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1

Using Assessment for Developing Team Building Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Ability to function in teams," "good team building skills," and "teamwork" are all now common phrases in the classifieds. It is increasingly important in society today, both in social and work environments, to be a good team player. But how do we actually develop those skills and evaluate whether our efforts have had a measurable impact so that we can adjust our approach for maximum benefit? This booklet presents a team assessment process developed to track and improve students team building skill as well as a complete description of its implementation. Preliminary research on team building skills development was performed with a group of community college students in the Electrical Technology Program. The results from the two year study indicate that active participation in the team assessment process is beneficial in developing team building and leadership skills in college students. All the materials necessary to implement the team assessment process for a classroom or workplace setting are provided in this booklet. Using these materials and methods can yield evidence of improved team building and leadership skills important in meeting accreditation standards or for use in evaluating corporate team skills and leadership development.

Akins, Lean M.

2

Individual and team performance in team-handball: a review.  

PubMed

Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key PointsThe specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition.To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested.Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors. PMID:25435773

Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P

2014-12-01

3

Structuring a Project Management Course to Develop Team Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is no escaping it. Working in industry requires working in teams. The industries hiring our graduates recognize this. TAC of ABET Criterion 2e requires it, stating graduates need an ability to function effectively on teams. How do we, as teachers, go about ensuring that our students learn how to work effectively on teams? How do we go about teaching them team work and team management skills? The traditional approach to developing team work and team management skills involves assigning students randomly to teams, giving them a project to work on, and expecting them to somehow magically learn to work effectively on teams. This they'll learn about teamwork if they work on teams approach fails to give students adequate preparation and insight into team work and team management skills. It doesn't work. Surveys of students reveal that they do not feel they knew how to effectively work on teams or how to be a team leader. This sentiment was echoed by respondents to last years project management survey. To effectively prepare students to work on teams, coordinated teambuilding and leadership skills training is needed. Beginning with a discussion of necessary project management and team skills, this paper will describe how to structure a project course to include techniques and exercises specifically designed to develop teamwork and team management skills and the benefits they provide.

Edmonson, Charlie P.

4

The Effects of Development Team Skill on Software Product Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an analysis of the effect of the skill/experience of the software development team on the quality of the final software product. A method for the assessment of software development team skill and experience is proposed, and was derived from a workforce management tool currently in use by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Using data from 26 smallscale software development projects, the team skill measures are correlated to 5 software product quality metrics from the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering Product Quality standard. in the analysis of the results, development team skill is found to be a significant factor in the adequacy of the design and implementation. In addition, the results imply that inexperienced software developers are tasked with responsibilities ill-suited to their skill level, and thus have a significant adverse effect on the quality of the software product. Keywords: software quality, development skill, software metrics

Beaver, Justin M.; Schiavone, Guy A.

2006-01-01

5

Team Culture and Business Strategy Simulation Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many capstone strategic management courses use computer-based simulations as core pedagogical tools. Simulations are touted as assisting students in developing much-valued skills in strategy formation, implementation, and team management in the pursuit of superior strategic performance. However, despite their rich nature, little is known regarding…

Ritchie, William J.; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Drew, Stephen A. W.; Marlin, Dan

2013-01-01

6

Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective team performance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective team performance. Teamwork skills essential for successful team performance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective team performance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.

Orasanu, Judith M.

2009-01-01

7

Developing Good Team-working Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article offers advice to educators on developing learners' collaboration skills through problem solving. The author presents six categories of tasks, each of which addresses a set of teamwork skills (e.g. listening, sharing, reflecting) and includes several tasks which could serve as the vehicle. Links to the tasks, printable materials, and other resources are included.

2010-05-01

8

Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

2014-01-01

9

Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.  

PubMed

Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

2014-01-01

10

Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams  

PubMed Central

Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

2014-01-01

11

LETTER REPORT SUMMARY RESULTS OF THE NRC TEAM INTERACTION SKILLS STUDY AT DIABLO CANYON POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information to participants in the Team Interaction Skills study conducted at Diablo Canyon Power Plant from September to November 1989. A study was conducted to develop and assess measures of team interaction skills of nuclear power plant control room crews in simulated emergency conditions. Data were collected at a boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWA) using three sets of rating scales; Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS), Behavioral Frequency rating scales, and Technical Performance rating scales. Diablo Canyon Power Plant agreed to serve as the PWR plant in the study. Obse!Vers consisting of contract license examiners, Diablo Canyon Power Plant training instructors, and project staff used the rating scales to provide assessments of team interaction skills and technical skills of control room crews during emerg-3ncy scenarios as part of license requalification training. Crew members were also asked to providH self-ratings of their performance to gather information regarding crew responses to the Team Interactions Skills rating scales.

Hauth, J. T.; Toquam, J. L.; Bramwell, A. T.; Fleming, T. E.

1990-12-01

12

Turn Obstacles into Opportunities: Team Leaders Use a Skillful Approach to Move Past Barriers to Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the role of the skillful leader and what practical solutions are needed to overcome hurdles. What distinguishes the skillful team leader from a less-effective leader is his or her approach to overcoming hurdles, and are rooted in the leader's values, mindset, intelligence, and skill. When faced with hurdles to team

MacDonald, Elisa B.

2013-01-01

13

Learning strategies and performance in organizational teams  

E-print Network

(cont.) shows that vicarious learning is positively associated with performance. I argue that vicarious team learning is an under-explored dimension of what makes teams and organizations competitive. The chapter concludes ...

Bresman, Henrik M

2005-01-01

14

Relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league. Eighty-six high performance rugby league players underwent measurements of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. A linear discriminant analysis was also conducted comparing those players successful in gaining selection into the professional National Rugby League team with those not selected to determine which, if any, of these qualities could predict selection. Players selected to play in the first National Rugby League game of the season were older, more experienced, leaner, had faster 10 m and 40 m sprint times, and superior vertical jump performances, maximal aerobic power, tackling proficiency and dual-task draw and pass ability than non-selected players. Skinfold thickness and dual-task draw and pass proficiency were the only variables that contributed significantly (P < 0.05) to the discriminant analysis of selected and non-selected players. These findings suggest that selected physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities may influence team selection in professional rugby league. PMID:21834623

Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

2011-10-01

15

An examination of team reactions to negative performance feedback and their relationship to team performance  

E-print Network

the relationship between team efficacy and performance. Beyond understanding what constitutes a team, however, it is also important to understand how team effectiveness is defined. Team Effectiveness Measuring the effectiveness of teams raises several issues... ..................................................... 42 8 Descriptives on Profit Across Conditions...................................................... 43 9 Effect Sizes for Profit Between and Within Conditions................................ 44 10 Descriptives on Viability Across Conditions...

Philo, Joel Richard

2005-02-17

16

An Analysis of Team Composition as It Affects Simulation Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the extent to which sex composition and average team academic achievement of student simulation teams affect team effectiveness. Seventy-four students in two sections of a marketing principles class were divided into 20 teams to test their decision-making skills. For 10 weeks, each team operated a simulated supermarket…

Krishnakumar, Parameswar; Chisholm, Thomas Alexander

17

A Human Factors Analysis of Technical and Team Skills Among Surgical Trainees During Procedural Simulations in a Simulated Operating Theatre  

PubMed Central

Background: High-risk organizations such as aviation rely on simulations for the training and assessment of technical and team performance. The aim of this study was to develop a simulated environment for surgical trainees using similar principles. Methods: A total of 27 surgical trainees carried out a simulated procedure in a Simulated Operating Theatre with a standardized OR team. Observation of OR events was carried out by an unobtrusive data collection system: clinical data recorder. Assessment of performance consisted of blinded rating of technical skills, a checklist of technical events, an assessment of communication, and a global rating of team skills by a human factors expert and trained surgical research fellows. The participants underwent a debriefing session, and the face validity of the simulated environment was evaluated. Results: While technical skills rating discriminated between surgeons according to experience (P = 0.002), there were no differences in terms of the checklist and team skills (P = 0.70). While all trainees were observed to gown/glove and handle sharps correctly, low scores were observed for some key features of communication with other team members. Low scores were obtained by the entire cohort for vigilance. Interobserver reliability was 0.90 and 0.89 for technical and team skills ratings. Conclusions: The simulated operating theatre could serve as an environment for the development of surgical competence among surgical trainees. Objective, structured, and multimodal assessment of performance during simulated procedures could serve as a basis for focused feedback during training of technical and team skills. PMID:16244534

Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Adams, Sally; Pandey, Vikas; Darzi, Ara

2005-01-01

18

Embracing Transformational Leadership: Team Values and the Impact of Leader Behavior on Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and group performance in 218 financial services teams that were branches of a bank in Hong Kong and the United States. Transformational leadership influenced team performance through the mediating effect of team potency. The effect of transformational leadership on team potency was moderated by team power distance and team collectivism, such

John Schaubroeck; Simon S. K. Lam; Sandra E. Cha

2007-01-01

19

Identifying and training non-technical skills of nuclear emergency response teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training of the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills that are crucial to safe and effective management by teams in emergency situations is an issue that is receiving increasing emphasis in many organisations, particularly in the nuclear power industry. As teams play a major role in emergency response organisations (ERO), effective functioning and interactions within, between and across teams is crucial,

M. T Crichton; R Flin

2004-01-01

20

Laying the Foundation for Successful Team Performance Trajectories: The Roles of Team Charters and Performance Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for…

Mathieu, John E.; Rapp, Tammy L.

2009-01-01

21

Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators  

SciTech Connect

Previous research has shown the value of good team interaction skills to group performance, yet little progress has been made on in terms of how such skills can be measured. In this study rating scales developed previously (Montgomery, et al., 1990) were extensively revised and cast into a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) and a Behavioral Frequency format. Rating data were collected using 13 training instructors at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant, who rated three videotapes of simulator scenario performance during a day-long training session and later evaluated control room crews during requalification training. High levels of interrater agreement on both rating scales were found. However, the factor structure of the ratings was generally inconsistent with that hypothesized. Analysis of training ratings using Cronbach`s components of accuracy (Cronbach, 1955) indicated that BARS ratings generally exhibited less error than did the Behavioral Frequency ratings. The results are discussed in terms of both field and research implications.

Montgomery, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Toquam, J. [Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Gaddy, C. [General Physics Corp., Columbia, MD (United States)

1991-09-01

22

Identifying and training non-technical skills for teams in acute medicine  

PubMed Central

The aviation domain provides a better analogy for the "temporary" teams that are found in acute medical specialities than industrial or military teamwork research based on established teams. Crew resource management (CRM) training, which emphasises portable skills (for whatever crew a pilot is rostered to on a given flight), has been recognised to have potential application in medicine, especially for teams in the operating theatre, intensive care unit, and emergency room. Drawing on research from aviation psychology that produced the behavioural marker system NOTECHS for rating European pilots' non-technical skills for teamwork on the flightdeck, this paper outlines the Anaesthetists Non-Technical Skills behavioural rating system for anaesthetists working in operating theatre teams. This taxonomy was used as the design basis for a training course, Crisis Avoidance Resource Management for Anaesthetists used to develop these skills, based in an operating theatre simulator. Further developments of this training programme for teams in emergency medicine are outlined. PMID:15465960

Flin, R; Maran, N

2004-01-01

23

The influence of team mental models and team planning on team performance  

E-print Network

were supported, experience significantly interacted with pre-planning taskwork and pre-planning teamwork MM similarity to influence post-planning MM similarity. Also, team performance was significantly influenced by post-planning teamwork MM similarity...

Leiva Neuenschwander, Pedro Ignacio

2009-06-02

24

Interactions of Team Mental Models and Monitoring Behaviors Predict Team Performance in Simulated Anesthesia Inductions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated how two team mental model properties (similarity vs. accuracy) and two forms of monitoring behavior (team vs. systems) interacted to predict team performance in anesthesia. In particular, we were interested in whether the relationship between monitoring behavior and team performance was moderated by team

Burtscher, Michael J.; Kolbe, Michaela; Wacker, Johannes; Manser, Tanja

2011-01-01

25

Composing Near-Optimal Expert Teams: A Trade-Off between Skills and Connectivity  

E-print Network

an expert network and corresponding expert skill profiles from online discussion threads. Our novel trade provide a heuristic to extract the optimum team composition from an expert network for a given trade. Subsequently, Section 4 describes the mechanism for extracting an expert network and corresponding skill

Dustdar, Schahram

26

Perfecting scientists’ collaboration and problem-solving skills in the virtual team environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Perfecting Scientists’ Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-lo...

27

Developing Team Skills through a Collaborative Writing Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employers want students who are able to work effectively as members of a team, and expect universities to develop this ability in their graduates. This paper proposes a framework for a collaborative writing assignment that specifically develops students' ability to work in teams. The framework has been tested using two iterations of an action…

Thomas, Theda Ann

2014-01-01

28

Increasing team skills: an evaluation of program effectiveness.  

PubMed

The need for health professionals with caring values and good communication skills is well established. To develop these skills requires building self-esteem, as is supported by the work of Carl Rogers, Maslow, and Jourard, and the development of communication skills, as is supported by Carkhuff. A six-hour developmental program was evaluated using alternate forms of the highly validated Personal Skills Map. The differences in participants' scores showed increases in self-esteem, comfort, and management skills (p less than .00), while aggression (p = .05) and deference (p less than .00) decreased. A longitudinal follow-up of participants showed that 65% continued to use the assessment tool six months to one year later. The program appears to be well suited for service settings, continuing education, and academic settings, and meets the need of a high tech, high touch era of change. PMID:3880062

Jacobsen-Webb, M L

1985-11-01

29

Teaching Skills for Facilitating Team-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Team-based learning (TBL) is a unique student-centered instructional strategy that emphasizes learning to use concepts rather than merely learning about them. As such, TBL requires students to become active participants who are accountable and responsible for their learning. This does not occur, however, unless teachers transform their primary…

Lane, Derek R.

2008-01-01

30

Virtual Team Governance: Addressing the Governance Mechanisms and Virtual Team Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As technology has improved and collaborative software has been developed, virtual teams with geographically dispersed members spread across diverse physical locations have become increasingly prominent. Virtual team is supported by advancing communication technologies, which makes virtual teams able to largely transcend time and space. Virtual teams have changed the corporate landscape, which are more complex and dynamic than traditional teams since the members of virtual teams are spread on diverse geographical locations and their roles in the virtual team are different. Therefore, how to realize good governance of virtual team and arrive at good virtual team performance is becoming critical and challenging. Good virtual team governance is essential for a high-performance virtual team. This paper explores the performance and the governance mechanism of virtual team. It establishes a model to explain the relationship between the performance and the governance mechanisms in virtual teams. This paper is focusing on managing virtual teams. It aims to find the strategies to help business organizations to improve the performance of their virtual teams and arrive at the objectives of good virtual team management.

Zhan, Yihong; Bai, Yu; Liu, Ziheng

31

The relationship between team characteristics with team performance in Malaysian teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisations depend on teams to implement its strategies and enables organisations to be flexible and responsive in the competitive global environment. Teams contribute to the organisation while at the same time providing opportunities to team members to develop relationships within team. Teams are viewed as a major source of ‘environmental forces’ that help shape team members (McGrath and Kravitz, 1982).

Agatha Heng Siok Sim

2006-01-01

32

Building an Inclusive Research Team: The Importance of Team Building and Skills Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Inclusive research teams typically describe their experiences and analyse the type of involvement of researchers with disability, but the process of building research teams and the need for research training still remain underexplored in the literature. Materials and Method: Four researchers with intellectual disabilities and four…

Strnadová, Iva; Cumming, Therese M.; Knox, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor

2014-01-01

33

Finding the key to a better code: code team restructure to improve performance and outcomes.  

PubMed

Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient's status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team's resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital's code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role's position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients. PMID:24667218

Prince, Cynthia R; Hines, Elizabeth J; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J

2014-09-01

34

Driving Energy Performance with Energy Management Teams  

E-print Network

Driving Energy Performance with Energy Management Teams Meredith Younghein ENERGY STAR Industrial Communications Mgr. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC ABSTRACT Companies today face an uncertain energy future. Businesses... face escalating energy prices which can erode profits. Concerns over supply reliability, and possible regulation of carbon emissions create risk. For many industries in the U.S., energy costs are equal to the cost of raw materials or even employee...

Younghein, M.; Tunnessen, W.

2006-01-01

35

Interaction mining and skill-dependent recommendations for multi-objective team composition  

PubMed Central

Web-based collaboration and virtual environments supported by various Web 2.0 concepts enable the application of numerous monitoring, mining and analysis tools to study human interactions and team formation processes. The composition of an effective team requires a balance between adequate skill fulfillment and sufficient team connectivity. The underlying interaction structure reflects social behavior and relations of individuals and determines to a large degree how well people can be expected to collaborate. In this paper we address an extended team formation problem that does not only require direct interactions to determine team connectivity but additionally uses implicit recommendations of collaboration partners to support even sparsely connected networks. We provide two heuristics based on Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing for discovering efficient team configurations that yield the best trade-off between skill coverage and team connectivity. Our self-adjusting mechanism aims to discover the best combination of direct interactions and recommendations when deriving connectivity. We evaluate our approach based on multiple configurations of a simulated collaboration network that features close resemblance to real world expert networks. We demonstrate that our algorithm successfully identifies efficient team configurations even when removing up to 40% of experts from various social network configurations. PMID:22298939

Dorn, Christoph; Skopik, Florian; Schall, Daniel; Dustdar, Schahram

2011-01-01

36

Developing skilled performance of lumbar spine manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantify elements of spinal manipulation therapy performance and to test the strategy of combined rehearsal and quantitative feedback as a means of enhancing student skill development. Design: Randomized, controlled study. Setting: Chiropractic college. Subjects: Thirty-nine chiropractic student volunteers entering the manipulation technique training course participated after providing informed consent. Methods: Student performance of lumbar spinal manipulation therapy was

John J. Triano; Carolyn M. Rogers; Sarah Combs; David Potts; Kenneth Sorrels

2002-01-01

37

Attention Theory and Mechanisms for Skilled Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report relates current attentional research and theory to the development of skilled performance, with emphasis on how performance changes with practice. Dual process attention theory is reviewed, and the distinction between automatic and controlled processing is examined. The changing interactions between automatic and controlled processing…

Schneider, Walter; Fisk, Arthur D.

38

The “I” in Team: Coach Incivility, Coach Sex, and Team Performance in Female Basketball Teams  

E-print Network

With the continuing influx of teams in the workplace it is important to understand how incivility affects team success. The purpose of this study was to address this topic by investigating the effects of leader incivility towards team members...

Smittick, Amber Leola

2012-10-19

39

Developing Diverse Teams to Improve Performance in the Organizational Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The use of teams in organizations given the current trend toward globalization, population changes, and an aging workforce, especially in high-income countries, makes the issue of diverse team building critical. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of team diversity and team performance through the examination of theory and…

Yeager, Katherine L.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

2012-01-01

40

MASTER OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND SYSTEMS FINAL PROJECT REPORT -2011 1 Finding Skilled and Socially Cohesive Teams in  

E-print Network

of a set of candidates such that the resulting team is both skilled and socially cohe- sive. BuildingMASTER OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND SYSTEMS FINAL PROJECT REPORT - 2011 1 Finding Skilled and Socially Cohesive Teams in Large Scale Social Networks Alex Kantchelian Abstract--This work explores

Militzer, Burkhard

41

Do Soft Skills Predict Surgical Performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Virtual reality (VR) training in minimal invasive surgery (MIS) is feasible in surgical residency and beneficial for the performance\\u000a of MIS by surgical trainees. Research on stress-coping of surgical trainees indicates the additional impact of soft skills\\u000a on VR performance in the surgical curriculum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of structured VR training and\\u000a soft

K. Maschuw; K. Schlosser; E. Kupietz; E. P. Slater; P. Weyers; I. Hassan

2011-01-01

42

Virtual Team Culture and the Amplification of Team Boundary Permeability on Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implementation of virtual teams is briskly increasing, particularly among transnational organizations that find global virtual teams a natural way to address their needs for global reach. While proximal and virtual teams share many attributes, including similar performance measures, they differ in characteristics in the nature of the work.…

Workman, Michael

2005-01-01

43

Adopting Team Contracts to Initiate Team Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creighton, Harris and Coleman (2005) suggest that educational leadership instructors introduce aspiring administrators to a sound knowledge base. Currently, engaging in teams is recommended for high performance and problem-solving. Bolton (1999) recommends that instructors coach teams so teaming skills are improved. But, oftentimes, there are team

Marcellino, Patricia Ann

2008-01-01

44

Endoscopic non-technical skills team training: The next step in quality assurance of endoscopy training  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether novel, non-technical skills training for Bowel Cancer Screening (BCS) endoscopy teams enhanced patient safety knowledge and attitudes. METHODS: A novel endoscopy team training intervention for BCS teams was developed and evaluated as a pre-post intervention study. Four multi-disciplinary BCS teams constituting BCS endoscopist(s), specialist screening practitioners, endoscopy nurses and administrative staff (A) from English BCS training centres participated. No patients were involved in this study. Expert multidisciplinary faculty delivered a single day’s training utilising real clinical examples. Pre and post-course evaluation comprised participants’ patient safety awareness, attitudes, and knowledge. Global course evaluations were also collected. RESULTS: Twenty-three participants attended and their patient safety knowledge improved significantly from 43%-55% (P ? 0.001) following the training intervention. 12/41 (29%) of the safety attitudes items significantly improved in the areas of perceived patient safety knowledge and awareness. The remaining safety attitude items: perceived influence on patient safety, attitudes towards error management, error management actions and personal views following an error were unchanged following training. Both qualitative and quantitative global course evaluations were positive: 21/23 (91%) participants strongly agreed/agreed that they were satisfied with the course. Qualitative evaluation included mandating such training for endoscopy teams outside BCS and incorporating team training within wider endoscopy training. Limitations of the study include no measure of increased patient safety in clinical practice following training. CONCLUSION: A novel comprehensive training package addressing patient safety, non-technical skills and adverse event analysis was successful in improving multi-disciplinary teams’ knowledge and safety attitudes. PMID:25516665

Matharoo, Manmeet; Haycock, Adam; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan

2014-01-01

45

Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

Miller, M.A.

1996-08-01

46

From Group to Team: Skilled Facilitation Moves a Group from a Collection of Individuals to an Effective Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based learning depends on teachers' capacity to engage with each other around central issues of teaching and learning. While such collaboration is readily welcomed by some educators, others remain wedded to an "independent contractor" concept of teaching. Supporting teachers to view themselves as team members and to perform effectively as a…

Lee, Ginny V.

2009-01-01

47

Ethics and Performance: A Simulation Analysis of Team Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelationships among a number of variables and their effect on ethical decision making was explored. Teams of students and managers participated in a competitive management simulation. Based on prior research, the effects of performance, environmental change, team age, and type of team on the level of ethical behavior were hypothesized. The findings indicate that multiple variables may interact in

Tammy G. Hunt; Daniel F. Jennings

1997-01-01

48

Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

2014-01-01

49

Team Identity and Performance-based Compensation Effects on Performance  

E-print Network

and agency theory predict a positive association between team incentives and performance (Van Eerde and Thierry 1996; Long 2005). Vroom?s expectancy theory predicts that people make choices to maximize their happiness (Vroom 1964). He bases his theory...; and (3) valance, employees attach value to rewards (Vroom 1964; Van Eerde and Thierry 1996). Per agency theory, firms create contracts to reduce 11 moral hazard when the interest of principals and agents diverge. Welbourne and Mejia (1995...

Blazovich, Janell L.

2010-01-16

50

Implications for studying team cognition and team performance in network-centric warfare paradigms.  

PubMed

Network-centric warfare's (NCW) information-rich systems involving sophisticated sensors, tracking systems, smart weapons, and enhanced digital communications threaten to overload combatants with voluminous amounts of data. It is unclear whether warfighters will perceive such extensive data as actionable information to which they will respond accurately in a timely enough manner. Members of small teams in command and control centers, operating in crew-served vehicles, or simply "grunting it out" as ground-pounding infantrymen, may be disparately separated by space, but will communicate and be connected by electronic linkages, e.g., radio, text messages, situation displays, or global positioning data. However, team members will also have to remember shared mental models of tasks at hand, pay attention to and share common situation awareness in complex operational environments, perform team cognition and team coordination, and integrate both lower and higher cognitive processes with those of team behaviors. Such exceptional capabilities are required more now than ever before; such capabilities today are far from assured. After two workshops to establish performance metrics for assessing cognitive performance of military personnel in NCW, this preface introduces five manuscripts addressing team cognition and team performance from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. The authors of this preface question if NCW, and perhaps the politico-social ramifications of modern warfare, have already outstripped behavioral scientists' approach to researching team cognition and team performance-expertise that is so crucially needed for combatants on the rapidly changing 21st-century battlegrounds. PMID:17547305

Krueger, Gerald P; Banderet, Louis E

2007-05-01

51

Performance factors in women's team handball: physical and physiological aspects--a review.  

PubMed

Team handball is an Olympic sport played professionally in many European countries. Nevertheless, a scientific knowledge regarding women's elite team handball demands is limited. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 33) on physical characteristics, physiological attributes, physical attributes, throwing velocity, and on-court performances of women's team handball players. Such empirical and practical information is essential to design and implement successful short-term and long-term training programs for women's team handball players. Our review revealed that (a) players that have a higher skill level are taller and have a higher fat-free mass; (b) players who are more aerobically resistant are at an advantage in international level women team handball; (c) strength and power exercises should be emphasized in conditioning programs, because they are associated with both sprint performance and throwing velocity; (d) speed drills should also be implemented in conditioning programs but after a decrease in physical training volume; (e) a time-motion analysis is an effective method of quantifying the demands of team handball and provides a conceptual framework for the specific physical preparation of players. According to our results, there are only few studies on on-court performance and time-motion analysis for women's team handball players, especially concerning acceleration profiles. More studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of different training programs of women's team handball players' physiological and physical attributes. PMID:23439330

Manchado, Carmen; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan; Vila, Helena; Ferragut, Carmen; Platen, Petra

2013-06-01

52

The evaluation of crew factors in aircrew team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the role of crew performance in the overall context of team performance and flight safety. The concept of cockpit resource management (CRM) is discussed, together with that of line-oriented flight training. Techniques for the enhancement of team performance as derived from research are reported. These include the effects of automation on cockpit resource management and the use

B. G. Kanki

1992-01-01

53

Peer led team learning in introductory biology: effects on peer leader critical thinking skills.  

PubMed

This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups. PMID:25629311

Snyder, Julia J; Wiles, Jason R

2015-01-01

54

Peer Led Team Learning in Introductory Biology: Effects on Peer Leader Critical Thinking Skills  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders’ critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders’ perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders’ critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups. PMID:25629311

Snyder, Julia J.; Wiles, Jason R.

2015-01-01

55

Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.  

PubMed

Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

2013-12-01

56

Sentinel Node Skills Verification and Surgeon Performance  

PubMed Central

Objective: Marked variations in sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) technique have been identified, and definitive qualifications for SLND performance remain controversial. Based on previous reports and expert opinion, we predicted that 20 to 30 cases of SLND with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) would enable surgeons to identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLN). Summary Background Data: In 1999, the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group initiated a prospective trial, Z0010, to evaluate micrometastatic disease in the SLN and bone marrow of women with early-stage breast cancer. Eligible patients included women with biopsy-proven T1/T2 breast cancer and clinically negative lymph nodes who were candidates for lumpectomy and SLND. Methods: Participating surgeons were required to document 20 to 30 SLNDs followed by immediate ALND with failure rates less than 15%. Prior fellowship or residency training in SLND provided exemption from skill requirements. Data for 5237 subjects and 198 surgeons were available for analysis. Results: Surgeons from academic (48.4%), community (28.6%), or teaching-affiliated (19.8%) institutions qualified with 30 SLND + ALND cases (64.6%), 20 cases (22.2%), or exemption (13.1%). Participants used blue dye + radiocolloid in 79.4%, blue dye alone in 14.8%, and radiocolloid alone in 5.7% of cases, achieving a 98.7% SLN identification rate. Patient factors associated with increased SLND failure included increased body mass index and age, whereas tumor location, stage, and histology, presence of nodal metastases, and number of positive nodes were not. Surgeon accrual of fewer than 50 patients was associated with increased SLND failure; however, SLND technique, specific skill qualification, and institution type were not. Conclusions: Using a standard skill requirement, surgeons from a variety of institutions achieved an acceptably low SLND failure rate in the setting of a large multicenter trial, validating the incorporation of SLND into clinical practice. PMID:16192820

Posther, Katherine E.; McCall, Linda M.; Blumencranz, Peter W.; Burak, William E.; Beitsch, Peter D.; Hansen, Nora M.; Morrow, Monica; Wilke, Lee G.; Herndon, James E.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Giuliano, Armando E.

2005-01-01

57

Attentional Focus, Dispositional Reinvestment, and Skilled Motor Performance Under Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attentional processes governing skilled motor behavior were examined in two studies. In Experiment 1, fi eld hockey players performed a dribbling task under single-task, dual-task, and skill-focused conditions under both low and high pressure situations. In Experiment 2, skilled soccer players performed a dribbling task under single-task, skill-focused, and process-goal conditions, again under low and high pressure situations. Results replicated

Robin C. Jackson; Kelly J. Ashford; Glen Norsworthy

58

Team Primacy Concept (TPC) Based Employee Evaluation and Job Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored how employees learn from Team Primacy Concept (TPC) based employee evaluation and how they use the feedback in performing their jobs. TPC based evaluation is a form of multirater evaluation, during which the employee's performance is discussed by one's peers in a face-to-face team setting. The study used Kolb's…

Muniute, Eivina I.; Alfred, Mary V.

2007-01-01

59

Is team confidence the key to success? The reciprocal relation between collective efficacy, team outcome confidence, and perceptions of team performance during soccer games.  

PubMed

Abstract The present manuscript extends previous research on the reciprocal relation between team confidence and perceived team performance in two ways. First, we distinguished between two types of team confidence; process-oriented collective efficacy and outcome-oriented team outcome confidence. Second, we assessed both types not only before and after the game, but for the first time also during half-time, thereby providing deeper insight into their dynamic relation with perceived team performance. Two field studies were conducted, each with 10 male soccer teams (N = 134 in Study 1; N = 125 in Study 2). Our findings provide partial support for the reciprocal relation between players' team confidence (both collective efficacy and team outcome confidence) and players' perceptions of the team's performance. Although both types of players' team confidence before the game were not significantly related to perceived team performance in the first half, players' team confidence during half-time was positively related to perceived team performance in the second half. Additionally, our findings consistently demonstrated a relation between perceived team performance and players' subsequent team confidence. Considering that team confidence is a dynamical process, which can be affected by coaches and players, our findings open new avenues to optimise team performance. PMID:25093745

Fransen, Katrien; Decroos, Steven; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Vande Broek, Gert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vanroy, Jari; Boen, Filip

2015-02-01

60

Developing observational measures of performance in surgical teams  

PubMed Central

Team performance is increasingly recognised as an essential foundation of good surgical care and a determinant of good surgical outcome. To understand team performance and to develop team training, reliable and valid measures of team performance are necessary. Currently there is no firm consensus on how to measure teamwork, partly because of a lack of empirical data to validate measures. The input–process–output model provides a framework for surgical team studies. Objective observational measures are needed in surgery as a basis for interdisciplinary team assessment and training. The "observational teamwork assessment for surgery" (OTAS) tool assesses two facets of the surgical process. Observer 1 monitors specific tasks carried out by team members, under the categories patient, environment, equipment, provisions, and communications. Observer 2 uses a behavioural observation scale to rate behaviour for the three surgical phases (pre-operative, operative, and post-operative) with components of teamwork: cooperation, leadership, coordination, awareness, and communication. Illustrative data from an initial series of 50 cases is presented here. The OTAS tool enables two independent observers, a surgeon and psychologist, to record detailed information both on what the theatre team does and how they do it, and has the potential to identify constraints on performance that might relate to surgical outcome. PMID:15465953

Healey, A; Undre, S; Vincent, C

2004-01-01

61

Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning. Results reveal that the TKS intervention was partially effective in enhancing student team SMM and team scores on meteorology lab assignments. The TKS intervention has potential for use in science courses where a teaming approach is used. Similar interventions could likely be developed, empirically examined, and potentially employed to promote success in handling complex challenges while working in teams in the classroom and beyond.

Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.

2012-12-01

62

Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning.…

Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.

2012-01-01

63

The Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource improves performance of practical skills: a controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background E-learning is a common and popular mode of educational delivery, but little is known about its effectiveness in teaching practical skills. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource in addition to usual teaching improved the performance of practical skills in physiotherapy students. Method This study was a non-randomised controlled trial. The participants were graduate entry physiotherapy students enrolled in consecutive semesters of a neurological physiotherapy unit of study. The experimental group received the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource as well as usual teaching. The Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource is an online resource incorporating (i) video-clips of patient-therapist simulations; (ii) supportive text describing the aim, rationale, equipment, key points, common errors and methods of progression; and (iii) a downloadable PDF document incorporating the online text information and a still image of the video-clip for each practical skill. The control group received usual teaching only. The primary outcomes were the overall performance of practical skills as well as their individual components, measured using a practical examination. Results The implementation of the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource resulted in an increase of 1.6 out of 25 (95% CI ?0.1 to 3.3) in the experimental group compared with the control group. In addition, the experimental group scored 0.5 points out of 4 (95% CI 0 to 1.1) higher than the control group for ‘effectiveness of the practical skill’ and 0.6 points out of 4 (95% CI 0.1 to 1.1) higher for ‘rationale for the practical skill’. Conclusion There was improvement in performance of practical skills in students who had access to the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource in addition to usual teaching. Students considered the resource to be very useful for learning. PMID:23176318

2012-01-01

64

Maintaining Team Performance. For the Practicing Manager. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides ways for organizational team leaders to assess their team's effectiveness at regular intervals and to monitor their team's performance. The booklet identifies six key aspects, or dimensions, consistent across all teams. If all six dimensions are strong within a team, the team has the means to conduct its work and perform

Kanaga, Kim; Browning, Henry

65

Social skills performance assessment among older patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Social functioning is an important outcome dimension in schizophrenia. Measures of social skills frequently rely on self-report, and most measures which directly assess social functioning are time consuming. Here we describe a brief performance-based measure, the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA), modified from an instrument published by Bellack et al. (Bellack, A., Morrison, R., Wixted, J., Mueser, K., 1990.

Thomas L Patterson; Sherry Moscona; Christine L McKibbin; Kevin Davidson; Dilip V Jeste

2001-01-01

66

Self-Assessed Skill Needs and Job Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1983, discussions focused increasingly on the contribution to economic performance associated with the skills of the work force. Government policy went further by specifying skills important to economic performance and advocating their introduction into schools and training programs. Surprisingly little empirical research examined the…

Cappelli, Peter; Rogovsky, Nikolai

67

The Power of "We": Effects of Psychological Collectivism on Team Performance over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the influences of different facets of psychological collectivism (Preference, Reliance, Concern, Norm Acceptance, and Goal Priority) on team functioning at 3 different performance depictions: initial team performance, end-state team performance, and team performance change over time. We also tested the extent to which team-member…

Dierdorff, Erich C.; Bell, Suzanne T.; Belohlav, James A.

