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1

Teamwork skills, shared mental models, and performance in simulated trauma teams: an independent group design  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Non-technical skills are seen as an important contributor to reducing adverse events and improving medical management in healthcare teams. Previous research on the effectiveness of teams has suggested that shared mental models facilitate coordination and team performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether demonstrated teamwork skills and behaviour indicating shared mental models would be associated with

Heidi Kristina Westli; Bjørn Helge Johnsen; Jarle Eid; Ingvil Rasten; Guttorm Brattebø

2010-01-01

2

Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

2008-01-01

3

Team Effectiveness: Beyond Skills and Cognitive Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of job analysis results, the validity of using measures of general cognitive ability, job-specific skills, and personality traits jointly at both the individual level and the group level to predict the performance of 79 four-person, human resource work teams was evaluated. Team member trait and job skill scores were aggregated with a conjunctive model of task performance.

George A. Neuman; Julie Wright

1999-01-01

4

Using Assessment for Developing Team Building Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Ability to function in teams," "good team building skills," and "teamwork" are all now common phrases in the classifieds. It is increasingly important in society today, both in social and work environments, to be a good team player. But how do we actually develop those skills and evaluate whether our efforts have had a measurable impact so that we can adjust our approach for maximum benefit? This booklet presents a team assessment process developed to track and improve students team building skill as well as a complete description of its implementation. Preliminary research on team building skills development was performed with a group of community college students in the Electrical Technology Program. The results from the two year study indicate that active participation in the team assessment process is beneficial in developing team building and leadership skills in college students. All the materials necessary to implement the team assessment process for a classroom or workplace setting are provided in this booklet. Using these materials and methods can yield evidence of improved team building and leadership skills important in meeting accreditation standards or for use in evaluating corporate team skills and leadership development.

Akins, Lean M.

5

Recruit for Attitude, Train for Skills: Creating High Performing Leadership Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on research investigating the factors which impact on the recruitment and support of high performing leadership teams, funded by the National College. The research involved a comprehensive literature review and case studies of nine English schools. The results show that four themes emerged in relation to high performing teams:…

Goodall, Janet

2013-01-01

6

Interpersonal team leadership skills.  

PubMed

To say that a team leader's job is a tough one is certainly not saying enough. It is up to the team leader to manage a group of people to be individuals but yet work as a team. The team leader must keep the peace and yet create a revolution with this group all at the same time. The good leader will require a lot of education, training, and tons of practical application to be a success. The good news, however, is that the team leader's job is a rewarding one, one that they'll always feel good about if they do it right. How many of us get the opportunity to take a group of wonderful, thinking individual minds and pull from them ideas that a whole team can take to success? Yes, the job is indeed tough, but the paybacks are many. PMID:10142103

Nelson, M

1995-05-01

7

Effects of Above Real Time Training (ARTT) On Individual Skills and Contributions to Crew/Team Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Above Real Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments on training of pilots performed by NASA engineers and others have indicated that real time training (RTT) reinforced with ARTT would offer an effective training strategy for such tasks which require significant effort at time and workload management. A study was conducted to find how ARTT and RTT complement each other for training of novice pilot-navigator teams to fly on a required route. In the experiment, each of the participating pilot-navigator teams was required to conduct simulator flights on a prescribed two-legged ground track while maintaining required air speed and altitude. At any instant in a flight, the distance between the actual spatial point location of the airplane and the required spatial point was used as a measure of deviation from the required route. A smaller deviation represented better performance. Over a segment of flight or over complete flight, an average value of the deviation represented consolidated performance. The deviations were computed from the information on latitude, longitude, and altitude. In the combined ARTT and RTT program, ARTT at intermediate training intervals was beneficial in improving the real time performance of the trainees. It was observed that the team interaction between pilot and navigator resulted in maintaining high motivation and active participation throughout the training program.

Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia J.; Crane, Peter; Guckenberger, Dutch; Bageon, Kellye

2001-01-01

8

Individual and Team Performance in Team-Handball: A Review  

PubMed Central

Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key Points The specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested. Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors. PMID:25435773

Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P.

2014-01-01

9

Individual and team performance in team-handball: a review.  

PubMed

Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key PointsThe specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition.To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested.Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors. PMID:25435773

Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P

2014-12-01

10

Team Characteristics and Team Member Knowledge, Skills, and Ability Relationships to the Effectiveness of Cross?Functional Teams in the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines members of cross?functional teams in the public sector for the necessary knowledge, skills, and ability (KSA) to be effective team members. It was determined that members of cross?functional teams in the public sector possess the necessary KSA to perform effectively. The following characteristics are statistically significant factors: (1) years of professional work experience; (2) frequency of team

Yvonne A. Athanasaw

2003-01-01

11

Structuring a Project Management Course to Develop Team Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is no escaping it. Working in industry requires working in teams. The industries hiring our graduates recognize this. TAC of ABET Criterion 2e requires it, stating graduates need an ability to function effectively on teams. How do we, as teachers, go about ensuring that our students learn how to work effectively on teams? How do we go about teaching them team work and team management skills? The traditional approach to developing team work and team management skills involves assigning students randomly to teams, giving them a project to work on, and expecting them to somehow magically learn to work effectively on teams. This they'll learn about teamwork if they work on teams approach fails to give students adequate preparation and insight into team work and team management skills. It doesn't work. Surveys of students reveal that they do not feel they knew how to effectively work on teams or how to be a team leader. This sentiment was echoed by respondents to last years project management survey. To effectively prepare students to work on teams, coordinated teambuilding and leadership skills training is needed. Beginning with a discussion of necessary project management and team skills, this paper will describe how to structure a project course to include techniques and exercises specifically designed to develop teamwork and team management skills and the benefits they provide.

Edmonson, Charlie P.

12

Constructing a team performance prediction model for sport teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In team sports, some constructs of the team process are important factors for team performance; therefore, exploring the group process of a team is crucial for improving team performance. The purpose of this article is to construct a team performance prediction model for sport teams, employing team-level variables. For this purpose, we reviewed the previous studies on group process in

Keita KAWAZU; Yoshio SUGIYAMA; Yuichi NAGAO; Masayuki YAMAZAKI; Xue Lian WANG; Eri KUMASAKI

2009-01-01

13

Enhancing Team Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains two papers from a symposium on enhancing team performance. "The Impact of Organizational Sub-Cultures on Information Sharing: A Manufacturing Company's Dilemma" (Toni Powell) reports on a qualitative study that examined the subcultures of a company involved in significant change and noted the effects of conflicting values on…

1997

14

Enabling effective engineering teams: a program for teaching interaction skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working in teams is an integral part of modern engineering practice and education. However, successful team interaction depends on individuals possessing skills that allow them to communicate and interact with other people in adaptive and contributing styles. Simply putting people in teams does not teach them to work together effectively. A program for teaching interaction skills to engineers was developed

Elaine Seat; S. M. Lord

1998-01-01

15

Developing Pupils' Performance in Team Invasion Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To develop pupils' team invasion games (TIG) performance within physical education (PE), practitioners have traditionally adopted teacher-centred, skill-focused approaches. Teaching Games for Understanding and the Tactical approach are alternative approaches to TIG teaching that aim to develop overall game performance, including…

Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

2011-01-01

16

The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

Kline, Theresa J. B.

2003-01-01

17

Team Culture and Business Strategy Simulation Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many capstone strategic management courses use computer-based simulations as core pedagogical tools. Simulations are touted as assisting students in developing much-valued skills in strategy formation, implementation, and team management in the pursuit of superior strategic performance. However, despite their rich nature, little is known regarding…

Ritchie, William J.; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Drew, Stephen A. W.; Marlin, Dan

2013-01-01

18

The Effects of Development Team Skill on Software Product Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an analysis of the effect of the skill/experience of the software development team on the quality of the final software product. A method for the assessment of software development team skill and experience is proposed, and was derived from a workforce management tool currently in use by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Using data from 26 smallscale software development projects, the team skill measures are correlated to 5 software product quality metrics from the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering Product Quality standard. in the analysis of the results, development team skill is found to be a significant factor in the adequacy of the design and implementation. In addition, the results imply that inexperienced software developers are tasked with responsibilities ill-suited to their skill level, and thus have a significant adverse effect on the quality of the software product. Keywords: software quality, development skill, software metrics

Beaver, Justin M.; Schiavone, Guy A.

2006-01-01

19

Team Performance and Space Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses how space safety is influenced by the ability of teams to work and communicate effectively together. A multi-national team of six authors provides different perspectives on human systems, from both research and operational points of view. When operations involve teams whose members cross organizational and cultural boundaries as they do in current space operations, it is especially critical and challenging to facilitate the most effective team performance. Three key factors that affect team performance and space safety are discussed: (1) communication as related to team performance; (2) the influence of organizations, teams and culture and (3) team training interventions. Relevant research and current practices are described for each of the three areas and a summary in the form of recommendations is provided.

Kanki, B. G.; Rogers, D. G.; Bessone, L.; Parke, B.; Sandal, G. M.; Whiteley, I.

20

Developing pupils’ performance in team invasion games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To develop pupils’ team invasion games (TIG) performance within physical education (PE), practitioners have traditionally adopted teacher-centred, skill-focused approaches. Teaching Games for Understanding and the Tactical approach are alternative approaches to TIG teaching that aim to develop overall game performance, including decision-making performance.Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to conduct an ecologically valid investigation into the effects

Shirley Gray; John Sproule

2011-01-01

21

Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective team performance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective team performance. Teamwork skills essential for successful team performance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective team performance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.

Orasanu, Judith M.

2009-01-01

22

Storytelling effectively translates TeamSTEPPS skills into practice.  

PubMed

This column shares the lived experiences of four Master Trainers who used storytelling as the methodology for teaching TeamSTEPPS to interprofessional staff members of a large health system. TeamSTEPPS is an evidence-based program that focuses on skills and behaviors that improve teamwork and communication, which are key to preventing medical errors. PMID:21053802

Rabinowitz, Myrta; Johnson, Lynn E; Mazzapica, Denise; O'Leary, Jayne

2010-11-01

23

Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown the value of good team interaction skills to group performance, yet little progress has been made on in terms of how such skills can be measured. In this study rating scales developed previously (Montgomery, et al., 1990) were extensively revised and cast into a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) and a Behavioral Frequency format. Rating data

J. C. Montgomery; J. Toquam; C. Gaddy

1991-01-01

24

Enhancing Communication Skills in Team Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty small businesses and organizations within an 800-mile radius of southern Illinois were surveyed to determine what businesses consider the most important characteristics of a team player; 94 percent responded. These characteristics were incorporated into a course during which teams of students were to complete a project that involved each…

Hudson, Shirley A.

25

Developing Good Team-working Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article offers advice to educators on developing learners' collaboration skills through problem solving. The author presents six categories of tasks, each of which addresses a set of teamwork skills (e.g. listening, sharing, reflecting) and includes several tasks which could serve as the vehicle. Links to the tasks, printable materials, and other resources are included.

26

Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

2014-01-01

27

Teaching Teams about Teamwork: Preparation, Practice, and Performance Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on preparation, practice, and performance review to teach teams about teamwork provides a well-supported and effective methodology that both enhances students' collaborative skills and contributes to an effective team project experience. Preparation includes aspects of coaching to introduce and explain effective group processes. After…

Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph

2009-01-01

28

Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams  

PubMed Central

Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

2014-01-01

29

Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.  

PubMed

Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

2014-01-01

30

Facilitating skills: the art of helping teams succeed.  

PubMed

Empowering and guiding the team has become crucial to the long-term success of any business. Today, an important measurement for leaders is their ability to facilitate a group of people to work together as a team and successfully accomplish their task. What will separate a good leader from a great leader will be the understanding and development of his or her facilitation skills. PMID:10662445

Schulte, T

1999-08-01

31

Teams make it work: how team work engagement mediates between social resources and performance in teams.  

PubMed

In this study we analyze the mediating role of team work engagement between team social resources (i.e., supportive team climate, coordination, teamwork), and team performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role performance) as predicted by the Job Demands-Resources Model. Aggregated data of 533 employees nested within 62 teams and 13 organizations were used, whereas team performance was assessed by supervisor ratings. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, team work engagement plays a mediating role between social resources perceived at the team level and team performance as assessed by the supervisor. PMID:22269372

Torrente, Pedro; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

2012-02-01

32

Perfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PPerfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-located research partners and diverse funding sources, dynamic economic and political environments, and a changing workforce. Today's scientists must be prepared to not only perform work in the virtual team environment, but to work effectively and efficiently despite physical and cultural barriers. Research supports that students who have been exposed to virtual team experiences are desirable in the professional and academic arenas. Research supports establishing and maintaining established protocols for communication behavior prior to task discussion provides for successful team outcomes. Research conducted on graduate and undergraduate virtual teams' behaviors led to the development of successful pedagogic practices and assessment strategies.

Jabro, A.; Jabro, J.

2012-04-01

33

The influence of team mental models and team planning on team performance  

E-print Network

THE INFLUENCE OF TEAM MENTAL MODELS AND TEAM PLANNING ON TEAM PERFORMANCE A Dissertation by PEDRO IGNACIO LEIVA NEUENSCHWANDER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2006 Major Subject: Psychology THE INFLUENCE OF TEAM MENTAL MODELS AND TEAM PLANNING ON TEAM PERFORMANCE A Dissertation by PEDRO IGNACIO LEIVA NEUENSCHWANDER Submitted...

Leiva Neuenschwander, Pedro Ignacio

2009-06-02

34

The role of team goal monitoring in the curvilinear relationship between team efficacy and team performance.  

PubMed

In this research, we apply a team self-regulatory perspective to build and test theory focusing on the relationships between team efficacy and 2 key team performance criteria: a performance behavior (i.e., team effort) and a performance outcome (i.e., objective team sales). We theorize that rather than having a linear association, the performance benefits of team efficacy reach a point of inflection, reflective of too much of a good thing. Further, in an effort to establish a boundary condition of the inverted-U shaped relationship we predict, we also test the moderating role played by team goal monitoring in the nonmonotonic relationship between team efficacy and team performance. The results from a lagged field test, in which we collect multisource data from 153 technology sales teams, reveal a significant curvilinear association that is moderated by team goal monitoring behavior. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24865579

Rapp, Tammy L; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Adam A; Mullins, Ryan

2014-09-01

35

The performance and assessment of hospital trauma teams  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the trauma team is to provide advanced simultaneous care from relevant specialists to the seriously injured trauma patient. When functioning well, the outcome of the trauma team performance should be greater than the sum of its parts. Trauma teams have been shown to reduce the time taken for resuscitation, as well as time to CT scan, to emergency department discharge and to the operating room. These benefits are demonstrated by improved survival rates, particularly for the most severely injured patients, both within and outside of dedicated trauma centres. In order to ensure the best possible performance of the team, the leadership skills of the trauma team leader are essential and their non-technical skills have been shown to be particularly important. Team performance can be enhanced through a process of audit and assessment of the workings of the team and the evidence currently available suggests that this is best facilitated through the process of video review of the trauma resuscitation. The use of human patient simulators to train and assess trauma teams is becoming more commonplace and this technique offers a safe environment for the future education of trauma team staff. Trauma teams are a key component of most programmes which set out to improve trauma care. This article reviews the background of trauma teams, the evidence for benefit and potential techniques of performance assessment. The review was written after a PubMed, Ovid, Athens, Cochrane and guideline literature review of English language articles on trauma teams and their performance and hand searching of references from the relevant searched articles. PMID:21144035

2010-01-01

36

Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams  

PubMed Central

Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco

2014-01-01

37

Team Identity and Performance-based Compensation Effects on Performance  

E-print Network

it is team or individual. Under both strong and weak identity, offering a combination of individual and team performance-based compensation results in comparable performance, suggesting that lower productivity levels associated with low team identity can...

Blazovich, Janell L.

2010-01-16

38

Diversity in goal orientation, team performance, and internal team environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test a model in which diversity in goal orientation is associated with decreased team performance by virtue of reduced group information elaboration. In addition, the model considers the moderating role of internal team environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper takes the form of an empirical research in which the hypothesized relationships are

Marcello Russo

2012-01-01

39

Team Assembly Mechanisms Determine Collaboration Network Structure and Team Performance  

PubMed Central

Agents in creative enterprises are embedded in networks that inspire, support, and evaluate their work. Here, we investigate how the mechanisms by which creative teams self-assemble determine the structure of these collaboration networks. We propose a model for the self-assembly of creative teams that has its basis in three parameters: team size, the fraction of newcomers in new productions, and the tendency of incumbents to repeat previous collaborations. The model suggests that the emergence of a large connected community of practitioners can be described as a phase transition. We find that team assembly mechanisms determine both the structure of the collaboration network and team performance for teams derived from both artistic and scientific fields. PMID:15860629

Guimerà, Roger; Uzzi, Brian; Spiro, Jarrett; Nunes Amaral, Luís A.

2007-01-01

40

Common Factors of High Performance Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilization of work teams is now wide spread in all types of organizations throughout the world. However, an understanding of the important factors common to high performance teams is rare. The purpose of this content analysis is to explore the literature and propose findings related to high performance teams. These include definition and types,…

Jackson, Bruce; Madsen, Susan R.

2005-01-01

41

Learning strategies and performance in organizational teams  

E-print Network

(cont.) shows that vicarious learning is positively associated with performance. I argue that vicarious team learning is an under-explored dimension of what makes teams and organizations competitive. The chapter concludes ...

Bresman, Henrik M

2005-01-01

42

Utility and assessment of non-technical skills for rapid response systems and medical emergency teams.  

PubMed

Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance. PMID:23611153

Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A

2013-09-01

43

Approach to team skills training of nuclear power plant control room crews  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of current team skills training practices and research was conducted by General Physics Corporation for the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The methodology used included a review of relevant team skills training literature and a workshop to collect inputs from team training practitioners and researchers from the public and private sectors. The workshop was attended by representatives from

L. T. Davis; C. D. Gaddy; J. R. Turney

1985-01-01

44

Turn Obstacles into Opportunities: Team Leaders Use a Skillful Approach to Move Past Barriers to Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the role of the skillful leader and what practical solutions are needed to overcome hurdles. What distinguishes the skillful team leader from a less-effective leader is his or her approach to overcoming hurdles, and are rooted in the leader's values, mindset, intelligence, and skill. When faced with hurdles to team

MacDonald, Elisa B.

2013-01-01

45

Assessing Teamwork Skills for Assurance of Learning Using CATME Team Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges of business must meet assurance of learning requirements to gain or maintain AACSB accreditation under the new standards adopted April 8, 2013. Team skills are among the most important skills desired by recruiters, yet employers and scholars perceive that team skills are frequently deficient in college graduates. This article describes…

Loughry, Misty L.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Woehr, David J.

2014-01-01

46

Fatigue decreases skilled tennis performance.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fatigue from maximal tennis hitting on skilled tennis performance. Eighteen senior county tennis players (9 males, 9 females) volunteered to participate in the study. Their mean (+/- s(mean)) age and body mass were as follows: males 20.7 +/- 0.9 years and 60.6 +/- 2.7 kg respectively, females 21.7 +/- 0.6 years and 71.5 +/- 1.8 kg respectively. The players undertook two performance tests, both against a tennis ball serving machine, on an indoor tennis surface: (1) a pre- and post-skill test of groundstrokes and service; (2) the Loughborough Intermittent Tennis Test (4 min work plus 40 s recovery) to volitional fatigue. Body mass decreased by 1.5% (P < 0.0001). Mean heart rates differed between rest, post-warm-up and all intermittent test values (P < 0.01), between the pre- and post-skill tests (P < 0.0001) and between bouts and recoveries (P < 0.01). Peak blood glucose and lactate concentrations were 5.9 mmol l(-1) (50% into the intermittent tennis test) and 9.6 +/- 0.9 mmol x l(-1) (25% into the test) respectively. Mean time to volitional fatigue was 35.4 +/- 4.6 min. Groundstroke hitting accuracy decreased by 69% from start to volitional fatigue in the intermittent test (P < 0.01). Service accuracy to the right court declined by 30% after the intermittent tennis test. The results of this study suggest that fatigue was accompanied by a decline in some but not all tennis skills. PMID:12003276

Davey, Polly R; Thorpe, Rod D; Williams, Clyde

2002-04-01

47

Communication Skills to Develop Trusting Relationships on Global Virtual Engineering Capstone Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As universities seek to provide cost-effective, cross-cultural experiences using global virtual (GV) teams, the "soft" communication skills typical of all teams, increases in importance for GV teams. Students need to be taught how to navigate through cultural issues and virtual tool issues to build strong trusting relationships with distant team

Zaugg, Holt; Davies, Randall S.

2013-01-01

48

Oxford NOTECHS II: A Modified Theatre Team Non-Technical Skills Scoring System  

PubMed Central

Background We previously developed and validated the Oxford NOTECHS rating system for evaluating the non-technical skills of an entire operating theatre team. Experience with the scale identified the need for greater discrimination between levels of performance within the normal range. We report here the development of a modified scale (Oxford NOTECHS II) to facilitate this. The new measure uses an eight-point instead of a four point scale to measure each dimension of non-technical skills, and begins with a default rating of 6 for each element. We evaluated this new scale in 297 operations at five NHS sites in four surgical specialities. Measures of theatre process reliability (glitch count) and compliance with the WHO surgical safety checklist were scored contemporaneously, and relationships with NOTECHS II scores explored. Results Mean team Oxford NOTECHS II scores was 73.39 (range 37–92). The means for surgical, anaesthetic and nursing sub-teams were 24.61 (IQR 23, 27); 24.22 (IQR 23, 26) and 24.55 (IQR 23, 26). Oxford NOTECHS II showed good inter-rater reliability between human factors and clinical observers in each of the four domains. Teams with high WHO compliance had higher mean Oxford NOTECHS II scores (74.5) than those with low compliance (71.1) (p?=?0.010). We observed only a weak correlation between Oxford NOTECHS II scores and glitch count; r?=??0.26 (95% CI ?0.36 to ?0.15). Oxford NOTECHS II scores did not vary significantly between 5 different hospital sites, but a significant difference was seen between specialities (p?=?0.001). Conclusions Oxford NOTECHS II provides good discrimination between teams while retaining reliability and correlation with other measures of teamwork performance, and is not confounded by technical performance. It is therefore suitable for combined use with a technical performance scale to provide a global description of operating theatre team performance. PMID:24594911

Robertson, Eleanor R.; Hadi, Mohammed; Morgan, Lauren J.; Pickering, Sharon P.; Collins, Gary; New, Steve; Griffin, Damien; McCulloch, Peter; Catchpole, Ken C.

2014-01-01

49

Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

Coffin, Marilyn

50

Laying the foundation for successful team performance trajectories: The roles of team charters and performance strategies.  

PubMed

This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for both teamwork (i.e., team charters) and taskwork (performance strategies) can pay dividends in terms of more effective team performance over time. Using random coefficients growth modeling techniques, they found that teams with high-quality performance strategies outperformed teams with poorer quality strategies. However, a significant interaction between quality of the charters of teams and their performance strategies was found, such that the highest sustained performances were exhibited by teams that were high on both features. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19186898

Mathieu, John E; Rapp, Tammy L

2009-01-01

51

An Analysis of Team Composition as It Affects Simulation Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the extent to which sex composition and average team academic achievement of student simulation teams affect team effectiveness. Seventy-four students in two sections of a marketing principles class were divided into 20 teams to test their decision-making skills. For 10 weeks, each team operated a simulated supermarket…

Krishnakumar, Parameswar; Chisholm, Thomas Alexander

52

BEYOND THE INDIVIDUAL VICTIM: LINKING SEXUAL HARASSMENT, TEAM PROCESSES, AND TEAM PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous sexual harassment research and theory have focused primarily upon the individual level, with little attention to team- or organization-level outcomes. In this article, we extend research on outcomes associated with sexual harassment to the team level with an examination of the relationships between team ambient sexual harass- ment, team conflict, team cohesion, team citizenship behaviors, and team financial performance.

JANA L. RAVER; MICHELE J. GELFAND

2005-01-01

53

A Survey of Knowledge Management Skills Acquisition in an Online Team-Based Distributed Computing Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…

Thomas, Jennifer D. E.

2007-01-01

54

MASTER OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND SYSTEMS FINAL PROJECT REPORT -2011 1 Finding Skilled and Socially Cohesive Teams in  

E-print Network

a mathematical formalization of the team-maker problem. In the team-maker problem, one is given a set a given set of skills, and the team-maker's task is to choose a set of candidates that will form a skilled Programming formulation. I. THE TEAM-MAKER PROBLEM This section defines and formalizes the team-maker prob

Militzer, Burkhard

55

Laying the Foundation for Successful Team Performance Trajectories: The Roles of Team Charters and Performance Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for…

Mathieu, John E.; Rapp, Tammy L.

2009-01-01

56

Identifying and training non-technical skills of nuclear emergency response teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training of the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills that are crucial to safe and effective management by teams in emergency situations is an issue that is receiving increasing emphasis in many organisations, particularly in the nuclear power industry. As teams play a major role in emergency response organisations (ERO), effective functioning and interactions within, between and across teams is crucial,

M. T Crichton; R Flin

2004-01-01

57

Encounter Group Effects of Soccer Team Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that a positive relationship exists between encounter group experience and the soccer team performance--a conclusion worthy of consideration in further research in the fields of psychology and sociology of sports. (Author)

Magen, Zipora

1980-01-01

58

The value of intercultural competence for performance of multicultural teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managers working in multinational companies carry out their organizational goals through multicultural teams. Performance of multicultural teams can be examined from an intercultural communication perspective. Executives, managers, management consultants, and educators interested in improving multicultural team performance need to know about intercultural competence and how it affects team performance. This article provides a working definition of high-performance multicultural teams and

Alexei V. Matveev; Richard G. Milter

2004-01-01

59

Interactions of Team Mental Models and Monitoring Behaviors Predict Team Performance in Simulated Anesthesia Inductions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated how two team mental model properties (similarity vs. accuracy) and two forms of monitoring behavior (team vs. systems) interacted to predict team performance in anesthesia. In particular, we were interested in whether the relationship between monitoring behavior and team performance was moderated by team

Burtscher, Michael J.; Kolbe, Michaela; Wacker, Johannes; Manser, Tanja

2011-01-01

60

Relationships between study skills and academic performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study skills play an important role in influencing academic performance of university students. These skills, which can be modified, can be used as an indicator on how a student would perform academically in his course of study. The purpose of the study is to determine the study skills profile among Universiti Selangor's (Unisel) students and to find the relationships of these skills with student's academic performance. A sample of seventy-eight (78) foundation studies and diploma students of Unisel were selected to participate in this study. Using Study Skills Inventory instrument, eight skills were measured. They are note taking; test taking; textbook study; concentration and memory; time management; analytical thinking and problem solving; nutrition; and vocabulary. Meanwhile, student's academic performance was measured through their current Grade Point Average (GPA). The result showed that vocabulary skill scored the highest mean with 3.01/4.00, followed by test taking (2.88), analytical thinking and problem solving (2.80), note taking (2.79), textbook study (2.58), concentration and memory (2.54), time management (2.25) and nutrition (2.21). Correlation analysis showed that test taking (r=0.286, p=0.011), note taking (r=0.224, p=0.048), and analytical thinking and problem solving (r=0.362, p=0.001) skills were positively correlated with GPA achievement.

Md Rahim, Nasrudin; Meon, Hasni

2013-04-01

61

Perfecting scientists’ collaboration and problem-solving skills in the virtual team environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Perfecting Scientists’ Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-lo...

62

Developing Team Skills through a Collaborative Writing Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employers want students who are able to work effectively as members of a team, and expect universities to develop this ability in their graduates. This paper proposes a framework for a collaborative writing assignment that specifically develops students' ability to work in teams. The framework has been tested using two iterations of an action…

Thomas, Theda Ann

2014-01-01

63

Five Skills for Becoming a More Effective Team Leader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although 80% of all administrative decisions are made at the department level, many community college department chairs accept their positions without a clear understanding of the demands or training in leadership skills. It is critical to a productive department, however, that chairs possess the leadership skills to shape their departments into…

Gmelch, Walter H.

64

Increasing team skills: an evaluation of program effectiveness.  

PubMed

The need for health professionals with caring values and good communication skills is well established. To develop these skills requires building self-esteem, as is supported by the work of Carl Rogers, Maslow, and Jourard, and the development of communication skills, as is supported by Carkhuff. A six-hour developmental program was evaluated using alternate forms of the highly validated Personal Skills Map. The differences in participants' scores showed increases in self-esteem, comfort, and management skills (p less than .00), while aggression (p = .05) and deference (p less than .00) decreased. A longitudinal follow-up of participants showed that 65% continued to use the assessment tool six months to one year later. The program appears to be well suited for service settings, continuing education, and academic settings, and meets the need of a high tech, high touch era of change. PMID:3880062

Jacobsen-Webb, M L

1985-11-01

65

Field dimension and skill level constrain team tactical behaviours in small-sided and conditioned games in football.  

PubMed

Abstract This study analysed the influence of field dimension and players' skill level on collective tactical behaviours during small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs). Positioning and displacement data were collected using global positioning systems (15 Hz) during SSCGs (Gk+4 v. 4+Gk) played by two groups of participants (NLP- national-level and RLP-regional-level players) on different field dimensions (small: 36.8 × 23.8 m; intermediate: 47.3 × 30.6 and large: 57.8 × 37.4 m). Team tactical performance was assessed through established dynamic team variables (effective playing space, playing length per width ratio and team separateness) and nonlinear signal processing techniques (sample entropy of distances to nearest opponents and the teams' centroids' mutual information). Results showed that the effective playing space and team separateness increased significantly with pitch size regardless of participant skill level (P < 0.001, ?(2) = 0.78 and P < 0.001, ?(2) = 0.65, respectively). Playing length per width ratio increased with pitch size for the NLP but was maintained at a relatively constant level by RLP across treatments indicating different playing shapes. There was significantly more irregularity in distances to nearest opponents for the NLP in small (P = 0.003) and intermediate fields (P = 0.01). Findings suggest that tactical behaviours in SSCGs are constrained by field size and skill level, which need to be considered by coaches when designing training practices. PMID:25356995

Silva, Pedro; Duarte, Ricardo; Sampaio, Jaime; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

2014-12-01

66

Organizational structure and home team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate that organizational task interdependence has an impact on the performance of home teams in sport. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses a cross-sectional research design. It tests the authors' hypothesis using a probit analysis of nine years of data from Major League Baseball and eight years of data from the National

William M. Foster; Marvin Washington

2009-01-01

67

Measuring soccer skill performance: a review.  

PubMed

The ability to execute skilled movement patterns efficiently and effectively is the most important aspect of soccer performance and players must apply cognitive, perceptual and motor skills to rapidly changing situations. There have been attempts to measure these parameters for talent identification (or development) purposes and skill acquisition and intervention research; the aim of this review is to examine the strengths and limitations of these tests. High levels of perceptual and cognitive skill are characteristics of those players who are able look in the right places for information and process this information efficiently before deciding on a suitable course of action. The motor skills required to successfully control, pass, dribble and shoot the ball at goal are fundamental skills of the soccer player and a variety of methods have been used to measure these aspects. The tests mentioned in this review vary in their complexity and the type of skill(s) they purport to measure. The assessment of choice must come down to a number of factors including cost, available time and space, number of athletes in the cohort and experience of researchers. Furthermore, consideration must be given to the aim(s) of the research/assessment and issues relating to validity and reliability. PMID:21210855

Ali, A

2011-04-01

68

An Exploratory Analysis of Personality, Attitudes, and Study Skills on the Learning Curve within a Team-based Learning Environment  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine factors that determine the interindividual variability of learning within a team-based learning environment. Methods. Students in a pharmacokinetics course were given 4 interim, low-stakes cumulative assessments throughout the semester and a cumulative final examination. Students’ Myers-Briggs personality type was assessed, as well as their study skills, motivations, and attitudes towards team-learning. A latent curve model (LCM) was applied and various covariates were assessed to improve the regression model. Results. A quadratic LCM was applied for the first 4 assessments to predict final examination performance. None of the covariates examined significantly impacted the regression model fit except metacognitive self-regulation, which explained some of the variability in the rate of learning. There were some correlations between personality type and attitudes towards team learning, with introverts having a lower opinion of team-learning than extroverts. Conclusion. The LCM could readily describe the learning curve. Extroverted and introverted personality types had the same learning performance even though preference for team-learning was lower in introverts. Other personality traits, study skills, or practice did not significantly contribute to the learning variability in this course. PMID:25861101

Henry, Teague; Campbell, Ashley

2015-01-01

69

An examination of team reactions to negative performance feedback and their relationship to team performance  

E-print Network

to understand organizational performance (e.g., Anderson & West, 1998; Evans & Dion, 1991; Gully, Incalcaterra, Joshi, & Beaubien, 2002; Guzzo & Dickson, 1996). Some researchers have specifically focused on team-level feedback. For example, Mitchell...

Philo, Joel Richard

2005-02-17

70

The relationship between team characteristics with team performance in Malaysian teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisations depend on teams to implement its strategies and enables organisations to be flexible and responsive in the competitive global environment. Teams contribute to the organisation while at the same time providing opportunities to team members to develop relationships within team. Teams are viewed as a major source of ‘environmental forces’ that help shape team members (McGrath and Kravitz, 1982).

