-footed novice and experienced soccer players dribbled through a slalom course under dual-task or skill-focused

Sian L. Beilock; Thomas H. Carr; Clare MacMahon; Janet L. Starkes

2002-01-01

290

What Research Says About: Visual Attributes and Skilled Motor Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the performer's ability to visually discriminate parts of an object when there is relative motion between the target and the performer. According to research findings, this visual attribute may play a key role in motor-task performance. Researchers have found a significant relationship between DVA and…

Isaacs, Larry D.

291

Cognitive-behaviour therapy and skilled motor performance in adults with chronic tic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of

Kieron P. Oconnor; Marc E. Lavoie; Emmanuel Stip; François Borgeat; Anick Laverdure

2008-01-01

292

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader. Self-Aid, First Aid and Evacuation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performances, knowledges, and skills required of the Infantry rifle squad leader to treat himself or his men and to supervise treatment and evacuation are covered in this paper. Skills and knowledges include the lifesaver steps; treating wounds requir...

E. Y. Felton T. O. Jacobs K. Perkinson

1969-01-01

293

Constraints on competitive performance of attacker-defender dyads in team sports.  

PubMed

Previous research on coordination dynamics of 1 vs. 1 sub-phases in team sports has reported stable emergent patterns of coordination in the displacement trajectories of attackers and defenders. The aim of this study was to use attacker-defender interactions in competitive team match-play to investigate how the locations of the goal and ball constrain the pattern-forming dynamics of attacker-defender dyadic systems. Ten high-level futsal matches were filmed and 13 goal sequences selected for analysis. Displacements of the players and the ball were filmed and digitized from 52 attacker-defender dyadic system interactions. Results showed that, although attackers and defenders exhibited similar angular orientations to the goal, the latter always remained closer to the goal than attackers. Observations revealed that in-phase patterns of coordination emerged from changes to both the distances and angles of attackers and defenders to the goal. Attackers always remained closer to the ball than defenders, while the latter exhibited a lower angle to the ball than attackers. A pattern of in-phase coordination modes emerged between the attackers and defenders' distances and angles to the ball. This study helps us to understand interpersonal interactions in team sports by explaining how attackers and defenders use information about their relative positioning to the goal and the ball to perform successfully. PMID:22260194

Vilar, Luís; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Travassos, Bruno

2012-01-19

294

A study on the effect of varying sequence of lab performance skills on lab performance of high school physics students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this investigation was to study how student rank in class, student gender and skill sequence affect high school students' performance on the lab skills involved in a laboratory-based inquiry task in physics. The focus of the investigation was the effect of skill sequence as determined by the particular task. The skills considered were: Hypothesis, Procedure, Planning, Data, Graph, Calculations and Conclusion. Three physics lab tasks based on the simple pendulum concept were administered to 282 Regents physics high school students. The reliability of the designed tasks was high. Student performance was evaluated on individual student written responses and a scoring rubric. The tasks had high discrimination power and were of moderate difficulty (65%). It was found that, student performance was weak on Conclusion (42%), Hypothesis (48%), and Procedure (51%), where the numbers in parentheses represent the mean as a percentage of the maximum possible score. Student performance was strong on Calculations (91%), Data (82%), Graph (74%) and Plan (68%). Out of all seven skills, Procedure had the strongest correlation (.73) with the overall task performance. Correlation analysis revealed some strong relationships among the seven skills which were grouped in two distinct clusters: Hypothesis, Procedure and Plan belong to one, and Data, Graph, Calculations, and Conclusion belong to the other. This distinction may indicate different mental processes at play within each skill cluster. The effect of student rank was not statistically significant according to the MANOVA results due to the large variation of rank levels among the participating schools. The effect of gender was significant on the entire test because of performance differences on Calculations and Graph, where male students performed better than female students. Skill sequence had a significant effect on the skills of Procedure, Plan, Data and Conclusion. Students are rather weak in proposing a sensible, detailed procedure for the inquiry task which involves the "novel" concept. However they perform better on Procedure and Plan, if the "novel" task is not preceded by another, which explicitly offers step-by-step procedure instructions. It was concluded that the format of detailed, structured instructions often adopted by many commercial and school-developed lab books and conventional lab practices, fails to prepare students to propose a successful, detailed procedure when faced with a slightly "novel", lab-based inquiry task. Student performance on Data collection was higher in the tasks that involved the more familiar experimental arrangement than in the tasks using the slightly "novel" equipment. Student performance on Conclusion was better in tasks where they had to collect the Data themselves than in tasks, where all relevant Data information was given to them.

Bournia-Petrou, Ethel A.

295

Focus of Attention Affects Performance of Motor Skills in Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the extent to which learners performing a simple keyboard passage would be affected by directing their focus of attention to different aspects of their movements, 16 music majors performed a brief keyboard passage under each of four focus conditions arranged in a counterbalanced design--a total of 64 experimental sessions. As they…

Duke, Robert A.; Cash, Carla Davis; Allen, Sarah E.

2011-01-01

296

Focus of Attention Affects Performance of Motor Skills in Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To test the extent to which learners performing a simple keyboard passage would be affected by directing their focus of attention to different aspects of their movements, 16 music majors performed a brief keyboard passage under each of four focus conditions arranged in a counterbalanced design--a total of 64 experimental sessions. As they…

Duke, Robert A.; Cash, Carla Davis; Allen, Sarah E.

2011-01-01

297

Performance of UN Military Observer Teams: Does Victim Proximity Escalate Commitment to Saving Lives?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment examined the tactical peacekeeping behaviors of military-officer teams undergoing training as United Nations military observers. Teams encountered a simulated human-rights violation where two civilians were being abused. Proximity of the female civilian to the team leader was manipulated and significantly influenced teams' commitment to saving the civilians' lives. Proximity increased the frequency of behaviors that were specifically

David R. Mandel; Oshin Vartanian; Barbara D. Adams; Michael H. Thomson

2010-01-01

298

Improving Virtual Team Collaboration Outcomes through Collaboration Process Structuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ability to collaborate in a virtual team is a necessary skill set for today's knowledge workers and students to be effective in their work. Past research indicates that knowledge workers and students need to establish a formal process to perform work, develop clear goals and objectives, and facilitate better communication among team members.…

Dittman, Dawn R.; Hawkes, Mark; Deokar, Amit V.; Sarnikar, Surendra

2010-01-01

299

Body Segment Contributions to Sport Skill Performance: Two Contrasting Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two methods for approaching the problems of body segment contributions to motor performance are joint immobilization with restraint and resultant muscle torque pattern. Although the second approach is preferred, researchers face major challenges when using it. (CJ)|

Miller, Doris I.

1980-01-01

300

The attention skills of boys with and without developmental delays: associations with academic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study investigated the role of attention skills in the academic performance of 20 boys with developmental delays (DDs) and 20 boys without delays. Children's attention abilities were estimated from their performance on a novel assessment of sustained attention, as well as teacher reports of attention in the classroom. Children with DDs had slower reaction times, lower hit rates, higher

Beverly J. Wilson; Meredith N. Will; Julie Schoenfield-McNeill; Rachel Montague

2012-01-01

301

Predicting Performance in a Community College Content-Area Course from Academic Skill Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary logistic regression analyses were performed on institutional data from a large urban community college in order to identify predictors of performance in a content course (psychology) that had high literacy demands. It was found that students who completed college English were more likely to pass the content course than students with developmental-level English skills. Also, academically underprepared students who

Miriam T. Goldstein; Dolores Perin

2008-01-01

302

Accuracy of cricothyroidotomy performed in canine and human cadaver models during surgical skills training  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSurgical skills training is an integral component of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) Course. Teaching techniques are continuously reevaluated and updated. Recognition of recurring technical errors in the performance of cricothyroidotomy in canine models prompted this comparison to the performance of the procedure in human cadavers.

Mary C McCarthy; Mark R Ranzinger; Daniel J Nolan; Carie S Lambert; Manuel H Castillo

2002-01-01

303

Thoughts and attention of athletes under pressure: skill-focus or performance worries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choking under pressure in sport has been explained by either explicit attention to skill execution (self-focus theories), or attention to performance worries (distraction theories). The aim of the present study was to find out which focus of attention occurs most often when expert athletes perform under pressure. Two retrospective methods were employed, namely, verbal reports and concept mapping. In the

Raôul R. D. Oudejans; Wilma Kuijpers; Chris C. Kooijman; Frank C. Bakker

2011-01-01

304

An Analysis of High School Students' Performance on Five Integrated Science Process Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined Jamaican high school students' level of performance on five integrated science process skills and if there were statistically significant differences in their performance linked to their gender, grade level, school location, school type, student type and socio-economic background (SEB). The 305 subjects comprised 133 males, 172 females, 146 ninth graders, 159 10th graders, 150 traditional and 155

Yvonne Beaumont-Walters; Kola Soyibo

2001-01-01

305

Impact of Cooperative-Team Learning on Performance and Retention of Navy Air-Traffic Controller Trainees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cooperative-team learning was compared with traditional Navy instruction and success was measured by the ability to master technical information and to perform a conceptually complex task. With several classes of air traffic control trainees and ROTC stud...

D. W. Johnson R. T. Johnson

1989-01-01

306

Basic Skill Performance Trends in Tacoma Compared with Similar Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results of nationwide studies show that standardized achievement test scores of public school children have declined since the mid-1960's, after decades of steady improvement. This seems to be true regardless of grade level, subject tested, or geographic area. Comparing Tacoma's performance with that of the nation and school systems like it as a…

Tacoma School District 10, WA.

307

Team Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experience shows that teamwork produces powerful results. Working in a team environment, however, presents its own set of challenges. This handbook provides U.S. Department of Education managers and employees with guidance to develop high-performing teams. Based on input from agency employees throughout the country, the handbook was designed to…

Department of Education, Washington, DC.

308

Memory Skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired memory skills best account for differences in memory performance. According to Chase and Ericsson's theory of skilled memory, improved memory or memory skills are due to the acquisition of more efficient storage and retrieval processes using long-term memory (LTM). Their theory specifies three principles which characterize the structure of memory skills. First, information rapidly stored in LTM is encoded

K. Anders Ericsson

1985-01-01

309

Comparison of Simulation-Based Performance with Metrics of Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing Students: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative approaches to evaluating critical thinking skills are needed, as pencil and paper assessments may not accurately predict simulated or actual clinical performance. To ensure patient safety, it is imperative to determine how to best promote and measure critical thinking skills. Few studies have examined how these skills are related to…

Fero, Laura J.

2009-01-01

310

Validation of a Self-Efficacy Instrument and Its Relationship to Performance of Crisis Resource Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Self-efficacy is thought to be important for resuscitation proficiency in that it influences the development of and access to the associated medical knowledge, procedural skills and crisis resource management (CRM) skills. Since performance assessment of CRM skills is challenging, self-efficacy is often used as a measure of competence in this…

Plant, Jennifer L.; van Schaik, Sandrijn M.; Sliwka, Diane C.; Boscardin, Christy K.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.

2011-01-01

311

Especial skill effect across age and performance level: the nature and degree of generalization.  

PubMed

It has been claimed that an especial skill emerges after massive amounts of basketball practice. Despite this no direct evidence is available to support this claim. The authors aimed to shed light on this question. Thirty-seven male basketball players took part representing four groups: 2 groups of senior players, a cadet group, and a group of juniors. Players performed free throw shots from 7 distances including shots from the free throw line (15 ft). It was shown that an especial skill was present in senior players, but not in junior players who had only 3 years of playing experience. The authors present a descriptive model of especial skill and express it using the formalism of a hierarchical Bayesian model to fit the data and estimate the parameters. This model can account not only for the results, which indicate the presence and a substantial degree of generalizability of especial skill to nearby distances, but also for results of the original study on especial skill where it was proposed that specificity in practice leads to the emergence of the especial skill. PMID:23488624

Czy?, S H; Breslin, G; Kwon, O; Mazur, M; Kobia?ka, K; Pizlo, Z

2013-03-14

312

The Case for Unit-Based Teams: A Model for Front-line Engagement and Performance Improvement  

PubMed Central

Unit-based teams (UBTs)—defined as natural work groups of physicians, managers, and frontline staff who work collaboratively to solve problems, improve performance, and enhance quality—were established by the 2005 national agreement between Kaiser Permanente (KP) and the Coalition of KP Unions. They use established performance-improvement techniques and employee-engagement principles (including social-movement theory) to achieve clinical and operational goals. UBT members identify performance gaps and opportunities within their purview—issues they can address in the course of the day-to-day work, such as workflow or process improvement. By focusing on clear, agreed-on goals, UBTs encourage greater accountability and allow members to perform their full scope of work. UBTs are designed to deliver measurable benefits in clinical outcomes and operations, patient-experience enhancements, and physician-team performance or work life. For many physicians, UBTs will require new ways of engaging with their teams. However, evidence suggests that with organizational and physician support, these teams can achieve their goals. This article presents case examples of successful UBTs' outcomes; physicians' comments on their experience working with teams; an overview of UBTs' employee-engagement principles; and advice on how physicians can support and participate in the work of such teams.

Cohen, Paul M; Ptaskiewicz, Mark; Mipos, Debra

2010-01-01

313

Effects of Collaborative Technologies on Individual and Team Performance in a Network Centric Warfare (NCW) Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organizations believe that teams are the answer to many of their problems and are implementing them more readily into their daily business practices. The ubiquitous nature of teams in organizations and the current organizational trend of focusing on a mor...

E. Salas J. W. Guthrie M. A. Rosen R. S. Bolia W. T. Nelson

2007-01-01

314

Extending the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DMF) to Model Human Performance and Team Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses the development of a structure for the modeling and analysis of control room teams to represent team related human errors of commission and omission in nuclear power plant accident scenarios. The structure includes the identification...

A. Milici R. Mulvihill S. Guarro

2001-01-01

315

Team Research at the Biology-Mathematics Interface: Project Management Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics background and an experimentally oriented biology student. The team mentors typically ranked the students' performance very good to excellent over a range of attributes that included creativity and ability to conduct independent research. However, the research teams experienced problems meeting prespecified deadlines due to poor time and project management skills. Because time and project management skills can be readily taught and moreover typically reflect good research practices, simple modifications should be made to undergraduate curricula so that the promise of initiatives, such as MATH-BIO 2010, can be implemented.

Radunskaya, Ami E.; Lee, Arthur H.; de Pillis, Lisette G.; Bartlett, Diana F.

2010-01-01

316

Project Leader's Dual Socialization and Its Impact on Team Learning and Performance: A Diagnostic Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the important challenges for leadership in project teams is the ability to manage the knowledge, communication and coordination related activities of team. In cross-team collaboration, different boundaries contribute to the situated nature of knowledge and hamper the flow of knowledge and prevent shared understanding with those on the…

Gautam, Tanvi

2009-01-01

317

Team flexibility's relationship to staffing and performance in complex projects: An empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the role of flexibility in project team effectiveness. Specifically, we hypothesize that (1) it will mediate the relationship between staffing quality and effectiveness and (2) its relationship with team effectiveness will be moderated by project complexity, where more flexibility will be required when projects are complex. Hypotheses are tested using data collected from 60 cross-functional project teams. The

Sara A. McComb; Stephen G. Green; W. Dale Compton

2007-01-01

318

Performance-Based Measures of Functional Skills: Usefulness in Clinical Treatment Studies  

PubMed Central

Recently, attention to the assessment and treatment of functional disability has increased notably. It is widely understood that impairments in everyday living skills, including independent living skills, social functions, vocational functioning, and self-care, are present in people with schizophrenia. It has also become clear recently that assessment of these skills can pose substantial challenges. These challenges include selection of meaningful short-term outcome measures and avoiding bias and reduced validity in the data. Self-report, direct observation, and informant reports of everyday disability all have certain advantages but appear to be inferior to direct assessment of skills with performance-based measures. This review outlines the issues associated with the assessment of functional skills and everyday functioning and provides a description of the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches. We conclude that direct assessment of functional capacity has substantial advantages over other measures and may actually provide a more direct and valid estimate of functional disability than performance on the more distal neuropsychological assessment measures.