2011-01-01

68

TESTING GAME BASED PERFORMANCE IN TEAM-HANDBALL.  

PubMed

Team-handball is a fast paced game of defensive and offensive action that includes specific movements of jumping, passing, throwing, checking and screening. To date and to our knowledge, a game based performance test for team-handball does not exist. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop and validate such a test.Seventeen experienced team-handball players performed two game based performance tests separated by seven days between each test, an incremental treadmill-running test, and a team-handball test game (2×20min). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2-peak), blood lactate concentration (BLC), heart rate (HR), sprinting time, time of offensive and defensive actions as well as running intensities, ball velocity and jump height were measured in the game based test. Reliability of the tests was calculated utilizing an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, we measured VO2-peak in the incremental treadmill-running test and BLC, HR and running intensities in the team-handball test game to determine the validity of the game based performance test.For the test-retest reliability, we found an ICC>.70 for the peak BLC and HR, mean offense and defense time as well as ball velocity that yielded an ICC>.90 for the VO2-peak in the game based performance test. Percent walking and standing constituted 73% of total time. Moderate (18%) and high (9%) intensity running in the game based performance test was similar to the team-handball test game.Our results indicated that the game based performance test is a valid and reliable test to analyze team-handball performance (physiological and biomechanical variables) under conditions similar to competition. PMID:24942169

Wagner, Herbert; Orwat, Matthias; Hinz, Matthias; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Bacharach, David W; Petelin von Duvillard, Serge; Müller, Erich

2014-06-17

69

Preparing technical communicators for future workplaces: a model that integrates teaming, professional communication skills, and a software development process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a model that uses teaming as a framework to support professional communication and process to improve student performance, as measured by the quality of output. It describes a pedagogical approach used in a computer science undergraduate senior class that integrates teaming, professional communication and a software development process. The approach demonstrates the importance of team instruction and

Margaret R. Heil

1999-01-01

70

The Mediating Effect of Team-Level Knowledge Creation on Organizational Procedural Justice and Team Performance Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how organizational procedural justice affects team performance through team-level knowledge creation practices and the extent to which these practices mediate the association between organizational procedural justice and team performance. The target samples were drawn from six organizations in Korea. A total of 348 cases were…

Kang, Ingu; Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woocheol

2012-01-01

71

Team Proactivity as a Linking Mechanism between Team Creative Efficacy, Transformational Leadership, and Risk-Taking Norms and Team Creative Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the growing body of research on creativity in team contexts, very few attempts have been made to explore the team-level antecedents and the mediating processes of team creative performance on the basis of a theoretical framework. To address this gap, drawing on Paulus and Dzindolet's (2008) group creativity model, this study proposed…

Shin, Yuhyung; Eom, Chanyoung

2014-01-01

72

Using brain-based measures to compose teams: how individual capabilities and team collaboration strategies jointly shape performance.  

PubMed

Advances in understanding neural processes open the possibility of using brain-based measures to compose collaborative work teams. Neuroimaging studies have shown that individual differences in patterns of brain activity can predict differences in performance of specific tasks. We extended this finding by examining performance not simply by a single brain, but by pairs of brains. We used measures derived from brain-based studies to compose 100 two-person teams in which members' roles were either congruent or incongruent with their individual abilities. The assessed abilities are rooted in the visual system, which comprises independent "spatial" and "object" subsystems. The team task required one member to navigate through a virtual maze (a spatial task) and the other to remember "tag" repetitions of complex "greebles" (an object-properties task). Teams in which members' role assignments were congruent with their abilities performed better than incongruent teams and teams in which both members scored high on only one of the abilities. In addition, verbal collaboration enabled members of incongruent teams to overcome their compositional disadvantage but did not enhance the performance of congruent teams-and actually impaired performance in teams in which both members were adept in only one of the two necessary abilities. The findings show that knowledge about brain systems can not only be used to compose teams, but also provides insights into how teams can best perform. PMID:18633809

Woolley, Anita Williams; Hackman, J Richard; Jerde, Thomas E; Chabris, Christopher F; Bennett, Sean L; Kosslyn, Stephen M

2007-01-01

73

Teaming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaming is a method of grouping students so they share the same set of teachers for their core subject areas--science, math, language arts, social studies, and sometimes physical education and health. Most often, teams are created when an entire grade is broken into groups who share the same set of teachers. Small schools that do not have enough students to form teams can create a grade-level team or multigrade-level teams. The core subject teachers usually share a common planning period and, in many situations, also share a team planning period. Teaming is most often used in middle grades education because its positive outcomes are particularly appropriate to the developmental needs of young adolescents.

Swango, C. J.; Steward, Sally B.

2003-01-01

74

Performance assessment in complex individual and team tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described here is an eclectic, performance based approach to assessing cognitive performance from multiple perspectives. The experience gained from assessing the effects of antihistamines and scenario difficulty on C (exp 2) decision making performance in Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) weapons director (WD) teams can serve as a model for realistic simulations in space operations. Emphasis is placed on the flexibility of measurement, hierarchical organization of measurement levels, data collection from multiple perspectives, and the difficulty of managing large amounts of data.

Eddy, Douglas R.

1992-01-01

75

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for Conducting Skill Performance Tests FRA requires...engineers be given a skill performance test prior to...individual railroad companies latitude to tailor...administration of skill performance testing that occurs...railroad that requires the evaluation of an...

2012-10-01

76

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for Conducting Skill Performance Tests FRA requires...engineers be given a skill performance test prior to...individual railroad companies latitude to tailor...administration of skill performance testing that occurs...railroad that requires the evaluation of an...

2011-10-01

77

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Conducting Skill Performance Tests FRA requires...engineers be given a skill performance test prior to...individual railroad companies latitude to tailor...administration of skill performance testing that occurs...railroad that requires the evaluation of an...

2013-10-01

78

Simulation for the Training of Human Performance and Technical Skills: The Intersection of How We Will Train Health Care Professionals in the Future  

PubMed Central

Aims The aims of this research are to begin to understand health care teams in their operational environment, establish metrics of performance for these teams, and validate a series of scenarios in simulation that elicit team and technical skills. The focus is on defining the team model that will function in the operational environment in which health care professionals work. Methods Simulations were performed across the United States in 70- to 1000-bed hospitals. Multidisciplinary health care teams analyzed more than 300 hours of videos of health care professionals performing simulations of team-based medical care in several different disciplines. Raters were trained to enhance inter-rater reliability. Results The study validated event sets that trigger team dynamics and established metrics for team-based care. Team skills were identified and modified using simulation scenarios that employed the event-set-design process. Specific skills (technical and team) were identified by criticality measurement and task analysis methodology. Discussion In situ simulation, which includes a purposeful and Socratic Method of debriefing, is a powerful intervention that can overcome inertia found in clinician behavior and latent environmental systems that present a challenge to quality and patient safety. In situ simulation can increase awareness of risks, personalize the risks, and encourage the reflection, effort, and attention needed to make changes to both behaviors and to systems. PMID:21975987

Hamman, William R.; Beaubien, Jeffrey M.; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M.

2009-01-01

79

A multi-level approach of evaluating crew resource management training: a laboratory-based study examining communication skills as a function of team congruence.  

PubMed

The article proposes a multi-level approach for evaluating communication skills training (CST) as an important element of crew resource management (CRM) training. Within this methodological framework, the present work examined the effectiveness of CST in matching or mismatching team compositions with regard to hierarchical status and competence. There is little experimental research that evaluated the effectiveness of CRM training at multiple levels (i.e. reaction, learning, behaviour) and in teams composed of members of different status and competence. An experiment with a two (CST: with vs. without) by two (competence/hierarchical status: congruent vs. incongruent) design was carried out. A total of 64 participants were trained for 2.5 h on a simulated process control environment, with the experimental group being given 45 min of training on receptiveness and influencing skills. Prior to the 1-h experimental session, participants were assigned to two-person teams. The results showed overall support for the use of such a multi-level approach of training evaluation. Stronger positive effects of CST were found for subjective measures than for objective performance measures. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work provides some guidance for the use of a multi-level evaluation of CRM training. It also emphasises the need to collect objective performance data for training evaluation in addition to subjective measures with a view to gain a more accurate picture of the benefits of such training approaches. PMID:20967655

Sauer, J; Darioly, A; Mast, M Schmid; Schmid, P C; Bischof, N

2010-11-01

80

TeamSTEPPS(®) simulation-based training: an evidence-based strategy to improve trauma team performance.  

PubMed

Initial assessment and treatment of critically injured patients is time sensitive, creating a high-stress environment for trauma team members and patients. Effective leadership, communication, and clinical acumen are essential team dynamics for best patient outcomes. Innovative multidisciplinary TeamSTEPPS(®) simulation-based training is an effective model for teams in high-risk health care settings. Use of this simulation model has led to improved trauma team performance and patient outcomes while incorporating new physician and nursing personnel into a time-sensitive, high-stress environment. PMID:24199639

Harvey, Ellen M; Wright, Andrea; Taylor, Dallas; Bath, Jennifer; Collier, Bryan

2013-11-01

81

Personality, Political Skill, and Job Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction [Hogan, R. (1991). Personality and personality assessment. In M. D. Dunnette, L. Hough, (Eds.), "Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology" (2nd ed., pp. 873-919). Chicago: Rand McNally; Hogan, R., & Shelton, D. (1998). A socioanalytic perspective on job performance.…

Blickle, Gerhard; Meurs, James A.; Zettler, Ingo; Solga, Jutta; Noethen, Daniela; Kramer, Jochen; Ferris, Gerald R.

2008-01-01

82

Development of a Notational Analysis System for Selected Soccer Skills of a Women's College Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to develop a notational system to evaluate passing, dribbling, first touch, and individual defensive skills as they relate to success during women's soccer games and to develop a statistical model to weigh the importance of each skill on creating scoring opportunities. Sequences of skills in ten games of a National…

Thomas, Camille; Fellingham, Gilbert; Vehrs, Pat

2009-01-01

83

Effect of training load on simulated team sport match performance.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of training load on running performance and plasma markers of anaerobic metabolism, muscle damage, and inflammation during a simulated team sport match performance. Seven team sport athletes (maximal oxygen uptake, 47.6 ± 4.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed a 60-min simulated team sport match before and after either 4 days of HIGH or LOW training loads. Venous blood samples were taken pre-match, immediately post-match, and 2 h post-match for interlukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, xanthine oxidase (XO), and hypoxanthine. Following HIGH training load, sprint velocity decreased (p < 0.001) and total distance covered was reduced (HIGH 5495 ± 670 m, LOW 5608 ± 674 m, p = 0.02) was observed during the simulated match protocol compared with the LOW match simulation. Decreased performance capacity was accompanied by a significant increase in serum CK concentration (HIGH 290 ± 62 U·L(-1), LOW 199 ± 33 U·L(-1), p = 0.005). The HIGH training also resulted in a decreased post-match hypoxanthine and MCP-1 and an increase in XO concentration 2 h post-match. Four days of increased training load reduced running performance during the match simulation and altered the metabolic and inflammatory response to high-intensity intermittent exercise. PMID:22452610

Slattery, Katie May; Wallace, Lee Kenneth; Bentley, David John; Coutts, Aaron James

2012-04-01

84

Standardized patient and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting: validation of a new performance-based assessment tool.  

PubMed

The interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach is critical in the care of elderly adults. Performance-based tools to assess IDT skills have not been well validated. A novel assessment tool, the standardized patient (SP) and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting (SIDTM), consisting of two stations, was developed. First, trainees evaluate a SP hospitalized after a fall. Second, trainees play the role of the physician in a standardized IDT meeting with a standardized registered nurse (SRN) and standardized medical social worker (SMSW) for discharge planning. The SP-SIDTM was administered to 52 fourth-year medical students (MS4s) and six geriatric medicine fellows (GMFs) in 2011/12. The SP, SRN, and SMSW scored trainee performance on dichotomous checklists of clinical tasks and Likert scales of communication skills, which were compared according to level of training using t-tests. Trainees rated the SP-SIDTM experience as moderately difficult, length of time about right, and believability moderate to high. Reliability was high for both cases (Cronbach ? = 0.73-0.87). Interobserver correlation between SRN and SMSW checklist scores (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.82, P < .001) and total scores (r = 0.69, P < .001) were high. The overall score on the SP-SIDTM case was significantly higher for GMF (75) than for MS4 (65, P = .002). These observations support the validity of this novel assessment tool. PMID:24383978

Yuasa, Misuzu; Nagoshi, Michael; Oshiro-Wong, Celeste; Tin, Maung; Wen, Aida; Masaki, Kamal

2014-01-01

85

The delta cooperative model: a dynamic and innovative team-work activity to develop research skills in microbiology.  

PubMed

The Delta Cooperative Model (DCM) is a dynamic and innovative teamwork design created to develop fundamentals in research skills. High school students in the DCM belong to the Upward Bound Science and Math (UBSM) program at the Inter American University, Ponce Campus. After workshops on using the scientific method, students were organized into groups of three students with similar research interests. Each student had to take on a role within the group as either a researcher, data analyst, or research editor. Initially, each research team developed hypothesis-driven ideas on their proposed project. In intrateam research meetings, they emphasized team-specific tasks. Next, interteam meetings were held to present ideas and receive critical input. Finally, oral and poster research presentations were conducted at the UBSM science fair. Several team research projects covered topics in medical, environmental, and general microbiology. The three major assessment areas for the workshop and DCM included: (i) student's perception of the workshops' effectiveness in developing skills, content, and values; (ii) research team self- and group participation evaluation, and (iii) oral and poster presentation during the science fair. More than 91% of the students considered the workshops effective in the presentation of scientific method fundamentals. The combination of the workshop and the DCM increased student's knowledge by 55% from pre- to posttests. Two rubrics were designed to assess the oral presentation and poster set-up. The poster and oral presentation scores averaged 83% and 75% respectively. Finally, we present a team assessment instrument that allows the self- and group evaluation of each research team. While the DCM has educational plasticity and versatility, here we document how the this model has been successfully incorporated in training and engaging students in scientific research in microbiology. PMID:23653564

Rios-Velazquez, Carlos; Robles-Suarez, Reynaldo; Gonzalez-Negron, Alberto J; Baez-Santos, Ivan

2006-05-01

86

The relationship between conflict and team performance in Taiwan: the moderating effect of goal orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is set in Taiwan, a Chinese cultural context. It investigates how team conflict, as task and relationship conflict, relates to team performance. This study also considers the moderating effect of goal orientation on the relationship of task conflict and relationship conflict with team performance. The sample consists of 443 employees in 92 work teams. Results show that relationship

Jia-Chi Huang

2012-01-01

87

Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.

Stuster, J.

1998-01-01

88

Does Virtual Team Composition Matter? Trait and Problem-Solving Configuration Effects on Team Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the increased importance and usage of self-managed virtual teams, many recent studies have examined factors that affect their success. One such factor that merits examination is the configuration or composition of virtual teams. This article tackles this point by (1) empirically testing trait-configuration effects on virtual team

Turel, Ofir; Zhang, Yi

2010-01-01

89

Soft Skills in the Development of Team-Based Electronic Learning Portfolio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The top qualities of an effective engineer include not only technical competence but also soft skills which may be hard to acquire while already on the job. Fulfilling stakeholders’ demand, educators design the curriculum for engineering programs with the objectives of producing graduates capable in not only technical competence but also possess the equally important soft skills. This calls for

Azizan Zainal Abidin; Fatimah Saleh

2010-01-01

90

The contingent effects of top management teams on venture performance: Aligning founding team composition with innovation strategy and commercialization environment  

E-print Network

How does the relationship between founding team composition and venture performance depend on the venture's strategy and business environment? Using data from a novel survey of 2,067 firms, we show that while diverse ...

Eesley, Charles E.

91

The Adventures of Team Fantastic: A Practical Guide for Team Leaders and Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication looks at the ways in which one who is part of a team can help improve the team's performance. The successes and failures of a fictional team are used to illustrate real-life team skills. Examples are drawn from a number of imaginary scenarios--for example, looking for a cache of diamonds in the Brazilian jungle, straightening ties…

Hallam, Glenn L.

92

Effects of training and feedback on Discrete Trial Teaching skills and student performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of training and feedback on instructor performance of Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) and support skills. This included an examination of the generalization and maintenance of instructor skills, and the impact of instructor skills on student performance. Six undergraduate research assistants received an 8-h training in DTT and taught a variety of skills and behaviors to

Andrew Downs; Robyn Conley Downs; Kathryn Rau

2008-01-01

93

Monitoring and talking to the room: autochthonous coordination patterns in team interaction and performance.  

PubMed

This paper builds on and extends theory on team functioning in high-risk environments. We examined 2 implicit coordination behaviors that tend to emerge autochthonously within high-risk teams: team member monitoring and talking to the room. Focusing on nonrandom patterns of behavior, we examined sequential patterns of team member monitoring and talking to the room in higher- and lower-performing action teams working in a high-risk health care environment. Using behavior observation methods, we coded verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 27 anesthesia teams performing an induction of general anesthesia in a natural setting and assessed team performance with a Delphi-validated checklist-based performance measure. Lag sequential analyses revealed that higher-performing teams were characterized by patterns in which team member monitoring was followed by speaking up, providing assistance, and giving instructions and by patterns in which talking to the room was followed by further talking to the room and not followed by instructions. Higher- and lower-performing teams did not differ with respect to the frequency of team member monitoring and talking to the room occurrence. The results illustrate the importance of patterns of autochthonous coordination behaviors and demonstrate that the interaction patterns, as opposed to the behavior frequencies, discriminated higher- from lower-performing teams. Implications for future research and for team training are included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25222522

Kolbe, Michaela; Grote, Gudela; Waller, Mary J; Wacker, Johannes; Grande, Bastian; Burtscher, Michael J; Spahn, Donat R

2014-11-01

94

Baccalaureate Nursing Faculty Performance of Nursing Computer Literacy Skills and Curriculum Integration of These Skills through Teaching Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of 184 nurse educators surveyed, 50% reported that students performed well on 21 of 60 computer literacy skills. Only 3 of 60 were being integrated into teaching practice. Faculty competence in performing these skills was correlated with their integration into teaching. (SK)

Austin, Sandra I.

1999-01-01

95

Team Performance Assessment and Measurement: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Series in Applied Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents thoughts on measuring team performance written by experts currently working with teams in fields such as training, evaluation, and process consultation. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview of Team Performance Measurement" (Michael T. Brannick and Carolyn Prince); (2) "A Conceptual Framework for Teamwork Measurement" (Terry L.…

Brannick, Michael T., Ed.; Salas, Eduardo, Ed.; Prince, Carolyn, Ed.

96

Empowerment in project teams: a multilevel examination of the job performance implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrative multilevel model of empowerment and job performance behaviours is advanced, building on social cognitive theory (SCT). Empowerment climate is hypothesized as influencing individual and team performance behaviours directly and partially through individual and team (psychological) empowerment. Using survey responses from 380 individuals, nested in 115 project management teams, we tested the direct, indirect and cross?level relationships delineated in

Martin Morgan Tuuli; Steve Rowlinson

2009-01-01

97

Centrality and Charisma: Comparing How Leader Networks "and" Attributions Affect Team Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model…

Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A.

2011-01-01

98

Examining the Critical Factors of Success in Virtual Team Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual teams are a burgeoning presence in the corporate environment today. Research shows that virtual teams have begun to surpass conventional teams in meeting the demands of organizations that are increasingly called on to apply and respond to new technologies that support, and in some cases, require a virtual teamwork approach. In order to…

Booth, Brent

2011-01-01

99

Development and initial validation of the Performance Skills Questionnaire (PSQ).  

PubMed

The objectives of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Performance Skills Questionnaire (PSQ), addressed to measure performance skills of preschoolers, as reported by their parents. Participants included 231 children ranging in age from 4 to 6 years old, with mild to moderate developmental disabilities and 240 children without disabilities at same age range. Internal consistency, test-retest, construct validity, and divergent and convergent validity were assessed. The PSQ has shown good internal reliability, and temporal stability. Construct validity was supported by factor analysis which yielded 3 factors that explained almost 52% of the total variance. Significant differences were found between known groups. Convergent and divergent validity were supported by significant correlations with Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) test, and the Children Participation Questionnaire (CPQ). The PSQ is a unique tool that measures performance skills based on preschool children's everyday function. Results provide evidence in support of the PSQ as a reliable and psychometrically sound instrument. PMID:19709854

Bart, Orit; Rosenberg, Limor; Ratzon, Navah Z; Jarus, Tal

2010-01-01

100

Team adaptation and post-change performance: Effects of team composition in terms of members’ cognitive ability and personality  

E-print Network

The present study extended research on relationships between individual differences and individual-level adaptation (J. A. LePine, J. A. Colquitt, & A. Erez, 2000). This study focused on team-level relationships (N 73 teams) and demonstrated that after an unforeseen change in the task context, performance was superior for teams with members who had higher cognitive ability, achievement, and openness and who had lower dependability. These relationships were mediated by a measure of role structure adaptation (i.e., the effectiveness with which teams adapted their role structure when faced with an unforeseen change in their task context). Members ’ individual differences did not explain variance in team performance prior to the unforeseen change in the task context. Overall, results suggest differential relationships for team composition across routine and changing task contexts. Technological, economic, and demographic trends are changing the structure of work in organizations (Howard, 1995). Advances in information-processing technologies have increased the pace at which new products are developed and brought to market. In-creased globalization and advances in communications technolo-gies have increased technological transfer and shortened product lifecycles even further. To remain competitive in this environment, organizations must often change what they do or how they do it. Among the most popular means of achieving this type of increased flexibility has been to structure work around teams rather than individual jobs (Cascio, 1995; Ilgen, 1999). The increasing prev-alence of teams has been well documented (e.g., Devine, Clayton, Philips, Dunford, & Melner, 1999; Lawler, Mohrman, & Ledford, 1995; Gordon, 1992). Some have estimated that in the next few years, up to half of the U.S. workforce will be working in teams of some form or another (Stewart, Manz, & Sims, 1999). With experience, and as in all organizational systems (Katz &

Jeffrey A. Lepine

101

Independent Business Owner/Managers. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared as part of Platte Technical Community College's project to help managers and supervisors develop practical, up-to-date managerial skills in a relatively short time, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations encountered by independent business owner/managers. Unit I provides…

Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

102

Updating Polytechnic Teachers' Knowledge and Skills through Teacher Design Teams in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While teachers and administrators in polytechnics in Ghana have categorically expressed the growing need for the former's knowledge and skills to be updated in the era of polytechnic transformation, little attention has been paid to the subject. This study reports a professional development intervention organised for 16 engineering teachers…

Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

2012-01-01

103

Communication, and Team-Working Skills in Second-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, a multidisciplinary program has been used to encourage science students to build on their chemical knowledge and to appreciate how it applies to the world around them. The program is interactive and instills a new set of core learning skills that are often underrepresented in undergraduate curricula, namely, cooperative learning,…

Mc Goldrick, Niamh B.; Marzec, Bartosz; Scully, P. Noelle; Draper, Sylvia M.

2013-01-01

104

Success Skills for the Textile Industry: Team Building (SS2). Workforce 2000 Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum package on team building is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

105

Temporal control and hand movement efficiency in skilled music performance.  

PubMed

Skilled piano performance requires considerable movement control to accomplish the high levels of timing and force precision common among professional musicians, who acquire piano technique over decades of practice. Finger movement efficiency in particular is an important factor when pianists perform at very fast tempi. We document the finger movement kinematics of highly skilled pianists as they performed a five-finger melody at very fast tempi. A three-dimensional motion-capture system tracked the movements of finger joints, the hand, and the forearm of twelve pianists who performed on a digital piano at successively faster tempi (7-16 tones/s) until they decided to stop. Joint angle trajectories computed for all adjacent finger phalanges, the hand, and the forearm (wrist angle) indicated that the metacarpophalangeal joint contributed most to the vertical fingertip motion while the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints moved slightly opposite to the movement goal (finger extension). An efficiency measure of the combined finger joint angles corresponded to the temporal accuracy and precision of the pianists' performances: Pianists with more efficient keystroke movements showed higher precision in timing and force measures. Keystroke efficiency and individual joint contributions remained stable across tempo conditions. Individual differences among pianists supported the view that keystroke efficiency is required for successful fast performance. PMID:23300946

Goebl, Werner; Palmer, Caroline

2013-01-01

106

29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable...requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

2010-07-01

107

Portraying the Contribution of Individual Behaviors to Team Cohesion and Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Behaviors of individuals in teams both contribute to and are molded by team dynamics. How they do so has been the subject of much research. A method of portraying individuals' behaviors in teams, the Team Diagramming Method (TDM) is presented. Behaviors are rated by other team members on three important dimensions: positivity/negativity, dominant/submissive, and task-orientedness/expressiveness. A study of 5-person teams engaging in a 3-day moon simulation task demonstrated that measures of these perceived behaviors as well as the variances of these behaviors correlated with cohesion measures and performance. The method shows strengths and weaknesses of particular teams and, by comparison with high-performing teams, suggests interventions based on individual as well as team behaviors. The primary goal of this study was to determine the extent to which these team level variables, derived from all team members' rated behaviors, were associated with previous methods of measuring cohesion and with performance. A secondary goal was to determine the stability of TDM measures over time by comparing team level variables based on ratings early and later in the team s work together.

Parke, Bonny; Orasanu, Judith

2012-01-01

108

Skill mix, roles and remuneration in the primary care workforce: Who are the healthcare professionals in the primary care teams across the world?  

PubMed

World-wide, shortages of primary care physicians and an increased demand for services have provided the impetus for delivering team-based primary care. The diversity of the primary care workforce is increasing to include a wider range of health professionals such as nurse practitioners, registered nurses and other clinical staff members. Although this development is observed internationally, skill mix in the primary care team and the speed of progress to deliver team-based care differs across countries. This work aims to provide an overview of education, tasks and remuneration of nurses and other primary care team members in six OECD countries. Based on a framework of team organization across the care continuum, six national experts compare skill-mix, education and training, tasks and remuneration of health professionals within primary care teams in the United States, Canada, Australia, England, Germany and the Netherlands. Nurses are the main non-physician health professional working along with doctors in most countries although types and roles in primary care vary considerably between countries. However, the number of allied health professionals and support workers, such as medical assistants, working in primary care is increasing. Shifting from 'task delegation' to 'team care' is a global trend but limited by traditional role concepts, legal frameworks and reimbursement schemes. In general, remuneration follows the complexity of medical tasks taken over by each profession. Clear definitions of each team-member's role may facilitate optimally shared responsibility for patient care within primary care teams. Skill mix changes in primary care may help to maintain access to primary care and quality of care delivery. Learning from experiences in other countries may inspire policy makers and researchers to work on efficient and effective teams care models worldwide. PMID:25577306

Freund, Tobias; Everett, Christine; Griffiths, Peter; Hudon, Catherine; Naccarella, Lucio; Laurant, Miranda

2015-03-01

109

Designing student learning teams improving team performance in a college biology laboratory by designing learning teams based on student's intra-team function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative learning is likely the most utilized form of classroom management in college science laboratory courses. Time restrictions, equipment availability and physical space limitations promote use of cooperation if for no other reason than convenience and necessity. In college laboratory courses, students are often assigned to learning teams the first day of class. Student placement in these learning teams is

Lisarenee English

2004-01-01

110

Key Performance Outcomes of Patient Safety Curricula: Root Cause Analysis, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, and Structured Communications Skills  

PubMed Central

As colleges and schools of pharmacy develop core courses related to patient safety, course-level outcomes will need to include both knowledge and performance measures. Three key performance outcomes for patient safety coursework, measured at the course level, are the ability to perform root cause analyses and healthcare failure mode effects analyses, and the ability to generate effective safety communications using structured formats such as the Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation (SBAR) situational briefing model. Each of these skills is widely used in patient safety work and competence in their use is essential for a pharmacist's ability to contribute as a member of a patient safety team. PMID:22102754

2011-01-01

111

Degree of Online Collaboration and Team Performance: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study investigated the relationship between degree of online collaboration and quality of group project among four teams. Thirteen participants were randomly assigned to form 4 teams to work on 4 collaborative projects across 16 weeks. Two different data sources of discussion archives and quality of group projects were collected and…

Thompson, Ling; Ku, Heng-Yu

2010-01-01

112

A Taxonomy for Composing Effective Naval Teams. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since teams perform a majority of mission-critical Navy tasks, a significant applied research problem is how to compose maximally effective task teams. Two problems have traditionally hindered the attainment of this goal: how to compose teams on bases other than ability or technical skill and how to classify team tasks, so that predictions can be…

Driskell, James E.; And Others

113

Team Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Round Rock Pilot Project on Team Incentives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education policymakers have shown increased interest in incentive programs for teachers based on the outcomes of their students. This article examines a program in which bonuses were awarded to teams of middle school teachers based on their collective contribution to student test score gains. The study employs a randomized controlled trial to…

Springer, Matthew G.; Pane, John F.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Burns, Susan Freeman; Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian

2012-01-01

114

Using geographic information systems to track polio vaccination team performance: pilot project report.  

PubMed

The application of geospatial data to public health problems has expanded significantly with increased access to low-cost handheld global positioning system (GPS) receivers and free programs for geographic information systems analysis. In January 2010, we piloted the application of geospatial analysis to polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in northern Nigeria. SIA teams carried GPS receivers to compare hand-drawn catchment area route maps with GPS tracks of actual vaccination teams. Team tracks overlaid on satellite imagery revealed that teams commonly missed swaths of contiguous households and indicated that geospatial data can improve microplanning and provide nearly real-time monitoring of team performance. PMID:25316882

Gammino, Victoria M; Nuhu, Adamu; Chenoweth, Paul; Manneh, Fadinding; Young, Randall R; Sugerman, David E; Gerber, Sue; Abanida, Emmanuel; Gasasira, Alex

2014-11-01

115

Comprehensive Development Plan in Office Skills. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Waubonsee Community College Comprehensive Development Plan in Office Skills served 208 students by assessment of basic skills and referral to appropriate programs or help with job skills and referral to employment during the 18-month grant period from December 1988 through June 30, 1990. The target population was minority women or economically…

Waubonsee Community Coll., Sugar Grove, IL.

116

Mental Models and the Acquisition of a Complex Skill across Individuals and Teams: A Multilevel Study  

E-print Network

of the relationship between mental models and performance was similar across levels of analysis. Additionally, consistent with previous research on the effectiveness of declarative knowledge measures for predicting complex performance, the present results indicated...

Munoz Galvez, Gonzalo Javier

2014-01-13

117

Interaction of social skill and general mental ability on job performance and salary.  

PubMed

Job and organizational changes have promoted the importance of social skill at work, yet research in this area has been limited. The authors investigated the interaction between social skill and general mental ability (GMA) in the explanation of job performance and salary, controlling for personality and demographic characteristics. The results indicated that the relationships between social skill and job performance were stronger among workers high than low in GMA. In a similar manner. the relationships between GMA and job performance were stronger among workers high than low in social skill. The interaction on salary indicated that increases in social skill (or GMA) for high-GMA (or social skill) individuals were associated with higher salary levels. It is interesting, however, that increases in social skill (or GMA) for those low in GMA (or social skill) contributed to lower salaries. Implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:11768051

Ferris, G R; Witt, L A; Hochwarter, W A

2001-12-01

118

Expertise, extraversion and group interaction styles as performance indicators in virtual teams: how do perceptions of IT's performance get formed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how a personality trait and expertise affect virtual teams interaction, and how that interaction leads to different levels of performance (e.g., solution quality, solution acceptance, cohesion). Teams have been shown to exhibit constructive, aggressive\\/defensive, or passive\\/defensive interaction styles that affect communication and thus team performance by facilitating or hindering the exchange of information among group members. These

Pierre A. Balthazard; Richard E. Potter; John Warren

2004-01-01

119

Team Satisfaction and Student Group Performance: A Cross-Cultural Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relationship between team satisfaction and students' performance in group projects in two universities, one from the United States and one from Qatar. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between team satisfaction and group performance only for the American students. Demographic factors…

Zeitun, Rami M.; Abdulqader, Khalid Shams; Alshare, Khaled A.

2013-01-01

120

Few juvenile auditory perceptual skills correlate with adult performance.  

PubMed

Measures of human mental development suggest that behavioral skills displayed during early life can predict an individual's subsequent cognitive performance. Support for this draws from longitudinal studies that reveal compelling within-subject correlations during childhood. If this idea applies across the life span, then correlations in performance should persist into adulthood. Here, we address this prediction in juvenile and adult gerbils by evaluating within-subject measures of auditory learning and perception. Animals were trained and tested as juveniles on either an amplitude modulation (AM) or a frequency modulation (FM) detection task. Measures of learning and perception obtained from juveniles were then compared to similar measures obtained when each subject was tested in adulthood on either the same task or the untrained task. For animals trained and tested on the AM detection task as juveniles and adults, there was no correlation between juvenile and adult learning metrics, or perceptual sensitivity. For animals trained and tested on FM detection as juveniles, we observed a significant relationship to their adult performance. Juveniles that performed the best on FM detection were the poorest at AM detection, and the best at FM detection, when tested as adults. Thus, across-age correlations for sensory and cognitive measures, obtained during development and in adulthood, depend heavily on the specific type of developmental experience and the outcome measure. PMID:24512063

Sarro, Emma C; Sanes, Dan H

2014-02-01

121

The Impact of Diagnosing Skill Deficiencies and Assessment-Based Communication Training on Managerial Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates an organizational diagnosis program that assesses managerial communication skills and provides the frame for follow-up training programs. Finds that managers participating in follow-up communication skills training performed significantly higher on interpersonal skills, problem-solving ability, and productivity over three long-term…

Papa, Michael J.; Graham, Elizabeth E.

1991-01-01

122

ESRC Centre on Skills, Knowledge and Organisational Performance  

E-print Network

-end employment. 2. The spatial distribution of skills and knowledge. 3. Reform of education and training provision and the emergence of `smart' education, training and economic development systems in the 21st of education and training systems and skills measurement and certification. #12;Over-arching Cross

Martin, Ralph R.

123

Basic Math Skills and Performance in an Introductory Economics Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors measure math skills with a broader set of explanatory variables than have been used in previous studies. To identify what math skills are important for student success in introductory microeconomics, they examine (1) the student's score on the mathematics portion of the ACT Assessment Test, (2) whether the student has taken calculus,…

Ballard, Charles L.; Johnson, Marianne F.

2004-01-01

124

Brief Report: Suitability of the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) for the Assessment of Social Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims at examining whether the "Social Skills Performance Assessment" (SSPA; Patterson et al. in "Schizophr Res" 48(2-3):351-360, 2001) is a suitable performance-based measure to assess social skills in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). For this purpose, social skills of individuals with ASD and…

Verhoeven, E. W. M.; Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.

2013-01-01

125

Beyond Status: Relating Status Inequality to Performance and Health in Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status…

Christie, Amy M.; Barling, Julian

2010-01-01

126

Team performance in process control: influences of interface design and staffing levels.  