Agatha Heng Siok Sim

2006-01-01

71

Developing a Theory of the Strategic Core of Teams: A Role Composition Model of Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous models of team performance have been articulated over the past 20 years, these models have primarily focused on the individual attribute approach to team composition. The authors utilized a role composition approach, which investigates how the characteristics of a set of role holders impact team effectiveness, to develop a theory of the strategic core of teams. Their theory

Stephen E. Humphrey; Frederick P. Morgeson; Michael J. Mannor

2009-01-01

72

Simulated laparoscopic operating room crisis: An approach to enhance the surgical team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Diminishing human error and improving patient outcomes is the goal of task training and simulation experience. The fundamentals\\u000a of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) is a validated tool to assess technical laparoscopic skills. We hypothesize that performance\\u000a in a crisis depends on technical skills and team performance. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a high-fidelity\\u000a simulation model of

Kinga A. Powers; Scott T. Rehrig; Noel Irias; Hedwig A. Albano; Andrew Malinow; Stephanie B. Jones; Donald W. Moorman; John B. Pawlowski; Daniel B. Jones

2008-01-01

73

Driving Energy Performance with Energy Management Teams  

E-print Network

Driving Energy Performance with Energy Management Teams Meredith Younghein ENERGY STAR Industrial Communications Mgr. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC ABSTRACT Companies today face an uncertain energy future. Businesses... face escalating energy prices which can erode profits. Concerns over supply reliability, and possible regulation of carbon emissions create risk. For many industries in the U.S., energy costs are equal to the cost of raw materials or even employee...

Younghein, M.; Tunnessen, W.

2006-01-01

74

Disaster Response Team FAST Skills Training with a Portable Ultrasound Simulator Compared to Traditional Training: Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US) simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. Methods We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants’ FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT) with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group’s skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. Results We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not a statistically significant difference between training groups. Conclusion This pilot study of a deployed mixed-provider disaster response team suggests that a novel portable US simulator may provide equivalent skills training in comparison to traditional live instructor and model training. Further studies with a larger sample size and other measures of short- and long-term clinical performance are warranted. PMID:25834682

Paddock, Michael T.; Bailitz, John; Horowitz, Russ; Khishfe, Basem; Cosby, Karen; Sergel, Michelle J.

2015-01-01

75

[Investigation of team processes that enhance team performance in business organization].  

PubMed

Many researchers have suggested team processes that enhance team performance. However, past team process models were based on crew team, whose all team members perform an indivisible temporary task. These models may be inapplicable business teams, whose individual members perform middle- and long-term tasks assigned to individual members. This study modified the teamwork model of Dickinson and McIntyre (1997) and aimed to demonstrate a whole team process that enhances the performance of business teams. We surveyed five companies (member N = 1,400, team N = 161) and investigated team-level-processes. Results showed that there were two sides of team processes: "communication" and "collaboration to achieve a goal." Team processes in which communication enhanced collaboration improved team performance with regard to all aspects of the quantitative objective index (e.g., current income and number of sales), supervisor rating, and self-rating measurements. On the basis of these results, we discuss the entire process by which teamwork enhances team performance in business organizations. PMID:25799865

Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Toru; Aoshima, Mika

2015-02-01

76

Augmenting team cognition in human-automation teams performing in complex operational environments.  

PubMed

There is a growing reliance on automation (e.g., intelligent agents, semi-autonomous robotic systems) to effectively execute increasingly cognitively complex tasks. Successful team performance for such tasks has become even more dependent on team cognition, addressing both human-human and human-automation teams. Team cognition can be viewed as the binding mechanism that produces coordinated behavior within experienced teams, emerging from the interplay between each team member's individual cognition and team process behaviors (e.g., coordination, communication). In order to better understand team cognition in human-automation teams, team performance models need to address issues surrounding the effect of human-agent and human-robot interaction on critical team processes such as coordination and communication. Toward this end, we present a preliminary theoretical framework illustrating how the design and implementation of automation technology may influence team cognition and team coordination in complex operational environments. Integrating constructs from organizational and cognitive science, our proposed framework outlines how information exchange and updating between humans and automation technology may affect lower-level (e.g., working memory) and higher-level (e.g., sense making) cognitive processes as well as teams' higher-order "metacognitive" processes (e.g., performance monitoring). Issues surrounding human-automation interaction are discussed and implications are presented within the context of designing automation technology to improve task performance in human-automation teams. PMID:17547306

Cuevas, Haydee M; Fiore, Stephen M; Caldwell, Barrett S; Strater, Laura

2007-05-01

77

Physical, physiological and performance differences between canadian national team and universiade volleyball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volleyball has been described as an ‘interval’ sport with both anaerobic and aerobic components. At the higher skill levels, technical performance may be limited by physical characteristics as well as physical fitness, and performance characteristics such as speed and vertical jump. This investigation compared teams at the two uppermost levels of men's volleyball in Canada for differences in physical, physiological

D. J. Smith; D. Roberts; B. Watson

1992-01-01

78

Salary distribution and team performance in Major League Baseball  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents evidence that payroll inequality within a team is negatively related to on field performance, in terms of team winning percentages in Major League Baseball. This relationship is increasing over time during the sample period and robust to changes in the relationship between payroll and winning. We find strong evidence that, in levels, total team payroll and team

Christopher N. Annala; Jason Winfree

2011-01-01

79

Developing Diverse Teams to Improve Performance in the Organizational Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The use of teams in organizations given the current trend toward globalization, population changes, and an aging workforce, especially in high-income countries, makes the issue of diverse team building critical. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of team diversity and team performance through the examination of theory and…

Yeager, Katherine L.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

2012-01-01

80

Planning and assessing performance through narratives in soccer team meetings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soccer teams, as many other sport teams, need, among other activities, to plan their behaviours for future matches and to reflect upon their past performances on the pitch. Within a discursive perspective, we aim to analyse how narratives contribute to shape these team activities during technical meetings. The analyses are based on naturally occurring interactions of an Italian soccer team,

Cristina Zucchermaglio; Francesca Alby

2012-01-01

81

The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Individual and Team Performance: Evidence from Knowledge Work Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explored the effect of transformational leadership of knowledge work team leaders on team members' individual performance, which included both in-role behavior and organizational citizenship behavior(OCB), and team performance. Survey data was collected from a sample of 54 knowledge work teams in high-tech organizations in four cities of China. The results of hierarchical regression showed that relationship-oriented transformational

Wu Xin; Wu Zhiming

2007-01-01

82

Workplace Learning Curriculum Guides. Volume VII: Enhanced Basic Skills--Decisions, Teams, Problem Solving, Critical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume, one of a series of curriculum guides compiled by the Colorado Workplace Learning Initiative: 1991-92, contains seven workplace literacy courses on enhanced basic skills involving decisions, teams, problem solving, and critical thinking. Introductory materials include a table of contents and a list of the curriculum topics covered by…

Colorado Community Coll. and Occupational Education System, Denver.

83

Defining Projects to Integrate Evolving Team Fundamentals and Project Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Industry has indicated the desire for academic programs to produce graduates that are well-versed in collaborative problem solving and general project management concepts in addition to technical skills. The primary focus of a curriculum is typically centered on the technical training with minimal attention given to coalescing team and project…

Smith, Harold, III; Smarkusky, Debra; Corrigall, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

84

Developing Team Skills with Self- and Peer Assessment: Are Benefits Inversely Related to Team Function?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Self- and peer assessment has proved effective in promoting the development of teamwork and other professional skills in undergraduate students. However, in previous research approximately 30 percent of students reported that its use produced no perceived improvement in their teamwork experience. It was hypothesised that a significant…

Willey, Keith; Gardner, Anne

2009-01-01

85

Adopting Team Contracts to Initiate Team Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creighton, Harris and Coleman (2005) suggest that educational leadership instructors introduce aspiring administrators to a sound knowledge base. Currently, engaging in teams is recommended for high performance and problem-solving. Bolton (1999) recommends that instructors coach teams so teaming skills are improved. But, oftentimes, there are team

Marcellino, Patricia Ann

2008-01-01

86

RED TEAM PERFORMANCE FOR IMPROVED COMPUTER SECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research attempts to develop a human factors understanding of red team assessment strategies in computer and information security. Red teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of security systems. The purpose of this research is to identify and define the various dimensions of red team effectiveness with the aim

Sara Kraemer; Pascale Carayon; Ruth Duggan

87

The Effects of Team Personality Awareness Exercises on Team Satisfaction and Performance: The Context of Marketing Course Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marketing courses heavily utilize team projects that can enhance student learning and make students more desirable to recruiters seeking greater teamwork skills and experience from students. Unfortunately team projects that provide opportunities to learn and improve such skills can also be great sources of frustration and dissatisfaction for…

Lancellotti, Matthew P.; Boyd, Thomas

2008-01-01

88

The Effects of Team Personality Awareness Exercises on Team Satisfaction and PerformanceThe Context of Marketing Course Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marketing courses heavily utilize team projects that can enhance student learning and make students more desirable to recruiters seeking greater teamwork skills and experience from students. Unfortunately team projects that provide opportunities to learn and improve such skills can also be great sources of frustration and dissatisfaction for instructors and students. This research investigates the effects of exercises designed to

Matthew P. Lancellotti; Thomas Boyd

2008-01-01

89

Achieving Management Skills. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared as part of Platte Technical Community College's project to help managers and supervisors develop practical, up-to-date managerial skills in a relatively short time, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations. Unit I focuses on time management, the causes and management of stress, and…

Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

90

Endoscopic non-technical skills team training: The next step in quality assurance of endoscopy training  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether novel, non-technical skills training for Bowel Cancer Screening (BCS) endoscopy teams enhanced patient safety knowledge and attitudes. METHODS: A novel endoscopy team training intervention for BCS teams was developed and evaluated as a pre-post intervention study. Four multi-disciplinary BCS teams constituting BCS endoscopist(s), specialist screening practitioners, endoscopy nurses and administrative staff (A) from English BCS training centres participated. No patients were involved in this study. Expert multidisciplinary faculty delivered a single day’s training utilising real clinical examples. Pre and post-course evaluation comprised participants’ patient safety awareness, attitudes, and knowledge. Global course evaluations were also collected. RESULTS: Twenty-three participants attended and their patient safety knowledge improved significantly from 43%-55% (P ? 0.001) following the training intervention. 12/41 (29%) of the safety attitudes items significantly improved in the areas of perceived patient safety knowledge and awareness. The remaining safety attitude items: perceived influence on patient safety, attitudes towards error management, error management actions and personal views following an error were unchanged following training. Both qualitative and quantitative global course evaluations were positive: 21/23 (91%) participants strongly agreed/agreed that they were satisfied with the course. Qualitative evaluation included mandating such training for endoscopy teams outside BCS and incorporating team training within wider endoscopy training. Limitations of the study include no measure of increased patient safety in clinical practice following training. CONCLUSION: A novel comprehensive training package addressing patient safety, non-technical skills and adverse event analysis was successful in improving multi-disciplinary teams’ knowledge and safety attitudes. PMID:25516665

Matharoo, Manmeet; Haycock, Adam; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan

2014-01-01

91

Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

Miller, M.A.

1996-08-01

92

From Group to Team: Skilled Facilitation Moves a Group from a Collection of Individuals to an Effective Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based learning depends on teachers' capacity to engage with each other around central issues of teaching and learning. While such collaboration is readily welcomed by some educators, others remain wedded to an "independent contractor" concept of teaching. Supporting teachers to view themselves as team members and to perform effectively as a…

Lee, Ginny V.

2009-01-01

93

Implications for studying team cognition and team performance in network-centric warfare paradigms.  

PubMed

Network-centric warfare's (NCW) information-rich systems involving sophisticated sensors, tracking systems, smart weapons, and enhanced digital communications threaten to overload combatants with voluminous amounts of data. It is unclear whether warfighters will perceive such extensive data as actionable information to which they will respond accurately in a timely enough manner. Members of small teams in command and control centers, operating in crew-served vehicles, or simply "grunting it out" as ground-pounding infantrymen, may be disparately separated by space, but will communicate and be connected by electronic linkages, e.g., radio, text messages, situation displays, or global positioning data. However, team members will also have to remember shared mental models of tasks at hand, pay attention to and share common situation awareness in complex operational environments, perform team cognition and team coordination, and integrate both lower and higher cognitive processes with those of team behaviors. Such exceptional capabilities are required more now than ever before; such capabilities today are far from assured. After two workshops to establish performance metrics for assessing cognitive performance of military personnel in NCW, this preface introduces five manuscripts addressing team cognition and team performance from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. The authors of this preface question if NCW, and perhaps the politico-social ramifications of modern warfare, have already outstripped behavioral scientists' approach to researching team cognition and team performance-expertise that is so crucially needed for combatants on the rapidly changing 21st-century battlegrounds. PMID:17547305

Krueger, Gerald P; Banderet, Louis E

2007-05-01

94

Team performance and collective efficacy in the dynamic psychology of competitive team: A Bayesian network analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper was to discover the relationships among 22 relevant psychological features in semi-professional football players in order to study team's performance and collective efficacy via a Bayesian network (BN). The paper includes optimization of team's performance and collective efficacy using intercausal reasoning pattern which constitutes a very common pattern in human reasoning. The BN is used to make inferences regarding our problem, and therefore we obtain some conclusions; among them: maximizing the team's performance causes a decrease in collective efficacy and when team's performance achieves the minimum value it causes an increase in moderate/high values of collective efficacy. Similarly, we may reason optimizing team collective efficacy instead. It also allows us to determine the features that have the strongest influence on performance and which on collective efficacy. From the BN two different coaching styles were differentiated taking into account the local Markov property: training leadership and autocratic leadership. PMID:25546263

Fuster-Parra, P; García-Mas, A; Ponseti, F J; Leo, F M

2015-04-01

95

Drugs and information processing in skilled performance.  

PubMed

A concise review is presented of recent research on task aspects with respect to determining the effects of drugs on human information processing. It is concluded that progress in this area is hampered by lack of a theoretical basis to most behavioral tasks, preventing firm conclusions about the effects of drugs on either well-defined mental functions or on real-life performances. It is argued that the effects of drugs should only be tested in behaviorally well-researched tasks. Some proposals are discussed with an emphasis on perceptual-motor skills. PMID:3064083

Sanders, A F; Wauschkuhn, C H

1988-01-01

96

TeamSTEPPS™: Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS™) is a systematic approach developed by the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to integrate teamwork into practice. It is designed to improve the quality, safety, and the efficiency of health care. TeamSTEPPS is based on 25 years of research related to

Mary Salisbury

97

Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes  

PubMed Central

Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2?h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

2013-01-01

98

When do bad apples not spoil the barrel? negative relationships in teams, team performance, and buffering mechanisms.  

PubMed

The study of negative relationships in teams has primarily focused on the impact of negative relationships on individual team member attitudes and performance in teams. The mechanisms and contingencies that can buffer against the damaging effects of negative relationships on team performance have received limited attention. Building on social interdependence theory and the multilevel model of team motivation, we examine in a sample of 73 work teams the team-level attributes that foster the promotive social interaction that can neutralize the adverse effect of negative relationships on team cohesion and, consequently, on team performance. The results indicate that high levels of team-member exchange as well as high task-interdependence attenuate how team cohesion and team performance suffer from negative relationships. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:24661274

de Jong, Jeroen P; Cur?eu, Petru L; Leenders, Roger Th A J

2014-05-01

99

The Influences of Skill Level, Anxiety, and Psychological Skills Use on Amateur Golfers’ Performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study not only explored the influence of golf expertise on mental skills utilization, but also the influences of the use of mental skills and anxiety on performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who had played golf for an average of 23 years, ranged in age (M = 52.17, SD = 11.81) and in skill level (M

Bert Hayslip Jr; Trent A. Petrie; Mae M. MacIntire; Gretchen M. Jones

2010-01-01

100

Peer Led Team Learning in Introductory Biology: Effects on Peer Leader Critical Thinking Skills  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders’ critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders’ perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders’ critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups. PMID:25629311

Snyder, Julia J.; Wiles, Jason R.

2015-01-01

101

Peer led team learning in introductory biology: effects on peer leader critical thinking skills.  

PubMed

This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups. PMID:25629311

Snyder, Julia J; Wiles, Jason R

2015-01-01

102

Team Primacy Concept (TPC) Based Employee Evaluation and Job Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored how employees learn from Team Primacy Concept (TPC) based employee evaluation and how they use the feedback in performing their jobs. TPC based evaluation is a form of multirater evaluation, during which the employee's performance is discussed by one's peers in a face-to-face team setting. The study used Kolb's…

Muniute, Eivina I.; Alfred, Mary V.

2007-01-01

103

A grounded theory approach to effects of virtual facilitation on team communication and the development of professional skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a grounded theory study into the effects of virtual facilitation on team communication, a critical professional skill for engineering students. Facilitation may assist in that process because it encourages information sharing in order to promote effective teamwork. To aid in online team communications, a virtual facilitator has been developed. This research involves a quasi-experimental study of

Uyen Mai; Daniel Swift; Tracey Wiggins; Ray Luechtefeld

2011-01-01

104

Is team confidence the key to success? The reciprocal relation between collective efficacy, team outcome confidence, and perceptions of team performance during soccer games.  

PubMed

The present manuscript extends previous research on the reciprocal relation between team confidence and perceived team performance in two ways. First, we distinguished between two types of team confidence; process-oriented collective efficacy and outcome-oriented team outcome confidence. Second, we assessed both types not only before and after the game, but for the first time also during half-time, thereby providing deeper insight into their dynamic relation with perceived team performance. Two field studies were conducted, each with 10 male soccer teams (N = 134 in Study 1; N = 125 in Study 2). Our findings provide partial support for the reciprocal relation between players' team confidence (both collective efficacy and team outcome confidence) and players' perceptions of the team's performance. Although both types of players' team confidence before the game were not significantly related to perceived team performance in the first half, players' team confidence during half-time was positively related to perceived team performance in the second half. Additionally, our findings consistently demonstrated a relation between perceived team performance and players' subsequent team confidence. Considering that team confidence is a dynamical process, which can be affected by coaches and players, our findings open new avenues to optimise team performance. PMID:25093745

Fransen, Katrien; Decroos, Steven; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Vande Broek, Gert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vanroy, Jari; Boen, Filip

2015-01-01

105

Information Sharing and Team Performance: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information sharing is a central process through which team members collectively utilize their available informational resources. The authors used meta-analysis to synthesize extant research on team information sharing. Meta-analytic results from 72 independent studies (total groups = 4,795; total N = 17,279) demonstrate the importance of information sharing to team performance, cohesion, decision satisfaction, and knowledge integration. Although moderators were

Jessica R. Mesmer-Magnus; Leslie A. DeChurch

2009-01-01

106

Linking organizational identification and employee performance in teams: the moderating role of team-member exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the influence of organizational identification on employee performance in teams. Drawing on social identity theory and self-verification theory, we predicted that organizational identification would have positive effects on employee in-role and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) performance. Building on social exchange theory, the study further theorized that the quality of team-member exchange (TMX) would amplify the impacts of

Yan Liu; Raymond Loi; Long W. Lam

2011-01-01

107

Effective Team Performance in Military Environments. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identification of psychological factors influencing team performance in the chemical, biological, and radiological defense (CBR-D) environment were identified by a system for task classification: (1) combining Herold's task demands and Holland's taxonomy of work environments and (2) describing the development and evaluation of team tasks. This…

Hogan, Robert; And Others

108

Developing observational measures of performance in surgical teams  

PubMed Central

Team performance is increasingly recognised as an essential foundation of good surgical care and a determinant of good surgical outcome. To understand team performance and to develop team training, reliable and valid measures of team performance are necessary. Currently there is no firm consensus on how to measure teamwork, partly because of a lack of empirical data to validate measures. The input–process–output model provides a framework for surgical team studies. Objective observational measures are needed in surgery as a basis for interdisciplinary team assessment and training. The "observational teamwork assessment for surgery" (OTAS) tool assesses two facets of the surgical process. Observer 1 monitors specific tasks carried out by team members, under the categories patient, environment, equipment, provisions, and communications. Observer 2 uses a behavioural observation scale to rate behaviour for the three surgical phases (pre-operative, operative, and post-operative) with components of teamwork: cooperation, leadership, coordination, awareness, and communication. Illustrative data from an initial series of 50 cases is presented here. The OTAS tool enables two independent observers, a surgeon and psychologist, to record detailed information both on what the theatre team does and how they do it, and has the potential to identify constraints on performance that might relate to surgical outcome. PMID:15465953

Healey, A; Undre, S; Vincent, C

2004-01-01

109

Physical Fitness, Injuries, and Team Performance in Soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ARNASON, A., S. B. SIGURDSSON, A. GUDMUNDSSON, I. HOLME, L. ENGEBRETSEN, and R. BAHR. Physical Fitness, Injuries, and Team Performance in Soccer. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 278 -285, 2004. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between physical fitness and team success in soccer, and to test for differences in physical fitness between different player positions. Methods:

ARNI ARNASON; STEFAN B. SIGURDSSON; ARNI GUDMUNDSSON; INGAR HOLME; LARS ENGEBRETSEN; ROALD BAHR

2004-01-01

110

Team Training and Retention of Skills Acquired Above Real Time Training on a Flight Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments related to training of pilots performed by NASA engineers (Kolf in 1973, Hoey in 1976) and others (Guckenberger, Crane and their associates in the nineties) have shown that in comparison with the real time training (RTT), ARTT provides the following benefits: increased rate of skill acquisition, reduced simulator and aircraft training time, and more effective training for emergency procedures. Two sets of experiments have been performed; they are reported in professional conferences and the respective papers are included in this report. The retention of effects of ARTT has been studied in the first set of experiments and the use of ARTT as top-off training has been examined in the second set of experiments. In ARTT, the pace of events was 1.5 times the pace in RTT. In both sets of experiments, university students were trained to perform an aerial gunnery task. The training unit was equipped with a joystick and a throttle. The student acted as a nose gunner in a hypothetical two place attack aircraft. The flight simulation software was installed on a Universal Distributed Interactive Simulator platform supplied by ECC International of Orlando, Florida. In the first set of experiments, two training programs RTT or ART7 were used. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios: either immediately after training or two days later. The effects of ARTT did not decrease over a two day retention interval and ARTT was more time efficient than real time training. Therefore, equal test performance could be achieved with less clock-time spent in the simulator. In the second set of experiments three training programs RTT or ARTT or RARTT, were used. In RTT, students received 36 minutes of real time training. In ARTT, students received 36 minutes of above real time training. In RARTT, students received 18 minutes of real time training and 18 minutes of above real time training as top-off training. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios. The use of ARTT as top-off training after RTT offered better training than RTT alone or ARTT alone. It is, however, suggested that a similar experiment be conducted on a relatively more complex task with a larger sample of participants. Within the proposed duration of the research effort, the setting up of experiments and trial runs on using ARTT for team training were also scheduled but they could not be accomplished due to extra ordinary challenges faced in developing the required software configuration. Team training is, however, scheduled in a future study sponsored by NASA at Tuskegee University.

Ali, Syed Friasat; Guckenberger, Dutch; Crane, Peter; Rossi, Marcia; Williams, Mayard; Williams, Jason; Archer, Matt

2000-01-01

111

Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills: Student Performance Results 1989-1990. District and Campus Results, Volume 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This third volume of the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) Student Performance Results reports school district and campus performance results alphabetically, based on the percentage of students passing all tests taken in 1989-90. Performance results of special education students are excluded. District and campus results are…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

112

Integrated manufacturing approach to attain benchmark team performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Self-Directed Work Team (SDWT) was developed to transfer a polyimide process module from the research laboratory to our wafer fab facility for applications in IC specialty devices. The SDWT implemented processes and tools based on the integration of five manufacturing strategies for continuous improvement. These were: Leadership Through Quality (LTQ), Total Productive Maintenance (TMP), Cycle Time Management (CTM), Activity-Based Costing (ABC), and Total Employee Involvement (TEI). Utilizing these management techniques simultaneously, the team achieved six sigma control of all critical parameters, increased Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) from 20% to 90%, reduced cycle time by 95%, cut polyimide manufacturing cost by 70%, and improved its overall team member skill level by 33%.

Chen, Shau-Ron; Nguyen, Andrew; Naguib, Hussein

1994-09-01

113

The Team Approach to Educational Decision-Making: Increasing the Effectiveness of IEP Teams. Facilitator's Manual for Module Two. Component Two: Communication Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The facilitator's manual offers information for conducting a workshop to teach regular educators, special educators, and parents of handicapped children communication skills as they relate to decisions in the individualized education program (IEP) team meeting. Three presentations provide participants with an increased awareness of the need for…

Anderlini, Lyn Starr

114

The role of mental models in team performance in complex systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors focus on team performance in complex systems. Representative empirical literature is reviewed and models of team performance are discussed. The role of mental models in team performance is considered and several propositions developed that focus on mental models as mechanisms for forming expectations and explanations of team behaviors. The implications of these propositions for team performance and training

William B. Rouse; Janis A. Cannon-Bowers; Eduardo Salas

1992-01-01

115

The Power of "We": Effects of Psychological Collectivism on Team Performance over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the influences of different facets of psychological collectivism (Preference, Reliance, Concern, Norm Acceptance, and Goal Priority) on team functioning at 3 different performance depictions: initial team performance, end-state team performance, and team performance change over time. We also tested the extent to which team-member…

Dierdorff, Erich C.; Bell, Suzanne T.; Belohlav, James A.

2011-01-01

116

Who Owns Your Team?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feelings of team ownership promote team cohesiveness which yields better performance. Coaches should implement strategies that encourage team members to share with the coach responsibility for morale, skill-building, play improvement, and decision making. Maturity level of athletes influences the degree of ownership allowed. Strategies for…

Weisen, Kathy; Love, Phyllis

1988-01-01

117

Professional Certificate in Management Skills  

E-print Network

case studies and personal work situations to hone communications skills Module 3a Finding and Keeping skills for managing projects, people, teams and performance. · Learn to how to effectively manage change to hone their management skills and develop a deeper understand of this area · Team leaders and employees

Carleton University

118

Human Performance Modeling and Simulation for Launch Team Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes ongoing research into modeling and simulation of humans for launch team analysis, training, and evaluation. The initial research is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) and NASA's Exploration Program and is focused on current and future launch team operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The paper begins with a description of existing KSC launch team environments and procedures. It then describes the goals of new Simulation and Analysis of Launch Teams (SALT) research. The majority of this paper describes products from the SALT team's initial proof-of-concept effort. These products include a nominal case task analysis and a discrete event model and simulation of launch team performance during the final phase of a shuttle countdown; and a first proof-of-concept training demonstration of launch team communications in which the computer plays most roles, and the trainee plays a role of the trainee's choice. This paper then describes possible next steps for the research team and provides conclusions. This research is expected to have significant value to NASA's Exploration Program.

Peaden, Cary J.; Payne, Stephen J.; Hoblitzell, Richard M., Jr.; Chandler, Faith T.; LaVine, Nils D.; Bagnall, Timothy M.

2006-01-01

119

TESTING GAME BASED PERFORMANCE IN TEAM-HANDBALL.  

PubMed

Team-handball is a fast paced game of defensive and offensive action that includes specific movements of jumping, passing, throwing, checking and screening. To date and to our knowledge, a game based performance test for team-handball does not exist. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop and validate such a test.Seventeen experienced team-handball players performed two game based performance tests separated by seven days between each test, an incremental treadmill-running test, and a team-handball test game (2×20min). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2-peak), blood lactate concentration (BLC), heart rate (HR), sprinting time, time of offensive and defensive actions as well as running intensities, ball velocity and jump height were measured in the game based test. Reliability of the tests was calculated utilizing an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, we measured VO2-peak in the incremental treadmill-running test and BLC, HR and running intensities in the team-handball test game to determine the validity of the game based performance test.For the test-retest reliability, we found an ICC>.70 for the peak BLC and HR, mean offense and defense time as well as ball velocity that yielded an ICC>.90 for the VO2-peak in the game based performance test. Percent walking and standing constituted 73% of total time. Moderate (18%) and high (9%) intensity running in the game based performance test was similar to the team-handball test game.Our results indicated that the game based performance test is a valid and reliable test to analyze team-handball performance (physiological and biomechanical variables) under conditions similar to competition. PMID:24942169

Wagner, Herbert; Orwat, Matthias; Hinz, Matthias; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Bacharach, David W; Petelin von Duvillard, Serge; Müller, Erich

2014-06-17

120

Quantifying the Performance of Individual Players in a Team Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Teamwork is a fundamental aspect of many human activities, from business to art and from sports to science. Recent research suggest that team work is of crucial importance to cutting-edge scientific research, but little is known about how teamwork leads to greater creativity. Indeed, for many team activities, it is not even clear how to assign credit to individual team members. Remarkably, at least in the context of sports, there is usually a broad consensus on who are the top performers and on what qualifies as an outstanding performance. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to determine how individual features can be quantified, and as a test bed for other team-based human activities, we analyze the performance of players in the European Cup 2008 soccer tournament. We develop a network approach that provides a powerful quantification of the contributions of individual players and of overall team performance. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that generalizations of our approach could be useful in other contexts where quantification of the contributions of individual team members is important. PMID:20585387

Duch, Jordi; Waitzman, Joshua S.; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

2010-01-01

121

Getting Groups to Develop Good Strategies: Effects of Reflexivity Interventions on Team Process, Team Performance, and Shared Mental Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of guided reflection on team processes and performance, based on West's (1996, 2000) concept of reflexivity. Communicating via e-mail, 49 hierarchically structured teams (one commander and two specialists) performed seven 15 min shifts of a simulated team-based military air-surveillance task (TAST) in two meetings, a…

Gurtner, Andrea; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K.; Nagele, Christof

2007-01-01

122

Effects of empowering leadership on performance in management team : Mediating effects of knowledge sharing and team cohesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to extend an integrated model of the antecedents that help explain and predict team performance in relation to empowering leadership behaviors. To this end, the authors examine the intervening roles of knowledge sharing and team cohesion in the relationship between empowering leadership and performance in teams. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were obtained from

Hui-Ling Tung; Yu-Hsuan Chang

2011-01-01

123

Team Performance Prediction in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we propose a comprehensive performance management tool for measuring and reporting operational activities of teams. This study uses performance data of game players and teams in EverQuest II, a popular MMORPG developed by Sony Online Entertainment, to build performance prediction models for task performing teams. The prediction models provide a projection of task performing team's future performance

Kyong Jin Shim; Jaideep Srivastava

2010-01-01

124

The Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a joint labor-management workplace literacy program called SET (Skills Enhancement Training) that targeted the more than 2,000 unionized employees of food service contractors at U.S. government institutions in Washington, D.C. Nineteen classes were offered and a total of 191 people self-selected themselves into the program.…

Food and Beverage Workers Union, Local 32, Washington, DC.

125

Life Skills Yield Stronger Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After one failed attempt to buttress the prospects of black males at a racially diverse high school, teachers fashioned a life skills class that was heavy on racial pride and personal insight. In so doing they borrowed liberally from the Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching by Margery Ginsberg and Raymond Wlodkowski that leans…

Lindsey, Tommie, Jr.; Mabie, Benjamin

2012-01-01

126

Schneider Skills Enhancement Program. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Schneider Skills Enhancement Program is a workplace literacy partnership between the medical manufacturing firm Schneider, Inc., and the Adult Academic Program of the Robbinsdale Area Schools in Minnesota. A literacy audit of 39 Schneider employees established a need for instruction in literacy, numeracy, and English as a Second Language (ESL)…

Schneider (USA), Inc., Plymouth, MN.

127

Basic Math Skills and Performance in an Introductory Statistics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We identify the student characteristics most associated with success in an introductory business statistics class, placing special focus on the relationship between student math skills and course performance, as measured by student grade in the course. To determine which math skills are important for student success, we examine (1) whether the…

Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

2006-01-01

128

Motivating Your Team: Coaching for Performance in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to help you get the best out of your team, this practical book shows you how to motivate and engage people through the effective design, application and review of performance management. Checklists and practical guidance notes are provided to help you understand the principles and practice of effective performance management and how the…

Taylor, Peter R.

2007-01-01

129

Affective Mechanisms Linking Dysfunctional Behavior to Performance in Work Teams: A Moderated Mediation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the association between dysfunctional team behavior and team performance. Data included measures of teams' dysfunctional behavior and negative affective tone as well as supervisors' ratings of teams' (nonverbal) negative emotional expressivity and performance. Utilizing a field sample of 61 work teams, the authors tested the proposed relationships with robust data analytic techniques. Results were consistent with

Michael S. Cole; Frank Walter; Heike Bruch

2008-01-01

130

Team Proactivity as a Linking Mechanism between Team Creative Efficacy, Transformational Leadership, and Risk-Taking Norms and Team Creative Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the growing body of research on creativity in team contexts, very few attempts have been made to explore the team-level antecedents and the mediating processes of team creative performance on the basis of a theoretical framework. To address this gap, drawing on Paulus and Dzindolet's (2008) group creativity model, this study proposed…

Shin, Yuhyung; Eom, Chanyoung

2014-01-01

131

WRIGHT, MELANIE CLAY. The Effects of Automation on Team Performance and Team Coordination. (Under the direction of David B. Kaber).  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT WRIGHT, MELANIE CLAY. The Effects of Automation on Team Performance and Team Coordination of automation in a number of work domains, including team environments. However, assessment of the effects of automation on teamwork has been primarily limited to the aviation domain (comparing early conventional

Kaber, David B.