Harvey, Philip D.; Velligan, Dawn I.; Bellack, Alan S.

2007-01-01

319

Motor Skill Performance of School-Age Children with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was…

Houwen, S.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Hartman, E.

2008-01-01

320

Visuospatial skills and their Association with Math performance in Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to assess object identification (“what”) and location (“where”) skills among girls with fragile X or Turner syndrome and girls with neither disorder. Participants completed standardized subtests of visual perception and tasks of visuospatial “what” and “where” memory. Girls with fragile X had average performance on most object identification tasks, yet 53% failed to accurately recreate

Michèle M. M. Mazzocco; Neha Singh Bhatia; Katarzyna Lesniak-Karpiak

2006-01-01

321

Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.

2011-01-01

322

Expectancies, mood, and performance of depressed and nondepressed psychiatric inpatients on chance and skill tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The learned helplessness model of depression predicts that, compared with nondepressed patients, depressed patients will demonstrate psychomotor deficits, provide lower subjective evaluations of their performance, and perceive reinforcement in skill tasks as more response independent. These predictions were tested in 32 depressed (mean age 35 yrs) and 32 nondepressed (mean age 38 yrs) psychiatric inpatients, who had been administered the

Robert C. Smolen

1978-01-01

323

Motor Skill Performance of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews studies on variables that are related to the motor skill performance of children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI). Three major groups of variables are considered (child, environmental, and task). Thirty-nine studies are included in this review, 26 of which examined the effects of child, environmental, and/or task…

Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Hartman, Esther

2009-01-01

324

Motor Skill Performance and Sports Participation in Deaf Elementary School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…

Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

2011-01-01

325

The Attention Skills and Academic Performance of Aggressive/Rejected and Low Aggressive/Popular Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…

Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa

2011-01-01

326

Maintenance of Skilled Performance With Age: A Descriptive Examination of Professional Golfers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic studies indicate a remarkable aging trend in North America. An accurate profile of the decline in physical and cognitive capabilities over time is essential to our understanding of the aging process. This study examined the maintenance of skilled performance across the careers of 96 professional golfers. Data were collected on scoring average, driving distance, driving accuracy, greens in regulation,

Joe Baker; Janice Deakin; Sean Horton; G. William Pearce

2007-01-01

327

Effects of Two Instructional Approaches on Skill Development, Knowledge, and Game Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 × 3 (group × time)

Tony Pritchard; Andrew Hawkins; Robert Wiegand; Jonathan N. Metzler

2008-01-01

328

Two Instructional Approaches to the Development of Aural and Instrumental Performance Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates whether introduction of music reading activities during beginning instrumental music instruction impedes student's development of aural musicianship and instrumental performance skills because of the division of attention between aural and visual activities. Concludes that music reading activities do not adversely affect the…

Kendall, Michael J.

1988-01-01

329

Competency-based instruction in critical invasive skills improves both resident performance and patient safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Correct performance of invasive skills is essential, but residents often undertake such procedures after no or minimal instruction. Methods: We instructed eight postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residents in the cadaver laboratory using a competency-based approach (CBI). Each resident had been evaluated before the laboratory during patient encounters. Group instruction in endotracheal tube insertion (ET), venous cutdown (VC), and chest

Marcel Martin; Bhupesh Vashisht; Eldo Frezza; Terri Ferone; Barbara Lopez; Murlidhar Pahuja; Richard K. Spence

1998-01-01

330

How Pre-Service Teachers' Understand and Perform Science Process Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding and performance on science process skills. A sample comprised 91 elementary pre-service teachers at a university in the Midwest of the USA. Participants were enrolled in two science education courses; introductory science teaching methods course and advanced science methods…

Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simeon

2012-01-01

331

Study on the relationship between skill performance and selected physical fitness variables of hand ball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between skill performance and selected physical fitness variables of hand ball players of Osmania University, Hyderabad, India. 30 handball players aged 18-11 years were randomly selected from players undergoing rigorous training camp for the All India Inter-University tournament. Defensive ability, passing ability and dribbling ability were assessed by defence movement test, passing test and control

S Ibrahim; K Azeem

2010-01-01

332

Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.

2011-01-01

333

Team Performance and Risk-Adjusted Health Outcomes in the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) is a community-based program pro- viding primary, acute, and long-term care to frail elderly individuals. A central component of the PACE model is the interdisciplinary care team, which includes both professionals and non-professionals. The purpose of this study was to examine the asso- ciation between the team's overall performance and

Dana B. Mukamel; Helena Temkin-Greener; Rachel Delavan; Derick R. Peterson; Diane Gross; Stephen Kunitz; T. Franklin Williams

334

Where did we turn wrong?: unpacking the effect of culture and technology on attributions of team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Computer-mediated,collaboration,is,becoming,an increasingly prevalent form of work ([22]). At the same time, organizations are relying more and more on culturally diverse teams to staff knowledge-intensive projects (e.g., software development, customer service, corporate training,). We conducted a laboratory study examining the role of collaborative technologies and culture on 2-person team members’ attributions of causes for their collaborative performance. Pairs of American,

E. Ilana Diamant; Susan R. Fussell; Fen-ly Lo

2008-01-01

335

Where Did We Turn Wrong? Unpacking the Effects of Culture and Technology on Attributions of Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-mediated collaboration is becoming an increasingly prevalent form of work ((22)). At the same time, organizations are relying more and more on culturally diverse teams to staff knowledge-intensive projects (e.g., software development, customer service, corporate training,). We conducted a laboratory study examining the role of collaborative technologies and culture on 2-person team members' attributions of causes for their collaborative performance.

E. Ilana Diamant; Susan R. Fussell; Fen-ly Lo

336

NEW VENTURE TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM INTRA-GROUP ABUSIVE BEHAVIOR AND FIRM PERFORMANCE: A MODERATED MEDIATION STUDY (INTERACTIVE PAPER)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses an input-mediators-output (IMO) theoretical framework (Mathieu et al., 2008) to examine the relationship of new venture TMTs’ intra-group abusive behavior (i.e., the degree to which team members exhibit sustained displays of hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors, excluding physical contact, toward each other; Tepper, 2000) with firm performance. In so doing, the concept of “team thriving” (i.e., TMTs’

Keith M. Hmieleski; Michael S. Cole; Bennett J. Tepper

2010-01-01

337

Analyzing Social Capital to Improve Product Development Team Performance: Action-Research Investigations in the Aerospace Industry With TRW and GKN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social capital is gaining preeminence as a concept to interpret the behavior of organizational entities, especially in new product development (NPD). Significant research is accumulating that links the performance of NPD teams with the patterns of social capital that they exhibit. The research suggests that analyzing teams' social capital could provide insights to improve substantively the performance of NPD teams.

Naomi J. Brookes; Sue C. Morton; Steve Grossman; Paul Joesbury; Duncan Varnes

2007-01-01

338

Can self-reported encoding strategy and recognition skill be diagnostic of performance in eyewitness identifications?  

PubMed

The relationship between 3 witness factors and identification accuracy, as well as calibration and diagnosticity of confidence, was investigated. A total of 384 participants in an eyewitness experiment rated their facial recognition skill, general memory skill, and self-reported encoding strategy on a questionnaire presented after the photo-confrontation. Participants who rated themselves to be good face recognizers showed a slightly higher overall accuracy with a more diagnostic confidence-accuracy relation. Participants who reported that they relied on a holistic encoding strategy were associated with more accurate identifications and a stronger confidence-accuracy relation than those who reported an analytic encoding strategy. Degree of self-reported general memory skill was not diagnostic of identification performance. PMID:10089816

Olsson, N; Juslin, P

1999-02-01

339

When paying attention becomes counterproductive: Impact of divided versus skill-focused attention on novice and experienced performance of sensorimotor skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined the impact of attention on sensorimotor skills. In Experiment 1, experienced golfers putted under dual-task conditions designed to distract attention from putting and under skill- focused conditions that prompted attention to step-by-step putting performance. Dual-task condition putting was more accurate. In Experiment 2, right-footed novice and experienced soccer players dribbled through a slalom course under dual-task or

Sian L. Beilock; Thomas H. Carr; Clare MacMahon; Janet L. Starkes

2002-01-01

340

The Effects of a 3Week Unit of Tactical, Skill, or Combined Tactical and Skill Instruction on Badminton Performance of Ninth-Grade Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in alternative models for games\\/sport instruction has increased in recent years. Recent research has compared tactical approaches to games\\/sport instruction with more skill-oriented approaches (Gabriele & Maxwell, 1995; Griffin, Olsin, & Mitchell, 1995; McPherson & French, 1991; Turner & Martinek, 1992, 1995b). Most of the research in this area to date has focused on student performance outcomes (knowledge, skill,

Karen E. French; Peter H. Werner; Judith E. Rink; Kevin Taylor; Kevin Hussey

1996-01-01

341

An anomaly correlation skill score for the evaluation of the performance of hyperspectral infrared sounders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the availability of very accurate six hour forecasts, the metric of accuracy alone for the evaluation of the performance of a retrieval system can produce misleading results: the retrievals may be statistically accurate, but be of little value compared to the accurate forecast. A useful characterization of the quality of a retrieval system and its potential to contribute to an improved weather forecast is its skill, which we define as the ability to make retrievals of geophysical parameters which are closer to the truth than the six hour forecast. We illustrate retrieval skill using one day of AMSU-A and AIRS data with three different retrieval algorithms. In the spirit of achieving global retrievals under clear and cloudy conditions, we evaluated retrieval accuracy and skill for 90% of the covered area. Two of the three algorithms meet the 1 K/1 km "RAOB quality" accuracy requirement and have skill between 900 and 150 hPa, but none have skill between the surface and 900 hPa. AIRS was launched on the EOS Aqua spacecraft in May 2002 into a 705 km polar sun-synchronous orbit with accurately maintained 1:30 PM ascending node. Essentially un-interrupted data are freely available since September 2002.

Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan; Barnet, Chris; Maddy, Eric; Blackwell, William

2009-08-01

342

The influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence and performance in marathon runners.  

PubMed

Hamstra-Wright, KL, Coumbe-Lilley, JE, Kim, H, McFarland, JA, and Huxel Bliven, KC. The influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence and performance in marathon runners. J Strength Cond Res 27(10): 2828-2835, 2013-There has been a considerable increase in the number of participants running marathons over the past several years. The 26.2-mile race requires physical and mental stamina to successfully complete it. However, studies have not investigated how running and mental skills preparation influence injury and performance. The purpose of our study was to describe the training and mental skills preparation of a typical group of runners as they began a marathon training program, assess the influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence, and examine how training and mental skills preparation influence marathon performance. Healthy adults (N = 1,957) participating in an 18-week training program for a fall 2011 marathon were recruited for the study. One hundred twenty-five runners enrolled and received 4 surveys: pretraining, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, posttraining. The pretraining survey asked training and mental skills preparation questions. The 6- and 12-week surveys asked about injury incidence. The posttraining survey asked about injury incidence and marathon performance. Tempo runs during training preparation had a significant positive relationship to injury incidence in the 6-week survey (?[93] = 0.26, p = 0.01). The runners who reported incorporating tempo and interval runs, running more miles per week, and running more days per week in their training preparation ran significantly faster than did those reporting less tempo and interval runs, miles per week, and days per week (p ? 0.05). Mental skills preparation did not influence injury incidence or marathon performance. To prevent injury, and maximize performance, while marathon training, it is important that coaches and runners ensure that a solid foundation of running fitness and experience exists, followed by gradually building volume, and then strategically incorporating runs of various speeds and distances. PMID:23439344

Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Coumbe-Lilley, John E; Kim, Hajwa; McFarland, Jose A; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

2013-10-01

343

Hand-Eye Dominance and Depth Perception Effects in Performance on a Basic Laparoscopic Skills Set  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Our study determined whether depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance affect an individual's ability to perform laparoscopic skills. Methods: The study cohort comprised 104 third-year medical students from LSU School of Medicine who completed a questionnaire including information on handedness and were tested for eye dominance and depth perception by using standardized methods. Training sessions involved an initial recorded performance, a 20-minute practice session, followed by a final recorded performance. Recorded sessions were randomized and rated by using a visual analog scale (maximal possible score = 16) based on overall performance (OPS) and depth perception (DPS). A general linear model was used to correlate depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance with assessment scores for OPS and DPS. Results: Students with depth perception defects scored significantly lower on their initial performance than did those with normal depth perception (OPS, 4.80 vs. 7.16, P=0.0008; DPS, 5.25 vs. 6.93, P=0.0195). After training, the depth perception defect group continued to have lower scores compared with the normal depth perception group. However, the 2 groups showed similar increases in pre- to posttraining performance scores (OPS, 3.84 vs. 3.18, P=0.0732). Hand-eye dominance did not significantly affect scores. Conclusions: Depth perception defects appear to compromise an individual's ability to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Individuals with defects can improve their skills by a proportion comparable to that of people with uncompromised depth perception. Differences in hand-eye dominance do not correlate with performance differences in basic laparoscopic skills. Although further research is necessary, the findings indicate that training can be tailored for individuals with depth perception defects to improve laparoscopic performance.

Suleman, Rabiya; Yang, Tong; Paige, John; Chauvin, Sheila; Alleyn, Jaime; Brewer, Martha; Johnson, Stephen I.

2010-01-01

344

Is cognitive ability a liability? A critique and future research agenda on skilled performance.  

PubMed

Over a century of psychological research provides strong and consistent support for the idea that cognitive ability correlates positively with success in tasks that people face in employment, education, and everyday life. Recent experimental research, however, has converged on a different and provocative conclusion, namely that lower-ability people can actually be more effective performers within special environments characterized by features such as time pressure, social evaluation, and unpredictable task change. If this conclusion is true, it has extensive implications for practices such as personnel selection, training design, and teaching methods. The current article reexamines and reinterprets this research within the context of well-established resource theories of cognitive processing and skill acquisition leading to a less provocative conclusion that serves to reiterate the benefits of cognitive ability for task performance. Following this reexamination, we conclude by providing a research agenda for examining the determinants of skilled performance in dynamic task environments, including the following: (a) broadening the range of abilities and task difficulties examined, (b) considering the role of nonability traits and goals in skilled performance (e.g., personality, learning, and performance goals), (c) investigating the processes (e.g., problem solving strategies) that people use in complex environments, (d) developing research designs and analytic strategies for examining adaptive performance, and (e) investigating how best to train for adaptive performance. PMID:23294281

Beier, Margaret E; Oswald, Frederick L

2012-12-01

345

Validation of a self-efficacy instrument and its relationship to performance of crisis resource management skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy is thought to be important for resuscitation proficiency in that it influences the development of and access\\u000a to the associated medical knowledge, procedural skills and crisis resource management (CRM) skills. Since performance assessment\\u000a of CRM skills is challenging, self-efficacy is often used as a measure of competence in this area. While self-efficacy may\\u000a influence performance, the true relationship between

Jennifer L. Plant; Sandrijn M. van Schaik; Diane C. Sliwka; Christy K. Boscardin; Patricia S. O’Sullivan

346

The Effect of Caffeine Ingestion on Field Hockey Skill Performance Following Physical Fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of caffeine ingestion on field hockey skill performance following high-intensity fatigue. Thirteen male hockey players (mean age = 21.1 ± 1.2 years) performed hockey sprint dribble and ball handling tests at rest and after a bout of total body fatigue (90% maximal capacity) following caffeine (5mg kg) or placebo ingestion. Sprint dribble times were slower

Michael J. Duncan; Samantha Taylor; Mark Lyons

2012-01-01

347

Quantifying police officers' arrest and self-defence skills: does performance decrease under pressure?  