PubMed

A study performed at the OECD Halden Reactor Project compared the effects of interface design and staffing levels on various aspects of team performance. Teams of nuclear power plant operators participated in challenging simulator scenarios, working in either a simulated conventional plant, with a hard-control interface, or in a simulated advanced plant, with a computerized interface. Two-team staffing levels, normal and minimum, were evaluated in each plant condition. All teams participated in the same five study conditions, lasting 1-3 h each. Several measures assessed team performance: situation awareness, workload, rated team interactions, rated overall performance and objective performance. The findings revealed that combinations of interface design and staffing levels supported different aspects of performance. Larger crews consistently performed better than smaller crews in the conventional plant. In the advanced plant, both crew types performed equally well; however, smaller crews had better situation awareness than larger crews. In general, performance was better for crews using the advanced plant interface, but workload was higher. Workload also was consistently higher in the smaller crews than in the larger crews, regardless of interface type. Links between the performance measures were also noted. PMID:10975181

Sebok, A

2000-08-01

127

Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: performance expectations of residency program directors  

PubMed Central

Background High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%), advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) (91.1%), basic life support (BLS) (90.0%), interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4%) and blood gas (88.7%). Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later) and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%), sterile technique (67.2%), BLS (68.9%), ACLS (65.9%) and phlebotomy (63.5%). Discussion Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the first year of residency training or later. Conclusions Gathering data from residency program directors provides support for developing new assessment tools in high-stakes licensing examinations. PMID:22833698

Langenau, Erik E.; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Roberts, William L.; DeChamplain, Andre F.; Boulet, John R.

2012-01-01

128

The Role of a Multidimensional Concept of Trust in the Performance of Global Virtual Teams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper focuses on the concept of trust as an important ingredient of effective global virtual team performance. Definitions of trust and virtual teams are presented. The concept of trust is developed from its unilateral application (trust, absence of trust) to a multidimensional concept including cognitive and affective components. The special challenges of a virtual team are then discussed with particular emphasis on how a multidimensional concept of trust impacts these challenges. Propositions suggesting the multidimensional concept of trust moderates the negative impacts of distance, cross cultural and organizational differences, the effects of electronically mediated communication, reluctance to share information and a lack of hi story/future on the performance of virtual teams are stated. The paper concludes with recommendations and a set of techniques to build both cognitive and affective trust in virtual teams.

Bodensteiner, Nan Muir; Stecklein, Jonette M.

2002-01-01

129

Investigation of team dynamics and group performance in the product engineering process  

E-print Network

The cultural traits of a project engineering team can strongly influence the performance of its members and the quality of the product. The 2.009 Product Engineering Processes class provides an opportunity for investigating ...

Lee, Stephanie K. (Stephanie Kwai Ling)

2006-01-01

130

Complex Network Characteristics and Team Performance in the Game of Cricket  

E-print Network

with performance of teams. Our study examines Test cricket, One Day Internationals (ODIs) and T20 cricket matches matches but not in ODIs and IPL. For our purpose, the basic difference between different forms of the game

Bagchi, Amitabha

131

Development of Sensor-Based Measures of Rifle Marksmanship Skill and Performance. CRESST Report 756  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of rifle marksmanship skill and performance were developed using a prototype instrumented laser-based training system. Measures of performance were derived from laser strikes on a video-projected target. Measures of rifle marksmanship skill--breath control, trigger control, and muzzle wobble--were developed from shooters' breathing and…

Espinosa, Paul D.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Parks, Daniel; Baker, Eva L.

2009-01-01

132

The Effects of an Intervention Strategy on Children's Heart Rates and Skill Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of a fitness infusion instructional strategy (FI) on children's activity levels and skill performance scores. This strategy included aerobic activity within the skill practice tasks and game play. In other words, students performed short bouts of activity between the practice and…

Ignico, Arlene; Corson, Arleen; Vidoni, Carla

2006-01-01

133

29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2013-07-01

134

29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2011-07-01

135

29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2014-07-01

136

29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2012-07-01

137

Talk that works: evaluating communication in a factory production team  

Microsoft Academic Search

What part does communication play in the success of a top-performing factory production team? To what extent are the effective communication skills and strategies used by this team transferable to other teams at the factory? These two questions provided the starting point for a collaborative action research project involving the Language in the Workplace Project and staff at the Lever

Maria Stubbe

138

High-performance teams for current and future physician leaders: an introduction.  

PubMed

The scope of patient management increasingly crosses the defined lines of multiple medical specialties and services to meet patient needs. Concurrently, many hospitals and health-care systems have adapted new multidisciplinary team structures that provide patient-centric care as opposed to the more traditional discipline-centered delivery of care. As health care continues to evolve, the use of teams becomes even more critical in allowing interdependence between multiple disciplines to provide excellent care delivery and ongoing patient management. The use of teams permeates the health-care industry (and has done so for many years), but confusion about the structure, role, and use of teams contributes to limited effectiveness. The health-care industry's underuse of the fundamentals of corporate teamwork has, in part, created ineffective team leadership at the physician level. As the first in a series of documents on teamwork, this article is intended to introduce the reader to the rudiments of team theory and to present an introduction to a model of teamwork. The role of current and future physician leaders in ensuring team effectiveness is emphasized in this discussion. By educating health-care professionals on the foundations of high-performance teamwork, we hope to accomplish two main goals. The first goal is to help create a common and systematic taxonomy that physician leaders and institutional management can agree on and refer to concerning the development of high-performance health-care teams. The second goal is to stimulate the development of future physician leaders who use proven teamwork principles as a powerful modality to achieve efficient and optimal patient care. Most importantly, we wish to emphasize that health care, both philosophically and practically, is delivered best through high-performance teams. For such teams to perform properly, the organizational environment must support the team concept tangibly. In concert, we believe the best manner in which to cultivate knowledge and performance of the health-care organizational mission and goals is by using such teams. PMID:18439540

Jain, Anshu K; Thompson, Jon M; Chaudry, Joseph; McKenzie, Shaun; Schwartz, Richard W

2008-01-01

139

Believing in "Us": Exploring Leaders' Capacity to Enhance Team Confidence and Performance by Building a Sense of Shared Social Identity.  

PubMed

The present study examined the impact of athlete leaders' perceived confidence on their teammates' confidence and performance. Male basketball players (N = 102) participated in groups of 4. To manipulate leaders' team confidence, the appointed athlete leader of each newly formed basketball team (a confederate) expressed either high or low team confidence. The results revealed an effect of team confidence contagion such that team members had greater team confidence when the leader expressed high (rather than low) confidence in the team's success. Second, the present study sought to explain the mechanisms through which this contagion occurs. In line with the social identity approach to leadership, structural equation modeling demonstrated that this effect was partially mediated by team members' increased team identification. Third, findings indicated that when leaders expressed high team confidence, team members' performance increased during the test, but when leaders expressed low confidence, team members' performance decreased. Athlete leaders thus have the capacity to shape team members' confidence-and hence their performance-in both positive and negative ways. In particular, by showing that they believe in "our team," leaders are able not only to make "us" a psychological reality, but also to transform "us" into an effective operational unit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25401268

Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Steffens, Niklas K; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Boen, Filip

2014-11-17

140

Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal…

Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

141

Assessing Motor and Sport Skill Performance. Two Practical Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes two practical assessment procedures that enable teachers to use time more efficiently in physical education class. One approach is for teachers who want to use validated or invalidated skills tests, and the other approach takes advantage of instructional progression steps. (SM)

Everhart, Brett

1996-01-01

142

The Effect of Personality Type on Team Performance in Engineering Materials Term Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most of long-term engineering class projects require teamwork. Often, conducting projects increase the quality of classroom life and facilitate student learning. Sometimes, team projects hinder student learning and create disharmony and dissatisfaction with classroom life. In many cases, the mixture of each individuals personality determines team dynamics. The Introduction to Engineering Materials course for junior level students encompasses a semester-long term project, which heavily requires teamwork. The term project should focus on a component of existing manufactured products and show why a particular material is used for a particular application. The experiments chosen should prove or disprove this. Each team will chose a topic, determine how to evaluate that topic, devise relevant experiments, evaluate the results of these experiments and formulate a conclusion. Finally, the students will present their results to the class at the end of the semester. The goal of this study is to see how the team performance can be affected by each individual students personality type in the term projects of the engineering material course. The personality test used in this study was the DISC test, which is the oldest, most validated, and reliable personality assessment tool. DISC stands for Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Conscientiousness, which are the four dimensions in the personality characteristics. For the term project, six teams were formulated. The instructor assigned four or five students to a team. Students with similar personality types were assigned to work with each other in three of the teams. The other three teams have students with well-mixed dimensions in their personality characteristics. This paper presents the effectiveness of using student personality on team building for the semester-long team projects. Overall student experience and lessons learned in organizing such a project are also discussed.

Jang, Jaesoon; Kim, David; Shin, Sung J.

2009-09-25

143

An intelligent tutoring system for the investigation of high performance skill acquisition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issue of training high performance skills is of increasing concern. These skills include tasks such as driving a car, playing the piano, and flying an aircraft. Traditionally, the training of high performance skills has been accomplished through the use of expensive, high-fidelity, 3-D simulators, and/or on-the-job training using the actual equipment. Such an approach to training is quite expensive. The design, implementation, and deployment of an intelligent tutoring system developed for the purpose of studying the effectiveness of skill acquisition using lower-cost, lower-physical-fidelity, 2-D simulation. Preliminary experimental results are quite encouraging, indicating that intelligent tutoring systems are a cost-effective means of training high performance skills.

Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy; Regian, J. Wesley

1991-01-01

144

Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

2014-01-01

145

A Longitudinal Assessment of Executive Function Skills and Their Association with Math Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to examine both concurrent and predictive associations between scores on a measure of executive function (EF) skills, the Contingency Naming Test (CNT), during the early school-age years. A secondary aim of the study was to examine the association between EF skills and mathematics performance. We administered tests of mathematics ability, and the CNT, to 178

Michèle M. M. Mazzocco; Sara T. Kover

2007-01-01

146

Training to Enhance Design Team Performance: A Cure for Tunnel Vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design Team performance is a function of the quality and degree of academic training and the cumulative, learned experience of the individual members of the team. Teamwork, leadership, and communications certainly are factors that affect the measure of the performance of the team, but they are not addressed here. This paper focuses on accelerating the learned experience of team members and describes an organizational approach that can significantly increase the effective experience level for any engineering design team. The performance measure of the whole team can be increased by increasing the engineering disciplines' cross awareness of each other and by familiarizing them with their affect at the system level. Discipline engineers know their own discipline well, but typically are not intimately familiar with their technical interaction with and dependencies on all the other disciplines of engineering. These dependencies are design integration functions and are worked out well by the discipline engineers as long as they are involved in the design of types of systems that they have experience with.

Parker, James W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

147

Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind

Ching-Lin Wu; Mu-Chin Shih; Chia-Cheng Yang; Ming-Hsiang Huang; Chen-Kang Chang

2010-01-01

148

Social skill as moderator of the conscientiousness-performance relationship: convergent results across four studies.  

PubMed

The authors conducted 4 studies to test the hypothesis that the relationship between Conscientiousness and job performance reflecting interpersonal effectiveness is more strongly positive among workers who are higher rather than lower in social skill. Results of hierarchical moderated regression analyses supported the hypothesis in all 4 studies. Among workers high in social skill. Conscientiousness was positively related to performance. Among workers low in social skill, the relationship between Conscientiousness and performance was essentially irrelevant in Study 2 but was negative in the other 3 studies. Potential implications of these results are discussed as are directions for future research. PMID:14516246

Witt, L A; Ferris, Gerald R

2003-10-01

149

Developing team competence as part of a person centered learning course on communication and soft skills in project management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the capability to work in teams, both national and international, has become a key requirement on computer science graduates, we have been exploring ways in which to support students in enhancing this capability during their studies. In this paper we share our approach, 'philosophy', and learning from the preceding years regarding the development of team competence as part of

Renate Motschnig-Pitrik; Kathrin Figl

2007-01-01

150

Cognition-based and affect-based trust as mediators of leader behavior influences on team performance.  

PubMed

We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based trust and team psychological safety. Transformational leadership influenced team performance indirectly through cognition-based trust. Cognition-based trust directly influenced team potency and indirectly (through affect-based trust) influenced team psychological safety. The effects of leader behavior on team performance were fully mediated through the trust in leader variables and the team psychological states. Servant leadership explained an additional 10% of the variance in team performance beyond the effect of transformational leadership. We discuss implications of these results for research on the relationship between leader behavior and team performance, and for efforts to enhance leader development by combining knowledge from different leadership theories. PMID:21299271

Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Peng, Ann Chunyan

2011-07-01

151

Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes  

PubMed Central

Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

2013-01-01

152

Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

Elder, Stephen D.

2010-01-01

153

The interaction of social skill and organizational support on job performance.  

PubMed

The present study examined the moderating effect of perceived organizational support (POS) on the relationship between social skill and supervisor-rated job performance. On the basis of regulatory and activation models of behavior, the authors argue that low-POS environments activate social skill because they reflect situations in which interpersonal acuity is required to demonstrate effective job performance. Accordingly, the authors hypothesize that social skill is more strongly related to performance among workers reporting low rather than high levels of organizational support. Results of hierarchical moderated multiple regression analyses on data gathered from 2 samples support the hypothesis. These results suggest that the relevance of social skill to job performance may be dependent on contextual cues. Implications for substantive research, strengths and limitations, and directions for future research are offered. PMID:16551199

Hochwarter, Wayne A; Witt, L A; Treadway, Darren C; Ferris, Gerald R

2006-03-01

154

Openness and conscientiousness as predictors of performance on a complex perceptual-motor skill task  

E-print Network

This study examined the ability of two "Big Five" personality dimensions (Openness to Experience and conscientiousness) to predict performance on Space Fortress, a complex perceptual-motor skill task. One hundred and two paid subjects completed 11...

Gottesfeld, Noga

2012-06-07

155

Quantifying police officers' arrest and self-defence skills: Does performance decrease under pressure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated police officers' performance on five selected arrest and self-defence skills that are regularly used in the line of duty. In Experiment 1 a 5-point scale to measure skill performance was developed and tested with 14 police instructors. Results showed that the new scale has satisfactory inter-rater reliability and good intra-rater reliability. In Experiment 2, the external and

Arne Nieuwenhuys; Simone R. Caljouw; Maaike R. Leijsen; Bart A. J. Schmeits; Raôul R. D. Oudejans

2009-01-01

156

Documenting Student Competence through Effective Performance Assessment: Employability Skills. Workshop Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains 26 performance assessments for documenting student employability skills. Each performance assessment consists of the following: a competency; a terminal performance objective (outcome); competency builders and pupil performance objectives (criteria for documenting mastery of the objective); applied academic competencies;…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

157

Effectiveness of quality-control aids in verifying K-9-team explosive detection performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and supporting agencies conducted a developmental test and evaluation (DTE) to determine if quality control aids (QCAs) could be developed that would provide effective surrogates to actual explosives used for training and testing K-9 explosives detection teams. Non-detonable surrogates are required to alleviate logistics and contamination issues with explosives used sa training aids. Comparative K-9 team detection performance for explosives used as training aids and QCAs configurations of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCA configuration of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCAs. The configurations were a paper patch impregnated with a solution of the explosive, a cloth pouch filed with small amounts of solid explosive, and the non-hazardous explosive for security training and testing material. The DTE was conducted at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, where the K-9 teams undergo initial training. Six FAA certified operational teams participated. All explosives and QCAs were presented to the K-9 teams using a 10 scent box protocol. The results show that K-9 team as are more sensitive to explosives than the candidate QCAs. More importantly, it was discovered that the explosives at Lackland AFB are cross-contaminated, meaning that explosives possessed volatile artifacts from other explosives. There are two potential hypotheses explaining why the dogs did not detect the QCAs. First, the cross-contamination of Lackland training explosives may mean that K-9 teams are only trained to detect the explosives with the most volatile chemical signatures. Alternatively, the QCA configurations may have been below the trained detection threshold of the K-9s. It is recommended that K-9 teams train on uncontaminated odors from properly designed QCAs to ensure that dogs respond to the appropriate explosive components, and not some other constituent or contaminant.

Hallowell, Susan F.; Fischer, Douglas S.; Brasher, Jeffrey D.; Malone, Robert L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Rae, Cathy

1997-02-01

158

Technical match characteristics and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in male elite team handball.  

PubMed

Michalsik, LB, Madsen, K, and Aagaard, P. Technical match characteristics and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in male elite team handball. J Strength Cond Res 29(2): 416-428, 2015-Modern team handball match-play imposes substantial physical and technical demands on elite players. However, only limited knowledge seems to exist about the specific working requirements in elite team handball. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on male elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry. Based on continuous video recording of individual players during elite team handball match-play (62 tournament games, ?4 players per game), computerized technical match analysis was performed in male elite team handball players along with anthropometric measurements over a 6 season time span. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, tackles, technical errors, and defense errors) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., hard or light tackles, type of shot, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Players showed 36.9 ± 13.1 (group mean ± SD) high-intense technical playing actions per match with a mean total effective playing time of 53.85 ± 5.87 minutes. In offense, each player performed 6.0 ± 5.2 fast breaks, received 34.5 ± 21.3 tackles in total, and performed in defense 3.7 ± 3.5 blockings, 3.9 ± 3.0 claspings, and 5.8 ± 3.6 hard tackles. Wing players (84.5 ± 5.8 kg, 184.9 ± 5.7 cm) were less heavy and smaller (p < 0.001) than backcourt players (94.7 ± 7.1 kg, 191.9 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (99.4 ± 6.2 kg, 194.8 ± 3.6 cm). In conclusion, modern male elite team handball match-play is characterized by a high number of short-term, high-intense intermittent technical playing actions. Indications of technical fatigue were observed. Physical demands differed between playing positions with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations with opponent players than backcourt players and pivots. Body anthropometry seemed to have an important influence on playing performance because it is highly related to playing positions. The present observations suggest that male elite team handball players should implement more position-specific training regimens, while also focusing on anaerobic training and strength training. PMID:24978832

Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, Per

2015-02-01

159

The Performance of Fundamental Gross Motor Skills by Children Enrolled in Head Start.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to descriptively evaluate the performance of fundamental gross motor skills among Head Start children. Levels of performance were compared and contrasted with performance profiles of the Test of Gross Motor Development. Findings suggest that Head Start curriculum should focus on the importance of developing fundamental gross…

Woodard, Rebecca J.; Yun, Joonkoo

2001-01-01

160

The Impact of Trait Emotional Intelligence on Nursing Team Performance and Cohesiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claims about the positive influence of emotional intelligence (EI) on work team performance are very numerous, both in commercial and scientific literature. However, despite the huge interest that media and business consultants put in EI and its fast-growing use in organizations, there is very little empirical evidence to support these claims. In this study, we investigated the relationships between EI,

Jordi Quoidbach; Michel Hansenne

2009-01-01

161

Establishing and Maintaining High-Performing Leadership Teams: A Primary Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the findings from a study into high-performing leadership teams in English primary schools. The schools, in the sample, received "outstanding" Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) grades overall, and for leadership and management, in their most recent school inspection. The evidence suggests that developing…

Abbott, Ian; Bush, Tony

2013-01-01

162

Factors that Facilitated an Alabama School Assistance Team's Success in a Low-Performing School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the perceived factors that enabled an Alabama School Assistance Team (ASAT) to be effective in helping improve a low performing school. A case study was conducted with the ASATs and the Local Education Agency (LEA) site they served. Data were collected from interviews, documents and observations. The perceptions explored in…

Roy, Virginia; Kochan, Frances

2012-01-01

163

We're All in This Together Now: Group Performance Feedback to Increase Classroom Team Data Collection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study's primary goal was to evaluate the use of performance feedback procedures delivered to a classroom team to increase daily data collection. Performance feedback (PFB) was delivered to four classroom teams responsible for the daily collection of data representing student performance during prescribed instructional activities. Using a…

Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E.; Eisenhart, Donald; Kane, Meghan; Schoener, Christine; Turkel, Kimberly; Riley, Megan; Mandell, David S.

2011-01-01

164

Skill Category Specific skill proficient in  

E-print Network

.edu Relationship Communication Creative #12;Skill Category Specific skill Highly or moderately proficient in EnjoySkill Category Specific skill Highly or moderately proficient in Enjoy using Work in teams as a liaison among professors, staff, and/or students to facilitate communication and build partnerships

Keinan, Alon

165

Distributed teaming on JPL projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses structures, actions and technologies that contribute to real team development of a distributed team, and the leadership skills and tools that are used to implement that team development.

Baroff, L. E.

2002-01-01

166

Base Rates of Social Skills Acquisition/Performance Deficits, Strengths, and Problem Behaviors: An Analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…

Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.

2010-01-01

167

Have Basic Mathematical Skills Grown Obsolete in the Computer Age: Assessing Basic Mathematical Skills and Forecasting Performance in a Business Statistics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to measure the comprehension of basic mathematical skills of students enrolled in statistics classes at a large regional university, and to determine if the scores earned on a basic math skills test are useful in forecasting student performance in these statistics classes, and to determine if students' basic math…

Noser, Thomas C.; Tanner, John R.; Shah, Situl

2008-01-01

168

How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.  

PubMed

Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25000359

Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

2014-09-01

169

Modeling and Quantification of Team Performance in Human Reliability Analysis for Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) are important technical contributors to the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) risk-informed and performance based approach to regulating U.S. commercial nuclear activities. Furthermore, all currently operating commercial NPPs in the U.S. are required by federal regulation to be staffed with crews of operators. Yet, aspects of team performance are underspecified in most HRA methods that are widely used in the nuclear industry. There are a variety of "emergent" team cognition and teamwork errors (e.g., communication errors) that are 1) distinct from individual human errors, and 2) important to understand from a PRA perspective. The lack of robust models or quantification of team performance is an issue that affects the accuracy and validity of HRA methods and models, leading to significant uncertainty in estimating HEPs. This paper describes research that has the objective to model and quantify team dynamics and teamwork within NPP control room crews for risk informed applications, thereby improving the technical basis of HRA, which improves the risk-informed approach the NRC uses to regulate the U.S. commercial nuclear industry.

Jeffrey C. JOe; Ronald L. Boring

2014-06-01

170

Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance  

PubMed Central

Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes. PMID:25202292

Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilali?, Merim

2014-01-01

171

Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.  

PubMed

Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies. PMID:25400063

Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

2014-12-01

172

Focus of Attention Affects Performance of Motor Skills in Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the extent to which learners performing a simple keyboard passage would be affected by directing their focus of attention to different aspects of their movements, 16 music majors performed a brief keyboard passage under each of four focus conditions arranged in a counterbalanced design--a total of 64 experimental sessions. As they…

Duke, Robert A.; Cash, Carla Davis; Allen, Sarah E.

2011-01-01

173

Team-based learning in the gross anatomy laboratory improves academic performance and students' attitudes toward teamwork.  

PubMed

As the healthcare climate shifts toward increased interdisciplinary patient care, it is essential that students become accomplished at group problem solving and develop positive attitudes toward teamwork. Team-based learning (TBL) has become a popular approach to medical education because of its ability to promote active learning, problem-solving skills, communication, and teamwork. However, its documented use in the laboratory setting and physical therapy education is limited. We used TBL as a substitute for one-third of cadaveric dissections in the gross anatomy laboratories at two Doctor of Physical Therapy programs to study its effect on both students' perceptions and academic performance. We surveyed students at the beginning and completion of their anatomy course as well as students who had previously completed a traditional anatomy course to measure the impact of TBL on students' perceptions of teamwork. We found that the inclusion of TBL in the anatomy laboratory improves students' attitudes toward working with peers (P?performance between TBL and non-TBL students revealed that students who participated in TBL scored significantly higher on their first anatomy practical examination and on their head/neck written examination (P?team, a 10.5% increase in the mean rank score for Problem Solver resulted after the completion of the TBL-based anatomy course. Our data indicate that TBL is an effective supplement to cadaveric dissection in the laboratory portion of gross anatomy, improving both students' grades and perceptions of teamwork. Anat Sci Educ. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:24799448

Huitt, Tiffany W; Killins, Anita; Brooks, William S

2014-05-01

174

Teaming up to crack innovation enterprise integration. Key growth imperatives succeed best when specialized teams share skills, experience, and insight across the silos.  

PubMed

In the continuing quest for business growth, many CEOs are turning to their CIOs and IT organizations because technology is absolutely essential to two compelling sources of growth: innovation and enterprise integration. The speed of innovation often depends on the ability to coordinate across organizational boundaries. Innovations cannot reach a sufficient level of scale and impact unless they are integrated into the larger operations of the corporation. And yet, say recently retired Harvard Business School dean Cash, Oxford dean Earl, and nGenera director of research Morison, the two endeavors remain "unnatural acts": For too many large businesses are better at stifling innovation than at capitalizing on it, better at optimizing local operations than at integrating them for the good of the enterprise and its customers. To make both pursuits seem more natural, the authors recommend creating two dedicated, IT-powered teams: a distributed innovation group (DIG) and an enterprise integration group (EIG). The DIG serves as the center of expertise for innovation techniques, considers new uses for technology already being developed inside the company, looks for new developments outside the company, and provides experts for internal innovation initiatives. The EIG selects the most promising from among competing integration projects, provides resources to give them a strong start, and then folds them into the operating model of the enterprise. Without such agencies, the authors maintain, innovation and integration won't spread far enough or fast enough throughout a large organization to keep pace with the smaller, younger, more technology-based competitors to which innovation and integration come much more naturally. PMID:19009723

Cash, James I; Earl, Michael J; Morison, Robert

2008-11-01

175

The Impact of Performance Skills on Students' Attitudes towards the Learning Experience in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to assist in transforming a lecture experience into an occasion that can attract and engage students is via the use of performance techniques. Investigating the impact of certain types of performance skills on students' attitudes towards the learning experience can help better understand the relevance of such techniques in face to face and…

Hains-Wesson, Rachael

2011-01-01

176

Enabling Engineering Performance Skills: A Program to Teach Communication, Leadership, and Teamwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

A minor in Engineering Communication and Performance is being created at the University of Tennessee in conjunction with the engage Freshman Engineering Program. This minor provides engineering undergraduate students with formal training and a credential in complementary performance skills necessary for success in today's workplace. This interdisciplinary program is designed to improve the ability of engineering graduates to work on

Elaine Seat

177

To Think or Not to Think: The Apparent Paradox of Expert Skill in Music Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expert skill in music performance involves an apparent paradox. On stage, expert musicians are required accurately to retrieve information that has been encoded over hours of practice. Yet they must also remain open to the demands of the ever-changing situational contingencies with which they are faced during performance. To further explore this…

Geeves, Andrew; McIlwain, Doris J. F.; Sutton, John; Christensen, Wayne

2014-01-01

178

Is Everyone Created Equal? A Social Network Perspective on Personality in Teams  

E-print Network

experience and job-related skills and team performance are significantly stronger when the characteristics are possessed by core role, as opposed to non-core, role holders. Building on Kozlowski and Klein’s team compilation process model that emphasizes... (Weick, 1969). Within the team, there exist a number of social networks through which team members exchange necessary resources such as information, communication, and material inputs to achieve team goals (Brass, Galaskiewicz, Greve, & Tsai, 2004...

Li, Ning

2012-10-19

179

Performance in English Skills Courses and Overall Academic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study undertaken at Brock University that correlates performance of students in English-as-a-Second-Language courses in spoken and written English with achievement in their other academic courses. (eight references) (GLR)

Black, Jean

1991-01-01

180

Comparison of Simulation-Based Performance with Metrics of Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing Students: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative approaches to evaluating critical thinking skills are needed, as pencil and paper assessments may not accurately predict simulated or actual clinical performance. To ensure patient safety, it is imperative to determine how to best promote and measure critical thinking skills. Few studies have examined how these skills are related to…

Fero, Laura J.

2009-01-01

181

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND ASSESSMENT Using a Human Patient Simulation Mannequin to Teach Interdisciplinary Team Skills to Pharmacy Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives.To determine the effectiveness and student acceptance of using a human patient simulation (HPS) training module focused on interdisciplinary teamwork skills. Design. During their second-professional year, all pharmacy students were in enrolled in Principles of Pharmacotherapy 4: Cardiovascular Diseases and Patient Care Lab IV, a problem-based learning course. As part of the patient care laboratory, students participated in a simulated

Rosemarie Fernandez; James S. Kalus; Scott Compton; Eugene Applebaum

182

Soft skills in higher education: importance and improvement ratings as a function of individual differences and academic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three UK studies on the relationship between a purpose?built instrument to assess the importance and development of 15 ‘soft skills’ are reported. Study 1 (N = 444) identified strong latent components underlying these soft skills, such that differences between?skills were over?shadowed by differences between?students. Importance and improving ratings on these skills predicted academic performance and accounted for the effects of

Adriane Arteche; Andrew J. Bremner; Corina Greven; Adrian Furnham

2010-01-01

183

Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC) during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

1992-01-01

184

Mental practice promotes motor anticipation: evidence from skilled music performance  

PubMed Central

Mental practice (MP) has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP). Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of MP to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed. PMID:23970859

Bernardi, Nicolò F.; De Buglio, Matteo; Trimarchi, Pietro D.; Chielli, Alfonso; Bricolo, Emanuela

2013-01-01

185

An innovative appraisal/reward strategy for high-performance teams.  

PubMed

Competitive pressures require today's corporate leaders to maximize productivity. And to achieve long-term bottom line results, they've found that it is necessary to create a culture in which company members want to be their best and work at peak efficiency levels. But what is the formula for success? Perhaps, as suggested by this article, it involves the creation of high-performance teams. PMID:10173990

Joy, L W

1997-11-01

186

Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.

2013-01-01

187

We're all in this together now: group performance feedback to increase classroom team data collection.  

PubMed

This study's primary goal was to evaluate the use of performance feedback procedures delivered to a classroom team to increase daily data collection. Performance feedback (PFB) was delivered to four classroom teams responsible for the daily collection of data representing student performance during prescribed instructional activities. Using a multiple-baseline design, the effects of the team performance-feedback were evaluated for the target student, and for generalization to data collection for all classroom students. A secondary question evaluated if student on-task behavior correlated with increased data collection. Finally, social validity was investigated to evaluate team satisfaction with the PFB intervention. The results demonstrate improved data collection across all four classroom teams for the target student in each classroom and generalization within classrooms to all remaining students. Slight increases in student on-task behavior were observed in three of the four classrooms, and teacher satisfaction ratings were high. PMID:21723998

Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E; Eisenhart, Donald; Kane, Meghan; Schoener, Christine; Turkel, Kimberly; Riley, Megan; Mandell, David S

2011-08-01

188

Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the team members. The self-directed team was more motivated to learn their topic than was the manager-directed team, but they struggled with their path in following their vision whereas the manager-directed team kept their focus under the guidance of their manager. Finally, both teams are in fact effective; however specific circumstances may be an important objective when deciding to utilize either a self-directed or manager-directed team.

Erlick, Katherine

189

Motor Skill Performance of School-Age Children with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was…

Houwen, S.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Hartman, E.

2008-01-01

190

TECHNICAL ACTIVITY PROFILE AND INFLUENCE OF BODY ANTHROPOMETRY ON PLAYING PERFORMANCE IN FEMALE ELITE TEAM HANDBALL.  

PubMed

To determine the physical demands placed on female elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry, female elite team handball primarily field players were monitored during match-play using video recording and subsequent computerized technical match analysis during five regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings, screenings and blockings). Furthermore, anthropometric measurements were carried out.Each player had 28.3±11.0 (group means±SD) high-intense playing actions per match with a total effective playing time of 50.70±5.83 min. On average, each player made 2.8±2.6 fast breaks, gave 7.9±14.4 screenings, received 14.6±9.2 tackles in total and performed 7.7±3.7 shots while in offense, along with 3.5±3.8 blockings, 1.9±2.7 claspings and 6.2±3.8 hard tackles in defense. Mean body height, body mass and age in the Danish Premier Female Handball League were 175.4±6.1 cm, 69.5±6.5 kg and 25.4±3.7 years, respectively. Wing players were lighter (63.5±4.8 kg, p<0.001) and smaller (169.3±4.9 cm, p<0.001) than backcourt players (70.6±5.3 kg, 177.0±5.4 cm) and pivots (72.5±4.9 kg, 177.7±4.9 cm).In conclusion, the present match observations revealed that female elite team handball players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite team handball a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions remained unchanged in the second half. Marked positional differences in the physical demands were demonstrated, with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations than backcourt players and pivots. Body anthropometry differed substantially between different playing positions. Consequently, this should lead to an increase in physical training in modern female elite team handball directed at specific positions and individual physical capacity. PMID:25353073

Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

2014-10-28

191

Sleep spindle and slow wave frequency reflect motor skill performance in primary school-age children  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: The role of sleep in the enhancement of motor skills has been studied extensively in adults. We aimed to determine involvement of sleep and characteristics of spindles and slow waves in a motor skill in children. Hypothesis: We hypothesized sleep-dependence of skill enhancement and an association of interindividual differences in skill and sleep characteristics. Methods: 30 children (19 females, 10.7 ± 0.8 years of age; mean ± SD) performed finger sequence tapping tasks in a repeated-measures design spanning 4 days including 1 polysomnography (PSG) night. Initial and delayed performance were assessed over 12 h of wake; 12 h with sleep; and 24 h with wake and sleep. For the 12 h with sleep, children were assigned to one of three conditions: modulation of slow waves and spindles was attempted using acoustic perturbation, and compared to yoked and no-sound control conditions. Analyses: Mixed effect regression models evaluated the association of sleep, its macrostructure and spindles and slow wave parameters with initial and delayed speed and accuracy. Results and Conclusions: Children enhance their accuracy only over an interval with sleep. Unlike previously reported in adults, children enhance their speed independent of sleep, a capacity that may to be lost in adulthood. Individual differences in the dominant frequency of spindles and slow waves were predictive for performance: children performed better if they had less slow spindles, more fast spindles and faster slow waves. On the other hand, overnight enhancement of accuracy was most pronounced in children with more slow spindles and slower slow waves, i.e., the ones with an initial lower performance. Associations of spindle and slow wave characteristics with initial performance may confound interpretation of their involvement in overnight enhancement. Slower frequencies of characteristic sleep events may mark slower learning and immaturity of networks involved in motor skills. PMID:25426055

Astill, Rebecca G.; Piantoni, Giovanni; Raymann, Roy J. E. M.; Vis, Jose C.; Coppens, Joris E.; Walker, Matthew P.; Stickgold, Robert; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

2014-01-01

192

THE ROLE OF VISUAL-SPATIAL ABILITIES IN THE PERFORMANCE OF CERTAIN MOTOR SKILLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE CHANGING ROLES OF THREE VISUAL-SPATIAL ABILITIES (SPATIAL ORIENTATION, VISUALIZATION, AND PERCEPTUAL SPEED) IN THE PERFORMANCE OF GROSS MOTOR SKILLS AT SUCCESSIVE STAGES DURING THE LEARNING PERIOD WERE STUDIED. THE SUBJECTS CONSISTED OF 48 WOMEN, AGES 17 TO 24, WHO WERE EQUALLY ASSIGNED TO EITHER OF TWO SECTIONS AND SUBDIVIDED INTO THREE…

MCCRAW, LYNN W.; STALLINGS, LORETTA M.