132

IMPORTANCE OF SELF-EFFICACY OF WORKING IN TEAM ENVIRONMENT IN DETERMINING INDIVIDUAL SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE: DOES IT DEPEND ON THE TEAM PERFORMANCE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of teams is increasingly becoming prevalent in high-tech entrepreneurial organizations. As the team approach is becoming popular, more and more employees are getting involved in teams. According to management literature, individual satisfaction is an important variable for long term organizational performance. Therefore, individual satisfaction of working in a team becomes an important consideration for the entrepreneurial organizations. This study

SANJIB CHOWDHURY

133

Simulation for the Training of Human Performance and Technical Skills: The Intersection of How We Will Train Health Care Professionals in the Future  

PubMed Central

Aims The aims of this research are to begin to understand health care teams in their operational environment, establish metrics of performance for these teams, and validate a series of scenarios in simulation that elicit team and technical skills. The focus is on defining the team model that will function in the operational environment in which health care professionals work. Methods Simulations were performed across the United States in 70- to 1000-bed hospitals. Multidisciplinary health care teams analyzed more than 300 hours of videos of health care professionals performing simulations of team-based medical care in several different disciplines. Raters were trained to enhance inter-rater reliability. Results The study validated event sets that trigger team dynamics and established metrics for team-based care. Team skills were identified and modified using simulation scenarios that employed the event-set-design process. Specific skills (technical and team) were identified by criticality measurement and task analysis methodology. Discussion In situ simulation, which includes a purposeful and Socratic Method of debriefing, is a powerful intervention that can overcome inertia found in clinician behavior and latent environmental systems that present a challenge to quality and patient safety. In situ simulation can increase awareness of risks, personalize the risks, and encourage the reflection, effort, and attention needed to make changes to both behaviors and to systems. PMID:21975987

Hamman, William R.; Beaubien, Jeffrey M.; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M.

2009-01-01

134

TEAM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including the…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

135

Teaming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaming is a method of grouping students so they share the same set of teachers for their core subject areas--science, math, language arts, social studies, and sometimes physical education and health. Most often, teams are created when an entire grade is broken into groups who share the same set of teachers. Small schools that do not have enough students to form teams can create a grade-level team or multigrade-level teams. The core subject teachers usually share a common planning period and, in many situations, also share a team planning period. Teaming is most often used in middle grades education because its positive outcomes are particularly appropriate to the developmental needs of young adolescents.

C. Jill Swango

2003-01-01

136

Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects On Team Shared Mental Models And Team Performance In An Undergraduate Meteorology Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared mental models (SMM) are defined as “knowledge structure(s) held by each member of a team that enables them to form accurate explanations and expectations for the [team and task], and in turn, to coordinate their actions and adapt their behavior to demands of the task and other team members”(Cannon-Bowers, Salas, & Converse, 1993, p. 228). Team member knowledge and

Eric Glen Sikorski

2009-01-01

137

Manual flying skills under the influence of performance shaping factors.  

PubMed

This paper describes an experimental study investigating pilots' manual flying skills. In today's line oriented flight training, basic flying skills are neglected frequently. So, the study examines the manual flying skills of commercial airline pilots under the influence of several performance shaping factors like training, practice or fatigue in a landing scenario. The landing phase shows a disproportionate high percentage of aircraft accidents and it is typically flown by hand. The study is to be undertaken with randomly selected pilots in a full motion flight simulator to ensure a high validity of the results. PMID:22316719

Haslbeck, Andreas; Schubert, Ekkehart; Onnasch, Linda; Hüttig, Gerhard; Bubb, Heiner; Bengler, Klaus

2012-01-01

138

Personality, political skill, and job performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction [Hogan, R. (1991). Personality and personality assessment. In M. D. Dunnette, L. Hough, (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 873–919). Chicago: Rand McNally; Hogan, R., & Shelton, D. (1998). A socioanalytic perspective on job performance. Human Performance, 11, 129–144.], the present study tests whether motives to get along

Gerhard Blickle; James A. Meurs; Ingo Zettler; Jutta Solga; Daniela Noethen; Jochen Kramer; Gerald R. Ferris

2008-01-01

139

Manual skill, hand skill asymmetry, and neuropsychological test performance in schoolchildren with spastic cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral hand skill assessment with a computerised version of the Peg Moving Task, and neuropsychological testing, were performed in 30 children aged 7 to 8 years with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and without mental retardation, diplegia (n = 10), right hemiplegia (n = 10), or left hemiplegia (n = 10), and in 30 controls. Compared to controls: (i) 30% of

Gilberto Nunes Filho; Lígia Souza; Luiz Guilherme Nunes; Lucia Willadino Braga; Georges Dellatolas

2005-01-01

140

Got Political Skill? The Impact of Justice on the Importance of Political Skill for Job Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the moderating effects of procedural and distributive justice on the relationships between political skill and task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) among 175 supervisor–subordinate dyads of a government organization. Using Mischel’s (1968) situationist perspective, high justice conditions were considered \\

Martha C. Andrews; K. Michele Kacmar; Kenneth J. Harris

2009-01-01

141

Development of a Notational Analysis System for Selected Soccer Skills of a Women's College Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to develop a notational system to evaluate passing, dribbling, first touch, and individual defensive skills as they relate to success during women's soccer games and to develop a statistical model to weigh the importance of each skill on creating scoring opportunities. Sequences of skills in ten games of a National…

Thomas, Camille; Fellingham, Gilbert; Vehrs, Pat

2009-01-01

142

Team learning, transactive memory system and team performance: A longitudinal study based on the IMOI approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how team learning behaviors transfer into team effectiveness, and analyzes the dynamic mechanism of team\\u000a learning within a time series framework. 99 teams were recruited as our initial sample at the first stage, and 55 teams were\\u000a traced at the second stage. We employed the input-mediator-output-input (IMOI) approach as proposed by Ilgen et al. (2005),\\u000a instead of

Shenjiang Mo; Xiaoyun Xie

2010-01-01

143

The delta cooperative model: a dynamic and innovative team-work activity to develop research skills in microbiology.  

PubMed

The Delta Cooperative Model (DCM) is a dynamic and innovative teamwork design created to develop fundamentals in research skills. High school students in the DCM belong to the Upward Bound Science and Math (UBSM) program at the Inter American University, Ponce Campus. After workshops on using the scientific method, students were organized into groups of three students with similar research interests. Each student had to take on a role within the group as either a researcher, data analyst, or research editor. Initially, each research team developed hypothesis-driven ideas on their proposed project. In intrateam research meetings, they emphasized team-specific tasks. Next, interteam meetings were held to present ideas and receive critical input. Finally, oral and poster research presentations were conducted at the UBSM science fair. Several team research projects covered topics in medical, environmental, and general microbiology. The three major assessment areas for the workshop and DCM included: (i) student's perception of the workshops' effectiveness in developing skills, content, and values; (ii) research team self- and group participation evaluation, and (iii) oral and poster presentation during the science fair. More than 91% of the students considered the workshops effective in the presentation of scientific method fundamentals. The combination of the workshop and the DCM increased student's knowledge by 55% from pre- to posttests. Two rubrics were designed to assess the oral presentation and poster set-up. The poster and oral presentation scores averaged 83% and 75% respectively. Finally, we present a team assessment instrument that allows the self- and group evaluation of each research team. While the DCM has educational plasticity and versatility, here we document how the this model has been successfully incorporated in training and engaging students in scientific research in microbiology. PMID:23653564

Rios-Velazquez, Carlos; Robles-Suarez, Reynaldo; Gonzalez-Negron, Alberto J; Baez-Santos, Ivan

2006-05-01

144

The effect of researchers' interdisciplinary characteristics on team innovation performance: evidence from university R&D teams in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of researchers' characteristics on the performance of R&D teams. Based on the multi-perspective of organization behavior and knowledge management, the authors adopt the framework of ‘Input-Process-Output’ regarding the process of the R&D team as knowledge creation. The theoretical model and corresponding hypotheses were tested empirically, drawing on a sample of 80 R&D teams from four

Linlin Jin; Haifa Sun

2010-01-01

145

Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.

Stuster, J.

1998-01-01

146

Measuring team performance in healthcare: Review of research and implications for patient safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective team performance is important to measure in order to determine how clinicians should be trained for safe and effective patient care. Team performance is challenging to measure. In this paper, we describe different methodologies used to capture team performance metrics including clinical surveys, direct observation, and video-based analyses of real-life clinical performance. Despite much effort, the instruments reported thus

Shelly A. Jeffcott; Colin F. Mackenzie

2008-01-01

147

Prosocial bonuses increase employee satisfaction and team performance.  

PubMed

In three field studies, we explore the impact of providing employees and teammates with prosocial bonuses, a novel type of bonus spent on others rather than on oneself. In Experiment 1, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of donations to charity lead to happier and more satisfied employees at an Australian bank. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of expenditures on teammates lead to better performance in both sports teams in Canada and pharmaceutical sales teams in Belgium. These results suggest that a minor adjustment to employee bonuses--shifting the focus from the self to others--can produce measurable benefits for employees and organizations. PMID:24058691

Anik, Lalin; Aknin, Lara B; Norton, Michael I; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Quoidbach, Jordi

2013-01-01

148

Prosocial Bonuses Increase Employee Satisfaction and Team Performance  

PubMed Central

In three field studies, we explore the impact of providing employees and teammates with prosocial bonuses, a novel type of bonus spent on others rather than on oneself. In Experiment 1, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of donations to charity lead to happier and more satisfied employees at an Australian bank. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of expenditures on teammates lead to better performance in both sports teams in Canada and pharmaceutical sales teams in Belgium. These results suggest that a minor adjustment to employee bonuses – shifting the focus from the self to others – can produce measurable benefits for employees and organizations. PMID:24058691

Anik, Lalin; Aknin, Lara B.; Norton, Michael I.; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Quoidbach, Jordi

2013-01-01

149

Ready to rumble: how team personality composition and task conflict interact to improve performance.  

PubMed

Although prior work has proposed a number of conditions under which task conflict in teams may improve performance, composition variables have been left unexplored. Given the effects of personality traits on team processes and outcomes demonstrated in prior work, investigating whether specific personality compositions influence the effect of task conflict on team performance is critical to researchers' understanding of conflict in teams. Our results indicate that team-level averages of both openness to experience and emotional stability function as moderators of the relationship between task conflict and team performance. Specifically, task conflict had a positive impact on performance in teams with high levels of openness or emotional stability; in contrast, task conflict had a negative impact on performance in teams with low levels of openness or emotional stability. Thus, when task conflict emerges, teams composed of members who are open minded or emotionally stable are best able to leverage conflict to improve performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:22963513

Bradley, Bret H; Klotz, Anthony C; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Brown, Kenneth G

2013-03-01

150

Coaching for Performance. Second Edition. People Skills for Professionals Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book teaches the skills and art of good coaching and how to realize its value in unlocking people's potential to maximize their own performance. Chapters 1-3 define coaching and its business application, discuss the manager as coach and the manager's role, and examine the context of change. Chapter 4 considers the two key elements of…

Whitmore, John

151

What You Do for Your Team Comes Back to You: A Cross-Level Investigation of Individual Goal Specification, Team-Goal Clarity, and Individual Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports findings from a longitudinal field study on multilevel processes in teams and examines the role of individual team-goal specification and team-goal clarity with regard to individual performance. It is hypothesized that individual team-goal specification predicts change in individual performance over time, particularly when team-goal clarity is low. Multisource data gathered in 31 project teams supported the hypotheses.

Sabine Sonnentag; Judith Volmer

2010-01-01

152

Determinants of cultural adaptation, communication quality, and trust in virtual teams' performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virtual team is a network group where team members from different cultures are temporarily gathered together for the period of a mission. The present research proposes a general model of virtual teams to investigate how cultural adaptation, communication quality, and trust affect the performance of virtual teams and their interaction with each other. A qualitative method is applied in

Hsin Hsin Chang; Shuang-Shii Chuang; Shu Han Chao

2011-01-01

153

An Examination of Deception in Virtual Teams: Effects of Deception on Task Performance, Mutuality, and Trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Problem: This study investigates the impact of deception on the performance of tasks in virtual teams. While the advantages of virtual teams in organizations have been well-studied, as the use of these teams expands, organizations must acknowledge the potential for negative consequences of team member actions. Research Questions: (1) How does deceptive communication influence the outcomes of virtual group

Christie M. Fuller; Kent Marett; Douglas P. Twitchell

2012-01-01

154

Using Psychological Skills Training to Develop Soccer Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the effects of a soccer, midfielder-specific psychological skills intervention comprising relaxation, imagery and self-talk on position-specific performance measures. Using a multiple-baseline-across-individuals design, five participants had three per-formance subcomponents assessed across nine competitive matches. The results of the study indicated the position-specific intervention to enable at least small improvements on the three dependent variables for each participant.

Richard C. Thelwell; Iain A. Greenlees; Neil J. V. Weston

2006-01-01

155

A Framework for Cross-Disciplinary Team Learning and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct of teamwork has been of considerable interest to researchers and practitioners across domains. The literature on teams includes many studies related to team composition, processes, and roles, but it pays much less attention to how teams learn and innovate. Studies examining how cross-disciplinary teams interact during projects are…

Schaffer, Scott P.; Lei, Kimfong; Paulino, Lisette Reyes

2008-01-01

156

A Qualitative Investigation into How Problem-Based Learning Impacts on the Development of Team-Working Skills in Occupational Therapy Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that problem-based learning (PBL) has a positive impact on the team-working skills of medical, health and social care students. These skills are important for graduates to master to enable effective collaborative working in today's diverse health and social care settings. What is not clear from the literature is how…

Seymour, Alison

2013-01-01

157

MBA 510-01 LEADERSHIP SKILLS AND TEAM DEVELOPMENT Professor Sharon Lobel  

E-print Network

of team types Articulate your leadership stance in relation to social responsibility; and design and implement a team project to benefit a client in the community University Resources and Policies Academic, L. 2012. Sleeping with your Smartphone: How to break the 24/7 habits and change the way you work

Carter, John

158

MBA 510-02 LEADERSHIP SKILLS AND TEAM DEVELOPMENT Professor Sharon Lobel  

E-print Network

corrective measures for a variety of team types Articulate your leadership stance in relation to social responsibility; and design and implement a team project to benefit a client in the community University Resources, L. 2012. Sleeping with your Smartphone: How to break the 24/7 habits and change the way you work

Carter, John

159

The Adventures of Team Fantastic: A Practical Guide for Team Leaders and Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication looks at the ways in which one who is part of a team can help improve the team's performance. The successes and failures of a fictional team are used to illustrate real-life team skills. Examples are drawn from a number of imaginary scenarios--for example, looking for a cache of diamonds in the Brazilian jungle, straightening ties…

Hallam, Glenn L.

160

The contingent effects of top management teams on venture performance: Aligning founding team composition with innovation strategy and commercialization environment  

E-print Network

How does the relationship between founding team composition and venture performance depend on the venture's strategy and business environment? Using data from a novel survey of 2,067 firms, we show that while diverse ...

Eesley, Charles E.

161

Working in Partnership: Skills Transfer in Developing a Cross-Cultural Research Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a broader study on Indigenous illegal drug use, the authors undertook skills training to increase cross-cultural mutual understanding of the often different approaches and methodologies between research and practice, as well as Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal understandings of these approaches. The study and the skills transfer training…

Guthrie, Jill; Dance, Phyll; Cubillo, Carmen; McDonald, David; Tongs, Julie; Brideson, Tom; Bammer, Gabriele

2006-01-01

162

Soft Skills in the Development of Team-Based Electronic Learning Portfolio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The top qualities of an effective engineer include not only technical competence but also soft skills which may be hard to acquire while already on the job. Fulfilling stakeholders’ demand, educators design the curriculum for engineering programs with the objectives of producing graduates capable in not only technical competence but also possess the equally important soft skills. This calls for

Azizan Zainal Abidin; Fatimah Saleh

2010-01-01

163

Validation of a self-efficacy instrument and its relationship to performance of crisis resource management skills.  

PubMed

Self-efficacy is thought to be important for resuscitation proficiency in that it influences the development of and access to the associated medical knowledge, procedural skills and crisis resource management (CRM) skills. Since performance assessment of CRM skills is challenging, self-efficacy is often used as a measure of competence in this area. While self-efficacy may influence performance, the true relationship between self-efficacy and performance in this setting has not been delineated. We developed an instrument to measure pediatric residents' self-efficacy in CRM skills and assessed its content validity, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. After administering the instrument to 125 pediatric residents, critical care fellows and faculty, we performed an exploratory factor analysis within a confirmatory factor analysis as well as a known group comparison. The analyses specified four factors that we defined as: situation awareness, team management, environment management, and decision making. Pediatric residents reported lower self-efficacy than fellows and faculty in each factor. We also examined the correlation between self-efficacy and performance scores for a subset of 30 residents who led video recorded simulated resuscitations and had their performances rated by three observers. We found a significant, positive correlation between residents' self-efficacy in situation awareness and environment management and their overall performance of CRM skills. Our findings suggest that in a specific context, self-efficacy as a form of self-assessment may be informative with regards to performance. PMID:21264508

Plant, Jennifer L; van Schaik, Sandrijn M; Sliwka, Diane C; Boscardin, Christy K; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

2011-12-01

164

Playing for gold! (and black) - what lessons can project management learn from extreme high performance teams in the sporting arena?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested in some areas of high performance teams [1] that the difference between teams that are performing well and high performance teams is a feature of the understanding of the behavioural attributes of the team members. Teams where individuals are selected to be able to perform to the best of their talents rather than experience, brainpower or

D. J. Hancock; Warren Gatland

2005-01-01

165

Family Therapy Meets Self-Managing TeamsExplaining Self-Managing Team Performance through Team Member Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an exploratory examination of the usefulness of a family therapy–grounded theoretical perspective to that of the self-managing team domain. Specifically, the authors use the Beavers system model, a widely accepted clinical model of family development, as the basis for assessing various aspects of team development. Results partially support the utility of the Beavers model linking individuals’perceptions of

Christopher P. Neck; Mary L. Connerley; Carla A. Zuniga; Sanjay Goel

1999-01-01

166

Team Performance Assessment and Measurement: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Series in Applied Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents thoughts on measuring team performance written by experts currently working with teams in fields such as training, evaluation, and process consultation. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview of Team Performance Measurement" (Michael T. Brannick and Carolyn Prince); (2) "A Conceptual Framework for Teamwork Measurement" (Terry L.…

Brannick, Michael T., Ed.; Salas, Eduardo, Ed.; Prince, Carolyn, Ed.

167

Centrality and Charisma: Comparing How Leader Networks "and" Attributions Affect Team Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model…

Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A.

2011-01-01

168

Centrality and Charisma: Comparing How Leader Networks and Attributions Affect Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model according to which the leader's charisma facilitates the occupation of

Prasad Balkundi; Martin Kilduff; David A. Harrison

2011-01-01

169

Carbohydrate ingestion and soccer skill performance during prolonged intermittent exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution, during the 90-min Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test, on soccer skill performance. Seventeen male soccer players ingested either a 6.4% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or placebo solution equivalent to 8 ml · kg body mass before exercise and 3 ml · kg body mass after every 15 min of exercise, in a double-blind randomized cross-over

Ajmol Ali; Clyde Williams

2009-01-01

170

Paradoxical effects of interprofessional briefings on OR team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our recent research has found that structured preoperative team briefings can reduce communication failures, improve the knowledge\\u000a and practice of operating room (OR) team members, and garner broad support from surgeons, nurses, and anesthesiologists. However,\\u000a we have also encountered challenges and unexpected, negative effects. Using qualitative analysis of fieldnotes from 302 preoperative\\u000a team briefings, we identified five paradoxical findings: team

Sarah Whyte; Lorelei Lingard; Sherry Espin; G. Ross Baker; John Bohnen; Beverley A. Orser; Diane Doran; Richard Reznick; Glenn Regehr

2008-01-01

171

A Study of Collaborative Learning Style and Team Learning Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose ? Self-directed work teams are seen as an important mechanism for dealing with today's complex and rapidly changing business environment. Team learning is an attempt to prepare students to real-world experiences. But, not all teamwork is effective. This paper aims to examine the influence of learning style preferences on team learning…

Julie Yazici, Hulya

2005-01-01

172

Examining the Critical Factors of Success in Virtual Team Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual teams are a burgeoning presence in the corporate environment today. Research shows that virtual teams have begun to surpass conventional teams in meeting the demands of organizations that are increasingly called on to apply and respond to new technologies that support, and in some cases, require a virtual teamwork approach. In order to…

Booth, Brent

2011-01-01

173

The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2010-01-01

174

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conducting a skills performance test. FRA is providing the following...conducting a skills performance test, a designated supervisor of...employee have the necessary books (Operating Rules, Safety Rules...conducted (Radio, Air Brake Tests, Locomotive, etc.)?...

2010-10-01

175

Portraying the Contribution of Individual Behaviors to Team Cohesion and Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Behaviors of individuals in teams both contribute to and are molded by team dynamics. How they do so has been the subject of much research. A method of portraying individuals' behaviors in teams, the Team Diagramming Method (TDM) is presented. Behaviors are rated by other team members on three important dimensions: positivity/negativity, dominant/submissive, and task-orientedness/expressiveness. A study of 5-person teams engaging in a 3-day moon simulation task demonstrated that measures of these perceived behaviors as well as the variances of these behaviors correlated with cohesion measures and performance. The method shows strengths and weaknesses of particular teams and, by comparison with high-performing teams, suggests interventions based on individual as well as team behaviors. The primary goal of this study was to determine the extent to which these team level variables, derived from all team members' rated behaviors, were associated with previous methods of measuring cohesion and with performance. A secondary goal was to determine the stability of TDM measures over time by comparing team level variables based on ratings early and later in the team s work together.

Parke, Bonny; Orasanu, Judith

2012-01-01

176

How To Form a Team: Five Keys to High Performance. For the Practicing Manager. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practical guidebook is designed for managers and leaders who have responsibility for the creation and success of teams. First, a team is described as a workgroup whose members are dependent upon one another for the completion of a given task, and whose members possess different but complementary skill sets. A team manages its own work within…

Kanaga, Kim; Kossler, Michael E.

177

Evaluating Teaming Skills in a Rural University Clinical Experience: Continuation across Two Summers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a national trend toward using teacher teams and collaboration to solve various learning and behavioral problems. Teacher collaboration is necessary because of teacher shortages, especially in special education, and increasing diversity in student needs. Collaboration is especially important in rural schools because of the need to share…

Friedland, Billie L.; Walz, Lynn M.

178

A Curriculum to Enhance Decision-Making Skills of Technical Personnel Working in Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rapidly changing engineering designs and business scenarios make it essential for engineers and technical personnel to be trained to be effective team players and project managers. This paper reports the experiences gained in developing and implementing a workshop to train engineers at a steel manufacturing plant. The objective of the workshop was…

Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan S.; Xue, Yajiong

2004-01-01

179

Shared Mental Models on the Performance of e-Learning Content Development Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of the study was to investigate team-based e-Learning content development projects from the perspective of the shared mental model (SMM) theory. The researcher conducted a study of 79 e-Learning content development teams in Korea to examine the relationship between taskwork and teamwork SMMs and the performance of the teams.…

Jo, Il-Hyun

2012-01-01

180

A Case of Innovative Integration of High-Performance Work Teams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of a Fortune 500 company was used to develop an integrated model of high-performance work organizations. Components are systems thinking, team interaction, team principles, and results. The model requires an ongoing training plan, change agents or champions, and recognition of teams' productive potential and fragile nature. (SK)

Thompson, Faye; Baughan, Donna; Motwani, Jaideep

1998-01-01

181

Evaluating Team Work on Student Projects: The Use of Behaviorally Anchored Scales To Evaluate Student Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the biggest problems students face in team projects is social loafing, a situation in which students may view team projects as a free ride. Social loafers let others do the work, knowing that the professor will only grade the completed project. This research examined the performance of students grading other student team members on a group…

Levi, Daniel; Cadiz, David

182

Understanding the impact of communications technologies on virtual team performance: An agent-based simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprises are constantly looking for ways to get the most from their geographically dispersed human resources by forming virtual teams, and leveraging communications technologies for enabling good team performance. The experience in using these technologies by virtual teams has been mixed at best, and the extant literature has gaps in offering satisfactory explanation for the variations. To address that gap,

Vikas Sahasrabudhe; Shivraj Kanungo; Ramakrishna Iyer

2011-01-01

183

Communication, and Team-Working Skills in Second-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, a multidisciplinary program has been used to encourage science students to build on their chemical knowledge and to appreciate how it applies to the world around them. The program is interactive and instills a new set of core learning skills that are often underrepresented in undergraduate curricula, namely, cooperative learning,…

Mc Goldrick, Niamh B.; Marzec, Bartosz; Scully, P. Noelle; Draper, Sylvia M.

2013-01-01

184

The cognitive basis of effective team performance: features of failure and success in simulated cardiac resuscitation.  

PubMed

Despite a body of research on teams in other fields relatively little is known about measuring teamwork in healthcare. The aim of this study is to characterize the qualitative dimensions of team performance during cardiac resuscitation that results in good and bad outcomes. We studied each team's adherence to Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) protocol for ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia and identified team behaviors during simulated critical events that affected their performance. The process was captured by a developed task checklist and a validated team work coding system. Results suggest that deviation from the sequence suggested by the ACLS protocol had no impact on the outcome as the successful team deviated more from this sequence than the unsuccessful team. It isn't the deviation from the protocol per se that appears to be important, but how the leadership flexibly adapts to the situational changes with deviations is the crucial factor in team competency. PMID:20351925

Shetty, Pallavi; Cohen, Trevor; Patel, Bhavesh; Patel, Vimla L

2009-01-01

185

The Impact of Leadership Effectiveness and Team Processes on Team Performance in Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of construction professionals to work effectively as part of interdisciplinary teams is vital as the delivery of projects moves away from the traditional design-bid-build approach. This study of 27 construction professionals participating in a leadership training institute used a competitive Request for Qualifications exercise to examine whether self-assessed leadership characteristics and satisfaction with team processes were predictive of

Mary Sumner; Dianne Slattery

2010-01-01

186

Performance patterns in face-to-face and computer-supported teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper presents a longitudinal experimental study on teams with the purpose of investigating the impact of communication media on decision-making teams. The authors aims to achieve that by comparing face-to-face (FTF) and computer-supported (CS) teams over a series of three sessions on three response variables: performance, cohesiveness, and synergy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 24 teams, each

Pilar Pazos; Mario G. Beruvides

2011-01-01

187

Skill mix, roles and remuneration in the primary care workforce: Who are the healthcare professionals in the primary care teams across the world?  

PubMed

World-wide, shortages of primary care physicians and an increased demand for services have provided the impetus for delivering team-based primary care. The diversity of the primary care workforce is increasing to include a wider range of health professionals such as nurse practitioners, registered nurses and other clinical staff members. Although this development is observed internationally, skill mix in the primary care team and the speed of progress to deliver team-based care differs across countries. This work aims to provide an overview of education, tasks and remuneration of nurses and other primary care team members in six OECD countries. Based on a framework of team organization across the care continuum, six national experts compare skill-mix, education and training, tasks and remuneration of health professionals within primary care teams in the United States, Canada, Australia, England, Germany and the Netherlands. Nurses are the main non-physician health professional working along with doctors in most countries although types and roles in primary care vary considerably between countries. However, the number of allied health professionals and support workers, such as medical assistants, working in primary care is increasing. Shifting from 'task delegation' to 'team care' is a global trend but limited by traditional role concepts, legal frameworks and reimbursement schemes. In general, remuneration follows the complexity of medical tasks taken over by each profession. Clear definitions of each team-member's role may facilitate optimally shared responsibility for patient care within primary care teams. Skill mix changes in primary care may help to maintain access to primary care and quality of care delivery. Learning from experiences in other countries may inspire policy makers and researchers to work on efficient and effective teams care models worldwide. PMID:25577306

Freund, Tobias; Everett, Christine; Griffiths, Peter; Hudon, Catherine; Naccarella, Lucio; Laurant, Miranda

2015-03-01

188

Degree of Online Collaboration and Team Performance: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study investigated the relationship between degree of online collaboration and quality of group project among four teams. Thirteen participants were randomly assigned to form 4 teams to work on 4 collaborative projects across 16 weeks. Two different data sources of discussion archives and quality of group projects were collected and…

Thompson, Ling; Ku, Heng-Yu

2010-01-01

189

Teacher team commitment, teamwork and trust: exploring associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To investigate relationships between teamwork, trust and teacher team commitment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Research has confirmed the value-added effects of organizational commitment in terms of job performance, organizational effectiveness, and employee retention. This study focused on teacher teams as the unit of analysis, and posited associations between teamwork, viewed as team skills, trust and teacher team commitment. Data were

Sungmin Park; Alan B. Henkin; Robert Egley

2005-01-01

190

Distributed leadership, knowledge and information management and team performance in Chinese and Western groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – More studies are beginning to support the role of distributed, as opposed to solo, leadership in team performance, but distributed leadership (DL) has not always been linked to higher performance. It may need to be co-ordinated, rather than misaligned or fragmented, and may be most effective in teams performing interdependent tasks. DL has not often been linked to

P. Iles; Y. Feng

2011-01-01

191

Team Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Round Rock Pilot Project on Team Incentives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education policymakers have shown increased interest in incentive programs for teachers based on the outcomes of their students. This article examines a program in which bonuses were awarded to teams of middle school teachers based on their collective contribution to student test score gains. The study employs a randomized controlled trial to…

Springer, Matthew G.; Pane, John F.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Burns, Susan Freeman; Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian

2012-01-01

192

Using geographic information systems to track polio vaccination team performance: pilot project report.  

PubMed

The application of geospatial data to public health problems has expanded significantly with increased access to low-cost handheld global positioning system (GPS) receivers and free programs for geographic information systems analysis. In January 2010, we piloted the application of geospatial analysis to polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in northern Nigeria. SIA teams carried GPS receivers to compare hand-drawn catchment area route maps with GPS tracks of actual vaccination teams. Team tracks overlaid on satellite imagery revealed that teams commonly missed swaths of contiguous households and indicated that geospatial data can improve microplanning and provide nearly real-time monitoring of team performance. PMID:25316882

Gammino, Victoria M; Nuhu, Adamu; Chenoweth, Paul; Manneh, Fadinding; Young, Randall R; Sugerman, David E; Gerber, Sue; Abanida, Emmanuel; Gasasira, Alex

2014-11-01

193

Comprehensive Development Plan in Office Skills. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Waubonsee Community College Comprehensive Development Plan in Office Skills served 208 students by assessment of basic skills and referral to appropriate programs or help with job skills and referral to employment during the 18-month grant period from December 1988 through June 30, 1990. The target population was minority women or economically…

Waubonsee Community Coll., Sugar Grove, IL.

194

Expertise, extraversion and group interaction styles as performance indicators in virtual teams: how do perceptions of IT's performance get formed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how a personality trait and expertise affect virtual teams interaction, and how that interaction leads to different levels of performance (e.g., solution quality, solution acceptance, cohesion). Teams have been shown to exhibit constructive, aggressive\\/defensive, or passive\\/defensive interaction styles that affect communication and thus team performance by facilitating or hindering the exchange of information among group members. These

Pierre A. Balthazard; Richard E. Potter; John Warren

2004-01-01

195

Team Satisfaction and Student Group Performance: A Cross-Cultural Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relationship between team satisfaction and students' performance in group projects in two universities, one from the United States and one from Qatar. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between team satisfaction and group performance only for the American students. Demographic factors…

Zeitun, Rami M.; Abdulqader, Khalid Shams; Alshare, Khaled A.

2013-01-01

196

Understanding the dynamics of new venture top management teams: cohesion, conflict, and new venture performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research conducted under the upper echelon perspective has produced consistent evidence of a relationship between top management team (TMT) interaction and firm performance. We draw upon and extend this research in an effort to explain new venture performance as a function of cohesion and conflict within the top management team. Based upon data collected from a sample of 70 new

Michael D. Ensley; Allison W. Pearson; Allen C. Amason

2002-01-01

197

The effects of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team-based performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teamwork is becoming increasingly common in today's workplaces; however, little research has examined how well teams perform under sleep deprivation conditions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team performance. A total of 24 participants were sleep deprived for 30 h and completed 16 h of sustained operations during the

June J. Pilcher; Melissa A. Vander Wood; Kristina L. OConnell

2011-01-01

198

Complex Network Characteristics and Team Performance in the Game of Cricket  

E-print Network

Complex Network Characteristics and Team Performance in the Game of Cricket Rudra M. Tripathy1 of cricket. The nodes of this network are individual players and edges are placed between players who have with performance of teams. Our study examines Test cricket, One Day Internationals (ODIs) and T20 cricket matches

Bagchi, Amitabha

199

Evolutionary change in the use of skills within the district nursing team: a study in two Health Board areas in Scotland.  

