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1

Defining the Nature of Team Skills in Navy Team Training and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines Navy team training activities in order to identify specific team coordination skill indicators. Data collected from training staff interviews and team training rating forms were content analyzed. These analyses showed that team skills...

J. R. Turney, S. L. Cohen

1981-01-01

2

Influence of opposition team formation on physical and skill-related performance in a professional soccer team  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the influence of opposition team formation on physical and skill-related performance in a professional soccer team. Performance in 45 French League 1 matches played over three competitive seasons (2007–2008, 2008–2009, and 2009–2010) was analysed using multi-camera computerized tracking. Players (n=21) in the reference team (using a 4-3-3\\/4-5-1 formation) were analysed in matches against three opposition team formations:

Christopher Carling

2011-01-01

3

Targets for Team Skills Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper explores what the research literature has to say about improving team skills through training. Primary emphasis is placed on team training in military contexts although this literature is supplemented by other relevant research and review mater...

J. R. Turney, S. L. Cohen, L. Greenberg

1981-01-01

4

Using Assessment for Developing Team Building Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Ability to function in teams," "good team building skills," and "teamwork" are all now common phrases in the classifieds. It is increasingly important in society today, both in social and work environments, to be a good team player. But how do we actually develop those skills and evaluate whether our efforts have had a measurable impact so that we can adjust our approach for maximum benefit? This booklet presents a team assessment process developed to track and improve students team building skill as well as a complete description of its implementation. Preliminary research on team building skills development was performed with a group of community college students in the Electrical Technology Program. The results from the two year study indicate that active participation in the team assessment process is beneficial in developing team building and leadership skills in college students. All the materials necessary to implement the team assessment process for a classroom or workplace setting are provided in this booklet. Using these materials and methods can yield evidence of improved team building and leadership skills important in meeting accreditation standards or for use in evaluating corporate team skills and leadership development.

Akins, Lean M.; Barbuto, Daniel C.

2009-12-01

5

Recruit for Attitude, Train for Skills: Creating High Performing Leadership Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on research investigating the factors which impact on the recruitment and support of high performing leadership teams, funded by the National College. The research involved a comprehensive literature review and case studies of nine English schools. The results show that four themes emerged in relation to high performing teams:…

Goodall, Janet

2013-01-01

6

Sustaining Team Performance: A Systems Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the factors that influence the maintenance of team performance. It presents a review of literature concerning variables that maintain or degrade military team skills, including skills of the individuals who are members of the team. Th...

C. M. Knerr, D. C. Berger, B. A. Popelka

1979-01-01

7

Team-Skills Training Enhances Collaborative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of team-skills training on collaborative learning in a university setting. Groups worked under one of three conditions: (1) groups received team-skill training as a group and remained in that group (Trained-Together), (2) groups received team-skills training, but were then reassigned into new groups…

Prichard, Jane S.; Stratford, Robert J.; Bizo, Lewis A.

2006-01-01

8

Assessing Team Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interdisciplinary middle school level teams capitalize on the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Administrators and team members can maximize the advantages of teamwork using team assessments to increase the benefits for students, teachers, and the school environment. Assessing team performance can lead to high performing

Trimble, Susan; Rottier, Jerry

9

Individual and Team Performance in Team-Handball: A Review  

PubMed Central

Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key Points The specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested. Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors.

Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P.

2014-01-01

10

Role Selection and Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team success relies on assigning team members to the right tasks. We use controlled experiments to study how roles are assigned within teams and how this affects team performance. Subjects play the takeover game in pairs consisting of a buyer and a seller. Understanding optimal play is very demanding for buyers and trivial for sellers. Teams perform better when roles

David J. Cooper; Matthias Sutter

2011-01-01

11

Structuring a Project Management Course to Develop Team Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is no escaping it. Working in industry requires working in teams. The industries hiring our graduates recognize this. TAC of ABET Criterion 2e requires it, stating graduates need an ability to function effectively on teams. How do we, as teachers, go about ensuring that our students learn how to work effectively on teams? How do we go about teaching them team work and team management skills? The traditional approach to developing team work and team management skills involves assigning students randomly to teams, giving them a project to work on, and expecting them to somehow magically learn to work effectively on teams. This they'll learn about teamwork if they work on teams approach fails to give students adequate preparation and insight into team work and team management skills. It doesn't work. Surveys of students reveal that they do not feel they knew how to effectively work on teams or how to be a team leader. This sentiment was echoed by respondents to last years project management survey. To effectively prepare students to work on teams, coordinated teambuilding and leadership skills training is needed. Beginning with a discussion of necessary project management and team skills, this paper will describe how to structure a project course to include techniques and exercises specifically designed to develop teamwork and team management skills and the benefits they provide.

Edmonson, Charlie P.; Summers, Donna

2012-04-05

12

The “I” in Team: Coach Incivility, Coach Sex, and Team Performance in Female Basketball Teams  

E-print Network

on team outcomes. The team emergent states of team satisfaction, team cohesion, and team commitment were tested as mediators between team leader incivility and team performance. Additionally, leader sex was examined as a moderator to the incivility...

Smittick, Amber Leola

2012-10-19

13

Statistical analyses of volleyball team performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the playing characteristics of team performance in international men's volleyball. The specific purposes were (a) to examine differences in playing characteristics (in particular, the set and spike) between the Attack Process and the Counterattack Process; (b) to examine changes in playing characteristics as a function of team success (as indicated by single-game outcomes and by final tournament standings); and (c) to determine the best predictor, or a set of predictors, of team success among the selected skill components. Seventy-two sample games from the Third Federation of International Volleyball Cup men's competition were recorded using a computerized recording system. Results showed that the significant differences between Team Standing and Game Outcome were due to better performances on those skills used in the Counterattack Process. Among the eight selected skills, the block and spike were the most important in determining team success. The methodology used in this study and the subsequent results provide valuable aids for the coach in the evaluation of team performance and ultimately in the preparation of training sessions in volleyball. PMID:1574656

Eom, H J; Schutz, R W

1992-03-01

14

Team Culture and Business Strategy Simulation Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many capstone strategic management courses use computer-based simulations as core pedagogical tools. Simulations are touted as assisting students in developing much-valued skills in strategy formation, implementation, and team management in the pursuit of superior strategic performance. However, despite their rich nature, little is known regarding…

Ritchie, William J.; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Drew, Stephen A. W.; Marlin, Dan

2013-01-01

15

The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

Kline, Theresa J. B.

2003-01-01

16

Social capital and team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article attempts to contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the value of social networks, or social capital, within the group process towards group and team performance by exploring the explicit contribution of social capital towards a group or team's performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research views the potential contribution of social capital through the perspective of the

Aaron W. Clopton

2011-01-01

17

Transformational leadership and team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite transformational leadership enjoying success and attention as an exceptional leadership theory, few scholars have investigated a specific link between transformational leadership theory and team performance. As such, we discuss how transformational leadership theory can provide a framework in which to investigate a leader's impact on team performance. We posit that idealized influence\\/inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration could

Shelley D. Dionne; Francis J. Yammarino; Leanne E. Atwater; William D. Spangler

2004-01-01

18

Developing Good Team-working Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article offers advice to educators on developing learners' collaboration skills through problem solving. The author presents six categories of tasks, each of which addresses a set of teamwork skills (e.g. listening, sharing, reflecting) and includes several tasks which could serve as the vehicle. Links to the tasks, printable materials, and other resources are included.

2010-05-01

19

Enabling performance skills: Assessment in engineering education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current reform in engineering education is part of a national trend emphasizing student learning as well as accountability in instruction. Assessing student performance to demonstrate accountability has become a necessity in academia. In newly adopted criterion proposed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), undergraduates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in outcomes considered essential for graduating engineers. The case study was designed as a formative evaluation of freshman engineering students to assess the perceived effectiveness of performance skills in a design laboratory environment. The mixed methodology used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess students' performance skills and congruency among the respondents, based on individual, team, and faculty perceptions of team effectiveness in three ABET areas: Communications Skills. Design Skills, and Teamwork. The findings of the research were used to address future use of the assessment tool and process. The results of the study found statistically significant differences in perceptions of Teamwork Skills (p < .05). When groups composed of students and professors were compared, professors were less likely to perceive student's teaming skills as effective. The study indicated the need to: (1) improve non-technical performance skills, such as teamwork, among freshman engineering students; (2) incorporate feedback into the learning process; (3) strengthen the assessment process with a follow-up plan that specifically targets performance skill deficiencies, and (4) integrate the assessment instrument and practice with ongoing curriculum development. The findings generated by this study provides engineering departments engaged in assessment activity, opportunity to reflect, refine, and develop their programs as it continues. It also extends research on ABET competencies of engineering students in an under-investigated topic of factors correlated with team processes, behavior, and student learning.

Ferrone, Jenny Kristina

20

Developing a theory of the strategic core of teams: a role composition model of team performance.  

PubMed

Although numerous models of team performance have been articulated over the past 20 years, these models have primarily focused on the individual attribute approach to team composition. The authors utilized a role composition approach, which investigates how the characteristics of a set of role holders impact team effectiveness, to develop a theory of the strategic core of teams. Their theory suggests that certain team roles are most important for team performance and that the characteristics of the role holders in the "core" of the team are more important for overall team performance. This theory was tested in 778 teams drawn from 29 years of major league baseball (1974'-2002). Results demonstrate that although high levels of experience and job-related skill are important predictors of team performance, the relationships between these constructs and team performance are significantly stronger when the characteristics are possessed by core role holders (as opposed to non-core role holders). Further, teams that invest more of their financial resources in these core roles are able to leverage such investments into significantly improved performance. These results have implications for team composition models, as they suggest a new method for considering individual contributions to a team's success that shifts the focus onto core roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19186895

Humphrey, Stephen E; Morgeson, Frederick P; Mannor, Michael J

2009-01-01

21

The Educational Impact of Team-Skills Training: Preparing Students to Work in Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite a vast literature on collaborative learning (CL), there is little research on preparing students to work collaboratively. Aims: This two-phase evaluation investigated whether team-skills training could enhance the performance of collaborative groups through the introduction of a team development programme to a group-based…

Prichard, Jane S.; Bizo, Lewis A.; Stratford, Robert J.

2006-01-01

22

Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

2014-01-01

23

Teaching Teams about Teamwork: Preparation, Practice, and Performance Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on preparation, practice, and performance review to teach teams about teamwork provides a well-supported and effective methodology that both enhances students' collaborative skills and contributes to an effective team project experience. Preparation includes aspects of coaching to introduce and explain effective group processes. After…

Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph

2009-01-01

24

Does positive team mood mediate the relationship between team climate and team performance?  

PubMed

We tested whether the relationship between a team climate of support from the organization and team performance is mediated by positive team mood. Recent research has shown that this team climate facet is related to team performance, but we do not have any empirical evidence about the mechanisms involved in this relationship. The study sample was composed of 59 bank branches, and a longitudinal design with three data-collection points was implemented. The results showed that a team climate of support from the organization was positively related to positive team mood, which in turn was positively related to team members' ratings of team performance. PMID:22269370

González-Romá, Vicente; Gamero, Nuria

2012-02-01

25

Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.  

PubMed

Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

2014-01-01

26

Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams  

PubMed Central

Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luis; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araujo, Duarte; Garganta, Julio

2014-01-01

27

Team perfectionism and team performance: a prospective study.  

PubMed

Perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been found to predict sports performance in athletes. To date, however, research has exclusively examined this relationship at an individual level (i.e., athletes' perfectionism predicting their personal performance). The current study extends this research to team sports by examining whether, when manifested at the team level, perfectionism predicts team performance. A sample of 231 competitive rowers from 36 boats completed measures of self-oriented, team-oriented, and team-prescribed perfectionism before competing against one another in a 4-day rowing competition. Strong within-boat similarities in the levels of team members' team-oriented perfectionism supported the existence of collective team-oriented perfectionism at the boat level. Two-level latent growth curve modeling of day-by-day boat performance showed that team-oriented perfectionism positively predicted the position of the boat in midcompetition and the linear improvement in position. The findings suggest that imposing perfectionistic standards on team members may drive teams to greater levels of performance. PMID:24918313

Hill, Andrew P; Stoeber, Joachim; Brown, Anna; Appleton, Paul R

2014-06-01

28

The role of team goal monitoring in the curvilinear relationship between team efficacy and team performance.  