PubMed

This study investigated police officers' performance on five selected arrest and self-defence skills that are regularly used in the line of duty. In Experiment 1 a 5-point scale to measure skill performance was developed and tested with 14 police instructors. Results showed that the new scale has satisfactory inter-rater reliability and good intra-rater reliability. In Experiment 2, the external and concurrent validity of the scale was tested by measuring the performances of 19 police officers executing the same skills in a high- and a low-pressure environment and comparing the results obtained with the new 5-point scale with results obtained with a currently used binary scale (i.e. sufficient/insufficient). While the scale proved to have good external and concurrent validity, it appeared that the police officers' performance really suffered under pressure. Given the criticality of successful police performance, it is suggested that incorporating psychological factors (e.g. pressure) in training procedures may enhance performance. PMID:19941180

Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Caljouw, Simone R; Leijsen, Maaike R; Schmeits, Bart A J; Oudejans, Raoul R D

2009-12-01

348

Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests the development of fundamental movement skill (FMS) is a key factor in promoting long-term physical activity. Low levels of activity among preschool children and the relationship between physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills underline the need to determine the factors associated with children's development of such skills. As parents play an important role in the socialization process, the aim of this study was to examine correlates of family and neighbourhood characteristics as well as parental behaviour and beliefs on FMS performance in 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. Relationships between preschool children's FMS performance and family contextual variables were examined within a sample of 846 preschool children. Results identified positive associations of FMS performance with parental education, father's physical activity, transport to school by bicycle, and the high value placed by parents high on sport-specific aspects of children's physical activity. Variables negatively associated with preschool children's FMS performance included father-child interaction in TV-viewing and reading books, the high importance placed by parents on winning and performance in children's physical activity. Furthermore, the ambiguity of associations between FMS performance and parental beliefs underlined its complexity. PMID:21424981

Cools, Wouter; De Martelaer, Kristine; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline

2011-04-01

349

The effect of caffeine ingestion on field hockey skill performance following physical fatigue.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of caffeine ingestion on field hockey skill performance following high-intensity fatigue. Thirteen male hockey players (mean age = 21.1 ± 1.2 years) performed hockey sprint dribble and ball handling tests at rest and after a bout of total body fatigue (90% maximal capacity) following caffeine (5 mg kg(-1)) or placebo ingestion. Sprint dribble times were slower postfatigue compared with rest but were significantly faster postfatigue with caffeine compared with postfatigue with placebo ingestion (P < 0.01). Ball handling scores were higher at rest compared with postfatigue, but scores postfatigue were higher following caffeine than placebo ingestion (P < 0.01). Rating of perceived exhaustion (RPE) was lower (P < 0.01) and readiness to invest physical (P < 0.01) and mental effort (P = 0.01) were significantly higher in the caffeine condition. Caffeine ingestion may therefore be effective in offsetting decrements in skilled performance associated with fatigue. PMID:22242735

Duncan, Michael J; Taylor, Samantha; Lyons, Mark

2012-01-01

350

Political Skill as Neutralizer of Felt Accountability-Job Tension Effects on Job Performance Ratings: A Longitudinal Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effects of felt accountability, political skill, and job tension on job performance ratings. Specifically, we hypothesized that felt accountability would lead to higher (lower) job performance ratings when coupled with high (low) levels of political skill, and that these relationships would be mediated by job tension. Data…

Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Ferris, Gerald R.; Gavin, Mark B.; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Hall, Angela T.; Frink, Dwight D.

2007-01-01

351

Language and Mathematical Performance: a Comparison of Lower Secondary School Students with Different Level of Mathematical Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the connection between language (i.e., word comprehension, reading comprehension and spelling skills) and mathematical performance. The sample consisted of grade nine students (N?=?810) in 14 lower secondary schools in the Swedish speaking areas of Finland. Standardized tests for reading and writing skills, and mathematical performance were used. Based on the mathematics test the students were categorized into

Johan Korhonen; Karin Linnanmäki; Pirjo Aunio

2012-01-01

352

Language and Mathematical Performance: a Comparison of Lower Secondary School Students with Different Level of Mathematical Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the connection between language (i.e., word comprehension, reading comprehension and spelling skills) and mathematical performance. The sample consisted of grade nine students (N?=?810) in 14 lower secondary schools in the Swedish speaking areas of Finland. Standardized tests for reading and writing skills, and mathematical performance were used. Based on the mathematics test the students were categorized into

Johan Korhonen; Karin Linnanmäki; Pirjo Aunio

2011-01-01

353

“Toward Integrative Models of Flow”: Effects of Performance, Skill, Challenge, Playfulness, and Presence on Flow in Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined various predictors of flow in video games. Study 1 examined the effects of performance on flow across two game genres (shooting and medical simulation games) and demonstrated that successful performance results in greater flow. Study 2 demonstrated an interaction effect of skill and challenge on flow across three genres (racing, violent, and prosocial games). Highly skilled players

Seung-A Annie Jin

2012-01-01

354

The Effect of Student Self-Video of Performance on Clinical Skill Competency: A Randomised Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emerging technologies and student information technology literacy are enabling new methods of teaching and learning for clinical skill performance. Facilitating experiential practice and reflection on performance through student self-video, and exposure to peer benchmarks, may promote greater levels of skill competency. This study examines the…

Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

2013-01-01

355

Dialogues in Performance: A Team-Taught Course on the Afterlife in the Classical and Italian Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides a reflection on a team-teaching experience in which performative dialogues between co-instructors and among students provided a pedagogical framework within which comparative analysis of textual traditions within the classical tradition could be optimized. Performative dialogues thus provided a model for and enactment of…

Gosetti-Murrayjohn, Angela; Schneider, Federico

2009-01-01

356

The assessment of laboratory performance skills in grade 9 science via individuals and pairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research study focused on the development and administration of a laboratory investigation task involving ninth grade students currently studying Earth Science. Students were required to Plan and Perform the investigation based on concepts of Chemical Weathering. Science inquiry skills associated with Planning, Data Collection, Graphing, and Reasoning were evaluated using an analytical scoring rubric. Students completed a Survey Instrument, which provided contextual information about their prior laboratory experiences, and preferences about working individually versus pairs while completing science experiments. The sample was composed of 446 students from five schools in Western New York. Students completed the laboratory investigation individually and in pairs. One hundred and fifty students completed the task individually, and 296 students assigned to 148 pairs completed the task. T-tests and ANOVA's were used to evaluate achievement differences between individuals and pairs; by gender and individual ability for the individual sub-sample; and by the gender and ability composition for the pairs' sub-sample respectively. Mean scores for the Likert type Survey instrument provided contextual data about students' prior laboratory experiences. Factor analysis generally supported the theoretical model used to design the investigation. The results indicated there were significant differences in achievement between individuals and pairs in Graphing and Reasoning skills. Females outperformed males on the Total task, Data Collection, Graphing and Reasoning categories of skills. High ability students outperformed medium and low ability students on the Total Task, Planning, Graphing and Reasoning categories of skills. The composition of pairs by ability indicated significant differences in achievement on the Total Task, Planning and Reasoning skills. There were significant differences in achievement by female/female versus male/male and male/female pairs on the Total Task, Data Collection, Graphing and Reasoning skills.

Chan, Alfred William

357

Impairments in the learning and performance of a new manual skill in patients with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed Central

Twelve patients with Parkinson's disease learned two novel skills in which they had to track a target by moving a joystick. In task 1 they had to learn to anticipate the movements of a semi predictable target. In task 2 they had to learn a novel control system in which the movements of the joystick were mirror reversed in relation to the computer screen. On each task they performed two sessions of three minutes continuous practice separated by a 10 minute rest. In both tasks the patients performed much worse than the controls, but showed clear evidence of learning, particularly after the ten minute rest. Detailed examination of their performance suggested that the skill was becoming automatic, releasing attention for aspects of the task that could not be learned. The major difference from the controls appeared during the first minute of each practice session when the controls showed a marked improvement in performance while the patients did not. We suggest that this rapid but temporary improvement in performance reflects the acquisition of a motor "set" whereby existing motor programs or skills are modified to suit the task currently in hand. We concluded that patients with Parkinson's disease have difficulty in maintaining such sets.

Frith, C D; Bloxham, C A; Carpenter, K N

1986-01-01

358

Motor Skill Assessment of Children: Is There an Association between Performance-Based, Child-Report, and Parent-Report Measures of Children's Motor Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Client-centered practice requires therapists to actively seek the perspectives of children and families. Several assessment tools are available to facilitate this process. However, when evaluating motor skill performance, therapists typically concentrate on performance-based assessment. To improve understanding of the information provided by the…

Kennedy, Johanna; Brown, Ted; Chien, Chi-Wen

2012-01-01

359

Toy Story: Illustrating Gender Differences in a Motor Skills Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To challenge students' stereotypes about gendered performance on motor skills tasks, we developed a classroom active learning demonstration. Four 3-person, same-gender teams received either a Barbie(r) doll or a Transformer(r), and team members dressed the Barbie or manipulated the Transformer from a tank to a robot as quickly as possible, with…

Knight, Jennifer L.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Mendoza, Miriam

2004-01-01

360

Team Up!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the physical and psychological effect of stress and tension on human beings. They develop their observing, thinking, writing and teamwork skills by working on a group art project and reporting about it. They learn about the stages of group formation, group dynamics and team member roles that make for effective teams. In the process, they discover how collective action can foster a sense of community support, which can alleviate personal feelings of stress and tension. Note: The literacy activities for the Mechanics unit are based on physical themes that have broad application to our experience in the world â concepts of rhythm, balance, spin, gravity, levity, inertia, momentum, friction, stress and tension.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

361

Do pattern recognition skills transfer across sports? A preliminary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to recognize patterns of play is fundamental to performance in team sports. While typically assumed to be domain-specific, pattern recognition skills may transfer from one sport to another if similarities exist in the perceptual features and their relations and\\/or the strategies used to encode and retrieve relevant information. A transfer paradigm was employed to compare skilled and less

Nicholas J Smeeton; Paul Ward; A Mark Williams

2004-01-01

362

The impact of netcentricity on virtual teams: the new performance challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital networks are changing the way people and organizations work and communicate. The twenty-first century will witness an increase in the number and use of virtual workplaces. As a result, virtual teams will also become more common. When organizations globalize their workforces to take advantage of strategic business opportunities, virtual teams will be highly diverse. In this global context, the

Fatima Ferza Anderson; Hugh M. Shane

2002-01-01

363

Shared cognition in top management teams: implications for new venture performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents a study of two samples of new venture top management teams from the inc. 500. The research poses that shared strategic cognition is the outcome of group processes that occur during the development of strategy. Shared cognition in top management teams (TMTs) is the extent to which those mental models about strategy are shared. A theoretical

Michael D. Ensley; Craig L. Pearce

2001-01-01

364

The Effects of The Integration of Social Annotation Technology, First Principles of Instruction, and Team-based Learning on Students' Reading Comprehension, Critical Thinking, and Meta-cognitive Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many freshmen students enter colleges and universities without the essential academic skills needed to be successful. Colleges and universities are seeking instructional interventions to address these needs. This study explored the effect of the Social Annotation Modeling- Learning System (SAM-LS) (three instructional interventions including social annotation technology, Merrill’s (2002) First Principles of Instruction, and team-based learning) on students’ acquisition of

Thomas Nielsen Archibald

2010-01-01

365

On the fragility of skilled performance: What governs choking under pressure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments 1-2 examined generic knowledge and episodic memories of putting in novice and expert golfers. Impoverished episodic recollection of specific putts among experts indicated that skilled putting is encoded in a procedural form that supports performance without the need for step-by-step attentional control. According to explicit monitoring theories of choking, such proceduralization makes putting vulnerable to decrements under pressure. Experiments

Sian L. Beilock; Thomas H. Carr

2001-01-01

366

On the Fragility of Skilled Performance: What Governs Choking Under Pressure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments 1–2 examined generic knowledge and episodic memories of putting in novice and expert golfers. Impoverished episodic recollection of specific putts among experts indicated that skilled putting is encoded in a procedural form that supports performance without the need for step-by-step attentional control. According to explicit monitoring theories of choking, such proceduralization makes putting vulnerable to decrements under pressure. Experiments

Sian L. Beilock; Thomas H. Carr

2001-01-01

367

Effect of oculomotor and other visual skills on reading performance: a literature review.  

PubMed

The diagnosis and management of many oculomotor anomalies is within the domain of optometry. Thus, a thorough understanding of these systems and their relation to reading performance is vital. Efficient reading requires accurate eye movements and continuous integration of the information obtained from each fixation by the brain. A relation between oculomotor efficiency and reading skill has been shown in the literature. Frequently, these visual difficulties can be treated successfully with vision therapy. PMID:8728497

Kulp, M T; Schmidt, P P

1996-04-01

368

Monocular And Binocular Vision In The Performance Of A Complex Skill  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to investigate the role of binocular and monocular vision in 16 gymnasts as they perform a handspring on vault. In particular we reasoned, if binocular visual information is eliminated while experts and apprentices perform a handspring on vault, and their performance level changes or is maintained, then such information must or must not be necessary for their best performance. If the elimination of binocular vision leads to differences in gaze behavior in either experts or apprentices, this would answer the question of an adaptive gaze behavior, and thus if this is a function of expertise level or not. Gaze behavior was measured using a portable and wireless eye-tracking system in combination with a movement-analysis system. Results revealed that gaze behavior differed between experts and apprentices in the binocular and monocular conditions. In particular, apprentices showed less fixations of longer duration in the monocular condition as compared to experts and the binocular condition. Apprentices showed longer blink duration than experts in both, the monocular and binocular conditions. Eliminating binocular vision led to a shorter repulsion phase and a longer second flight phase in apprentices. Experts exhibited no differences in phase durations between binocular and monocular conditions. Findings suggest, that experts may not rely on binocular vision when performing handsprings, and movement performance maybe influenced in apprentices when eliminating binocular vision. We conclude that knowledge about gaze-movement relationships may be beneficial for coaches when teaching the handspring on vault in gymnastics. Key points Skills in gymnastics are quite complex and the athlete has to meet temporal and spatial constraints to perform these skills adequately. Visual information pickup is thought to be integral in complex skill performance. However, there is no compelling evidence on the role of binocular vision in complex skill performance. The study reveals, that apprentices optimize their gaze behavior and their movement behavior when binocular vision is eliminated, whereas experts gaze behavior and movement behavior is uninfluenced by eliminating binocular vision. We state, that binocular vision is not necessary for experts to perform to their best. However, eliminating binocular vision could be part of an optimization strategy for apprentices, which could in turn be transferred to new training programs.

Heinen, Thomas; M. Vinken, Pia

2011-01-01

369

Physiological profiles and performance predictors of a women's NCAA rowing team.  