193

Motor Skill Performance of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews studies on variables that are related to the motor skill performance of children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI). Three major groups of variables are considered (child, environmental, and task). Thirty-nine studies are included in this review, 26 of which examined the effects of child, environmental, and/or task…

Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Hartman, Esther

2009-01-01

194

Social inhibition and motor skill performance in first, third and fifth grade children.  

PubMed

A systematic literature search over a period of 7 years yielded 28 articles about social inhibition with few of them addressing the relationship between social and motor functioning. Two sets of empirical data are reported. Firstly, a replication of the study performed by Zimmer in 1981 on the relationship between social inhibition and motor skill performance has been carried out with first, third and fifth grade children. Contrary to Zimmer's (1981) earlier findings with pre-school children, no relationship was found between motor skills test and social inhibition at any of the three age levels studied. Secondly, a group of children who attended extra physical education classes because of delay in motor performance (called "motoric remedial teaching") was found to score significantly lower on the motor skills test and higher on the social inhibition scale than a matched group of classmates. These findings indicate that although social inhibition appears not to be related to motor skill performance in the normal population, a significant relationship is present in a special sample of motorically delayed children. PMID:1374995

van Rossum, J H; van den Born, S; Vermeer, A

1992-01-01

195

The Attention Skills and Academic Performance of Aggressive/Rejected and Low Aggressive/Popular Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…

Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa

2011-01-01

196

Competency-based instruction in critical invasive skills improves both resident performance and patient safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Correct performance of invasive skills is essential, but residents often undertake such procedures after no or minimal instruction. Methods: We instructed eight postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residents in the cadaver laboratory using a competency-based approach (CBI). Each resident had been evaluated before the laboratory during patient encounters. Group instruction in endotracheal tube insertion (ET), venous cutdown (VC), and chest

Marcel Martin; Bhupesh Vashisht; Eldo Frezza; Terri Ferone; Barbara Lopez; Murlidhar Pahuja; Richard K. Spence

1998-01-01

197

Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.

2011-01-01

198

Team training: role of computers in the aircraft maintenance environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on civil aircraft inspection and maintenance has shown the importance of teamwork in the aircraft maintenance environment. In addition, training has been identified as one of the primary intervention strategies in improving team performance. With improvements in technology-based training devices, it may be possible to provide aircraft maintenance technicians with training tools to help enhance their team skills and

David Kraus; Anand K Gramopadhye

1999-01-01

199

Hand preference and skilled hand performance among individuals with successful rightward conversions of the writing hand.  

PubMed

Searleman and Porac (2001) studied lateral preference patterns among successfully switched left-hand writers, left-hand writers with no switch pressure history, and left-hand writers who did not switch when pressured. They concluded that left-handers who successfully shift to right-hand writing are following an inherent right-sided lateralisation pattern that they already possess. Searleman and Porac suggested that the neural mechanisms that control lateralisation in the successfully switched individuals are systematically different from those of other groups of left-handers. I examined patterns of skilled and less-skilled hand preference and skilled hand performance in a sample of 394 adults (ages 18-94 years). The sample contained successfully switched left-hand writers, left-handers pressured to shift who remained left-hand writers, left-handers who did not experience shift pressures, and right-handers. Both skilled hand preference and skilled hand performance were shifted towards the right side in successfully switched left-hand writers. This group also displayed mixed patterns of hand preference and skilled hand performance in that they were not as right-sided as "natural" right-handers nor were they as left-sided as the two left-hand writing groups, which did not differ from each other. The experience of being pressured to switch to right-hand writing was not sufficient to shift lateralisation patterns; the pressures must be experienced in the context of an underlying neural control mechanism that is amenable to change as a result of these external influences. PMID:18720207

Porac, Clare

2009-03-01

200

"We've Got Creative Differences": The Effects of Task Conflict and Participative Safety on Team Creative Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although both participative safety and team task conflict are widely thought to be related to team creative performance, the nature of this relationship is still not well understood, and prior studies have frequently yielded conflicting results. This study examines the ambiguity in the extant literature and proposes that "both"…

Fairchild, Joshua; Hunter, Samuel T.

2014-01-01

201

The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Our findings indicated the significant difference of mean score in four learning style, suggesting university students with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students’ performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (p<0.05). Furthermore, evaluation skills and deductive reasoning had significant relationship. On the other hand, the mean total score of critical thinking had significant difference between different learning styles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the learning styles, critical thinking and academic performance are significantly associated with one another. Considering the growing importance of critical thinking in enhancing the professional competence of individuals, it's recommended to use teaching methods consistent with the learning style because it would be more effective in this context. PMID:25512928

GHAZIVAKILI, ZOHRE; NOROUZI NIA, ROOHANGIZ; PANAHI, FARIDE; KARIMI, MEHRDAD; GHOLSORKHI, HAYEDE; AHMADI, ZARRIN

2014-01-01

202

Performance and Kinematics of Various Throwing Techniques in Team-Handball  

PubMed Central

In team-handball competition, the players utilize various throwing techniques that differ in the lower body movements (with and without run-up or jump). These different lower body movements influence changes in the upper body movements and thus also affect the performance. A comprehensive analysis of 3D-kinematics of team-handball throws that may explain these differences in performance is lacking. Consequently, the purpose of this study was (1) to compare performance (ball velocity and throwing accuracy) between the jump throw, standing throw with and without run-up, and the pivot throw; (2) to calculate the influence of kinematic parameters to ball velocity; and (3) to determine if these four throwing techniques differ significantly in kinematics. Three-dimensional kinematic data (angles, angular velocities and their timing, ball velocity and velocity of the center of mass) of 14 elite team-handball players were measured using an 8 camera Vicon MX13 motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK), at 250 Hz. Significant difference was found between the four throwing techniques for ball velocity (p < 0. 001), maximal velocity of the center of mass in goal-directed movement (p < 0.001), and 15 additional kinematic variables (p < 0.003). Ball velocity was significant impacted by the run-up and the pelvis and trunk movements. Depending on floor contact (standing vs. jump throws), elite players in the study used two different strategies (lead leg braces the body vs. opposed leg movements during flight) to accelerate the pelvis and trunk to yield differences in ball velocity. However, these players were able to utilize the throwing arm similarly in all four throwing techniques. Key points Elite team-handball players achieved the greatest ball velocity in the standing throw with run-up (100%), followed by the standing throw without run-up (93%), jump throw (92%) and pivot throw (85%). Depending on the floor contact (standing vs. jump throws) the elite players of the study used two different strategies (lead leg braces the body vs. opposed leg movements during flight) to accelerate the pelvis and trunk that caused differences in ball velocity. Elite team-handball players were able to utilize the throwing arm similarly in all four throwing techniques. PMID:24149298

Wagner, Herbert; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; von Duvillard, Serge P.; Müller, Erich

2011-01-01

203

Medical students as EMTs: skill building, confidence and professional formation  

PubMed Central

Objective The first course of the medical curriculum at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, From the Person to the Professional: Challenges, Privileges and Responsibilities, provides an innovative early clinical immersion. The course content specific to the Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) curriculum was developed using the New York State Emergency Medical Technician curriculum. Students gain early legitimate clinical experience and practice clinical skills as team members in the pre-hospital environment. We hypothesized this novel curriculum would increase students’ confidence in their ability to perform patient care skills and enhance students’ comfort with team-building skills early in their training. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from first-year medical students (n=97) through a survey developed to assess students’ confidence in patient care and team-building skills. The survey was completed prior to medical school, during the final week of the course, and at the end of their first year. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare self-ratings on 12 patient care and 12 team-building skills before and after the course, and a theme analysis was conducted to examine open-ended responses. Results Following the course, student confidence in patient care skills showed a significant increase from baseline (p<0.05) for all identified skills. Student confidence in team-building skills showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in 4 of the 12 identified skills. By the end of the first year, 84% of the first-year students reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their patient care skills, while 72% reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their team-building skills. Conclusions The incorporation of EMT training early in a medical school curriculum provides students with meaningful clinical experiences that increase their self-reported level of confidence in the performance of patient care skills early in their medical education. PMID:25056855

Kwiatkowski, Thomas; Rennie, William; Fornari, Alice; Akbar, Salaahuddin

2014-01-01

204

Team Up!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the physical and psychological effect of stress and tension on human beings. They develop their observing, thinking, writing and teamwork skills by working on a group art project and reporting about it. They learn about the stages of group formation, group dynamics and team member roles that make for effective teams. In the process, they discover how collective action can foster a sense of community support, which can alleviate personal feelings of stress and tension. Note: The literacy activities for the Mechanics unit are based on physical themes that have broad application to our experience in the world — concepts of rhythm, balance, spin, gravity, levity, inertia, momentum, friction, stress and tension.

2014-09-18

205

Performance of UN Military Observer Teams: Does Victim Proximity Escalate Commitment to Saving Lives?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment examined the tactical peacekeeping behaviors of military-officer teams undergoing training as United Nations military observers. Teams encountered a simulated human-rights violation where two civilians were being abused. Proximity of the female civilian to the team leader was manipulated and significantly influenced teams' commitment to saving the civilians' lives. Proximity increased the frequency of behaviors that were specifically

David R. Mandel; Oshin Vartanian; Barbara D. Adams; Michael H. Thomson

2010-01-01

206

The myth of the top management team.  

PubMed

Companies all across the economic spectrum are making use of teams. They go by a variety of names and can be found at all levels. In fact, you are likely to find the group at the very top of an organization professing to be a team. But even in the best of companies, a so-called top team seldom functions as a real team. Real teams must follow a well-defined discipline to achieve their performance potential. And performance is the key issue--not the fostering of "team values" such as empowerment, sensitivity, or involvement. In recent years, the focus on performance was lost in many companies. Even today, CEOs and senior executives often see few gains in performance from their attempts to become more teamlike. Nevertheless, a team effort at the top can be essential to capturing the highest performance results possible--when the conditions are right. Good leadership requires differentiating between team and nonteam opportunities, and then acting accordingly. Three litmus tests must be passed for a team at the top to be effective. First, the team must shape collective work-products--these are tangible performance results that the group can achieve working together that surpass what the team members could have achieved working on their own. Second, the leadership role must shift, depending on the task at hand. And third, the team's members must be mutually accountable for the group's results. When these criteria can be met, senior executives should come together to achieve real team performance. When the criteria cannot be met, they should rely on the individual leadership skills that they have honed over the years. PMID:10174799

Katzenbach, J R

1997-01-01

207

The effect of performance context and skill level on the frequency of flow experiences.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to examine interaction effects between skill level and performance contexts on the experience of flow in adolescent tennis players. The study employed a factorial design to examine differences in flow frequency between competition and training settings and the independent groups factor of ranking list and club players. Junior tennis players (55 males, 29 females) completed the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 in training and competition settings. A repeated-measure ANCOVA, with years of tennis experience and training hours per week as covariates, showed a significant main effect for skill level, F(1, 82) = 6.67, p<0.05, ?2 p = 0.08, a significant main effect for performance contexts, F(1, 82) = 7.69, p < 0.01, ?2 p = 0.09, and a significant disordinal interaction, F(1, 82) = 9.93, p < 0.01, ?2 p = 0.11. Lower skilled athletes experienced flow with similar frequency across performance contexts, whereas advanced players experienced flow more often during training than competition. Qualitative results showed that club players' involvement in both performance contexts was mainly based on intrinsic reasons, whereas ranking list players reported intrinsic reasons for training, but a high number of extrinsic reasons for competition. Future studies should take propositions of the flow model into account in order to advance theoretical developments on interaction effects and shed more light into the complex processes underlying flow in sport. PMID:24444243

Koehn, Stefan; Morris, Tony

2014-01-01

208

Match performance and physiological capacity of female elite team handball players.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the physical demands imposed on female elite team handball players in relation to playing position. Female elite team handball field players were examined during match-play over a 5-year period using video based computerized locomotion analysis of tournament matches. In addition, physiological measurements during match-play and in separate physical tests were carried out. A total distance of 4002±551?m (group means±SD) was covered per match with a total effective playing time of 50:42±5:50?min:s, while full-time players covered 4693±333?m. On average, each player (n=83) performed 663.8±99.7 activity changes per match, and the mean speed was 5.31±0.33?km?·?h(-1). High-intensity running constituted 0.8±0.5% of total effective playing time per match corresponding to 2.5±1.8% of the total distance covered. The amount of high-intensity running was reduced (p<0.05) 21.9% in the second half (44.9±16.8?m) compared to the first (57.5±21.3?m). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2-max) was 3.49±0.37?l O2?·?min(-1) corresponding to 49.6±4.8?ml O2?·?min(-1)?·?kg(-1). Mean relative workload during match-play was 79.4±6.4% of VO2-max. Mean total running distance in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) was 1436±222?m, which was greater in wing players (1516±172?m, p<0.05) than pivots (1360±118?m) and backcourt players (1352±148?m). In conclusion, modern female elite team handball is a physically demanding intermittent team sport, where players are exposed to high relative workloads with substantial estimated aerobic energy expenditure interspersed by short periods of dominant anaerobic energy production as reflected by the limited amount of high-intensity running. Indications of fatigue and a resulting decline in physical performance were identified, since the amount of high-intensity running and the relative workload levels decreased in the second half. Positional differences were observed, with wing players covering a greater total distance than backcourt players, performing more high-intensity running and demonstrating a better intermittent recovery capacity (Yo-Yo test outcome) compared to both backcourt players and pivots. PMID:24264766

Michalsik, L B; Madsen, K; Aagaard, P

2014-06-01

209

Toy Story: Illustrating Gender Differences in a Motor Skills Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To challenge students' stereotypes about gendered performance on motor skills tasks, we developed a classroom active learning demonstration. Four 3-person, same-gender teams received either a Barbie(r) doll or a Transformer(r), and team members dressed the Barbie or manipulated the Transformer from a tank to a robot as quickly as possible, with…

Knight, Jennifer L.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Mendoza, Miriam

2004-01-01

210

Cooperative Learning and Peer Evaluation: The Effect of Free Riders on Team Performance and the Relationship between Course Performance and Peer Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cooperative learning has gained popularity in higher educational settings. However, assigning grades equitably to all team members in a way that rewards them for their contributions remains challenging. In this paper, we ask whether having free riders on a team lowers the quality of submitted work, and whether students' course performance

Dingel, Molly J.; Wei, Wei; Huq, Aminul

2013-01-01

211

What Is Team Science? - Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

Team science is a collaborative effort to address a scientific challenge that leverages the strengths and expertise of professionals trained in different fields. Although traditional single-investigator driven approaches are ideal for many scientific endeavors, coordinated teams of investigators with diverse skills and knowledge may be especially helpful for studies of complex social problems with multiple causes.

212

Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured activities are of the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

1992-01-01

213

On the fragility of skilled performance: What governs choking under pressure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments 1-2 examined generic knowledge and episodic memories of putting in novice and expert golfers. Impoverished episodic recollection of specific putts among experts indicated that skilled putting is encoded in a procedural form that supports performance without the need for step-by-step attentional control. According to explicit monitoring theories of choking, such proceduralization makes putting vulnerable to decrements under pressure. Experiments

Sian L. Beilock; Thomas H. Carr

2001-01-01

214

Relationships between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the relationship between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players. Fifty-eight high-performance rugby league players underwent measurements for anthropometry (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and estimated maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. National Rugby League matches were coded for attacking (e.g. line breaks, try assists, etc.) and defensive (e.g. missed tackles, tackling efficiency, etc.) statistics commonly used to assess rugby league playing performance. The number of line break assists was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with greater playing experience (r = 0.36), dual-task draw and pass proficiency (r = 0.54), reactive agility (r = 0.29), and pattern recall (r = 0.32) and prediction (r = 0.28) ability, while faster speed over 40 m (r = -0.42) was associated (P < 0.05) with a higher number of tries scored. Greater age and playing experience, better lower body muscular power, and faster 10 m and 40 m speed were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the number of tackle attempts (positive), tackles completed (positive), and proportion of missed tackles (negative). These findings demonstrate that well-developed physical and skill qualities are associated with effective playing performance in National Rugby League players. PMID:22092276

Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

2011-12-01

215

Effect of practice on performance of a skilled motor task in patients with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease leads to a breakdown in the execution of highly practised, skilled movements such as walking and handwriting. The improved execution of skilled movements with practice can be understood as a process of schema learning, the determining of the relevant parameters of the specific movement. The ability of patients with Parkinson's disease and age matched normal control subjects to improve their performance, with practice, on a skilled motor task, doing up buttons, was assessed. The task was assessed on its own and with simultaneous foot tapping. Both groups showed an initial improvement in the task on its own and deterioration in performance when buttoning with foot tapping. The amount of interference, however, decreased with practice, particularly in the patients with a 2 Hz tapping rate. The results suggest that patients with Parkinson's disease are capable of schema learning but require more practice than control subjects to achieve comparable levels of performance. This may be a reflection of the fundamental motor dysfunction of the disease rather than a specific learning deficit. PMID:1619411

Soliveri, P; Brown, R G; Jahanshahi, M; Marsden, C D

1992-01-01

216

Effect of practice on performance of a skilled motor task in patients with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease leads to a breakdown in the execution of highly practised, skilled movements such as walking and handwriting. The improved execution of skilled movements with practice can be understood as a process of schema learning, the determining of the relevant parameters of the specific movement. The ability of patients with Parkinson's disease and age matched normal control subjects to improve their performance, with practice, on a skilled motor task, doing up buttons, was assessed. The task was assessed on its own and with simultaneous foot tapping. Both groups showed an initial improvement in the task on its own and deterioration in performance when buttoning with foot tapping. The amount of interference, however, decreased with practice, particularly in the patients with a 2 Hz tapping rate. The results suggest that patients with Parkinson's disease are capable of schema learning but require more practice than control subjects to achieve comparable levels of performance. This may be a reflection of the fundamental motor dysfunction of the disease rather than a specific learning deficit. PMID:1619411

Soliveri, P; Brown, R G; Jahanshahi, M; Marsden, C D

1992-06-01

217

Research Performed within the Non-Destructive Evaluation Team at NASA Glenn Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Non-destructive testing is essential in many fields of manufacturing and research in order to perform reliable examination of potentially damaged materials and parts without destroying the inherent structure of the materials. Thus, the Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Team at NASA Glenn Research Center partakes in various projects to improve materials testing equipment as well as analyze materials, material defects, and material deficiencies. Due to the array of projects within the NDE Team at this time, five research aims were supplemental to some current projects. A literature survey of "DE and testing methodologies as related to rocks was performed. Also, Mars Expedition Rover technology was assessed to understand the requirements for instrumentation in harsh space environments (e.g. temperature). Potential instrumentation and technologies were also considered and documented. The literature survey provided background and potential sources for a proposal to acquire funding for ultrasonic instrumentation on board a future Mars expedition. The laboratory uses a Santec Systems AcousticScope AS200 acoustography system. Labview code was written within the current program in order to improve the current performance of the acoustography system. A sample of Reinforced Carbon/Carbon (RCC) material from the leading edge of the space shuttle underwent various non-destructive tests (guided wave scanning, thermography, computed tomography, real time x-ray, etc.) in order to characterize its structure and examine possible defects. Guided wave scan data of a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel was reanalyzed utilizing image correlations and signal processing variables. Additional guided wave scans and thermography were also performed on the CMC panel. These reevaluated data and images will be used in future presentations and publications. An additional axis for the guided wave scanner was designed, constructed, and implemented. This additional axis allowed incremental spacing of the previously fixed transducers for ultrasonic velocity measurements.

Burns, Erin A.

2004-01-01

218

Associations between Low-Income Children's Fine Motor Skills in Preschool and Academic Performance in Second Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic performance

Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis

2013-01-01

219

Examining communication and team performance during clinical handover in a complex environment: the private sector post-anaesthetic care unit.  

PubMed

Threats to patient safety during clinical handover have been identified as an ongoing problem in health care delivery. In complex handover situations, organisational, cultural, behavioural and environmental factors associated with team performance can affect patient safety by undermining the stability of team functioning and the effectiveness of interprofessional communication. We present a practical framework for promoting systematic, comprehensive measurement of the factors involved in clinical handover. The framework can be used to develop viable solutions to the problems of clinical handover. The framework was devised and used in a recent project examining interprofessional communication and team performance during clinical handover in post-anaesthetic care units. The framework combines five key concepts: clinical governance, clinician engagement, ecological validity, safety culture and team climate, and sustainability. We believe that use of this framework will help overcome the limitations of previous research that has not taken into account the complex and multifaceted influences on clinical handover and interprofessional communication. PMID:19485868

Botti, Mari; Bucknall, Tracey; Cameron, Peter; Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Redley, Bernice; Evans, Sue; Jeffcott, Shelly

2009-06-01

220

The Impact of Leadership Modes on Team Dynamics and Performance in Undergraduate Management Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In business school environments, teamwork often factors into discussions about effective pedagogy. However, leadership of classroom teams has attracted virtually no attention from scholars. How teams should be led in the classroom and what kinds of outcomes different types of team leaders produce remain underdeveloped areas of inquiry. In this…

Markulis, Peter; Jassawalla, Avan R.; Sashittal, Hemant

2006-01-01

221

Sex is not everything: the role of gender in early performance of a fundamental laparoscopic skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Existing literature on the acquisition of surgical skills suggests that women generally perform worse than men. This literature\\u000a is limited by looking at an arbitrary number of trials and not adjusting for potential confounders. The objective of this\\u000a study was to evaluate the impact of gender on the learning curve for a fundamental laparoscopic task.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty-two medical students performed the

Nicoleta O. Kolozsvari; Amin Andalib; Pepa Kaneva; Jiguo Cao; Melina C. Vassiliou; Gerald M. Fried; Liane S. Feldman

2011-01-01

222

Exploring Relationship between Face-to-Face Interaction and Team Performance Using Wearable Sensor Badges  

PubMed Central

Quantitative analyses of human-generated data collected in various fields have uncovered many patterns of complex human behaviors. However, thus far the quantitative evaluation of the relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance has been inadequate. Here, we present findings demonstrating the significant relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance via experiments we conducted in inbound call centers while the employees wore sensor badges. There were two main findings. First, we found that face-to-face interaction among telecommunicators and the frequency of their bodily movements caused by the face-to-face interaction had a significant correlation with the entire call center performance, which we measured as “Calls per Hour.” Second, our trial to activate face-to-face interaction on the basis of data collected by the wearable sensor badges the employees wore significantly increased their performance. These results demonstrate quantitatively that human-human interaction in the physical world plays an important role in team performance. PMID:25501748

Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Ishibashi, Nozomu; Yano, Kazuo

2014-01-01

223

Modeling relationships between traditional preadmission measures and clinical skills performance on a medical licensure examination.  

PubMed

Medical schools employ a variety of preadmission measures to select students most likely to succeed in the program. The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and the undergraduate college grade point average (uGPA) are two academic measures typically used to select students in medical school. The assumption that presently used preadmission measures can predict clinical skill performance on a medical licensure examination was evaluated within a validity argument framework (Kane 1992). A hierarchical generalized linear model tested relationships between the log-odds of failing a high-stakes medical licensure performance examination and matriculant academic and non-academic preadmission measures, controlling for student-and school-variables. Data includes 3,189 matriculants from 22 osteopathic medical schools tested in 2009-2010. Unconditional unit-specific model expected average log-odds of failing the examination across medical schools is -3.05 (se = 0.11) or 5%. Student-level estimated coefficients for MCAT Verbal Reasoning scores (0.03), Physical Sciences scores (0.05), Biological Sciences scores (0.04), uGPA(science) (0.07), and uGPA(non-science) (0.26) lacked association with the log-odds of failing the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE, controlling for all other predictors in the model. Evidence from this study shows that present preadmission measures of academic ability are not related to later clinical skill performance. Given that clinical skill performance is an important part of medical practice, selection measures should be developed to identify students who will be successful in communication and be able to demonstrate the ability to systematically collect a medical history, perform a physical examination, and synthesize this information to diagnose and manage patient conditions. PMID:21874593

Roberts, William L; Pugliano, Gina; Langenau, Erik; Boulet, John R

2012-08-01

224

Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrepreneurs are generalists who put together teams of people and assemble resources and capital. To do this effectively, they must have a general set of skills. Individuals may be endowed with a general set of skills, but endowments can be augmented by investment in human capital. It is shown that formal schooling is used to supplement the skill set of

Edward P. Lazear

2004-01-01

225

Developing Expert Teams with a Strong Safety Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Would you like to lead a world renowned team that draws out all the talents and expertise of its members and consistently out performs all others in the industry? Ever wonder why so many organizations fail to truly learn from past mistakes only to repeat the same ones at a later date? Are you a program/project manager or team member in a high-risk organization where the decisions made often carry the highest of consequences? Leadership, communication, team building, critical decision-making and continuous team improvement skills and behaviors are mere talking points without the attitudes, commitment and strategies necessary to make them the very fabric of a team. Developing Expert Teams with a Strong Safety Culture, will provide you with proven knowledge and strategies to take your team soaring to heights you may have not thought possible. A myriad of teams have applied these strategies and techniques within their organization team environments: military and commercial aviation, astronaut flight crews, Shuttle flight controllers, members of the Space Shuttle Program Mission Management Team, air traffic controllers, nuclear power control teams, surgical teams, and the fire service report having spectacular success. Many industry leaders are beginning to realize that although the circumstances and environments of these teams may differ greatly to their own, the core elements, governing principles and dynamics involved in managing and building a stellar safety conscious team remain identical.

Rogers, David G.

2010-01-01

226

Explanations of successful performance on sex-linked tasks: What is skill for the male is luck for the female  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instructed 55 male and 75 female undergraduates to evaluate the performance of either a male or female stimulus person who was heard to perform in an above-average manner on either a male- or female-related task. Analysis of the attributions made to luck vs skill in explaining the performance of the stimulus person showed that as predicted, performance by a male

Kay Deaux; Tim Emswiller

1974-01-01

227

Are there any differences in power performance and morphological characteristics of Croatian adolescent soccer players according to the team position?  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to analyze differences in power performance and morphological characteristics of young Croatian soccer players with respect to their team positions and to establish correlations between the power performance variables. Anthropometric characteristics and jumping and sprint performances were analyzed for 45 soccer players (age 14-15; mean body height 175.4 +/- 6.61 cm; body weight 63.6 +/- 8.06 kg) according to their team positions (defender, midfielder, forward). Pearsons coefficient of correlation was used to determine the relationship between the power performance variables. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the power performance of players according to their team position. The only significant differences between players were in some of the anthropometric characteristics, such as height and weight linear relationship was determined between almost all the power performance variables. Since the players in this study were very young and their sports careers have not reached their peak performance, it is possible that their nominal team positions may change during their soccer careers. PMID:22397243

Sporis, Goran; Vuceti?, Vlatko; Jovanovi?, Mario; Milanovi?, Zoran; Rucevi?, Marijan; Vuleta, Dinko

2011-12-01

228

Sprint acceleration performance in team sports : biomechanical characteristics and training methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sprinting is a fundamental activity in many team sports such as soccer, rugby, football, field hockey, and basketball. Specifically, the ability to rapidly increase sprint running velocity over short distances, which is often referrcd to as sprint acceleration ability, is of major importance to team-sport athletes since sprint efforts during team-sport matches are typically of short duration (e.g., 10-20 m,

Naoki Kawamori

2008-01-01

229

The effect of student self-video of performance on clinical skill competency: a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Emerging technologies and student information technology literacy are enabling new methods of teaching and learning for clinical skill performance. Facilitating experiential practice and reflection on performance through student self-video, and exposure to peer benchmarks, may promote greater levels of skill competency. This study examines the impact of student self-video on the attainment of clinical skills. A total of 60 Physiotherapy students (100%) consented to participate in the randomised controlled trial. One group (50%) was taught a complex clinical skill with regular practical tutoring, whilst the other group (50%) supplemented the tutoring with a self-video task aimed at promoting reflection on performance. Student skill performance was measured in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Students also completed an anonymous questionnaire, which explored their perception of their learning experiences. Students received significantly higher scores in the OSCE when the examined clinical skill had been supplemented with a self-video of performance task (P = 0.048). Descriptive analysis of the questionnaires relating to student perceptions on the teaching methods identified that the self-video of performance task utilised contributed to improvement in their clinical performance and their confidence for future clinical practice. Students identified a number of aspects of the submission process that contributed to this perception of educational value. The novel results of this study demonstrate that greater clinical skill competency is achieved when traditional tutoring methods are supplemented with student self-video of performance tasks. Additional benefits included the ability of staff and students to monitor longitudinal performance, and an increase in feedback opportunities. PMID:22354337

Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

2013-03-01

230

Childhood obesity affects fine motor skill performance under different postural constraints.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to investigate fine motor control in obese and overweight children compared to normal-weight peers under different postural constraints. Peg placing performance of normal-weight (n=273), overweight (n=202) and obese (n=65) children (aged 5.0-12.8 years) was evaluated in two different postural conditions: sitting and standing in tandem stance on a balance beam (BB). Being overweight or obese was detrimental for fine motor skill performance in the standing on BB condition, which confirms the postural control difficulties observed in overweight and obese children. Remarkably, obese participants also produced lower scores in the sitting condition, i.e. when the complexity of postural organization was restricted to a minimum. Although this could result from the mechanical demands related to the movement of the arm itself, it also leads to the tentative suggestion that obese children might suffer from underlying perceptual-motor coordination difficulties. PMID:18541379

D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

2008-07-25

231

Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990. PMID:23623961

Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

2013-01-01

232

Poor social performance of lonely people: lacking a skill or adopting a role?  

PubMed

A substantial literature has shown that lonely people differ from nonlonely people on a variety of measures of social performance. These differences have usually been conceptualized as a social skills deficit, which implies that lonely people lack the ability to perform appropriate and effective social behavior. Rather than a lack of this ability, the authors hypothesize that the adoption of passive interpersonal roles predisposes lonely people to exhibit inadequate performance. In order to test this hypothesis, lonely and nonlonely subjects were assigned to one of two roles: They either listened (Condition Li) to an interaction partner describe a personal problem or they themselves described a personal problem (Condition Pr) to their partner. The subjects' interpersonal role produced a substantial effect on their social behavior. Subjects who listened to their partner describe a problem generated more solutions to a set of hypothetical situations, attended to their partners more adequately, and conversed longer than did subjects who described a personal problem. In contrast, lonely subjects did not differ from nonlonely subjects in their social performance within each particular role. Lonely and nonlonely subjects did differ, however, in their subjective evaluations of themselves and of their performance. These results illustrate the need for research to address both the interpersonal and the intrapersonal bases of social performance. PMID:3598865

Vitkus, J; Horowitz, L M

1987-06-01

233

Virtuoso teams.  

PubMed

Managing a traditional team seems pretty straightforward: Gather up whoever's available, give them time and space to do their jobs, and make sure they all play nicely together. But these teams produce results that are often as unremarkable as the teams themselves. When big change and high performance are required, a virtuoso team is far more likely to deliver outstanding and innovative results. Virtuoso teams are fundamentally different from the garden-variety work groups that most organizations form to pursue more modest goals. They comprise the top experts in their particular fields, are specially convened for ambitious projects, work with frenetic rhythm, and emanate a discernible energy. Not surprisingly, however, the superstars who make up these teams are renowned for being elitist, temperamental, egocentric, and difficult to work with. As a result, many managers fear that if they force such people to interact on a high-stakes project, the group just might implode. In this article, Bill Fischer and Andy Boynton put the inner workings of highly successful virtuoso teams on full display through three examples: the creative group behind West Side Story, the team of writers for Sid Caesar's 1950s-era television hit Your Show of Shows, and the high-powered technologists who averted an investor-relations crisis for Norsk Hydro, the Norwegian energy giant. Each of these teams accomplished enormous goals and changed their businesses, their customers, even their industries. And they did so by breaking all the conventional rules of collaboration--from the way they recruited the best members to the way they enforced their unusual processes, and from the high expectations they held to the exceptional results they produced. PMID:16028822

Fischer, Bill; Boynton, Andy

2005-01-01

234

Skilled performance tests and their use in diagnosing handedness and footedness at children of lower school age 8–10  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that hand and foot preferences do not develop in parallel in children and it has been discovered that in children foot preference stabilizes later. Therefore, the aim of this study is to verify whether the differences in stabilization will also be manifested through less consistent results of selected skilled foot performance tests in a comparison with selected skilled hand performance tests. A total of 210 8–10 year old children from elementary schools were recruited for this study. Hand and foot preferences were first tested using hand and foot preference observable measure tasks; consequently, all participants performed four skilled hand performance tests and three foot performance tests. Unlike in complex skilled hand performance tests, which showed a significant convergent validity 0.56–0.89 with hand preference tasks, in complex skilled foot performance tests a very low convergent validity 0.25–0.46 with foot preference tasks was detected. The only skilled foot performance indicator which showed an acceptable convergent validity with foot preference tasks was the “foot tapping” test 0.65–0.85, which represents rather a gross motor activity. Moreover, further results of the tests suggest that complex or fine motor performance tests used for diagnosing laterality of the lower limb that have a manipulative character probably do not represent suitable indicators for children in the given age category. The same trend was revealed in both females and males. This indicates that the level of laterality assessed as difference in skilfulness between the preferred and the non-preferred limb in children in the given age group probably develops in the same way in both genders.

Musalek, Martin

2015-01-01

235

Age-dependent and coordinated shift in performance between implicit and explicit skill learning  

PubMed Central

It has been reported recently that while general sequence learning across ages conforms to the typical inverted-U shape pattern, with best performance in early adulthood, surprisingly, the basic ability of picking up in an implicit manner triplets that occur with high vs. low probability in the sequence is best before 12 years of age and it significantly weakens afterwards. Based on these findings, it has been hypothesized that the cognitively controlled processes coming online at around 12 are useful for more targeted explicit learning at the cost of becoming relatively less sensitive to raw probabilities of events. To test this hypothesis, we collected data in a sequence learning task using probabilistic sequences in five age groups from 11 to 39 years of age (N = 288), replicating the original implicit learning paradigm in an explicit task setting where subjects were guided to find repeating sequences. We found that in contrast to the implicit results, performance with the high- vs. low-probability triplets was at the same level in all age groups when subjects sought patterns in the sequence explicitly. Importantly, measurements of explicit knowledge about the identity of the sequences revealed a significant increase in ability to explicitly access the true sequences exactly around the age where the earlier study found the significant drop in ability to learn implicitly raw probabilities. These findings support the conjecture that the gradually increasing involvement of more complex internal models optimizes our skill learning abilities by compensating for the performance loss due to down-weighting the raw probabilities of the sensory input, while expanding our ability to acquire more sophisticated skills. PMID:24155717

Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, József

2013-01-01

236

Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams.  