PubMed

In this research, we apply a team self-regulatory perspective to build and test theory focusing on the relationships between team efficacy and 2 key team performance criteria: a performance behavior (i.e., team effort) and a performance outcome (i.e., objective team sales). We theorize that rather than having a linear association, the performance benefits of team efficacy reach a point of inflection, reflective of too much of a good thing. Further, in an effort to establish a boundary condition of the inverted-U shaped relationship we predict, we also test the moderating role played by team goal monitoring in the nonmonotonic relationship between team efficacy and team performance. The results from a lagged field test, in which we collect multisource data from 153 technology sales teams, reveal a significant curvilinear association that is moderated by team goal monitoring behavior. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24865579

Rapp, Tammy L; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Adam A; Mullins, Ryan

2014-09-01

29

Efficacy of simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills. A systematic review.  

PubMed

Trauma resuscitation is a complex situation, and most organisations have multi-professional trauma teams. Non-technical skills are challenged during trauma resuscitation, and they play an important role in the prevention of critical incidents. Simulation-based training of these is recommended. Our research question was: Does simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills have effect on reaction, learning, behaviour or patient outcome? The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library and found 13 studies eligible for analysis. We described and compared the educational interventions and the evaluations of effect according to the four Kirkpatrick levels: reaction, learning (knowledge, skills, attitudes), behaviour (in a clinical setting) and patient outcome. No studies were randomised, controlled and blinded, resulting in a moderate to high risk of bias. The multi-professional trauma teams had positive reactions to simulation-based training of non-technical skills. Knowledge and skills improved in all studies evaluating the effect on learning. Three studies found improvements in team performance (behaviour) in the clinical setting. One of these found difficulties in maintaining these skills. Two studies evaluated on patient outcome, of which none showed improvements in mortality, complication rate or duration of hospitalisation. A significant effect on learning was found after simulation-based training of the multi-professional trauma team in non-technical skills. Three studies demonstrated significantly increased clinical team performance. No effect on patient outcome was found. All studies had a moderate to high risk of bias. More comprehensive randomised studies are needed to evaluate the effect on patient outcome. PMID:24828210

Gjeraa, K; Møller, T P; Østergaard, D

2014-08-01

30

Perfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PPerfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-located research partners and diverse funding sources, dynamic economic and political environments, and a changing workforce. Today's scientists must be prepared to not only perform work in the virtual team environment, but to work effectively and efficiently despite physical and cultural barriers. Research supports that students who have been exposed to virtual team experiences are desirable in the professional and academic arenas. Research supports establishing and maintaining established protocols for communication behavior prior to task discussion provides for successful team outcomes. Research conducted on graduate and undergraduate virtual teams' behaviors led to the development of successful pedagogic practices and assessment strategies.

Jabro, A.; Jabro, J.

2012-04-01

31

Approach to Team Skills Training of Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Crews.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of current team skills training practices and research was conducted by General Physics Corporation for the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. The methodology used included a review of relevant team skills training literature and a wor...

L. T. Davis, C. D. Gaddy, J. R. Turney

1985-01-01

32

Team Identity and Performance-based Compensation Effects on Performance  

E-print Network

This study investigates whether team members work harder and perform better when they are compensated based on both team and individual performance than when compensated based on team or individual performance alone and whether teammates...

Blazovich, Janell L.

2010-01-16

33

Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams  

PubMed Central

Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco

2014-01-01

34

Common Factors of High Performance Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilization of work teams is now wide spread in all types of organizations throughout the world. However, an understanding of the important factors common to high performance teams is rare. The purpose of this content analysis is to explore the literature and propose findings related to high performance teams. These include definition and types,…

Jackson, Bruce; Madsen, Susan R.

2005-01-01

35

Sleep Loss and Complex Team Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are few objective assessments of the impact of sleep loss on team performance. The present study was designed to quantify the effects of fatigue on teams performing a complex task and to compare team data with individual data on a similar task. Part...

D. Harrison, J. Fischer, J. Whitmore, R. Harrison, S. Chaiken

2008-01-01

36

Learning strategies and performance in organizational teams  

E-print Network

(cont.) shows that vicarious learning is positively associated with performance. I argue that vicarious team learning is an under-explored dimension of what makes teams and organizations competitive. The chapter concludes ...

Bresman, Henrik M

2005-01-01

37

The influence of team mental models and team planning on team performance  

E-print Network

. Then, a series of conceptual and empirical articles followed to explain the antecedents of team members? MMs and demonstrated their effect on team performance (e.g., Cooke et al., 2000; Cooke, Salas, Kiekel, & Bell, 2004; Marks, Sabella, Burke.... Then, a series of conceptual and empirical articles followed to explain the antecedents of team members? MMs and demonstrated their effect on team performance (e.g., Cooke et al., 2000; Cooke, Salas, Kiekel, & Bell, 2004; Marks, Sabella, Burke...

Leiva Neuenschwander, Pedro Ignacio

2009-06-02

38

Turn Obstacles into Opportunities: Team Leaders Use a Skillful Approach to Move Past Barriers to Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the role of the skillful leader and what practical solutions are needed to overcome hurdles. What distinguishes the skillful team leader from a less-effective leader is his or her approach to overcoming hurdles, and are rooted in the leader's values, mindset, intelligence, and skill. When faced with hurdles to team

MacDonald, Elisa B.

2013-01-01

39

Assessing Teamwork Skills for Assurance of Learning Using CATME Team Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges of business must meet assurance of learning requirements to gain or maintain AACSB accreditation under the new standards adopted April 8, 2013. Team skills are among the most important skills desired by recruiters, yet employers and scholars perceive that team skills are frequently deficient in college graduates. This article describes…

Loughry, Misty L.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Woehr, David J.

2014-01-01

40

TRAINING OR FACILITATING SKILLED PERFORMANCE  

E-print Network

III TRAINING OR FACILITATING SKILLED PERFORMANCE Chapter-09.qxd 6/26/2006 7:41 PM Page 229 #12 Detection Training James J. Staszewski Carnegie Mellon University COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND LANDMINE DETECTION TRAINING This chapter describes the successful linkage of basic research on visual imagery

Creswell, J. David

41

Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

Coffin, Marilyn

42

An Analysis of Team Composition as It Affects Simulation Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the extent to which sex composition and average team academic achievement of student simulation teams affect team effectiveness. Seventy-four students in two sections of a marketing principles class were divided into 20 teams to test their decision-making skills. For 10 weeks, each team operated a simulated supermarket…

Krishnakumar, Parameswar; Chisholm, Thomas Alexander

43

BEYOND THE INDIVIDUAL VICTIM: LINKING SEXUAL HARASSMENT, TEAM PROCESSES, AND TEAM PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous sexual harassment research and theory have focused primarily upon the individual level, with little attention to team- or organization-level outcomes. In this article, we extend research on outcomes associated with sexual harassment to the team level with an examination of the relationships between team ambient sexual harass- ment, team conflict, team cohesion, team citizenship behaviors, and team financial performance.

JANA L. RAVER; MICHELE J. GELFAND

2005-01-01

44

Embracing Transformational Leadership: Team Values and the Impact of Leader Behavior on Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and group performance in 218 financial services teams that were branches of a bank in Hong Kong and the United States. Transformational leadership influenced team performance through the mediating effect of team potency. The effect of transformational leadership on team potency was moderated by team power distance and team collectivism, such

John Schaubroeck; Simon S. K. Lam; Sandra E. Cha

2007-01-01

45

A Survey of Knowledge Management Skills Acquisition in an Online Team-Based Distributed Computing Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…

Thomas, Jennifer D. E.

2007-01-01

46

Identifying and training non-technical skills of nuclear emergency response teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training of the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills that are crucial to safe and effective management by teams in emergency situations is an issue that is receiving increasing emphasis in many organisations, particularly in the nuclear power industry. As teams play a major role in emergency response organisations (ERO), effective functioning and interactions within, between and across teams is crucial,

M. T Crichton; R Flin

2004-01-01

47

Communication and relationship skills for rapid response teams at hamilton health sciences.  

PubMed

Rapid response teams (RRT) are an important safety strategy in the prevention of deaths in patients who are progressively failing outside of the intensive care unit. The goal is to intervene before a critical event occurs. Effective teamwork and communication skills are frequently cited as critical success factors in the implementation of these teams. However, there is very little literature that clearly provides an education strategy for the development of these skills. Training in simulation labs offers an opportunity to assess and build on current team skills; however, this approach does not address how to meet the gaps in team communication and relationship skill management. At Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) a two-day program was developed in collaboration with the RRT Team Leads, Organizational Effectiveness and Patient Safety Leaders. Participants reflected on their conflict management styles and considered how their personality traits may contribute to team function. Communication and relationship theories were reviewed and applied in simulated sessions in the relative safety of off-site team sessions. The overwhelming positive response to this training has been demonstrated in the incredible success of these teams from the perspective of the satisfaction surveys of the care units that call the team, and in the multi-phased team evaluation of their application to practice. These sessions offer a useful approach to the development of the soft skills required for successful RRT implementation. PMID:18382164

Cziraki, Karen; Lucas, Janie; Rogers, Toni; Page, Laura; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Hauer, Lois Ann; Daniels, Charlotte; Gregoroff, Susan

2008-01-01

48

Performance assessment task team progress report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, {open_quotes}Low-Level Waste Management{close_quotes}. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team`s purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993.

Wood, D.E.; Curl, R.U.; Armstrong, D.R.; Cook, J.R.; Dolenc, M.R.; Kocher, D.C.; Owens, K.W.; Regnier, E.P.; Roles, G.W.; Seitz, R.R. [and others

1994-05-01

49

Trends of tactical performance analysis in team sports: bridging the gap between research, training and competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance in Team Sports is carried out through a long term and methodical training process planned to improve skills and competence required to deal with competitive demands. Despite that tactical constraint play a major role in Team Sports performance the history of its scientific analysis has been driven by physiological and biomechanical approach, pay - ing little attention to the

Júlio Garganta

50

Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators  

SciTech Connect

Previous research has shown the value of good team interaction skills to group performance, yet little progress has been made on in terms of how such skills can be measured. In this study rating scales developed previously (Montgomery, et al., 1990) were extensively revised and cast into a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) and a Behavioral Frequency format. Rating data were collected using 13 training instructors at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant, who rated three videotapes of simulator scenario performance during a day-long training session and later evaluated control room crews during requalification training. High levels of interrater agreement on both rating scales were found. However, the factor structure of the ratings was generally inconsistent with that hypothesized. Analysis of training ratings using Cronbach`s components of accuracy (Cronbach, 1955) indicated that BARS ratings generally exhibited less error than did the Behavioral Frequency ratings. The results are discussed in terms of both field and research implications.

Montgomery, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Toquam, J. [Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Gaddy, C. [General Physics Corp., Columbia, MD (United States)

1991-09-01

51

Developing Team Skills through a Collaborative Writing Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employers want students who are able to work effectively as members of a team, and expect universities to develop this ability in their graduates. This paper proposes a framework for a collaborative writing assignment that specifically develops students' ability to work in teams. The framework has been tested using two iterations of an action…

Thomas, Theda Ann

2014-01-01

52

Five Skills for Becoming a More Effective Team Leader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although 80% of all administrative decisions are made at the department level, many community college department chairs accept their positions without a clear understanding of the demands or training in leadership skills. It is critical to a productive department, however, that chairs possess the leadership skills to shape their departments into…

Gmelch, Walter H.