PubMed

We described the physiological profiles of rowers (N = 16; age = 20.1 +/- 1.4 years, weight = 78.6 +/- 9.5 kg, height = 177.5 +/- 3.1 cm) of the top 2 varsity boats on an NCAA women's crew and determined whether physiological measures predict boat assignment as determined by the head coach. Eight participants were members of the top varsity boat (1V) and 8 competed at a lower level (2V). Expired gases were collected while subjects completed the U.S. National Team VO(2)max (3-minute stages) and 2 kilometer (2K) time trial rowing ergometer protocols. Heart rates (HR) and blood lactates were measured before, during, and after each test. The VO(2)max and blood lactate at stage 2 of the VO(2)max test were used to predict boat assignment. Average (+/-SD) VO(2)max was 3.86 +/- 0.40 L.min(-1). The 2K times averaged 453.0 +/- 10.5 seconds. Subjects used approximately 96% of VO(2)max and 98% of HR(max) during the 2K time trials. Neither VO(2)max nor submaximal lactate were related to boat assignment. The VO(2) values during the 2K trial indicated that rowing economy differed among athletes. Results of physiological measures should help the coach individualize workouts of top performers. PMID:12580674

Perkins, Candace D; Pivarnik, James M

2003-02-01

370

Formative Assessment of Procedural Skills: Students' Responses to the Objective Structured Clinical Examination and the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessment of clinical skills is a critical element of undergraduate medical education. We compare a traditional approach to procedural skills assessment--the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) with the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument (IPPI). In both approaches, students work through "stations" or "scenarios"…

Nestel, Debra; Kneebone, Roger; Nolan, Carmel; Akhtar, Kash; Darzi, Ara

2011-01-01

371

Formative Assessment of Procedural Skills: Students' Responses to the Objective Structured Clinical Examination and the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of clinical skills is a critical element of undergraduate medical education. We compare a traditional approach to procedural skills assessment--the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) with the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument (IPPI). In both approaches, students work through "stations" or "scenarios" undertaking…

Nestel, Debra; Kneebone, Roger; Nolan, Carmel; Akhtar, Kash; Darzi, Ara

2011-01-01

372

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Technique of Fire of The Rifle Squad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performances, knowledges, skills, habits and attitudes covered in the paper are those the Infantry rifle squad leader must possess to train and lead in combat a rifle squad of the rifle platoon. Where the knowledge or skill in question is one which mu...

H. E. Kelly

1969-01-01

373

On angry leaders and agreeable followers. How leaders' emotions and followers' personalities shape motivation and team performance.  

PubMed

Do followers perform better when their leader expresses anger or when their leader expresses happiness? We propose that this depends on the follower's level of agreeableness. Anger is associated with hostility and conflict-states that are at odds with agreeable individuals' goals. Happiness facilitates affiliation and positive relations-states that are in line with agreeable individuals' goals. Accordingly, the two studies we conducted showed that agreeableness moderates the effects of a leader's emotional displays. In a scenario study, participants with lower levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to an angry leader, whereas participants with higher levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to a neutral leader. In an experiment involving four-person teams, teams composed of participants with lower average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed anger, whereas teams composed of participants with higher average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed happiness. Team performance was mediated by experienced workload, which was highest among agreeable followers with an angry leader. Besides having important practical implications, the findings shed new light on the fundamental question of how emotional expressions regulate social behavior. PMID:20974710

Van Kleef, Gerben A; Homan, Astrid C; Beersma, Bianca; van Knippenberg, Daan

2010-10-25

374

Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing…

Kent, Richard

2012-01-01

375

When Goal Orientations Collide: Effects of Learning and Performance Orientation on Team Adaptability in Response to Workload Imbalance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results…

Porter, Christopher O. L. H.; Webb, Justin W.; Gogus, Celile Itir

2010-01-01

376

Who You Know vs. What You Know: The Impact of Social Position and Knowledge on Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational behavior theories generally agree that human capital is critical to teams and organizations, but little guidance exists on the extent to which such theories accurately explain the relative contributions of individual actors to overall performance. Using newly created network measures and simulations based on data obtained from a software development firm, we investigate the relative effectiveness of social network

MICHAEL J. ASHWORTH; KATHLEEN M. CARLEY

2006-01-01

377

Innovation in user-centered skills and performance improvement for sustainable complex service systems.  

PubMed

In order to leverage individual and organizational learning and to remain competitive in current turbulent markets it is important for employees, managers, planners and leaders to perform at high levels over time. Employee competence and skills are extremely important matters in view of the general shortage of talent and the mobility of employees with talent. Two factors emerged to have the greatest impact on the competitiveness of complex service systems: improving managerial and employee's knowledge attainment for skills, and improving the training and development of the workforce. This paper introduces the knowledge-based user-centered service design approach for sustainable skill and performance improvement in education, design and modeling of the next generation of complex service systems. The rest of the paper cover topics in human factors and sustainable business process modeling for the service industry, and illustrates the user-centered service system development cycle with the integration of systems engineering concepts in service systems. A roadmap for designing service systems of the future is discussed. The framework introduced in this paper is based on key user-centered design principles and systems engineering applications to support service competitiveness. PMID:22317322

Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

2012-01-01

378

Skill Memory Escaping from Distraction by Sleep--Evidence from Dual-Task Performance  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep facilitates off-line consolidation of memories, as shown for learning of motor skills in the absence of concomitant distractors. We often perform complex tasks focusing our attention mostly on one single part of them. However, we are equally able to skillfully perform other concurrent tasks. One may even improve performance on disregarded parts of complex tasks, which were learned implicitly. In the present study we investigated the role of sleep in the off-line consolidation of procedural skills when attention is diverted from the procedural task because of interference from a concurrent task. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a dual-task paradigm containing (i) procedural serial reaction time task (SRTT), which was labeled as subordinate and unimportant and (ii) declarative word-pair association task (WPAT), performed concomitantly. The WPAT served as a masked distractor to SRTT and was strongly reinforced by the instructions. One experimental and three control groups were tested. The experimental group was re-tested after two nights of sleep (sleep group, SG). The first control group had sleep deprivation on the first post-learning night (nighttime-awake group, NA), the second control group was tested in the morning and then re-tested after 12-hours (daytime-awake group, DA); the third one had the same assignments as DA but with a subsequent, instead of a concomitant, WPAT (daytime-awake-subsequent-WPAT group, DAs). We found SRTT performance gains in SG but not in NA and DA groups. Furthermore, SG reached similar learning gains in SRTT as the DAs group, which gained in SRTT performance because of post-training interference from the declarative task. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that sleep allows off-line consolidation, which is resistant to deteriorating effects of a reinforced distractor on the implicit procedural learning and allowing for gains which are consistent with those produced when inhibited declarative memories of SRTT do not compete with procedural ones.

Ertelt, Denis; Witt, Karsten; Reetz, Kathrin; Frank, Wolfgang; Junghanns, Klaus; Backhaus, Jutta; Tadic, Vera; Pellicano, Antonello; Born, Jan; Binkofski, Ferdinand

2012-01-01

379

Workplace Communication Skills, Workplace Basic Skills, & Literacy Training in UAW-Chrysler Region 3. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A workplace literacy partnership program model was demonstrated at four Chrysler plants in Indiana. Objectives were to improve workers' individual skills, enhance personal productivity, and increase work force job security and plant competitiveness. During the 3-month start-up phase, project staff worked with management and labor representatives…

Indiana Vocational Technical Coll., Indianapolis.

380

Cognitive-behaviour therapy and skilled motor performance in adults with chronic tic disorder.  

PubMed

The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of 55 patients with TD were recruited at baseline from participants in a behavioural management programme. A comparison group of 55 patients suffering from a variety of habit disorders (HD) involving complex manual movements, were matched on age and level of education to 34 non-psychiatric controls. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-treatment and post-waitlist with a neuropsychological evaluation focusing on executive function (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST) and skilled motor performance (Purdue Pegboard, Hole Steadiness Test, and the Groove Test). Results revealed WCST scores in the normal range, while motor performance differed significantly on the Purdue Pegboard Tests in both TD and HD as compared to the control group. Cognitive-behavioural treatment selectively improved motor performance in both clinical groups compared to waitlist control, and this improvement related to clinical outcome measures. PMID:18058387

O'Connor, Kieron P; Lavoie, Marc E; Stip, Emmanuel; Borgeat, François; Laverdure, Anick

2008-01-01

381

Skill Importance in Women's Volleyball  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate two methods to quantify skill importance for teams in general, and women's volleyball in particular. A division I women's volleyball team rated each skill (serve, pass, set, etc.) and recorded rally outcomes during all home games in a competitive season. The skills were only rated when the ball was on the home

Michelle A. Miskin; Gilbert W. Fellingham; Lindsay W. Florence

2010-01-01

382

Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate responses and the temporal pattern of the effort/recovery during a simulated canoe polo match. The main results are as follows: body fat, 12.3 ± 4.0%; upper-body peak and mean power, 6.8 ± 0.5 and 4.7 ± 0.4 W · kg(-1), respectively; 1-RM bench press, 99.1 ± 11.7 kg; peak oxygen uptake, 44.3 ± 5.8 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1); total energy intake, 42.8 ± 8.6 kcal · kg(-1); protein, carbohydrate, and fat intakes, 1.9 ± 0.1, 5.0 ± 1.5, and 1.7 ± 0.4 g · kg(-1), respectively; mean heart rate, 146 ± 11 beats · min(-1); plasma lactate, 5.7 ± 3.8 mmol · L(-1) at half-time and 4.6 ± 2.2 mmol · L(-1) at the end of the match; effort time (relative to total match time), 93.1 ± 3.0%; number of sprints, 9.6 ± 4.4. The results of this study will assist coaches, trainers, and nutritionists in developing more adequate training programmes and dietary interventions for canoe polo athletes. PMID:22168392

Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Pasqua, Leonardo; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni; Roschel, Hamilton; Solis, Marina; Tobias, Gabriel; Klansener, Christian; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Franchini, Emerson; Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno

2011-12-15

383

Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams.  

PubMed

Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams is examined in an UAV (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle) simulation. Five 3-person teams with experience working together in a command-and-control setting were compared to 10 inexperienced teams. Each team participated in five 40-min missions of a simulation in which interdependent team members control a UAV to take reconnaissance photos. Experienced teams exceeded performance of inexperienced teams, suggesting transfer of previous command-and-control experience. Compared to inexperienced teams, experienced teams had fewer errors on process-related training knowledge, superior team process ratings, and communications containing fewer coordination-related utterances. These findings support the view that team cognition emerges through the interactions of team members, that interactions distinguish high-performing teams from average teams, and that these interactions transfer across different tasks. PMID:17924800

Cooke, Nancy J; Gorman, Jamie C; Duran, Jasmine L; Taylor, Amanda R

2007-09-01

384

Learning-performance distinction and memory processes for motor skills: a focused review and perspective.  

PubMed

Behavioral research in cognitive psychology provides evidence for an important distinction between immediate performance that accompanies practice and long-term performance that reflects the relative permanence in the capability for the practiced skill (i.e. learning). This learning-performance distinction is strikingly evident when challenging practice conditions may impair practice performance, but enhance long-term retention of motor skills. A review of motor learning studies with a specific focus on comparing differences in performance between that at the end of practice and at delayed retention suggests that the delayed retention or transfer performance is a better indicator of motor learning than the performance at (or end of) practice. This provides objective evidence for the learning-performance distinction. This behavioral evidence coupled with an understanding of the motor memory processes of encoding, consolidation and retrieval may provide insight into the putative mechanism that implements the learning-performance distinction. Here, we propose a simplistic empirically-based framework--motor behavior-memory framework--that integrates the temporal evolution of motor memory processes with the time course of practice and delayed retention frequently used in behavioral motor learning paradigms. In the context of the proposed framework, recent research has used noninvasive brain stimulation to decipher the role of each motor memory process, and specific cortical brain regions engaged in motor performance and learning. Such findings provide beginning insights into the relationship between the time course of practice-induced performance changes and motor memory processes. This in turn has promising implications for future research and practical applications. PMID:22142953

Kantak, Shailesh S; Winstein, Carolee J

2011-11-28

385

Modeling relationships between traditional preadmission measures and clinical skills performance on a medical licensure examination.  

PubMed

Medical schools employ a variety of preadmission measures to select students most likely to succeed in the program. The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and the undergraduate college grade point average (uGPA) are two academic measures typically used to select students in medical school. The assumption that presently used preadmission measures can predict clinical skill performance on a medical licensure examination was evaluated within a validity argument framework (Kane 1992). A hierarchical generalized linear model tested relationships between the log-odds of failing a high-stakes medical licensure performance examination and matriculant academic and non-academic preadmission measures, controlling for student-and school-variables. Data includes 3,189 matriculants from 22 osteopathic medical schools tested in 2009-2010. Unconditional unit-specific model expected average log-odds of failing the examination across medical schools is -3.05 (se = 0.11) or 5%. Student-level estimated coefficients for MCAT Verbal Reasoning scores (0.03), Physical Sciences scores (0.05), Biological Sciences scores (0.04), uGPA(science) (0.07), and uGPA(non-science) (0.26) lacked association with the log-odds of failing the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE, controlling for all other predictors in the model. Evidence from this study shows that present preadmission measures of academic ability are not related to later clinical skill performance. Given that clinical skill performance is an important part of medical practice, selection measures should be developed to identify students who will be successful in communication and be able to demonstrate the ability to systematically collect a medical history, perform a physical examination, and synthesize this information to diagnose and manage patient conditions. PMID:21874593

Roberts, William L; Pugliano, Gina; Langenau, Erik; Boulet, John R

2011-08-28

386

Peak Performance in Sport: Identifying Ideal Performance States and Developing Athletes' Psychological Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can psychologists help performers in sport, business, and the performing arts achieve peak performances more often and with greater consistency? Sport psychologists have taken the lead in researching peak performance in an attempt to answer this question. This article focuses on optimal experiences in sport and ways in which the author works with athletes to help them achieve peak performances.

Robert J. Harmison

2006-01-01

387

Peak Performance in Sport: Identifying Ideal Performance States and Developing Athletes' Psychological Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can psychologists help performers in sport, business, and the performing arts achieve peak performances more often and with greater consistency? Sport psychologists have taken the lead in researching peak performance in an attempt to answer this question. This article focuses on optimal experiences in sport and ways in which the author works with athletes to help them achieve peak performances.

Robert J. Harmison

2011-01-01

388

Sensory processing and motor skill performance in elementary school children with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Research to examine both sensory processing and motor skill performance in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. This study assessed whether children with ASD would show sensory and motor delays compared to typically developing children and examined the relationship between sensory processing and motor performance. 32 children diagnosed with ASD were assessed using the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) and the Movement ABC-2 (MABC-2). The SSP measures children's sensory processing in daily life and the MABC-2 measures children's fine and gross motor skill performance. Overall, the samples' scores on the SSP indicated atypical sensory processing and scores on the MABC-2 showed poorer fine and gross motor performance as compared to age-matched norms. Furthermore, the samples' scores for sensory processing were positively correlated with their motor performance. The results suggest that fine and gross motor difficulties of children with ASD may be related to their delayed sensory processing to visual, auditory, tactile, and movement stimuli, and that this hypothesis needs to be tested in future research. PMID:23829146

Liu, Ting

2013-02-01

389

Preseason variations in aerobic fitness and performance in elite-standard soccer players: a team study.  