PubMed

Grade mix within the district nursing team in the United Kingdom has changed markedly over the last 10 years but the relationship between grade mix and skill mix has received only intermittent research attention. This study adopted an ethnographic approach and aimed to explore the way in which grade and skill are taken into account in the delegation of nursing care. After gaining ethical approval, a total of 76 members of 21 district nursing teams in two areas were observed and interviewed. Delegation practices were found to vary both within and between areas and considerable differences were uncovered in the responsibilities allocated to more junior and unqualified team members. The developing role of nursing auxiliaries is discussed in relation to the role of the G grade sister, resource constraints and the standards of patient care. The paper concludes by arguing that the supervision and leadership role provided by the G grade sister should be fully recognized and safeguarded. PMID:11095215

McIntosh, J; Moriarty, D; Lugton, J; Carney, O

2000-10-01

200

The Impact of Diagnosing Skill Deficiencies and Assessment-Based Communication Training on Managerial Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates an organizational diagnosis program that assesses managerial communication skills and provides the frame for follow-up training programs. Finds that managers participating in follow-up communication skills training performed significantly higher on interpersonal skills, problem-solving ability, and productivity over three long-term…

Papa, Michael J.; Graham, Elizabeth E.

1991-01-01

201

An Investigation of the Effect of After-Action Reviews on Teams' Performance-Efficacy Relationships  

E-print Network

Performance and efficacy are reciprocally causal; however, the effect of performance on subsequent perceptions of efficacy has received little attention, especially in the context of team training. In addition, the moderating effect of feedback...

Schurig, Ira

2012-07-16

202

Cognition-Based and Affect-Based Trust as Mediators of Leader Behavior Influences on Team Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based…

Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S. K.; Peng, Ann Chunyan

2011-01-01

203

Game Location and Team Quality Effects on Performance Profiles in Professional Soccer  

PubMed Central

Home advantage in team sports has an important role in determining the outcome of a game. The aim of the present study was to identify the soccer game- related statistics that best discriminate home and visiting teams according to the team quality. The sample included all 380 games of the Spanish professional men’s league. The independent variables were game location (home or away) and the team quality. Teams were classified into four groups according to their final ranking at the end of the league. The game-related statistics registered were divided into three groups: (i) variables related to goals scored; (ii) variables related to offense and (iii) variables related to defense. A univariate (t-test and Mann-Whitney U) and multivariate (discriminant analysis) analysis of data was done. Results showed that home teams have significantly higher means for goal scored, total shots, shots on goal, attacking moves, box moves, crosses, offsides committed, assists, passes made, successful passes, dribbles made, successful dribbles, ball possession, and gains of possession, while visiting teams presented higher means for losses of possession and yellow cards. In addition, the findings of the current study confirm that game location and team quality are important in determining technical and tactical performances in matches. Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage. Future research should consider the influence of other confounding variables such as weather conditions, game status and team form. Key points Home teams have significantly higher figures for attack indicators probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects. The teams’ game-related statistics profile varied according to game location and team quality. Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage. PMID:24150619

Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Lago-Ballesteros, Joaquin

2011-01-01

204

Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports.  

PubMed

The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented. The model facilitates the identification of the psychological demands of a specific sport, which in turn enables distinguishing which psychological skills are required. This allows an expert to choose psychological techniques to improve the athlete's psychological skill. Considerations based on our model and the limited HIS-related literature available revealed self-skills, personal development and life skills, arousal-regulation skills, volitional skills, motivational skills and recovery skills as the most important skills to address in order to enhance performance. Development of harmonious passion, in-practice integration of volitional strategies, use of associative attentional techniques, pain management techniques, use of the mindfulness-acceptance approach and the facilitative interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations are regarded as suitable to meet the psychological demands of HIS. They are recommended for systematic application by athletes and coaches. PMID:20840565

Birrer, D; Morgan, G

2010-10-01

205

Mental Models and the Acquisition of a Complex Skill across Individuals and Teams: A Multilevel Study  

E-print Network

-level studies, the extant literature has not yet tested the validity of mental models as a multilevel construct. Consequently, the purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which the relationships between mental models and performance generalizes...

Munoz Galvez, Gonzalo Javier

2014-01-13

206

Catching moods and hitting runs: mood linkage and subjective performance in professional sport teams.  

PubMed

Are the moods and subjective performances of professional sports players associated with the ongoing collective moods of their teammates? Players from 2 professional cricket teams used pocket computers to provide ratings of their moods and performances 3 times a day for 4 days during a competitive match between the teams. Pooled time-series analysis showed significant associations between the average of teammates' happy moods and the players' own moods and subjective performances; the associations were independent of hassles and favorable standing in the match. Mood linkage was greater when players were happier and engaged in collective activity. An intraperson analysis of data from these teams and 2 other teams showed that mood linkage was also greater for players who were older, more committed to the team, and more susceptible to emotional contagion. The results support and extend previous findings concerning mood linkage. PMID:11125650

Totterdell, P

2000-12-01

207

Team Research at the Biology-Mathematics Interface: Project Management Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics…

Milton, John G.; Radunskaya, Ami E.; Lee, Arthur H.; de Pillis, Lisette G.; Bartlett, Diana F.

2010-01-01

208

A comparative study of new venture top management team composition, dynamics and performance between university-based and independent start-ups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study tests for differences in top management team (TMT) composition (education, functional expertise, industry experience, and skill), dynamics (shared strategic cognition, potency, cohesion, and conflict) and performance (net cash flow and revenue growth) between a sample of 102 high-technology university-based start-ups and an otherwise equivalently matched sample of 154 independent high-technology new ventures. The results find university-based start-ups

Michael D. Ensley; Keith M. Hmieleski

2005-01-01

209

The Impact of Team Identification on Biased Predictions of Player Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current investigation examined sport fans' impressions of an athlete described as a potential member of their team or a potential member of a rival team. In Study 1, we predicted that individuals would exhibit an ingroup favoritism effect by reporting more positive evaluations of the player's performance when he was described as a…

Wann, Daniel L.; Koch, Katrina; Knoth, Tasha; Fox, David; Aljubaily, Hesham; Lantz, Christopher D.

2006-01-01

210

Beyond Status: Relating Status Inequality to Performance and Health in Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status…

Christie, Amy M.; Barling, Julian

2010-01-01

211

Basic Math Skills and Performance in an Introductory Economics Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors measure math skills with a broader set of explanatory variables than have been used in previous studies. To identify what math skills are important for student success in introductory microeconomics, they examine (1) the student's score on the mathematics portion of the ACT Assessment Test, (2) whether the student has taken calculus,…

Ballard, Charles L.; Johnson, Marianne F.

2004-01-01

212

Brief Report: Suitability of the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) for the Assessment of Social Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims at examining whether the "Social Skills Performance Assessment" (SSPA; Patterson et al. in "Schizophr Res" 48(2-3):351-360, 2001) is a suitable performance-based measure to assess social skills in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). For this purpose, social skills of individuals with ASD and…

Verhoeven, E. W. M.; Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.

2013-01-01

213

Building high-performance teams in the operating room.  

PubMed

Building effective teams requires the delineation of clear goals, an understanding of each member's role in reaching that goal, and continuous feedback as issues are identified. The solo mentality required to become a health care provider needs to be modified to see a bigger picture. Finally, consistent buy-in and support from senior administration to deal with disruptive personalities is vital for long-term success. PMID:22269257

Sax, Harry C

2012-02-01

214

Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ? 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition. PMID:24506819

Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

2014-01-01

215

The effects of aviation-style non-technical skills training on technical performance and outcome in the operating theatre.  

PubMed

Unintended harm to patients in operating theatres is common. Correlations have been demonstrated between teamwork skills and error rates in theatres. This was a single-institution uncontrolled before-after study of the effects of "non-technical" skills training on attitudes, teamwork, technical performance and clinical outcome in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) operations. The setting was the theatre suite of a UK teaching hospital. Attitudes were measured using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). Teamwork was scored using the Oxford Non-Technical Skills (NOTECHS) method. Operative technical errors (OTEs), non-operative procedural errors (NOPEs), complications, operating time and length of hospital stay (LOS) were recorded. A 9 h classroom non-technical skills course based on aviation "Crew Resource Management" (CRM) was offered to all staff, followed by 3 months of twice-weekly coaching from CRM experts. Forty-eight procedures (26 LC and 22 CEA) were studied before intervention, and 55 (32 and 23) afterwards. Non-technical skills and attitudes improved after training (NOTECHS increase 37.0 to 38.7, t = -2.35, p = 0.021, SAQ teamwork climate increase 64.1 to 69.2, t = -2.95, p = 0.007). OTEs declined from 1.73 to 0.98 (u = 1071, p = 0.009), and NOPEs from 8.48 to 5.16 per operation (t = 4.383, p<0.001). These effects were stronger in the LC group than in CEA procedures. The operating time was unchanged, and a non-significant reduction in LOS was observed. Non-technical skills training improved technical performance in theatre, but the effects varied between teams. Considerable cultural resistance to adoption was encountered, particularly among medical staff. Debriefing and challenging authority seemed more difficult to introduce than other parts of the training. Further studies are needed to define the optimal training package, explain variable responses and confirm clinical benefit. PMID:19342524

McCulloch, P; Mishra, A; Handa, A; Dale, T; Hirst, G; Catchpole, K

2009-04-01

216

The Role of a Multidimensional Concept of Trust in the Performance of Global Virtual Teams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper focuses on the concept of trust as an important ingredient of effective global virtual team performance. Definitions of trust and virtual teams are presented. The concept of trust is developed from its unilateral application (trust, absence of trust) to a multidimensional concept including cognitive and affective components. The special challenges of a virtual team are then discussed with particular emphasis on how a multidimensional concept of trust impacts these challenges. Propositions suggesting the multidimensional concept of trust moderates the negative impacts of distance, cross cultural and organizational differences, the effects of electronically mediated communication, reluctance to share information and a lack of hi story/future on the performance of virtual teams are stated. The paper concludes with recommendations and a set of techniques to build both cognitive and affective trust in virtual teams.

Bodensteiner, Nan Muir; Stecklein, Jonette M.

2002-01-01

217

Oral Communication Skills in Higher Education: Using a Performance-Based Evaluation Rubric to Assess Communication Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used The Competent Speaker, a rubric developed by the National Communication Association (S. P. Morreale, M. R. Moore, K. P. Taylor, D. Surges-Tatum, & R. Hulbert-Johnson, 1993), to evaluate student performance in general education public speaking courses as a case study of student skills and programmatic assessment. Results indicate that students taking the general education public speaking course

Norah E. Dunbar; Catherine F. Brooks; Tara Kubicka-Miller

2006-01-01

218

Oral Communication Skills in Higher Education: Using a Performance-Based Evaluation Rubric to Assess Communication Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used "The Competent Speaker", a rubric developed by the National Communication Association (S. P. Morreale, M. R. Moore, K. P. Taylor, D. Surges-Tatum, & R. Hulbert-Johnson, 1993), to evaluate student performance in general education public speaking courses as a case study of student skills and programmatic assessment. Results indicate…

Dunbar, Norah E.; Brooks, Catherine F.; Kubicka-Miller, Tara

2006-01-01

219

Investigation of team dynamics and group performance in the product engineering process  

E-print Network

The cultural traits of a project engineering team can strongly influence the performance of its members and the quality of the product. The 2.009 Product Engineering Processes class provides an opportunity for investigating ...

Lee, Stephanie K. (Stephanie Kwai Ling)

2006-01-01

220

The Effects of an Intervention Strategy on Children's Heart Rates and Skill Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of a fitness infusion instructional strategy (FI) on children's activity levels and skill performance scores. This strategy included aerobic activity within the skill practice tasks and game play. In other words, students performed short bouts of activity between the practice and…

Ignico, Arlene; Corson, Arleen; Vidoni, Carla

2006-01-01

221

A Simulation-Based Acute Skills Performance Assessment for Anesthesia Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier study, trained raters provided reliable scoresforasimulation-basedanesthesiaacutecareskill assessment. In this study, we used this acute care skill evaluation to measure the performance of student nurse anesthetists and resident physician trainees. The performance of these trainees was analyzed to provide data about acute care skill acquisition during training. Group comparisons provided information about the validityofthesimulatedexercises.Asetofsixsimulation- based acute care exercises

David J. Murray; John R. Boulet; Joseph F. Kras; John D. McAllister; Thomas E. Cox

2005-01-01

222

Skill Demands, Changing Work Organization, and Performance. EQW Working Papers WP32.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between skill demands, changing work organization, and performance was examined in a study of workers across 15 "benchmark" jobs in each of 8 public utilities. Skills issues were assessed by plant managers, workers, and their supervisors. Randomly selected managers/supervisors reported a series of performance measures for each…

Cappelli, Peter; Rogovsky, Nikolai

223

29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2011-07-01

224

29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2010-07-01

225

29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2013-07-01

226

29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2012-07-01

227

29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2014-07-01

228

Development of Sensor-Based Measures of Rifle Marksmanship Skill and Performance. CRESST Report 756  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of rifle marksmanship skill and performance were developed using a prototype instrumented laser-based training system. Measures of performance were derived from laser strikes on a video-projected target. Measures of rifle marksmanship skill--breath control, trigger control, and muzzle wobble--were developed from shooters' breathing and…

Espinosa, Paul D.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Parks, Daniel; Baker, Eva L.

2009-01-01

229

Job demands as a moderator of the political skill-job performance relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine whether political skill is equally effective in its prediction of job performance for different job demands. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses self-report sources of employee performance and self-report of political skill after several weeks along with three ratings of target individuals' job demands. Findings – Results support the hypothesis that

Gerhard Blickle; Jochen Kramer; Ingo Zettler; Tassilo Momm; James K. Summers; Timothy P. Munyon; Gerald R. Ferris

2009-01-01

230

Self-leadership behavioural-focused strategies and team performance : The mediating influence of job satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Examines the relationship between the dimensions of self-leadership behavioural-focused strategies, job satisfaction and team performance. It also evaluates the extent to which job satisfaction mediates the influence of self-leadership behavioural-focused strategies on team performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Involves a questionnaire-based survey of employees from a manufacturing organisation operating in Australia. A total of 304 useable questionnaires were received from

John D. Politis

2006-01-01

231

The Team Personality–Team Performance Relationship Revisited: The Impact of Criterion Choice, Pattern of Workflow, and Method of Aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using meta-analytic evidence, this study tested trait- and task-based theoretical approaches to team personality management, using both team behaviors and team outcomes as criteria. Trait theories state that maximization of the team trait is harmful for Extroversion (complementary team fit) but beneficial for Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Emotional Stability (supplementary fit). Task-based theories state that tasks with few work exchanges are

Matthew S. Prewett; Ashley A. G. Walvoord; Frederick R. B. Stilson; Michael E. Rossi; Michael T. Brannick

2009-01-01

232

The impact of subgroup type and subgroup configurational properties on work team performance.  

PubMed

Scholars have invoked subgroups in a number of theories related to teams, yet certain tensions in the literature remain unresolved. In this article, we address 2 of these tensions, both relating to how subgroups are configured in work teams: (a) whether teams perform better with a greater number of subgroups and (b) whether teams perform better when they have imbalanced subgroups (majorities and minorities are present) or balanced subgroups (subgroups are of equal size). We predict that the impact of the number and balance of subgroups depends on the type of subgroup-whether subgroups are formed according to social identity (i.e., identity-based subgroups) or information processing (i.e., knowledge-based subgroups). We first propose that teams are more adversely affected by 2 identity-based subgroups than by any other number, yet the uniquely negative impact of a 2-subgroup configuration is not apparent for knowledge-based subgroups. Instead, a larger number of knowledge-based subgroups is beneficial for performance, such that 2 subgroups is worse for performance when compared with 3 or more subgroups but better for performance when compared with no subgroups or 1 subgroup. Second, we argue that teams perform better when identity-based subgroups are imbalanced yet knowledge-based subgroups are balanced. We also suggest that there are interactive effects between the number and balance of subgroups-however, the nature of this interaction depends on the type of subgroup. To test these predictions, we developed and validated an algorithm that measures the configurational properties of subgroups in organizational work teams. Results of a field study of 326 work teams from a multinational organization support our predictions. PMID:23915429

Carton, Andrew M; Cummings, Jonathon N

2013-09-01

233

Peer-based control in self-managing teams: linking rational and normative influence with individual and group performance.  

PubMed

The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how peer-based rational control, which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with the more commonly studied normative control force of group cohesion to explain both individual and collective performance in teams. On the basis of data from 587 factory workers in 45 self-managing teams at 3 organizations, peer-based rational control corresponded with higher performance for both individuals and collective teams. Results further demonstrated that the rational and normative mechanism of peer-based control interacted to explain performance at both the individual and team levels. Increased peer-based rational control corresponded with higher individual and collective performance in teams with low cohesion, but the positive effects on performance were attenuated in cohesive teams. PMID:21895352

Stewart, Greg L; Courtright, Stephen H; Barrick, Murray R

2012-03-01

234

Performance Consistency of International Soccer Teams in Euro 2012: a Time Series Analysis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of performance in successive matches for international soccer teams from Europe which qualified for the quarter final stage of EURO 2012 in Poland and Ukraine. The eight teams that reached the quarter final stage and beyond were the sample teams for this time series analysis. The autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions were used to analyze the consistency of play and its association with the result of match in sixteen performance indicators of each team. The results of autocorrelation function showed that based on the number of consistent performance indicators, Spain and Italy demonstrated more consistency in successive matches in relation to other teams. This appears intuitive given that Spain played Italy in the final. However, it is arguable that other teams played at a higher performance levels at various parts of the competition, as opposed to performing consistently throughout the tournament. The results of the cross-correlation analysis showed that in relation to goal-related indicators, these had higher associations with the match results of Spain and France. In relation to the offensive-related indicators, France, England, Portugal, Greece, Czech Republic and Spain showed a positive correlation with the match result. In relation to the defensive-related indicators, France, England, Greece and Portugal showed a positive correlation with match results. In conclusion, in an international soccer tournament, the successful teams displayed a greater degree of performance consistency across all indicators in comparison to their competitors who occasionally would show higher levels of performance in individual games, yet not consistently across the overall tournament. The authors therefore conclude that performance consistency is more significant in international tournament soccer, versus occasionally excelling in some metrics and indicators in particular games. PMID:24235996

Shafizadeh, Mohsen; Taylor, Marc; Peñas, Carlos Lago

2013-01-01

235

Believing in "us": Exploring leaders' capacity to enhance team confidence and performance by building a sense of shared social identity.  

PubMed

The present study examined the impact of athlete leaders' perceived confidence on their teammates' confidence and performance. Male basketball players (N = 102) participated in groups of 4. To manipulate leaders' team confidence, the appointed athlete leader of each newly formed basketball team (a confederate) expressed either high or low team confidence. The results revealed an effect of team confidence contagion such that team members had greater team confidence when the leader expressed high (rather than low) confidence in the team's success. Second, the present study sought to explain the mechanisms through which this contagion occurs. In line with the social identity approach to leadership, structural equation modeling demonstrated that this effect was partially mediated by team members' increased team identification. Third, findings indicated that when leaders expressed high team confidence, team members' performance increased during the test, but when leaders expressed low confidence, team members' performance decreased. Athlete leaders thus have the capacity to shape team members' confidence-and hence their performance-in both positive and negative ways. In particular, by showing that they believe in "our team," leaders are able not only to make "us" a psychological reality, but also to transform "us" into an effective operational unit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25401268

Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Steffens, Niklas K; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Boen, Filip

2015-03-01

236

The Columbia-Willamette Skill Builders Consortium. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Columbia-Willamette Skill Builders Consortium was formed in early 1988 in response to a growing awareness of the need for improved workplace literacy training and coordinated service delivery in Northwest Oregon. In June 1990, the consortium received a National Workplace Literacy Program grant to develop and demonstrate such training. The…

Portland Community Coll., OR.

237

Success Skills for Textile Workers. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Success Skills for Textile Workers project was established in November 1994 by Alabama educational institutions and textile manufacturers to provide workplace literacy training for textile workers. This report details project objectives and outcomes through October 31, 1997. Introductory materials describe project components and list…

Steck, Susan

238

The Effect of Personality Type on Team Performance in Engineering Materials Term Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most of long-term engineering class projects require teamwork. Often, conducting projects increase the quality of classroom life and facilitate student learning. Sometimes, team projects hinder student learning and create disharmony and dissatisfaction with classroom life. In many cases, the mixture of each individuals personality determines team dynamics. The Introduction to Engineering Materials course for junior level students encompasses a semester-long term project, which heavily requires teamwork. The term project should focus on a component of existing manufactured products and show why a particular material is used for a particular application. The experiments chosen should prove or disprove this. Each team will chose a topic, determine how to evaluate that topic, devise relevant experiments, evaluate the results of these experiments and formulate a conclusion. Finally, the students will present their results to the class at the end of the semester. The goal of this study is to see how the team performance can be affected by each individual students personality type in the term projects of the engineering material course. The personality test used in this study was the DISC test, which is the oldest, most validated, and reliable personality assessment tool. DISC stands for Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Conscientiousness, which are the four dimensions in the personality characteristics. For the term project, six teams were formulated. The instructor assigned four or five students to a team. Students with similar personality types were assigned to work with each other in three of the teams. The other three teams have students with well-mixed dimensions in their personality characteristics. This paper presents the effectiveness of using student personality on team building for the semester-long team projects. Overall student experience and lessons learned in organizing such a project are also discussed.

Jang, Jaesoon

239

Development and usability of a behavioural marking system for performance assessment of obstetrical teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Teamwork and communication have been identified as root causes of sentinel events involving infant death and injury during delivery. However, despite the emphasis on team training as a way to improve maternal and fetal safety outcomes, valid and reliable markers of obstetrical team performance are not available to assess curricular efficacy.Objectives:The objective of this study was to develop and assess

D Tregunno; R Pittini; M Haley; P J Morgan

2009-01-01

240

An intelligent tutoring system for the investigation of high performance skill acquisition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issue of training high performance skills is of increasing concern. These skills include tasks such as driving a car, playing the piano, and flying an aircraft. Traditionally, the training of high performance skills has been accomplished through the use of expensive, high-fidelity, 3-D simulators, and/or on-the-job training using the actual equipment. Such an approach to training is quite expensive. The design, implementation, and deployment of an intelligent tutoring system developed for the purpose of studying the effectiveness of skill acquisition using lower-cost, lower-physical-fidelity, 2-D simulation. Preliminary experimental results are quite encouraging, indicating that intelligent tutoring systems are a cost-effective means of training high performance skills.

Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy; Regian, J. Wesley

1991-01-01

241

Performance-based assessment of graduate student research skills: timing, trajectory, and potential thresholds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of research skills and scientific reasoning underpins the mission of graduate education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields, yet our understanding of this process is mainly drawn from self-report and faculty survey data. In this study, we empirically investigate the pattern of research skill development using STEM graduate students' written research proposals. Analyses of proposal performance

Briana Crotwell Timmerman; David Feldon; Michelle Maher; Denise Strickland; Joanna Gilmore

2011-01-01

242

Training Teachers in Peer-Assessment Skills: Effects on Performance and Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on two increasingly important issues in teacher education: the design of more skill-based education and the involvement of students by means of peer assessment. Ninety-three student teachers were trained in one important peer-assessment skill, namely 'defining performance criteria'. This training, which consisted of four…

Sluijsmans, Dominique; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; van Merrienboer, Jeroen; Martens, Rob

2004-01-01

243

Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

2014-01-01

244

Competencies That Count: Strategies for Assessing High-Performance Skills. LAB Working Paper No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides a "road map" to the various ways that schools and employers assess high-performance competencies, such as problem solving, information management, and communication and negotiation skills. The guide begins with a brief analysis of why it is important to assess these skills in light of the current standards environment in…

Allen, Lili

245

Information and Strategic Internet Skills of Secondary Students: A Performance Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the information and strategic Internet skills of Dutch secondary students were measured in a performance test. Participating students were asked to complete assignments on the Internet. The findings reveal that the levels of both information and strategic Internet skills have much room for improvement. Of the variables that…

van Deursen, A. J. A. M.; van Diepen, S.

2013-01-01

246

Training to Enhance Design Team Performance: A Cure for Tunnel Vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design Team performance is a function of the quality and degree of academic training and the cumulative, learned experience of the individual members of the team. Teamwork, leadership, and communications certainly are factors that affect the measure of the performance of the team, but they are not addressed here. This paper focuses on accelerating the learned experience of team members and describes an organizational approach that can significantly increase the effective experience level for any engineering design team. The performance measure of the whole team can be increased by increasing the engineering disciplines' cross awareness of each other and by familiarizing them with their affect at the system level. Discipline engineers know their own discipline well, but typically are not intimately familiar with their technical interaction with and dependencies on all the other disciplines of engineering. These dependencies are design integration functions and are worked out well by the discipline engineers as long as they are involved in the design of types of systems that they have experience with.

Parker, James W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

247

Team Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of principals in structuring teaching teams; to assess background and personality characteristics appearing essential to successful individual and team performance; and to select personality factor scores which would predict individual and team success. Subjects were 31 teaching teams (99…

Cunningham, David C.

1963-01-01

248

Cognition-based and affect-based trust as mediators of leader behavior influences on team performance.  

PubMed

We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based trust and team psychological safety. Transformational leadership influenced team performance indirectly through cognition-based trust. Cognition-based trust directly influenced team potency and indirectly (through affect-based trust) influenced team psychological safety. The effects of leader behavior on team performance were fully mediated through the trust in leader variables and the team psychological states. Servant leadership explained an additional 10% of the variance in team performance beyond the effect of transformational leadership. We discuss implications of these results for research on the relationship between leader behavior and team performance, and for efforts to enhance leader development by combining knowledge from different leadership theories. PMID:21299271

Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Peng, Ann Chunyan

2011-07-01

249

Measuring critical care air support teams' performance during extended periods of duty.  

PubMed

The Royal Air Force (RAF) Critical Care Air Support Teams (CCASTs) aeromedically evacuate seriously injured service personnel. Long casualty evacuation chains create logistical constraints that must be considered when aeromedically evacuating patients. One constraint is the length of a CCAST mission and its potential effect on team member performance. Despite no evidence of patient care compromise, the RAF has commissioned a study to investigate whether CCAST mission length influences performance. Describing and understanding the role of a CCAST enabled fatigue to be defined. Factors essential to studying fatigue were then identified that were used to develop a theoretical model for designing a study to measure the effects of fatigue on CCAST performance. Relevant factors include the patient's clinical condition, team members' cognition and vigilance levels, and the occupational aviation environment. Further factors influencing overall performance include the duration and complexity of patient interventions, mission length, circadian influences, and fatigue countermeasures. PMID:20683231

Lamb, Di

2010-01-01

250

Beyond Budgeting: A Performance Management Model for Software Development Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Beyond Budgeting performance management model enables companies to keep pace with changing environments, to quickly create\\u000a and adapt strategy and to empower people throughout the organisation to make effective choices. We argue that this performance\\u000a management model may be ideal for agile software development. Although drawn from different disciplines, both are designed\\u000a for a customer-orientated, fast-changing operating environment and

Garry Lohan; Kieran Conboy; Michael Lang

2010-01-01

251

Modelling the Progression of Competitive Performance of an Academy’s Soccer Teams  

PubMed Central

Progression of a team’s performance is a key issue in competitive sport, but there appears to have been no published research on team progression for periods longer than a season. In this study we report the game-score progression of three teams of a youth talent-development academy over five seasons using a novel analytic approach based on generalised mixed modelling. The teams consisted of players born in 1991, 1992 and 1993; they played totals of 115, 107 and 122 games in Asia and Europe between 2005 and 2010 against teams differing in age by up to 3 years. Game scores predicted by the mixed model were assumed to have an over-dispersed Poisson distribution. The fixed effects in the model estimated an annual linear pro-gression for Aspire and for the other teams (grouped as a single opponent) with adjustment for home-ground advantage and for a linear effect of age difference between competing teams. A random effect allowed for different mean scores for Aspire and opposition teams. All effects were estimated as factors via log-transformation and presented as percent differences in scores. Inferences were based on the span of 90% confidence intervals in relation to thresholds for small factor effects of x/÷1.10 (+10%/-9%). Most effects were clear only when data for the three teams were combined. Older teams showed a small 27% increase in goals scored per year of age difference (90% confidence interval 13 to 42%). Aspire experienced a small home-ground advantage of 16% (-5 to 41%), whereas opposition teams experienced 31% (7 to 60%) on their own ground. After adjustment for these effects, the Aspire teams scored on average 1.5 goals per match, with little change in the five years of their existence, whereas their opponents’ scores fell from 1.4 in their first year to 1.0 in their last. The difference in progression was trivial over one year (7%, -4 to 20%), small over two years (15%, -8 to 44%), but unclear over >2 years. In conclusion, the generalized mixed model has marginal utility for estimating progression of soccer scores, owing to the uncertainty arising from low game scores. The estimates are likely to be more precise and useful in sports with higher game scores. Key pointsA generalized linear mixed model is the approach for tracking game scores, key performance indicators or other measures of performance based on counts in sports where changes within and/or between games/seasons have to be considered.Game scores in soccer could be useful to track performance progression of teams, but hundreds of games are needed.Fewer games will be needed for tracking performance represented by counts with high scores, such as game scores in rugby or key performance indicators based on frequent events or player actions in any team sport. PMID:24149364

Malcata, Rita M.; Hopkins, Will G; Richardson, Scott

2012-01-01

252

A case study of team work and performance-linked payment of family physicians in Portugal.  

PubMed

In Portugal, the design and the implementation of models of primary care teams has a history of 30 years. The evolution observed is from individual medical work, in Health Centres, supported on an ad hoc basis by other health professionals, to health centres integrating a diversity of formal working groups, including primary care/family health teams called "Family Health Units" (FHU). This evolution included the creation and gradual affirmation of the speciality of family medicine and the experimentation with different models of primary health care provision: voluntary primary care health teams without financial incentives (Alfa project), voluntary primary care health teams with a performance-related-remuneration system and the current phase of scaling up FHU. The process described here illustrates how a group of physicians has established a non-formal strategy of reform throughout 30 years. This strategy involves mobilization policies and the development of field experiences by individual leaders, groups and organizations. PMID:17665838

Conceição, Claudia; Van Lerberghe, Wim; Ramos, Vitor; Hipólito, Fátima; Ferrinho, Paulo

2007-01-01

253

A Method for Early Identification of Students Likely to Fail a Minimum Competency Exit Level Test: Early Prediction of Scores on the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The public schools reform movement has led to a proliferation of minimum competency testing programs by states. At the 11th/12th grade level, the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS), mandated by Texas House Bill 72, is an exit exam, divided into two sections which measure minimum competencies in math and language skills.…

Bostic, Jeff Q.; And Others

254

Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

Elder, Stephen D.

2010-01-01

255

Coach Mid-Season Replacement and Team Performance in Professional Soccer  

PubMed Central

The coaching carousel or turnover is an extreme but frequently occurring phenomenon in soccer. Among the reasons for firing a coach, the most common is the existence of a shock-effect: a new coach would be able to motivate the players better and therefore to improve results. Using data from the Spanish Soccer League during the seasons from 1997–1998 to 2006–2007, this paper investigates the relationship between team performance and coach change over time. The empirical analysis shows that the shock effect of a turnover has a positive impact on team performance in the short term. Results reveal no impact of coach turnover in the long term. The favourable short-term impact on team performance of a coach turnover is followed by continued gradual worsening of results. The turnover effect is nonexistent when the comparison between the new coach and the old coach is done over 10, 15 or 20 matches before and after termination. PMID:23487177

Lago-Peñas, Carlos

2011-01-01

256

78 FR 41187 - Driver Qualifications: Skill Performance Evaluation; Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Qualifications: Skill Performance Evaluation; Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles' Application...receipt of an application for exemption from the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles (Virginia), on behalf of truck and bus drivers...

2013-07-09

257

Visual and skill effects on soccer passing performance, kinematics, and outcome estimations  

PubMed Central

The role of visual information and action representations in executing a motor task was examined from a mental representations approach. High-skill (n = 20) and low-skill (n = 20) soccer players performed a passing task to two targets at distances of 9.14 and 18.29 m, under three visual conditions: normal, occluded, and distorted vision (i.e., +4.0 corrective lenses, a visual acuity of approximately 6/75) without knowledge of results. Following each pass, participants estimated the relative horizontal distance from the target as the ball crossed the target plane. Kinematic data during each pass were also recorded for the shorter distance. Results revealed that performance on the motor task decreased as a function of visual information and task complexity (i.e., distance from target) regardless of skill level. High-skill players performed significantly better than low-skill players on both the actual passing and estimation tasks, at each target distance and visual condition. In addition, kinematic data indicated that high-skill participants were more consistent and had different kinematic movement patterns than low-skill participants. Findings contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms required for successful performance in a self-paced, discrete and closed motor task.

Basevitch, Itay; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Land, William M.; Ward, Paul

2015-01-01

258

Validity of specific motor skills in predicting table-tennis performance in novice players.  