53

The Reflecting Team: An Innovative Approach for Teaching Clinical Skills to Family Practice Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: This paper provides a description and evaluation of the reflecting team approach as a teaching method for family practice residents. We have used the reflecting team ap- proach in our longitudinal behavioral health program for 6 years. Our purpose in using this ap- proach is to 1) teach listening and interviewing skills, 2) teach systems-oriented psychosocial inter-

Patricia Lebensohn-Chialvo; Marjorie Crago; Catherine M. Shisslak

54

Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills): Business and Industrial Supervisors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills) instructional materials consist of five units for use in training business and industrial supervisors. Unit 1 is designed to help managers in business or industry increase management skills in regard to leadership techniques, problem solving and decision making, and…

Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

55

Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills): Health Care Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills) instructional materials consist of five units for use in training health care administrators. Unit 1 contains materials designed to help the health care administrators increase their management skills in regard to self-awareness, time management, problem solving,…

Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

56

Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills): Independent Business Owner/Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Managerial Skills) instructional materials consist of five units for use in training independent business owner/managers. The first unit contains materials which deal with management skills relating to personal characteristics of successful business people, knowledge of self and chosen…

Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

57

An Innovative Use of the Web to Build Graduate Team Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful graduates in today's competitive business environments must possess sound interpersonal skills and the ability to work effectively in team situations within, and across, disciplines. However, developing these skills within the higher education curriculum is fraught with organisational and pedagogical difficulties, with many teachers not…

Murray, Martin H.; Lonne, Bob

2006-01-01

58

Trust in Leadership and Team Performance: Evidence From NCAA Basketball  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study empirically examined the relationship between trust, leadership, and team performance with 2 objectives. The 1st objective was to empirically examine an assumption found in several literatures—that a team's trust in its leader has a significant effect on the team's performance. The 2nd objective was to explore a more complex and dynamic relationship between trust and team performance whereby

Kurt T. Dirks

2000-01-01

59

Embracing transformational leadership: team values and the impact of leader behavior on team performance.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and group performance in 218 financial services teams that were branches of a bank in Hong Kong and the United States. Transformational leadership influenced team performance through the mediating effect of team potency. The effect of transformational leadership on team potency was moderated by team power distance and team collectivism, such that higher power distance teams and more collectivistic teams exhibited stronger positive effects of transformational leadership on team potency. The model was supported by data in both Hong Kong and the United States, which suggests a convergence in how teams function in the East and West and highlights the importance of team values. PMID:17638462

Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Cha, Sandra E

2007-07-01

60

Augmenting team cognition in human-automation teams performing in complex operational environments.  

PubMed

There is a growing reliance on automation (e.g., intelligent agents, semi-autonomous robotic systems) to effectively execute increasingly cognitively complex tasks. Successful team performance for such tasks has become even more dependent on team cognition, addressing both human-human and human-automation teams. Team cognition can be viewed as the binding mechanism that produces coordinated behavior within experienced teams, emerging from the interplay between each team member's individual cognition and team process behaviors (e.g., coordination, communication). In order to better understand team cognition in human-automation teams, team performance models need to address issues surrounding the effect of human-agent and human-robot interaction on critical team processes such as coordination and communication. Toward this end, we present a preliminary theoretical framework illustrating how the design and implementation of automation technology may influence team cognition and team coordination in complex operational environments. Integrating constructs from organizational and cognitive science, our proposed framework outlines how information exchange and updating between humans and automation technology may affect lower-level (e.g., working memory) and higher-level (e.g., sense making) cognitive processes as well as teams' higher-order "metacognitive" processes (e.g., performance monitoring). Issues surrounding human-automation interaction are discussed and implications are presented within the context of designing automation technology to improve task performance in human-automation teams. PMID:17547306

Cuevas, Haydee M; Fiore, Stephen M; Caldwell, Barrett S; Strater, Laura

2007-05-01

61

Is the Most Effective Team Leadership Shared? The Impact of Shared Leadership, Age Diversity, and Coordination on Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper we examine the moderating effects of age diversity and team coordination on the relationship between shared leadership and team performance. Using a field sample of 96 individuals in 26 consulting project teams, team members assessed their team’s shared leadership and coordination. Six to eight weeks later, supervisors rated their teamsperformance. Results indicated that shared leadership

Julia Elisabeth Hoch; Craig L. Pearce; Linda Welzel

2010-01-01

62

Finding the key to a better code: code team restructure to improve performance and outcomes.  

PubMed

Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient's status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team's resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital's code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role's position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients. PMID:24667218

Prince, Cynthia R; Hines, Elizabeth J; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J

2014-09-01

63

The Relationship Between Team Sex Composition and Team Performance in the Context of Training Complex, Psychomotor, Team–based Tasks  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to investigate the role of team sex composition in team training performance and team processes in the context of a complex, psychomotor, information–processing task. With the growing number of women in the workplace...

Jarrett, Steven

2011-02-22

64

Imagery use of athletes in individual and team sports that require open and closed skill.  

PubMed

This study compared use of imagery in elite male and female athletes in open and closed and individual or team sports. A total of 151 elite Turkish athletes ages 15 to 29 years old (males' M age=20.7 yr., SD=3.3; females' M age=20.0 yr., SD=3.5) from open-team sports (n=66), open-individual sports (n=26), and closed-individual sports (n=59) completed the sport imagery questionnaire. A significant multivariate effect of sport type was found. Univariate analyses indicated that male and female athletes in team open-skill sports and individual closed-skill sports used more motivational general-mastery imagery than did athletes in individual open-skill sports. PMID:22913017

Kizildag, Esen; Tiryaki, M Sefik

2012-06-01

65

Diversity in Design Teams: An Investigation of Learning Styles and their Impact on Team Performance and  

E-print Network

Diversity in Design Teams: An Investigation of Learning Styles and their Impact on Team Performance in learning styles, as defined by Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory. We also consider other demographic information on learning styles and standard demographics, and then to assess team performance as students

Agogino, Alice M.

66

Interaction mining and skill-dependent recommendations for multi-objective team composition.  

PubMed

Web-based collaboration and virtual environments supported by various Web 2.0 concepts enable the application of numerous monitoring, mining and analysis tools to study human interactions and team formation processes. The composition of an effective team requires a balance between adequate skill fulfillment and sufficient team connectivity. The underlying interaction structure reflects social behavior and relations of individuals and determines to a large degree how well people can be expected to collaborate. In this paper we address an extended team formation problem that does not only require direct interactions to determine team connectivity but additionally uses implicit recommendations of collaboration partners to support even sparsely connected networks. We provide two heuristics based on Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing for discovering efficient team configurations that yield the best trade-off between skill coverage and team connectivity. Our self-adjusting mechanism aims to discover the best combination of direct interactions and recommendations when deriving connectivity. We evaluate our approach based on multiple configurations of a simulated collaboration network that features close resemblance to real world expert networks. We demonstrate that our algorithm successfully identifies efficient team configurations even when removing up to 40% of experts from various social network configurations. PMID:22298939

Dorn, Christoph; Skopik, Florian; Schall, Daniel; Dustdar, Schahram

2011-10-01

67

Developing Diverse Teams to Improve Performance in the Organizational Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The use of teams in organizations given the current trend toward globalization, population changes, and an aging workforce, especially in high-income countries, makes the issue of diverse team building critical. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of team diversity and team performance through the examination of theory and…

Yeager, Katherine L.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

2012-01-01

68

Democracy, Performance, and Outcomes in Interdisciplinary Health Care Teams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines interdisciplinary health care teams, focusing on perceptions of team processes and their relationship to assessments of team performance and individual outcomes. Suggests that hospice interdisciplinary teams are perceived by their members as only somewhat democratic in the practice of decision making. (SG)

Coopman, Stephanie J.

2001-01-01

69

Trust in leadership and team performance: evidence from NCAA basketball.  

PubMed

This study empirically examined the relationship between trust, leadership, and team performance with 2 objectives. The 1st objective was to empirically examine an assumption found in several literatures--that a team's trust in its leader has a significant effect on the team's performance. The 2nd objective was to explore a more complex and dynamic relationship between trust and team performance whereby trust in leadership mediates the relationship between past team performance and future team performance. This relationship is derived by combining theories of trust with an attributional theory of leadership. Survey and archival data from a sample of men's college basketball teams provides support for both hypotheses, indicating that trust in leadership is both a product and a determinant of team performance. PMID:11125648

Dirks, K T

2000-12-01

70

Developing team skills using a program-embedded team assessment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although industry and academia alike place high value on teamwork, how do we actually develop and assess those skills in our students and ourselves? How do we evaluate whether our efforts have had a measurable impact on the students so that we can adjust our approach for maximum benefit? In October 2004, the authors presented initial work on a program-embedded

Leah M. Akins; Daniel C. Barbuto

2008-01-01

71

Defining Projects to Integrate Evolving Team Fundamentals and Project Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Industry has indicated the desire for academic programs to produce graduates that are well-versed in collaborative problem solving and general project management concepts in addition to technical skills. The primary focus of a curriculum is typically centered on the technical training with minimal attention given to coalescing team and project…

Smith, Harold, III; Smarkusky, Debra; Corrigall, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

72

The Effects of Team Personality Awareness Exercises on Team Satisfaction and Performance: The Context of Marketing Course Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marketing courses heavily utilize team projects that can enhance student learning and make students more desirable to recruiters seeking greater teamwork skills and experience from students. Unfortunately team projects that provide opportunities to learn and improve such skills can also be great sources of frustration and dissatisfaction for…

Lancellotti, Matthew P.; Boyd, Thomas

2008-01-01

73

Achieving Management Skills. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared as part of Platte Technical Community College's project to help managers and supervisors develop practical, up-to-date managerial skills in a relatively short time, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations. Unit I focuses on time management, the causes and management of stress, and…

Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

74

Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

Miller, M.A.

1996-08-01

75

The performance and assessment of hospital trauma teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the trauma team is to provide advanced simultaneous care from relevant specialists to the seriously injured trauma patient. When functioning well, the outcome of the trauma team performance should be greater than the sum of its parts. Trauma teams have been shown to reduce the time taken for resuscitation, as well as time to CT scan, to

Andrew Georgiou; David J Lockey

2010-01-01

76

Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

2014-01-01

77

From Group to Team: Skilled Facilitation Moves a Group from a Collection of Individuals to an Effective Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based learning depends on teachers' capacity to engage with each other around central issues of teaching and learning. While such collaboration is readily welcomed by some educators, others remain wedded to an "independent contractor" concept of teaching. Supporting teachers to view themselves as team members and to perform effectively as a…

Lee, Ginny V.

2009-01-01

78

Driving Energy Performance with Energy Management Teams  

E-print Network

term risks to energy security will grow” (3). Traditionally, energy risk management has focused primarily on procurement and supply side strategies. However, as the scope of energy risks begins to expand beyond price to include such things... energy teams facilitate continuous improvement in corporate energy programs. A STRONG ENERGY TEAM IS CRUCIAL FOR IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY Effectively managing energy is not limited to an energy procurement plan that secures low energy...

Younghein, M.; Tunnessen, W.

2006-01-01

79

Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes  

PubMed Central

Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2?h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

2013-01-01

80

The influence of personality and ability on undergraduate teamwork and team performance.  

PubMed

The ability to work effectively on a team is highly valued by employers, and collaboration among students can lead to intrinsic motivation, increased persistence, and greater transferability of skills. Moreover, innovation often arises from multidisciplinary teamwork. The influence of personality and ability on undergraduate teamwork and performance is not comprehensively understood. An investigation was undertaken to explore correlations between team outcomes, personality measures and ability in an undergraduate population. Team outcomes included various self-, peer- and instructor ratings of skills, performance, and experience. Personality measures and ability involved the Five-Factor Model personality traits and GPA. Personality, GPA, and teamwork survey data, as well as instructor evaluations were collected from upper division team project courses in engineering, business, political science, and industrial design at a large public university. Characteristics of a multidisciplinary student team project were briefly examined. Personality, in terms of extraversion scores, was positively correlated with instructors' assessment of team performance in terms of oral and written presentation scores, which is consistent with prior research. Other correlations to instructor-, students' self- and peer-ratings were revealed and merit further study. The findings in this study can be used to understand important influences on successful teamwork, teamwork instruction and intervention and to understand the design of effective curricula in this area moving forward. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-16) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23420685

Rhee, Jinny; Parent, David; Basu, Anuradha

2013-12-01

81

Personality and Team Performance: A Meta-Analysisy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a meta-analytical procedure, the relationship between team composition in terms of the Big-Five personality traits (trait elevation and variability) and team performance were researched. The numberof teams upon which analyses were performed ranged from 106 to 527. For the total sample, significant effects were found for elevation in agreeableness (r ¼0.24) and conscientiousness (r ¼0.20), and for variability in

MIRANDA A. G. PEETERS; CHRISTEL G. RUTTE; ISABELLE M. M. J. REYMEN

2006-01-01

82

Does playing several competitions influence a team’s league performance? Evidence from Spanish professional football  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sporting performance of professional football teams has often been assessed considering their results in the major regular\\u000a competition, namely the national league. Here, we show that evaluating league performance without controlling for extra games\\u000a played in other competitions might produce misleading results. Using Data Envelopment Analysis, we assess the performance\\u000a of Spanish professional football teams in the League controlling

Andrés J. Picazo-Tadeo; Francisco González-Gómez

2010-01-01

83

When do bad apples not spoil the barrel? negative relationships in teams, team performance, and buffering mechanisms.  