PubMed

Castagna, C, Impellizzeri, FM, Chaouachi, A, and Manzi, V. Preseason variations in aerobic fitness and performance in elite-standard soccer players: A team study. J Strength Cond Res 27(11): 2959-2965, 2013-The aim of this study was to examine the effects of individual training loads considered as permanent in selected heart-rate (HR) zones on aerobic fitness and performance in elite professional soccer players. Eighteen professional soccer players were observed during the prechampionship training period (8 weeks). Speeds and HR at 2 and 4 mmol·L blood-lactate concentrations (S2, S4, respectively), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 performance (Yo-Yo IR1) were assessed pretraining and posttraining. Training intensities were categorized using 3 HR zones: low intensity (


HR 4 mmol·L). Training-session HRs (n = 900) showed a polarized distribution with 73.6 ± 3.7 (2,945 ± 148 minutes), 19.1 ± 3.5 (763 ± 141 minutes), and 7.3 ± 2.9% (292 ± 116 minutes) of the total training time spent at low, moderate, and high intensities, respectively (p < 0.001). The S2 and S4 significantly improved posttraining (+10 and 7%, respectively, p < 0.001). The V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and Yo-Yo IR1 values were 6 and 19.5% higher posttraining, respectively (p < 0.01). Training performed at high intensity was significantly related to relative improvement in S2 (r = 0.78, p = 0.002), S4 (r = 0.60, p = 0.03), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (r = 0.65, p = 0.02), and Yo-Yo IR1 (r = 0.66, p = 0.01). The results of this study provided further evidence for HR longitudinal validity and effectiveness of the high-intensity training (i.e., >90% HRmax) in men's professional soccer. In this regard, the time spent at high intensity should be in the range of 7-8% of the total training time during preseason. PMID:23442266

Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chaouachi, Anis; Manzi, Vincenzo

2013-11-01

390

Relating Member Ability and Personality to Work-Team Processes and Team Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hundred fifty-two employees composing 51 work teams participated in a study examining relationships among team composition (ability and personality), team process (social cohesion), and team outcomes (team viability and team performance). Mean, variance, minimum, and maximum were 4 scoring methods used to operationalize the team composition variables to capture the team members’ characteristics. With respect to composition variables, teams

Murray R. Barrick; Greg L. Stewart; Mitchell J. Neubert; Michael K. Mount

1998-01-01

391

Motor skill assessment of children: is there an association between performance-based, child-report, and parent-report measures of children's motor skills?  

PubMed

Client-centered practice requires therapists to actively seek the perspectives of children and families. Several assessment tools are available to facilitate this process. However, when evaluating motor skill performance, therapists typically concentrate on performance-based assessment. To improve understanding of the information provided by the different approaches, the study investigated correlations between performance-based, child-report, and parent-report measures of children's motor skill performance. A sample of convenience of 38 children 8-12 years of age with no history of motor or intellectual impairments and their parents was recruited from Victoria, Australia. Scores for the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (performance-based, administered by a therapist), Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (child report), and Movement Assessment Battery for Children Checklist (parent report) were analyzed using Spearman's rho correlation. Several significant moderate-to-large correlations were found between scores for parent-report and scores for performance-based assessments, while few significant correlations were found between scores for child report and scores for the other two measures. The results suggest that children offer a unique perspective which should be integrated with other sources of information to gain a more holistic perspective of their motor skill performance. PMID:22085322

Kennedy, Johanna; Brown, Ted; Chien, Chi-Wen

2011-11-16

392

Baseline hospital performance and the impact of medical emergency teams: Modelling vs. conventional subgroup analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To compare two approaches to the statistical analysis of the relationship between the baseline incidence of adverse events and the effect of medical emergency teams (METs). Methods Using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial (the MERIT study), we analysed the relationship between the baseline incidence of adverse events and its change from baseline to the MET activation phase using quadratic modelling techniques. We compared the findings with those obtained with conventional subgroup analysis. Results Using linear and quadratic modelling techniques, we found that each unit increase in the baseline incidence of adverse events in MET hospitals was associated with a 0.59 unit subsequent reduction in adverse events (95%CI: 0.33 to 0.86) after MET implementation and activation. This applied to cardiac arrests (0.74; 95%CI: 0.52 to 0.95), unplanned ICU admissions (0.56; 95%CI: 0.26 to 0.85) and unexpected deaths (0.68; 95%CI: 0.45 to 0.90). Control hospitals showed a similar reduction only for cardiac arrests (0.95; 95%CI: 0.56 to 1.32). Comparison using conventional subgroup analysis, on the other hand, detected no significant difference between MET and control hospitals. Conclusions Our study showed that, in the MERIT study, when there was dependence of treatment effect on baseline performance, an approach based on regression modelling helped illustrate the nature and magnitude of such dependence while sub-group analysis did not. The ability to assess the nature and magnitude of such dependence may have policy implications. Regression technique may thus prove useful in analysing data when there is a conditional treatment effect.

2009-01-01

393

THE VIEWING OF ONESELF PERFORMING SELECTED MOTOR SKILLS IN MOTION PICTURES AND ITS EFFECT UPON THE EXPRESSED CONCEPT OF SELF IN MOVEMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE IF ONE'S EXPRESSED CONCEPT OF HIS PERFORMANCE OF CERTAIN SELECTED MOTOR SKILLS IS CHANGED THROUGH THE PROCESS OF VIEWING MOTION PICTURES OF HIMSELF PERFORMING THESE SAME SKILLS. SIXTY-FIVE COLLEGE STUDENTS 17 TO 21 YEARS OF AGE, PARTICIPATED. EACH SUBJECT PERFORMED FIVE MOTOR SKILLS IN SEQUENCE (1) WALKED 30 FEET…

CLIFTON, MARGUERITE A.; SMITH, HOPE M.

394

To transfer or not to transfer? Investigating the combined effects of trainee characteristics, team leader support, and team climate.  

PubMed

Eighty pilots participated in a study of variables influencing the transfer process. Posttraining performance was assessed in a flight simulation under 1 of 2 conditions. Those in the maximum performance condition were made aware of the skill to be assessed and the fact that their teammates were confederates, whereas those in the typical performance condition were not. The results indicated that (a) simulator ratings correlated with a measure of transfer to the cockpit for those in the typical condition only; (b) team leader support, manipulated in a pretask brief, moderated the disparity between maximum and typical performance; (c) team climate mediated the impact of support on performance in the typical condition; (d) those with a stronger predisposition toward the trained skill viewed their climate as more supportive; and (e) perceptions of team climate were better predictors of performance for those with a more external locus of control. PMID:11393440

Smith-Jentsch, K A; Salas, E; Brannick, M T

2001-04-01

395

From Scientific Management Through Fun and Games to High-Performing Teams: A Historical Perspective on Consulting to Team-Based Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of team theory, research, and practice in the 20th century is discussed. The influence of important schools of social and organizational psychology as well as the political and social milieu of the times on the research and theory of teams is identified: scientific management in the 1920s, the emergence of social psychology in the 1930s, World War II,

H. Skipton Leonard; Arthur M. Freedman

2000-01-01

396

Cyberinfrastructure and Scientific Collaboration: Application of a Virtual Team Performance Framework with Potential Relevance to Education. WCER Working Paper No. 2010-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify and describe some of the dimensions of scientific collaborations using high throughput computing (HTC) through the lens of a virtual team performance framework. A secondary purpose was to assess the viability of using a virtual team performance framework to study scientific collaborations…

Kraemer, Sara; Thorn, Christopher A.

2010-01-01

397

Assessing students' learning and decision-making skills using high performance web-based computational tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using web-based computational tool in classrooms in conjunction with advanced computing models provide the opportunity for students to learn large scale processes, such as state, regional, and global environmental issues that are difficult to incorporate into student learning exercises with present basic models. These tools aided in bridging the gap between multi-field scale models and enhanced student learning. The expectations were that students would improve their decision-making skills by solving realistic and large scale (multi-field conditions) environmental issues that were made possible through faster computation time, larger datasets, larger scale (multi-field), and predictions over longer time periods using the Century soil organic carbon model. The Century Model was linked to a web-based series of functional pages through which students could run the model through. In this project, 239 undergraduate students' learning and decision-making skills using high performance classroom computing tools were assessed. Among the many Century Model parameters, the students were able to alter four variables (climate, crop, tillage, and soil texture). Students were able to simulate several scenarios simultaneously. The results of the study revealed that pretest for the four courses combined was found significant (P < 0.05), meaning that the pretest was a major contributor to their increased posttest score. Although, the scenario scale (multi-field conditions vs. single field conditions) factor was not statistically significant, the students completing the multi-field scenario assignment scored higher on the posttest and also had a higher increase in points from pretest to posttest. Overall, these results revealed that the tool provided had a positive impact on the students' learning which was evident in their enhanced pretest to posttest score and also their perceptions from the written evaluation they provided. Most students felt that the project was a good learning experience and aided in enhancing their decision-making skills. In the long-term retention study, results showed that the students increased their knowledge as well as enhanced their decision-making skills throughout the project. Written evaluations as well as oral responses displayed that they learned an abundance of knowledge while completing the project and that their decision-making skills were enhanced due to the modeling tool provided.

Martin, Akilah

398

Trainee Source as a Predictor of Underwater Demolition Team School Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To determine if differences in graduation rate exist among Underwater Demolition Team (UDT) school trainees categorized (1) as to source of UDT school input and (2) on the basis of other variables, information was collected on all students in UDT Classes ...

W. H. Githens I. Neumann N. M. Abrahams

1967-01-01

399

Individual and cooperative tasks performed by autonomous MAV teams driven by embodied neural network controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented here focuses on the use of embodied neural network controllers for MAV (Micro- unmanned Aerial Vehicles) teams. The computer model we have built aims to demonstrate how autonomous controllers for groups of flying robots can be successfully developed through simulations based on multi-agent systems and evolutionary robotics methodologies. We first introduce the field of autonomous flying robots,

Fabio Ruini; Angelo Cangelosi; Frank Zetul'e

2009-01-01

400

Towards heterogeneous robot teams for disaster mitigation: Results and performance metrics from RoboCup rescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban Search And Rescue is a growing area of robotic research. The RoboCup Federation has recognized this, and has created the new Virtual Robots competition to complement its existing physical robot and agent competitions. In order to suc- cessfully compete in this competition, teams need to field multi-robot solutions that cooperatively explore and map an environment while searching for victims.

Stephen Balakirsky; Stefano Carpin; Alexander Kleiner; Michael Lewis; Arnoud Visser; Jijun Wang; Vittorio Amos Ziparo

2007-01-01

401

Team Teaching in the Conservatoire: The Views of Music Performance Staff and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Team teaching--two or more teachers sharing the training of a group of students--has only recently been implemented in the curricula of many higher music education institutions. This article reports on a survey of 142 music students and their tutors from three departments (the Schools of Strings, Vocal and Opera Studies, and Wind, Brass and…

Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane

2011-01-01

402

Research and Teaching: Team-Based Learning Enhances Performance in Introductory Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the problems associated with the traditional lecture method, the constraints associated with large classes, and the effectiveness of active learning, continued development and testing of efficient student-centered learning approaches are needed. This study explores the effectiveness of team-based learning (TBL) in a large-enrollment introductory biology class.

Carmichael, Jeffrey

2009-03-01

403

Comparing the performance of us college football teams in the web and on the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous research it has been shown that link-based web page metrics can be used to predict experts' assessment of quality. We are interested in a related question: do expert rankings of real-world entities correlate with search engine (SE) rankings of corresponding web resources? To answer this question we compared rankings of college football teams in the US with rankings

Martin Klein; Olena Hunsicker; Michael L. Nelson

2009-01-01

404

Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students. Methods Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics) were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately. Results There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects. Conclusion In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students’ psychomotor performance.

Afify, Ahmed R; Zawawi, Khalid H; Othman, Hisham I; Al-Dharrab, Ayman A

2013-01-01

405

Team Cognition in Experienced Command-and-Control Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams is examined in an UAV (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle) simulation. Five 3-person teams with experience working together in a command-and-control setting were compared to 10 inexperienced teams. Each team participated in five 40-min missions of a simulation in which interdependent team members control a UAV to take reconnaissance photos. Experienced teams exceeded performance of inexperienced

Nancy J. Cooke; Jamie C. Gorman; Jasmine L. Duran; Amanda R. Taylor

2007-01-01

406

Surgical Crisis Management Skills Training and Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Intraoperative surgical crisis management is learned in an unstructured manner. In aviation, simulation training allows aircrews to coordinate and standardize recovery strategies. Our aim was to develop a surgical crisis simulation and evaluate its feasibility, realism, and validity of the measures used to assess performance. Methods: Surgical trainees were exposed to a bleeding crisis in a simulated operating theater. Assessment of performance consisted of a trainee’s technical ability to control the bleeding and of their team/human factors skills. This assessment was performed in a blinded manner by 2 surgeons and one human factors expert. Other measures consisted of time measures such as time to diagnose the bleeding (TD), inform team members (TT), achieve control (TC), and close the laceration (TL). Blood loss was used as a surrogate outcome measures. Results: There were considerable variations within both senior (n = 10) and junior (n = 10) trainees for technical and team skills. However, while the senior trainees scored higher than the juniors for technical skills (P = 0.001), there were no differences in human factors skills. There were also significant differences between the 2 groups for TD (P = 0.01), TC (P = 0.001), and TL (0.001). The blood loss was higher in the junior group. Conclusions: We have described the development of a novel simulated setting for the training of crisis management skills and the variability in performance both in between and within the 2 groups.

Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Forrest, Damien; Pandey, Vikas; Undre, Shabnam; Vincent, Charles; Darzi, Ara

2006-01-01

407

The effect of student self-video of performance on clinical skill competency: a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Emerging technologies and student information technology literacy are enabling new methods of teaching and learning for clinical skill performance. Facilitating experiential practice and reflection on performance through student self-video, and exposure to peer benchmarks, may promote greater levels of skill competency. This study examines the impact of student self-video on the attainment of clinical skills. A total of 60 Physiotherapy students (100%) consented to participate in the randomised controlled trial. One group (50%) was taught a complex clinical skill with regular practical tutoring, whilst the other group (50%) supplemented the tutoring with a self-video task aimed at promoting reflection on performance. Student skill performance was measured in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Students also completed an anonymous questionnaire, which explored their perception of their learning experiences. Students received significantly higher scores in the OSCE when the examined clinical skill had been supplemented with a self-video of performance task (P = 0.048). Descriptive analysis of the questionnaires relating to student perceptions on the teaching methods identified that the self-video of performance task utilised contributed to improvement in their clinical performance and their confidence for future clinical practice. Students identified a number of aspects of the submission process that contributed to this perception of educational value. The novel results of this study demonstrate that greater clinical skill competency is achieved when traditional tutoring methods are supplemented with student self-video of performance tasks. Additional benefits included the ability of staff and students to monitor longitudinal performance, and an increase in feedback opportunities. PMID:22354337

Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

2012-02-22

408

The effects of depleted self-control strength on skill-based task performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of depleted self-control strength on skill-based sports task performance. Sixty-two participants completed the following: a baseline dart-tossing task (20 tosses), with measures of accuracy, reaction time, and myoelectrical activity of the arms taken throughout; a self-control depletion (experimental) or a nondepletion (control) manipulation; and a second round of dart tossing. As hypothesized, participants in the experimental condition had poorer mean accuracy at Round 2 than control condition participants, and a significant decline in accuracy from Round 1 to Round 2. Experimental condition participants also demonstrated poorer consistency in accuracy compared with control condition participants at Round 2 and a significant deterioration in consistency from Round 1 to Round 2. In addition, consistency in reaction time improved significantly for the control group but not for the experimental group. The results of this study provide evidence that ego depletion effects occur in the performance of a skill-based sports task. PMID:23798587

McEwan, Desmond; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Bray, Steven R

2013-06-01

409

Subcutaneous daidzein administration enhances recovery of skilled ladder rung walking performance following stroke in rats.  