PubMed

Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams is examined in an UAV (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle) simulation. Five 3-person teams with experience working together in a command-and-control setting were compared to 10 inexperienced teams. Each team participated in five 40-min missions of a simulation in which interdependent team members control a UAV to take reconnaissance photos. Experienced teams exceeded performance of inexperienced teams, suggesting transfer of previous command-and-control experience. Compared to inexperienced teams, experienced teams had fewer errors on process-related training knowledge, superior team process ratings, and communications containing fewer coordination-related utterances. These findings support the view that team cognition emerges through the interactions of team members, that interactions distinguish high-performing teams from average teams, and that these interactions transfer across different tasks. PMID:17924800

Cooke, Nancy J; Gorman, Jamie C; Duran, Jasmine L; Taylor, Amanda R

2007-09-01

237

Finding a team of experts in social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a task T, a pool of individualsX with different skills, and a social network G that captures the compatibility among these individuals, we study the problem of findingX 0, a sub- set ofX, to perform the task. We call this the Team For- mation problem. We require that members ofX 0 not only meet the skill requirements of the

Theodoros Lappas; Kun Liu; Evimaria Terzi

2009-01-01

238

Baseline hospital performance and the impact of medical emergency teams: Modelling vs. conventional subgroup analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To compare two approaches to the statistical analysis of the relationship between the baseline incidence of adverse events and the effect of medical emergency teams (METs). Methods Using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial (the MERIT study), we analysed the relationship between the baseline incidence of adverse events and its change from baseline to the MET activation phase using quadratic modelling techniques. We compared the findings with those obtained with conventional subgroup analysis. Results Using linear and quadratic modelling techniques, we found that each unit increase in the baseline incidence of adverse events in MET hospitals was associated with a 0.59 unit subsequent reduction in adverse events (95%CI: 0.33 to 0.86) after MET implementation and activation. This applied to cardiac arrests (0.74; 95%CI: 0.52 to 0.95), unplanned ICU admissions (0.56; 95%CI: 0.26 to 0.85) and unexpected deaths (0.68; 95%CI: 0.45 to 0.90). Control hospitals showed a similar reduction only for cardiac arrests (0.95; 95%CI: 0.56 to 1.32). Comparison using conventional subgroup analysis, on the other hand, detected no significant difference between MET and control hospitals. Conclusions Our study showed that, in the MERIT study, when there was dependence of treatment effect on baseline performance, an approach based on regression modelling helped illustrate the nature and magnitude of such dependence while sub-group analysis did not. The ability to assess the nature and magnitude of such dependence may have policy implications. Regression technique may thus prove useful in analysing data when there is a conditional treatment effect. PMID:20021683

2009-01-01

239

Crew Skills and Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major focus points for the workshop was the topic of crew skills and training necessary for the Mars surface mission. Discussions centered on the mix of scientific skills necessary to accomplish the proposed scientific goals, and the training environment that can bring the ground and flight teams to readiness. Subsequent discussion resulted in recommendations for specific steps to begin the process of training an experienced Mars exploration team.

Jones, Thomas; Burbank, Daniel C.; Eppler, Dean; Garrison, Robert; Harvey, Ralph; Hoffman, Paul; Schmitt, Harrison

1998-01-01

240

Cyberinfrastructure and Scientific Collaboration: Application of a Virtual Team Performance Framework with Potential Relevance to Education. WCER Working Paper No. 2010-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify and describe some of the dimensions of scientific collaborations using high throughput computing (HTC) through the lens of a virtual team performance framework. A secondary purpose was to assess the viability of using a virtual team performance framework to study scientific collaborations using…

Kraemer, Sara; Thorn, Christopher A.

2010-01-01

241

Arm hand skilled performance in cerebral palsy: activity preferences and their movement components  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of arm-hand use is very important in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who encounter arm-hand problems. To determine validity and reliability of new instruments to assess actual performance, a set of standardized test situations including activities of daily living (ADL) is required. This study gives information with which such a set for upper extremity skill research may be fine-tuned, relative to a specific research question. Aim of this study is to a) identify upper extremity related ADL children with CP want to improve on, b) determine the 10 most preferred goals of children with CP, and c) identify movement components of all goals identified. Method The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to identify upper extremity-related ADL preferences (goals) of 53 children with CP encountering arm-hand problems (mean age 9 ± 4.5 year). Goals were ranked based on importance attributed to each goal and the number of times a goal was mentioned, resulting in a gross list with goals. Additionally, two studies were performed, i.e. study A to determine the 10 most preferred goals for 3 age groups (2.5-5 years; 6-11 years, 12-19 years), based on the total preference score, and study B to identify movement components, like reaching and grasping, of all goals identified for both the leading and the assisting arm-hand. Results Seventy-two goals were identified. The 10 most preferred goals differed with age, changing from dressing and leisure-related goals in the youngest children to goals regarding personal care and eating for children aged 6-11 years. The oldest children preferred goals regarding eating, personal care and computer use. The movement components ‘positioning’, ‘reach’, ‘grasp’, and ‘hold’ were present in most tasks. ‘Manipulating’ was more important for the leading arm-hand, whereas ‘fixating’ was more important for the assisting arm-hand. Conclusion This study gave insight into the preferences regarding ADL children with CP would like to improve on, and the movement components characterizing these activities. This information can be used to create a set of standardized test situations, which can be used to assess the validity and reliability of new measurement instruments to gauge actual arm-hand skilled performance. PMID:24646071

2014-01-01

242

Development of Body Composition, Hormone Profile, Physical Fitness, General Perceptual Motor Skills, Soccer Skills and On-The-Ball Performance in Soccer-Specific Laboratory Test Among Adolescent Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group). The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy) in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (? = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01) of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01) in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01), counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01), dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05) in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05), fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05), 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05) in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific laboratory test was significant only in the 14-year-old age group (r = 0.76, p < 0.01). To conclude, on-the-ball skill performance in soccer-specific laboratory test improved with age and it seemed that soccer-specific perceptual skills became more and general perceptual motor skills less important with age in soccer-specific laboratory test. Key points Physical fitness characteristics and general perceptual motor skills predicted performance time of the open skill soccer-specific laboratory test in the group of 10-14 year-old regional soccer players. Before puberty the players were able to compensate weaker soccer-specific skills with better general physical performance abilities. Soccer-specific skills became more important with age and at the age of 14 the players were not able to compensate soccer-specific skills with general physical performance abilities. Beside basic ball-handling skills it also important to recognize the importance of soccer-specific perceptual skills (anticipation and reaction) as a part of successful soccer performance. PMID:24149780

Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Häkkinen, Keijo

2010-01-01

243

Just how important is a good season start? Overall team performance and financial budget of elite soccer clubs.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of the current study was (i) to identify how important is a good season start on elite soccer teams' performance and (ii) to examine whether this impact is related to the clubs' financial budget. The match performances and annual budgets of all teams were collected from the English FA Premier League, French Ligue 1, Spanish La Liga, Italian Serie A and German Bundesliga for three consecutive seasons (2010-2011 to 2012-2013). A k-means cluster analysis classified the clubs according to their budget as High Range Budget Clubs, Upper-Mid Range Budget Clubs, Lower-Mid Range Budget Clubs and Low Range Budget Clubs. Data were examined through linear regression models. Overall, the results suggested that the better the team performance at the beginning of the season, the better the ranking at the end of the season. However, the impact of the effect depended on the clubs' annual budget, with lower budgets being associated with a greater importance of having a good season start (P < 0.01). Moreover, there were differences in trends across the different leagues. These variables can be used to develop accurate models to estimate final rankings. Conversely, Lower-Mid and Lower Range Budget Clubs can benefit from fine-tuning preseason planning in order to accelerate the acquisition of optimal performances. PMID:25443809

Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Sampaio, Jaime

2014-12-01

244

Teaching Basic Caregiver Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide provides materials for a nursing skills course designed to teach basic home nursing skills to families who plan to care for a chronically ill or elderly family member at home. It may be taught by a registered nurse with knowledge of all areas or by a team, with each instructor concentrating on his/her area of expertise.…

Schenk, Susan, Ed.; Harrah, Doris, Ed.

245

A protocol for evaluating progressive levels of simulation fidelity in the development of technical skills, integrated performance and woman centred clinical assessment skills in undergraduate midwifery students  

PubMed Central

Background Simulation as a pedagogical approach has been used in health professional education to address the need to safely develop effective clinical skills prior to undertaking clinical practice. However, evidence for the use of simulation in midwifery is largely anecdotal, and research evaluating the effectiveness of different levels of simulation fidelity are lacking. Woman centred care is a core premise of the midwifery profession and describes the behaviours of an individual midwife who demonstrates safe and effective care of the individual woman. Woman centred care occurs when the midwife modifies the care to ensure the needs of each individual woman are respected and addressed. However, a review of the literature demonstrates an absence of a valid and reliable tool to measure the development of woman centred care behaviours. This study aims to determine which level of fidelity in simulated learning experiences provides the most effective learning outcomes in the development of woman centred clinical assessment behaviors and skills in student midwives. Methods/Design Three-arm, randomised, intervention trial. In this research we plan to: a) trial three levels of simulation fidelity - low, medium and progressive, on student midwives performing the procedure of vaginal examination; b) measure clinical assessment skills using the Global Rating Scale (GRS) and Integrated Procedural Performance Instrument (IPPI); and c) pilot the newly developed Woman Centred Care Scale (WCCS) to measure clinical behaviors related to Woman-Centredness. Discussion This project aims to enhance knowledge in relation to the appropriate levels of fidelity in simulation that yield the best educational outcomes for the development of woman centred clinical assessment in student midwives. The outcomes of this project may contribute to improved woman centred clinical assessment for student midwives, and more broadly influence decision making regarding education resource allocation for maternity simulation. PMID:23706037

2013-01-01

246

Adaptive heterogeneous multi-robot teams  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail the experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

Parker, L.E.

1998-11-01

247

UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment: Development of a New Measure of Everyday Functioning for Severely Mentally Ill Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instruments to assess everyday functioning have utilized self-report, proxy report, clinician ratings, or direct observation of performance. Each of these methods has strengths and weaknesses. In this article we argue for the inclusion of performance-based measures of functional capacity in studies of severely mentally ill persons and describe a new measure, the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA). We administered the

Thomas L. Patterson; Sherry Goldman; Christine L. McKibbin; Troy Hughs; Dilip V. Jeste

2001-01-01

248

Performance Posting, Goal Setting, and Activity-Contingent Praise as Applied to a University Hockey Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate of legal body checking (hit rate) was targeted for change for each of two consecutive seasons for a university hockey team that had a chronic losing record. Following baseline recording (A), the interventions of publicly posted individual feedback (B), goal setting (C), and praise (D) were successively introduced \\

D. Chris Anderson; Charles R. Crowell; Mark Doman; George S. Howard

1988-01-01

249

The Scientific Impact of Nations: Journal Placement and Citation Performance - Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

Skip to main content at the National Institutes of Health www.cancer.gov Home About Team Science About the Toolkit Discover Contribute Connect News & Events About Us Links URL Download Pub Med DOI Scopus The Scientific Impact of Nations: Journal

250

Distributed Leadership in Action: Leading High-Performing Leadership Teams in English Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heroic models of leadership based on the role of the principal have been supplemented by an emerging recognition of the value of "distributed leadership". The work of effective senior leadership teams (SLTs) is an important manifestation of distributed leadership, but there has been only limited research addressing the relationship between this…

Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

2012-01-01

251

Preparing Advanced Collaborative Teams (PACT). Final Grant Performance Report, January 1, 1997-December 31, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes the activities, accomplishments, and outcomes of a three-year project, Preparing Advanced Collaborative Teams, of the College of William and Mary (Virginia) to train education professionals to plan, deliver, and evaluate programs for students with disabilities in inclusive settings. The project incorporated four key…

Walther-Thomas, Chriss; Korinek, Lori

252

Predictors of Student Performance in Grades 7 and 8 Mathematics: The Correlation between Benchmark Tests and Performance on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Math Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts throughout Texas have used archived Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) tests as a benchmark to predict student performance on future TAKS tests without substantial quantitative evidence that these types of benchmark tests are valid predictors of student performance. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study…

Allen, Timothy Dale

2012-01-01

253

Critical Thinking Skills among Elementary School Students: Comparing Identified Gifted and General Education Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education reform efforts, including the current adoption of Common Core State Standards, have increased attention to teaching critical thinking skills to all students. This study investigated the critical thinking skills of fourth-grade students from a school district in Texas, including 45 identified gifted students and 163 general education…

Kettler, Todd

2014-01-01

254

Effect of practice on performance of a skilled motor task in patients with Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease leads to a breakdown in the execution of highly practised, skilled movements such as walking and handwriting. The improved execution of skilled movements with practice can be understood as a process of schema learning, the determining of the relevant parameters of the specific movement. The ability of patients with Parkinson's disease and age matched normal control subjects to

P Soliveri; R G Brown; M Jahanshahi; C D Marsden

1992-01-01

255

Executive Function in the Classroom: Practical Strategies for Improving Performance and Enhancing Skills for All Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with strong executive function skills hold the keys to school and social success--from attention and impulse control to time management and organization. Now K-12 teachers have a practical, highly readable guide to enhancing these critical skills for "all" students, with and without learning disabilities. Through the author's memorable…

Kaufman, Christopher

2010-01-01

256

Phonological Skill, Lexical Decision and Letter Report Performance in Good and Poor Adult Spellers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two groups of undergraduate students, matched for reading skill but differing in spelling ability, participated in three experiments with the aim of exploring the causes of differences in spelling skill in this population. In the first experiment participants were presented with a range of tasks to investigate the possibility that the poor…

Masterson, Jackie; Laxon, Veronica; Lovejoy, Sophie; Morris, Victoria

2007-01-01

257

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

258

Cognitive functioning, social skills, and vocational performance for secondary students with learning disabilities in regular education vocational classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although cognitive functioning levels have been widely used to make placement decisions for students with learning disabilities, the current study illustrates that for many students these scores may be of limited value. Traditional predictors of performance in a regular education environment (e.g., verbal and nonverbal cognitive functioning) were used along with social skills variables (Cooperation, Assertion, Self-Control) to evaluate the

Patricia Mary Carroll

2001-01-01

259

Correlates of Student Performance in the Science Olympiad: The Test of Integrated Process Skills and Other Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Test of Integrated Process Skills (TIPS) was administered to 667 students in grades 9-12 who were registering to participate in a regional science Olympiad on a southern university campus in February 1988. Each student's score on the test was correlated with subsequent performance in one or more of the 11 Olympiad events. Of the 667 students…

Baird, William E.; And Others

260

Evaluating Attitudes, Skill, and Performance in a Learning-Enhanced Quantitative Methods Course: A Structural Modeling Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a structural modeling approach to evaluate relations among attitudes, initial skills, and performance in a Quantitative Methods course that involved students in active learning. Results largely confirmed hypotheses offering support for educational reform efforts that propose actively involving students in the learning process, especially in…

Harlow, Lisa L.; Burkholder, Gary J.; Morrow, Jennifer A.

2002-01-01

261

Correlates of Study Skills and Academic Performance of Secretarial Studies Student Teachers of Rivers State University of Science and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine correlates of study skills and academic performance of high and low achievers among secretarial studies student teachers at a Nigerian university. Results with 21 high and 21 low achievers demonstrate personality and study habits differences among the groups. (SLD)

Ojoko, Sydney; Koko, Maureen

1994-01-01

262

Assessment Training Effects on Student Assessment Skills and Task Performance in a Technology-Facilitated Peer Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the impact of an assessment training module on student assessment skills and task performance in a technology-facilitated peer assessment. Seventy-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants completed an assessment training exercise, prior to engaging in peer-assessment activities. During the…

Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan

2014-01-01

263

Development of a Performance Assessment Task and Rubric to Measure Prospective Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to share a performance assessment task and rubric designed to assess secondary school mathematics preservice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and skills. The assessment task and rubric were developed in collaboration with five education faculty, four arts and sciences faculty, and four high school teachers over…

Koirala, Hari P.; Davis, Marsha; Johnson, Peter

2008-01-01

264

Impact of Managerial Skills Learnt through MA Educational Planning Management Programme of AIOU on the Performance of Institutional Heads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Management provides formal coordination in an organization for achieving pre-determined goals. The educational manager particulary performs his duties by using different planning and management techniques. These techniques are equally important for the manager of other sectors. The present study was focused on the impact of managerial skills

Chuadhry, Muhammad Asif; Shah, Syed Manzoor Hussain

2012-01-01

265

Aligning Teacher Compensation with Systemic School Reform: Skill-Based Pay and Group-Based Performance Awards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a potential teacher compensation structure that is consistent with standards-based education reform and that is an example of the kinds of compensation practices required for successful implementation. Skill- and competency-based pay and group performance models are included. (SLD)

Mohrman, Allan M.; And Others

1996-01-01

266

Apprentices' and Trainees' English Language and Literacy Skills in Workplace Learning and Performance: Employer and Employee Opinion. Australian Apprenticeships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated ways employers and their apprentices and trainees perceive how these employees' English language and literacy (ELL) skills affect their learning and performance in the workplace in the current context of New Apprenticeships. The research design and methodology involved sending an opinion survey to a stratified random sample of…

O'Neill, Shirley; Gish, Annabelle

267

Analysis of the resilience of team performance during a nuclear emergency response exercise.  

PubMed

The current work presents results from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of a nuclear disaster simulation. Audio-visual records were collected from an emergency room team composed of individuals from 26 different agencies as they responded to multiple scenarios in a simulated nuclear disaster. This simulation was part of a national emergency response training activity for a nuclear power plant located in a developing country. The objectives of this paper are to describe sources of resilience and brittleness in these activities, identify cues of potential improvements for future emergency simulations, and leveraging the resilience of the emergency response system in case of a real disaster. Multiple CTA techniques were used to gain a better understanding of the cognitive dimensions of the activity and to identify team coordination and crisis management patterns that emerged from the simulation exercises. PMID:24239564

Gomes, José Orlando; Borges, Marcos R S; Huber, Gilbert J; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R

2014-05-01

268

The Effects of Team Training on Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis was conducted to determine relationships between team training and team effectiveness. Results from the 21 studies provided evidence that training is positively related to team effectiveness and effectiveness in five outcome categories: affective, cognitive, subjective task-based skill, objective task-based skill, and teamwork…

Delise, Lisa A.; Gorman, C. Allen; Brooks, Abby M.; Rentsch, Joan R.; Steele-Johnson, Debra

2010-01-01

269

Contextualism adds realism: nursing students' perceptions of and performance in numeracy skills tests.  

PubMed

This project investigated nursing students' perceptions of and performance in a de-contextualised diagnostic maths paper (i.e. questions only) and a contextualised diagnostic maths paper (i.e. visual pictures along with questions). Sampling was purposive, the criteria being that participants would be from the population of student nurses (n=700) in their second year, of a three-year Bachelor of Nursing course, undertaking a Unit 'Medical-Surgical Nursing 1' (MSN1) at one of four campuses across the University of Western Sydney (UWS), NSW, Australia. The numerical test scores for both papers were analysed with the assistance of SPSS software and a Professional Development Officer. The survey data were analysed manually and thematically by the researcher. There was a substantive improvement in scores from Test 1 (de-contextualised) to Test 2 (contextualised). It is uncertain whether the change occurred because Test 2 is a genuinely better presentation than Test 1 or just a practice effect. Nevertheless, the contextualised paper was preferred by the majority of students (80%). Students preferred the visual images and revealed that it led to a "deeper learning" of numeracy skills, reduced stress and anxiety levels and simulated 'the real life' clinical setting, thus adding "an element of realism" to the situation. PMID:21126812

Ramjan, Lucie M

2011-11-01

270

Decelerating the diminishing returns of citizenship on task performance: the role of social context and interpersonal skill.  

PubMed

Recent scholarship on citizenship behavior demonstrates that engaging too often in these behaviors comes at the expense of task performance. In order to examine the boundary conditions of this relationship, we used resource allocation and social exchange theories to build predictions regarding moderators of the curvilinear association between citizenship and task performance. We conducted a field study of 366 employees, in which we examined the relationship between the frequency of interpersonal helping behavior and task performance and tested for the moderating influences of 3 social context features (social density, interdependence, and social support) and of employees' levels of interpersonal skill. Results provided corroborating evidence of the diminishing returns between citizenship and task performance. Further, these diminishing returns were decelerated when contexts were characterized by high interdependence and social density and when employees possessed strong interpersonal skills. Implications for extending future citizenship theory and research to incorporate curvilinearity are presented. PMID:24611527

Ellington, J Kemp; Dierdorff, Erich C; Rubin, Robert S

2014-07-01

271

Performance of Physical Examination Skills in Medical Students during Diagnostic Medicine Course in a University Hospital of Northwest China  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of physical examination (PE) skills during our diagnostic medicine course and analyze the characteristics of the data collected to provide information for practical guidance to improve the quality of teaching. Seventy-two fourth-year medical students were enrolled in the study. All received an assessment of PE skills after receiving a 17-week formal training course and systematic teaching. Their performance was evaluated and recorded in detail using a checklist, which included 5 aspects of PE skills: examination techniques, communication and care skills, content items, appropriateness of examination sequence, and time taken. Error frequency and type were designated as the assessment parameters in the survey. The results showed that the distribution and the percentage in examination errors between male and female students and among the different body parts examined were significantly different (p<0.001). The average error frequency per student in females (0.875) was lower than in males (1.375) although the difference was not statistically significant (p?=?0.167). The average error frequency per student in cardiac (1.267) and pulmonary (1.389) examinations was higher than in abdominal (0.867) and head, neck and nervous system examinations (0.917). Female students had a lower average error frequency than males in cardiac examinations (p?=?0.041). Additionally, error in examination techniques was the highest type of error among the 5 aspects of PE skills irrespective of participant gender and assessment content (p<0.001). These data suggest that PE skills in cardiac and pulmonary examinations and examination techniques may be included in the main focus of improving the teaching of diagnostics in these medical students. PMID:25329685

Li, Yan; Li, Na; Han, Qunying; He, Shuixiang; Bae, Ricard S.; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Shi, Bingyin

2014-01-01

272

Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits play a role in the modulation of the serial correlations of timing fluctuations exhibited in skilled musical performance. PMID:25309487

Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A.

2014-01-01

273

Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation.  

PubMed

Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits play a role in the modulation of the serial correlations of timing fluctuations exhibited in skilled musical performance. PMID:25309487

Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A

2014-01-01

274

Examination of Communication Delays on Team Performance: Utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a Test Bed for Analog Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance as well as an insight into how teams perform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.

Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.

2011-01-01

275

Are recent graduates enough prepared to perform obstetric skills in their rural and compulsory year? A study from Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the possible mismatch of obstetrical skills between the training offered in Ecuadorian medical schools and the tasks required for compulsory rural service. Setting Primary care, rural health centres in Southern Ecuador. Participants A total of 92 recent graduated medical doctors during their compulsory rural year. Primary and secondary outcomes measures A web-based survey was developed with 21 obstetrical skills. The questionnaire was sent to all rural doctors who work in Loja province, Southern Ecuador, at the Ministry of Health (n=92). We measured two categories ‘importance of skills in rural practice’ with a five-point Likert-type scale (1= strongly disagree; 5= strongly agree); and ‘clerkship experience’ using a nominal scale divided in five levels: level 1 (not seen, not performed) to level 5 (performed 10 times or more). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to observe associations. Results A negative correlation was found in the skills: ‘episiotomy and repair’, ‘umbilical vein catheterisation’, ‘speculum examination’, ‘evaluation of cervical dilation during active labour’, ‘neonatal resuscitation’ and ‘vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery’. For instance ‘Episiotomy and repair’ is important (strongly agree and agree) to 100% of respondents, but in practice, only 38.9% of rural doctors performed the task three times and 8.3% only once during the internship, similar pattern is seen in the others. Conclusions In this study we have noted the gap between the medical needs of populations in rural areas and training provided during the clerkship experiences of physicians during their rural service year. It is imperative to ensure that rural doctors are appropriately trained and skilled in the performance of routine obstetrical duties. This will help to decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality in rural Ecuador. PMID:25082424

Sánchez del Hierro, Galo; Remmen, Roy; Verhoeven, Veronique; Van Royen, Paul; Hendrickx, Kristin

2014-01-01

276

Politics Perceptions as Moderator of the Political Skill-Job Performance Relationship: A Two-Study, Cross-National, Constructive Replication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed a two-study, cross-national, constructive replication to examine the role of organizational politics perceptions as a contextual moderator of the political skill-job performance relationship. Specifically, we hypothesized that high levels of political skill would demonstrate its strongest positive effects on job performance when…

Kapoutsis, Ilias; Papalexandris, Alexandros; Nikolopoulos, Andreas; Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Ferris, Gerald R.

2011-01-01

277

Performance of Public High School Graduates on the Comparative Guidance and Placement Test for Basic Skills Assessment, Fall Term 1983. Research Report No. 84-05.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted at Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC) to provide data on the basic skills performance of first-time-in-college students who graduated from area public high schools between August 1982 and September 1983 and enrolled at MDCC in fall 1983. The entering basic skills performance of students who graduated in the top 20% of their…

Morris, Cathy

278

The importance of job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill for predicting role breadth and job performance  

E-print Network

Role theory suggests and empirical research has found that there is considerable variation in how broadly individuals define their jobs. We investigated the theoretically meaningful yet infrequently studied relationships between incumbent job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, role breadth, and job performance. Using multiple data sources and multiple measurement occasions in a field setting, we found that job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill were positively related to role breadth, accounting for 23 % of the variance in role breadth. In addition, role breadth was positively related to job performance and was found to mediate the relationship between job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, and job performance. These results add to our understanding of the factors that predict role breadth, as well as having implications for how job aspects and individual characteristics are translated into performance outcomes and the treatment of variability in incumbent reports of job tasks. Role theory has long recognized that individuals holding the same job will perform a slightly different set of tasks, thereby enacting their roles in slightly different ways (Biddle, 1979; Graen, 1976; Ilgen & Hollenbeck, 1991; Katz & Kahn, 1978). This has served as the backdrop for attempts at understanding the kinds of

Frederick P. Morgeson; Kelly Delaney-klinger; Monica A. Hemingway

2005-01-01

279

Soft Skills at the Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses human capital development through the seven soft skills elements which comprise communication skills, critical thinking and problem solving skills, team work, lifelong learning and information management skills, entrepreneurship skills, ethics, and professional moral and leadership skills. The Ministry of Higher Education,…

Shakir, Roselina

2009-01-01

280

Team Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from Round Rock's Project on Incentives in Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a rigorous experiment examining the impact of pay for performance on student achievement and instructional practice. This study, conducted by the National Center on Performance Incentives, examines a pay-for-performance program in Round Rock (Texas) which distributed performance awards to teachers based on a…

McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Pane, John F.; Springer, Matthew G.; Burns, Susan F.; Haas, Ann

2011-01-01

281

What makes maternity teams effective and safe? Lessons from a series of research on teamwork, leadership and team training.  

PubMed

We describe lessons for safety from a synthesis of seven studies of teamwork, leadership and team training across a healthcare region. Two studies identified successes and challenges in a unit with embedded team training: a staff survey demonstrated a positive culture but a perceived need for greater senior presence; training improved actual emergency care, but wide variation in team performance remained. Analysis of multicenter simulation records showed that variation in patient safety and team efficiency correlated with their teamwork but not individual knowledge, skills or attitudes. Safe teams tended to declare the emergency earlier, hand over in a more structured way, and use closed-loop communication. Focused and directed communication was also associated with better patient-actor perception of care. Focus groups corroborated these findings, proposed that the capability and experience of the leader is more important than seniority, and identified teamwork and leadership issues that require further research. PMID:23980798

Siassakos, Dimitrios; Fox, Robert; Bristowe, Katherine; Angouri, Jo; Hambly, Helen; Robson, Lauren; Draycott, Timothy J

2013-11-01

282

Individualizing Instruction through Team Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective individualized instruction and increased student participation in foreign language communication skills could be achieved by a team-teaching approach. A team, comprised of the regular foreign language teacher and a number of volunteer advanced students, could (1) present listening comprehension materials, (2) evaluate pronunciation and…

Otto, Frank

1968-01-01

283

Using the Newspaper To Reinforce Mathematics Skills. Minimum Student Performance Standards for Florida Schools. Grade 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The newspaper is a familiar tool to many teachers. This book explores another use for the newspaper in the classroom. As an aid in the teaching and remediating of basic mathematics skills, the newspaper adds variety to classroom instruction. The suggested newspaper activities and teaching ideas presented here are specifically designed to reinforce…

Palm Beach Newspapers, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL.

284

Using the Newspaper to Reinforce Mathematics Skills. Minimum Student Performance Standards for Florida Schools. Grade 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The newspaper is a familiar tool to many teachers. This book explores another use for the newspaper in the classroom. As an aid in the teaching and remediating of basic mathematics skills, the newspaper adds variety to classroom instruction. The suggested newspaper activities and teaching ideas presented here are specifically designed to reinforce…

Palm Beach Newspapers, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL.

285

How Much Do Study Habits, Skills, and Attitudes Affect Student Performance in Introductory College Accounting Courses?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Financial accounting is a skills course which to a large extent can be best learned through deliberate practice. Teachers implement this by continuously assigning homeworks, encouraging good study habits, asking students to budget time for studying, and generally exhorting students to "work hard". Aims: This paper examines the impact…

Yu, Darwin D.

2011-01-01

286

Sex Differences in the Relation between Math Performance, Spatial Skills, and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex differences have been previously found in cognitive and affective predictors of math achievement, including spatial skills and math attitudes. It is important to determine whether there are sex differences not only in the predictors themselves, but also in the nature of their relation to math achievement. The present paper examined spatial…

Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina

2011-01-01

287

The Laborers-AGC Construction Skills Training Program. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterned after a previously successful Laborers-Associated General Contractors model named the Construction Skills Training Program, a demonstration project was implemented at five regional training centers. At least eight courses were created, combined, or revised. Four full-length audiovisual support pieces were completed. Three courses were…

Tippie, John L.; Rice, Eric

288

Increasing Skill Performances of Problem Solving in Students with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem-solving instruction facilitates children in becoming successful real-world problem solvers. Research that incorporates problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. However, this population of students needs increased opportunities to learn the skills of problem solving. Using a…

Cote, Debra; Pierce, Tom; Higgins, Kyle; Miller, Susan; Tandy, Richard; Sparks, Shannon

2010-01-01

289

Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral social skills training for older consumers with schizophrenia: Defeatist performance attitudes and functional outcome  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) is an effective psychosocial intervention to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and whether defeatist performance attitudes are associated with change in functioning in CBSST. Design An 18-month, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting Outpatient clinic at a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants Veteran and non-veteran consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=79) age 45–78. Interventions CBSST was a 36-session, weekly group therapy that combined cognitive behavior therapy with social skills training and problem solving training to improve functioning. The comparison intervention, goal-focused supportive contact (GFSC), was supportive group therapy focused on achieving functioning goals. Measurements Blind raters assessed functioning (primary outcome: Independent Living Skills Survey) CBSST skill mastery, positive and negative symptoms, depression, anxiety, defeatist attitudes, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results Functioning trajectories over time were significantly more positive in CBSST than in GFSC, especially for participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes. Greater improvement in defeatist attitudes was also associated with better functioning in CBSST, but not GFSC. Both treatments showed comparable significant improvements in amotivation, depression, anxiety, positive self-esteem and life satisfaction. Conclusions CBSST is an effective treatment to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and both CBSST and other supportive goal-focused interventions can reduce symptom distress, increase motivation and self esteem, and improve life satisfaction. Participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes may benefit most from cognitive behavioral interventions that target functioning. PMID:23395192

Granholm, Eric; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C.; McQuaid, John R.; Jeste, Dilip V.

2012-01-01

290

A Cohort Analysis of the Relationship between Entering Basic Skills and CLAST Performance for Fall 1981 First-Time-In-College Students. Research Report No. 84-22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted at a Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC) to determine the relationship between students' level of basic skills at entry and their pass/fail performance on the College-Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST). Specifically, the study focused on students' Comparative Guidance and Placement Test (CGP) scores in reading, writing, and…

Belcher, Marcia

291

An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Bulk Fertilizer Plant Worker. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the bulk fertilizer plant worker is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are…

Miller, Daniel R.; And Others

292

An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Commercial Vegetable Producer. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the commercial vegetable producer is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are…

Byrd, J. Rick; And Others

293

The Development of a Methodology for Establishing Task-Level Performance Standards for Apprentice, Journeyman, and Master Skill Levels in the U.S. Navy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the project examined here was to establish performance standards for Navy aerographer's mate (AG) enlisted sailors at three skill levels. We used an online expert judgment task and consensus workshop methodology to gather information from subject matter experts on minimal proficiency requirements for each task within each skill level.…

Hedge, Jerry W.; Borman, Walter C.; Kubisiak, U. Christean; Bourne, Mark J.

2007-01-01

294

The combined effect of mathematics skills and formal operational reasoning on student performance in the general physics course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Precourse tests of computational skills in algebra and trigonometry and of formal operational reasoning have been correlated with performance in the algebra-based introductory physics course for 80 students. The correlation coefficient for mathematics and physics was 0.345 (p < 0.001) and for formal operational reasoning and physics was 0.435 (p < 0.001). However, a multiple regression analysis of the combined effect of mathematics and formal operational reasoning on the total physics grade yielded a multiple R of 0.518, R2=0.268. This study found that the combination of precourse measures of mathematics computational skills and abstract reasoning explained over 25% of the variance in the final physics grade distribution.

Hudson, H. T.; Liberman, Dov

2005-11-02

295

Harnessing members' positive mood for team-directed learning behaviour and team innovation: The moderating role of perceived team feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of individual team members' positive mood and perceived team feedback for their team-directed learning behaviour. Results obtained in a sample of 186 members from 27 work teams showed that positive mood was positively associated with team-directed learning behaviour if individual members perceived that the feedback they received was based on the performance of the team

Frank Walter; Gerben S. van der Vegt

2012-01-01

296

The influence of self-talk on the performance of skilled female tennis players  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development and implementation of a self-talk (ST) strategy designed to improve the volleying skill of collegiate tennis players (N = 5). A two-word ST strategy was developed, implemented, and evaluated using a single-case, multiple-baseline design. Dependent measures were movement patterns and outcome scores. After intervention, four players displayed immediate, positive changes with no overlapping datapoints

Dennis Landin; Edward P. Hebert

1999-01-01

297

Cognitive skills and literacy performance of Chinese adolescents with and without dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with dyslexia\\u000a and to assess how these abilities were associated with Chinese word reading, word dictation, and reading comprehension. The\\u000a cognitive skills of interest were morphological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid naming, and verbal working\\u000a memory. A total of 90 junior secondary school students, 30 dyslexic,

Kevin K. H. Chung; Connie S.-H. Ho; David W. Chan; Suk-Man Tsang; Suk-Han Lee

2011-01-01

298

Acute nonhypothermic exposure to cold impedes motor skill performance in video gaming compared to thermo-neutral and hot conditions.  

PubMed

The study examined whether or not acute exposure to unfamiliar hot or cold conditions impairs performance of highly skilled coordinative activities and whether prior physical self-efficacy beliefs were associated with task completion. Nineteen volunteers completed both Guitar Hero and Archery activities as a test battery using the Nintendo Wii console in cold (2 degrees C), neutral (20 degrees C), and hot (38 degrees C) conditions. Participants all completed physical self-efficacy questionnaires following experimental familiarization. Performances of both Guitar Hero and Archery significantly decreased in the cold compared with the neutral condition. The cold trial was also perceived as the condition requiring both greater concentration and effort. There was no association between performance and physical self-efficacy. Performance of these coordinative tasks was compromised by acute (nonhypothermic) exposure to cold; the most likely explanation is that the cold condition presented a greater challenge to attentional processes as a form of environmental distraction. PMID:21466095

Edwards, Andrew M; Crowther, Robert G; Morton, R Hugh; Polman, Remco C

2011-02-01

299

The Influence of Individual and Team Cognitive Ability on Operators’ Task and Safety Performance: A Multilevel Field Study in Nuclear Power Plants  

PubMed Central

While much research has investigated the predictors of operators’ performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA) at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators’ GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a “big-fish-little-pond” effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers’ extra-role behaviors (safety participation) compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance). The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed. PMID:24391964

Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yongjuan; Wu, Changxu

2013-01-01

300

School Leadership Skill Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…

Weigel, Richard A.