PubMed

The study of negative relationships in teams has primarily focused on the impact of negative relationships on individual team member attitudes and performance in teams. The mechanisms and contingencies that can buffer against the damaging effects of negative relationships on team performance have received limited attention. Building on social interdependence theory and the multilevel model of team motivation, we examine in a sample of 73 work teams the team-level attributes that foster the promotive social interaction that can neutralize the adverse effect of negative relationships on team cohesion and, consequently, on team performance. The results indicate that high levels of team-member exchange as well as high task-interdependence attenuate how team cohesion and team performance suffer from negative relationships. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:24661274

de Jong, Jeroen P; Cur?eu, Petru L; Leenders, Roger Th A J

2014-05-01

84

Performance and competitive orientation: team dynamics in test match cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between the diversity of team composition and the outcome enjoyed by those teams in test match cricket by using performance and competitiveness variables. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines 100 test matches over 13 years played by eight test match-playing countries. It draws on 12 measures of performance and

Andy Adcroft; Jon Teckman

2011-01-01

85

The management of high-performance teams in international organizations  

E-print Network

High-performance teams can be used to achieve strategic high pay-offs for an organization. The aim of this paper is to study fundamentals key to the success of high performance teams and to examine the application of these ...

Tan, Wee Beng, 1965-

2004-01-01

86

Information Sharing and Team Performance: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information sharing is a central process through which team members collectively utilize their available informational resources. The authors used meta-analysis to synthesize extant research on team information sharing. Meta-analytic results from 72 independent studies (total groups = 4,795; total N = 17,279) demonstrate the importance of information sharing to team performance, cohesion, decision satisfaction, and knowledge integration. Although moderators were

Jessica R. Mesmer-Magnus; Leslie A. DeChurch

2009-01-01

87

Modeling and Analyzing Cultural Influences on Project Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on international joint ventures (IJV) finds managers experience difficulties in working with cross-cultural teams. Our research aims to understand how cultural differences between Japanese and American firms in IJV projects effect team performance through computational experimentation. We characterize culture and cultural differences using two dimensions: practices and values.Practices refer to each cultures typical organization style, such as centralization of

Tamaki Horii; Yan Jin; Raymond E. Levitt

2005-01-01

88

Integrated manufacturing approach to attain benchmark team performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Self-Directed Work Team (SDWT) was developed to transfer a polyimide process module from the research laboratory to our wafer fab facility for applications in IC specialty devices. The SDWT implemented processes and tools based on the integration of five manufacturing strategies for continuous improvement. These were: Leadership Through Quality (LTQ), Total Productive Maintenance (TMP), Cycle Time Management (CTM), Activity-Based Costing (ABC), and Total Employee Involvement (TEI). Utilizing these management techniques simultaneously, the team achieved six sigma control of all critical parameters, increased Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) from 20% to 90%, reduced cycle time by 95%, cut polyimide manufacturing cost by 70%, and improved its overall team member skill level by 33%.

Chen, Shau-Ron; Nguyen, Andrew; Naguib, Hussein

1994-09-01

89

THE IMPACT OF TEAM EMPOWERMENT ON VIRTUAL TEAM PERFORMANCE: THE MODERATING ROLE OF FACE-TO-FACE INTERACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between team empowerment and virtual team performance and the moderating role of the extent of face-to-face interaction using 35 sales and service virtual teams in a high-technology organization. Team empowerment was positively related to two independent assessments of virtual team performance— process improvement and customer satisfaction. Further, the number of face-to-face meetings moderated the relationship between

Bradley L. Kirkman; BENSON ROSEN; PAUL E. TESLUK; CRISTINA B. GIBSON

2004-01-01

90

The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

Hamilton, Katherine L.

2009-01-01

91

The Influences of Skill Level, Anxiety, and Psychological Skills Use on Amateur Golfers’ Performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study not only explored the influence of golf expertise on mental skills utilization, but also the influences of the use of mental skills and anxiety on performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who had played golf for an average of 23 years, ranged in age (M = 52.17, SD = 11.81) and in skill level (M

Bert Hayslip Jr; Trent A. Petrie; Mae M. MacIntire; Gretchen M. Jones

2010-01-01

92

Tools for evaluating team performance in simulation-based training  

PubMed Central

Teamwork training constitutes one of the core approaches for moving healthcare systems toward increased levels of quality and safety, and simulation provides a powerful method of delivering this training, especially for face-paced and dynamic specialty areas such as Emergency Medicine. Team performance measurement and evaluation plays an integral role in ensuring that simulation-based training for teams (SBTT) is systematic and effective. However, this component of SBTT systems is overlooked frequently. This article addresses this gap by providing a review and practical introduction to the process of developing and implementing evaluation systems in SBTT. First, an overview of team performance evaluation is provided. Second, best practices for measuring team performance in simulation are reviewed. Third, some of the prominent measurement tools in the literature are summarized and discussed relative to the best practices. Subsequently, implications of the review are discussed for the practice of training teamwork in Emergency Medicine. PMID:21063558

Rosen, Michael A; Weaver, Sallie J; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Salas, Eduardo; Wu, Teresa; Silvestri, Salvatore; Schiebel, Nicola; Almeida, Sandra; King, Heidi B

2010-01-01

93

Human Performance Modeling and Simulation for Launch Team Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes ongoing research into modeling and simulation of humans for launch team analysis, training, and evaluation. The initial research is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) and NASA's Exploration Program and is focused on current and future launch team operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The paper begins with a description of existing KSC launch team environments and procedures. It then describes the goals of new Simulation and Analysis of Launch Teams (SALT) research. The majority of this paper describes products from the SALT team's initial proof-of-concept effort. These products include a nominal case task analysis and a discrete event model and simulation of launch team performance during the final phase of a shuttle countdown; and a first proof-of-concept training demonstration of launch team communications in which the computer plays most roles, and the trainee plays a role of the trainee's choice. This paper then describes possible next steps for the research team and provides conclusions. This research is expected to have significant value to NASA's Exploration Program.

Peaden, Cary J.; Payne, Stephen J.; Hoblitzell, Richard M., Jr.; Chandler, Faith T.; LaVine, Nils D.; Bagnall, Timothy M.

2006-01-01

94

Are declines in physical performance associated with a reduction in skill-related performance during professional soccer match-play?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether declines in physical performance in a professional soccer team during match-play were associated with reductions in skill-related performance. Computerized tracking of performance in midfield players (n = 11) showed that total distance and distance covered in high-speed running (>14.4 km · h) were greater in the first versus second half of games (both P < 0.001) and in

Christopher Carling; Gregory Dupont

2011-01-01

95

Quantifying the Performance of Individual Players in a Team Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Teamwork is a fundamental aspect of many human activities, from business to art and from sports to science. Recent research suggest that team work is of crucial importance to cutting-edge scientific research, but little is known about how teamwork leads to greater creativity. Indeed, for many team activities, it is not even clear how to assign credit to individual team members. Remarkably, at least in the context of sports, there is usually a broad consensus on who are the top performers and on what qualifies as an outstanding performance. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to determine how individual features can be quantified, and as a test bed for other team-based human activities, we analyze the performance of players in the European Cup 2008 soccer tournament. We develop a network approach that provides a powerful quantification of the contributions of individual players and of overall team performance. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that generalizations of our approach could be useful in other contexts where quantification of the contributions of individual team members is important. PMID:20585387

Duch, Jordi; Waitzman, Joshua S.; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

2010-01-01

96

A note on the stability of team performance.  

PubMed

Yearly winning percentages of 23 professional basketball teams over a 10-year period were used to evaluate the stability of team performance. The intercorrelation matrix produced by these data is characterized by strong, positive correlations in adjacent time periods. As the number of intervening time periods increased, however, the observed correlations systematically decreased and ultimately became negative. Significant negative correlations of earlier performance with later performance are almost never observed with typical time-related performance data. Possible explanations and boundary conditions for these atypical results are discussed. PMID:11419804

Landis, R S

2001-06-01

97

TEAM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including the…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

98

Who Owns Your Team?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feelings of team ownership promote team cohesiveness which yields better performance. Coaches should implement strategies that encourage team members to share with the coach responsibility for morale, skill-building, play improvement, and decision making. Maturity level of athletes influences the degree of ownership allowed. Strategies for…

Weisen, Kathy; Love, Phyllis

1988-01-01

99

Generic Skills. Keys to Job Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The generic skills studies in Canada have as their objectives the formulation of generic skills, the identification of their uses for certain occupational groups, and the preparation of specifications for instructional modules in an attempt to provide greater flexibility to workers, employers, and vocational training programs. Another objective of…

Smith, Arthur De W.

100

Got political skill? The impact of justice on the importance of political skill for job performance.  

PubMed

The present study examined the moderating effects of procedural and distributive justice on the relationships between political skill and task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) among 175 supervisor-subordinate dyads of a government organization. Using Mischel's (1968) situationist perspective, high justice conditions were considered "strong situations," whereas low justice conditions were construed as "weak situations." We found that when both procedural and distributive justice were low, political skill was positively related to performance. Under conditions of both high procedural and high distributive justice, political skill was negatively related to performance. Finally, under conditions of low distributive justice, political skill was positively related to OCB, whereas under conditions of high distributive justice, political skill had little effect on OCB. These results highlight the importance of possessing political skill in weak but not strong situations. PMID:19916653

Andrews, Martha C; Kacmar, K Michele; Harris, Kenneth J

2009-11-01

101

Change Management: The Case of the Elite Sport Performance Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective and efficient implementation of change is often required for both successful performance and management survival across a host of contemporary domains. However, although of major theoretical and practical significance, research to date has overlooked the application of change management (hereafter CM) knowledge to the elite sport performance team environment. Considering that the success of ‘off-field’ sports businesses are

Andrew Cruickshank; Dave Collins

2012-01-01

102

Motivating Your Team: Coaching for Performance in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to help you get the best out of your team, this practical book shows you how to motivate and engage people through the effective design, application and review of performance management. Checklists and practical guidance notes are provided to help you understand the principles and practice of effective performance management and how the…

Taylor, Peter R.

2007-01-01

103

Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?  

PubMed

Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes. PMID:22845561

Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

2012-09-01

104

Preparing technical communicators for future workplaces: a model that integrates teaming, professional communication skills, and a software development process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a model that uses teaming as a framework to support professional communication and process to improve student performance, as measured by the quality of output. It describes a pedagogical approach used in a computer science undergraduate senior class that integrates teaming, professional communication and a software development process. The approach demonstrates the importance of team instruction and

Margaret R. Heil

1999-01-01

105

Performance assessment in complex individual and team tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described here is an eclectic, performance based approach to assessing cognitive performance from multiple perspectives. The experience gained from assessing the effects of antihistamines and scenario difficulty on C (exp 2) decision making performance in Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) weapons director (WD) teams can serve as a model for realistic simulations in space operations. Emphasis is placed on the flexibility of measurement, hierarchical organization of measurement levels, data collection from multiple perspectives, and the difficulty of managing large amounts of data.

Eddy, Douglas R.

1992-01-01

106

Technological Supports for Onsite and Distance Education and Students' Perceptions of Acquisition of Thinking and Team-Building Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper compares students' perceptions of support provided in the acquisition of various thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the various activities, resources and technologies (ART) integrated into an upper level Distributed Computing (DC) course. The findings indicate that students perceived strong support for their acquisition…

Thomas, Jennifer D. E.; Morin, Danielle

2010-01-01

107

Development and Initial Validation of the Performance Skills Questionnaire (PSQ)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Performance Skills Questionnaire (PSQ), addressed to measure performance skills of preschoolers, as reported by their parents. Participants included 231 children ranging in age from 4 to 6 years old, with mild to moderate developmental disabilities and 240…

Bart, Orit; Rosenberg, Limor; Ratzon, Navah Z.; Jarus, Tal

2010-01-01

108

The top team: examining board composition and firm performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to argue that boards can be playing a more proactive role in contributing to organizational effectiveness and that their composition requires greater research attention. By integrating the organizational behaviour literature on teams with the governance literature, the paper empirically examines the relationship between key board composition variables and firm performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – At this stage

Michael L. McIntyre; Steven A. Murphy; Paul Mitchell

2007-01-01

109

High-performance teams in wildlife conservation: A species reintroduction and recovery example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reintroduction of animals to the wild to establish free-ranging viable populations is a valuable conservation tool, but ecological skills alone are not enough to ensure a successful reintroduction; also needed to do the work are effectively designed and managed programs. This article suggests general guidelines for organizing and managing reintroduction programs, reviews some basic organizational issues, and considers ways to develop high-performance teams The need to integrate reintroduction programs into their larger interorganizational context is discussed. The reintroduction program's structure must be appropriate for its function and should be properly staffed, led, and buffered from its political environment It should process information well, learn rapidly from its own mistakes, and be creative A high-performance team devotes most of its energies to solving external rather than internal problems

Clark, Tim W.; Westrum, Ron

1989-11-01

110

Age, psychological skills, and golf performance: a prospective investigation.  