PubMed

Stroke is a devastating event which can result in permanent disability. Due to the lack of treatments available for use after stroke, compounds which work to limit cell loss, reduce behavioral deficits, and enhance recovery of function are needed. The isoflavone daidzein has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective when fed to rats beginning prior to stroke. Herein, we tested whether subcutaneous delivery of daidzein beginning at the time of stroke reduced injury and/or enhanced functional recovery over 14 days after stroke. Baseline performance on the skilled ladder rung walking task was recorded immediately before stroke (Day 0). Rats then underwent a unilateral permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and received a subcutaneous minipump containing either daidzein dissolved in vehicle or vehicle alone. Performance on the skilled ladder rung walking task was recorded again on Day +3, Day +7, and Day +14 post-stroke. Rats were then euthanized and brains were collected for lesion volume analysis. The numbers of slight and deep forelimb slips on the task were recorded for 3 trials for each rat per day. Rats treated with daidzein exhibited fewer deep slips over the course of the experiment than rats which received only vehicle (p<0.05). No difference was detected in total forelimb slips or slight slips (p>0.05). Lesion volume was not different between groups (p>0.05). No differences were found in weight between groups during the study (p>0.05). PMID:23994543

Stout, Jessica M; Knapp, Austen N; Banz, William J; Wallace, Douglas G; Cheatwood, Joseph L

2013-08-27

410

The role of leadership in shared mental model convergence and team performance improvement: An agent-based computational model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in shared mental models has immeasurably aided our understanding of effective teamwork and taskwork. However, little research has focused on the role that leaders play, if any, in influencing, developing and\\/or fostering shared mental models and thereby improving team performance. We developed an agent-based computational model based on McComb's theory of three-phase mental model development, where agents repeatedly share

Shelley D. Dionne; Hiroki Sayama; Chanyu Hao; Benjamin James Bush

2010-01-01

411

Negotiation Teamwork: The Impact of Information Distribution and Accountability on Performance Depends on the Relationship among Team Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined how the distribution of information among team members and accountability pressures affected the quality of negotiated settlements reached among teams of friends negotiating against teams of strangers. The main conclusions of the experiment may be summarized by the following findings: (1) Teams of strangers reaped a greater share of the joint profit than did teams of friends when

Erika Peterson; Leigh Thompson

1997-01-01

412

Performing a Successful Audience Analysis: How to Improve Your Proposal-Writing Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposal teams conduct an audience analysis in much the same way as they write proposals: they search for characteristics (features) and attempt to conform to such characteristics (benefits). For example, based on experience, the proposal team knows that a specific proposal review board has short attention spans and is graphics-oriented. The team also known that the evaluators will have to

O. Ramos; O. Jr

1992-01-01

413

Adaptive heterogeneous multi-robot teams  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail the experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

Parker, L.E.

1998-11-01

414

Are real teams healthy teams?  

PubMed

This study examines the impact of real-team--as opposed to a team in name only--characteristics (i.e., team boundaries, stability of membership, and task interdependence) on team processes (i.e., team learning and emotional support) and team effectiveness in the long-term care sector. We employed a longitudinal survey in which the real-team characteristics and team processes were rated by team members, and team effectiveness was rated one year later by team members and managers. Our results show that team learning and emotional support are predictors of team effectiveness as rated by team members and managers. They also show that there is no such thing as a real team in the long-term care sector because each real-team characteristic has a different impact on team processes and effectiveness. Whereas one set of real-team characteristics (i.e., stability of membership) is beneficial for healthy team processes and team effectiveness, another set (i.e., team boundaries) has only an indirect effect on team effectiveness via team processes or is even detrimental (i.e., task interdependence). We conclude that more intensive teamwork in the long-term care sector will lead to better outcomes if this teamwork involves increased stability of membership and clarified team boundaries but not if it involves added task interdependency among team members. PMID:23650695

Buljac, Martina; Van Woerkom, Marianne; Van Wijngaarden, Jeroen D H

415

Selected Musculoskeletal and Performance Characteristics of Members of a Women's Professional Football Team: Application of a Pre-participation Examination  

PubMed Central

Background Although it is common practice to administer pre-participation examinations (PPE) of athletes prior to training, there are no clearly established formats. Elements integral to the PPE fall within the scope of physical therapist practice, and are often categorized as a form of primary prevention for musculoskeletal disorders as defined in the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe the design and implementation of a PPE for a women's professional (gridiron) football team. The results and findings from this PPE provide one of the first musculoskeletal profiles and information about selected physical characteristics from members of a female professional football team. Methods Players from the Kentucky Karma women's football team, a member of the National Women's Football League (NWFA), volunteered to participate in a PPE. Of twenty-five eligible team members, thirteen consented to participate. The PPE consisted of a health history questionnaire, a musculoskeletal screening, and a series of physical performance and agility tests. Results The players' average (± SD) age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage were 29.6 (± 5.6) yrs., 1.66 (± .05) m, 66.8 (± 12.6) kg, 24.1 (± 3.7), and 27.4 (± 6.6) %, respectively. Commonly reported injuries were similar to those reported in men's collegiate football. Conclusion This is one of the first papers to report on a model PPE for a women's professional football team. Future research is needed to establish a standard PPE, recognize common injuries, and develop prevention strategies unique to women's professional football.

Nett, Beth; Velarde, Lynnuel; Pariser, David P.; Boyce, David A.

2010-01-01

416

Improving the Spatial Skills of Engineering Students: Impact on Graphics Performance and Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates the use of a course focused on developing 3-D spatial skills at Michigan Technological University. Provides data to support the recommendation that some students take the spatial skills course before enrolling in the regular engineering graphics courses. (DDR)

Sorby, Sheryl A.

2001-01-01

417

An Evaluation of Process Performance for a Small-Team Project - A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational Unified Process (RUP) provides a component-based development process which is use-case driven, architecture-centric, and iterative and incremental. This paper describes our experience of RUP application to the development of a web-based project management system, which had been peformed by a five-member team for one year. The paper introduces how we applied RUP in the development of the system and

So-Young Kim; Ho-Jin Choi

2005-01-01

418

[Factors influencing the performance of medical teams in the early assessment of exposure to radiation--in accident or man-made radiological disasters].  

PubMed

"RadioLogical events" are the general term used to describe various scenarios that involve radiological and nuclear mishaps. These may occur in different settings such as in a nuclear plant, during transportation of isotopes, in a medical or industrial venue, as a result of an accident, natural disaster or as a means of terror or war. Radiological events carry dire medical consequences and are therefore of great concern to both the public and the authorities. The recent disaster in Japan brought the issue of the safety of nuclear pLants to the civil populations residing around them to the public eye once again. A nuclear disaster poses a professional challenge to the medical teams that need to treat victims. Studies show that the readiness and willingness to care for radiation victims is influenced by many factors, among them are knowledge and skills, the resources available and more. The ability of triage staff to identify radiation victims and to identify those prone to deteriorate, will have an effect on the staff's feeling of competitiveness and willingness to treat. Risk communication is an important contributor to the ability to handle the situation properly. Good communication can alleviate concerns in the public and mediate the response in a way that will prevent an overflow of the system by "worried well". The aim of this literature review is to describe the factors that encourage the functioning of teams in a radiological event and to identify and highlight the factors that can influence their performance (positively or negatively). PMID:22741203

Gonen, Anat; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

2012-02-01

419

The performance of the ice hockey slap and wrist shots: the effects of stick construction and player skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of players’ skill level, body strength, and sticks of various construction\\u000a and stiffness on the performance of the slap and wrist shots in ice hockey. Twenty male and twenty female subjects were tested.\\u000a Ten of each gender group were considered skilled and ten unskilled. In addition to general strength tests,

T.-C. Wu; D. Pearsall; A. Hodges; R. Turcotte; R. Lefebvre; D. Montgomery; H. Bateni

2003-01-01

420

The effect of a carbohydrate enriched diet on the skill performance of midfield soccer players after intermittent treadmill exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION\\u000aConsiderable depletion of intramuscular glycogen stores occurs during soccer games which affects the distance covered by players during the second-half of a match-play (Saltin, 1973). Although it appears that players skills deteriorate with fatigue, it is difficult to quantitatively investigate the skill performance during a soccer game. Additionally, the effects of muscle glycogen depletion and a carbohydrate enriched diet

Grant A Abt; Shi Zhou; Robert P Weatherby

1996-01-01

421

Mindfulness Meditation May Lessen Anxiety, Promote Social Skills, and Improve Academic Performance Among Adolescents With Learning Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students with learning disabilities (LD; defined by compromised academic performance) often have higher levels of anxiety, school-related stress, and less optimal social skills compared with their typically developing peers. Previous health research indicates that meditation and relaxation training may be effective in reducing anxiety and promoting social skills. This pilot study used a pre—post no-control design to examine feasibility of,

James Beauchemin; Tiffany L. Hutchins; Fiona Patterson

2008-01-01

422

An Exploratory Study of Factors Influencing Resuscitation Skills Retention and Performance among Health Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Resuscitation and life support skills training comprises a significant proportion of continuing education programming for health professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes of certified resuscitation providers toward the retention of resuscitation skills, regular skills updating, and methods…

Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; Greene, Melanie

2012-01-01

423

Effect of Recent Refresher Training on in Situ Simulated Pediatric Tracheal Intubation Psychomotor Skill Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Maintenance of competence in orotracheal intubation skills is challenging for non- anesthesiologists who do not practice intubation routinely. We hypothesized that discipline, recent training, and experience would affect immediate skill improvement during refresher training. Methods: Experienced pediatric providers refreshed intubation skills in six simulated infant trauma scenarios with cervical spine protection. Time (T) to successful intubation (in seconds) was

Akira Nishisaki; Louis Scrattish; John Boulet; Mandip Kalsi; Matthew Maltese; Thomas Castner; Aaron Donoghue; Roberta Hales; Lisa Tyler; Peter Brust; Mark Helfaer; Vinay Nadkarni

424

Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests the development of fundamental movement skill (FMS) is a key factor in promoting long-term physical activity. Low levels of activity among preschool children and the relationship between physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills underline the need to determine the factors associated with children's development of such skills. As parents play an important role in the

Wouter Cools; Kristine De Martelaer; Christiane Samaey; Caroline Andries

2011-01-01

425

Livestock Skills Performance Levels Reported by Agricultural Production Teachers in Ohio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted to determine the livestock skills possessed by agricultural production teachers in Ohio and to examine the extent to which livestock skills were taught in high school vocational agriculture classes. Questions concerned teacher knowledge of livestock skills, teacher confidence, teaching methods, and relationship between…

Osborne, Edward W.; Miller, Larry E.

1985-01-01

426

Coordinating Expertise in Software Development Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like all teams, knowledge teams must acquire and manage critical resources in order to accomplish their work. The most critical resource for knowledge teams is expertise, or specialized skills and knowledge, but the mere presence of expertise on a team is insufficient to produce high-quality work. Expertise must be managed and coordinated in order to leverage its potential. That is,

Samer Faraj; Lee Sproull

2000-01-01

427

The Romance of Learning from Disagreement. The Effect of Cohesiveness and Disagreement on Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Individual Performance Within Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of disagreement and cohesiveness on knowledge sharing in teams, and on\\u000a the performance of individual team members.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design\\/methodology\\/approach  Data were obtained from a survey among 1,354 employees working in 126 teams in 17 organizations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Findings  The results show that cohesiveness has a positive effect on the exchange of advice between team members

Marianne van Woerkom; Karin Sanders

2010-01-01

428

Age-dependent and coordinated shift in performance between implicit and explicit skill learning  

PubMed Central

It has been reported recently that while general sequence learning across ages conforms to the typical inverted-U shape pattern, with best performance in early adulthood, surprisingly, the basic ability of picking up in an implicit manner triplets that occur with high vs. low probability in the sequence is best before 12 years of age and it significantly weakens afterwards. Based on these findings, it has been hypothesized that the cognitively controlled processes coming online at around 12 are useful for more targeted explicit learning at the cost of becoming relatively less sensitive to raw probabilities of events. To test this hypothesis, we collected data in a sequence learning task using probabilistic sequences in five age groups from 11 to 39 years of age (N = 288), replicating the original implicit learning paradigm in an explicit task setting where subjects were guided to find repeating sequences. We found that in contrast to the implicit results, performance with the high- vs. low-probability triplets was at the same level in all age groups when subjects sought patterns in the sequence explicitly. Importantly, measurements of explicit knowledge about the identity of the sequences revealed a significant increase in ability to explicitly access the true sequences exactly around the age where the earlier study found the significant drop in ability to learn implicitly raw probabilities. These findings support the conjecture that the gradually increasing involvement of more complex internal models optimizes our skill learning abilities by compensating for the performance loss due to down-weighting the raw probabilities of the sensory input, while expanding our ability to acquire more sophisticated skills.

Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, Jozsef

2013-01-01

429

Age-dependent and coordinated shift in performance between implicit and explicit skill learning.  

PubMed

It has been reported recently that while general sequence learning across ages conforms to the typical inverted-U shape pattern, with best performance in early adulthood, surprisingly, the basic ability of picking up in an implicit manner triplets that occur with high vs. low probability in the sequence is best before 12 years of age and it significantly weakens afterwards. Based on these findings, it has been hypothesized that the cognitively controlled processes coming online at around 12 are useful for more targeted explicit learning at the cost of becoming relatively less sensitive to raw probabilities of events. To test this hypothesis, we collected data in a sequence learning task using probabilistic sequences in five age groups from 11 to 39 years of age (N = 288), replicating the original implicit learning paradigm in an explicit task setting where subjects were guided to find repeating sequences. We found that in contrast to the implicit results, performance with the high- vs. low-probability triplets was at the same level in all age groups when subjects sought patterns in the sequence explicitly. Importantly, measurements of explicit knowledge about the identity of the sequences revealed a significant increase in ability to explicitly access the true sequences exactly around the age where the earlier study found the significant drop in ability to learn implicitly raw probabilities. These findings support the conjecture that the gradually increasing involvement of more complex internal models optimizes our skill learning abilities by compensating for the performance loss due to down-weighting the raw probabilities of the sensory input, while expanding our ability to acquire more sophisticated skills. PMID:24155717

Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, József

2013-10-22

430

Team-Building Tools for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains why college students need teamwork skills. Discusses how instructors can help develop those skills and design projects to improve them. Provides an action plan and team-building tools. (Author/SK)|

Page, Diana; Donelan, Joseph G.

2003-01-01

431

Systematic development of a communication skills training course for physicians performing work disability assessments: from evidence to practice  

PubMed Central

Background Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1) to systematically develop a training course aimed at improving the communication skills of physicians during work disability assessment interviews with disability claimants, and 2) to plan an evaluation of the training course. Methods A physician-tailored communication skills training course was developed, according to the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Data were collected from questionnaire studies among physicians and claimants, a focus group study among physicians, a systematic review of the literature, and meetings with various experts. Determinants and performance objectives were formulated. A concept version of the training course was discussed with several experts before the final training course programme was established. The evaluation plan was developed by consulting experts, social insurance physicians, researchers, and policy-makers, and discussing with them the options for evaluation. Results A two-day post-graduate communication skills training course was developed, aimed at improving professional communication during work disability assessment interviews. Special focus was on active teaching strategies, such as practising the skills in role-play. An adoption and implementation plan was formulated, in which the infrastructure of the educational department of the institute that employs the physicians was utilised. Improvement in the skills and knowledge of the physicians who will participate in the training course will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. Conclusions The feasibility and practical relevance of the communication skills training course that was developed seem promising. Such a course may be relevant for physicians in many countries who perform work disability assessments. The development of the first training course of this type represents an important advancement in this field.