2013-01-01

301

Safety in the operating theatre--part 1: interpersonal relationships and team performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors examine the application of interpersonal human factors training on operating room (OR) personnel. Mortality studies of OR deaths and critical incident studies of anesthesia are examined to determine the role of human error in OR incidents. Theoretical models of system vulnerability to accidents are presented with emphasis on a systems approach to OR performance. Input, process, and outcome factors are discussed in detail.

Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

1995-01-01

302

Gender differences in examinee performance on the Step 2 Clinical Skills data gathering (DG) and patient note (PN) components.  

PubMed

Multiple studies examining the relationship between physician gender and performance on examinations have found consistent significant gender differences, but relatively little information is available related to any gender effect on interviewing and written communication skills. The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) examination is a multi-station examination where examinees (physicians in training) interact with, and are rated by, standardized patients (SPs) portraying cases in an ambulatory setting. Data from a recent complete year (2009) were analyzed via a series of hierarchical linear models to examine the impact of examinee gender on performance on the data gathering (DG) and patient note (PN) components of this examination. Results from both components show that not only do women have higher scores on average, but women continue to perform significantly better than men when other examinee and case variables are taken into account. Generally, the effect sizes are moderate, reflecting an approximately 2% score advantage by encounter. The advantage for female examinees increased for encounters that did not require a physical examination (for the DG component only) and for encounters that involved a Women's Health issue (for both components). The gender of the SP did not have an impact on the examinee gender effect for DG, indicating a desirable lack of interaction between examinee and SP gender. The implications of the findings, especially with respect to the validity of the use of the examination outcomes, are discussed. PMID:22041870

Swygert, Kimberly A; Cuddy, Monica M; van Zanten, Marta; Haist, Steven A; Jobe, Ann C

2012-10-01

303

The effects of 6 weeks of preseason skill-based conditioning on physical performance in male volleyball players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in physical performance after a 6-week skill-based conditioning training program in male competitive volleyball players. Sixteen male volleyball players (mean ± SD: age 22.3 ± 3.7 years, body height 190.7 ± 4.2 cm, and body mass 78.4 ± 4.5 kg) participated in this study. The players were tested for sprinting (5- and 10-m sprint), agility, and jumping performance (the vertical-jump test, the spike-jump test, and the standing broad jump [SBJ]). Compared with pretraining, there was a significant improvement in the 5- and 10-m speed. There were no significant differences between pretraining and posttraining for lower-body muscular power (vertical-jump height, spike-jump height, and SBJ) and agility. Based on our results, it could be concluded that a preseason skill-based conditioning program does not offer a sufficient stimulus for volleyball players. Therefore, a general conditioning and hypertrophy training along with specific volleyball conditioning is necessary in the preseason period for the development of the lower-body strength, agility and speed performance in volleyball players. PMID:21904244

Trajkovi?, Nebojša; Milanovi?, Zoran; Sporis, Goran; Mili?, Vladan; Stankovi?, Ratko

2012-06-01

304

Urban Garden Youth Employment Teams 2012 CityFresh Veggies I (2 teams, 1 leader 24hr/wk)  

E-print Network

and Leadership skills: Sales calls, teamwork, individual roles within a team, appropriate communication with co skills: Sales calls, teamwork, individual roles within a team, appropriate communication with co. Youth Skill development and learning opportunities with CityFresh Veggies I groups: First Job

Amin, S. Massoud

305

Preseason variations in aerobic fitness and performance in elite-standard soccer players: a team study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of individual training loads considered as permanent in selected heart-rate (HR) zones on aerobic fitness and performance in elite professional soccer players. Eighteen professional soccer players were observed during the prechampionship training period (8 weeks). Speeds and HR at 2 and 4 mmol · L blood-lactate concentrations (S2, S4, respectively), VO2max, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 performance (Yo-Yo IR1) were assessed pretraining and posttraining. Training intensities were categorized using 3 HR zones: low intensity (


HR 4 mmol · L). Training-session HRs (n = 900) showed a polarized distribution with 73.6 ± 3.7 (2,945 ± 148 minutes), 19.1 ± 3.5 (763 ± 141 minutes), and 7.3 ± 2.9% (292 ± 116 minutes) of the total training time spent at low, moderate, and high intensities, respectively (p < 0.001). The S2 and S4 significantly improved posttraining (+10 and 7%, respectively, p < 0.001). The VO2max and Yo-Yo IR1 values were 6 and 19.5% higher posttraining, respectively (p < 0.01). Training performed at high intensity was significantly related to relative improvement in S2 (r = 0.78, p = 0.002), S4 (r = 0.60, p = 0.03), VO2max (r = 0.65, p = 0.02), and Yo-Yo IR1 (r = 0.66, p = 0.01). The results of this study provided further evidence for HR longitudinal validity and effectiveness of the high-intensity training (i.e., >90% HRmax) in men's professional soccer. In this regard, the time spent at high intensity should be in the range of 7-8% of the total training time during preseason. PMID:23442266

Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chaouachi, Anis; Manzi, Vincenzo

2013-11-01

306

Team Performance and Error Management in Chinese and American Simulated Flight Crews: The Role of Cultural and Individual Differences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve teamwork. This is followed by discussion of the potential influence of national culture on teamwork and crew resource management. We then examine the influence of other individual and team differences, such as personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload. We provide a heuristic model that depicts the influence of national culture and individual differences on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the model for future research.

Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.

2005-01-01

307

Training of Leadership Skills in Medical Education  

PubMed Central

Background: Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians’ everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. Objective: The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills in medicine and tries to integrate the findings to guide future research and training development. Method: The PubMED, ERIC, and PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Academic search complete of EBSCOhost were searched for training of leadership skills in medicine in German and English. Relevant articles were identified and findings were integrated and consolidated regarding the leadership principles, target group of training and number of participants, temporal resources of the training, training content and methods, the evaluation design and trainings effects. Results: Eight studies met all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria. The range of training programs is very broad and leadership skill components are diverse. Training designs implied theoretical reflections of leadership phenomena as well as discussions of case studies from practice. The duration of training ranged from several hours to years. Reactions of participants to trainings were positive, yet no behavioral changes through training were examined. Conclusions: More research is needed to understand the factors critical to success in the development of leadership skills in medical education and to adapt goal-oriented training methods. Requirements analysis might help to gain knowledge about the nature of leadership skills in medicine. The authors propose a stronger focus on behavioral training methods like simulation-based training for leadership skills in medical education. PMID:24282452

Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C.; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R.

2013-01-01

308

Transfer Of Argumentation Skills In Conceptual Physics Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate the integration of argumentation in a physics course for future elementary teachers. Students were divided into two groups â construct and evaluate â to solve conceptual physics problems using corresponding forms of written argumentation. After training in small teams, each group received tasks that required transfer of skills to new problems requiring a different form of argumentation i.e. students trained to construct arguments were now required to evaluate arguments and vice versa. The process was repeated after three weeks during which more training was provided. Results indicate no significant improvement of argumentation on team training tasks over this period, but a statistically significant improvement on individual transfer tasks. Thus, three weeks of training did not improve studentsâ performance on the team tasks, but it prepared them to transfer these skills to individual argumentation tasks.

Rebello, Carina M.; Rebello, N. S.

2014-02-19

309

Essential Skills for Principals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

Terry, Paul M.

1999-01-01

310

State Skill Standards: Welding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

2005-01-01

311

Cockpit resource management skills enhance combat mission performance in a B-52 simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cockpit resource management (CRM) program for mission-ready B-52 aircrew is developed. The relationship between CRM performance and combat mission performance is studied. The performances of six crew members flying a simulated high workload mission in a B-52 weapon system trainer are evaluated. The data reveal that CRM performance enhances tactical maneuvers and bombing accuracy.

Povenmire, H. Kingsley; Rockway, Marty R.; Bunecke, Joseph L.; Patton, Mark W.

1989-01-01

312

Comparing a parent-report and a performance-based measure of children's motor skill abilities: are they associated?  

PubMed

Both parent-report and performance-based assessment approaches are used in occupational therapy practice to gather information about children's motor skill abilities. This study investigated whether an association existed between the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency- 2(nd) edition (BOT-2), a performance-based motor-skill assessment and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2(nd) edition (MABC-2) Checklist, a parent-report scale of children's motor abilities. A convenience sample of 50 typically developing children aged 7-16 years were recruited. Scores from the BOT-2 and MABC-2 Checklist were analyzed using Spearman's rho correlations and linear regression analyses with several significant correlations found. The following BOT-2 derived scores were correlated with the MABC-2 Checklist: (1) BOT-2 subscales of Fine Motor Precision (rho = .33, p < .05), Manual Dexterity (rho = .28, p < .05), and Upper-Limb Coordination (rho = .39, p < .05); (2) the BOT-2 motor composite areas of Fine Motor Control (rho = .30, p < .05), and Manual Coordination (rho = .33, p < .05); and (3) the BOT-2 Short Form total score (rho = .28, p < .05). Regression analysis indicated that the MABC-2 Checklist was significantly associated with the BOT-2 Fine Manual Control and Manual Coordination composite area scores. PMID:25050830

Brown, Ted; Lane, Haylee

2014-10-01

313

Usefulness of the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA) for Predicting Residential Independence in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of a performance-based measure of functional capacity, the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) for the prediction of independent living status in patients with chronic schizophrenia-related conditions. A sample of 434 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was administered the UPSA and assessed for independent living status. Participants were classified as “independent” if they were living alone in an apartment, house, or single-resident occupancy (e.g., hotel room) and non-independent if they resided in a care facility (e.g., Board-and-Care home, Skilled Nursing Facility). Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated with the UPSA and Mattis’ Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) scores as predictor variables and residential independence as the state variable. Of the 434 participants, 99 (23%) were living independently at the time of assessment. The discriminant validity of the UPSA was adequate (ROC area under the curve = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.68–0.79), with greatest dichotomization for the UPSA at a cutoff score of 75 (68% accuracy, 69% sensitivity, 66% specificity), or 80 (68% accuracy, 59% sensitivity, 76% specificity). The UPSA was also a significantly better predictor of living status than was the DRS, based on ROC (z = 2.43, p = .015). The UPSA is a brief measure of functional capacity that predicts the ability of patients with schizophrenia to reside independently in the community. PMID:17303168

Mausbach, Brent T.; Bowie, Christopher R.; Harvey, Philip D.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Goldman, Sherrill R.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Patterson, Thomas L.

2009-01-01

314

The effect of interprofessional education on interprofessional performance and diabetes care knowledge of health care teams at the level one of health service providing  

PubMed Central

Background: The increase in life expectancy and changes in lifestyle have led to prevalence of non-communicable diseases including diabetes whose treatment and care requires effective teamwork. This study was conducted to examine the effect of inter-professional education on performance and diabetes care knowledge of health care teams. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed as an inter-professional education on 6 healthcare teams (34 people) based on Kolb's Learning Cycle and consisted of a set of training activities to improve individual, group, and inter-professional capabilities of members of the health care team. The pre- and post-tests included Team Climate Inventory (TCI) and a knowledge assessment tool performed before the workshop and 3 months later. Results: Mean scores for knowledge of health care team before intervention and 3 months later were 7.06 ± 1.04 and 7.97 ± 0.97 out of 10, respectively, that showed a significant difference (P < 0.0001). Mean score of the pre-test and post-test for inter-professional performance comprised 47.03 ± 6.7 and 49.44 ± 5.54 out of 70, respectively, which did not show any significant difference. However, these mean scores had a significant difference for the domains of knowledge and exercising objectives of the teamwork (10.62 ± 1.37 and 11.41 ± 1.76 out of 15, respectively) (P = 0.013). Conclusion: It seems that inter-professional education can improve the quality of health care to some extent through influencing knowledge and collaborative performance of health care teams. It also can make the health-related messages provided to the covered population more consistent in addition to enhancing self-confidence of the personnel. PMID:25221756

Yamani, Nikoo; Asgarimoqadam, Marzieh; Haghani, Fariba; Alavijeh, Abbas Qari

2014-01-01

315

Skilled birth attendants in Tanzania: a descriptive study of cadres and emergency obstetric care signal functions performed.  

PubMed

Although most developing countries monitor the proportion of births attended by skilled birth attendants (SBA), they lack information on the availability and performance of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions by different cadres of health care providers (HCPs). The World Health Organisation signal functions are set of key interventions that targets direct obstetric causes of maternal deaths. Seven signal functions are required for health facilities providing basic EmOC and nine for facilities providing comprehensive EmOC. Our objectives were to describe cadres of HCPs who are considered SBAs in Tanzania, the EmOC signal functions they perform and challenges associated with performance of EmOC signal functions. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HCPs offering maternity care services at eight health facilities in Moshi Urban District in northern Tanzania. A questionnaire and health facility assessment forms were used to collect information from participants and health facilities. A total of 199 HCPs working at eight health facilities in Moshi Urban District met the inclusion criteria. Out of 199, 158 participated, giving a response rate of 79.4 %. Ten cadres of HCPs were identified as conducting deliveries regardless of the level of health facilities. Most of the participants (81 %) considered themselves SBAs, although some were not considered SBAs by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW). Only two out of the eight facilities provided all of the required EmOC signal functions. While Assistant Medical Officers are expected to perform all the signal functions, only 38 % and 13 % had performed vacuum extraction or caesarean sections respectively. Very few registered and enrolled nurse-midwives had performed removal of retained products (22 %) or assisted vaginal delivery (24 and 11 %). Inadequate equipment and supplies, and lack of knowledge and skills in performing EmOC were two main challenges identified by health care providers in all the level of care. In the district, gaps existed between performance of EmOC signal functions by SBAs as expected by the MOHSW and the actual performance at health facilities. All basic EmOC facilities were not fully functional. Few health care providers performed all the basic EmOC signal functions. Competency-based in-service training of providers in EmOC and provision of enabling environment could improve performance of EmOC signal functions in the district. PMID:24791974

Ueno, Etsuko; Adegoke, Adetoro A; Masenga, Gileard; Fimbo, Janeth; Msuya, Sia E

2015-01-01

316

Enabling conditions for the emergence and effective performance of technical and cultural boundary spanners in global virtual teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization has led to a widespread increase in the practice of ‘offshore outsourcing’ of projects in the construction industry. This phenomenon has led to the development of a new form of organization—the ‘global virtual team’. Where much is explored in the extant literature on the ingredients affecting virtual team functioning, relatively little research has been done on the interaction of

Shobha Ramalingam; Ashwin Mahalingam

2011-01-01

317

Peer-Based Control in Self-Managing Teams: Linking Rational and Normative Influence with Individual and Group Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how "peer-based rational control", which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with…

Stewart, Greg L.; Courtright, Stephen H.; Barrick, Murray R.

2012-01-01

318

Soft skills at the Malaysian institutes of higher learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses human capital development through the seven soft skills elements which comprise communication skills,\\u000a critical thinking and problem solving skills, team work, lifelong learning and information management skills, entrepreneurship\\u000a skills, ethics, and professional moral and leadership skills. The Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia recently announced\\u000a that the said soft skills are to be introduced to undergraduates of Institutes

Roselina Shakir

2009-01-01

319

Prediction of surgical skill and limitations from basic performance capacities using nonlinear causal resource analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laparoscopic surgery imposes greater demands on surgeon capacities and abilities. The current study investigates the use of a novel method (Nonlinear Causal Resource Analysis, NCRA) for operative performance prediction and limiting resource identification. Basic performance resources were measured for 20 urology residents with 13 validated measures. Operative performance was measured during porcine laparoscopic nephrectomies using the Global Rating of Operative

George V. Kondraske; Jeffery A. Cadeddu; Cheryl Napper; Daniel B. Jones

2002-01-01

320

Strengthening community health supply chain performance through an integrated approach: Using mHealth technology and multilevel teams in Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background In 2010, 7.6 million children under five died globally – largely due to preventable diseases. Majority of these deaths occurred in sub–Saharan Africa. As a strategy to reduce child mortality, the Government of Malawi, in 2008, initiated integrated community case management allowing health surveillance assistants (HSAs) to treat sick children in communities. Malawi however, faces health infrastructure challenges, including weak supply chain systems leading to low product availability. A baseline assessment conducted in 2010 identified data visibility, transport and motivation of HSAs as challenges to continuous product availability. The project designed a mHealth tool as part of two interventions to address these challenges. Methods A mobile health (mHealth) technology – cStock, for reporting on community stock data – was designed and implemented as an integral component of Enhanced Management (EM) and Efficient Product Transport (EPT) interventions. We developed a feasibility and acceptability framework to evaluate the effectiveness and predict the likelihood of scalability and ownership of the interventions. Mixed methods were used to conduct baseline and follow up assessments in May 2010 and February 2013, respectively. Routine monitoring data on community stock level reports, from cStock, were used to analyze supply chain performance over 18–month period in the intervention groups. Results Mean stock reporting rate by HSAs was 94% in EM group (n = 393) and 79% in EPT group (n = 253); mean reporting completeness was 85% and 65%, respectively. Lead time for HSA drug resupply over the 18–month period was, on average, 12.8 days in EM and 26.4 days in EPT, and mean stock out rate for 6 tracer products was significantly lower in EM compared to EPT group. Conclusions Results demonstrate that cStock was feasible and acceptable to test users in Malawi, and that based on comparison with the EPT group, the team component of the EM group was an essential pairing with cStock to achieve the best possible supply chain performance and supply reliability. Establishing multi–level teams serves to connect HSAs with decision makers at higher levels of the health system, align objectives, clarify roles and promote trust and collaboration, thereby promoting country ownership and scalability of a cStock–like system. PMID:25520796

Shieshia, Mildred; Noel, Megan; Andersson, Sarah; Felling, Barbara; Alva, Soumya; Agarwal, Smisha; Lefevre, Amnesty; Misomali, Amos; Chimphanga, Boniface; Nsona, Humphreys; Chandani, Yasmin

2014-01-01

321

Effects of an Extracurricular Science Intervention on Science Performance, Self-Worth, Social Skills, and Sexist Attitudes of Taiwanese Adolescents from Single-Parent Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one group pretest-posttest design was used to investigate effects of an extracurricular science intervention on female and\\u000a male junior high school students’ science performance, self-worth, social skills, and sexist attitudes. Twenty-eight 8th grade\\u000a Taiwanese students (16 boys, 12 girls) from single parent families participated in this study. Student responses to a questionnaire\\u000a measuring their self-worth, social skills, and sexist

Zuway-R Hong; Huann-shyang Lin; Patricia McCarthy Veach

2008-01-01

322

Nutrition in Team Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs

Iñigo Mujika; Louise M. Burke

2010-01-01

323

Team Dynamics. Implications for Coaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent survey of coaches ranks team cohesion as the most critical problem coaches face. Optimal interpersonal relationships among athletes and their coaches can maximize collective performance. Team dynamics are discussed and coaching tips are provided. (MT)

Freishlag, Jerry

1985-01-01

324

Impact of Structured Writing and Awareness of Cognition on Effective Teaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metacognition is the awareness and understanding by a student of his or her own learning own skills, performance, preferences, and barriers. This paper describes a pilot scale effort to develop metacognition in engineering teams at Rowan University, through structured writing, and the use of the Learning Combination Inventory (LCI). The theoretical basis for the LCI is the Interactive Learning Model,

James Newell; Kevin Dahm; Brian Lefebvre; Roberta Harvey; Heidi Newell

2005-01-01

325

Soft Skills in Higher Education: Importance and Improvement Ratings as a Function of Individual Differences and Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three UK studies on the relationship between a purpose-built instrument to assess the importance and development of 15 "soft skills" are reported. "Study 1" (N = 444) identified strong latent components underlying these soft skills, such that differences "between-skills" were over-shadowed by differences "between-students". Importance and…

Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Arteche, Adriane; Bremner, Andrew J.; Greven, Corina; Furnham, Adrian

2010-01-01

326

Social Development: Self Help Skills. A Performance-Based Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. Monograph 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph presents the self-help skills module of the social development curriculum portion of the Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. Included are: (1) an ontogeny of self-help skills (feeding, dressing, toileting, and grooming) in young children; (2) a brief discussion of the relevance of self-help skills to the…

Mann, Lynne

327

CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Research Skills, Technical Skills): CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Declarative Knowledge): Graduates will be knowledgeable  

E-print Network

) and COMMUNICATION (Other Forms of Communication: Musical Performance) and CRITICAL THINKING (Creative Skills. COMMUNICATION (Oral Communication) and CRITICAL THINKING (Analytical Skills): In each semester, students) and CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS (Practical Skills): Graduates with B. Mus. (Music Education) will demonstrate

Fernandez, Eduardo

328

Performance Optimization of an Internal Combustion Engine Team: David Apgood, Cameron Blaylock, Joshua Crump, Tyler Kolste, Aaron Jorgensen, Brett Sampson; Advisors: Drs. Eric Pardyjak, Samuel Drake  

E-print Network

Performance Optimization of an Internal Combustion Engine Team: David Apgood, Cameron Blaylock SAE competition limits power by choking the engine of necessary air for combustion. In order University of Utah, Department of Mechanical Engineering Project Overview The objective of this project

Provancher, William

329

Tinkering self-efficacy and team interaction on freshman engineering design teams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study utilizes Bandura's theory of self-efficacy as a framework to examine the development of tinkering skills white working on a freshman engineering design team. The four sources of self-efficacy were analyzed in the context of tinkering within the design team. The research question, 'Does tinkering self-efficacy change for female students during the Freshman Engineering Design class while working on mixed sex teams?', was addressed using quantitative data collection and field observations. Approximately 41 students enrolled in a freshman engineering design class at a public university in the southwest participated by providing self-reports about their tinkering involvement during each design project. In addition, three mixed-sex student teams were observed while working to complete the course design projects. An observation protocol based on Bandura's sources of self efficacy, was used to document tinkering interactions within the three observed teams. The results revealed that Bandura's sources of self-efficacy influenced tinkering involvement. The self-efficacy source, performance accomplishment measured through prior tinkering experience, was the most influential on tinkering involvement. Unlike Bandura's ranking of influence, verbal persuasion was shown to correlate with more tinkering behaviors than the observation of others. The number of females on a team had no impact on tinkering involvement. Tinkering involvement did not change as students progressed from one project to another. However, the competitive nature of the design project appeared to have a negative impact on tinkering involvement and the division of tasks within the team. In addition, a difference was found in the female students' perception of their tinkering involvement and observation of their tinkering involvement. The findings suggest that effective implementation of teamwork including teamwork preparation, more emphasis on the design process and the elimination of competition between teams are necessary to create a more equitable learning environment.

Richardson, Arlisa Labrie

330

EVA Skills Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Parazynski and a colleague from Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Robotics, & Crew Systems Operations (DX) worked closely to build the EVA Skills Training Program, and for the first time, defined the gold standards of EVA performance, allowing crewmembers to increase their performance significantly. As part of the program, individuals had the opportunity to learn at their own rate, taking additional water time as required, to achieve that level of performance. This focus on training to one's strengths and weaknesses to bolster them enabled the Crew Office and DX to field a much larger group of spacewalkers for the daunting "wall of EVA" required for the building and maintenance of the ISS. Parazynski also stressed the need for designers to understand the capabilities and the limitations of a human in a spacesuit, as well as opportunities to improve future generations of space. He shared lessons learned (how the Crew Office engaged in these endeavors) and illustrated the need to work as a team to develop these complex systems.

Parazynski, Scott

2012-01-01

331

Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making  

SciTech Connect

Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.

Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thomas, W.A. [Quantum Technologies, Inc., Oak Brook, IL (United States)

1994-06-01

332

Leading virtual teams: hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership.  

PubMed

Using a field sample of 101 virtual teams, this research empirically evaluates the impact of traditional hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership on team performance. Building on Bell and Kozlowski's (2002) work, we expected structural supports and shared team leadership to be more, and hierarchical leadership to be less, strongly related to team performance when teams were more virtual in nature. As predicted, results from moderation analyses indicated that the extent to which teams were more virtual attenuated relations between hierarchical leadership and team performance but strengthened relations for structural supports and team performance. However, shared team leadership was significantly related to team performance regardless of the degree of virtuality. Results are discussed in terms of needed research extensions for understanding leadership processes in virtual teams and practical implications for leading virtual teams. PMID:23205494

Hoch, Julia E; Kozlowski, Steve W J

2014-05-01

333

Effects of role division, interaction, and shared mental model on team performance in project-based learning environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive mechanism of project-based learning teams of college students on\\u000a the basis of the Shared Mental Model (SMM) theory. The study participants were 237 female college students in Korea organized\\u000a into 51 project teams. To test the study hypotheses, a structural equation modeling was employed. The major study findings\\u000a are as

Il-Hyun Jo

2011-01-01

334

Error Reduction and Performance Improvement in the Emergency Department through Formal Teamwork Training: Evaluation Results of the MedTeams Project  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of training and institutionalizing teamwork behaviors, drawn from aviation crew resource management (CRM) programs, on emergency department (ED) staff organized into caregiver teams. Study Setting Nine teaching and community hospital EDs. Study Design A prospective multicenter evaluation using a quasi-experimental, untreated control group design with one pretest and two posttests of the Emergency Team Coordination CourseTM (ETCC). The experimental group, comprised of 684 physicians, nurses, and technicians, received the ETCC and implemented formal teamwork structures and processes. Assessments occurred prior to training, and at intervals of four and eight months after training. Three outcome constructs were evaluated: team behavior, ED performance, and attitudes and opinions. Trained observers rated ED staff team behaviors and made observations of clinical errors, a measure of ED performance. Staff and patients in the EDs completed surveys measuring attitudes and opinions. Data Collection Hospital EDs were the units of analysis for the seven outcome measures. Prior to aggregating data at the hospital level, scale properties of surveys and event-related observations were evaluated at the respondent or case level. Principal Findings A statistically significant improvement in quality of team behaviors was shown between the experimental and control groups following training (p = .012). Subjective workload was not affected by the intervention (p = .668). The clinical error rate significantly decreased from 30.9 percent to 4.4 percent in the experimental group (p = .039). In the experimental group, the ED staffs' attitudes toward teamwork increased (p = .047) and staff assessments of institutional support showed a significant increase (p = .040). Conclusion Our findings point to the effectiveness of formal teamwork training for improving team behaviors, reducing errors, and improving staff attitudes among the ETCC-trained hospitals. PMID:12546286

Morey, John C; Simon, Robert; Jay, Gregory D; Wears, Robert L; Salisbury, Mary; Dukes, Kimberly A; Berns, Scott D

2002-01-01

335

A pre-post test evaluation of the impact of the PELICAN MDT-TME Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members  

PubMed Central

Background The PELICAN Multidisciplinary Team Total Mesorectal Excision (MDT-TME) Development Programme aimed to improve clinical outcomes for rectal cancer by educating colorectal cancer teams in precision surgery and related aspects of multidisciplinary care. The Programme reached almost all colorectal cancer teams across England. We took the opportunity to assess the impact of participating in this novel team-based Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members. Methods The impact of participating in the programme on team members' self-reported job stress, job satisfaction and team performance was assessed in a pre-post course study. 333/568 (59%) team members, from the 75 multidisciplinary teams who attended the final year of the Programme, completed questionnaires pre-course, and 6-8 weeks post-course. Results Across all team members, the main sources of job satisfaction related to working in multidisciplinary teams; whilst feeling overloaded was the main source of job stress. Surgeons and clinical nurse specialists reported higher levels of job satisfaction than team members who do not provide direct patient care, whilst MDT coordinators reported the lowest levels of job satisfaction and job stress. Both job stress and satisfaction decreased after participating in the Programme for all team members. There was a small improvement in team performance. Conclusions Participation in the Development Programme had a mixed impact on the working lives of team members in the immediate aftermath of attending. The decrease in team members' job stress may reflect the improved knowledge and skills conferred by the Programme. The decrease in job satisfaction may be the consequence of being unable to apply these skills immediately in clinical practice because of a lack of required infrastructure and/or equipment. In addition, whilst the Programme raised awareness of the challenges of teamworking, a greater focus on tackling these issues may have improved working lives further. PMID:20587062

2010-01-01

336

Visuospatial skills and computer game experience influence the performance of virtual endoscopy.  

PubMed

Advanced medical simulators have been introduced to facilitate surgical and endoscopic training and thereby improve patient safety. Residents trained in the Procedicus Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR) laparoscopic simulator perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy safer and faster than a control group. Little has been reported regarding whether factors like gender, computer experience, and visuospatial tests can predict the performance with a medical simulator. Our aim was to investigate whether such factors influence the performance of simulated gastroscopy. Seventeen medical students were asked about computer gaming experiences. Before virtual endoscopy, they performed the visuospatial test PicCOr, which discriminates the ability of the tested person to create a three-dimensional image from a two-dimensional presentation. Each student performed one gastroscopy (level 1, case 1) in the GI Mentor II, Simbionix, and several variables related to performance were registered. Percentage of time spent with a clear view in the endoscope correlated well with the performance on the PicSOr test (r = 0.56, P < 0.001). Efficiency of screening also correlated with PicSOr (r = 0.23, P < 0.05). In students with computer gaming experience, the efficiency of screening increased (33.6% +/- 3.1% versus 22.6% +/- 2.8%, P < 0.05) and the duration of the examination decreased by 1.5 minutes (P < 0.05). A similar trend was seen in men compared with women. The visuospatial test PicSOr predicts the results with the endoscopic simulator GI Mentor II. Two-dimensional image experience, as in computer games, also seems to affect the outcome. PMID:15531242

Enochsson, Lars; Isaksson, Bengt; Tour, René; Kjellin, Ann; Hedman, Leif; Wredmark, Torsten; Tsai-Felländer, Li

2004-11-01

337

CAREER SKILLS WORKSHEET The skills you have are critical in shaping what you want to do for work. The closer your skills align with the  

E-print Network

___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ Listening Critical Thinking Creativity Time Management Organization Leadership Team Work VerbalCAREER SKILLS WORKSHEET The skills you have are critical in shaping what you want to do for work think are your TOP 10 skills and record them below. Your TOP skills should be those in which you have

338

Frequency of provision of knowledge of performance on skill acquisition in older persons  

PubMed Central

The provision of feedback is a crucial factor for the evolution of the learner’s performance. It is known that the knowledge of performance has the function of guiding the learner’s attention to critical aspects of the movement pattern. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of frequency of knowledge of performance (KP) during the acquisition of the basketball free throw in older persons. Sixty active individuals (men and women) aged 60–69 years of age, divided into three experimental groups received KP in 100, 66, and 33% of their attempts during three practice sessions totaling 90 trials. The task was the basketball free throw. Volunteers were asked to conduct tests of immediate retention, 24 h retention, and 24 h transfer test, after the last practice session. During the acquisition phase, the volunteers received KP on the movement pattern on the previous attempt, which was obtained from a qualitative hierarchical checklist of the free throw (14 items). Sessions were recorded in order to confirm whether volunteers were able to score throughout sessions. ANOVA indicated that all individuals showed an improved performance in the retention and transfer tests. But the KP frequency of 66% was superior in both qualitative (movement pattern) and quantitative (score) measurements throughout the trials (p ? 0.05). In conclusion older persons seem to need an optimal KP frequency supply during the learning process. PMID:25566134

Nunes, Marcelo E. S.; Souza, Marina G. T. X.; Basso, Luciano; Monteiro, Carlos B. M.; Corrêa, Umberto C.; Santos, Suely

2014-01-01

339

Music in the Classroom: Its Influence on Children's Brain Development, Academic Performance, and Practical Life Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research reveals the beneficial effects of music on education performance. Research indicates that music plays an important role in the brain development of a child. Furthermore, researchers believe that children who have more exposure to music and music training benefit from enhanced brain activity which has been shown to…

Yoon, Jenny Nam

340

Performed Culture: An Approach to East Asian Language Pedagogy. Pathways to Advanced Skills Series, Volume 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a general introduction to the performed culture approach, which trains students how to express themselves in a way that native speakers of the target culture feel appropriate in given situations. Target readership includes Chinese, Japanese, and Korean language teachers and graduate students. Chapters of this book include: (1)…

Christensen, Matthew; Warnick, Paul

2006-01-01

341

Effects of Tactile Training on Visual Speechreading: Performance Changes Related to Individual Differences in Cognitive Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A follow-up study examined the effects of different tactile aids on tasks of visual speech reading in 14 adults with severe hearing impairments. Compared with speech reading alone, tactile aids impaired sentence-based speech reading at first, although performance improved with training. No effects of vibrotactile aids or training were obtained for…

Andersson, Ulf; Lyxell, Bjorn; Ronnberg, Jerker; Spens, Karl-Erik

2001-01-01

342

FORCE TIME MEASURES OF BEGINNING AND SKILLED SKATEBOARDERS PERFORMING AN OLLIE  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: It was reported (US today) that in 2001 more American youth participated in skateboarding than baseball. The growing popularity of the urban skating in recent years has been a factor in the transformation of the sport and the tricks that are performed. In the early days of skateboarding aerials and various vertical manoeuvres made up the majority of the

Mark Walsh; Ceith Creekmur; Jeff Wojcik

343

Phonological and Non-Phonological Language Skills as Predictors of Early Reading Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accurate prediction of early childhood reading performance could help identify at-risk students, aid in the development of evidence-based intervention strategies, and further our theoretical understanding of reading development. This study assessed the validity of the Developmental Indicator for the Assessment of Learning (DIAL) language-based…

Batson-Magnuson, LuAnn

2010-01-01

344

Motivational Climate and Fundamental Motor Skill Performance in a Naturalistic Physical Education Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The literature on motivation suggests that student learning and performance is influenced by the motivational climate, and that positive benefits can be derived from exposure to a mastery motivational climate. Nonetheless, to date, only a few studies have attempted to investigate a mastery motivational climate in a naturalistic setting…

Martin, Ellen H.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Hastie, Peter A.

2009-01-01

345

Assertive Skills and Academic Performance in Primary and Secondary Education, Giftedness, and Conflictive Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This study explores the level of assertiveness in various samples of students from Primary and Secondary Education. With the data obtained, on the one hand, we analyzed the relation between assertiveness and academic performance and, on the other, we verified whether students who are excluded from the norm, either because of their…

Marugan de Miguelsanz, Montserrat; Carbonero Martin, Miguel Angel; Palazuelo Martinez, Ma Marcela

2012-01-01

346

Rites of Passage in Initial Teacher Training: Ritual, Performance, Ordeal, and Numeracy Skills Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains transition was identified by early 20th century anthropologists as the liminal stage of a rite of passage. Identifies transition, applying a contemporary anthropological lens to initial teacher training, not as a linear progression but as a complex process of extended and ambiguous in betweenness that involves play, performance, and…

McNamara, Olwen; Roberts, Lorna; Basit, Tehmina N.; Brown, Tony

2002-01-01

347

Effects of Model Performances on Music Skill Acquisition and Overnight Memory Consolidation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to investigate the extent to which the presentation of an auditory model prior to learning a novel melody affects performance during active practice and the overnight consolidation of procedural memory. During evening training sessions, 32 nonpianist musicians practiced a 13-note keyboard melody with their left…

Cash, Carla D.; Allen, Sarah E.; Simmons, Amy L.; Duke, Robert A.