PubMed

This study explored the influence of age in understanding mental skills utilization in the context of performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who ranged in age and in skill level, included 1150 male and 170 female amateur golfers competing in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Championship in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Measures targeted general mental skills used in competitions, golf-specific skills, and competitive trait anxiety. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to explore the potential moderating role that chronological age may play in influencing the impact of psychological skills and anxiety on competitive tournament performance across the adult life span. Findings suggested no significant age-moderating effects and instead pointed to the importance of developing golf-specific psychological skills to enhance or maintain performance, irrespective of age. Although automaticity (performance feels "automatic") predicted performance for all golfers, commitment to the game and confidence in one's putting did so only for the men. These findings reinforce the age-irrelevant role of such skills in fostering the experience of peak performance in a competitive sport context and underscore the importance of interventions targeting older players to help maintain or facilitate the use of psychological skills in helping them manage their games. PMID:23525546

Hayslip, Bert; Petrie, Trent A

2014-03-01

111

Life Skills Yield Stronger Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After one failed attempt to buttress the prospects of black males at a racially diverse high school, teachers fashioned a life skills class that was heavy on racial pride and personal insight. In so doing they borrowed liberally from the Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching by Margery Ginsberg and Raymond Wlodkowski that leans…

Lindsey, Tommie, Jr.; Mabie, Benjamin

2012-01-01

112

The Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a joint labor-management workplace literacy program called SET (Skills Enhancement Training) that targeted the more than 2,000 unionized employees of food service contractors at U.S. government institutions in Washington, D.C. Nineteen classes were offered and a total of 191 people self-selected themselves into the program.…

Food and Beverage Workers Union, Local 32, Washington, DC.

113

Schneider Skills Enhancement Program. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Schneider Skills Enhancement Program is a workplace literacy partnership between the medical manufacturing firm Schneider, Inc., and the Adult Academic Program of the Robbinsdale Area Schools in Minnesota. A literacy audit of 39 Schneider employees established a need for instruction in literacy, numeracy, and English as a Second Language (ESL)…

Schneider (USA), Inc., Plymouth, MN.

114

The impact of team building and leadership development on nuclear plant performance  

SciTech Connect

Within the nuclear utility industry, the pressures of complex technologies, increasing regulations, and critical public scrutiny create a working environment filled with numerous pressures. The difficult nature of the industry puts a premium on effective teamwork, interdepartmental cooperation, and communication skills. A well-conceived and implemented team building and leadership development program can substantially improve the operating performance of a nuclear plant. This paper describes one such implementation effort at GPU Nuclear Corporation and at the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station (OCNGS) over an 18-month period.

Fiedler, P.B.; Long, R.L.; Childress, J.R.

1988-01-01

115

Impacts of dairy diagnostic teams on herd performance.  

PubMed

This study evaluated impacts of educational diagnostic teams of consultants used to transfer technology to dairy farms. Herd management performance changes were measured by comparing Dairy Herd Improvement data from 38 project farms to data from herds that were geographical contemporaries. The value of focused goals for effecting change was also assessed. Interviews provided producers' perception of project outcomes and insight on organization and conduct of dairy diagnostic teams. Changes observed in project herds were small compared with controls with tendencies for increased herd size and improved milk production per cow. Focused goals had greater impacts on increasing herd size, milk per cow, first lactation peak milk, reducing age at first calving, and percentages of cows with subclinical mastitis. Time, money, facility limitations, labor, and alternative priorities were the most cited constraints to implementing changes. Satisfaction scores of producers were significantly related to the degree that team recommendations were followed. Improved attitudes, quality of life, and financial well-being were benefits listed by a majority of producers from participation in the project. If similar projects were to be offered, 83% said they would participate again, and 69% indicated they would pay at least some of the costs. Project farms served as demonstration farms for 1930 other producers in their respective locales, resulting in a multiplier effect of original advice given by consultant teams. Suggestions by farmer participants for improvements in dairy diagnostic teams included needs for at least some unbiased team members, more frequent meetings, more follow-up on recommendations, and consistency of recommendations with family goals. PMID:12778597

Weinand, D; Conlin, B J

2003-05-01

116

Improving Professional Judgment and Performance Training for Open Job Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion of how to design a training program to teach professional judgment and performance focuses on a model for training police officers. Open job skills are explained, appropriate choices and actions are described, and the components and objectives of open job skill instruction are presented. (LRW)

Yelon, Stephen; Desmedt, John

1988-01-01

117

Virtual Team Governance: Addressing the Governance Mechanisms and Virtual Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As technology has improved and collaborative software has been developed, virtual teams with geographically dispersed members\\u000a spread across diverse physical locations have become increasingly prominent. Virtual team is supported by advancing communication\\u000a technologies, which makes virtual teams able to largely transcend time and space. Virtual teams have changed the corporate\\u000a landscape, which are more complex and dynamic than traditional teams

Yihong Zhan; Yu Bai; Ziheng Liu

2007-01-01

118

An examination of team reactions to negative performance feedback and their relationship to team performance  

E-print Network

APPENDIX J ......................................................................................................... 85 APPENDIX K........................................................................................................ 86 APPENDIX L...-level feedback and shares this feedback through monthly performance feedback meetings. On average this system realizes productivity gains of 1.4 standard deviations from baseline work performance measures (Pritchard, Paquin, DeCuir, McCormick, & Bly, 2002...

Philo, Joel Richard

2005-02-17

119

Diurnal Variation on the Performance of Soccer-Specific Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate diurnal variation in some specific skills performance and some physical fitness and physiological factors in soccer players. Twelve male soccer players (mean±SD; age 22.6±3 years; height 1.76±4.4 m; body mass 66.5±4.6 kg) participated in the study. Subjects performed some specific soccer skills and some physical fitness factors in one day.

N. Rahnama; N. Sajjadi; E. Bambaeichi; H. R. Sadeghipour; H. Daneshjoo; B. Nazary

2009-01-01

120

Impact of heterogeneity and collaborative conflict management style on the performance of ynchronous global virtual teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual teams cut across organizational cultures, national cultures, and functional areas, thereby increasing group heterogeneity, which may result in increased conflict among team members and less effective performance of the team. Our study explored the relationships that might exist among the heterogeneity of the virtual teams, their collaborative conflict management style, and their performance outcomes. The paper reports the findings

Souren Paul; Priya Seetharaman; Imad Samarah; Peter P. Mykytyn

2004-01-01

121

Prosocial Bonuses Increase Employee Satisfaction and Team Performance  

PubMed Central

In three field studies, we explore the impact of providing employees and teammates with prosocial bonuses, a novel type of bonus spent on others rather than on oneself. In Experiment 1, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of donations to charity lead to happier and more satisfied employees at an Australian bank. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of expenditures on teammates lead to better performance in both sports teams in Canada and pharmaceutical sales teams in Belgium. These results suggest that a minor adjustment to employee bonuses – shifting the focus from the self to others – can produce measurable benefits for employees and organizations. PMID:24058691

Anik, Lalin; Aknin, Lara B.; Norton, Michael I.; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Quoidbach, Jordi

2013-01-01

122

Development of a Notational Analysis System for Selected Soccer Skills of a Women's College Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to develop a notational system to evaluate passing, dribbling, first touch, and individual defensive skills as they relate to success during women's soccer games and to develop a statistical model to weigh the importance of each skill on creating scoring opportunities. Sequences of skills in ten games of a National…

Thomas, Camille; Fellingham, Gilbert; Vehrs, Pat

2009-01-01

123

Does Virtual Team Composition Matter? Trait and Problem-Solving Configuration Effects on Team Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the increased importance and usage of self-managed virtual teams, many recent studies have examined factors that affect their success. One such factor that merits examination is the configuration or composition of virtual teams. This article tackles this point by (1) empirically testing trait-configuration effects on virtual team

Turel, Ofir; Zhang, Yi

2010-01-01

124

Point of View: Performance Skills and General Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes a performance-oriented music program, and suggests that performance-oriented skills should play a major part in the general music curriculum; when teachers demonstrate the value of performance-oriented objectives to administrators and the community, general music programs are less likely to be cut. (KC)

Music Educators Journal, 1978

1978-01-01

125

Ready to rumble: how team personality composition and task conflict interact to improve performance.  

PubMed

Although prior work has proposed a number of conditions under which task conflict in teams may improve performance, composition variables have been left unexplored. Given the effects of personality traits on team processes and outcomes demonstrated in prior work, investigating whether specific personality compositions influence the effect of task conflict on team performance is critical to researchers' understanding of conflict in teams. Our results indicate that team-level averages of both openness to experience and emotional stability function as moderators of the relationship between task conflict and team performance. Specifically, task conflict had a positive impact on performance in teams with high levels of openness or emotional stability; in contrast, task conflict had a negative impact on performance in teams with low levels of openness or emotional stability. Thus, when task conflict emerges, teams composed of members who are open minded or emotionally stable are best able to leverage conflict to improve performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:22963513

Bradley, Bret H; Klotz, Anthony C; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Brown, Kenneth G

2013-03-01

126

Are declines in physical performance associated with a reduction in skill-related performance during professional soccer match-play?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether declines in physical performance in a professional soccer team during match-play were associated with reductions in skill-related performance. Computerized tracking of performance in midfield players (n = 11) showed that total distance and distance covered in high-speed running (>14.4 km · h?¹) were greater in the first versus second half of games (both P < 0.001) and in the first versus the final 15 min of play (P < 0.05). Analysis of high-speed running across 5-min periods showed that more distance was covered in the first versus the final game period, and in the peak period of activity compared with the following period and game mean for other periods (all P < 0.05). Analysis of skill-related measures revealed no significant decline between halves, across 15-min intervals or in the 5-min period following that of peak high-speed activity compared with the game mean for other 5-min periods. In contrast, frequencies of passing, ball possessions, and duels were greater in the first 5-min than in the final 5-min period (P < 0.05). Neither physical nor skill-related performance was affected across three consecutive games within a period of ?7 days. The results suggest that the players were generally able to maintain skill-related performance throughout games and when competing in successive matches within a short time. PMID:21077004

Carling, Christopher; Dupont, Gregory

2011-01-01

127

The Relationship between Shared Mental Models and Task Performance in an Online Team- Based Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand learning teams, this study examines the effects of shared mental models on team and individual performance. The results indicate that each team's shared mental model changed significantly over the time that subjects participated in team-based learning activities. The results also showed that the shared mental…

Johnson, Tristan E.; Lee, Youngmin

2008-01-01

128

Effects of intra-group conflict on packaged software development team performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 40 packaged software development teams are used to test a path model that relates three antecedents, the presence of intragroup conflict and the level of conflict management to software development team performance. Findings indicate that a combination of the team's characteristics, team member characteristics and existing levels of intragroup conflict accounts for nearly one- half of the variance

Steve Sawyer

2001-01-01

129

The contingent effects of top management teams on venture performance: Aligning founding team composition with innovation strategy and commercialization environment  

E-print Network

How does the relationship between founding team composition and venture performance depend on the venture's strategy and business environment? Using data from a novel survey of 2,067 firms, we show that while diverse ...

Eesley, Charles E.

130

Manual skill, hand skill asymmetry, and neuropsychological test performance in schoolchildren with spastic cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral hand skill assessment with a computerised version of the Peg Moving Task, and neuropsychological testing, were performed in 30 children aged 7 to 8 years with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and without mental retardation, diplegia (n = 10), right hemiplegia (n = 10), or left hemiplegia (n = 10), and in 30 controls. Compared to controls: (i) 30% of

Gilberto Nunes Filho; Lígia Souza; Luiz Guilherme Nunes; Lucia Willadino Braga; Georges Dellatolas

2005-01-01

131

A Fair Go for All? The Impact of Intragroup Diversity and Diversity-Management Skills on Student Experiences and Outcomes in Team-Based Class Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study of 390 students in 64 Practical Organizational Behavior Education (PROBE) project teams was conducted on the effects of intragroup diversity and student diversity-management skills. The impact of gender, age, and nationality variables on student grades, cognitive processes, perceptions of team effectiveness, and satisfaction…

Shaw, James B.