2011-01-01

432

Research on Top Management Team Heterogeneity, Company Performance and Strategic Changes in the Transition Economy: An Empirical Research on Chinese Listed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the period of transition economy, enterprises, facing more and fiercer competition, need continual change strategy adjusted to the environment in dynamic environment, this paper analyzes top management team (TMT) in transition economy and probe into the relationship between top management team heterogeneity, performance and company strategic change. After analysis of the data of 182 firms from Shenzhen and Shanghai

Ping Zhang

2008-01-01

433

Music performance anxiety in skilled pianists: effects of social-evaluative performance situation on subjective, autonomic, and electromyographic reactions.  

PubMed

Music performance anxiety (MPA), or stage fright in music performance, is a serious problem for many musicians, because performance impairment accompanied by MPA can threaten their career. The present study sought to clarify on how a social-evaluative performance situation affects subjective, autonomic, and motor stress responses in pianists. Measurements of subjective state anxiety, heart rate (HR), sweat rate (SR), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper extremity muscles were obtained while 18 skilled pianists performed a solo piano piece(s) of their choice under stressful (competition) and non-stressful (rehearsal) conditions. Participants reported greater anxiety in the competition condition, which confirmed the effectiveness of stress manipulation. The HR and SR considerably increased from the rehearsal to competition condition reflecting the activation of sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, participants showed higher levels of the EMG magnitude of proximal muscles (biceps brachii and upper trapezius) and the co-contraction of antagonistic muscles in the forearm (extensor digitorum communis and flexor digitorum superficialis) in the competition condition. Although these responses can be interpreted as integral components of an adaptive biological system that creates a state of motor readiness in an unstable or unpredictable environment, they can adversely influence pianists by disrupting their fine motor control on stage and by increasing the risk of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:19701628

Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Murakoshi, Takayuki; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

2009-08-22

434

The Effects of Team Training on Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A meta-analysis was conducted to determine relationships between team training and team effectiveness. Results from the 21 studies provided evidence that training is positively related to team effectiveness and effectiveness in five outcome categories: affective, cognitive, subjective task-based skill, objective task-based skill, and teamwork…

Delise, Lisa A.; Gorman, C. Allen; Brooks, Abby M.; Rentsch, Joan R.; Steele-Johnson, Debra

2010-01-01

435

The effect of a high-carbohydrate diet on the skill performance of midfield soccer players after intermittent treadmill exercise.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of a high-carbohydrate diet on the performance of dribbling and shooting skills of recreational soccer players. Six male midfield soccer players first completed 60 minutes of intermittent treadmill exercise, followed either by a mixed or a high-carbohydrate diet for 48 hours. A modified Zelenka Functional Performance Test was then administered, followed by the intermittent treadmill exercise and another skills test. Subjects then repeated the protocol two weeks later under the alternative dietary regime. Blood samples were obtained pre exercise and after each procedure for Hematocrit and concentrations of hemoglobin, plasma glucose and lactate. Heart rate was recorded during and after each procedure. Repeated measures MANOVA revealed (1) the skill performance was not impaired by the intermittent treadmill exercise (p > 0.05); (2) the high-carbohydrate diet did not increase the ability of players to shoot or dribble (p > 0.05); (3) a significant increase in heart rate during the post treadmill exercise skill test compared with that during the pre treadmill exercise test (p < 0.05); (4) a significant order by time effect for hematocrit (p < 0.05); (5) no significant differences in plasma glucose, plasma lactate or hemoglobin concentrations between tests (p > 0.05); and (6) a significant decrease in body mass from pre to post dietary regime within both conditions (p < 0.05). It is speculated that either (1) muscle glycogen depletion may not impair the ability of the player to execute game skills; (2) an alternative fatigue mechanism such as dehydration or increased lactate production may be causative factors in the reduction in skill performance; or (3) the treadmill protocol employed failed to induce a degree of glycogen depletion or fatigue large enough to cause a significant fall in skill performance. PMID:9923728

Abt, G; Zhou, S; Weatherby, R

1998-12-01

436

The influence of time management skill on the curvilinear relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.  

PubMed

In this research we integrate resource allocation and social exchange perspectives to build and test theory focusing on the moderating role of time management skill in the nonmonotonic relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and task performance. Results from matching survey data collected from 212 employees and 41 supervisors and from task performance metrics collected several months later indicate that the curvilinear association between OCB and task performance is significantly moderated by employees' time management skill. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23379912

Rapp, Adam A; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Tammy L

2013-02-04

437

Does past performance guarantee future skill of climate models? A new approach to an important problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an ongoing argument on "whether past performance of climate models has any guarantee of future skill" [Reifen and Toumi, 2009; Macadm et al. 2010; Weigel et al. 2010; Pennell and Reichler, 2011]. To contribute to this debate we start with our recently developed analytical approach that partitions the variance between space and time [Sun et al. 2010]. We show that the same framework can be used to answer the question by incorporating the covariance. This approach allows the multiple representations that are needed for handling a climate model ensemble. The covariance partitioning scheme can accommodate variations at various space and time scales. We show that the argument arose originally because of improper handling of intra- versus inter-annual variations. Reference: Sun, F., M. L. Roderick, G. D. Farquhar, W. H. Lim, Y. Zhang, N. Bennett, and S. H. Roxburgh (2010), Partitioning the variance between space and time, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L12704, doi:10.1029/2010GL043323.

Sun, F.; Roderick, M. L.; Farquhar, G. D.

2011-12-01

438

Cognitive skill performance among young children living in poverty: Risk, change, and the promotive effects of Early Head Start  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of the present study were to examine associations between risk factors and the cognitive performance from one to three years of age of children living in poverty, and to investigate the protective and\\/or promotive effects of EHS on children's cognitive skill performance. Analyses were conducted using data from the Early Head Start (EHS) Research and Evaluation Project, a

Catherine Ayoub; Erin O’Connor; Gabrielle Rappolt-Schlictmann; Claire Vallotton; Helen Raikes; Rachel Chazan-Cohen

2009-01-01

439

The Effect of a High-Carbohydrate Diet on the Skill Performance of Midfield Soccer Players after Intermittent Treadmill Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of a high-carbohydrate diet on the performance of dribbling and shooting skills of recreational soccer players. Six male midfield soccer players first completed 60 minutes of intermittent treadmill exercise, followed either by a mixed or a high-carbohydrate diet for 48 hours. A modified Zelenka Functional Performance Test was then administered, followed by the intermittent treadmill

Grant A Abt; Shi Zhou; Robert P Weatherby

1998-01-01

440

North Carolina Report of Student Performance of Computer Skills, 2000-01. Reporting on the Classes of 2001-2005.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains aggregate and disaggregated state-level results from administrations of North Carolina's computer skills tests (performance and multiple choice) in 2000-2001. The report also provides limited information about the performance of school districts and charter schools. Additional data are included in this report about the…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability.

441

A Multiple-Goal, Multilevel Model of Feedback Effects on the Regulation of Individual and Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

When working as a member of a team, individuals must make decisions concerning the allocation of resources (e.g., effort) toward individual goals and team goals. As a result, individual and team goals, and feedback related to progress toward these goals, should be potent levers for affecting resource allocation decisions. This research develops a multilevel, multiple-goal model of individual and team

Richard P. DeShon; Steve W. J. Kozlowski; Aaron M. Schmidt; Karen R. Milner; Darin Wiechmann

2004-01-01

442

Ability-Based Pairing Strategies in the Team-Based Training of a Complex Skill: Does the Intelligence of Your Training Partner Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intelligence researchers traditionally focus their attention on the individual level and overlook the role of intelligence at the interindividual level. This research investigated the interplay of the effects of intelligence at the individual and interindividual levels by manipulating the intelligence-based composition of dyadic training teams.…

Day, Eric Anthony; Arthur, Winfred Jr.; Bell, Suzanne T.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Bennett, Winston Jr.; Mendoza, Jorge L.; Tubre, Travis C.

2005-01-01

443

Using Item-Type Performance Covariance to Improve the Skill Model of an Existing Tutor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from an existing pre-algebra computer-based tutor, we analyzed the covariance of item-types with the goal of describing a more effective way to assign skill labels to item-types. Analyzing covariance is important because it allows us to place the skills in a related network in which we can identify the role each skill plays in learning…

Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.; Cen, Hao; Wu, Lili; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

2008-01-01

444

Skill mix in Primary Care: a study of the interface between the general practitioner and other members of the Primary Health Care Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Medical Manpower Standing Advisory Committee made its first report, “Planning the Medical Workforce”, to the Secretary of State in December 1992; recommending that research should be undertaken to quantify the manpower effects of skill mix initiatives. These issues are being raised against a background of changing roles under the GP Contract, manpower shortages and boundary definitions and enhanced roles

Sue Jenkins-Clarke; Roy Carr-Hill; Paul Dixon; Mike Pringle

1997-01-01

445

National performance review: Internal Team report to the Secretary. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The team received over 300 suggestions for changes in legislation, procedures, and directives that govern the operations of DOE. The suggestions were distilled to 41 issues. DOE employees want to be empowered in areas of decision-making and responsibility, believe that contracting can be done better, are eager to learn quality management, and believe that communications between HQ and field can be improved. A number of internal barriers to efficient operation were identified, that fell away; this can be continued through the Quality Council. Recommendations for action are listed. It is recommended that each of the issues that have been referred for action to a task force or focus group be followed by the Quality Council to successful resolution.

Not Available

1993-09-01

446

TNT: Teams Need Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document includes a final report and curriculum manual from a project to help adult educators teach team training by developing a curriculum for use in teaching teamwork skills in work force literacy programs and by providing two half-day seminars to assist adult educators with effectively using the curriculum. The manual for work force…

Centre County Vocational-Technical School, Pleasant Gap, PA. CIU 10 Bi-County Development Center for Adults.

447

Making design teams work  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, senior mechanical engineering students participate in a two semester capstone design project. The students work in teams on a problem provided by industry to create a realistic environment for using their engineering skills in an applied setting. This scenario provides not only a real design problem, it also produces the same people problems encountered

J. Elaine Seat; William A. Poppen; Kathy Boone; J. Roger Parsons

1996-01-01

448

Studying team shared mental models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As technology is used to support team-based activities, one important factor affecting the performance of teams is the kind of mental model shared between team members. This paper describes a novel conceptual graph based methodology to study these mental models to better understand how shared mental models affect performance and other factors of a team's behavior.

Sandra Carpenter; Julie L. Fortune; Harry S. Delugach; Letha H. Etzkorn; Dawn R. Utley; Phillip A. Farrington; Shamsnaz Virani

2008-01-01

449

Spatial-temporal constraints on decision-making during shooting performance in the team sport of futsal.  

PubMed

In this paper we examined the influence of opposing players constraining the decision-making of an attacker during shooting performance in futsal. Performance during 10 competitive matches was recorded and examined from the moment a shot was taken until the ball was intercepted or entered the goal in sequences of play: ending in a goal, a goalkeeper's save, or an interception by the nearest defender. The variables under scrutiny in this study were (i) the distance of each player to the ball's trajectory, (ii) the time for the ball to arrive at that same point (i.e. the interception point), and (iii), the required movement velocity of the nearest defender and the goalkeeper to intercept the ball. Results showed that values of distance from a defender and goalkeeper to the interception points were significantly lower when they intercepted the ball. The time of ball arrival at the interception point of the defender was also lower when the ball was intercepted. The required velocities of the nearest outfield defender and the goalkeeper to intercept the ball were significantly lower during plays in which they intercepted the ball, than in plays in which the ball was not intercepted. Our results suggest that researchers and practitioners should consider simultaneously both space and time in analysis of interceptive actions in team sports. The required movement velocities of the opponents to intercept the ball are reliable spatial-temporal variables constraining decision-making during shooting performance in team sports like futsal. PMID:23244400

Vilar, Luís; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Correia, Vanda; Esteves, Pedro Tiago

2012-12-18

450

Relationship Between Tests of Physical Qualities, Team Selection, and Physical Match Performance in Semi-Professional Rugby League Players.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the physical qualities that discriminated state-based rugby league players competing for selection in a semi-professional rugby league team, and determined the relationship between tests of physical qualities and physical match performance in these players. Thirty-two rugby league players (mean ± SD age, 24 ± 3 yr) from a Queensland Cup rugby league squad participated in this study. Players performed tests of upper-body strength (3 repetition maximum [RM] bench press; 3 RM weighted chin-up), upper-body strength-endurance (body-mass maximum repetition bench press), lower-body strength (3 RM squat), lower-body power (vertical jump), and prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, level 1). Global positioning system data, sampling at 10 Hz, were collected during 5 Queensland Cup rugby league matches. Selected players had greater (p<0.05) 3RM squat, 3RM chin-up, body-mass bench press, vertical jump, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performances than non-selected players. After controlling for playing position, players with better 3RM squat performances covered greater total distances (r = 0.98, p<0.05) including greater distances at low (r = 0.98, p<0.05) and high (r = 0.97, p<0.05) speeds. Significant associations (r = 0.96, p<0.05) were also found between 3RM squat performances and the number of repeated high-intensity effort bouts performed in competition. These findings highlight the importance of lower-body strength, upper-body strength and endurance, and prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability to team selection in semi-professional rugby league. Furthermore, our findings suggest that well-developed lower-body strength contributes to effective physical match performance in semi-professional rugby league players. PMID:23442268

Gabbett, Tim J; Seibold, Anthony

2013-02-25

451

A protocol for evaluating progressive levels of simulation fidelity in the development of technical skills, integrated performance and woman centred clinical assessment skills in undergraduate midwifery students  

PubMed Central

Background Simulation as a pedagogical approach has been used in health professional education to address the need to safely develop effective clinical skills prior to undertaking clinical practice. However, evidence for the use of simulation in midwifery is largely anecdotal, and research evaluating the effectiveness of different levels of simulation fidelity are lacking. Woman centred care is a core premise of the midwifery profession and describes the behaviours of an individual midwife who demonstrates safe and effective care of the individual woman. Woman centred care occurs when the midwife modifies the care to ensure the needs of each individual woman are respected and addressed. However, a review of the literature demonstrates an absence of a valid and reliable tool to measure the development of woman centred care behaviours. This study aims to determine which level of fidelity in simulated learning experiences provides the most effective learning outcomes in the development of woman centred clinical assessment behaviors and skills in student midwives. Methods/Design Three-arm, randomised, intervention trial. In this research we plan to: a) trial three levels of simulation fidelity - low, medium and progressive, on student midwives performing the procedure of vaginal examination; b) measure clinical assessment skills using the Global Rating Scale (GRS) and Integrated Procedural Performance Instrument (IPPI); and c) pilot the newly developed Woman Centred Care Scale (WCCS) to measure clinical behaviors related to Woman-Centredness. Discussion This project aims to enhance knowledge in relation to the appropriate levels of fidelity in simulation that yield the best educational outcomes for the development of woman centred clinical assessment in student midwives. The outcomes of this project may contribute to improved woman centred clinical assessment for student midwives, and more broadly influence decision making regarding education resource allocation for maternity simulation.