2014-01-01

348

SHARP's systems engineering challenge: rectifying integrated product team requirements with performance issues in an evolutionary spiral development acquisition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Completing its final development and early deployment on the Navy's multi-role aircraft, the F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet, the SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) provides the war fighter with the latest digital tactical reconnaissance (TAC Recce) Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor system. The SHARP program is an evolutionary acquisition that used a spiral development process across a prototype development phase tightly coupled into overlapping Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) and Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) phases. Under a tight budget environment with a highly compressed schedule, SHARP challenged traditional acquisition strategies and systems engineering (SE) processes. Adopting tailored state-of-the-art systems engineering process models allowd the SHARP program to overcome the technical knowledge transition challenges imposed by a compressed program schedule. The program's original goal was the deployment of digital TAC Recce mission capabilities to the fleet customer by summer of 2003. Hardware and software integration technical challenges resulted from requirements definition and analysis activities performed across a government-industry led Integrated Product Team (IPT) involving Navy engineering and test sites, Boeing, and RTSC-EPS (with its subcontracted hardware and government furnished equipment vendors). Requirements development from a bottoms-up approach was adopted using an electronic requirements capture environment to clarify and establish the SHARP EMD product baseline specifications as relevant technical data became available. Applying Earned-Value Management (EVM) against an Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) resulted in efficiently managing SE task assignments and product deliveries in a dynamically evolving customer requirements environment. Application of Six Sigma improvement methodologies resulted in the uncovering of root causes of errors in wiring interconnectivity drawings, pod manufacturing processes, and avionics requirements specifications. Utilizing the draft NAVAIR SE guideline handbook and the ANSI/EIA-632 standard: Processes for Engineering a System, a systems engineering tailored process approach was adopted for the accelerated SHARP EMD prgram. Tailoring SE processes in this accelerated product delivery environment provided unique opportunities to be technically creative in the establishment of a product performance baseline. This paper provides an historical overview of the systems engineering activities spanning the prototype phase through the EMD SHARP program phase, the performance requirement capture activities and refinement process challenges, and what SE process improvements can be applied to future SHARP-like programs adopting a compressed, evolutionary spiral development acquisition paradigm.

Kuehl, C. Stephen

2003-08-01

349

]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

2000-01-01

350

Leadership Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists skills identified by the Leadership Development Task Force as being critical skills for a leader. Discussion focuses on information managing skills, including problem solving, decision making, setting goals and objectives; project management; and people managing skills, including interpersonal communications, conflict management, motivation,…

Hutchison, Cathleen; And Others

1988-01-01

351

Identifying Differences in Diagnostic Skills between Physics Students: Students' Self-Diagnostic Performance Given Alternative Scaffolding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

âSelf-diagnosis tasksâ aim at fostering diagnostic behavior by explicitly requiring students to present diagnosis as part of the activity of reviewing their problem solutions. We have been investigating the extent to which introductory physics students can diagnose their own mistakes when explicitly asked to do so with different levels of scaffolding support provided to them. In our study in an introductory physics class with more than 200 students, the recitation classes were split into three different experimental groups in which different levels of guidance were provided for performing the self-diagnosis activities. We present our findings that students' performance was far from perfect. However, differences in the scaffolding in the three experimental groups (i.e. providing a correct solution and a self-diagnosis rubric) noticeably affected the resulting diagnosis.

Cohen, Elisheva; Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha; Yerushalmi, Edit

2009-01-24

352

Using Student Team Learning. The Johns Hopkins Team Learning Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this manual is to give teachers the information they need to use student team learning, which is described as a method to promote major academic and nonacademic goals such as improved basic skills, improved student self-concept, and better interpersonal/cross-racial relationships. Complete directions are given for three techniques:…

Slavin, Robert E.

353

Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. METHODS: Members of a state branch of

Sandra G Leggat

2007-01-01

354

Selection and Review of Measurement Item to Study Students' Generic Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was carried out to review the GS (generic skills) instruments used for engineering students. A total of 455 respondents were involved in this study. The variables presented in this study were the information management skills, communication skill, team working skill, problem-solving skill, lifelong learning skill, technology utilization…

Mokhtar, Seri Bunian; Rahman, Saemah; Mokhtar, Seri Intan; Husain, Mohd Yusof

2012-01-01

355

Awareness Teams in Health Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cooperative effort of the Michigan State University, the Michigan 4-H Youth Program, the Michigan Arthritis Foundation, and private business has developed a "health awareness team" of concerned youth, who learn about specific health problems, develop presentation skills, and implement methods for delivering this knowledge to the general public.…

Hoopfer, Leah B.

1977-01-01

356

Team Up to Increase Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presentation describes the development of an interdisciplinary team approach to working with mildly retarded students (5-9 years old). The approach featured group discussions and activities to enhance students' listening, communication, and social skills, and to improve individual and group behavior. Individual and group goals were designed by…

Phelps, Barbara; And Others

357

Assessment of the anti-G straining maneuver (AGSM) skill performance and reinforcement program.  

PubMed

Initial high-G centrifuge training of USAF fast jet pilots was instituted in 1985. Also, since the mid-1980's, pilot awareness of G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) has been enhanced by briefings, videotapes, and safety articles. Aircraft accidents caused by an improperly performed anti-G straining maneuver (AGSM), however, continue to occur. Deficiencies in the AGSM of pilots in flight have not been systematically studied. A test program to reinforce the proper performance of the AGSM in flight was initiated in the United States Air Forces Europe (USAFE) in 1993. Head-up display videotapes (HUD tapes) were recorded during flight and critiqued during debrief by flight leads for AGSM technique and continuity. Questionnaires were completed by F-16, F-15C, and F-15E pilots assigned to USAFE: 78 surveys were completed out of 110 distributed (71%). There were 57 pilots (73%) who reported one or more problems with their AGSM: 33 noted that the timing of their breathing was too quick (< 2 s cycle), 11 that their breathing was too slow (> 4 s), 9 that inhalation was too long, 18 occasionally did not "get the jump on the Gs," and 34 frequently or occasionally talked during +Gz exposures. Of the 105 reported deficiencies, 67 (64%) were mostly or completely corrected: 30/33 (91%) if the timing of breathing was too quick, 8/11 (73%) if too slow, 5/9 (56%) if inhalation too long, 12/18 (67%) "jump on the Gs," and 12/34 (35%) if they talked. This program was most successful in remediating timing problems with the AGSM. PMID:9096829

Lyons, T J; Marlowe, B L; Michaud, V J; McGowan, D J

1997-04-01

358

MSA Goals and Learning Outcomes I. Communication Skills  

E-print Network

MSA Goals and Learning Outcomes I. Communication Skills SLO #1.1 Students will be able to compare business communication. II. Group/Interpersonal Skills SLO #2.1 Students will be able to actively participate in team decision making. Skills that represent active participation include interpersonal skills

Ponce, V. Miguel

359

Successfully Applying Team Teaching with Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Team teaching is a great strategy to convey systems thinking to students, families, and communities and to help learners gain multiple perspectives. Learners benefit from the professional interaction among skilled instructors. This article uses a program of land stewardship to demonstrate the advantages of team teaching. Both the advantages and…

Laughlin, Kevin; Nelson, Peggy; Donaldson, Susan

2011-01-01

360

Subject Area Paraprofessionals: A Team Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of California at Irvine has formed subject area teams composed of paraprofessionals in order to provide a comprehensive approach to skills development programming and tutoring in subject areas. The goal of the program is to facilitate retention and academic success of students. Three teams that represent the broad discipline areas…

Hubin, David R.; Martin, Linda C.

361

The relationships between spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematics performance and kinematics graph interpretation skills of 12th grade physics students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs have a broad use in science classrooms, especially in physics. In physics, kinematics is probably the topic for which graphs are most widely used. The participants in this study were from two different grade-12 physics classrooms, advanced placement and calculus-based physics. The main purpose of this study was to search for the relationships between student spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematical achievement, and kinematics graphs interpretation skills. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the Middle Grades Integrated Process Skills Test (MIPT), and the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) were used for quantitative data collection. Classroom observations were made to acquire ideas about classroom environment and instructional techniques. Factor analysis, simple linear correlation, multiple linear regression, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Each instrument has two principal components. The selection and calculation of the slope and of the area were the two principal components of TUG-K. MIPT was composed of a component based upon processing text and a second component based upon processing symbolic information. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was composed of a component based upon one-step processing and a second component based upon two-step processing of information. Student ability to determine the slope in a kinematics graph was significantly correlated with spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement. However, student ability to determine the area in a kinematics graph was only significantly correlated with student pre-calculus semester 2 grades. Male students performed significantly better than female students on the slope items of TUG-K. Also, male students performed significantly better than female students on the PSAT mathematics assessment and spatial ability. This study found that students have different levels of spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement levels. These different levels were related to student learning of kinematics and they need to be considered when kinematics is being taught. It might be easier for students to understand the kinematics graphs if curriculum developers include more activities related to spatial ability and logical thinking.

Bektasli, Behzat

362

Team Performance and Risk-Adjusted Health Outcomes in the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) is a community-based program providing primary, acute, and long-term care to frail elderly individuals. A central component of the PACE model is the interdisciplinary care team, which includes both professionals and non-professionals. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

Mukamel, Dana B.; Temkin-Greener, Helena; Delavan, Rachel; Peterson, Derick R.; Gross, Diane; Kunitz, Stephen; Williams, T. Franklin

2006-01-01

363

The Effects of Mind Mapping with Cooperative Learning on Programming Performance, Problem Solving Skill and Metacognitive Knowledge among Computer Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of mind mapping with cooperative learning (MMCL) and cooperative learning (CL) on: (a) programming performance; (b) problem solving skill; and (c) metacognitive knowledge among computer science students in Malaysia. The moderating variable is the students' logical thinking level with two…

Ismail, Mohd Nasir; Ngah, Nor Azilah; Umar, Irfan Naufal

2010-01-01

364

Gender Differences in Examinee Performance on the Step 2 Clinical Skills[R] Data Gathering (DG) and Patient Note (PN) Components  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple studies examining the relationship between physician gender and performance on examinations have found consistent significant gender differences, but relatively little information is available related to any gender effect on interviewing and written communication skills. The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE[R]) Step 2…

Swygert, Kimberly A.; Cuddy, Monica M.; van Zanten, Marta; Haist, Steven A.; Jobe, Ann C.

2012-01-01

365

Effectiveness of Cognitive/Relaxation Therapy and Study-Skills Training in Reducing Self-Reported Anxiety and Improving the Academic Performance of Test-Anxious Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results indicated relaxation/cognitive therapy was effective in reducing anxiety but failed to improve classroom test scores; study-skills training had no significant effect. The combined therapy both reduced anxiety and improved performance relative to the no-treatment control condition and was significantly more effective than was either…

Dendato, Kenneth M.; Diener, Don

1986-01-01

366

Aerobraking Teams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Group and team photos of Langely's Aerobraking teams. These photo's were taken right after the 75 day aerobraking phase. People in the photographs include: Paul V. Tartabini, Mary Kae Lockwood, Richard W. Powell, Eric M. Queen, Bob Tolson, Alicia Dwyer, Jill Hanna, Michelle Munk, Zack Q. Chavis, dick Wilmoth, Naru Takashima, Ruth Amundsen, John Aguirre, Allison Roberts, Loreyna Young, Charles W. Davis, John Dec, Joe Gasbarre, Scott Striepe, Paul Escalera and G. M. Keating.

2002-01-01

367

Why Simulation-Based Team Training Has Not Been Used Effectively and What Can Be Done about It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advanced medical education simulators are broadly used today to train both technical/procedural and team-based skills. While there is convincing evidence of the benefits of training technical skills, this is not the case for team-based skills. Research on medical expertise could drive the creation of a new regime of simulation-based team training.…

Masiello, Italo

2012-01-01

368

Crisis resource management: evaluating outcomes of a multidisciplinary team.  

PubMed

Crisis resource management (CRM) is a team-training program that teaches nontechnical skills such as: collaboration, communication, task management, teamwork, and leadership. The purpose of this study was to evaluate improvement in the nontechnical skills of a multidisciplinary team of pediatric residents, anesthesiology residents and pediatric nurses following participation in the CRM educational program. Self-efficacy theory guided the teaching method used in the CRM program. The Collaboration and Satisfaction about Care Decisions instrument and the Anesthetists' Nontechnical Skills System served as outcome measures. Seven multidisciplinary groups were studied with a total of 40 subjects. A significant increase was found in posttest scores for perceived collaboration and satisfaction with care and in numerical ratings of observed team skills following the CRM program. The results suggest multidisciplinary team participation in the CRM program increased perceived team collaboration, satisfaction with care, and observed teamwork skills. PMID:19088613

Jankouskas, Tara; Bush, Mary Chasko; Murray, Bosseau; Rudy, Sally; Henry, Jody; Dyer, Anne Marie; Liu, Wenlei; Sinz, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

369

Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or failure of team-based work systems. Pediatricians often function as team leaders in the resuscitation of a critically ill child. However, pediatric residents often report having little opportunity to perform in the role of team leader during residency. In order to gain more insight into leadership skills and behaviors, we classified leadership styles of pediatric residents during simulated emergencies. Methods We conducted a prospective quantitative study to investigate leadership styles used by pediatric residents during simulated emergencies with clinical deterioration of a child at a pediatric ward. Using videotaped scenarios of 48 simulated critical events among 12 residents, we were able to classify verbal and nonverbal communication into different leadership styles according to the situational leadership theory. Results The coaching style (mean 54.5%, SD 7.8) is the most frequently applied by residents, followed by the directing style (mean 35.6%, SD 4.1). This pattern conforms to the task- and role-related requirements in our scenarios and it also conforms to the concept of situational leadership. We did not find any significant differences in leadership style according to the postgraduate year or scenario content. Conclusion The model used in this pilot study helps us to gain a better understanding of the development of effective leadership behavior and supports the applicability of situational leadership theory in training leadership skills during residency. PMID:25610010

Coolen, Ester H; Draaisma, Jos M; den Hamer, Sabien; Loeffen, Jan L

2015-01-01

370

Skill Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

Holdsworth, Tom

2007-01-01

371

Learning curves and impact of previous operative experience on performance on a virtual reality simulator to test laparoscopic surgical skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe study was carried out to analyze the learning rate for laparoscopic skills on a virtual reality training system and to establish whether the simulator was able to differentiate between surgeons with different laparoscopic experience.

Teodor P Grantcharov; Linda Bardram; Peter Funch-Jensen; Jacob Rosenberg

2003-01-01

372

A Shift in Task Routines during the Learning of a Motor Skill: Group-Averaged Data May Mask Critical Phases in the Individuals' Acquisition of Skilled Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe a transient phase during training on a movement sequence wherein, after an initial improvement in speed and decrease in variability, individual participants' performance showed a significant increase in variability without change in mean performance speed. Subsequent to this phase, as practice continued, variability again…

Adi-Japha, Esther; Karni, Avi; Parnes, Ariel; Loewenschuss, Iris; Vakil, Eli

2008-01-01

373

SLI Results and Student Leadership Development The Student Leadership Inventory (SLI) was developed by the Student Affairs Student Leadership Team  

E-print Network

SLI Results and Student Leadership Development The Student Leadership Inventory (SLI) was developed by the Student Affairs Student Leadership Team several years ago and has been used for leadership skill dimensions of leadership skills: Critical Thinking Communication Interpersonal Skills Ethics

Missouri-Rolla, University of

374

Team Learning and Team Composition in Nursing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study aims to explore team learning activities in nursing teams and to test the effect of team composition on team learning to extend conceptually an initial model of team learning and to examine empirically a new model of ambidextrous team learning in nursing. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative research utilising exploratory…

Timmermans, Olaf; Van Linge, Roland; Van Petegem, Peter; Elseviers, Monique; Denekens, Joke

2011-01-01

375

Automated Operator Instruction in Team Tactics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report discusses the applicability of available advanced training technologies to the training of Navy tactical teams. An experiment was conducted to test whether there is sufficient commonality in team tasks performed in existing team tactics trainers to warrant development of a team training system for specific advanced technologies. Data…

Daniels, R. W.; And Others

376

Team size impact on assessment of teamwork in simulation-based trauma team training.  

PubMed

Non-technical skills (teamwork) assessment is used to improve competence during training for interprofessional trauma teams. We hypothesized non-technical skills assessment is less reliable for large size teams, and evaluated team size effects during teamwork training. Small-teams (n = 5; 5-7 members) and Large-teams (n = 6; 8-9 members) participated in three simulation-based trauma team training scenarios. Following each scenario, teamwork was scored by participating trauma attending physicians (TA), non-participating critical care trauma nurses (CRN), and two expert teamwork debriefers (E), using the Trauma Nontechnical Skills Assessment tool (T-NOTECHS). Large-team scores by TA and CRN were higher than E scores (P < .003); small-team scores did not differ by rater. Small-team inter-observer agreement was substantial (ICC = 0.60); large-team agreement was low (ICC = 0.29). E and TA scores showed no concordance, whereas E and CRN scores showed poor concordance for large teams (ICC = 0.41, r = 0.53, P = .02). By contrast, correlation between E and TA (ICC = 0.52, r = 0.80, P < .001) as well as E and CRN (ICC = 0.57, and r = 0.65, P < .01) for small teams was high. Team size should be considered in team-training design, and when using teamwork rating instruments such as T-NOTECHS for assessment of simulated or actual trauma teams. Modified rating scales and enhanced training for raters of large groups versus small groups may be warranted. PMID:25414806

Lim, Yong-Su; Steinemann, Susan; Berg, Benjamin W

2014-11-01

377

Team composition and perceived roles of team members in the trauma bay.  

PubMed

Perceptions of trauma team members and their roles may impact team performance, requiring intervention. Participant observation and semistructured interviews were performed with trauma team members: attendings, nurses, fellows, residents, and medical students. Some team members do not include nurses as members of the team. A greater proportion of male than female team leaders perceived their role as teacher or educator. Nurses, attendings, and fellows, provided parallel descriptions of good leaders, whereas medical students and residents stressed other qualities. Inconsistencies in trauma team role definition and membership should be addressed, toward the goal of improving team communication and patient outcomes. PMID:22955707

Speck, Rebecca M; Jones, Gabrielle; Barg, Frances K; McCunn, Maureen

2012-01-01

378

Improving Performance through Personal Mastery: A Case Study with Fairchild Semiconductor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study of Fairchild Semiconductor, a global company, illustrates how leadership training that stresses personal mastery (the ability to achieve a vision through recognizing and addressing individual and team obstacles) can lead to performance improvement. Topics include management skills; change agents; team and individual goals; and…

Jacob, Timothy A.; Nuer, Lara H.; Guman, Elizabeth C.

1999-01-01

379

The effect of behavioral contracting on the acquisition of guitar performance skills in a college-level beginning guitar class.  

PubMed

Behavioral contracting has been used as a tool to modify behavior in a variety of settings, and the purpose of this study was to determine the impact of behavioral contracting on the acquisition of guitar performance skills in a college-level beginning guitar class. Music and nonmusic majors enrolled in 4 college-level beginning guitar classes participated in this study. Participants (N = 27) were divided into four groups, with Groups 1 and 2 serving as control (n = 5, n = 6) and Groups 3 and 4 serving as experimental (n = 7, n = 9). A Multiple baseline format was implemented that involved 3 testing conditions (T1, T2, T3). Participants played the same I-IV-V7-1 chord progression for all 3 testing conditions. Experimental Group 3 received a behavioral contract between T1 and T2, while experimental Group 4 received a contract between T2 and T3. Participants in the contracting groups were allowed to make structured choices about evaluation procedures and reward outcomes. Data on speed increase and accuracy were collected via videotaping and analyzed by an independent reviewer blind to condition. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs were used to analyze differences in tempo and errors. A significant interaction was found for tempo and group and a significant difference in errors was found across treatment conditions. However, no significance was found between the groups for errors. Graphic analysis of tempo changes indicated that Group 1 improved tempo by a total of 41%, Group 2 by a total of 38%, Group 3 (contract) by a total of 76% and Group 4 (contract) by a total of 67%. Both contracting groups showed the biggest decrease in errors during the contracting condition, although errors actually increased slightly for Group 3 once the contracting condition was removed. PMID:20394133

Gooding, Lori F

2009-01-01

380

“Best Practice” Skills Lab Training vs. a “see one, do one” Approach in Undergraduate Medical Education: An RCT on Students’ Long-Term Ability to Perform Procedural Clinical Skills  

PubMed Central

Background Benefits of skills lab training are widely accepted, but there is sparse research on its long-term effectiveness. We therefore conducted a prospective, randomised controlled-trial to investigate whether in a simulated setting students trained according to a "best practice" model (BPSL) perform two skills of different complexity (nasogastral tube insertion, NGT; intravenous cannulation, IVC) better than students trained with a traditional "see one, do one" teaching approach (TRAD), at follow-up of 3 or 6 months. Methodology and Principal Findings 94 first-year medical students were randomly assigned to one of four groups: BPSL training or TRAD teaching with follow-up at 3 (3M) or 6 (6M) months. BPSL included structured feedback, practice on manikins, and Peyton’s "Four-Step-Approach", while TRAD was only based on the "see one - do one" principle. At follow-up, manikins were used to assess students’ performance by two independent blinded video-assessors using binary checklists and a single-item global assessment scale. BPSL students scored significantly higher immediately after training (NGT: BPSL3M 94.8%±0.2 and BPSL6M 95.4%±0.3 percentage of maximal score ± SEM; TRAD3M 86.1%±0.5 and TRAD6M 84.7%±0.4. IVC: BPSL3M 86.4%±0.5 and BPSL6M 88.0%±0.5; TRAD3M 73.2%±0.7 and TRAD6M 72.5%±0.7) and lost significantly less of their performance ability at each follow-up (NGT: BPSL3M 86.3%±0.3 and TRAD3M 70.3%±0.6; BPSL6M 89.0%±0.3 and TRAD6M 65.4%±0.6; IVC: BPSL3M 79.5%±0.5 and TRAD3M 56.5%±0.5; BPSL6M 73.2%±0.4 and TRAD6M 51.5%±0.8). In addition, BPSL students were more often rated clinically competent at all assessment times. The superiority at assessment after training was higher for the more complex skill (IVC), whereas NGT with its lower complexity profited more with regard to long-term retention. Conclusions This study shows that within a simulated setting BPSL is significantly more effective than TRAD for skills of different complexity assessed immediately after training and at follow-up. The advantages of BPSL training are seen especially in long-term retention. PMID:24086732

Herrmann-Werner, Anne; Nikendei, Christoph; Keifenheim, Katharina; Bosse, Hans Martin; Lund, Frederike; Wagner, Robert; Celebi, Nora; Zipfel, Stephan; Weyrich, Peter

2013-01-01

381

Interdisciplinary Team Training: Content and Methodology. Interdisciplinary Team Training and Humanistic Patient Care for Hospices. Monograph 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph, the fourth in a series of five, provides training information for hospice staff in improving interdisciplinary team functions and humanistic care provisions. Its purpose is to prepare a skilled team of trainers with information about hospices that is relevant to hospice interdisciplinary team training and to document experiences in…

Wilson, Dottie C.; Grady, Kathleen A.

382

Global Engineering Teams--A Programme Promoting Teamwork in Engineering Design and Manufacturing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineering graduates are expected to possess various competencies categorised into hard and soft skills. The hard skills are acquired through specific coursework, but the soft skills are often treated perfunctorily. Global Engineering Teams (GET) is a programme that promotes project-oriented tasks in virtual student teams working in collaboration…

Oladiran, M. T.; Uziak, J.; Eisenberg, M.; Scheffer, C.

2011-01-01

383

Meeting the Needs of Young Adolescents on Interdisciplinary Teams. Reviews of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research in the area of interdisciplinary team work at the middle school level. Suggests that the benefits of interdisciplinary teaming are clear--evidence abounds suggesting that teaming results in higher achievement in math, reading and language arts skills. Furthermore, these skills are developed more effectively across a wide range of…

Erb, Thomas O.

1997-01-01

384

Learning Clinical Skills: An Interprofessional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a clinical skills center, nurses, doctors, and specialists helped nursing and medical students develop clinical and communication skills in the context of holistic patient care. Two aspects of the format received high ratings: realistic patient scenarios and interdisciplinary team teaching. (SK)

Freeth, Della; Nicol, Maggie

1998-01-01

385

Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory.  

PubMed

Clinical skills laboratories have been established in medical institutions as facilities for simulation-based medical education (SBME). SBME is believed to be superior to the traditional style of medical education from the viewpoint of the active and adult learning theories. SBME can provide a learning cycle of debriefing and feedback for learners as well as evaluation of procedures and competency. SBME offers both learners and patients a safe environment for practice and error. In a full-environment simulation, learners can obtain not only technical skills but also non-technical skills, such as leadership, team work, communication, situation awareness, decision-making, and awareness of personal limitations. SBME is also effective for integration of clinical medicine and basic medicine. In addition, technology-enhanced simulation training is associated with beneficial effects for outcomes of knowledge, skills, behaviors, and patient-related outcomes. To perform SBME, effectively, not only simulators including high-fidelity mannequin-type simulators or virtual-reality simulators but also full-time faculties and instructors as professionals of SBME are essential in a clinical skills laboratory for SBME. Clinical skills laboratory is expected to become an integrated medical education center to achieve continuing professional development, integrated learning of basic and clinical medicine, and citizens' participation and cooperation in medical education. PMID:22449990

Akaike, Masashi; Fukutomi, Miki; Nagamune, Masami; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Kazuko; Iwata, Takashi

2012-01-01

386

[Role of pharmacists in disaster medicine: required knowledge and skills].  

PubMed

Immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011, Okayama University dispatched a medical assistance team based on the request of Iwate Prefecture. The first team was followed by 12 medical teams. I was one of the members of the fourth and fifth medical teams sent to Rikuzen-takata and Ofunato for a week beginning March 16th to support medical relief operations as a pharmacist during the sub-acute phase of the disaster. As a member of the team at the temporary clinic in Rikuzen-takata, pharmacists such as myself required physical assessment skills to perform related tasks, along with expertise in drug dispensing and consultation. In my next medical team, which headed the pneumonia unit at Oofunato Hospital, I played a critical role in the effective use of medicine reserved/provided for disasters, including antibiotics. Throughout the relief operations, strong clinical reasoning and decision making, as well as good teamwork, proved vital, especially in emergency situations. For future community medical systems, emergency/disaster medicine should be included in pharmacy education. The School of Pharmacy at Okayama University will establish emergency medicine program in the next school year, in cooperation with the Medical, Dental and Health Care Departments. PMID:24389607

Nakura, Hironori

2014-01-01

387

Skill Matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skill is a challenging topic for archeologists because it requires balancing the biases of cultural relativity with the commonsense\\u000a understanding that some humans are more able than others. Using the content and results model of technology, this paper identifies\\u000a skill as a variable of technological knowledge with recognizable material results. Late Paleolithic Japanese blade and microblade\\u000a assemblages suggest that skill

Peter Bleed

2008-01-01

388

Shop Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shop Skills is a lesson plan which provides instruction in the safety procedures and work processes for hand and machine tools used in a metal machine shop. Specific skills include sawing, drilling, boring, grinding, lathing, and milling. After completing this module, students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in these skills through a variety of shop projects and in a final exercise that uses a combination of these skills. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

2010-07-22

389

Case management: a randomized controlled study comparing a neighborhood team and a centralized individual model.  

PubMed Central

This randomized controlled study compared two types of case management for skilled nursing level patients living at home: the centralized individual model and the neighborhood team model. The team model differed from the individual model in that team case managers performed client assessments, care planning, some direct services, and reassessments; they also had much smaller caseloads and were assigned a specific catchment area. While patients in both groups incurred very high estimated health services costs, the average annual cost during 1983-85 for team cases was 13.6 percent less than that of individual model cases. While the team cases were 18.3 percent less expensive among "old" patients (patients who entered the study from the existing ACCESS caseload), they were only 2.7 percent less costly among "new" cases. The lower costs were due to reductions in hospital days and home care. Team cases averaged 26 percent fewer hospital days per year and 17 percent fewer home health aide hours. Nursing home use was 48 percent higher for the team group than for the individual model group. Mortality was almost exactly the same for both groups during the first year (about 30 percent), but was lower for team patients during the second year (11 percent as compared to 16 percent). Probable mechanisms for the observed results are discussed. PMID:1917502

Eggert, G M; Zimmer, J G; Hall, W J; Friedman, B

1991-01-01

390

Using the Newspaper To Reinforce Mathematics Skills. Minimum Student Performance Standards for Florida Schools. Grades 3 and 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The newspaper is a familiar tool to many teachers. This book explores another use for the newspaper in the classroom. As an aid in the teaching and remediating of basic mathematics skills, the newspaper adds variety to classroom instruction. The suggested newspaper activities and teaching ideas presented here are specifically designed to reinforce…

Palm Beach Newspapers, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL.

391

Influence of an Experiential Education Session on Nursing Students’ Confidence Levels in Performing Selected Complementary Therapy Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts are under way in many nursing education programs across the United States to incorporate content into curricula on complementary\\/alternative therapies (CAT). Many of these efforts focus on didactic presentation of content. There is an absence of nursing programs that provide students with opportunities to actually experience and practice CAT skills; little is known about how these hands-on learning experiences

Linda Chlan; Linda Halcon; Mary Jo Kreitzer; Barbara Leonard

2005-01-01

392

The Effects of GO Solve Word Problems Math Intervention on Applied Problem Solving Skills of Low Performing Fifth Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigation examined the effects of "GO Solve Word Problems" math intervention on problem-solving skills of struggling 5th grade students. In a randomized controlled study, 16 5th grade students were given a 12-week intervention of "GO Solve", a computer-based program designed to teach schema-based instruction strategies (SBI.s) to…

Fede, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

393

A comprehension-based model of correct performance and errors in skilled, display-based, human-computer interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a computational model of skilled use of an application with a graphical user interface. The model provides a principled explanation of action slips, errors made by experienced users. The model is based on Hutchins, Holland and Norman's analysis of direct manipulation and is implemented using Kintsch and Mannes's construction-integration theory of action planning. The model attends to

Muneo Kitajima; Peter G. Polson

1995-01-01

394

Criterion Referenced Assessment: Delineating Curricular Related Performance Skills Necessary for the Development of a Table of Test Specifications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on defining and delineating core skills and tasks needed for successful CTE student educational growth and success through a curriculum and assessment alignment process. The context for this project lies within Automotive Service Technology (AST), which must additionally meet the National Institute of Automotive Service…

MacQuarrie, David; Applegate, Brooks; Lacefield, Warren

2008-01-01

395

Aligning Teacher Compensation with Systemic School Reform: Skill-Based Pay and Group-Based Performance Rewards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standards-based education reform requires that teachers develop a new array of professional knowledge and skills to teach a thinking-oriented curriculum, engage in the organization and management of schools, and produce higher levels of student achievement. Such a change is systemic and requires that all aspects of the school organization be restructured. This article describes a potential teacher compensation structure that

Allan M. Mohrman; Susan Albers Mohrman; Allan R. Odden

1996-01-01

396

Team Captain Kit National Team Initiative  

E-print Network

is supporting the Alzheimer's Association Memory Walk through the national team initiative in 2004. HOSA, and rewarding. As a Team Captain, you are a powerful force in the fight to end Alzheimer's disease. A Team liaison between their team and the Alzheimer's Association. This Team Captain kit will take you through

Rusu, Adrian

397

Teams as innovative systems: multilevel motivational antecedents of innovation in R&D teams.  

PubMed

Integrating theories of proactive motivation, team innovation climate, and motivation in teams, we developed and tested a multilevel model of motivators of innovative performance in teams. Analyses of multisource data from 428 members of 95 research and development (R&D) teams across 33 Chinese firms indicated that team-level support for innovation climate captured motivational mechanisms that mediated between transformational leadership and team innovative performance, whereas members' motivational states (role-breadth self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation) mediated between proactive personality and individual innovative performance. Furthermore, individual motivational states and team support for innovation climate uniquely promoted individual innovative performance, and, in turn, individual innovative performance linked team support for innovation climate to team innovative performance. PMID:23565898

Chen, Gilad; Farh, Jiing-Lih; Campbell-Bush, Elizabeth M; Wu, Zhiming; Wu, Xin

2013-11-01

398

Is There a Career for Me? Antarctic Meteorite Teams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the scientific careers and opportunities in Antarctic meteorite team(s). Learners will view slides and read about meteorite recovery expeditions to Antarctica, explore science careers, evaluate the characteristics and skills required for curating and working with meteorites, create scientific teams, and make written and oral presentations about their chosen scientific teams. Materials and vocabulary lists, and advanced preparation and procedural tips are included. This is lesson 18 of 19 in Exploring Meteorite Mysteries.

399

Building a team for user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the building blocks for building a team for user-centered design. These building blocks include an understanding of the skills needed for team members representing various aspects of the user experience, as well as the advantages of using a team-approach to user-centered design. To have a successful experience, team members must understand the stages of group formation, the

Carol M. Barnum

2000-01-01

400

Building a team for user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the building blocks for building a team for user-centered design. These building blocks include an understanding of the skills needed for team members representing various aspects of the user experience, as well as the advantages of using a team-approach to user-center design. To have a successful experience, team members must understand the stages of group formation, the

Carol M. Barnum

2000-01-01

401

Playing beautifully when you have to be fast: spatial and temporal symmetries of movement patterns in skilled piano performance at different tempi.  

PubMed

Humans are capable of learning a variety of motor skills such as playing the piano. Performance of these skills is subject to multiple constraints, such as musical phrasing or speed requirements, and these constraints vary from one context to another. In order to understand how the brain controls highly skilled movements, we investigated pianists playing musical scales with their left or right hand at various speeds. Pianists showed systematic temporal deviations away from regularity. At slow tempi, pianists slowed down at the beginning and end of the movement (which we call phrasal template). At fast tempi, temporal deviation traces consisted of three peak delays caused by a thumb-under manoeuvre (which we call neuromuscular template). Intermediate tempi were a linear combination trade-off between these two. We introduce and cross-validate a simple four-parameter model that predicted the timing deviation of each individual note across tempi (R(2) = 0.70). The model can be fitted on the data of individual pianists, providing a novel quantification of expert performance. The present study shows that the motor system can generate complex movements through a dynamic combination of simple movement templates. This provides insight into how the motor system flexibly adapts to varying contextual constraints. PMID:25059908

van Vugt, Floris T; Furuya, Shinichi; Vauth, Henning; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

2014-11-01

402

The Associations Between Executive Functions' Capacities, Performance Process Skills, and Dimensions of Participation in Activities of Daily Life Among Children of Elementary School Age.  