2004-01-01

132

Assessment of Individual Student Performance in Online Team Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of team projects has been shown to be beneficial in higher education. There is also general agreement that team efforts should be assessed and that the grading ought to represent both (1) the quality of the product developed jointly by the team, as well as (2) the degree of participation and quality of contribution by each individual…

Alden, Jay

2011-01-01

133

A Qualitative Investigation into How Problem-Based Learning Impacts on the Development of Team-Working Skills in Occupational Therapy Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that problem-based learning (PBL) has a positive impact on the team-working skills of medical, health and social care students. These skills are important for graduates to master to enable effective collaborative working in today's diverse health and social care settings. What is not clear from the literature is how…

Seymour, Alison

2013-01-01

134

The effects of team diversity on a team process and team performance in the National Hockey League  

E-print Network

and managers, while also contributing to the theoretical body of literature for sport and diversity research. This research examined National Hockey League teams and players during a three year period (2001-2004). English Canadians made up 42.5% of the players...

Waltemyer, David Scott

2009-05-15

135

Predicting Student Performance in Preclinical Technique Courses Using the Theory of Ability Determinants of Skilled Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to validate Ackerman’s theory of ability determinants of skilled performance,using sub-test scores of the Dental Admission Test (DAT) in predicting student performance,in preclinical technique courses. The Ackerman theory is a valid, reliable schema in the applied psychology literature used to predict complex skill acquisition. Inconsistent stimulus-response skill acquisition depends primarily on determinants of

Sarah A. Gray

136

Designing student learning teams improving team performance in a college biology laboratory by designing learning teams based on student's intra-team function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooperative learning is likely the most utilized form of classroom management in college science laboratory courses. Time restrictions, equipment availability and physical space limitations promote use of cooperation if for no other reason than convenience and necessity. In college laboratory courses, students are often assigned to learning teams the first day of class. Student placement in these learning teams is usually a task for the instructor in charge and may depend on student preference, proximity, or random assignment according to an arbitrary character such as the student's last name. Regardless of placement method, learning teams often experience negative outcomes due to friction between team members. This study addresses the possibility that friction is caused by intra team competition and that intra team competition can be eliminated through team design using the Intra-Team Function Assay (ITFA) (English 2001). Eight hundred and ninety one college students, in 62 sections of an introductory biology laboratory course, participated in the ITFA study during the Fall 2001, Spring 2002, and Summer 2002 semesters. Using a Latin Square all laboratory sections were assigned to one of the following groups: control, Hawthorne, or experimental. Students in the control and Hawthorne sections were assigned to student teams randomly without regard for the ITFA results, while students in the experimental group were assigned to teams dependent on their identified intra-team function. In seven out of ten grade assessments, students in the experimental group earned significantly higher grades than did students in the control group; with no significant difference in the remaining three measures. Student grades in the experimental group where significantly higher than student grades in the Hawthorne group on all team assessments with the exception of the final examination. Students in the experimental group also earned higher semester grades than did students in either the control or Hawthorne groups.

English, Lisarenee

137

Regressing Team Performance on Collective Efficacy: Considerations of Temporal Proximity and Concordance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree collective efficacy judgments based on summative team performance capabilities exhibited different levels of prediction for three additive intervals of team performance in women's ice hockey. Collective efficacy beliefs of 12 teams were assessed prior to Friday's game and Saturday's game…

Myers, Nicholas D.; Paiement, Craig A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

2007-01-01

138

Empowerment in project teams: a multilevel examination of the job performance implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrative multilevel model of empowerment and job performance behaviours is advanced, building on social cognitive theory (SCT). Empowerment climate is hypothesized as influencing individual and team performance behaviours directly and partially through individual and team (psychological) empowerment. Using survey responses from 380 individuals, nested in 115 project management teams, we tested the direct, indirect and cross?level relationships delineated in

Martin Morgan Tuuli; Steve Rowlinson

2009-01-01

139

Skills Enhancement Program. Performance Report, Evaluation Report, and Administration Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three products of the Skills Enhancement Program, a cooperative venture between Industrial Technology Institute (ITI), Wayne County (Michigan) Community College (WCCC), and Great Lakes Steel (GLS). The performance report describes the project's objective of designing a job-related literacy curriculum for hourly workers and…

Wayne County Community Coll., Detroit, MI.

140

An Experimental Examination of the Cohesion-Performance Relationship in an Interactive Team Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study experimentally examined the cohesion-performance relationship. Undergraduate male volunteers were randomly assigned to 3-man basketball teams and teams were randomly assigned to receive either a cohesion-producing or a cohesion-reducing manipulation before competing. Level of cohesion and individual as well as team performance variables were assessed prior to and after each game. The manipulation successfully created teams higher and lower

Frederick G. Grieve; James P. Whelan; Andrew W. Meyers

2000-01-01

141

Using brain-based measures to compose teams: How individual capabilities and team collaboration strategies jointly shape performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in understanding neural processes open the possibility of using brain-based measures to compose collaborative work teams. Neuroimaging studies have shown that individual differences in patterns of brain activity can predict differences in performance of specific tasks. We extended this finding by examining performance not simply by a single brain, but by pairs of brains. We used measures derived from

Anita Williams Woolley; J. Richard Hackman; Thomas E. Jerde; Christopher F. Chabris; Sean L. Bennett; Stephen M. Kosslyn

2007-01-01

142

Portraying the Contribution of Individual Behaviors to Team Cohesion and Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Behaviors of individuals in teams both contribute to and are molded by team dynamics. How they do so has been the subject of much research. A method of portraying individuals' behaviors in teams, the Team Diagramming Method (TDM) is presented. Behaviors are rated by other team members on three important dimensions: positivity/negativity, dominant/submissive, and task-orientedness/expressiveness. A study of 5-person teams engaging in a 3-day moon simulation task demonstrated that measures of these perceived behaviors as well as the variances of these behaviors correlated with cohesion measures and performance. The method shows strengths and weaknesses of particular teams and, by comparison with high-performing teams, suggests interventions based on individual as well as team behaviors. The primary goal of this study was to determine the extent to which these team level variables, derived from all team members' rated behaviors, were associated with previous methods of measuring cohesion and with performance. A secondary goal was to determine the stability of TDM measures over time by comparing team level variables based on ratings early and later in the team s work together.

Parke, Bonny; Orasanu, Judith

2012-01-01

143

Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Interpersonal and Communication Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module was developed by Project TEAM (Technical Education Advancement Modules), a cooperative demonstration program for high technology training for unemployed, underemployed, and existing industrial employees needing upgrading. The module is a 6-hour overview course intended to develop competencies in the following interpersonal and…

Mason, Joan S.

144

Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Job Search Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is one of a series developed by Project TEAM (Technical Education Advancement Modules), a cooperative demonstration program for high technology training for unemployed, underemployed, and existing industrial employees needing upgrading. This module is a 3-hour overview course intended to develop competencies in the following job search…

Mason, Joan S.

145

MBA 510-01 LEADERSHIP SKILLS AND TEAM DEVELOPMENT Professor Sharon Lobel  

E-print Network

Assistance Programs, Research [Library] Services, Writing Center, Math Lab) Academic Integrity Tutorial growth and discovery about your capacity for leadership and teamwork Expand your "library" of resources of team types Articulate your leadership stance in relation to social responsibility; and design

Carter, John

146

Public Administrators. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared as part of a project to help managers and supervisors develop practical, up-to-date managerial skills in a relatively short time, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations encountered by public administrators. Unit I focuses on leadership, management theories, time and stress…

Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

147

Health Care Administrators. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The result of a project to develop short courses to help health care administrators and supervisors in developing practical, up-to-date management skills, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations. Unit I covers the following leadership considerations: self-awareness, time management,…

Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

148

Independent Business Owner/Managers. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared as part of Platte Technical Community College's project to help managers and supervisors develop practical, up-to-date managerial skills in a relatively short time, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations encountered by independent business owner/managers. Unit I provides…

Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

149

Updating Polytechnic Teachers' Knowledge and Skills through Teacher Design Teams in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While teachers and administrators in polytechnics in Ghana have categorically expressed the growing need for the former's knowledge and skills to be updated in the era of polytechnic transformation, little attention has been paid to the subject. This study reports a professional development intervention organised for 16 engineering teachers…

Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

2012-01-01

150

Communication, and Team-Working Skills in Second-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, a multidisciplinary program has been used to encourage science students to build on their chemical knowledge and to appreciate how it applies to the world around them. The program is interactive and instills a new set of core learning skills that are often underrepresented in undergraduate curricula, namely, cooperative learning,…

Mc Goldrick, Niamh B.; Marzec, Bartosz; Scully, P. Noelle; Draper, Sylvia M.

2013-01-01

151

How To Form a Team: Five Keys to High Performance. For the Practicing Manager. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practical guidebook is designed for managers and leaders who have responsibility for the creation and success of teams. First, a team is described as a workgroup whose members are dependent upon one another for the completion of a given task, and whose members possess different but complementary skill sets. A team manages its own work within…

Kanaga, Kim; Kossler, Michael E.

152

The cognitive basis of effective team performance: features of failure and success in simulated cardiac resuscitation.  

PubMed

Despite a body of research on teams in other fields relatively little is known about measuring teamwork in healthcare. The aim of this study is to characterize the qualitative dimensions of team performance during cardiac resuscitation that results in good and bad outcomes. We studied each team's adherence to Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) protocol for ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia and identified team behaviors during simulated critical events that affected their performance. The process was captured by a developed task checklist and a validated team work coding system. Results suggest that deviation from the sequence suggested by the ACLS protocol had no impact on the outcome as the successful team deviated more from this sequence than the unsuccessful team. It isn't the deviation from the protocol per se that appears to be important, but how the leadership flexibly adapts to the situational changes with deviations is the crucial factor in team competency. PMID:20351925

Shetty, Pallavi; Cohen, Trevor; Patel, Bhavesh; Patel, Vimla L

2009-01-01

153

Shared Mental Models on the Performance of e-Learning Content Development Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of the study was to investigate team-based e-Learning content development projects from the perspective of the shared mental model (SMM) theory. The researcher conducted a study of 79 e-Learning content development teams in Korea to examine the relationship between taskwork and teamwork SMMs and the performance of the teams.…

Jo, Il-Hyun

2012-01-01

154

Virtual Team Performance Depends on Distributed Nico van Dijk and Joost Broekens  

E-print Network

showed that, in teams of this level, individual player performance was not the primary driver 16 hours of audio recordings of gaming sessions of virtual teams were analyzed. The analysis by the Gartner group found that more than 60% of professional employees work in virtual teams [5, 6, 7

Boyer, Edmond

155

Mental models in design teams: a valid approach to performance in design collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of research into mental models in teams and discusses the relevance of this theoretical concept for design teams. Researchers in several disciplines have applied the construct of mental models to understand how people perform tasks based on their knowledge, experience and expectation. The notion has also been used to study teams and to analyse the

Petra Badke-Schaub; Andre Neumann; Kristina Lauche; Susan Mohammed

2007-01-01

156

Conflict, Trust, and Effectiveness in Teams Performing Complex Tasks: A Study of Temporal Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we analyze the evolution of intra-team conflict and trust in teams that perform complex tasks. Using a longitudinal research design with six time intervals over a period of ten months, we collected data on 41 teams. Our findings suggest the existence of two distinct temporal patterns. One pattern develops in a stable manner and is characterized by

Anneloes M. L. Raes; Mariëlle G. Heijltjes; Ursula Glunk; Robert A. Roe

2006-01-01

157

Globally distributed teams: the effect of diversity on trust, cohesion and individual performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally distributed teams are becoming more common among organizations that seek to maximize knowledge creation and innovation for competitive advantage. Although they are becoming widely used among global organizations, distributed teams are creating an environment replete in cultural and functional diversity. Whereas synergy among members is desired, diversity is likely to hinder team cohesion and individual performance. Our study models

Gary Garrison; Robin L. Wakefield; Xiaobo Xu; Sang Hyun `Kim

2010-01-01

158

Development and initial validation of the Performance Skills Questionnaire (PSQ).  