2013-01-01

452

The Performance of Elementary Teachers and Students on a Test of map and Globe Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the last two decades, research in education, geography, and psychology has led to a better understanding of children's developing cognitive abilities in relation to map and globe skills. This knowledge, combined with the increasing availability and use of multiple-media instructional equipment and materials and a greater concern among educators and parents with cognitive skill development, has spurred publishers to

Donald O. Schneider

1976-01-01

453

EMPLOYERS PERCEPTIONS OF IMPORTANCE-PERFORMANCE GAPS IN CO OP STUDENTS' TECHNICAL MARKETING SKILLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education is a pure service and is subject to greater variance than other services. Service quality is often measured via students yet employers are another customer of a universities output, that of the student's knowledge. A number of studies have been conducted measuring employers views on the quality of students skills however these are mostly based on generic skills.

Murray Rees

454

Relationships between Self-Assessment Skills, Test Performance, and Demographic Variables in Psychiatry Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some researchers have seen the capacity for self-assessment in trainees as a special skill, and some reports have concluded that this skill is positively and crucially correlated with academic competence. Thus, it is believed that those trainees who are most deficient in knowledge are least likely to be aware of their limitations. Other…

Lynn, David J.; Holzer, Charles; O'Neill, Patrick

2006-01-01

455

Executive Function in the Classroom: Practical Strategies for Improving Performance and Enhancing Skills for All Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students with strong executive function skills hold the keys to school and social success--from attention and impulse control to time management and organization. Now K-12 teachers have a practical, highly readable guide to enhancing these critical skills for "all" students, with and without learning disabilities. Through the author's memorable…

Kaufman, Christopher

2010-01-01

456

Can Self-Reported Encoding Strategy and Recognition Skill Be Diagnostic of Performance in Eyewitness Identifications?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between 3 witness factors and identification accuracy, as well as calibration and diagnosticity of confidence, was investigated. A total of 384 participants in an eyewitness experiment rated their facial recognition skill, general memory skill, and self-reported encoding strategy on a questionnaire presented after the photo-confrontation. Participants who rated themselves to be good face recognizers showed a slightly higher

Nils Olsson; Peter Juslin

1999-01-01

457

Motivation and Math Skills as Determinants of First-Year Performance in Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The importance of math skills for study success in economics has been widely researched. This article adds to the literature by combining information on students' math skills and their motivation. The authors are thus able to present a rich picture of why students succeed in their study of economics and to confirm previous findings that deficient…

Arnold, Ivo J. M.; Straten, Jerry T.

2012-01-01

458

UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment: Development of a New Measure of Everyday Functioning for Severely Mentally Ill Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instruments to assess everyday functioning have utilized self-report, proxy report, clinician ratings, or direct observation of performance. Each of these methods has strengths and weaknesses. In this article we argue for the inclusion of performance-based measures of functional capacity in studies of severely mentally ill persons and describe a new measure, the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA). We administered the

Thomas L. Patterson; Sherry Goldman; Christine L. McKibbin; Troy Hughs; Dilip V. Jeste

2001-01-01

459

What makes maternity teams effective and safe? Lessons from a series of research on teamwork, leadership and team training.  

PubMed

We describe lessons for safety from a synthesis of seven studies of teamwork, leadership and team training across a healthcare region. Two studies identified successes and challenges in a unit with embedded team training: a staff survey demonstrated a positive culture but a perceived need for greater senior presence; training improved actual emergency care, but wide variation in team performance remained. Analysis of multicenter simulation records showed that variation in patient safety and team efficiency correlated with their teamwork but not individual knowledge, skills or attitudes. Safe teams tended to declare the emergency earlier, hand over in a more structured way, and use closed-loop communication. Focused and directed communication was also associated with better patient-actor perception of care. Focus groups corroborated these findings, proposed that the capability and experience of the leader is more important than seniority, and identified teamwork and leadership issues that require further research. PMID:23980798

Siassakos, Dimitrios; Fox, Robert; Bristowe, Katherine; Angouri, Jo; Hambly, Helen; Robson, Lauren; Draycott, Timothy J

2013-11-01

460

Apprentices' and Trainees' English Language and Literacy Skills in Workplace Learning and Performance: Employer and Employee Opinion. Australian Apprenticeships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated ways employers and their apprentices and trainees perceive how these employees' English language and literacy (ELL) skills affect their learning and performance in the workplace in the current context of New Apprenticeships. The research design and methodology involved sending an opinion survey to a stratified random sample of…

O'Neill, Shirley; Gish, Annabelle

461

BDNF polymorphism predicts the rate of decline in skilled task performance and hippocampal volume in healthy individuals  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have indicated a link between the presence of polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive and affective disorders. However, only a few have studied these effects longitudinally along with structural changes in the brain. This study was carried out to investigate whether valine-to-methionine substitution at position 66 (val66met) of pro-BDNF could be linked to alterations in the rate of decline in skilled task performance and structural changes in hippocampal volume. Participants consisted of 144 healthy Caucasian pilots (aged 40–69 years) who completed a minimum of 3 consecutive annual visits. Standardized flight simulator score (SFSS) was measured as a reliable and quantifiable indicator for skilled task performance. In addition, a subset of these individuals was assessed for hippocampal volume alterations using magnetic resonance imaging. We found that val66met substitution in BDNF correlated longitudinally with the rate of decline in SFSS. Structurally, age-dependent hippocampal volume changes were also significantly altered by this substitution. Our study suggests that val66met polymorphism in BDNF can be linked to the rate of decline in skilled task performance. Furthermore, this polymorphism could be used as a predictor of the effects of age on the structure of the hippocampus in healthy individuals. Such results have implications for understanding possible disabilities in older adults performing skilled tasks who are at a higher risk for cognitive and affective disorders.

Sanchez, M Millan; Das, D; Taylor, J L; Noda, A; Yesavage, J A; Salehi, A

2011-01-01

462

Evaluating Attitudes, Skill, and Performance in a Learning-Enhanced Quantitative Methods Course: A Structural Modeling Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Used a structural modeling approach to evaluate relations among attitudes, initial skills, and performance in a Quantitative Methods course that involved students in active learning. Results largely confirmed hypotheses offering support for educational reform efforts that propose actively involving students in the learning process, especially in…

Harlow, Lisa L.; Burkholder, Gary J.; Morrow, Jennifer A.

2002-01-01

463

Confidence versus Performance as an Indicator of the Presence of Alternative Conceptions and Inadequate Problem-Solving Skills in Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the use of performance-confidence relationships to signal the presence of alternative conceptions and inadequate problem-solving skills in mechanics. A group of 33 students entering physics at a South African university participated in the project. The test instrument consisted of 20 items derived from existing…

Potgieter, Marietjie; Malatje, Esther; Gaigher, Estelle; Venter, Elsie

2010-01-01

464

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

465

Emotion and automaticity: Impact of positive and negative emotions on novice and experienced performance of a sensorimotor skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention was directed towards negative, neutral, and positive word stimuli to explore the effect of emotions on sensorimotor skill performance. Forty novice and 40 experienced basketballers simultaneously completed a free-throw shooting task and a secondary word semantics task. A manipulation check confirmed that the secondary task influenced participants' feelings. Both groups responded faster to neutral and positive words than negative

Robyn Vast; Robyn Young; Patrick R. Thomas

2011-01-01

466

The Prediction of Task and Contextual Performance by Political Skill: A Meta-Analysis and Moderator Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Political skill is a relatively newly articulated construct. Despite its novelty, it has been investigated in a variety of contexts, showing promise not only as a descriptor of several organizational phenomena, but also as a predictor of job performance. Given this status, it seems appropriate to review the empirical literature to this point for…

Bing, Mark N.; Davison, H. Kristl; Minor, Inneka; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Frink, Dwight D.

2011-01-01

467

A facilitative versus directive approach in training clinical skills? Investigating students' clinical performance and perceptions.  

PubMed

Over the years, many medical school curricula have started implementing diverse student-centred teaching and learning methodologies. Previous studies, however, have indicated that students prefer more traditional and directive methodologies instead, raising questions on which training approach should be advocated. This study contrasts the effects of a student-centred (i.e. facilitative) training approach on students' clinical skills learning with students' perceptions. More specifically, a quasi-experimental study was set up in which students experienced either a directive or facilitative training approach. Data were collected by means of an OSCE on the one hand, and a questionnaire on students' perceptions of the training sessions, and two open-ended questions about students' likes and dislikes on the other hand. While no general differences were found in terms of clinical knowledge and understanding, and actual clinical performance, an interaction between students' course-specific prior knowledge and the training approach was found. Especially students with low levels of knowledge benefited more from the facilitative training approach in terms of clinical knowledge, while highly knowledgeable students experienced a negative effect of this training approach. Moreover, students' perceptions revealed that facilitative-trained students reported more deep-level learning, while the directive training approach turned out to score higher in terms of quality and perceived effects. PMID:23316467

Berghmans, Inneke; Druine, Nathalie; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien

2012-06-15

468

The Evolving Manager Stereotype: The Effects of Industry Gender Typing on Performance Expectations for Leaders and Their Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how external evaluators' assessments of a management team and its leader are impacted by congruence between the leader's gender and the gender typing of the industry in which the team works. We experimentally tested our theory using industries that are either male typed or gender neutral, with teams led by male and female…

Cabrera, Susan F.; Sauer, Stephen J.; Thomas-Hunt, Melissa C.

2009-01-01

469

Relationship between leadership behaviors and performance : The moderating role of a work team's level of age, gender, and cultural heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In today's organizations, the heterogeneity of work teams is increasing. For example, members of work teams have different ages, genders, and\\/or cultural backgrounds. As a consequence, team leaders have to face the challenge of taking into account the various needs, values, and motives of their followers. However, there has been very little empirical research to test whether the

Jens Rowold

2011-01-01

470

Harnessing members' positive mood for team-directed learning behaviour and team innovation: The moderating role of perceived team feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of individual team members' positive mood and perceived team feedback for their team-directed learning behaviour. Results obtained in a sample of 186 members from 27 work teams showed that positive mood was positively associated with team-directed learning behaviour if individual members perceived that the feedback they received was based on the performance of the team

Frank Walter; Gerben S. van der Vegt

2012-01-01

471

Beyond Budgeting: A Performance Management Model for Software Devel opment Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beyond Budgeting performance management model enables com- panies to keep pace with changing environments, to quickly create and adapt strat- egy and to empower people throughout the organisation to make effective choices. We argue that this performance management model may be ideal for agile soft- ware development. Although drawn from different disciplines, both are designed for a customer-orientated, fast-changing

Garry Lohan; Kieran Conboy; Michael Lang

472

The first cooperative living-related donor liver transplantation performed by two separate institution teams: The Kanagawa Liver Transplantation Program.  

PubMed

With the cooperation of surgeons in two separate institutes, living-related donor liver transplantation was safely performed at the Kanagawa Children's Medical Center. The donor operations were carried out at Kanagawa Cancer Center by surgeons of the hepatobiliary division and the liver grafts were immediately transported to Kanagawa Children's Medical Center by ambulance, and transplanted orthotopically. Since January 1995, five children with biliary atresia have been given partial liver grafts obtained from their mothers. The liver grafts were transported within 20 min, and functioned immediately after transplantation. The development of a pediatric liver transplantation program requires a multidisciplinary approach that can be provided only in a large tertiary referral children's medical center. Preparation for the clinical program involves training of surgical and nursing team members, both in an animal laboratory and at an established liver transplantation center. Special support for the program by the institute is essential and involves medical, nursing, and administrative divisions as well as social services, operating room personnel, and intensive care unit facilities. After careful planning, and with the invaluable help of the donor operating team, the Kanagawa Liver Transplantation Program has been realized, and its first transplantations conducted safely and successfully. PMID:9525007

Ohhama, Y; Shinkai, M; Fujita, S; Nishi, T; Yamamoto, H; Torigai, K; Satoh, A; Takemiya, S; Sugimasa, Y; Akaike, M; Tanabe, H

1998-01-01

473

Gaze training enhances laparoscopic technical skill acquisition and multi-tasking performance: a randomized, controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The operating room environment is replete with stressors and distractions that increase the attention demands of what are\\u000a already complex psychomotor procedures. Contemporary research in other fields (e.g., sport) has revealed that gaze training\\u000a interventions may support the development of robust movement skills. This current study was designed to examine the utility\\u000a of gaze training for technical laparoscopic skills and

Mark R. Wilson; Samuel J. Vine; Elizabeth Bright; Rich S. W. Masters; David Defriend; John S. McGrath

474

Enhancing quality improvement team effectiveness.  

PubMed

Quality improvement teams are different from other work groups in their purpose, leadership, membership, training, procedures, and dynamics. To have effective quality improvement teams, health care organizations must focus on six key process variables, with particular attention to group dynamics. Quality improvement teams progress through the "traditional" stages of team development--forming, storming, norming, and performing--with a "special stage" of closing. Within each stage, there are two core dimensions--team process ("relationship" issues) and the project itself ("task" issues)--and critical tasks that need to be performed by the Quality Council, team members, team leader, and the facilitator. PMID:10130709

Mosel, D; Shamp, M J

1993-01-01

475

From experience: leading dispersed teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although management can gain great performance benefit from colocating cross-functional product development teams, colocation is becoming increasingly difficult to achieve as companies globalize and form alliances. Consequently, this article offers guidance to keep your development team functioning effectively even though it may be dispersed across town or around the world.We aim our suggestions at the team leader, but both team

Preston G. Smith; Emily L. Blanck

2002-01-01

476

Assessing changes in performance and monitoring processes in individual and collaborative tests according to students' metacognitive skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed students' test performances and metacognitive processes in real classroom settings. Psychology undergraduates were categorised according to their metacognitive skills (high vs. low) and had their test performances and monitoring processes in two different types of tests (multiple-choice and short-answer tests) compared in individual and collaborative test conditions. Students' test preparation practices, attributions, and regulatory processes during test-taking

Moisés Kirk de Carvalho Filho

2010-01-01

477

Politics Perceptions as Moderator of the Political Skill-Job Performance Relationship: A Two-Study, Cross-National, Constructive Replication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We developed a two-study, cross-national, constructive replication to examine the role of organizational politics perceptions as a contextual moderator of the political skill-job performance relationship. Specifically, we hypothesized that high levels of political skill would demonstrate its strongest positive effects on job performance when…

Kapoutsis, Ilias; Papalexandris, Alexandros; Nikolopoulos, Andreas; Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Ferris, Gerald R.

2011-01-01

478

The influence of age on perceptions of relationship quality and performance in care service work teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to examine age-related perceptions of the quality of relationships at work and performance in mentally and physically demanding care service work settings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study was conducted in six residential homes for the elderly in Germany. Data of 150 respondents were analyzed using multiple hierarchical regression and mediation tests. The mediating role of relationship

Franz Josef Gellert; René Schalk

2012-01-01

479

Performance and injury incidence rate in home and away games in Iran Premier League teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In soccer, home advantage is a very important factor in determining the outcome of a game. The main purpose of this study was to compare the performance and injury incidence rate in home and away games in Iran Premier League. The information about the number of wins and losses, received and scored goals, yellow and red cards in home and

Mostafa Zarei; Nader Rahnama; Effat Bambaeichi

2010-01-01

480

Crew resource management training for improving team performance of operators in Korean advanced nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear power plant (NPP) industries in Korea have been making efforts to reduce the human errors which largely contributed to 120 nuclear reactor trips from the year of 2001 to 2006. This study aims to develop a Crew Resource Management (CRM) training program that helps to improve plant performance by reducing the number of the reactor trips caused by

Sa Kil Kim; Je Yun Park; Seong Nam Byun

2009-01-01