PubMed

An experiment assessed whether novice table-tennis players' ball-balancing and bouncing skills could predict their performances after a semester of being coached. A pretest-posttest design was used to test this hypothesis with 82 male and 77 female physical education students who initially performed the skills and subsequently participated in a round-robin tournament. Moderate negative but significant (p<.01) Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients were obtained between some of the ball control skills scores and overall ranking in the table-tennis tournament. PMID:15141923

Toriola, Abel L; Toriola, Olutoyin M; Igbokwe, Nicholas U

2004-04-01

259

The importance of vertical and shared leadership within new venture top management teams: Implications for the performance of startups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the relative influence of vertical versus shared leadership within new venture top management teams on the performance of startups using two different samples. Vertical leadership stems from an appointed or formal leader of a team (e.g., the CEO), whereas shared leadership is a form of distributed leadership stemming from within a team. Transformational, transactional, empowering, and

Michael D. Ensley; Keith M. Hmieleski; Craig L. Pearce

2006-01-01

260

The impact of trait emotional intelligence on nursing team performance and cohesiveness.  

PubMed

Claims about the positive influence of emotional intelligence (EI) on work team performance are very numerous, both in commercial and scientific literature. However, despite the huge interest that media and business consultants put in EI and its fast-growing use in organizations, there is very little empirical evidence to support these claims. In this study, we investigated the relationships between EI, performance, and cohesiveness in 23 nursing teams. EI was assessed using the modified version of the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale and cohesiveness with the Group Cohesiveness Scale. Finally, nursing team performance was measured at four different levels: job satisfaction, chief nursing executives' rating, turnover rate, and health care quality. Results showed that health care quality was positively correlated with emotion regulation. Emotion regulation was also positively correlated with group cohesiveness. Surprisingly, it also appears that emotion appraisal was negatively correlated with the health care quality provided by teams. These results suggest that EI and, more specifically, Emotional Regulation may provide an interesting new way of enhancing nursing teams' cohesion and patient/client outcomes. PMID:19161959

Quoidbach, Jordi; Hansenne, Michel

2009-01-01

261

Effectiveness of quality-control aids in verifying K-9-team explosive detection performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and supporting agencies conducted a developmental test and evaluation (DTE) to determine if quality control aids (QCAs) could be developed that would provide effective surrogates to actual explosives used for training and testing K-9 explosives detection teams. Non-detonable surrogates are required to alleviate logistics and contamination issues with explosives used sa training aids. Comparative K-9 team detection performance for explosives used as training aids and QCAs configurations of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCA configuration of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCAs. The configurations were a paper patch impregnated with a solution of the explosive, a cloth pouch filed with small amounts of solid explosive, and the non-hazardous explosive for security training and testing material. The DTE was conducted at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, where the K-9 teams undergo initial training. Six FAA certified operational teams participated. All explosives and QCAs were presented to the K-9 teams using a 10 scent box protocol. The results show that K-9 team as are more sensitive to explosives than the candidate QCAs. More importantly, it was discovered that the explosives at Lackland AFB are cross-contaminated, meaning that explosives possessed volatile artifacts from other explosives. There are two potential hypotheses explaining why the dogs did not detect the QCAs. First, the cross-contamination of Lackland training explosives may mean that K-9 teams are only trained to detect the explosives with the most volatile chemical signatures. Alternatively, the QCA configurations may have been below the trained detection threshold of the K-9s. It is recommended that K-9 teams train on uncontaminated odors from properly designed QCAs to ensure that dogs respond to the appropriate explosive components, and not some other constituent or contaminant.

Hallowell, Susan F.; Fischer, Douglas S.; Brasher, Jeffrey D.; Malone, Robert L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Rae, Cathy

1997-02-01

262

Professionals’ views on interprofessional stroke team functioning  

PubMed Central

Introduction The quality of integrated stroke care depends on smooth team functioning but professionals may not always work well together. Professionals’ perspectives on the factors that influence stroke team functioning remain largely unexamined. Understanding their experiences is critical to indentifying measures to improve team functioning. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that contributed to the success of interprofessional stroke teams as perceived by team members. Methods We distributed questionnaires to professionals within 34 integrated stroke care teams at various health care facilities in 9 Dutch regions. 558 respondents (response rate: 39%) completed the questionnaire. To account for the hierarchical structure of the study design we fitted a hierarchical random-effects model. The hierarchical structure comprised 558 stroke team members (level 1) nested in 34 teams (level 2). Results Analyses showed that personal development, social well-being, interprofessional education, communication, and role understanding significantly contributed to stroke team functioning. Team-level constructs affecting interprofessional stroke team functioning were communication and role understanding. No significant relationships were found with individual-level personal autonomy and team-level cohesion. Discussion and conclusion Our findings suggest that interventions to improve team members’ social well-being, communication, and role understanding will improve teamsperformance. To further advance interprofessional team functioning, healthcare organizations should pay attention to developing professionals’ interpersonal skills and interprofessional education. PMID:23390409

Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P

2011-01-01

263

Politics perceptions as moderator of the political skill – job performance relationship: A two-study, cross-national, constructive replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a two-study, cross-national, constructive replication to examine the role of organizational politics perceptions as a contextual moderator of the political skill – job performance relationship. Specifically, we hypothesized that high levels of political skill would demonstrate its strongest positive effects on job performance when politics perceptions were perceived as low. Conversely, we hypothesized that political skill would demonstrate

Ilias Kapoutsis; Alexandros Papalexandris; Andreas Nikolopoulos; Wayne A. Hochwarter; Gerald R. Ferris

2011-01-01

264

Cognitive-behaviour therapy and skilled motor performance in adults with chronic tic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of

Kieron P. Oconnor; Marc E. Lavoie; Emmanuel Stip; François Borgeat; Anick Laverdure

2008-01-01

265

Establishing and Maintaining High-Performing Leadership Teams: A Primary Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the findings from a study into high-performing leadership teams in English primary schools. The schools, in the sample, received "outstanding" Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) grades overall, and for leadership and management, in their most recent school inspection. The evidence suggests that developing…

Abbott, Ian; Bush, Tony

2013-01-01

266

A Memory Game to Demonstrate the Power of Collaborative Efforts to Improve Team Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaboration is an important aspect of information systems (IS) education since work is typically performed in teams. However, IS students often do not fully appreciate the value of group work in their business courses. This teaching tip describes an activity that will objectively demonstrate the value of collaboration and diversity of…

Buche, Mari W.

2013-01-01

267

Evaluating individual performance in team sports : A network analysis of Batsmen and Bowlers in Cricket  

E-print Network

Quantifying individual performance in team activity is critical in team selection in international sports. We explore the application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to rate individuals in an team activity. We choose the game of Cricket as an example. The number runs scored by batsmen and wickets taken by bowlers serves as a natural way of quantifying the performance of a cricketer. Traditionally the batsmen and bowlers are rated on their batting or bowling average respectively. However in a game like cricket it is always important the manner in which one scores the runs or takes a wicket. Scoring runs against a strong bowling line-up or delivering a brilliant performance against a team with strong batting line-up deserves more credit. A player's average is not able to capture this aspect of the game. In this paper we present a refined method to quantify the `quality' of runs scored by a batsman or wickets taken by a bowler. We apply tools of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to judge a cricketer's performance. ...

Mukherjee, Satyam

2012-01-01

268

How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.  

PubMed

Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25000359

Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

2014-09-01

269

Have Basic Mathematical Skills Grown Obsolete in the Computer Age: Assessing Basic Mathematical Skills and Forecasting Performance in a Business Statistics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to measure the comprehension of basic mathematical skills of students enrolled in statistics classes at a large regional university, and to determine if the scores earned on a basic math skills test are useful in forecasting student performance in these statistics classes, and to determine if students' basic math…

Noser, Thomas C.; Tanner, John R.; Shah, Situl

2008-01-01

270

Base Rates of Social Skills Acquisition/Performance Deficits, Strengths, and Problem Behaviors: An Analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…

Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.

2010-01-01

271

Distributed teaming on JPL projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses structures, actions and technologies that contribute to real team development of a distributed team, and the leadership skills and tools that are used to implement that team development.

Baroff, L. E.

2002-01-01

272

Modeling and Quantification of Team Performance in Human Reliability Analysis for Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) are important technical contributors to the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) risk-informed and performance based approach to regulating U.S. commercial nuclear activities. Furthermore, all currently operating commercial NPPs in the U.S. are required by federal regulation to be staffed with crews of operators. Yet, aspects of team performance are underspecified in most HRA methods that are widely used in the nuclear industry. There are a variety of "emergent" team cognition and teamwork errors (e.g., communication errors) that are 1) distinct from individual human errors, and 2) important to understand from a PRA perspective. The lack of robust models or quantification of team performance is an issue that affects the accuracy and validity of HRA methods and models, leading to significant uncertainty in estimating HEPs. This paper describes research that has the objective to model and quantify team dynamics and teamwork within NPP control room crews for risk informed applications, thereby improving the technical basis of HRA, which improves the risk-informed approach the NRC uses to regulate the U.S. commercial nuclear industry.

Jeffrey C. JOe; Ronald L. Boring

2014-06-01

273

The effects of teamwork on individual learning and perceptions of team performance : A comparison of face-to-face and online project settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In light of contradictory research findings, the purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating effects of team setting (face-to-face or online) on the relationship that team member affect and interaction processes have on individual team source learning, and at the team level on the relationship between group cohesiveness and perceived team performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Students enrolled

Ethlyn A. Williams; Stephanie L. Castro

2010-01-01

274

A study on the effect of varying sequence of lab performance skills on lab performance of high school physics students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this investigation was to study how student rank in class, student gender and skill sequence affect high school students' performance on the lab skills involved in a laboratory-based inquiry task in physics. The focus of the investigation was the effect of skill sequence as determined by the particular task. The skills considered were: Hypothesis, Procedure, Planning, Data, Graph, Calculations and Conclusion. Three physics lab tasks based on the simple pendulum concept were administered to 282 Regents physics high school students. The reliability of the designed tasks was high. Student performance was evaluated on individual student written responses and a scoring rubric. The tasks had high discrimination power and were of moderate difficulty (65%). It was found that, student performance was weak on Conclusion (42%), Hypothesis (48%), and Procedure (51%), where the numbers in parentheses represent the mean as a percentage of the maximum possible score. Student performance was strong on Calculations (91%), Data (82%), Graph (74%) and Plan (68%). Out of all seven skills, Procedure had the strongest correlation (.73) with the overall task performance. Correlation analysis revealed some strong relationships among the seven skills which were grouped in two distinct clusters: Hypothesis, Procedure and Plan belong to one, and Data, Graph, Calculations, and Conclusion belong to the other. This distinction may indicate different mental processes at play within each skill cluster. The effect of student rank was not statistically significant according to the MANOVA results due to the large variation of rank levels among the participating schools. The effect of gender was significant on the entire test because of performance differences on Calculations and Graph, where male students performed better than female students. Skill sequence had a significant effect on the skills of Procedure, Plan, Data and Conclusion. Students are rather weak in proposing a sensible, detailed procedure for the inquiry task which involves the "novel" concept. However they perform better on Procedure and Plan, if the "novel" task is not preceded by another, which explicitly offers step-by-step procedure instructions. It was concluded that the format of detailed, structured instructions often adopted by many commercial and school-developed lab books and conventional lab practices, fails to prepare students to propose a successful, detailed procedure when faced with a slightly "novel", lab-based inquiry task. Student performance on Data collection was higher in the tasks that involved the more familiar experimental arrangement than in the tasks using the slightly "novel" equipment. Student performance on Conclusion was better in tasks where they had to collect the Data themselves than in tasks, where all relevant Data information was given to them.

Bournia-Petrou, Ethel A.

275

Survival of the Fittest: Implications of Self-Reliance and Coping for Leaders and Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a laboratory methodology, the authors sought to establish an association between self-reliance (based on attachment theory) and team performance and satisfaction. Three hypotheses (direct effect, mediator, and moderator) were tested. With a sample of 187 students, the authors compared leader self-reliance characteristics with group member self-reliance characteristics (group n = 50) as predictors of group performance and satisfaction. Only

Catherine S. Daus; Janice R. W. Joplin

1999-01-01

276

Focus of Attention Affects Performance of Motor Skills in Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the extent to which learners performing a simple keyboard passage would be affected by directing their focus of attention to different aspects of their movements, 16 music majors performed a brief keyboard passage under each of four focus conditions arranged in a counterbalanced design--a total of 64 experimental sessions. As they…

Duke, Robert A.; Cash, Carla Davis; Allen, Sarah E.

2011-01-01

277

Technical match characteristics and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in male elite team handball.  

PubMed

Modern team handball match-play imposes substantial physical and technical demands on elite players. However, only limited knowledge seems to exist about the specific working requirements in elite team handball. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on male elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry. Based on continuous video recording of individual players during elite team handball match-play (62 tournament games, ?4 players per game), computerized technical match analysis was performed in male elite team handball players along with anthropometric measurements over a 6 season time span. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, tackles, technical errors, and defense errors) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., hard or light tackles, type of shot, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Players showed 36.9 ± 13.1 (group mean ± SD) high-intense technical playing actions per match with a mean total effective playing time of 53.85 ± 5.87 minutes. In offense, each player performed 6.0 ± 5.2 fast breaks, received 34.5 ± 21.3 tackles in total, and performed in defense 3.7 ± 3.5 blockings, 3.9 ± 3.0 claspings, and 5.8 ± 3.6 hard tackles. Wing players (84.5 ± 5.8 kg, 184.9 ± 5.7 cm) were less heavy and smaller (p < 0.001) than backcourt players (94.7 ± 7.1 kg, 191.9 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (99.4 ± 6.2 kg, 194.8 ± 3.6 cm). In conclusion, modern male elite team handball match-play is characterized by a high number of short-term, high-intense intermittent technical playing actions. Indications of technical fatigue were observed. Physical demands differed between playing positions with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations with opponent players than backcourt players and pivots. Body anthropometry seemed to have an important influence on playing performance because it is highly related to playing positions. The present observations suggest that male elite team handball players should implement more position-specific training regimens, while also focusing on anaerobic training and strength training. PMID:24978832

Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, Per

2015-02-01

278

Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.  

PubMed

Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies. PMID:25400063

Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

2014-12-01

279

Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance  

PubMed Central

Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes. PMID:25202292

Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilali?, Merim

2014-01-01

280

The Impact of Performance Skills on Students' Attitudes towards the Learning Experience in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to assist in transforming a lecture experience into an occasion that can attract and engage students is via the use of performance techniques. Investigating the impact of certain types of performance skills on students' attitudes towards the learning experience can help better understand the relevance of such techniques in face to face and…

Hains-Wesson, Rachael

2011-01-01

281

Thoughts and attention of athletes under pressure: skill-focus or performance worries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choking under pressure in sport has been explained by either explicit attention to skill execution (self-focus theories), or attention to performance worries (distraction theories). The aim of the present study was to find out which focus of attention occurs most often when expert athletes perform under pressure. Two retrospective methods were employed, namely, verbal reports and concept mapping. In the

Raôul R. D. Oudejans; Wilma Kuijpers; Chris C. Kooijman; Frank C. Bakker

2011-01-01

282

Relationships between performance and skin resistance evolution involving various motor skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article was to question the classical inverted-U curve relationship between activation and performance. It was hypothesized that changes in performance were related to both activation and the degree of skill difficulty, suggesting a more complex relation. Fifty-one subjects took part in one of three experiments requiring sensory and motor anticipation abilities. They were divided into three

C. Collet; R. Roure; H. Rada; A. Dittmar; E. Vernet-Maury

1996-01-01

283

Students’ performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare students’ performance in the different clinical skills (CSs) assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Methods Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students’ exit examination (n=185). Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Results Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs), procedural skills (PSs), and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332)=20.253, p<0.001]. Pairwise multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between the means of the eight pairs of CSs assessed, at p<0.05. Conclusions CRSs appeared to be the weakest while PSs were the strongest, among the six CSs assessed. Students’ unsatisfactory performance in CRS needs to be addressed as CRS is one of the core competencies in medical education and a critical skill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students’ clinical reasoning development. PMID:25697602

Sim, Joong Hiong; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Mansor, Azura; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Foong, Chan Choong; Vadivelu, Jamuna

2015-01-01

284

Team-based learning in the gross anatomy laboratory improves academic performance and students' attitudes toward teamwork.  

PubMed

As the healthcare climate shifts toward increased interdisciplinary patient care, it is essential that students become accomplished at group problem solving and develop positive attitudes toward teamwork. Team-based learning (TBL) has become a popular approach to medical education because of its ability to promote active learning, problem-solving skills, communication, and teamwork. However, its documented use in the laboratory setting and physical therapy education is limited. We used TBL as a substitute for one-third of cadaveric dissections in the gross anatomy laboratories at two Doctor of Physical Therapy programs to study its effect on both students' perceptions and academic performance. We surveyed students at the beginning and completion of their anatomy course as well as students who had previously completed a traditional anatomy course to measure the impact of TBL on students' perceptions of teamwork. We found that the inclusion of TBL in the anatomy laboratory improves students' attitudes toward working with peers (P?performance between TBL and non-TBL students revealed that students who participated in TBL scored significantly higher on their first anatomy practical examination and on their head/neck written examination (P?team, a 10.5% increase in the mean rank score for Problem Solver resulted after the completion of the TBL-based anatomy course. Our data indicate that TBL is an effective supplement to cadaveric dissection in the laboratory portion of gross anatomy, improving both students' grades and perceptions of teamwork. Anat Sci Educ 8: 95-103. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:24799448

Huitt, Tiffany W; Killins, Anita; Brooks, William S

2015-03-01

285

Integrating Engineering Design Heuristics into a First Year Engineering Course to Enhance Problem Solving and Team Building Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to integrating a module on design into a first year engineering course with goals to facilitate student s' systematic methodology to design while building tea m skills. At the beginning of their academic careers students are usually competent in basic science and math, but have limitations in integrating this knowledge with solving a practical problem.

Kathleen M. Leonard; Joseph J. Mastromonico

286

The effects of a mental skills package on ‘repeatable good performance’ in cricketers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the efficacy of a mental skills package to both improve consistency and level of performance in cricketers, and to investigate the influence of different performance measures on cricketing performance.Method: Semi-professional cricketers (n=16) were matched into experimental and control groups. Cricketing performance was monitored subjectively and objectively across two seasons. Prior to the second season, the experimental group

R. C Thelwell; I. W Maynard

2003-01-01

287

Comparison of Simulation-Based Performance with Metrics of Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing Students: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative approaches to evaluating critical thinking skills are needed, as pencil and paper assessments may not accurately predict simulated or actual clinical performance. To ensure patient safety, it is imperative to determine how to best promote and measure critical thinking skills. Few studies have examined how these skills are related to…

Fero, Laura J.

2009-01-01

288

Validation of a Self-Efficacy Instrument and Its Relationship to Performance of Crisis Resource Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy is thought to be important for resuscitation proficiency in that it influences the development of and access to the associated medical knowledge, procedural skills and crisis resource management (CRM) skills. Since performance assessment of CRM skills is challenging, self-efficacy is often used as a measure of competence in this…

Plant, Jennifer L.; van Schaik, Sandrijn M.; Sliwka, Diane C.; Boscardin, Christy K.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.

2011-01-01

289

Flow Theory and the Development of Musical Performance Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the extent to which flow experiences account for differences in the amount of time young musicians spend practicing and their levels of performance achievement. Suggests that the moderate achievers' musical experiences at the specialist music school may not be conducive to sustaining long-term interest and progress in music. (CMK)

O'Neill, Susan

1999-01-01

290

Teaming up to crack innovation enterprise integration. Key growth imperatives succeed best when specialized teams share skills, experience, and insight across the silos.  

PubMed

In the continuing quest for business growth, many CEOs are turning to their CIOs and IT organizations because technology is absolutely essential to two compelling sources of growth: innovation and enterprise integration. The speed of innovation often depends on the ability to coordinate across organizational boundaries. Innovations cannot reach a sufficient level of scale and impact unless they are integrated into the larger operations of the corporation. And yet, say recently retired Harvard Business School dean Cash, Oxford dean Earl, and nGenera director of research Morison, the two endeavors remain "unnatural acts": For too many large businesses are better at stifling innovation than at capitalizing on it, better at optimizing local operations than at integrating them for the good of the enterprise and its customers. To make both pursuits seem more natural, the authors recommend creating two dedicated, IT-powered teams: a distributed innovation group (DIG) and an enterprise integration group (EIG). The DIG serves as the center of expertise for innovation techniques, considers new uses for technology already being developed inside the company, looks for new developments outside the company, and provides experts for internal innovation initiatives. The EIG selects the most promising from among competing integration projects, provides resources to give them a strong start, and then folds them into the operating model of the enterprise. Without such agencies, the authors maintain, innovation and integration won't spread far enough or fast enough throughout a large organization to keep pace with the smaller, younger, more technology-based competitors to which innovation and integration come much more naturally. PMID:19009723

Cash, James I; Earl, Michael J; Morison, Robert

2008-11-01

291

Soft skills in higher education: importance and improvement ratings as a function of individual differences and academic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three UK studies on the relationship between a purpose?built instrument to assess the importance and development of 15 ‘soft skills’ are reported. Study 1 (N = 444) identified strong latent components underlying these soft skills, such that differences between?skills were over?shadowed by differences between?students. Importance and improving ratings on these skills predicted academic performance and accounted for the effects of

Adriane Arteche; Andrew J. Bremner; Corina Greven; Adrian Furnham

2010-01-01

292

Mental practice promotes motor anticipation: evidence from skilled music performance  

PubMed Central

Mental practice (MP) has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP). Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of MP to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed. PMID:23970859

Bernardi, Nicolò F.; De Buglio, Matteo; Trimarchi, Pietro D.; Chielli, Alfonso; Bricolo, Emanuela

2013-01-01

293

How can leaders foster team learning? Effects of leader-assigned mastery and performance goals and psychological safety.  

PubMed

Learning and adapting to change are imperative as teams today face unprecedented change. Yet, an important part of learning involves challenging assumptions and addressing differences of opinion openly within a group--the kind of behaviors that pose the potential for embarrassment or threat. How can leaders foster an environment in which team members feel it is safe to take interpersonal risks in order to learn? In a study of 71 teams, we found that psychological safety and learning behavior were higher for teams with mastery than performance goal instructions or no goal instructions. Team psychological safety mediated the relationship between mastery and performance goal instructions and learning behavior. Findings contribute to our understanding of how leader-assigned goals are related to psychological safety and learning behavior in a team context, and suggest approaches to foster such processes. PMID:24199511

Ashauer, Shirley A; Macan, Therese

2013-01-01

294

Especial skill effect across age and performance level: the nature and degree of generalization.  

PubMed

It has been claimed that an especial skill emerges after massive amounts of basketball practice. Despite this no direct evidence is available to support this claim. The authors aimed to shed light on this question. Thirty-seven male basketball players took part representing four groups: 2 groups of senior players, a cadet group, and a group of juniors. Players performed free throw shots from 7 distances including shots from the free throw line (15 ft). It was shown that an especial skill was present in senior players, but not in junior players who had only 3 years of playing experience. The authors present a descriptive model of especial skill and express it using the formalism of a hierarchical Bayesian model to fit the data and estimate the parameters. This model can account not only for the results, which indicate the presence and a substantial degree of generalizability of especial skill to nearby distances, but also for results of the original study on especial skill where it was proposed that specificity in practice leads to the emergence of the especial skill. PMID:23488624

Czy?, S H; Breslin, G; Kwon, O; Mazur, M; Kobia?ka, K; Pizlo, Z

2013-01-01

295

Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the team members. The self-directed team was more motivated to learn their topic than was the manager-directed team, but they struggled with their path in following their vision whereas the manager-directed team kept their focus under the guidance of their manager. Finally, both teams are in fact effective; however specific circumstances may be an important objective when deciding to utilize either a self-directed or manager-directed team.

Erlick, Katherine

296

Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.

2013-01-01

297

How Individual Performance Affects Variability of Peer Evaluations in Classroom Teams: A Distributive Justice Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business school courses often require team projects, both for pedagogical reasons as well as to prepare students for the kinds of team-based activities that are common in organizations these days. However, social loafing is a common problem in teams, and peer evaluations by team members are sometimes used in such team settings to assess…

Davison, H. Kristl; Mishra, Vipanchi; Bing, Mark N.; Frink, Dwight D.

2014-01-01

298

Team-based learning increases active engagement and enhances development of teamwork and communication skills in a first-year course for veterinary and animal science undergraduates.  

PubMed

Team-based learning (TBL) was implemented into a first-year course (Principles in Animal Behaviour, Welfare and Ethics) for BSc Veterinary Bioscience (VB) and Animal Science (AS) students. TBL is now used widely in teaching medical students, but has had more limited uptake in veterinary education. This study reports its use over 2 years with cohorts of 126 and 138 students in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Average individual marks for multiple-choice question (MCQ) tests in the Readiness Assurance component of TBL were higher for the teams than for individuals for each session, explicitly demonstrating the advantages of teamwork. Students reported that they felt actively involved and that TBL helped them both with their learning and in developing other important skills, such as teamwork and communication. Qualitative analysis of written feedback from the students revealed positive themes of discussion, application, revelation, socializing, engagement, clarification, and retention/revision. In 2011 negative comments included the need to shorten the TBL sessions, but in 2012 tightening of the timelines meant that this was no longer a major concern. Requests to provide better introductory and background materials and ambiguity in questions in the TBL activities were what students least liked about the TBL. However, most comments were positive rather than negative in nature, and many students preferred the TBL to lectures. With requirements for curricula to teach professional skills, such as communication and teamwork, and the positive results from TBL's implementation, it is hoped that this study will encourage others to trial the use of TBL in veterinary education. PMID:24077314

Hazel, Susan J; Heberle, Nicole; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Adams, Karen

2013-01-01

299

Sleep spindle and slow wave frequency reflect motor skill performance in primary school-age children  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: The role of sleep in the enhancement of motor skills has been studied extensively in adults. We aimed to determine involvement of sleep and characteristics of spindles and slow waves in a motor skill in children. Hypothesis: We hypothesized sleep-dependence of skill enhancement and an association of interindividual differences in skill and sleep characteristics. Methods: 30 children (19 females, 10.7 ± 0.8 years of age; mean ± SD) performed finger sequence tapping tasks in a repeated-measures design spanning 4 days including 1 polysomnography (PSG) night. Initial and delayed performance were assessed over 12 h of wake; 12 h with sleep; and 24 h with wake and sleep. For the 12 h with sleep, children were assigned to one of three conditions: modulation of slow waves and spindles was attempted using acoustic perturbation, and compared to yoked and no-sound control conditions. Analyses: Mixed effect regression models evaluated the association of sleep, its macrostructure and spindles and slow wave parameters with initial and delayed speed and accuracy. Results and Conclusions: Children enhance their accuracy only over an interval with sleep. Unlike previously reported in adults, children enhance their speed independent of sleep, a capacity that may to be lost in adulthood. Individual differences in the dominant frequency of spindles and slow waves were predictive for performance: children performed better if they had less slow spindles, more fast spindles and faster slow waves. On the other hand, overnight enhancement of accuracy was most pronounced in children with more slow spindles and slower slow waves, i.e., the ones with an initial lower performance. Associations of spindle and slow wave characteristics with initial performance may confound interpretation of their involvement in overnight enhancement. Slower frequencies of characteristic sleep events may mark slower learning and immaturity of networks involved in motor skills. PMID:25426055

Astill, Rebecca G.; Piantoni, Giovanni; Raymann, Roy J. E. M.; Vis, Jose C.; Coppens, Joris E.; Walker, Matthew P.; Stickgold, Robert; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

2014-01-01

300

The Attention Skills and Academic Performance of Aggressive/Rejected and Low Aggressive/Popular Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…

Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa

2011-01-01

301

Investigating the Effects of Group Practice Performed Using Psychodrama Techniques on Adolescents' Conflict Resolution Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of group practice which is performed using psychodrama techniques on adolescents' conflict resolution skills. The subjects, for this study, were selected among the high school students who have high aggression levels and low problem solving levels attending Haci Zekiye Arslan High School, in Nigde.…

Karatas, Zeynep

2011-01-01

302

Social Skills Performances of Learning Disabled, Non-Learning Disabled and Delinquent Adolescents  

E-print Network

) and a group of court-adjudicated juvenile delinquent adolescents who had been referred for social skills training by their probation officers (the JD group). The results showed that the non-LD youths performed significantly better than the other two...

Schumaker, Jean B.; Hazel, J. Stephen; Sherman, James A.; Sheldon, Jan

1982-08-01

303

Monitoring Children's Growth in Early Literacy Skills: Effects of Feedback on Performance and Classroom Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the benefits of providing kindergarten teachers with feedback about students' performance on early literacy progress-monitoring probes. Students were administered the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)" in fall, winter, and spring; classroom environment was evaluated using the "Early Language and…

Ball, Carrie; Gettinger, Maribeth

2009-01-01

304

Effects of Two Instructional Approaches on Skill Development, Knowledge, and Game Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 x…

Pritchard, Tony; Hawkins, Andrew; Wiegand, Robert; Metzler, Jonathan N.

2008-01-01

305

Transferring the Soft-Skills Technology of Workplace Learning and Performance to China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses international business and workplace learning and performance (WLP), and describes a long-term strategic alliance between Motorola University China, Penn State University, Beijing University, and Nankai University. Highlights include a needs assessment of multinational corporations in China; transferring the soft-skills technology of WLP…

Yan, Jenny; Rothwell, William J.; Webster, Lois

2001-01-01

306

Motor Skill Performance of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews studies on variables that are related to the motor skill performance of children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI). Three major groups of variables are considered (child, environmental, and task). Thirty-nine studies are included in this review, 26 of which examined the effects of child, environmental, and/or task…

Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Hartman, Esther

2009-01-01

307

Visuospatial skills and their Association with Math performance in Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to assess object identification (“what”) and location (“where”) skills among girls with fragile X or Turner syndrome and girls with neither disorder. Participants completed standardized subtests of visual perception and tasks of visuospatial “what” and “where” memory. Girls with fragile X had average performance on most object identification tasks, yet 53% failed to accurately recreate

Michèle M. M. Mazzocco; Neha Singh Bhatia; Katarzyna Lesniak-Karpiak

2006-01-01

308

Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.

2011-01-01

309

The Effect of Instrument-Specific Rater Training on Interrater Reliability and Counseling Skills Performance Differentiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of instrument-specific rater training on interrater reliability (IRR) and counseling skills performance differentiation. Strong IRR is of primary concern to effective program evaluation (McCullough, Kuhn, Andrews, Valen, Hatch, & Osimo, 2003; Schanche, Nielsen, McCullough, Valen, &…

Meacham, Paul Douglas, Jr.

2013-01-01

310

The Effect of Classroom Performance Assessment on EFL Students' Basic and Inferential Reading Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of classroom performance assessment on the EFL students' basic and inferential reading skills. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was employed in the study. The subjects of the study consisted of 64 first-year secondary school students in Menouf Secondary School for Boys at Menoufya…

El-Koumy, Abdel Salam Abdel Khalek

2009-01-01

311

Hand preference and skilled hand performance among individuals with successful rightward conversions of the writing hand.  

PubMed

Searleman and Porac (2001) studied lateral preference patterns among successfully switched left-hand writers, left-hand writers with no switch pressure history, and left-hand writers who did not switch when pressured. They concluded that left-handers who successfully shift to right-hand writing are following an inherent right-sided lateralisation pattern that they already possess. Searleman and Porac suggested that the neural mechanisms that control lateralisation in the successfully switched individuals are systematically different from those of other groups of left-handers. I examined patterns of skilled and less-skilled hand preference and skilled hand performance in a sample of 394 adults (ages 18-94 years). The sample contained successfully switched left-hand writers, left-handers pressured to shift who remained left-hand writers, left-handers who did not experience shift pressures, and right-handers. Both skilled hand preference and skilled hand performance were shifted towards the right side in successfully switched left-hand writers. This group also displayed mixed patterns of hand preference and skilled hand performance in that they were not as right-sided as "natural" right-handers nor were they as left-sided as the two left-hand writing groups, which did not differ from each other. The experience of being pressured to switch to right-hand writing was not sufficient to shift lateralisation patterns; the pressures must be experienced in the context of an underlying neural control mechanism that is amenable to change as a result of these external influences. PMID:18720207

Porac, Clare

2009-03-01

312

Improving Virtual Team Collaboration Outcomes through Collaboration Process Structuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to collaborate in a virtual team is a necessary skill set for today's knowledge workers and students to be effective in their work. Past research indicates that knowledge workers and students need to establish a formal process to perform work, develop clear goals and objectives, and facilitate better communication among team members.…

Dittman, Dawn R.; Hawkes, Mark; Deokar, Amit V.; Sarnikar, Surendra

2010-01-01

313

The affective bases of team performance during nonroutine events: The case of nuclear power plant control room crews  

Microsoft Academic Search

By conceiving of teams' nonroutine performance as a series of coping responses, this paper examines how crewmembers' positive and negative affectivity (PA, NA) impact individual behaviors and team processes. A theoretical model is developed in which trait affect's influence is predicted to vary depending on the nature of the task, the level of analysis, and the timing of behaviors. The

Seth A. Kaplan

2006-01-01

314

"We've Got Creative Differences": The Effects of Task Conflict and Participative Safety on Team Creative Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although both participative safety and team task conflict are widely thought to be related to team creative performance, the nature of this relationship is still not well understood, and prior studies have frequently yielded conflicting results. This study examines the ambiguity in the extant literature and proposes that "both"…

Fairchild, Joshua; Hunter, Samuel T.