PubMed

The objectives of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Performance Skills Questionnaire (PSQ), addressed to measure performance skills of preschoolers, as reported by their parents. Participants included 231 children ranging in age from 4 to 6 years old, with mild to moderate developmental disabilities and 240 children without disabilities at same age range. Internal consistency, test-retest, construct validity, and divergent and convergent validity were assessed. The PSQ has shown good internal reliability, and temporal stability. Construct validity was supported by factor analysis which yielded 3 factors that explained almost 52% of the total variance. Significant differences were found between known groups. Convergent and divergent validity were supported by significant correlations with Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) test, and the Children Participation Questionnaire (CPQ). The PSQ is a unique tool that measures performance skills based on preschool children's everyday function. Results provide evidence in support of the PSQ as a reliable and psychometrically sound instrument. PMID:19709854

Bart, Orit; Rosenberg, Limor; Ratzon, Navah Z; Jarus, Tal

2010-01-01

159

Team Formation under Normal versus Crisis Situations: Leaders' Assessments of Task Requirements and Selection of Team Members.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The blend of skills, attributes, and relationships among team members influences their mutual performance. This project addressed the team composition requirements for tasks that vary in uncertainty, risk, and time pressure. Military leaders were asked to...

G. Baltos, Z. Mitsopoulou

2007-01-01

160

Using geographic information systems to track polio vaccination team performance: pilot project report.  

PubMed

The application of geospatial data to public health problems has expanded significantly with increased access to low-cost handheld global positioning system (GPS) receivers and free programs for geographic information systems analysis. In January 2010, we piloted the application of geospatial analysis to polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in northern Nigeria. SIA teams carried GPS receivers to compare hand-drawn catchment area route maps with GPS tracks of actual vaccination teams. Team tracks overlaid on satellite imagery revealed that teams commonly missed swaths of contiguous households and indicated that geospatial data can improve microplanning and provide nearly real-time monitoring of team performance. PMID:25316882

Gammino, Victoria M; Nuhu, Adamu; Chenoweth, Paul; Manneh, Fadinding; Young, Randall R; Sugerman, David E; Gerber, Sue; Abanida, Emmanuel; Gasasira, Alex

2014-11-01

161

When Both the Skilled and Unskilled are Unaware: Consequences for Academic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors replicate Kruger and Dunning (1999) by demonstrating that the most unskilled students overestimate their skill level, whereas highly skilled students underestimate their skill level. Furthermore, this misestimation of skill is related to academic performance. Misestimation was positively related to first year college GPA, persistence to the fourth year of college, and graduation. At times, this effect can lead

Krista D. Mattern; Jeremy Burrus; Emily Shaw

2010-01-01

162

Harming high performers: a social comparison perspective on interpersonal harming in work teams.  

PubMed

This study developed a multilevel model of the interpersonal harming behavior associated with social comparison processes in work teams. We tested this model using temporally lagged data from a sample of student teams (Study 1) and cross-sectional data from a sample of work teams in a telecommunication services company (Study 2). In both studies, social relations analyses revealed that in teams with less cooperative goals, comparison to a higher performing team member was positively associated with interpersonal harming behavior, but only when expectations of future performance similarity to that member were low. The interactive relationship of social comparison and expected future performance similarity with interpersonal harming was buffered, however, in teams with more cooperative goals. PMID:21171734

Lam, Catherine K; Van der Vegt, Gerben S; Walter, Frank; Huang, Xu

2011-05-01

163

Team Satisfaction and Student Group Performance: A Cross-Cultural Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relationship between team satisfaction and students' performance in group projects in two universities, one from the United States and one from Qatar. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between team satisfaction and group performance only for the American students. Demographic factors…

Zeitun, Rami M.; Abdulqader, Khalid Shams; Alshare, Khaled A.

2013-01-01

164

Catching Moods and Hitting Runs: Mood Linkage and Subjective Performance in Professional Sport Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are the moods and subjective performances of professional sports players associated with the ongoing collective moods of their teammates? Players from 2 professional cricket teams used pocket computers to provide ratings of their moods and performances 3 times a day for 4 days during a competitive match between the teams. Pooled time-series analysis showed significant associations between the average of

Peter Totterdell

2000-01-01

165

Complex Network Characteristics and Team Performance in the Game of Cricket  

E-print Network

Complex Network Characteristics and Team Performance in the Game of Cricket Rudra M. Tripathy1 of cricket. The nodes of this network are individual players and edges are placed between players who have with performance of teams. Our study examines Test cricket, One Day Internationals (ODIs) and T20 cricket matches

Bagchi, Amitabha

166

A multi-level approach of evaluating crew resource management training: a laboratory-based study examining communication skills as a function of team congruence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article proposes a multi-level approach for evaluating communication skills training (CST) as an important element of crew resource management (CRM) training. Within this methodological framework, the present work examined the effectiveness of CST in matching or mismatching team compositions with regard to hierarchical status and competence. There is little experimental research that evaluated the effectiveness of CRM training at

J. Sauer; A. Darioly; M. Schmid Mast; P. C. Schmid; N. Bischof

2010-01-01

167

Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ? 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition. PMID:24506819

Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

2014-01-01

168

Evolutionary change in the use of skills within the district nursing team: a study in two Health Board areas in Scotland.  

PubMed

Grade mix within the district nursing team in the United Kingdom has changed markedly over the last 10 years but the relationship between grade mix and skill mix has received only intermittent research attention. This study adopted an ethnographic approach and aimed to explore the way in which grade and skill are taken into account in the delegation of nursing care. After gaining ethical approval, a total of 76 members of 21 district nursing teams in two areas were observed and interviewed. Delegation practices were found to vary both within and between areas and considerable differences were uncovered in the responsibilities allocated to more junior and unqualified team members. The developing role of nursing auxiliaries is discussed in relation to the role of the G grade sister, resource constraints and the standards of patient care. The paper concludes by arguing that the supervision and leadership role provided by the G grade sister should be fully recognized and safeguarded. PMID:11095215

McIntosh, J; Moriarty, D; Lugton, J; Carney, O

2000-10-01

169

Game location and team quality effects on performance profiles in professional soccer.  

PubMed

Home advantage in team sports has an important role in determining the outcome of a game. The aim of the present study was to identify the soccer game- related statistics that best discriminate home and visiting teams according to the team quality. The sample included all 380 games of the Spanish professional men's league. The independent variables were game location (home or away) and the team quality. Teams were classified into four groups according to their final ranking at the end of the league. The game-related statistics registered were divided into three groups: (i) variables related to goals scored; (ii) variables related to offense and (iii) variables related to defense. A univariate (t-test and Mann-Whitney U) and multivariate (discriminant analysis) analysis of data was done. Results showed that home teams have significantly higher means for goal scored, total shots, shots on goal, attacking moves, box moves, crosses, offsides committed, assists, passes made, successful passes, dribbles made, successful dribbles, ball possession, and gains of possession, while visiting teams presented higher means for losses of possession and yellow cards. In addition, the findings of the current study confirm that game location and team quality are important in determining technical and tactical performances in matches. Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage. Future research should consider the influence of other confounding variables such as weather conditions, game status and team form. Key pointsHome teams have significantly higher figures for attack indicators probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects.The teams' game-related statistics profile varied according to game location and team quality.Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage. PMID:24150619

Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Lago-Ballesteros, Joaquin

2011-01-01

170

Game Location and Team Quality Effects on Performance Profiles in Professional Soccer  

PubMed Central

Home advantage in team sports has an important role in determining the outcome of a game. The aim of the present study was to identify the soccer game- related statistics that best discriminate home and visiting teams according to the team quality. The sample included all 380 games of the Spanish professional men’s league. The independent variables were game location (home or away) and the team quality. Teams were classified into four groups according to their final ranking at the end of the league. The game-related statistics registered were divided into three groups: (i) variables related to goals scored; (ii) variables related to offense and (iii) variables related to defense. A univariate (t-test and Mann-Whitney U) and multivariate (discriminant analysis) analysis of data was done. Results showed that home teams have significantly higher means for goal scored, total shots, shots on goal, attacking moves, box moves, crosses, offsides committed, assists, passes made, successful passes, dribbles made, successful dribbles, ball possession, and gains of possession, while visiting teams presented higher means for losses of possession and yellow cards. In addition, the findings of the current study confirm that game location and team quality are important in determining technical and tactical performances in matches. Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage. Future research should consider the influence of other confounding variables such as weather conditions, game status and team form. Key points Home teams have significantly higher figures for attack indicators probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects. The teams’ game-related statistics profile varied according to game location and team quality. Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage. PMID:24150619

Lago-Penas, Carlos; Lago-Ballesteros, Joaquin

2011-01-01

171

Training high performance skills using above real-time training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) concept is a unique approach to training high performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. Such a training paradigm represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. These techniques allow individuals to acquire these critical skills faster and with greater retention. ARTT also allows an individual trained in 'fast time' to operate at what appears to be a more confident state, when the same task is performed in a real-time environment. Two related experiments are discussed. The findings appear to be consistent with previous findings that show positive effects of task variation during training. Moreover, ARTT has merit in improving or maintaining transfer with sharp reductions in training time. There are indications that the effectiveness of ARTT varies as a function of task content and possibly task difficulty. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

1993-01-01

172

Cognition-Based and Affect-Based Trust as Mediators of Leader Behavior Influences on Team Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based…

Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S. K.; Peng, Ann Chunyan

2011-01-01

173

Quiet eye training: The acquisition, refinement and resilient performance of targeting skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

How we learn and refine motor skills in the most effective manner and how we prevent performance breakdown in pressurised or demanding circumstances are among the most important questions within the sport psychology and skill acquisition literature. The quiet eye (QE) has emerged as a characteristic of highly skilled perceptual and motor performance in visually guided motor tasks. Defined as

Samuel J. Vine; Lee J. Moore; Mark R. Wilson

2012-01-01

174

The Impact of Team Identification on Biased Predictions of Player Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current investigation examined sport fans' impressions of an athlete described as a potential member of their team or a potential member of a rival team. In Study 1, we predicted that individuals would exhibit an ingroup favoritism effect by reporting more positive evaluations of the player's performance when he was described as a…

Wann, Daniel L.; Koch, Katrina; Knoth, Tasha; Fox, David; Aljubaily, Hesham; Lantz, Christopher D.

2006-01-01

175

Comparing the Performance of US College Football Teams in the Web and on the Field  

E-print Network

compared rankings of college football teams in the US with rankings of their associated web resources. We rankings of "real-world" resources such as collegiate football programs in the United States that changeComparing the Performance of US College Football Teams in the Web and on the Field Martin Klein

Nelson, Michael L.

176

Quality management principles as top team performance practices ISO 9000 criteria re-interpreted  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new quality is defined by the customer, and must be part of a company’s culture. It must start with the chief executive officer (CEO) and be part of a top management team’s performance practices. This paper states the quality management system, defined in ISO 9000, in the operational style of executive management. It presents a management system for ensuring

Marsha Ludwig-Becker

1999-01-01

177

Prediction of athletes performance using neural networks: An application in cricket team selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team selection for international sports competitions requires predicting performance of individual athletes. We explore the use of neural networks to rate players and select specific players for a competition. We take cricket as an example. Cricket is a game with mass following in British Commonwealth Countries as well as some other countries. National teams visit other countries for bilateral matches

Subramanian Rama Iyer; Ramesh Sharda

2009-01-01

178

The Effects of Cultural Diversity, Conflict and Conflict Management on Performance in Global Virtual Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization and advances in communication technology have fuelled the emergence of global virtual teams (GVTs), which have salient cultural diversity. Prior research has demonstrated that cultural diversity has both positive and negative effect on team performance, but the mechanism for this phenomenon is still unknown. This paper presents a theory model to explore the relationship among cultural diversity, conflict, conflict

Yongmei Liu; Manling Luo; Xuhua Wei

2008-01-01

179

Comprehensive Development Plan in Office Skills. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Waubonsee Community College Comprehensive Development Plan in Office Skills served 208 students by assessment of basic skills and referral to appropriate programs or help with job skills and referral to employment during the 18-month grant period from December 1988 through June 30, 1990. The target population was minority women or economically…

Waubonsee Community Coll., Sugar Grove, IL.