PubMed

Effective executive functions (EFs) are crucial for efficient daily functioning. Daily functioning or involvement in life situations is defined as "participation" (International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health [ICF]; World Health Organization, 2001 ). Yet associations between them have been inadequately studied for children. The present study aimed to explore the associations between EFs and child participation. Participants were 60 typically developing children aged 6 to 9 years old and their parents. The children were individually evaluated using five EF cognitive tests. The parents completed three questionnaires: the Children Participation Questionnaire, the Process Skills (the observed executive performance) Questionnaire, and the Environmental Restrictions Questionnaire. Most of the EF scores were associated with the child's age. A unique contribution of executive capacities was found for the "independence" aspect of child participation, though the quantum of contribution was limited compared with the other predictors' process skills and environmental restrictions. In the context of child participation, EFs should be studied through multivariate analysis, as otherwise, the unique contribution of executive capacities measured by neuropsychological cognitive tests are likely to be ignored. Process skills are crucial for a child's independence and autonomy in daily functioning. These findings are supported by the capacity-performance distinction suggested by the ICF model. PMID:25072941

Rosenberg, Limor

2014-07-29

403

Autonomous mobile robot teams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

1994-01-01

404

Team automata for groupware systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper introduces a mathematical model of groupware systems called Team Automata. We use this model at the architectural level, to describe components of a groupware system, and their interconnections. The multiple automata constituting the team interact via shared actions - transi- tions which,multiple automata,perform,synchronously together. The paper concludes by illustrating the applica- tion of this model to the

Clarence A. Ellis

1997-01-01

405

Consequences of team charter quality: Teamwork mental model similarity and team viability in engineering design student teams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1996 ABET has mandated that undergraduate engineering degree granting institutions focus on learning outcomes such as professional skills (i.e. solving unstructured problems and working in teams). As a result, engineering curricula were restructured to include team based learning---including team charters. Team charters were diffused into engineering education as one of many instructional activities to meet the ABET accreditation mandates. However, the implementation and execution of team charters into engineering team based classes has been inconsistent and accepted without empirical evidence of the consequences. The purpose of the current study was to investigate team effectiveness, operationalized as team viability, as an outcome of team charter implementation in an undergraduate engineering team based design course. Two research questions were the focus of the study: a) What is the relationship between team charter quality and viability in engineering student teams, and b) What is the relationship among team charter quality, teamwork mental model similarity, and viability in engineering student teams? Thirty-eight intact teams, 23 treatment and 15 comparison, participated in the investigation. Treatment teams attended a team charter lecture, and completed a team charter homework assignment. Each team charter was assessed and assigned a quality score. Comparison teams did not join the lecture, and were not asked to create a team charter. All teams completed each data collection phase: a) similarity rating pretest; b) similarity posttest; and c) team viability survey. Findings indicate that team viability was higher in teams that attended the lecture and completed the charter assignment. Teams with higher quality team charter scores reported higher levels of team viability than teams with lower quality charter scores. Lastly, no evidence was found to support teamwork mental model similarity as a partial mediator of the team charter quality on team viability relationship. Foci for future research opportunities include using: a) online data collection methods to improve participant adherence to similarity rating instructions; b) story or narratives during pre- and posttest similarity rating data collection to create common levels of contextual perception; and c) support to ensure charters are integrated into the full project life cycle, not just a pre-project one time isolated activity. Twenty five sections, on average, of EDSGN 100 are taught each spring and fall semester. Consistent instructor expectations are set for the technical aspects of the course. However, ideas to foster team effectiveness are often left to the discretion of the individual instructor. Implementing empirically tested team effectiveness instructional activities would bring consistency to EDGSN 100 curriculum. Other instructional activities that would be of benefit to engineering educators include qualitative inquiry---asking intrateam process questions (at the mid-point of the project) and in-class reflection---dedicated time, post project, to discuss what went well/not well within the team.

Conway Hughston, Veronica

406

Effect of pre-cooling on repeat-sprint performance in seasonally acclimatised males during an outdoor simulated team-sport protocol in warm conditions.  

PubMed

Whether precooling is beneficial for exercise performance in warm climates when heat acclimatised is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of precooling on repeat-sprint performance during a simulated team-sport circuit performed outdoors in warm, dry field conditions in seasonally acclimatised males (n = 10). They performed two trials, one with precooling (PC; ice slushy and cooling jacket) and another without (CONT). Trials began with a 30-min baseline/cooling period followed by an 80 min repeat-sprint protocol, comprising 4 x 20-min quarters, with 2 x 5-min quarter breaks and a 10-min half-time recovery/cooling period. A clear and substantial (negative; PC slower) effect was recorded for first quarter circuit time. Clear and trivial effects were recorded for overall circuit time, third and fourth quarter sprint times and fourth quarter best sprint time, otherwise unclear and trivial effects were recorded for remaining performance variables. Core temperature was moderately lower (Cohen's d=0.67; 90% CL=-1.27, 0.23) in PC at the end of the precooling period and quarter 1. No differences were found for mean skin temperature, heart rate, thermal sensation, or rating of perceived exertion, however, moderate Cohen's d effect sizes suggested a greater sweat loss in PC compared with CONT. In conclusion, repeat- sprint performance was neither clearly nor substantially improved in seasonally acclimatised players by using a combination of internal and external cooling methods prior to and during exercise performed in the field in warm, dry conditions. Of practical importance, precooling appears unnecessary for repeat-sprint performance if athletes are seasonally acclimatised or artificially acclimated to heat, as it provides no additional benefit. Key PointsPre-cooling did not improve repeated sprint performance during a prolonged team-sport circuit in field conditions.If individuals are already heat acclimatised/acclimated, pre-cooling is unnecessary for performance enhancement.Acclimation/acclimatisation seems to be the more powerful method for protecting against heat strain. PMID:24149166

Brade, Carly J; Dawson, Brian T; Wallman, Karen E

2013-01-01

407

Effect of Pre-Cooling on Repeat-Sprint Performance in Seasonally Acclimatised Males During an Outdoor Simulated Team-Sport Protocol in Warm Conditions  

PubMed Central

Whether precooling is beneficial for exercise performance in warm climates when heat acclimatised is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of precooling on repeat-sprint performance during a simulated team-sport circuit performed outdoors in warm, dry field conditions in seasonally acclimatised males (n = 10). They performed two trials, one with precooling (PC; ice slushy and cooling jacket) and another without (CONT). Trials began with a 30-min baseline/cooling period followed by an 80 min repeat-sprint protocol, comprising 4 x 20-min quarters, with 2 x 5-min quarter breaks and a 10-min half-time recovery/cooling period. A clear and substantial (negative; PC slower) effect was recorded for first quarter circuit time. Clear and trivial effects were recorded for overall circuit time, third and fourth quarter sprint times and fourth quarter best sprint time, otherwise unclear and trivial effects were recorded for remaining performance variables. Core temperature was moderately lower (Cohen's d=0.67; 90% CL=-1.27, 0.23) in PC at the end of the precooling period and quarter 1. No differences were found for mean skin temperature, heart rate, thermal sensation, or rating of perceived exertion, however, moderate Cohen's d effect sizes suggested a greater sweat loss in PC compared with CONT. In conclusion, repeat- sprint performance was neither clearly nor substantially improved in seasonally acclimatised players by using a combination of internal and external cooling methods prior to and during exercise performed in the field in warm, dry conditions. Of practical importance, precooling appears unnecessary for repeat-sprint performance if athletes are seasonally acclimatised or artificially acclimated to heat, as it provides no additional benefit. Key Points Pre-cooling did not improve repeated sprint performance during a prolonged team-sport circuit in field conditions. If individuals are already heat acclimatised/acclimated, pre-cooling is unnecessary for performance enhancement. Acclimation/acclimatisation seems to be the more powerful method for protecting against heat strain. PMID:24149166

Brade, Carly J.; Dawson, Brian T.; Wallman, Karen E.

2013-01-01

408

Team Structure and Regulatory Focus: The Impact of Regulatory Fit on Team Dynamic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a within-teams experiment testing the effects of fit between team structure and regulatory task demands on task performance and satisfaction through average team member positive affect and helping behaviors. We used a completely crossed repeated-observations design in which 21 teams enacted 2 tasks with different regulatory focus…

Dimotakis, Nikolaos; Davison, Robert B.; Hollenbeck, John R.

2012-01-01

409

Compete 2.0 Thrive.The Skills Imperative  

E-print Network

Compete 2.0 Thrive.The Skills Imperative #12;The Skills Imperative COMPETE 2.0 TEAM Debra van. To learn more about the Council on Competitiveness, visit www.compete.org. COPYRIGHT © 2008 Council States of America #12;Thrive. Compete 2.0 The Skills Imperative Debra van Opstal Senior Vice President

410

Essential Learning Skills in Vocational Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides basic skill performance expectations for all Oregon students by the end of grade 11 to be incorporated into 15 vocational programs. (Exceptions are that in technology education, the skills identified are only for grade 8; in home economics, the identified skills are for grades 8 and 11.) The skills, which are in reading,…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

411

Breeder and Batch-Dependent Variability in the Acquisition and Performance of a Motor Skill in Adult Long-Evans Rats  

PubMed Central

Reaching tasks are popular tools for investigating the neural mechanisms of motor skill learning and recovery from brain damage in rodents, but there is considerable unexplained variability across studies using these tasks. We investigated whether breeder, batch effects, experimenter, time of year, weight and other factors contribute to differences in the acquisition and performance of a skilled reaching task, the single pellet retrieval task, in adult male Long-Evans hooded rats. First, we retrospectively analyzed task acquisition and performance in rats from different breeding colonies that were used in several studies spanning a three year period in our laboratory. Second, we compared reaching variables in age-matched rats from different breeders that were trained together as a batch by the same experimenters. All rats had received daily training on the reaching task until they reached a criterion of successful reaches per attempt. We found significant breeder-dependent differences in learning rate and final performance level. This was found even when age-matched rats from different breeders were trained together by the same experimenters. There was also significant batch-to-batch variability within rats from the same breeder trained by the same experimenter. Other factors, including weight, paw preference and the experimenter, were not as strong or consistent in their contributions to differences across studies. The breeder and batch effects found within the same rat strain may reflect genetic and environmental influences on the neural substrates of motor skill learning. This is an important consideration when comparing baseline performance across studies and for controlling variability within studies. PMID:21664381

O’Bryan, Amber J.; Allred, Rachel P.; Maldonado, Monica A.; Cormack, Lawrence K.; Jones, Theresa A.

2011-01-01

412

Ground Rules in Team Projects: Findings from a Prototype System to Support Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student team project work in higher education is one of the best ways to develop team working skills at the same time as learning about the subject matter. As today's students require the freedom to learn at times and places that better match their lifestyles, there is a need for any support for team project work to be also available online. Team

Whatley, Janice

2009-01-01

413

Skill analysis part 2: evaluating a practice skill.  

PubMed

This is the second of three articles exploring skill analysis, assisting readers to evaluate a practice skill of their choice. Sometimes evaluations are made against external reference points, the competencies of the registered nurse or a job description for a post eagerly sought after; sometimes they are made with reference to aspirations--an ideal of the skill in use that the nurse and colleagues admire. Nurses may be understandably anxious about the evaluation of practice skills, as they work in a performance-orientated world where they are judged on whether their practice is competent, safe, ethical, cost effective and efficient. Nonetheless, understanding the strengths and weaknesses of a chosen practice skill is central to practice development. If the skill is to be affirmed, improved or adjusted, it is necessary to evaluate the skill in use. PMID:22272540

Price, Bob

414

Fine motor skills influence handwriting performance in children : a systematic review; and, Handwriting performance in children with developmental coordination disorder : the influence of manual dexterity and motor overflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the relationship between fine motor skills and handwriting legibility and speed in children. Methods: Studies were selected if they included both a population of children between 5 to 12 years of age with poor handwriting, and a comparison sample of children with good handwriting. Studies that included participants with a

Rachel McKay

2011-01-01

415

A randomized controlled pilot trial comparing the impact of access to clinical endocrinology video demonstrations with access to usual revision resources on medical student performance of clinical endocrinology skills  

PubMed Central

Background Demonstrating competence in clinical skills is key to course completion for medical students. Methods of providing clinical instruction that foster immediate learning and potentially serve as longer-term repositories for on-demand revision, such as online videos demonstrating competent performance of clinical skills, are increasingly being used. However, their impact on learning has been little studied. The aim of this study was to determine the value of adjunctive on-demand video-based training for clinical skills acquisition by medical students in endocrinology. Methods Following an endocrinology clinical tutorial program, 2nd year medical students in the pre-assessment revision period were recruited and randomized to either a set of bespoke on-line clinical skills training videos (TV), or to revision as usual (RAU). The skills demonstrated on video were history taking in diabetes mellitus (DMH), examination for diabetes lower limb complications (LLE), and examination for signs of thyroid disease (TE). Students were assessed on these clinical skills in an observed structured clinical examination two weeks after randomization. Assessors were blinded to student randomization status. Results For both diabetes related clinical skills assessment tasks, students in the TV group performed significantly better than those in the RAU group. There were no between group differences in thyroid examination performance. For the LLE, 91.7% (n?=?11/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 40% (n?=?4/10) of students not randomized to the video (p?=?0.024). For the DMH, 83.3% (n?=?10/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 20% (n?=?2/10) of students not randomized to the video (p?=?0.007). Conclusion Exposure to high quality videos demonstrating clinical skills can significantly improve medical student skill performance in an observed structured clinical examination of these skills, when used as an adjunct to clinical skills face-to-face tutorials and deliberate practice of skills in a blended learning format. Video demonstrations can provide an enduring, on-demand, portable resource for revision, which can even be used at the bedside by learners. Such resources are cost-effectively scalable for large numbers of learners. PMID:24090039

2013-01-01

416

Analysis and development of multiprofessional teams in medical rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Team analysis and team development are important instruments of organizational development and quality management. They contribute to team optimization in medical rehabilitation. Team analysis allows assessment of strengths and weaknesses of teams, resulting in possible recommendations for team development. So far there are only a few empirical studies and little practical experience analyzing multiprofessional teams in the health care field and inpatient medical rehabilitation in particular. This article presents team analyses performed on twelve multiprofessional medical rehabilitation teams in Germany and corresponding recommendations for team development. A heuristic model of team analysis and team development was designed for this purpose. The model comprises the following parameters: input (team structure), process (teamwork) and output (team success). Variables to measure these parameters were derived from team performance models and known weaknesses of teams in medical care. Team analyses were conducted by administering a semi-standardized interview form and a short questionnaire to the head physicians of participating clinics while a survey was administered to all members of the rehabilitation team. The results of the team analyses suggested the use of team development measures on each team. The teams were classified into three categories by their need for team development (low, medium and high). Furthermore five modules of team development could be generated from the results of the team analyses: (1) executive coaching, (2) communication training, (3) changing attitude towards teamwork, (4) task-oriented team development, and (5) training on socio-integrative aspects of teamwork. Some of these modules are important constituents of quality management programs. Team development can facilitate quality management programs, particularly with regard to process and output relating to leadership and staff. The study shows, that there is a basic, yet variable need of team analysis and team development in the medical rehabilitation facilities. PMID:19742278

Körner, Mirjam

2008-01-01

417

A TEAM PERFORMANCE DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM Stephanie Guerlain, Thomas Shin, Hui Guo, Reid Adams and J. Forrest Calland  

E-print Network

an anesthesia simulator, with the role of the surgeon played by whatever surrogate individual is available Anesthesia Attending (AA) Directs AR Anesthesia Resident (AR) Performs anesthesia duties Scrub Nurse (SN

Virginia, University of

418

Measuring Skills and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Customized skills assessments can perform a number of functions: help training departments demonstrate their effectiveness; provide a foundation for career development programs; reinforce company values; add feedback from the bottom up for performance evaluation; provide a concentrated focus for customer service improvement; and serve as a…

Ludeman, Kate

1991-01-01

419

Team Tune-Up: Examining Team Transcripts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a worksheet that can be used to examine documentation of team meetings in light of goals the team has established. Materials for this worksheet include copies of team transcripts, yellow and pink highlighters, and pencils. Directions for examining team transcripts are presented.

Journal of Staff Development, 2010

2010-01-01

420

TeamSpace: An Environment for Team Articulation Work and Virtual Meetings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present TeamSpace, a collaborative workspace system to support the articulation work of high performance development teams. TeamSpace distinguishes between individual, social, and meeting work modes, and facilitates transitions between modes. The system provides a shared workspace that supports understanding and reporting the team's past progress and activities. Awareness of current team activities is supported by a place-based representation of

Ludwin Fuchs; Steven E. Poltrock; Ingrid Wetzel

2001-01-01

421

The Effects of Cognitive Thinking Styles, Trust, Conflict Management on Online Students' Learning and Virtual Team Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive style has been regarded as one of the important variables to predict individual cognitive functioning. This paper describes an empirical study that examined the role of thinking styles in relation to students' online learning and teamwork performance. Two hundred and eight students in an online MBA (Master of Business Administration)…

Liu, Xiaojing; Magjuka, Richard J.; Lee, Seung-hee

2008-01-01

422

Collaborative Systems Thinking: Understanding of team-level systems thinking  

E-print Network

Caroline Twomey Lamb Massachusetts Institute of Technology Slide 5 Systems Thinking: A Critical SkillCollaborative Systems Thinking: Understanding of team-level systems thinking Caroline Twomey Lamb Science and Engineering Workforce: Interim report, 2006. H. Davidz. Enabling Systems Thinking

de Weck, Olivier L.

423

A pilot for understanding interdisciplinary teams in rehabilitation practice.  

PubMed

Interdisciplinary teams in rehabilitation are effective for positive patient outcomes. They require skills in team building and interprofessional collaboration. The Institute of Medicine has interdisciplinary teams as one of the five core competencies for healthcare workers. In reviewing the literature on teams, several themes were developed, such as communication, collaboration, understanding of roles, and educational levels of team members. Using these themes, a survey was developed to assess perceptions of teams by rehabilitation nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists. Significant findings came from questions on educational levels of team members between nurses and occupational therapists and also within the nursing groups. Open-ended questions asked about barriers and facilitators for effective teams. We hope that these pilot results will lead to discussions on how to improve interdisciplinary teams and make them more effective for better patient outcomes. PMID:23658128

White, Mary Joe; Gutierrez, Ann; McLaughlin, Celeste; Eziakonwa, Chi; Newman, Lois Stephens; White, Margaret; Thayer, Becky; Davis, Kerry; Williams, Margaret; Asselin, Glennys

2013-01-01

424

Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

2010-01-01

425

5 Research-Tested Team Motivation Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivating a team is often more challenging than motivating a single individual. Individuals within teams operate with different goals, values, beliefs, and expectations. Yet the variety of team member personalities can be a positive force if each performer contributes his or her own unique capabilities when and where needed. Teamwork potentially…

Clark, Richard E.

2005-01-01

426

Distributed control of multi-robot teams: Cooperative baton passing task  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, they describe the implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative baton passing task. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes during the task.

Parker, L.E.

1998-11-01

427

Integrated Safety Analysis Teams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today's complex systems require understanding beyond one person s capability to comprehend. Each system requires a team to divide the system into understandable subsystems which can then be analyzed with an Integrated Hazard Analysis. The team must have both specific experiences and diversity of experience. Safety experience and system understanding are not always manifested in one individual. Group dynamics make the difference between success and failure as well as the difference between a difficult task and a rewarding experience. There are examples in the news which demonstrate the need to connect the pieces of a system into a complete picture. The Columbia disaster is now a standard example of a low consequence hazard in one part of the system; the External Tank is a catastrophic hazard cause for a companion subsystem, the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The interaction between the hardware, the manufacturing process, the handling, and the operations contributed to the problem. Each of these had analysis performed, but who constituted the team which integrated this analysis together? This paper will explore some of the methods used for dividing up a complex system; and how one integration team has analyzed the parts. How this analysis has been documented in one particular launch space vehicle case will also be discussed.

Wetherholt, Jonathan C.

2008-01-01

428

Writing to dictation and handwriting performance among Chinese children with dyslexia: relationships with orthographic knowledge and perceptual-motor skills.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between writing to dictation, handwriting, orthographic, and perceptual-motor skills among Chinese children with dyslexia. A cross-sectional design was used. A total of 45 third graders with dyslexia were assessed. Results of stepwise multiple regression models showed that Chinese character naming was the only predictor associated with word dictation (?=.32); handwriting speed was related to deficits in rapid automatic naming (?=-.36) and saccadic efficiency (?=-.29), and visual-motor integration predicted both of the number of characters exceeded grid (?=-.41) and variability of character size (?=-.38). The findings provided support to a multi-stage working memory model of writing for explaining the possible underlying mechanism of writing to dictation and handwriting difficulties. PMID:23911643

Cheng-Lai, Alice; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Chan, Alan H L; Lo, Amy G W

2013-10-01

429

Reaping the Benefits of Task Conflict in Teams: The Critical Role of Team Psychological Safety Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research suggests that task conflict may improve team performance under certain conditions; however, we know little about these specific conditions. On the basis of prior theory and research on conflict in teams, we argue that a climate of psychological safety is one specific context under which task conflict will improve team performance.…

Bradley, Bret H.; Postlethwaite, Bennett E.; Klotz, Anthony C.; Hamdani, Maria R.; Brown, Kenneth G.

2012-01-01

430

Developing Leadership Skills in "Introduction to Engineering Courses" through Multi-Media Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A literature review identifies a partial list of leadership skills to include developing higher-order cognitive skills, team working skills, positive attitude, and ability to transfer these skills to future environment. This paper discusses the results of research conducted on the use of multiple instructional methodologies in two different…

Sankar, Chetan S.; Kawulich, Barbara; Clayton, Howard; Raju, P. K.

2010-01-01

431

Attributes of top elite team-handball players.  

PubMed

Researchers in the field of excellence in sport performance are becoming increasingly focused on the study of sport-specific characteristics and requirements. In accordance with this, the purposes of this study were (a) to examine the morphologic-, fitness-, handball-specific skills and psychological and "biosocial" differences between top elite and nontop elite team-handball players and (b) to investigate the extent to which they may be used to identify top elite team-handball players. One hundred sixty-seven adult male team-handball players were studied and divided in 2 groups: top elite (n = 41) and nontop elite (n = 126). Twenty-eight morphologic-, 9 fitness-, 1 handball-specific skills and 2 psychological-based and 2 "biosocial"-based attributes were used. Top elite and nontop elite groups were compared for each variable of interest using Student's t-test, and 5 logistic regression analyses were performed with the athlete's performance group (top elite or nontop elite) as the dependent variable and the variables of each category as predictors. The results showed that (a) body mass, waist girth, radiale-dactylion length, midstylion-dactylion length, and absolute muscle mass (morphologic model); (b) 30-m sprint time, countermovement jump height and average power, abdominal strength and the class of performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test (fitness model); (c) offensive power (specific-skills model); (d) ego-based motivational orientation (psychological model); (e) socioeconomic status and the energy spent (for week) in handball activity (biosocial model); significantly (p < 0.05) contributed to predict the probability of an athlete to be a top elite team-handball player. Moreover, the fitness model exhibited higher percentages of correct classification (i.e., 91.5%) than all the other models did. This study provided (a) the rational to reduce the battery of tests for evaluation purposes, and (b) the initial step to work on building a multidisciplinary model to predict the probability of a handball athlete to be a top elite player. PMID:23591948

Massuça, Luís M; Fragoso, Isabel; Teles, Júlia

2014-01-01

432

Psychomotor skills in medical ultrasound imaging: an analysis of the core skill set.  

PubMed

Sonographers use psychomotor skills to perform medical ultrasound examinations. Psychomotor skills describe voluntary movements of the limb, joints, and muscles in response to sensory stimuli and are regulated by the motor neural cortex in the brain. We define a psychomotor skill in relation to medical ultrasound imaging as "the unique mental and motor activities required to execute a manual task safely and efficiently for each clinical situation." Skills in clinical ultrasound practice may be open or closed; most skills used in medical ultrasound imaging are open. Open skills are both complex and multidimensional. Visuomotor and visuospatial psychomotor skills are central components of medical ultrasound imaging. Both types of skills rely on learners having a visual exemplar or standard of performance with which to reference their skill performance and evaluate anatomic structures. These are imperative instructional design principles when teaching psychomotor skills. PMID:25063399

Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Hyett, Jon

2014-08-01

433

Using Leadership Teams to Elevate English Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) works with administrators and teachers to build their skills in research-based ELL strategies that can be implemented in general education settings. This article discusses the five key elements that guide the work of the academies. These are: (1) Assemble a strong leadership team; (2)…

Hill, Jane D.; Lundquist, Anne M.

2008-01-01

434

A Contingency Model of Conflict and Team Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors develop and test theoretical extensions of the relationships of task conflict, relationship conflict, and 2 dimensions of team effectiveness (performance and team-member satisfaction) among 2 samples of work teams in Taiwan and Indonesia. Findings show that relationship conflict moderates the task conflict-team performance

Shaw, Jason D.; Zhu, Jing; Duffy, Michelle K.; Scott, Kristin L.; Shih, Hsi-An; Susanto, Ely

2011-01-01

435

Experienced radio-guided surgery teams can successfully perform minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy without intraoperative parathyroid hormone assays.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is an accepted treatment option for primary hyperparathyroidism. The need for intraoperative parathyroid hormone assays (iPTH) to confirm adenoma removal remains controversial. We studied minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy (MIRP) performed using preoperative sestamibi localization studies, intraoperative gamma detection probe, and the selective use of frozen section pathology without the use of iPTH. This is a single institution review of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism treated with MIRP by surgeons experienced in radio-guided surgery between October 1, 1998 and July 15, 2005. Information was obtained by reviewing computer medical records as well as contacting primary care physicians. Factors evaluated included laboratory values, pathology results, and evidence of recurrence. One hundred forty patients were included with a median preoperative calcium level of 11.3 mg/dL (range, 9.6-17) and a PTH level of 147 pg/mL (range, 19-5042). The median postoperative calcium level was 9.3 mg/dL. All patients were initially eucalcemic postoperatively except for one who had normal parathyroid levels. However, five (4%) patients required re-exploration for various reasons. Of the failures, one was secondary to the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism, and therefore would not have benefited from iPTH, one had thyroid tissue removed at the first operation, and three developed evidence of a second adenoma. One of these three patients had a drop in PTH level from 1558 pg/mL preoperatively to 64 pg/mL on postoperative Day 1, indicating that iPTH would not have prevented this failure. Thus, only three (2.1%) patients could have potentially benefited from the use of iPTH. MIRP was successful in 96 per cent of patients using a combination of preoperative sestamibi scans, intraoperative localization with a gamma probe, and the selective use of frozen pathology. This correlates with reported success rates of 95 per cent to 100 per cent using iPTH. We conclude that minimally invasive parathyroidectomy can be successfully performed without using iPTH assays. PMID:16986387

Caudle, Abigail S; Brier, Sarah E; Calvo, Benjamin F; Kim, Hong Jin; Meyers, Michael O; Ollila, David W

2006-09-01

436

Studies in interactive communication. II - The effects of four communication modes on the linguistic performance of teams during cooperative problem solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-man teams solved credible, 'real world' problems for which computer assistance has been or could be useful. Conversations were carried on in one of four modes of communication: typewriting, handwriting, voice, and natural unrestricted communication. Performance was assessed on three classes of dependent measures: time to solution, behavioral measures of activity, and linguistic measures. Significant differences among the communication modes were found in each of the three classes. This paper is concerned mainly with the results of the linguistic analyses. Linguistic performance was assessed with 182 measures, most of which turned out to be redundant and some of which were useless or meaningless. Those that remain show that although problems can be solved faster in the oral modes than in the hard-copy modes, the oral modes are characterized by many more messages, sentences, words, and unique words; much higher communication rates; but lower type-token ratios. Although a number of significant problem and job-role effects were found, there were relatively few significant interactions of modes with thsse variables. It appears, therefore, that the mode effects hold for both problems and for both job roles assigned to the subjects.

Chapanis, A.; Parrish, R. N.; Ochsman, R. B.; Weeks, G. D.

1977-01-01

437

Library Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to acquaint students of the University of Missouri-Columbia with the facilities and resources of the Ellis Library, and is intended for students enrolled in Library Science 105: Library Skills. The guide is organized into sections dealing with search strategies and types of library materials. It opens with an orientation to…

Bhullar, Pushpajit K., Ed.; Lawhorne, Anne R., Ed.

438

Leadership Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While this may not be a "complete list" of what leadership skills one needs to effectively lead in any/every situation, it should provide a great overview of many of the things s/he needs to do, at least initially.

Parish, Thomas S.

2006-01-01

439

Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: an examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership.  

PubMed

Integrating theories of self-regulation with team and leadership literatures, this study investigated goal and process clarity and servant leadership as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team effectiveness, operationalized as team performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Our sample of 304 employees represented 71 teams in 5 banks. Results showed that team-level goal and process clarity as well as team servant leadership served as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior. Furthermore, we found that servant leadership moderated the relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency, such that the positive relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency were stronger in the presence of servant leadership. PMID:21319877

Hu, Jia; Liden, Robert C

2011-07-01

440

A team of equals: teaching writing in the sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Writing across the curriculum (WAC) is a way of integrating the teaching of writing into specific academic disciplines. A problem faced in the WAC literature is how to develop a process that integrates the skills of multi?disciplinary teams. In this project, action research was used to develop a team comprising faculty from the applied sciences and a writing teacher which

Lisa Emerson; Bruce R. MacKay; Marion B. MacKay; Keith A. Funnell

2006-01-01

441

Team Building for School Change: Equipping Teachers for New Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on teacher teams and their use as a lever for change, the author examines the importance of teachers becoming knowledgeable, skilled, and increasingly articulate about their leadership and participation so that they may take their rightful place in the school reform movement. Ten chapters focus on teams sponsored by the Rockefeller…

Maeroff, Gene I.

442

A Team of Equals: Teaching Writing in the Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Writing across the curriculum (WAC) is a way of integrating the teaching of writing into specific academic disciplines. A problem faced in the WAC literature is how to develop a process that integrates the skills of multi-disciplinary teams. In this project, action research was used to develop a team comprising faculty from the applied sciences…

Emerson, Lisa; MacKay, Bruce R.; MacKay, Marion B.; Funnell, Keith A.

2006-01-01

443

Sport-specific nutrition: Practical strategies for team sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season

Francis E. Holway; Lawrence L. Spriet

2011-01-01

444

The Business of Teaching and Learning through Multicultural Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Team working is a key skill students need in this era of global complexity. Here we combine research with practice to develop a model for working in multicultural teams which can be used in International Business curricula. We formulate the 4 Cs model focusing on two areas: composition and communication. These two Cs have been chosen because they…

Butler, Christina; Zander, Lena

2008-01-01

445

Team Orientations, Interpersonal Relations, and Team Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contradictions in post research on the concepts of "cohesiveness" and team success seem to arise from the ways in which cohesiveness is measured and the nature of the teams investigated in each study. (MB)

Nixon, Howard L.

1976-01-01

446

The Effects of Peer-Assisted Sentence-Combining Instruction on the Writing Performance of More and Less Skilled Young Writers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mastering sentence-construction skills is essential to learning to write. Limited sentence-construction skills may hinder a writer's ability to translate ideas into text. It may also inhibit or interfere with other composing processes, as developing writers must devote considerable cognitive effort to sentence construction. The authors examined whether instruction designed to improve sentence-construction skills was beneficial for more and less skilled

Bruce Saddler; Steve Graham

2005-01-01

447

Laparoscopic surgical skills training: an investigation of the potential of using surgeons' visual search behaviour as a performance indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laparoscopic surgery is a difficult perceptual-motor task and effective and efficient training in the technique is important. Viewing previously recorded laparoscopic operations is a possible available training technique for surgeons to increase their knowledge of such minimal access surgery (MAS). It is not well known whether this is a useful technique, how effective it is or what effect it has on the surgeon watching the recorded video. As part of an on-going series of studies into laparoscopic surgery, an experiment was conducted to examine whether surgical skill level has an effect on the visual search behaviour of individuals of different surgical experience when they examine such imagery. Medically naive observers, medical students, junior surgeons and experienced surgeons viewed a laparoscopic recording of a recent operation. Initial examination of the recorded eye movement data indicated commonalities between all observers, largely irrespective of surgical experience. This, it is argued, is due to visual search in this situation largely being driven by the dynamic nature of the images. The data were then examined in terms of surgical steps and also in terms of interventions when differences were found related to surgical experience. Consequently, it is argued that monitoring the eye movements of trainee surgeons whilst they watch pre-recorded operations is a potential useful adjunct to existing training regimes.

Chen, Yan; Dong, Leng; Gale, Alastair G.; Rees, Benjamin; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles

2014-03-01

448

Hierarchical skills in typewriting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to discover whether there is an hierarchy of letter, word, and phrase habits in the acquisition of the typewriting skill. Operators at 6 levels of typing performance ranging between the beginning student in typewriting and the demonstration expert were tested on connected discourse, word jumbles, and letter jumbles. The following conclusions are based on

P. Fendrick

1937-01-01

449

Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

Team Science and Collaboration Practitioner. Consulting and advising for developing teams and institutions interested in participating in and supporting team science. Experience with bringing diverse groups together from various backgrounds and institutions to solve challenging scientific problems.

450

Diversity Team | Poster  

Cancer.gov

The Employee Diversity Team (EDT) is looking for bright, talented, and committed Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNL) employees—both government and contractor—who want to share in the team’s mission.

451

Studying Team Science - Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

The science of team science (SciTS) is a rapidly emerging field focused on understanding and enhancing the processes and outcomes of team science. A key goal of SciTS is to learn more about factors that maximize the efficiency, productivity, and effectiveness of team science initiatives.

452

Sounds like Team Spirit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always trying to improve on what they've done before. Second, success in any endeavor stems from people who know how to interpret a composition to sound beautiful when played in a different style. For Knowledge Sharing to work, it must be adapted, reinterpreted, shaped and played with at the centers. In this regard, we've been blessed with another crazy, passionate, inspired artist named Claire Smith. Claire has turned Ames Research Center in California into APPL-west. She is so good and committed to what she does that I just refer people to her whenever they have questions about implementing project management development at the field level. Finally, any great effort requires talented people working behind the scenes, the people who formulate a business approach and know how to manage the money so that the music gets heard. I have known many brilliant and creative people with a ton of ideas that never take off due to an inability to work the business. Again, the Knowledge Sharing team has been fortunate to have competent and passionate people, specifically Tony Maturo and his procurement team at Goddard Space Flight Center, to make sure the process is in place to support the effort. This kind of support is every bit as crucial as the activity itself, and the efforts and creativity that go into successful procurement and contracting is a vital ingredient of this successful team.

Hoffman, Edward

2002-01-01

453

Academic Alignment to Reduce the Presence of "Social Loafers" and "Diligent Isolates" in Student Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acquisition of effective teamwork skills is crucial in all disciplines. Using an interpretive approach, this study investigates collaboration and co-operation in teams of software engineering students. Teams whose members were both homogeneous and heterogeneous in terms of their members' academic abilities, skills and goals were identified and…

Pieterse, Vreda; Thompson, Lisa

2010-01-01