2014-01-01

315

Stochastic Dominance and Analysis of ODI Batting Performance: the Indian Cricket Team, 1989-2005  

PubMed Central

Relative to other team games, the contribution of individual team members to the overall team performance is more easily quantifiable in cricket. Viewing players as securities and the team as a portfolio, cricket thus lends itself better to the use of analytical methods usually employed in the analysis of securities and portfolios. This paper demonstrates the use of stochastic dominance rules, normally used in investment management, to analyze the One Day International (ODI) batting performance of Indian cricketers. The data used span the years 1989 to 2005. In dealing with cricketing data the existence of ‘not out’ scores poses a problem while processing the data. In this paper, using a Bayesian approach, the ‘not-out’ scores are first replaced with a conditional average. The conditional average that is used represents an estimate of the score that the player would have gone on to score, if the ‘not out’ innings had been completed. The data thus treated are then used in the stochastic dominance analysis. To use stochastic dominance rules we need to characterize the ‘utility’ of a batsman. The first derivative of the utility function, with respect to runs scored, of an ODI batsman can safely be assumed to be positive (more runs scored are preferred to less). However, the second derivative needs not be negative (no diminishing marginal utility for runs scored). This means that we cannot clearly specify whether the value attached to an additional run scored is lesser at higher levels of scores. Because of this, only first-order stochastic dominance is used to analyze the performance of the players under consideration. While this has its limitation (specifically, we cannot arrive at a complete utility value for each batsman), the approach does well in describing player performance. Moreover, the results have intuitive appeal. Key Points The problem of dealing with ‘not out’ scores in cricket is tackled using a Bayesian approach. Stochastic dominance rules are used to characterize the utility of a batsman. Since the marginal utility of runs scored is not diminishing in nature, only first order stochastic dominance rules are used. The results, demonstrated using data for the Indian cricket team are intuitively appealing. The limitation of the approach is that it cannot arrive at a complete utility value for the batsman. PMID:24357944

Damodaran, Uday

2006-01-01

316

Stochastic Dominance and Analysis of ODI Batting Performance: the Indian Cricket Team, 1989-2005.  

PubMed

Relative to other team games, the contribution of individual team members to the overall team performance is more easily quantifiable in cricket. Viewing players as securities and the team as a portfolio, cricket thus lends itself better to the use of analytical methods usually employed in the analysis of securities and portfolios. This paper demonstrates the use of stochastic dominance rules, normally used in investment management, to analyze the One Day International (ODI) batting performance of Indian cricketers. The data used span the years 1989 to 2005. In dealing with cricketing data the existence of 'not out' scores poses a problem while processing the data. In this paper, using a Bayesian approach, the 'not-out' scores are first replaced with a conditional average. The conditional average that is used represents an estimate of the score that the player would have gone on to score, if the 'not out' innings had been completed. The data thus treated are then used in the stochastic dominance analysis. To use stochastic dominance rules we need to characterize the 'utility' of a batsman. The first derivative of the utility function, with respect to runs scored, of an ODI batsman can safely be assumed to be positive (more runs scored are preferred to less). However, the second derivative needs not be negative (no diminishing marginal utility for runs scored). This means that we cannot clearly specify whether the value attached to an additional run scored is lesser at higher levels of scores. Because of this, only first-order stochastic dominance is used to analyze the performance of the players under consideration. While this has its limitation (specifically, we cannot arrive at a complete utility value for each batsman), the approach does well in describing player performance. Moreover, the results have intuitive appeal. Key PointsThe problem of dealing with 'not out' scores in cricket is tackled using a Bayesian approach.Stochastic dominance rules are used to characterize the utility of a batsman.Since the marginal utility of runs scored is not diminishing in nature, only first order stochastic dominance rules are used.The results, demonstrated using data for the Indian cricket team are intuitively appealing.The limitation of the approach is that it cannot arrive at a complete utility value for the batsman. PMID:24357944

Damodaran, Uday

2006-01-01

317

Hand-Eye Dominance and Depth Perception Effects in Performance on a Basic Laparoscopic Skills Set  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Our study determined whether depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance affect an individual's ability to perform laparoscopic skills. Methods: The study cohort comprised 104 third-year medical students from LSU School of Medicine who completed a questionnaire including information on handedness and were tested for eye dominance and depth perception by using standardized methods. Training sessions involved an initial recorded performance, a 20-minute practice session, followed by a final recorded performance. Recorded sessions were randomized and rated by using a visual analog scale (maximal possible score = 16) based on overall performance (OPS) and depth perception (DPS). A general linear model was used to correlate depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance with assessment scores for OPS and DPS. Results: Students with depth perception defects scored significantly lower on their initial performance than did those with normal depth perception (OPS, 4.80 vs. 7.16, P=0.0008; DPS, 5.25 vs. 6.93, P=0.0195). After training, the depth perception defect group continued to have lower scores compared with the normal depth perception group. However, the 2 groups showed similar increases in pre- to posttraining performance scores (OPS, 3.84 vs. 3.18, P=0.0732). Hand-eye dominance did not significantly affect scores. Conclusions: Depth perception defects appear to compromise an individual's ability to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Individuals with defects can improve their skills by a proportion comparable to that of people with uncompromised depth perception. Differences in hand-eye dominance do not correlate with performance differences in basic laparoscopic skills. Although further research is necessary, the findings indicate that training can be tailored for individuals with depth perception defects to improve laparoscopic performance. PMID:20529525

Suleman, Rabiya; Yang, Tong; Paige, John; Chauvin, Sheila; Alleyn, Jaime; Brewer, Martha; Johnson, Stephen I.

2010-01-01

318

Transfer of piano practice in fast performance of skilled finger movements  

PubMed Central

Background Transfer of learning facilitates the efficient mastery of various skills without practicing all possible sensory-motor repertoires. The present study assessed whether motor practice at a submaximal speed, which is typical in sports and music performance, results in an increase in a maximum speed of finger movements of trained and untrained skills. Results Piano practice of sequential finger movements at a submaximal speed over days progressively increased the maximum speed of trained movements. This increased maximum speed of finger movements was maintained two months after the practice. The learning transferred within the hand to some extent, but not across the hands. Conclusions The present study confirmed facilitation of fast finger movements following a piano practice at a submaximal speed. In addition, the findings indicated the intra-manual transfer effects of piano practice on the maximum speed of skilled finger movements. PMID:24175946

2013-01-01

319

Service Climate in Self-Managing Teams: Mapping the Linkage of Team Member Perceptions and Service Performance Outcomes in a Business-to-Business Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Drawing from the organizational behaviour and services marketing literature, we develop a conceptual model of self-managing team (SMT) service climate, taking into account characteristics of the organizational context, the SMT, and the individual employee. In order to assess the impact of SMT service climate, we include a number of internal consequences (i.e., in-company performance data) and external service performance

Ad de Jong; Ko de Ruyter; JGAM Lemmink

2005-01-01

320

Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests the development of fundamental movement skill (FMS) is a key factor in promoting long-term physical activity. Low levels of activity among preschool children and the relationship between physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills underline the need to determine the factors associated with children's development of such skills. As parents play an important role in the socialization process, the aim of this study was to examine correlates of family and neighbourhood characteristics as well as parental behaviour and beliefs on FMS performance in 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. Relationships between preschool children's FMS performance and family contextual variables were examined within a sample of 846 preschool children. Results identified positive associations of FMS performance with parental education, father's physical activity, transport to school by bicycle, and the high value placed by parents high on sport-specific aspects of children's physical activity. Variables negatively associated with preschool children's FMS performance included father-child interaction in TV-viewing and reading books, the high importance placed by parents on winning and performance in children's physical activity. Furthermore, the ambiguity of associations between FMS performance and parental beliefs underlined its complexity. PMID:21424981

Cools, Wouter; De Martelaer, Kristine; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline

2011-04-01

321

Medical students as EMTs: skill building, confidence and professional formation  

PubMed Central

Objective The first course of the medical curriculum at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, From the Person to the Professional: Challenges, Privileges and Responsibilities, provides an innovative early clinical immersion. The course content specific to the Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) curriculum was developed using the New York State Emergency Medical Technician curriculum. Students gain early legitimate clinical experience and practice clinical skills as team members in the pre-hospital environment. We hypothesized this novel curriculum would increase students’ confidence in their ability to perform patient care skills and enhance students’ comfort with team-building skills early in their training. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from first-year medical students (n=97) through a survey developed to assess students’ confidence in patient care and team-building skills. The survey was completed prior to medical school, during the final week of the course, and at the end of their first year. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare self-ratings on 12 patient care and 12 team-building skills before and after the course, and a theme analysis was conducted to examine open-ended responses. Results Following the course, student confidence in patient care skills showed a significant increase from baseline (p<0.05) for all identified skills. Student confidence in team-building skills showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in 4 of the 12 identified skills. By the end of the first year, 84% of the first-year students reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their patient care skills, while 72% reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their team-building skills. Conclusions The incorporation of EMT training early in a medical school curriculum provides students with meaningful clinical experiences that increase their self-reported level of confidence in the performance of patient care skills early in their medical education. PMID:25056855

Kwiatkowski, Thomas; Rennie, William; Fornari, Alice; Akbar, Salaahuddin

2014-01-01

322

Physician assistants and nurse practitioners perform effective roles on teams caring for Medicare patients with diabetes.  

PubMed

One approach to the patient-centered medical home, particularly for patients with chronic illnesses, is to include physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) on primary care teams. Using Medicare claims and electronic health record data from a large physician group, we compared outcomes for two groups of adult Medicare patients with diabetes whose conditions were at various levels of complexity: those whose care teams included PAs or NPs in various roles, and those who received care from physicians only. Outcomes were generally equivalent in thirteen comparisons. In four comparisons, outcomes were superior for the patients receiving care from PAs or NPs, but in three other comparisons the outcomes were superior for patients receiving care from physicians only. Specific roles performed by PAs and NPs were associated with different patterns in the measure of the quality of diabetes care and use of health care services. No role was best for all outcomes. Our findings suggest that patient characteristics, as well as patients' and organizations' goals, should be considered when determining when and how to deploy PAs and NPs on primary care teams. Accordingly, training and policy should continue to support role flexibility for these health professionals. PMID:24191084

Everett, Christine; Thorpe, Carolyn; Palta, Mari; Carayon, Pascale; Bartels, Christie; Smith, Maureen A

2013-11-01

323

Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes.  

PubMed

The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (?1200-2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude. PMID:24282202

Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

2013-12-01

324

Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes  

PubMed Central

The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (?1200–2500?m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude. PMID:24282202

Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

2013-01-01

325

“Toward Integrative Models of Flow”: Effects of Performance, Skill, Challenge, Playfulness, and Presence on Flow in Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined various predictors of flow in video games. Study 1 examined the effects of performance on flow across two game genres (shooting and medical simulation games) and demonstrated that successful performance results in greater flow. Study 2 demonstrated an interaction effect of skill and challenge on flow across three genres (racing, violent, and prosocial games). Highly skilled players

Seung-A Annie Jin

2012-01-01

326

Political skill as neutralizer of felt accountability—job tension effects on job performance ratings: A longitudinal investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of felt accountability, political skill, and job tension on job performance ratings. Specifically, we hypothesized that felt accountability would lead to higher (lower) job performance ratings when coupled with high (low) levels of political skill, and that these relationships would be mediated by job tension. Data were gathered at multiple times over a one-year period

Wayne A. Hochwarter; Gerald R. Ferris; Mark B. Gavin; Pamela L. Perrewé; Angela T. Hall; Dwight D. Frink

2007-01-01

327

Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball.  

PubMed

Michalsik, LB, Aagaard, P, and Madsen, K. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball. J Strength Cond Res 29(4): 1126-1138, 2015-To determine the physical demands placed on female elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry, female elite TH primarily field players were monitored during match-play using video recording and subsequent computerized technical match analysis during 5 regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Furthermore, anthropometric measurements were performed. Each player had 28.3 ± 11.0 (group means ± SD) high-intense playing actions per match with a total effective playing time of 50.70 ± 5.83 minutes. On average, each player made 2.8 ± 2.6 fast breaks, gave 7.9 ± 14.4 screenings, received 14.6 ± 9.2 tackles in total, and performed 7.7 ± 3.7 shots while in offense, along with 3.5 ± 3.8 blockings, 1.9 ± 2.7 claspings, and 6.2 ± 3.8 hard tackles in defense. Mean body height, body mass, and age in the Danish Premier Female Team Handball League were 175.4 ± 6.1 cm, 69.5 ± 6.5 kg, and 25.4 ± 3.7 years, respectively. Wing players were lighter (63.5 ± 4.8 kg, p < 0.001) and smaller (169.3 ± 4.9 cm, p < 0.001) than backcourt players (BP) (70.6 ± 5.3 kg, 177.0 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (PV) (72.5 ± 4.9 kg, 177.7 ± 4.9 cm). In conclusion, the present match observations revealed that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions remained unchanged in the second half. Marked positional differences in the physical demands were demonstrated, with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations than BP and PV. Body anthropometry differed substantially between different playing positions. Consequently, this should lead to an increase in physical training in modern female elite TH directed at specific positions and individual physical capacity. PMID:25353073

Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

2015-04-01

328

Motor Skill Assessment of Children: Is There an Association between Performance-Based, Child-Report, and Parent-Report Measures of Children's Motor Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Client-centered practice requires therapists to actively seek the perspectives of children and families. Several assessment tools are available to facilitate this process. However, when evaluating motor skill performance, therapists typically concentrate on performance-based assessment. To improve understanding of the information provided by the…

Kennedy, Johanna; Brown, Ted; Chien, Chi-Wen

2012-01-01

329

Building the Infrastructure: The Effects of Role Identification Behaviors on Team Cognition Development and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to extend theory and research regarding the emergence of mental models and transactive memory in teams. Utilizing Kozlowski et al.’s (1999) model of team compilation, we examine the effect of role identification behaviors and argue that such behaviors represent the initial building blocks of team cognition during the role compilation phase of team

Matthew J. Pearsall; Aleksander P. J. Ellis; Bradford S. Bell

2010-01-01

330

Angular relationships regulate coordination tendencies of performers in attacker-defender dyads in team sports.  

PubMed

This study examined the continuous interpersonal interactions of performers in dyadic systems in team sports, as a function of changing information constraints. As a task vehicle, we investigated how attackers attained success in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball by exploring angular relations with immediate opponents and the basket. We hypothesized that angular relations would convey information for the attackers to dribble past defenders. Four basketball players performed as an attacker and defender in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball, in which the co-positioning and orientation of participants relative to the basket was manipulated. After video recording performance behaviors, we digitized participant movement displacement trajectories and categorized trials as successful or unsuccessful (from the attackers' viewpoint). Results revealed that, to successfully dribble past a defender, attackers tended to explore the left hand side of the space by defenders by increasing their angular velocity and decreasing their angular variability, especially in the center of the court. Interpersonal interactions and goal-achievement in attacker-defender dyads appear to have been constrained by the angular relations sustained between participants relative to the scoring target. Results revealed the functionality of exploratory behaviors of participants attempting re-align spatial relations with an opponent in 1v1 sub-phases of team games. PMID:25625811

Esteves, Pedro T; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Davids, Keith; Esteves, Carlos

2015-04-01

331

Cooperative Learning and Peer Evaluation: The Effect of Free Riders on Team Performance and the Relationship between Course Performance and Peer Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cooperative learning has gained popularity in higher educational settings. However, assigning grades equitably to all team members in a way that rewards them for their contributions remains challenging. In this paper, we ask whether having free riders on a team lowers the quality of submitted work, and whether students' course performance

Dingel, Molly J.; Wei, Wei; Huq, Aminul

2013-01-01

332

Team Up!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the physical and psychological effect of stress and tension on human beings. They develop their observing, thinking, writing and teamwork skills by working on a group art project and reporting about it. They learn about the stages of group formation, group dynamics and team member roles that make for effective teams. In the process, they discover how collective action can foster a sense of community support, which can alleviate personal feelings of stress and tension. Note: The literacy activities for the Mechanics unit are based on physical themes that have broad application to our experience in the world — concepts of rhythm, balance, spin, gravity, levity, inertia, momentum, friction, stress and tension.

2014-09-18

333

Toy Story: Illustrating Gender Differences in a Motor Skills Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To challenge students' stereotypes about gendered performance on motor skills tasks, we developed a classroom active learning demonstration. Four 3-person, same-gender teams received either a Barbie(r) doll or a Transformer(r), and team members dressed the Barbie or manipulated the Transformer from a tank to a robot as quickly as possible, with…

Knight, Jennifer L.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Mendoza, Miriam

2004-01-01

334

Attunement to haptic information helps skilled performers select implements for striking a ball in cricket.  

PubMed

This study examined the perceptual attunement of relatively skilled individuals to the physical properties of striking implements in the sport of cricket. We also sought to assess whether utilizing bats with different physical properties would influence performance of a specific striking action: the front foot straight drive. Eleven skilled male cricketers (mean age = 16.6 ± 0.3 years) from an elite school cricket development program consented to participate in the study. While blindfolded, participants wielded six bats exhibiting different mass and moment of inertia (MOI) characteristics and were asked to identify the three bats they preferred the most for hitting a ball to a maximum distance by performing a front foot straight drive (a common shot in cricket). Next, participants actually attempted to hit balls projected from a ball machine using each of the six bat configurations to enable kinematic analysis of front foot straight drive performance with each implement. Results revealed that, on first choice, the two bats with the smallest mass and MOI values (1 and 2) were most preferred by almost two thirds (63.7 %) of the participants. Kinematic analysis of movement patterns revealed that bat velocity, step length, and bat-ball contact position measures significantly differed between bats. Data revealed how skilled youth cricketers were attuned to the different bat characteristics and harnessed movement system degeneracy to perform this complex interceptive action. PMID:22961719

Headrick, Jonathon; Renshaw, Ian; Pinder, Ross A; Davids, Keith

2012-11-01

335

Match performance and physiological capacity of female elite team handball players.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the physical demands imposed on female elite team handball players in relation to playing position. Female elite team handball field players were examined during match-play over a 5-year period using video based computerized locomotion analysis of tournament matches. In addition, physiological measurements during match-play and in separate physical tests were carried out. A total distance of 4002±551?m (group means±SD) was covered per match with a total effective playing time of 50:42±5:50?min:s, while full-time players covered 4693±333?m. On average, each player (n=83) performed 663.8±99.7 activity changes per match, and the mean speed was 5.31±0.33?km?·?h(-1). High-intensity running constituted 0.8±0.5% of total effective playing time per match corresponding to 2.5±1.8% of the total distance covered. The amount of high-intensity running was reduced (p<0.05) 21.9% in the second half (44.9±16.8?m) compared to the first (57.5±21.3?m). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2-max) was 3.49±0.37?l O2?·?min(-1) corresponding to 49.6±4.8?ml O2?·?min(-1)?·?kg(-1). Mean relative workload during match-play was 79.4±6.4% of VO2-max. Mean total running distance in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) was 1436±222?m, which was greater in wing players (1516±172?m, p<0.05) than pivots (1360±118?m) and backcourt players (1352±148?m). In conclusion, modern female elite team handball is a physically demanding intermittent team sport, where players are exposed to high relative workloads with substantial estimated aerobic energy expenditure interspersed by short periods of dominant anaerobic energy production as reflected by the limited amount of high-intensity running. Indications of fatigue and a resulting decline in physical performance were identified, since the amount of high-intensity running and the relative workload levels decreased in the second half. Positional differences were observed, with wing players covering a greater total distance than backcourt players, performing more high-intensity running and demonstrating a better intermittent recovery capacity (Yo-Yo test outcome) compared to both backcourt players and pivots. PMID:24264766

Michalsik, L B; Madsen, K; Aagaard, P

2014-06-01

336

Attention and time constraints in perceptual-motor learning and performance: instruction, analogy, and skill level.  

PubMed

We sought to gain more insight into the effects of attention focus and time constraints on skill learning and performance in novices and experts by means of two complementary experiments using a table tennis paradigm. Experiment 1 showed that skill-focus conditions and slowed ball frequency disrupted the accuracy of experts, but dual-task conditions and speeded ball frequency did not. For novices, only speeded ball frequency disrupted accuracy. In Experiment 2, we extended these findings by instructing novices either explicitly or by analogy (implicit motor learning technique). Explicitly instructed novices were less accurate in skill-focused and dual-task conditions than in single-task conditions. Following analogy instruction novices were less accurate in the skill-focused condition, but maintained accuracy under dual-task conditions. Participants in both conditions retained accuracy when ball frequency was slowed, but lost accuracy when ball frequency was speeded, suggesting that not attention, but motor dexterity, was inadequate under high temporal constraints. PMID:20850990

Koedijker, Johan M; Poolton, Jamie M; Maxwell, Jonathan P; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Beek, Peter J; Masters, Rich S W

2011-06-01

337

What Is Team Science? - Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

Team science is a collaborative effort to address a scientific challenge that leverages the strengths and expertise of professionals trained in different fields. Although traditional single-investigator driven approaches are ideal for many scientific endeavors, coordinated teams of investigators with diverse skills and knowledge may be especially helpful for studies of complex social problems with multiple causes.

338

Monocular And Binocular Vision In The Performance Of A Complex Skill  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to investigate the role of binocular and monocular vision in 16 gymnasts as they perform a handspring on vault. In particular we reasoned, if binocular visual information is eliminated while experts and apprentices perform a handspring on vault, and their performance level changes or is maintained, then such information must or must not be necessary for their best performance. If the elimination of binocular vision leads to differences in gaze behavior in either experts or apprentices, this would answer the question of an adaptive gaze behavior, and thus if this is a function of expertise level or not. Gaze behavior was measured using a portable and wireless eye-tracking system in combination with a movement-analysis system. Results revealed that gaze behavior differed between experts and apprentices in the binocular and monocular conditions. In particular, apprentices showed less fixations of longer duration in the monocular condition as compared to experts and the binocular condition. Apprentices showed longer blink duration than experts in both, the monocular and binocular conditions. Eliminating binocular vision led to a shorter repulsion phase and a longer second flight phase in apprentices. Experts exhibited no differences in phase durations between binocular and monocular conditions. Findings suggest, that experts may not rely on binocular vision when performing handsprings, and movement performance maybe influenced in apprentices when eliminating binocular vision. We conclude that knowledge about gaze-movement relationships may be beneficial for coaches when teaching the handspring on vault in gymnastics. Key points Skills in gymnastics are quite complex and the athlete has to meet temporal and spatial constraints to perform these skills adequately. Visual information pickup is thought to be integral in complex skill performance. However, there is no compelling evidence on the role of binocular vision in complex skill performance. The study reveals, that apprentices optimize their gaze behavior and their movement behavior when binocular vision is eliminated, whereas experts gaze behavior and movement behavior is uninfluenced by eliminating binocular vision. We state, that binocular vision is not necessary for experts to perform to their best. However, eliminating binocular vision could be part of an optimization strategy for apprentices, which could in turn be transferred to new training programs. PMID:24150627

Heinen, Thomas; M. Vinken, Pia

2011-01-01

339

Associations between Low-Income Children's Fine Motor Skills in Preschool and Academic Performance in Second Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic performance

Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis

2013-01-01

340

An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Trainees' Counseling Skills Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates self-efficacy as a predictor of counseling skills performance in a graduate counseling class (n=31). Self-efficacy was measured before, midway through, and at the end of a microcounseling skills training program. Although there was a wide distribution of self-efficacy reports, none of the estimates of grade were significantly positively…

Sharpley, Christopher F.; Ridgway, Ian R.

1993-01-01

341

Improving Agent Team Performance through Helper Marie D Manner and Maria Gini  

E-print Network

, and each member adjusts his or her task based on what other team members will do, have done, or can't do. One team member's equipment breaks and it asks for help; another team member picks up the slack. One

Gini, Maria

342

Exploring Relationship between Face-to-Face Interaction and Team Performance Using Wearable Sensor Badges  

PubMed Central

Quantitative analyses of human-generated data collected in various fields have uncovered many patterns of complex human behaviors. However, thus far the quantitative evaluation of the relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance has been inadequate. Here, we present findings demonstrating the significant relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance via experiments we conducted in inbound call centers while the employees wore sensor badges. There were two main findings. First, we found that face-to-face interaction among telecommunicators and the frequency of their bodily movements caused by the face-to-face interaction had a significant correlation with the entire call center performance, which we measured as “Calls per Hour.” Second, our trial to activate face-to-face interaction on the basis of data collected by the wearable sensor badges the employees wore significantly increased their performance. These results demonstrate quantitatively that human-human interaction in the physical world plays an important role in team performance. PMID:25501748

Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Ishibashi, Nozomu; Yano, Kazuo

2014-01-01

343

Motor skill assessment of children: is there an association between performance-based, child-report, and parent-report measures of children's motor skills?  

PubMed

Client-centered practice requires therapists to actively seek the perspectives of children and families. Several assessment tools are available to facilitate this process. However, when evaluating motor skill performance, therapists typically concentrate on performance-based assessment. To improve understanding of the information provided by the different approaches, the study investigated correlations between performance-based, child-report, and parent-report measures of children's motor skill performance. A sample of convenience of 38 children 8-12 years of age with no history of motor or intellectual impairments and their parents was recruited from Victoria, Australia. Scores for the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (performance-based, administered by a therapist), Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (child report), and Movement Assessment Battery for Children Checklist (parent report) were analyzed using Spearman's rho correlation. Several significant moderate-to-large correlations were found between scores for parent-report and scores for performance-based assessments, while few significant correlations were found between scores for child report and scores for the other two measures. The results suggest that children offer a unique perspective which should be integrated with other sources of information to gain a more holistic perspective of their motor skill performance. PMID:22085322

Kennedy, Johanna; Brown, Ted; Chien, Chi-Wen

2012-05-01

344

Student engagement and examination performance in a team-based learning course.  

PubMed

With calls for innovation in nursing education from national bodies of nursing, nurse educators must determine the best teaching strategies to meet educational standards. Team-based learning (TBL), an innovative teaching strategy, offers educators a structured, student-centered learning environment. The purpose of this study was to compare TBL and traditional lecture (a commonly used teaching method) in regard to student engagement and performance on examinations. In addition, the relationship between student engagement and examination scores was examined. Findings showed significant differences in student engagement (p < 0.001). Analysis of examination scores indicated a significant effect within participants (p < 0.001). Mixed findings were found regarding the relationship between student engagement and examination scores. This research contributes to the body of knowledge related to TBL and suggests this teaching strategy is, at minimum, equally as effective as traditional lecture. PMID:23855344

Mennenga, Heidi A

2013-08-01

345

Developing Expert Teams with a Strong Safety Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Would you like to lead a world renowned team that draws out all the talents and expertise of its members and consistently out performs all others in the industry? Ever wonder why so many organizations fail to truly learn from past mistakes only to repeat the same ones at a later date? Are you a program/project manager or team member in a high-risk organization where the decisions made often carry the highest of consequences? Leadership, communication, team building, critical decision-making and continuous team improvement skills and behaviors are mere talking points without the attitudes, commitment and strategies necessary to make them the very fabric of a team. Developing Expert Teams with a Strong Safety Culture, will provide you with proven knowledge and strategies to take your team soaring to heights you may have not thought possible. A myriad of teams have applied these strategies and techniques within their organization team environments: military and commercial aviation, astronaut flight crews, Shuttle flight controllers, members of the Space Shuttle Program Mission Management Team, air traffic controllers, nuclear power control teams, surgical teams, and the fire service report having spectacular success. Many industry leaders are beginning to realize that although the circumstances and environments of these teams may differ greatly to their own, the core elements, governing principles and dynamics involved in managing and building a stellar safety conscious team remain identical.

Rogers, David G.

2010-01-01

346

It Is Not Only Mentoring: The Combined Influences of Individual-Level and Team-Level Support on Job Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper aims to follow social exchange theory and group social capital theory, to predict positive relationships between (informal) mentoring and various support resources for two types of performance (i.e. perceptions of individual and team performance). Design/methodology/approach: The associations of individual-level mentoring and…

van Emmerik, I. J. Hetty

2008-01-01

347

Explanations of successful performance on sex-linked tasks: What is skill for the male is luck for the female  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instructed 55 male and 75 female undergraduates to evaluate the performance of either a male or female stimulus person who was heard to perform in an above-average manner on either a male- or female-related task. Analysis of the attributions made to luck vs skill in explaining the performance of the stimulus person showed that as predicted, performance by a male

Kay Deaux; Tim Emswiller

1974-01-01

348

Field test evaluation of aerobic, anaerobic, and wheelchair basketball skill performances.  

PubMed

Forty-six male wheelchair basketball players performed a set of field tests to evaluate aerobic capacity (25 m shuttle run), anaerobic capacity (30s sprint), and six specific wheelchair basketball skills. Overall test-retest reliability (n = 20) ranged from r = 0.65 to r = 0.97. To study the validity (criterion related evidence) of the shuttle run test, heart rate (HR) was recorded for 15 subjects, who also performed a continuous, multistage arm cranking exercise until volitional fatigue. Moderate to high correlations were calculated between shuttle run distances covered (1375 243,6 m) and VO2max (2208+/-461.6 mL/min) and POmax (93.8+/-17.97 W), measured during maximal arm cranking (respectively r = 0.64 and r = 0.87). Maximal HR during shuttle run (174.9+/-16.6 B/min) and arm cranking (169+/-14.21 B/min) were correlated (r = 0.78). High correlations between shuttle run test and anaerobic field tests, however, indicate high implication of anaerobic and wheelchair maneuverability performances. The 30 s sprint test was validated (n = 15) against a Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) on a roller ergometer. Comparing distance (field test: 90+/-6.7 m) with mean power output (WAnT: 852.1+/-234.9 W) the correlation was r = 0.93. Principal components factor analysis identified 'wheelchair propulsion dynamics' and 'eye-hand-coordination' as the underlying constructs of the six skill proficiency measurements, accounting for 80.1% of the variance. In conclusion, the newly developed field test battery is a reliable and valid tool for anaerobic capacity and skill proficiency assessment in wheelchair basketball players. PMID:10606220

Vanlandewijck, Y C; Daly, D J; Theisen, D M

1999-11-01

349

Basic life support knowledge and skills of Iranian general dental practitioners to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation  

PubMed Central

Background: When cardiopulmonary arrest occurs, the dentist's ability to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the most important factor to minimize morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the basic life support (BLS) knowledge and performance of general dental practitioners in Hamadan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The participants in the study were 80 Iranian general dental practitioners who were chosen randomly. Their CPR knowledge was evaluated by verbal questions and their CPR skills were determined by CPR execution on a special manikin. Nearly 39% (n = 31) of dentists answered none of the questions and only 2.50% (n = 2) answered all of the questions correctly. Thirty six dentists had been participated CPR course after graduation. Result: There was a significant difference between dentists who participated in CPR training course and those that did not participate (P value = 0.000). Only 3.75% (n = 3) were able to perform CPR properly. Conclusion: The results showed that the amount of CPR knowledge and skills were low in participated Iranian general dental practitioners. However, CPR training courses after graduation increased the amount of knowledge significantly, thus, retraining CPR courses is necessary for dentists.

Jamalpour, Mohammad Reza; Asadi, Hossein Kimiaei; Zarei, Khosrow

2015-01-01

350

The impact of numeracy ability and technology skills on older adults' performance of health management tasks using a patient portal.  

PubMed

Patient portals, which allow patients to access their health record via the Internet, are becoming increasingly widespread and are expected to be used by diverse consumer populations. In addition to technology skills, numeracy skills are also likely to be critical to performing health management tasks, as much of the data contained in the portal are numeric. This study examined how factors such as Internet experience, numeracy, and education impacted the performance of common tasks using a simulated patient portal among a sample of older adults. In addition, information was gathered on the ability of older adults to estimate their numeracy skills. Results indicated that numeracy and Internet experience had a significant impact on their ability to perform the tasks and that older adults tended to overestimate their numeracy skills. Results from this study can help to identify interventions that may enhance the usability of patient portals for older adults. PMID:24781964

Taha, Jessica; Sharit, Joseph; Czaja, Sara J

2014-06-01

351

Relationships between performance and skin resistance evolution involving various motor skills.  

PubMed

The aim of this article was to question the classical inverted-U curve relationship between activation and performance. It was hypothesized that changes in performance were related to both activation and the degree of skill difficulty, suggesting a more complex relation. Fifty-one subjects took part in one of three experiments requiring sensory and motor anticipation abilities. They were divided into three different groups, each performing one particular anticipation task. Skin resistance was continuously recorded during task performance. This autonomic variable is well known to be a reliable index in predicting activation variations. The first task, carried out in a seated position, was to intercept a moving spot on a computer screen by pressing the space bar on the keyboard. The second task, performed standing, required subjects to intercept a moving table tennis ball with palm of the hand, by extending the forearm and the arm. The third task, executed in movement was performed on a volley-ball ground. The aim was to hit a ball to reach a moving human target, using the forearm-blow technique. Results showed that 90.9% of subjects'performance in Experiment 1 was related to skin resistance tonic level variations, thus establishing a strong relationship between performance and arousal. Subjects' performance (43.8%) in Experiment 2 was related to skin resistance tonic level variations, whereas only 12.5% of performance was related to this variable in Experiment 3. In conclusion, tonic level variations can only account for success or failure in the first experiment. Conversely, success or failure were dependent upon information processing, decision making, and motor execution in the third experiment. The second experiment, requiring intermediate abilities, was found to show intermediate results. The role of skin resistance tonic level fluctuations and their use in the study of sporting performance are discussed, suggesting that arousal/performance relationships do not correspond to a simple inverted-U curve in complex motor skills requiring a steady level of arousal. PMID:8778893

Collet, C; Roure, R; Rada, H; Dittmar, A; Vernet-Maury, E

1996-01-01

352

Surgical Crisis Management Skills Training and Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Intraoperative surgical crisis management is learned in an unstructured manner. In aviation, simulation training allows aircrews to coordinate and standardize recovery strategies. Our aim was to develop a surgical crisis simulation and evaluate its feasibility, realism, and validity of the measures used to assess performance. Methods: Surgical trainees were exposed to a bleeding crisis in a simulated operating theater. Assessment of performance consisted of a trainee’s technical ability to control the bleeding and of their team/human factors skills. This assessment was performed in a blinded manner by 2 surgeons and one human factors expert. Other measures consisted of time measures such as time to diagnose the bleeding (TD), inform team members (TT), achieve control (TC), and close the laceration (TL). Blood loss was used as a surrogate outcome measures. Results: There were considerable variations within both senior (n = 10) and junior (n = 10) trainees for technical and team skills. However, while the senior trainees scored higher than the juniors for technical skills (P = 0.001), there were no differences in human factors skills. There were also significant differences between the 2 groups for TD (P = 0.01), TC (P = 0.001), and TL (0.001). The blood loss was higher in the junior group. Conclusions: We have described the development of a novel simulated setting for the training of crisis management skills and the variability in performance both in between and within the 2 groups. PMID:16794399

Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Forrest, Damien; Pandey, Vikas; Undre, Shabnam; Vincent, Charles; Darzi, Ara

2006-01-01

353

Subcutaneous daidzein administration enhances recovery of skilled ladder rung walking performance following stroke in rats.  

PubMed

Stroke is a devastating event which can result in permanent disability. Due to the lack of treatments available for use after stroke, compounds which work to limit cell loss, reduce behavioral deficits, and enhance recovery of function are needed. The isoflavone daidzein has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective when fed to rats beginning prior to stroke. Herein, we tested whether subcutaneous delivery of daidzein beginning at the time of stroke reduced injury and/or enhanced functional recovery over 14 days after stroke. Baseline performance on the skilled ladder rung walking task was recorded immediately before stroke (Day 0). Rats then underwent a unilateral permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and received a subcutaneous minipump containing either daidzein dissolved in vehicle or vehicle alone. Performance on the skilled ladder rung walking task was recorded again on Day +3, Day +7, and Day +14 post-stroke. Rats were then euthanized and brains were collected for lesion volume analysis. The numbers of slight and deep forelimb slips on the task were recorded for 3 trials for each rat per day. Rats treated with daidzein exhibited fewer deep slips over the course of the experiment than rats which received only vehicle (p<0.05). No difference was detected in total forelimb slips or slight slips (p>0.05). Lesion volume was not different between groups (p>0.05). No differences were found in weight between groups during the study (p>0.05). PMID:23994543

Stout, Jessica M; Knapp, Austen N; Banz, William J; Wallace, Douglas G; Cheatwood, Joseph L

2013-11-01

354

Physical Fitness Attributes of Team-Handball Players are Related to Playing Position and Performance Level  

PubMed Central

Background: Investigations have reported differences amongst player position groups in elite team-Handball (HB) players. Nevertheless, studies with normative physical fitness data of the HB playing positions at more than two different levels of male HB players have not been reported yet. Objectives: This study aimed: 1) to describe and compare the physical fitness (PF) attributes of male HB players in different playing positions, and 2) to determine which combination of PF measures best discriminate the performance level groups in each one of the individual HB playing position groups. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty-one male HB players participated in this study. The participants were divided into five playing position groups: 1) Goalkeeper (GK, n = 24), 2) Wing (W, n = 48), 3) Back left/right (BLR, n = 38), 4) Back center (BC, n = 29), 5) Pivot (Pi, n = 22), complementarily, performance level was recorded for each participant according to the national HB association, i.e. 1) Top Elite, 2) Moderate Elite, 3) Sub-Elite or, 4) Moderately Trained. Stature and body mass measures were taken from each HB player, and six fitness tests were performed (30 -m sprint, handgrip, vertical jumps-SJ and CMJ, sit-ups, and Yo-Yo IE2). Results: Significant differences were observed between HB playing position groups in body size, speed, and lower limb power and handgrip strength. Nevertheless, 1) the performance in Yo-Yo IE2 was the best measure to discriminate the performance level groups when considering the HB goalkeeper group, HB center back group, and HB pivot group; 2) the average leg power (in squat jump) and the number of executions in sit up test successfully discriminated HB wing performance level groups; and, 3) Stature, countermovement jump height and the position in the Yo-Yo IE2, successfully discriminated HB left/right back performance level groups. Conclusions: It can be concluded that HB players profile, 1) differs according to HB playing position group, and, 2) for the same playing position group, it differs according to HB performance level. This study also demonstrated the influence of aerobic capacity for HB excellence, and according to playing positions.

Massuca, Luis; Branco, Braulio; Miarka, Bianca; Fragoso, Isabel

2015-01-01

355

Shared cognition in top management teams: implications for new venture performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents a study of two samples of new venture top management teams from the inc. 500. The research poses that shared strategic cognition is the outcome of group processes that occur during the development of strategy. Shared cognition in top management teams (TMTs) is the extent to which those mental models about strategy are shared. A theoretical

Michael D. Ensley; Craig L. Pearce

2001-01-01

356

Final Evaluation Report. SAELP Interagengy Collaborative Governance Project. Creating a Culture that Supports High Performing Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2006, representatives of the New Jersey Department of Education, the New Jersey School Boards Association, and the New Jersey Association of School Administrators, conceived a joint venture aimed at assisting board of education teams, including their superintendents, to function better as cohesive teams and foster improved academic achievement…

Monahan, Thomas C.

2007-01-01

357

Team Learning Performance and Collaboration between Online and Blended Learning Delivery Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of instructional variables on team learning outcomes and collaboration between online- and blended groups. Differences in team learning collaboration and instructional factors were found between the groups and significant relationships existed between them. From the findings, implications and discussions to improve…

Yoon, Seung Won; Lim, Doo Hun

2008-01-01

358

Perceptual-cognitive skill training and its transfer to expert performance in the field: Future research directions.  

PubMed

Perceptual-cognitive skills training provides a potentially valuable method for training athletes on key skills, such as anticipation and decision-making. It can be used when athletes are unable to physically train or are unable to experience repeated key situations from their sport. In this article, we review research on perceptual-cognitive skills training and describe future research areas focusing on a number of key theories and principles. The main aim of any training intervention should be the efficacy of retention and transfer of learning from training to field situations, which should be the key consideration when designing the representative tasks used in perceptual-cognitive skills training. We review the principles that seek to create practice tasks that replicate those found in the field, so as to increase the amount of transfer that occurs. These principles are perception-action coupling, the contextual interference effect and contextual information, which suggest there should be a high level of similarity between training and real-life performance when designing perceptual-cognitive skills training. In the final section, we discuss the transfer of retained skill acquisition from perceptual-cognitive skills training to field performance, which we suggest to be the key area for future research in this area. PMID:25252156

Broadbent, David P; Causer, Joe; Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R

2015-06-01

359

Diadochokinetic skills: normal and atypical performance in children aged 3-5 years.  

PubMed

Although diadochokinetic (DDK) tasks are a popular assessment tool in clinical practice, the interpretation of their results is often limited and obscure. This paper examines the development of DDK skills in normally developing children (age range 3-5 years) for comparison with three case studies of children with specific speech difficulties. The results are presented in terms of accuracy, rate and consistency of response. The normally-developing children increased the accuracy and consistency but not the rate of their responses between the ages of 3 and 5 years. The three case study children (matched on severity of speech difficulty) not only performed differently from control children on some of the measures but also performed differently from each other. The diagnostic value of a developmental DDK profile is discussed. PMID:10343741

Williams, P; Stackhouse, J

1998-01-01

360

On Cooperative Learning Teams for Multiagent Team Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a team formation methodology based on cooperative learning teams, adopted from the area of educational research. Cooperative learning is a type of learning where students work in teams and learn through team-based interactions. In education, research in assigning students to appropriate teams and enforcing fair assessment of student performance in a team have generated useful

Leen-Kiat Soh

361

Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…

Kent, Richard

2012-01-01

362

When Goal Orientations Collide: Effects of Learning and Performance Orientation on Team Adaptability in Response to Workload Imbalance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results…

Porter, Christopher O. L. H.; Webb, Justin W.; Gogus, Celile Itir

2010-01-01

363

The energy performance goals for this building were in no way modest. The client and design team  

E-print Network

in the lab areas during hay fever season due to the excellent air quality. Office HVAC Systems & EnergyThe energy performance goals for this building were in no way modest. The client and design team with photo-controls. Lab HVAC Systems & Energy Savings Strategies Laboratory HVAC systems are extremely

364

On angry leaders and agreeable followers. How leaders' emotions and followers' personalities shape motivation and team performance.  

PubMed

Do followers perform better when their leader expresses anger or when their leader expresses happiness? We propose that this depends on the follower's level of agreeableness. Anger is associated with hostility and conflict-states that are at odds with agreeable individuals' goals. Happiness facilitates affiliation and positive relations-states that are in line with agreeable individuals' goals. Accordingly, the two studies we conducted showed that agreeableness moderates the effects of a leader's emotional displays. In a scenario study, participants with lower levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to an angry leader, whereas participants with higher levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to a neutral leader. In an experiment involving four-person teams, teams composed of participants with lower average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed anger, whereas teams composed of participants with higher average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed happiness. Team performance was mediated by experienced workload, which was highest among agreeable followers with an angry leader. Besides having important practical implications, the findings shed new light on the fundamental question of how emotional expressions regulate social behavior. PMID:20974710

Van Kleef, Gerben A; Homan, Astrid C; Beersma, Bianca; van Knippenberg, Daan

2010-12-01

365

Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990. PMID:23623961

Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

2013-01-01

366

The performance of the ice hockey slap and wrist shots: the effects of stick construction and player skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of players’ skill level, body strength, and sticks of various construction\\u000a and stiffness on the performance of the slap and wrist shots in ice hockey. Twenty male and twenty female subjects were tested.\\u000a Ten of each gender group were considered skilled and ten unskilled. In addition to general strength tests,

T.-C. Wu; D. Pearsall; A. Hodges; R. Turcotte; R. Lefebvre; D. Montgomery; H. Bateni

2003-01-01

367

Position statement—altitude training for improving team-sport players’ performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues  

PubMed Central

Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213

Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

2013-01-01

368

Position statement--altitude training for improving team-sport players' performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues.  

PubMed

Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213

Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

2013-12-01

369

An Exploratory Study of Factors Influencing Resuscitation Skills Retention and Performance among Health Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Resuscitation and life support skills training comprises a significant proportion of continuing education programming for health professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes of certified resuscitation providers toward the retention of resuscitation skills, regular skills updating, and methods…

Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; Greene, Melanie

2012-01-01

370

Skilled performance tests and their use in diagnosing handedness and footedness at children of lower school age 8–10  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that hand and foot preferences do not develop in parallel in children and it has been discovered that in children foot preference stabilizes later. Therefore, the aim of this study is to verify whether the differences in stabilization will also be manifested through less consistent results of selected skilled foot performance tests in a comparison with selected skilled hand performance tests. A total of 210 8–10 year old children from elementary schools were recruited for this study. Hand and foot preferences were first tested using hand and foot preference observable measure tasks; consequently, all participants performed four skilled hand performance tests and three foot performance tests. Unlike in complex skilled hand performance tests, which showed a significant convergent validity 0.56–0.89 with hand preference tasks, in complex skilled foot performance tests a very low convergent validity 0.25–0.46 with foot preference tasks was detected. The only skilled foot performance indicator which showed an acceptable convergent validity with foot preference tasks was the “foot tapping” test 0.65–0.85, which represents rather a gross motor activity. Moreover, further results of the tests suggest that complex or fine motor performance tests used for diagnosing laterality of the lower limb that have a manipulative character probably do not represent suitable indicators for children in the given age category. The same trend was revealed in both females and males. This indicates that the level of laterality assessed as difference in skilfulness between the preferred and the non-preferred limb in children in the given age group probably develops in the same way in both genders. PMID:25628579

Musalek, Martin

2015-01-01

371

Skill transfer from symmetric and asymmetric bimanual training using a robotic system to single limb performance  

PubMed Central

Background Humans are capable of fast adaptation to new unknown dynamics that affect their movements. Such motor learning is also believed to be an important part of motor rehabilitation. Bimanual training can improve post-stroke rehabilitation outcome and is associated with interlimb coordination between both limbs. Some studies indicate partial transfer of skills among limbs of healthy individuals. Another aspect of bimanual training is the (a)symmetry of bimanual movements and how these affect motor learning and possibly post-stroke rehabilitation. Methods A novel bimanual 2-DOF robotic system was used for both bimanual and unimanual reaching movements. 35 young healthy adults participated in the study. They were divided into 5 test groups that performed movements under different conditions (bimanual or unimanual movements and symmetric or asymmetric bimanual arm loads). The subjects performed a simple tracking exercise with the bimanual system. The exercise was developed to stimulate motor learning by applying a velocity-dependent disturbance torque to the handlebar. Each subject performed 255 trials divided into three phases: baseline without disturbance torque, training phase with disturbance torque and evaluation phase with disturbance torque. Results Performance was assessed with the maximal values of rotation errors of the handlebar. After exposure to disturbance torque, the errors decreased for both unimanual and bimanual training. Errors in unimanual evaluation following the bimanual training phase were not significantly different from errors in unimanual evaluation following unimanual training. There was no difference in performance following symmetric or asymmetric training. Changing the arm force symmetry during bimanual movements from asymmetric to symmetric had little influence on performance. Conclusions Subjects could adapt to an unknown disturbance torque that was changing the dynamics of the movements. The learning effect was present during both unimanual and bimanual training. Transfer of learned skills from bimanual training to unimanual movements was also observed, as bimanual training also improved single limb performance with the dominant arm. Changes of force symmetry did not have an effect on motor learning. As motor learning is believed to be an important mechanism of rehabilitation, our findings could be tested for future post-stroke rehabilitation systems. PMID:22805223

2012-01-01

372

Physician Assistants and Nurse Practitioners Perform Effective Roles on Teams Caring for Medicare Patients with Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Redesigning healthcare systems to deliver team-based care is considered important to improving care for chronically ill patients. Including physician assistants and/or nurse practitioners on primary care teams is one approach to the patient-centered medical home. However, understanding of the impact of team structure on outcomes is limited. Using Medicare claims and electronic health record data from a large physician group, we compared multiple patient outcomes for older patients with diabetes between patient panels receiving physician only care and panels where primary care physician assistants/nurse practitioners served in different roles. Specific roles were associated with different quality of diabetes care and health service utilization patterns and no role was best for all outcomes. Findings suggest multiple potential approaches to implementing roles on primary care teams exist; however, local factors, including the characteristics of the patients served and prioritization of goals may be important considerations when implementing roles. PMID:24191084

Everett, Christine M.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.; Palta, Mari; Carayon, Pascale; Bartels, Christie; Smith, Maureen A.

2014-01-01

373

Test-Taking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are two types of skills needed to perform well on a standardized achievement test: (1) the cognitive ability or basic skill that the test is designed to measure, and (2) the ability to demonstrate that cognitive ability or basic skill within the test situation. Test-taking skills (sometimes referred to as test wiseness) are the skills needed…

Sabers, Darrell

374

The effect of team learning on student profile and student performance in accounting education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first objective of this study is to investigate students’ preferences for learning methods in relation to their learning strategy, motivation, gender, and ability. Two learning methods are considered: team learning and lecture-based learning. The second objective is to explore the effectiveness of the chosen learning method by comparing academic achievement between the lecture-based and team-learning groups. A quasi-experiment was

E. OPDECAM; P. EVERAERT; H. VAN KEER; F. BUYSSCHAERT

2012-01-01

375

Motor skills and school performance in children with daily physical education in school--a 9-year intervention study.  

PubMed

The aim was to study long-term effects on motor skills and school performance of increased physical education (PE). All pupils born 1990-1992 from one school were included in a longitudinal study over nine years. An intervention group (n = 129) achieved daily PE (5 × 45 min/week) and if needed one extra lesson of adapted motor training. The control group (n = 91) had PE two lessons/week. Motor skills were evaluated by the Motor Skills Development as Ground for Learning observation checklist and school achievements by marks in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school. In school year 9 there were motor skills deficits in 7% of pupils in the intervention group compared to 47% in the control group (P < 0.001), 96% of the pupils in the intervention group compared to 89% in the control group (P < 0.05) qualified for upper secondary school. The sum of evaluated marks was higher among boys in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The sum of marks was also higher in pupils with no motor skills deficit than among pupils with motor skills deficits (P < 0.01), as was the proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school (97% vs 81%, P < 0.001). Daily PE and adapted motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school. PMID:22487170

Ericsson, I; Karlsson, M K

2014-04-01

376

Cyberinfrastructure and Scientific Collaboration: Application of a Virtual Team Performance Framework with Potential Relevance to Education. WCER Working Paper No. 2010-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify and describe some of the dimensions of scientific collaborations using high throughput computing (HTC) through the lens of a virtual team performance framework. A secondary purpose was to assess the viability of using a virtual team performance framework to study scientific collaborations using…

Kraemer, Sara; Thorn, Christopher A.

2010-01-01

377

Case Study: Critical Success Factors for Creating Superb Self-Managing Teams at Xerox  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve their full potential, self-managing teams need to monitor their own work, assume responsibility for problemsolving, and develop task-appropriate performance strategies. How can team leaders help their teams mature in these skills and grow better and better over time? Conventional wisdom says that brilliant coaching—facilitating meetings well, drawing out the right kinds of conflict, building cohesiveness, and the like-is

Ruth Wageman

1997-01-01

378

Crew Skills and Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major focus points for the workshop was the topic of crew skills and training necessary for the Mars surface mission. Discussions centered on the mix of scientific skills necessary to accomplish the proposed scientific goals, and the training environment that can bring the ground and flight teams to readiness. Subsequent discussion resulted in recommendations for specific steps to begin the process of training an experienced Mars exploration team.

Jones, Thomas; Burbank, Daniel C.; Eppler, Dean; Garrison, Robert; Harvey, Ralph; Hoffman, Paul; Schmitt, Harrison

1998-01-01

379

Arm hand skilled performance in cerebral palsy: activity preferences and their movement components  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of arm-hand use is very important in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who encounter arm-hand problems. To determine validity and reliability of new instruments to assess actual performance, a set of standardized test situations including activities of daily living (ADL) is required. This study gives information with which such a set for upper extremity skill research may be fine-tuned, relative to a specific research question. Aim of this study is to a) identify upper extremity related ADL children with CP want to improve on, b) determine the 10 most preferred goals of children with CP, and c) identify movement components of all goals identified. Method The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to identify upper extremity-related ADL preferences (goals) of 53 children with CP encountering arm-hand problems (mean age 9 ± 4.5 year). Goals were ranked based on importance attributed to each goal and the number of times a goal was mentioned, resulting in a gross list with goals. Additionally, two studies were performed, i.e. study A to determine the 10 most preferred goals for 3 age groups (2.5-5 years; 6-11 years, 12-19 years), based on the total preference score, and study B to identify movement components, like reaching and grasping, of all goals identified for both the leading and the assisting arm-hand. Results Seventy-two goals were identified. The 10 most preferred goals differed with age, changing from dressing and leisure-related goals in the youngest children to goals regarding personal care and eating for children aged 6-11 years. The oldest children preferred goals regarding eating, personal care and computer use. The movement components ‘positioning’, ‘reach’, ‘grasp’, and ‘hold’ were present in most tasks. ‘Manipulating’ was more important for the leading arm-hand, whereas ‘fixating’ was more important for the assisting arm-hand. Conclusion This study gave insight into the preferences regarding ADL children with CP would like to improve on, and the movement components characterizing these activities. This information can be used to create a set of standardized test situations, which can be used to assess the validity and reliability of new measurement instruments to gauge actual arm-hand skilled performance. PMID:24646071

2014-01-01

380

Just how important is a good season start? Overall team performance and financial budget of elite soccer clubs.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was (i) to identify how important is a good season start on elite soccer teams' performance and (ii) to examine whether this impact is related to the clubs' financial budget. The match performances and annual budgets of all teams were collected from the English FA Premier League, French Ligue 1, Spanish La Liga, Italian Serie A and German Bundesliga for three consecutive seasons (2010-2011 to 2012-2013). A k-means cluster analysis classified the clubs according to their budget as High Range Budget Clubs, Upper-Mid Range Budget Clubs, Lower-Mid Range Budget Clubs and Low Range Budget Clubs. Data were examined through linear regression models. Overall, the results suggested that the better the team performance at the beginning of the season, the better the ranking at the end of the season. However, the impact of the effect depended on the clubs' annual budget, with lower budgets being associated with a greater importance of having a good season start (P < 0.01). Moreover, there were differences in trends across the different leagues. These variables can be used to develop accurate models to estimate final rankings. Conversely, Lower-Mid and Lower Range Budget Clubs can benefit from fine-tuning preseason planning in order to accelerate the acquisition of optimal performances. PMID:25443809

Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Sampaio, Jaime

2015-06-01

381

Development of Body Composition, Hormone Profile, Physical Fitness, General Perceptual Motor Skills, Soccer Skills and On-The-Ball Performance in Soccer-Specific Laboratory Test Among Adolescent Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group). The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy) in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (? = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01) of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01) in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01), counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01), dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05) in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05), fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05), 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05) in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific laboratory test was significant only in the 14-year-old age group (r = 0.76, p < 0.01). To conclude, on-the-ball skill performance in soccer-specific laboratory test improved with age and it seemed that soccer-specific perceptual skills became more and general perceptual motor skills less important with age in soccer-specific laboratory test. Key points Physical fitness characteristics and general perceptual motor skills predicted performance time of the open skill soccer-specific laboratory test in the group of 10-14 year-old regional soccer players. Before puberty the players were able to compensate weaker soccer-specific skills with better general physical performance abilities. Soccer-specific skills became more important with age and at the age of 14 the players were not able to compensate soccer-specific skills with general physical performance abilities. Beside basic ball-handling skills it also important to recognize the importance of soccer-specific perceptual skills (anticipation and reaction) as a part of successful soccer performance. PMID:24149780

Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Häkkinen, Keijo

2010-01-01

382

High performance team-based care for persons with chronic conditions.  

PubMed

Care for patients with complex chronic conditions such as diabetes requires a coordinated and collaborative team working in partnership with the patient. Israel has taken important steps forward with the development of structured diabetes follow-up by Clalit Health Services, including several measures of diabetes care in the National Program for Quality Indicators in Community Healthcare, and efforts to develop health information exchange and measures of continuity between hospital and community-based care. Achieving even better results will require purposeful development of health care teams to meet the needs of patients with single and multiple chronic conditions, including robust interprofessional education programs for the next generation of health professionals, and developing partnerships between the teams and the patients. PMID:25729565

Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Okun, Sally

2015-01-01

383

UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment: Development of a New Measure of Everyday Functioning for Severely Mentally Ill Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instruments to assess everyday functioning have utilized self-report, proxy report, clinician ratings, or direct observation of performance. Each of these methods has strengths and weaknesses. In this article we argue for the inclusion of performance-based measures of functional capacity in studies of severely mentally ill persons and describe a new measure, the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA). We administered the

Thomas L. Patterson; Sherry Goldman; Christine L. McKibbin; Troy Hughs; Dilip V. Jeste

2001-01-01

384

Predictors of Student Performance in Grades 7 and 8 Mathematics: The Correlation between Benchmark Tests and Performance on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Math Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts throughout Texas have used archived Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) tests as a benchmark to predict student performance on future TAKS tests without substantial quantitative evidence that these types of benchmark tests are valid predictors of student performance. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study…

Allen, Timothy Dale

2012-01-01

385

Fundamental movement skills--how do primary school children perform? The 'Move it Groove it' program in rural Australia.  

PubMed

Child Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) underpin active lifestyles yet little is known of their distribution and mastery. 'Move it Groove it' project rated proficiency of primary school children (n = 1045, 18 schools) in skills of balance, throw, catch, sprint, hop, kick, side gallop and jump. Rating categories were 'mastery', 'near mastery' or 'poor' (ie mastered all, all but one, or less of the five to six components of an FMS). Less than half of all child tests were rated at mastery (21.3%) or near mastery (25.7%) level. In grade three, 75.4% of children achieved mastery or near mastery (MNM) in static balance but less than half did so for any other FMS. In grade four, 59.0% achieved MNM in the side gallop and 56.0% in the catch but less than half did so for any other FMS. Although the highest percent mastery for both genders was for the balance, the skills best performed thereafter by boys (throw and kick) rated poorest for girls. Conversely the hop and side gallop which rated, after balance, as the skills best mastered by girls, were among the more poorly performed skills for boys. The low prevalence of FMS mastery found in this survey suggests that there may be great potential to improve fundamental movement skills of primary aged children in many parts of rural Australia. Even if the aim were for children to achieve near mastery levels, the improvement could be substantial in every skill category. Where appropriate, gender differences in mastery might easily be addressed by tailored physical education programs and modification of social and physical environments. PMID:12413042

van Beurden, E; Zask, A; Barnett, L M; Dietrich, U C

2002-09-01

386

Adaptive heterogeneous multi-robot teams  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail the experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

Parker, L.E.

1998-11-01

387

Squad management, injury and match performance in a professional soccer team over a championship-winning season.  

PubMed

Abstract Squad management, injury and physical, tactical and technical match performance were investigated in a professional soccer team across five consecutive league seasons (2008-2013, 190 league games) with specific focus on a championship-winning season (2010/11). For each player, match participation and time-loss injuries were recorded, the latter prospectively diagnosed by the team's physician. Defending and attacking tactical and technical performance indicators investigated included ball possession and possession in opponents' half, passes, forward passes, completed passes and forward passes, crosses and completed crosses, goal attempts and goal attempts on target, successful final third entries, free-kicks and 50/50 duels won/lost. Physical performance measures included total distance and distance covered at high-speeds (?19.1 km/h). Results showed that during the 2010/11 season, squad utilisation was lowest potentially owing to the observed lower match injury occurrence and working days lost to injury thereby increasing player availability. In 2010/11, the team won both its highest number of points and conceded its lowest number of goals especially over the second half of this season. The team also won its highest number of games directly via a goal from a substitute and scored and conceded a goal first on the highest and lowest number of occasions, respectively. While multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) detected a significant difference in some attacking and defensive performance indicators across the five seasons, these were generally not distinguishing factors in 2010/11. Similarly, univariate ANOVAs showed a significant difference in running distances covered across seasons, but the trend was for less activity in 2010/11. PMID:25216043

Carling, Christopher; Le Gall, Franck; McCall, Alan; Nédélec, Mathieu; Dupont, Gregory

2014-09-12

388

The effect of positive and negative verbal feedback on surgical skills performance and motivation.  

PubMed

There is considerable effort and time invested in providing feedback to medical students and residents during their time in training. However, little effort has been made to measure the effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on skills performance and motivation to learn and practice. To probe these questions, first-year medical students (n = 25) were recruited to perform a peg transfer task on Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery box trainers. Time to completion and number of errors were recorded. The students were then randomized to receive either positive or negative verbal feedback from an expert in the field of laparoscopic surgery. After this delivery of feedback, the students repeated the peg transfer task. Differences in performance pre- and post-feedback and also between the groups who received positive feedback (PF) vs negative feedback (NF) were analyzed. A survey was then completed by all the participants. Baseline task times were similar between groups (PF 209.3 seconds; NF 203 seconds, p = 0.58). The PF group averaged 1.83 first-time errors while the NF group 1 (p = 0.84). Post-feedback task times were significantly decreased for both groups (PF 159.75 seconds, p = 0.05; NF 132.08 seconds, p = 0.002). While the NF group demonstrated a greater improvement in mean time than the PF group, this was not statistically significant. Both groups also made fewer errors (PF 0.33 errors, p = 0.04; NF 0.38 errors, p = 0.23). When surveyed about their responses to standardized feedback scenarios, the students stated that both positive and negative verbal feedback could be potent stimulants for improved performance and motivation. Further research is required to better understand the effects of feedback on learner motivation and the interpersonal dynamic between mentors and their trainees. PMID:23111049

Kannappan, Aarthy; Yip, Dana T; Lodhia, Nayna A; Morton, John; Lau, James N

2012-01-01

389

Teaching Basic Caregiver Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide provides materials for a nursing skills course designed to teach basic home nursing skills to families who plan to care for a chronically ill or elderly family member at home. It may be taught by a registered nurse with knowledge of all areas or by a team, with each instructor concentrating on his/her area of expertise.…

Schenk, Susan, Ed.; Harrah, Doris, Ed.

390

Distributed Leadership in Action: Leading High-Performing Leadership Teams in English Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heroic models of leadership based on the role of the principal have been supplemented by an emerging recognition of the value of "distributed leadership". The work of effective senior leadership teams (SLTs) is an important manifestation of distributed leadership, but there has been only limited research addressing the relationship between this…

Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

2012-01-01

391

Using Agile Project Management to Enhance the Performance of Instructional Design Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional design models describe in detail methodologies for designing effective instruction. Several widely adopted models include suggestions for managing instructional design projects. However, these suggestions focus on how to manage the instructional design steps rather than the instructional design and development team process. The…

Sweeney, David S.; Cifuentes, Lauren

2010-01-01

392

The Scientific Impact of Nations: Journal Placement and Citation Performance - Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

Skip to main content at the National Institutes of Health www.cancer.gov Home About Team Science About the Toolkit Discover Contribute Connect News & Events About Us Links URL Download Pub Med DOI Scopus The Scientific Impact of Nations: Journal

393

Research and Teaching: Team-Based Learning Enhances Performance in Introductory Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the problems associated with the traditional lecture method, the constraints associated with large classes, and the effectiveness of active learning, continued development and testing of efficient student-centered learning approaches are needed. This study explores the effectiveness of team-based learning (TBL) in a large-enrollment introductory biology class.

Jeffrey Carmichael

2009-03-01

394

Performer: An Instrument for Multidisciplinary Courseware Teams to Share Knowledge and Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the traditional problems in courseware development that is recognized as hard to solve, is the communication and co-operation between various disciplines in project teams that are working on a courseware product [Alber (1996) "Multimedia: a management perspective." California: Wadsworth; Boyle (1997) "Design for multimedia learning." UK:…

van Aalst, Jan-Willem; van der Mast, Charles

2003-01-01

395

Behaviorally Based Measures for Evaluating the Nonclinical Performance of Dentists in Team Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retranslations of expectations technique was used to develop behaviorally anchored scales for evaluating dentists' utilization of expanded duty dental auxiliaries. To enhance the reliability and validity of such instruments the project focused on specific acts and decisions of the dentist which are either effective or ineffective in accomplishing the health team's tasks.

Marc J. Wallace; Philip K. Berger; Larry Domer; Thomas M. Cooper

1975-01-01

396

Understanding the assembly of interdisciplinary teams and its impact on performance  

PubMed Central

Interdisciplinary teams are assembled in scientific research and are aimed at solving complex problems. Given their increasing importance, it is not surprising that considerable attention has been focused on processes of collaboration in interdisciplinary teams. Despite such efforts, we know less about the factors affecting the assembly of such teams in the first place. In this paper, we investigate the structure and the success of interdisciplinary scientific research teams. We examine the assembly factors using a sample of 1,103 grant proposals submitted to two National Science Foundation interdisciplinary initiatives during a 3-year period, including both awarded and non-awarded proposals. The results indicate that individuals’ likelihood of collaboration on a proposal is higher among those with longer tenure, lower institutional tier, lower H-index, and with higher levels of prior co-authorship and citation relationships. However, successful proposals have a little bit different relational patterns: individuals’ likelihood of collaboration is higher among those with lower institutional tier, lower H-index, (female) gender, higher levels of prior co-authorship, but with lower levels of prior citation relationships. PMID:24470806

Lungeanu, Alina; Huang, Yun; Contractor, Noshir S.

2013-01-01

397

Half-time strategies to enhance second-half performance in team-sports players: a review and recommendations.  

PubMed

A number of intermittent team sports require that two consecutive periods of play (lasting for ~30-45 min) are separated by a 10-20 min half-time break. The half-time practices employed by team-sports players generally include returning to the changing rooms, temporarily relaxing from the cognitive and physical demands of the first half, rehydration and re-fuelling strategies, addressing injury or equipment concerns, and receiving tactical instruction and coach feedback. However, the typically passive nature of these actions has been associated with physiological changes that impair performance during the second half. Both physical and cognitive performances have been found to decline in the initial stages of subsequent exercise that follows half-time. An increased risk of injury has also been observed during this period. Therefore, half-time provides sports scientists and strength and conditioning coaches with an opportunity to optimise second-half performance. An overview of strategies thought to benefit team-sports athletes is presented; specifically, the efficacy of heat maintenance strategies (including passive and active methods), post-activation potentiation, hormonal priming, and modified hydro-nutritional practices are discussed. A theoretical model of applying these strategies in a manner that compliments current practice is also offered. PMID:25504550

Russell, Mark; West, Daniel J; Harper, Liam D; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

2015-03-01

398

[Factors influencing the performance of medical teams in the early assessment of exposure to radiation--in accident or man-made radiological disasters].  

PubMed

"RadioLogical events" are the general term used to describe various scenarios that involve radiological and nuclear mishaps. These may occur in different settings such as in a nuclear plant, during transportation of isotopes, in a medical or industrial venue, as a result of an accident, natural disaster or as a means of terror or war. Radiological events carry dire medical consequences and are therefore of great concern to both the public and the authorities. The recent disaster in Japan brought the issue of the safety of nuclear pLants to the civil populations residing around them to the public eye once again. A nuclear disaster poses a professional challenge to the medical teams that need to treat victims. Studies show that the readiness and willingness to care for radiation victims is influenced by many factors, among them are knowledge and skills, the resources available and more. The ability of triage staff to identify radiation victims and to identify those prone to deteriorate, will have an effect on the staff's feeling of competitiveness and willingness to treat. Risk communication is an important contributor to the ability to handle the situation properly. Good communication can alleviate concerns in the public and mediate the response in a way that will prevent an overflow of the system by "worried well". The aim of this literature review is to describe the factors that encourage the functioning of teams in a radiological event and to identify and highlight the factors that can influence their performance (positively or negatively). PMID:22741203

Gonen, Anat; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

2012-02-01

399

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Inductive learning can be used to perform an expert skill using nearest neighbor  

E-print Network

, but rather what we are. An aging professional athlete may still know what to do, #12;2 but his or her body. Webster's ninth College Dictionary defines skill as "the ability to use one's knowledge effectively.g. language skills)." #12;3 Early A.I. researchers were optimistic about implementing computer systems

Reed, Dale F.

400

Cortico-cortical Communication and Superior Performance in Skilled Marksmen: An EEG Coherence Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence was assessed during a 4-s aiming period prior to trigger pull in expert marksmen ( n = 10) and skilled shooters ( n = 9) over the course of a regulation round of small-bore rifle shooting. Al- though both groups were highly experienced, the skilled group had lower ability. Given that specialization of cortical function occurs as

Sean P. Deeny; Charles H. Hillman; Christopher M. Janelle; Bradley D. Hatfield

401

Critical Thinking Skills among Elementary School Students: Comparing Identified Gifted and General Education Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education reform efforts, including the current adoption of Common Core State Standards, have increased attention to teaching critical thinking skills to all students. This study investigated the critical thinking skills of fourth-grade students from a school district in Texas, including 45 identified gifted students and 163 general education…

Kettler, Todd

2014-01-01

402

Motivation and Math Skills as Determinants of First-Year Performance in Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of math skills for study success in economics has been widely researched. This article adds to the literature by combining information on students' math skills and their motivation. The authors are thus able to present a rich picture of why students succeed in their study of economics and to confirm previous findings that deficient…

Arnold, Ivo J. M.; Straten, Jerry T.

2012-01-01

403

Using Model-Tracing to Conduct Performance Assessment of Students' Inquiry Skills within a Microworld  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National frameworks for science emphasize inquiry skills (NRC, 1996), however, in typical classroom practice, science learning often focuses on rote learning in part because science process skills are difficult to assess (Fadel, Honey, & Pasnick, 2007) and rote knowledge is prioritized on high-stakes tests. Short answer assessments of inquiry…

Gobert, Janice D.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

2011-01-01

404

Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematical Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills

Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

2014-01-01

405

Creating the executive team to lead team-based organizations.  

PubMed

In team-based organizations, senior executives are often the last group to be truly a team. Many factors contribute to the individualism that is characteristic of the leadership of an organization. Factors that produce the success of an executive may be contradictory to the skills needed to be an effective team member. Team-based organizations continue to demonstrate their success in managing the changing and challenging work environments. Health care executive leadership groups must realize the impact they can have on the organization if they become a team. This article reviews how executives can become a team. PMID:10095712

Nevidjon, B

1998-12-01

406

Business and Industry Project-Based Capstone Courses: A Reflection on the Performance of Student Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second of two articles in which the author shares experiences gained from the development and delivery of a business/industry project-based capstone course. The course integrates research, proposal development and design experience based on knowledge and skills acquired in earlier coursework. It also incorporates standards and…

Maleki, Reza A.

2009-01-01

407

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

408

Which Specific Skills Developing during Preschool Years Predict the Reading Performance in the First and Second Grade of Primary School?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine if specific skills that are developed during preschool years could predict the reading performance in the first and second grade of primary school. Two hundred and eighty-seven children participated in this longitudinal study. At the kindergarten level, phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatised naming,…

Papadimitriou, Artemis M.; Vlachos, Filippos M.

2014-01-01

409

Impact of Managerial Skills Learnt through MA Educational Planning Management Programme of AIOU on the Performance of Institutional Heads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Management provides formal coordination in an organization for achieving pre-determined goals. The educational manager particulary performs his duties by using different planning and management techniques. These techniques are equally important for the manager of other sectors. The present study was focused on the impact of managerial skills

Chuadhry, Muhammad Asif; Shah, Syed Manzoor Hussain

2012-01-01

410

Perception of Teachers' Knowledge, Attitude and Teaching Skills as Predictor of Academic Performance in Nigerian Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the relationship/effect of students' perception of teachers' knowledge of subject matter, attitude to work and teaching skills on students' academic performance. The population consisted of senior secondary three (SS.III) students in the South West Nigeria senior secondary schools. The study sample consisted of 1600…

Adediwura, A. A.; Tayo, Bada

2007-01-01

411

Apprentices' and Trainees' English Language and Literacy Skills in Workplace Learning and Performance: Employer and Employee Opinion. Australian Apprenticeships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated ways employers and their apprentices and trainees perceive how these employees' English language and literacy (ELL) skills affect their learning and performance in the workplace in the current context of New Apprenticeships. The research design and methodology involved sending an opinion survey to a stratified random sample of…

O'Neill, Shirley; Gish, Annabelle

412

BDNF polymorphism predicts the rate of decline in skilled task performance and hippocampal volume in healthy individuals  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have indicated a link between the presence of polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive and affective disorders. However, only a few have studied these effects longitudinally along with structural changes in the brain. This study was carried out to investigate whether valine-to-methionine substitution at position 66 (val66met) of pro-BDNF could be linked to alterations in the rate of decline in skilled task performance and structural changes in hippocampal volume. Participants consisted of 144 healthy Caucasian pilots (aged 40–69 years) who completed a minimum of 3 consecutive annual visits. Standardized flight simulator score (SFSS) was measured as a reliable and quantifiable indicator for skilled task performance. In addition, a subset of these individuals was assessed for hippocampal volume alterations using magnetic resonance imaging. We found that val66met substitution in BDNF correlated longitudinally with the rate of decline in SFSS. Structurally, age-dependent hippocampal volume changes were also significantly altered by this substitution. Our study suggests that val66met polymorphism in BDNF can be linked to the rate of decline in skilled task performance. Furthermore, this polymorphism could be used as a predictor of the effects of age on the structure of the hippocampus in healthy individuals. Such results have implications for understanding possible disabilities in older adults performing skilled tasks who are at a higher risk for cognitive and affective disorders. PMID:22833197

Sanchez, M Millan; Das, D; Taylor, J L; Noda, A; Yesavage, J A; Salehi, A

2011-01-01

413

Performance Pay Improves Engagement, Progress, and Satisfaction in Computer-Based Job Skills Training of Low-Income Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training…

Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Silverman, Kenneth

2013-01-01

414

Assessment Training Effects on Student Assessment Skills and Task Performance in a Technology-Facilitated Peer Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the impact of an assessment training module on student assessment skills and task performance in a technology-facilitated peer assessment. Seventy-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants completed an assessment training exercise, prior to engaging in peer-assessment activities. During the…

Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan

2014-01-01

415

The Prediction of Task and Contextual Performance by Political Skill: A Meta-Analysis and Moderator Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Political skill is a relatively newly articulated construct. Despite its novelty, it has been investigated in a variety of contexts, showing promise not only as a descriptor of several organizational phenomena, but also as a predictor of job performance. Given this status, it seems appropriate to review the empirical literature to this point for…

Bing, Mark N.; Davison, H. Kristl; Minor, Inneka; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Frink, Dwight D.

2011-01-01

416

Cognitive functioning, social skills, and vocational performance for secondary students with learning disabilities in regular education vocational classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although cognitive functioning levels have been widely used to make placement decisions for students with learning disabilities, the current study illustrates that for many students these scores may be of limited value. Traditional predictors of performance in a regular education environment (e.g., verbal and nonverbal cognitive functioning) were used along with social skills variables (Cooperation, Assertion, Self-Control) to evaluate the

Patricia Mary Carroll

2001-01-01

417

Correlates of Study Skills and Academic Performance of Secretarial Studies Student Teachers of Rivers State University of Science and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine correlates of study skills and academic performance of high and low achievers among secretarial studies student teachers at a Nigerian university. Results with 21 high and 21 low achievers demonstrate personality and study habits differences among the groups. (SLD)

Ojoko, Sydney; Koko, Maureen

1994-01-01

418

Correlates of Student Performance in the Science Olympiad: The Test of Integrated Process Skills and Other Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Test of Integrated Process Skills (TIPS) was administered to 667 students in grades 9-12 who were registering to participate in a regional science Olympiad on a southern university campus in February 1988. Each student's score on the test was correlated with subsequent performance in one or more of the 11 Olympiad events. Of the 667 students…

Baird, William E.; And Others

419

Selected Musculoskeletal and Performance Characteristics of Members of a Women's Professional Football Team: Application of a Pre-participation Examination  

PubMed Central

Background Although it is common practice to administer pre-participation examinations (PPE) of athletes prior to training, there are no clearly established formats. Elements integral to the PPE fall within the scope of physical therapist practice, and are often categorized as a form of primary prevention for musculoskeletal disorders as defined in the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe the design and implementation of a PPE for a women's professional (gridiron) football team. The results and findings from this PPE provide one of the first musculoskeletal profiles and information about selected physical characteristics from members of a female professional football team. Methods Players from the Kentucky Karma women's football team, a member of the National Women's Football League (NWFA), volunteered to participate in a PPE. Of twenty-five eligible team members, thirteen consented to participate. The PPE consisted of a health history questionnaire, a musculoskeletal screening, and a series of physical performance and agility tests. Results The players' average (± SD) age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage were 29.6 (± 5.6) yrs., 1.66 (± .05) m, 66.8 (± 12.6) kg, 24.1 (± 3.7), and 27.4 (± 6.6) %, respectively. Commonly reported injuries were similar to those reported in men's collegiate football. Conclusion This is one of the first papers to report on a model PPE for a women's professional football team. Future research is needed to establish a standard PPE, recognize common injuries, and develop prevention strategies unique to women's professional football. PMID:21509153

Nett, Beth; Velarde, Lynnuel; Pariser, David P.; Boyce, David A.

2010-01-01

420

The Effects of a Team Charter on Student Team Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors contribute to growing evidence that team charters contribute positively to performance by empirically testing their effects on key team process outcomes. Using a sample of business students in a team-based task requiring significant cooperative and coordinative behavior, the authors compare emergent team norms under a variety of team

Aaron, Joshua R.; McDowell, William C.; Herdman, Andrew O.

2014-01-01

421

What Makes a Good Team Player? Personality and Team Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good team players are often defined in trait terms; that is, they are described as dependable, flexible, or cooperative. Our goal is to examine the relationship between team member personality traits and team effectiveness. However, to understand the effects of personality on team performance requires greater specificity in how personality is described and in how team effectiveness is described. A

James E. Driskell; Gerald F. Goodwin; Eduardo Salas; Patrick Gavan OShea

2006-01-01

422

Training teams for the perioperative environment: a research agenda.  

PubMed

A research agenda for investigating the impact of team-work training on patient safety in the perioperative environment is presented. The current status of teamwork training is reviewed briefly, and conclusions based on existing research are presented. We present a roadmap for future research on how teamwork training should be structured, delivered, and evaluated to optimize patient safety in the operating room. For teamwork skills to be assessed and have credibility, team performance measures must be grounded in team theory, account for individual and team-level performance, capture team process and outcomes, adhere to standards for reliability and validity, and address real or perceived barriers to measurement. The interdisciplinary nature of work in the perioperative environment and the necessity of cooperation among team members play an important role in enabling patient safety and avoiding errors. Teams make fewer mistakes than do individuals, especially when each team member knows his or her responsibilities, as well as those of other team members. However, simply installing a team structure without addressing the organizational context of care--the culture--does not automatically ensure it will operate effectively. Factors associated with the design of teamwork training, measures of training effectiveness, and the assessment process that should be explored in near-term work (1 to 2 years) are addressed. We also address the impact of the organizational environment, including the role of institutional support and culture, that need to be explored in longer term research (3 to 5 years). PMID:17056781

Entin, Eileen B; Lai, Fuji; Barach, Paul

2006-09-01

423

Coaching your unit team for results.  

PubMed

Communication and critical thinking skills are core to the coaching processes. Bringing the coaching role to the individual and team level at the bedside is the key to improved results in patient care, nurse retention, clinical performance including error reduction, negotiation, and staff empowerment. Application of coaching concepts where the nurse meets the patient insures the growth and effectiveness of a coaching culture. Clinical review, individual communication, and teamwork examples are explored as effective arenas for coaching at the unit level. PMID:12271765

Detmer, Sarah S

2002-09-01

424

Imagery Integration Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one-of-a-kind imagery assets and skill sets, such as ground-based fixed and tracking cameras, crew-in the-loop imaging applications, and the integration of custom or commercial-off-the-shelf sensors onboard spacecraft. For spaceflight applications, the Integration 2 Team leverages modeling, analytical, and scientific resources along with decades of experience and lessons learned to assist the customer in optimizing engineering imagery acquisition and management schemes for any phase of flight - launch, ascent, on-orbit, descent, and landing. The Integration 2 Team guides the customer in using NASA's world-class imagery analysis teams, which specialize in overcoming inherent challenges associated with spaceflight imagery sets. Precision motion tracking, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry, image stabilization, 3D modeling of imagery data, lighting assessment, and vehicle fiducial marking assessments are available. During a mission or test, the Integration 2 Team provides oversight of imagery operations to verify fulfillment of imagery requirements. The team oversees the collection, screening, and analysis of imagery to build a set of imagery findings. It integrates and corroborates the imagery findings with other mission data sets, generating executive summaries to support time-critical mission decisions.

Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave

2014-01-01

425

Analysis of the resilience of team performance during a nuclear emergency response exercise.  

PubMed

The current work presents results from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of a nuclear disaster simulation. Audio-visual records were collected from an emergency room team composed of individuals from 26 different agencies as they responded to multiple scenarios in a simulated nuclear disaster. This simulation was part of a national emergency response training activity for a nuclear power plant located in a developing country. The objectives of this paper are to describe sources of resilience and brittleness in these activities, identify cues of potential improvements for future emergency simulations, and leveraging the resilience of the emergency response system in case of a real disaster. Multiple CTA techniques were used to gain a better understanding of the cognitive dimensions of the activity and to identify team coordination and crisis management patterns that emerged from the simulation exercises. PMID:24239564

Gomes, José Orlando; Borges, Marcos R S; Huber, Gilbert J; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R

2014-05-01

426

Teaching high-performance skills using above-real-time training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The above real-time training (ARTT) concept is an approach to teaching high-performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. It represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. Two related experiments are discussed. In the first, 25 naive male subjects performed three tank gunnery tasks on a simulator under varying levels of time acceleration (i.e., 1.0x, 1.6x, 2.0x, sequential, and mixed). They were then transferred to a standard (1.0x) condition for testing. Every accelerated condition or combination of conditions produced better training and transfer than the standard condition. Most effective was the presentation of trials at 1.0x, 1.6x, and 2.0x in a random order during training. Overall, the best ARTT group scored about 50 percent higher and trained in 25 percent less time compared to the real-time control group. In the second experiment, 24 mission-capable F-16 pilots performed three tasks on a part-task F-16A flight simulator under varying levels of time compression (i.e., 1.0x, 1.5x, 2.0x, and random). All subjects were then tested in a real-time environment. The emergency procedure (EP) task results showed increased accuracy for the ARTT groups. In testing (transfer), the ARTT groups not only performed the EP more accurately, but dealt with a simultaneous enemy significantly better than a real-time control group. Although the findings on an air combat maneuvering task and stern conversion task were mixed, most measures indicated that the ARTT groups performed better and faster than a real-time control group. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

1993-01-01

427

Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits play a role in the modulation of the serial correlations of timing fluctuations exhibited in skilled musical performance. PMID:25309487

Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A.

2014-01-01

428

Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation.  

PubMed

Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits play a role in the modulation of the serial correlations of timing fluctuations exhibited in skilled musical performance. PMID:25309487

Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A

2014-01-01

429

Performance of Physical Examination Skills in Medical Students during Diagnostic Medicine Course in a University Hospital of Northwest China  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of physical examination (PE) skills during our diagnostic medicine course and analyze the characteristics of the data collected to provide information for practical guidance to improve the quality of teaching. Seventy-two fourth-year medical students were enrolled in the study. All received an assessment of PE skills after receiving a 17-week formal training course and systematic teaching. Their performance was evaluated and recorded in detail using a checklist, which included 5 aspects of PE skills: examination techniques, communication and care skills, content items, appropriateness of examination sequence, and time taken. Error frequency and type were designated as the assessment parameters in the survey. The results showed that the distribution and the percentage in examination errors between male and female students and among the different body parts examined were significantly different (p<0.001). The average error frequency per student in females (0.875) was lower than in males (1.375) although the difference was not statistically significant (p?=?0.167). The average error frequency per student in cardiac (1.267) and pulmonary (1.389) examinations was higher than in abdominal (0.867) and head, neck and nervous system examinations (0.917). Female students had a lower average error frequency than males in cardiac examinations (p?=?0.041). Additionally, error in examination techniques was the highest type of error among the 5 aspects of PE skills irrespective of participant gender and assessment content (p<0.001). These data suggest that PE skills in cardiac and pulmonary examinations and examination techniques may be included in the main focus of improving the teaching of diagnostics in these medical students. PMID:25329685

Li, Yan; Li, Na; Han, Qunying; He, Shuixiang; Bae, Ricard S.; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Shi, Bingyin

2014-01-01

430

The Effects of Team Training on Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis was conducted to determine relationships between team training and team effectiveness. Results from the 21 studies provided evidence that training is positively related to team effectiveness and effectiveness in five outcome categories: affective, cognitive, subjective task-based skill, objective task-based skill, and teamwork…

Delise, Lisa A.; Gorman, C. Allen; Brooks, Abby M.; Rentsch, Joan R.; Steele-Johnson, Debra

2010-01-01

431

Examination of Communication Delays on Team Performance: Utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a Test Bed for Analog Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance as well as an insight into how teams perform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.

Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.

2011-01-01

432

Are recent graduates enough prepared to perform obstetric skills in their rural and compulsory year? A study from Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the possible mismatch of obstetrical skills between the training offered in Ecuadorian medical schools and the tasks required for compulsory rural service. Setting Primary care, rural health centres in Southern Ecuador. Participants A total of 92 recent graduated medical doctors during their compulsory rural year. Primary and secondary outcomes measures A web-based survey was developed with 21 obstetrical skills. The questionnaire was sent to all rural doctors who work in Loja province, Southern Ecuador, at the Ministry of Health (n=92). We measured two categories ‘importance of skills in rural practice’ with a five-point Likert-type scale (1= strongly disagree; 5= strongly agree); and ‘clerkship experience’ using a nominal scale divided in five levels: level 1 (not seen, not performed) to level 5 (performed 10 times or more). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to observe associations. Results A negative correlation was found in the skills: ‘episiotomy and repair’, ‘umbilical vein catheterisation’, ‘speculum examination’, ‘evaluation of cervical dilation during active labour’, ‘neonatal resuscitation’ and ‘vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery’. For instance ‘Episiotomy and repair’ is important (strongly agree and agree) to 100% of respondents, but in practice, only 38.9% of rural doctors performed the task three times and 8.3% only once during the internship, similar pattern is seen in the others. Conclusions In this study we have noted the gap between the medical needs of populations in rural areas and training provided during the clerkship experiences of physicians during their rural service year. It is imperative to ensure that rural doctors are appropriately trained and skilled in the performance of routine obstetrical duties. This will help to decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality in rural Ecuador. PMID:25082424

Sánchez del Hierro, Galo; Remmen, Roy; Verhoeven, Veronique; Van Royen, Paul; Hendrickx, Kristin

2014-01-01

433

Gaze training enhances laparoscopic technical skill acquisition and multi-tasking performance: a randomized, controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The operating room environment is replete with stressors and distractions that increase the attention demands of what are\\u000a already complex psychomotor procedures. Contemporary research in other fields (e.g., sport) has revealed that gaze training\\u000a interventions may support the development of robust movement skills. This current study was designed to examine the utility\\u000a of gaze training for technical laparoscopic skills and

Mark R. Wilson; Samuel J. Vine; Elizabeth Bright; Rich S. W. Masters; David Defriend; John S. McGrath

434

Politics Perceptions as Moderator of the Political Skill-Job Performance Relationship: A Two-Study, Cross-National, Constructive Replication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed a two-study, cross-national, constructive replication to examine the role of organizational politics perceptions as a contextual moderator of the political skill-job performance relationship. Specifically, we hypothesized that high levels of political skill would demonstrate its strongest positive effects on job performance when…

Kapoutsis, Ilias; Papalexandris, Alexandros; Nikolopoulos, Andreas; Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Ferris, Gerald R.

2011-01-01

435

Performance pay improves engagement, progress, and satisfaction in computer-based job skills training of low-income adults.  

PubMed

Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training program for low-income, unemployed adults. Participants worked on typing and keypad programs for 7 months. Participants randomly assigned to Group A (n?=?23) earned hourly and productivity pay on the typing program (productivity pay), but earned only equalized hourly pay on the keypad program (hourly pay). Group B (n?=?19) participants had the opposite contingencies. Participants worked more on, advanced further on, and preferred their productivity pay program. These results show that monetary incentives can increase performance in a job-skills training program, and indicate that payment in adult education programs should be delivered contingent on performance in the training program instead of simply on attendance. PMID:24114155

Koffarnus, Mikhail N; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Silverman, Kenneth

2013-01-01

436

Acquisition of cognitive skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for skill acquisition is proposed that includes two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill: a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowl- edge is directly embodied in procedures for performing the skill. This general framework has been instantiated in the ACT system

John R. Anderson

1982-01-01

437

The Effect of an Interdisciplinary Community Health Project on Student Attitudes toward Community Health, People Who Are Indigent and Homeless, and Team Leadership Skill Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 22 health occupations students examined whether participation in an interdisciplinary community health empowerment project with urban homeless and formerly homeless people changed their attitudes about community health practice, attitudes toward people who are indigent and homeless, and perceived leadership skills. Posttests revealed a…

Rose, Molly A.; Lyons, Kevin J.; Miller, Kathleen Swenson; Cornman-Levy, Diane

2003-01-01

438

Student mathermatics performance in relation to selected causal variables and a teaming process for improving higher order thinking skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was proposed that student mathematics gain scores on the Georgia Criteria Referenced Competency Test (CRCT], motivation ant1 teacher expectation might be explained by teacher perceptions of the selected independent variables: Instructional I leadership, professional development, teacher methodology, achievement lesson planning, teacher instructional delivery and teacher college preparation. The correlation design did not include a control group. Thirty-seven of the

Danielle Sanders Battle

2009-01-01

439

Retention of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Knowledge and Skills Following High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation Training  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ ability to retain advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) knowledge and skills within 120 days of previous high-fidelity mannequin simulation training. Design. Students were randomly assigned to rapid response teams of 5-6. Skills in ACLS and mannequin survival were compared between teams some members of which had simulation training 120 days earlier and teams who had not had previous training. Assessment. A checklist was used to record and assess performance in the simulations. Teams with previous simulation training (n=10) demonstrated numerical superiority to teams without previous training (n=12) for 6 out of 8 (75%) ACLS skills observed, including time calculating accurate vasopressor infusion rate (83 sec vs 113 sec; p=0.01). Mannequin survival was 37% higher for teams who had previous simulation training, but this result was not significant (70% vs 33%; p=0.20). Conclusion. Teams with students who had previous simulation training demonstrated numerical superiority in ACLS knowledge and skill retention within 120 days of previous training compared to those who had no previous training. Future studies are needed to add to the current evidence of pharmacy students’ and practicing pharmacists’ ACLS knowledge and skill retention. PMID:25741028

Sen, Sanchita; Finn, Laura A.; Cawley, Michael J.

2015-01-01

440

A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.  

PubMed

There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ? 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ? 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

2015-03-01

441

A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes  

PubMed Central

There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ? 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ? 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD

2014-01-01

442

Anxiety disorders in 8-11-year-old children: motor skill performance and self-perception of competence.  

PubMed

This study investigates motor skill performance and self-perceived competence in children with anxiety disorders compared with children without psychiatric disorders. Motor skills and self-perception were assessed in 329 children aged 8 to 11 years, from the Bergen Child Study. The Kiddie-SADS PL diagnostic interview was employed to define a group of children with an anxiety disorder without comorbid diagnosis, and a control group (no diagnosis) matched according to gender, age, and full-scale IQ. Children in the anxiety disorder group displayed impaired motor skills and poor self-perceived peer acceptance and physical competence compared with the control group. Two-thirds of the anxious boys scored on the Motor Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) as having motor problems. The present study demonstrated impaired motor skills in boys with "pure" anxiety disorders. Anxious children also perceived themselves as being less accepted by peers and less competent in physical activities compared with children in the control group. PMID:20132456

Ekornås, Belinda; Lundervold, Astri J; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael

2010-06-01

443

Performance and Competence of Learning Disabled and High-Achieving High School Students on Essential Cognitive Skills  

E-print Network

is not a maJor curricular emphasis, even though perceived as highly important by teachers. 3. Learning skills are teachable behaviors . 4. Learning disabled students may be less efficient in the application of, or may entirely fail to use, appropriate... (Hall, 1971): _A..._gr_e_em;.;.;.;...;;.e_n...;..ts"------- X 100 = % agreement Total number of items Table 3 presents interscorer reliability by performance test. Insert Table 3 about here Test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability...

Carolson, Steven A.; Alley, Gordon R.

1981-07-01

444

Team Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from Round Rock's Project on Incentives in Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a rigorous experiment examining the impact of pay for performance on student achievement and instructional practice. This study, conducted by the National Center on Performance Incentives, examines a pay-for-performance program in Round Rock (Texas) which distributed performance awards to teachers based on a…

McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Pane, John F.; Springer, Matthew G.; Burns, Susan F.; Haas, Ann

2011-01-01

445

National performance review: Internal Team report to the Secretary. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The team received over 300 suggestions for changes in legislation, procedures, and directives that govern the operations of DOE. The suggestions were distilled to 41 issues. DOE employees want to be empowered in areas of decision-making and responsibility, believe that contracting can be done better, are eager to learn quality management, and believe that communications between HQ and field can be improved. A number of internal barriers to efficient operation were identified, that fell away; this can be continued through the Quality Council. Recommendations for action are listed. It is recommended that each of the issues that have been referred for action to a task force or focus group be followed by the Quality Council to successful resolution.

Not Available

1993-09-01

446

Soft Skills at the Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses human capital development through the seven soft skills elements which comprise communication skills, critical thinking and problem solving skills, team work, lifelong learning and information management skills, entrepreneurship skills, ethics, and professional moral and leadership skills. The Ministry of Higher Education,…

Shakir, Roselina

2009-01-01

447

Team-Based Learning in Pharmacy Education  

PubMed Central

Instructors wanting to engage students in the classroom seek methods to augment the delivery of factual information and help students move from being passive recipients to active participants in their own learning. One such method that has gained interest is team-based learning. This method encourages students to be prepared before class and has students work in teams while in the classroom. Key benefits to this pedagogy are student engagement, improved communication skills, and enhanced critical-thinking abilities. In most cases, student satisfaction and academic performance are also noted. This paper reviews the fundamentals of team-based learning in pharmacy education and its implementation in the classroom. Literature reports from medical, nursing, and pharmacy programs are also discussed. PMID:23716738

Ofstad, William

2013-01-01

448

The Laborers-AGC Construction Skills Training Program. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterned after a previously successful Laborers-Associated General Contractors model named the Construction Skills Training Program, a demonstration project was implemented at five regional training centers. At least eight courses were created, combined, or revised. Four full-length audiovisual support pieces were completed. Three courses were…

Tippie, John L.; Rice, Eric

449

Development of the Performance of Process Skills (POPS) Test for Middle Grades Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to construct a valid and reliable noncurriculum specific measure of integrated science process skills intended for use with middle school students. The major efforts in test development were focused on the refinements and modifications of the set of objectives and test items assessed by the existing Middle Grades…

Mattheis, Floyd E.; Nakayama, Genzo

450

Cognitive Skills and Literacy Performance of Chinese Adolescents with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with dyslexia and to assess how these abilities were associated with Chinese word reading, word dictation, and reading comprehension. The cognitive skills of interest were morphological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid…

Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

2011-01-01

451

Sex Differences in the Relation between Math Performance, Spatial Skills, and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex differences have been previously found in cognitive and affective predictors of math achievement, including spatial skills and math attitudes. It is important to determine whether there are sex differences not only in the predictors themselves, but also in the nature of their relation to math achievement. The present paper examined spatial…

Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina

2011-01-01

452

The Skills Enhancement Literacy Project of Hawaii. Final Program Model. Final Performance Report. Final Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Skills Enhancement Literacy Project of Hawaii (SELPH) was a demonstration workplace literacy partnership between the College of Education, University of Hawaii-Manoa and the ITT Sheraton Hotels. Four Sheraton Hotels in Waikiki participated in the project. The program was planned, staff and volunteers were recruited, and marketing strategies…

Hawaii Univ., Manoa. Coll. of Education.

453

Increasing Skill Performances of Problem Solving in Students with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem-solving instruction facilitates children in becoming successful real-world problem solvers. Research that incorporates problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. However, this population of students needs increased opportunities to learn the skills of problem solving. Using a…

Cote, Debra; Pierce, Tom; Higgins, Kyle; Miller, Susan; Tandy, Richard; Sparks, Shannon

2010-01-01

454

How Much Do Study Habits, Skills, and Attitudes Affect Student Performance in Introductory College Accounting Courses?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Financial accounting is a skills course which to a large extent can be best learned through deliberate practice. Teachers implement this by continuously assigning homeworks, encouraging good study habits, asking students to budget time for studying, and generally exhorting students to "work hard". Aims: This paper examines the impact…

Yu, Darwin D.

2011-01-01

455

High Performance and Meeting Participation: An Observational Study in Software Design Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared high and moderate performers' involvement in cooperation processes. The author used an observational method to examine meeting participation of 60 software professionals from 10 software projects. Analyses showed that high performers participated more in the overall meeting process. In poorly structured meetings, high performers contributed more to process regulation activities, such as meeting management, goal setting, problem

Sabine Sonnentag

2001-01-01

456

An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Bulk Fertilizer Plant Worker. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the bulk fertilizer plant worker is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are…

Miller, Daniel R.; And Others

457

An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Tree Service Worker. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the tree service worker is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential…

Waddy, Paul H.; And Others

458

Self-Regulated Learning Skills and Online Activities between Higher and Lower Performers on a Web-Intensive Undergraduate Engineering Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to evaluate students' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills used in a Web-intensive learning environment. The research question guiding the study was: How did the use of student SRL skills and student engagement in online activities compare between higher- and lower-performing students participating in a…

Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry B.; Lawanto, Kevin N.; Goodridge, Wade

2014-01-01

459

Columbia/Willamette Skill Builders Consortium. Final Performance Report. Appendix 5C: English in the Workforce at Leupold & Stevens, Inc. Instructors' Reports and Curriculum Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An 8-week English in the Workplace course was conducted by Portland Community College (Oregon) at Leupold & Stevens, Inc. for workers with limited English proficiency (LEP). The curriculum for English as a Second Language focused on job-related support skills and not primary job skills, since job performance was not a concern. Objectives were to…

Burwell, D'Anne; And Others

460

The Development of a Methodology for Establishing Task-Level Performance Standards for Apprentice, Journeyman, and Master Skill Levels in the U.S. Navy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the project examined here was to establish performance standards for Navy aerographer's mate (AG) enlisted sailors at three skill levels. We used an online expert judgment task and consensus workshop methodology to gather information from subject matter experts on minimal proficiency requirements for each task within each skill level.…

Hedge, Jerry W.; Borman, Walter C.; Kubisiak, U. Christean; Bourne, Mark J.

2007-01-01