180

Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills. Student Performance Results for 1985 and 1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In July 1984, the Texas Legislature mandated the criterion-referenced tests designed to assess minimum basic competencies in mathematics, reading, and writing. During the 1985-86 school year, the Texas Education Agency instituted the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) program to measure student competencies at grades 1, 3, 5,…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

181

Basic Math Skills and Performance in an Introductory Economics Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors measure math skills with a broader set of explanatory variables than have been used in previous studies. To identify what math skills are important for student success in introductory microeconomics, they examine (1) the student's score on the mathematics portion of the ACT Assessment Test, (2) whether the student has taken calculus,…

Ballard, Charles L.; Johnson, Marianne F.

2004-01-01

182

The Effect of Personality Type on Team Performance in Engineering Materials Term Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most of long-term engineering class projects require teamwork. Often, conducting projects increase the quality of classroom life and facilitate student learning. Sometimes, team projects hinder student learning and create disharmony and dissatisfaction with classroom life. In many cases, the mixture of each individuals personality determines team dynamics. The Introduction to Engineering Materials course for junior level students encompasses a semester-long term project, which heavily requires teamwork. The term project should focus on a component of existing manufactured products and show why a particular material is used for a particular application. The experiments chosen should prove or disprove this. Each team will chose a topic, determine how to evaluate that topic, devise relevant experiments, evaluate the results of these experiments and formulate a conclusion. Finally, the students will present their results to the class at the end of the semester. The goal of this study is to see how the team performance can be affected by each individual students personality type in the term projects of the engineering material course. The personality test used in this study was the DISC test, which is the oldest, most validated, and reliable personality assessment tool. DISC stands for Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Conscientiousness, which are the four dimensions in the personality characteristics. For the term project, six teams were formulated. The instructor assigned four or five students to a team. Students with similar personality types were assigned to work with each other in three of the teams. The other three teams have students with well-mixed dimensions in their personality characteristics. This paper presents the effectiveness of using student personality on team building for the semester-long team projects. Overall student experience and lessons learned in organizing such a project are also discussed.

Jang, Jaesoon; Kim, David; Shin, Sung J.

2009-09-25

183

[Effects of task interdependence and communication technologies synchrony on performance in virtual teams].  

PubMed

Effects of task interdependence and communication technologies synchrony on performance in virtual teams. Survey results of 197 employees from 41 work groups in a large multinational software firm were used to investigate the effects of within-group task interdependence and the degree of communication synchrony on performance in virtual teams (VTs). The analyses revealed a moderating effect of task interdependence on the relationship between the degree of communications synchrony and performance in VT. We found that superior VTs performance is contingent on the fit between the nature of the task (i.e., task interdependence) and the choice of communications modality. This study complements previous research providing additional evidence of how task-technology interaction affects VTs performance, and extends previous findings obtained with ad-hoc groups in laboratory settings to natural, organizational teams. PMID:17296112

Rico, Ramón; Cohen, Susan G; Gil, Francisco

2006-11-01

184

Perceived stress and team performance during a simulated resuscitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Barriers to optimal performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation may partly relate to human factors, such as stress and specific\\u000a emotions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mental stress and different perceived emotions have a negative\\u000a impact on the performance of rescuers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This prospective, observational study was conducted at the Simulator Center of the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland.\\u000a A

Sabina Hunziker; Laura Laschinger; Simone Portmann-Schwarz; Norbert K. Semmer; Franziska Tschan; Stephan Marsch

185

Knowledge and Performance in Knowledge-Worker Teams: A Longitudinal Study of Transactive Memory Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how transactive memory systems (TMSs) emerge and develop to affect the performance of knowledge-worker teams. Sixty-four MBA consulting teams (261 members) participated in the study. I proposed that the role and function of TMSs change to meet different task and knowledge demands during a project. Hypotheses predicting that TMSs emerge during a project-planning phase as a function

Kyle Lewis

2004-01-01

186

Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

Elder, Stephen D.

2010-01-01

187

EXPLORING THE LINKS BETWEEN CULTURAL DIVERSITY, THE COLLABORATIVE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLE, AND PERFORMANCE OF GLOBAL VIRTUAL TEAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing utilization of global virtual teams with members of different cultural backgrounds necessitates investigating whether the performance of culturally diverse virtual teams would differ from the performance of culturally homogeneous ones. Conflict management styles have been found to be of crucial importance for the success of virtual teams. This research-in-progress paper advances a model that links the collaborative conflict

Imad Samarah; Souren Paul; Mykytyn Jr. Peter

2002-01-01

188

Training to Enhance Design Team Performance: A Cure for Tunnel Vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design Team performance is a function of the quality and degree of academic training and the cumulative, learned experience of the individual members of the team. Teamwork, leadership, and communications certainly are factors that affect the measure of the performance of the team, but they are not addressed here. This paper focuses on accelerating the learned experience of team members and describes an organizational approach that can significantly increase the effective experience level for any engineering design team. The performance measure of the whole team can be increased by increasing the engineering disciplines' cross awareness of each other and by familiarizing them with their affect at the system level. Discipline engineers know their own discipline well, but typically are not intimately familiar with their technical interaction with and dependencies on all the other disciplines of engineering. These dependencies are design integration functions and are worked out well by the discipline engineers as long as they are involved in the design of types of systems that they have experience with.

Parker, James W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

189

California's Teaching Performance Expectations The Teaching Performance Expectations describe the set of knowledge, skills, and abilities that  

E-print Network

California's Teaching Performance Expectations The Teaching Performance Expectations describe the set of knowledge, skills, and abilities that California expects of each candidate for a Multiple Expectations through successful completion of the Teaching Performance Assessment. The full text of the TPEs

de Lijser, Peter

190

Simulating a Skilled Typist: A Study of Skilled Cognitive Motor Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project studied the problem of control of skilled motor movements by concentrating on typing. The fundamental phenomena of typing, which fall into three categories, were reviewed: timing of key strokes, pattern of errors, and general organization of typing. A model for the simulation of these phenomena was developed, based on an…

Rumelhart, David E.; Norman, Donald A.

191

Oral Communication Skills in Higher Education: Using a Performance-Based Evaluation Rubric to Assess Communication Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used "The Competent Speaker", a rubric developed by the National Communication Association (S. P. Morreale, M. R. Moore, K. P. Taylor, D. Surges-Tatum, & R. Hulbert-Johnson, 1993), to evaluate student performance in general education public speaking courses as a case study of student skills and programmatic assessment. Results indicate…

Dunbar, Norah E.; Brooks, Catherine F.; Kubicka-Miller, Tara

2006-01-01

192

Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.  

PubMed

Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

2013-01-01

193

Modelling the Progression of Competitive Performance of an Academy's Soccer Teams  

PubMed Central

Progression of a team’s performance is a key issue in competitive sport, but there appears to have been no published research on team progression for periods longer than a season. In this study we report the game-score progression of three teams of a youth talent-development academy over five seasons using a novel analytic approach based on generalised mixed modelling. The teams consisted of players born in 1991, 1992 and 1993; they played totals of 115, 107 and 122 games in Asia and Europe between 2005 and 2010 against teams differing in age by up to 3 years. Game scores predicted by the mixed model were assumed to have an over-dispersed Poisson distribution. The fixed effects in the model estimated an annual linear pro-gression for Aspire and for the other teams (grouped as a single opponent) with adjustment for home-ground advantage and for a linear effect of age difference between competing teams. A random effect allowed for different mean scores for Aspire and opposition teams. All effects were estimated as factors via log-transformation and presented as percent differences in scores. Inferences were based on the span of 90% confidence intervals in relation to thresholds for small factor effects of x/÷1.10 (+10%/-9%). Most effects were clear only when data for the three teams were combined. Older teams showed a small 27% increase in goals scored per year of age difference (90% confidence interval 13 to 42%). Aspire experienced a small home-ground advantage of 16% (-5 to 41%), whereas opposition teams experienced 31% (7 to 60%) on their own ground. After adjustment for these effects, the Aspire teams scored on average 1.5 goals per match, with little change in the five years of their existence, whereas their opponents’ scores fell from 1.4 in their first year to 1.0 in their last. The difference in progression was trivial over one year (7%, -4 to 20%), small over two years (15%, -8 to 44%), but unclear over >2 years. In conclusion, the generalized mixed model has marginal utility for estimating progression of soccer scores, owing to the uncertainty arising from low game scores. The estimates are likely to be more precise and useful in sports with higher game scores. Key pointsA generalized linear mixed model is the approach for tracking game scores, key performance indicators or other measures of performance based on counts in sports where changes within and/or between games/seasons have to be considered.Game scores in soccer could be useful to track performance progression of teams, but hundreds of games are needed.Fewer games will be needed for tracking performance represented by counts with high scores, such as game scores in rugby or key performance indicators based on frequent events or player actions in any team sport. PMID:24149364

Malcata, Rita M.; Hopkins, Will G; Richardson, Scott

2012-01-01

194

Talk that works: evaluating communication in a factory production team  

Microsoft Academic Search

What part does communication play in the success of a top-performing factory production team? To what extent are the effective communication skills and strategies used by this team transferable to other teams at the factory? These two questions provided the starting point for a collaborative action research project involving the Language in the Workplace Project and staff at the Lever

Maria Stubbe

195

Imagery effects on the performance of skilled and novice soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an imagery training programme on the performance of a soccer task by skilled and novice players. An initial assessment of performance on the soccer task was undertaken, and then 22 skilled and 22 novice players were equally and randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental group. The

Andrea Blair; Craig Hall; Glynn Leyshon

1993-01-01

196

The Effects of an Intervention Strategy on Children's Heart Rates and Skill Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of a fitness infusion instructional strategy (FI) on children's activity levels and skill performance scores. This strategy included aerobic activity within the skill practice tasks and game play. In other words, students performed short bouts of activity between the practice and…

Ignico, Arlene; Corson, Arleen; Vidoni, Carla

2006-01-01

197

Rethinking the Rush to Team Up.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work teams can be highly motivating and can reduce overhead costs. Teams with clear, limited objectives and the right skills, feedback, and incentives will perform well. Personality difficulties, resistance to change, and lack of training can short circuit their effectiveness. (SK)

Zemke, Ron

1993-01-01

198

Modelling the Progression of Competitive Performance of an Academy's Soccer Teams.  

PubMed

Progression of a team's performance is a key issue in competitive sport, but there appears to have been no published research on team progression for periods longer than a season. In this study we report the game-score progression of three teams of a youth talent-development academy over five seasons using a novel analytic approach based on generalised mixed modelling. The teams consisted of players born in 1991, 1992 and 1993; they played totals of 115, 107 and 122 games in Asia and Europe between 2005 and 2010 against teams differing in age by up to 3 years. Game scores predicted by the mixed model were assumed to have an over-dispersed Poisson distribution. The fixed effects in the model estimated an annual linear pro-gression for Aspire and for the other teams (grouped as a single opponent) with adjustment for home-ground advantage and for a linear effect of age difference between competing teams. A random effect allowed for different mean scores for Aspire and opposition teams. All effects were estimated as factors via log-transformation and presented as percent differences in scores. Inferences were based on the span of 90% confidence intervals in relation to thresholds for small factor effects of x/÷1.10 (+10%/-9%). Most effects were clear only when data for the three teams were combined. Older teams showed a small 27% increase in goals scored per year of age difference (90% confidence interval 13 to 42%). Aspire experienced a small home-ground advantage of 16% (-5 to 41%), whereas opposition teams experienced 31% (7 to 60%) on their own ground. After adjustment for these effects, the Aspire teams scored on average 1.5 goals per match, with little change in the five years of their existence, whereas their opponents' scores fell from 1.4 in their first year to 1.0 in their last. The difference in progression was trivial over one year (7%, -4 to 20%), small over two years (15%, -8 to 44%), but unclear over >2 years. In conclusion, the generalized mixed model has marginal utility for estimating progression of soccer scores, owing to the uncertainty arising from low game scores. The estimates are likely to be more precise and useful in sports with higher game scores. Key pointsA generalized linear mixed model is the approach for tracking game scores, key performance indicators or other measures of performance based on counts in sports where changes within and/or between games/seasons have to be considered.Game scores in soccer could be useful to track performance progression of teams, but hundreds of games are needed.Fewer games will be needed for tracking performance represented by counts with high scores, such as game scores in rugby or key performance indicators based on frequent events or player actions in any team sport. PMID:24149364

Malcata, Rita M; Hopkins, Will G; Richardson, Scott

2012-01-01

199

The importance of vertical and shared leadership within new venture top management teams: Implications for the performance of startups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the relative influence of vertical versus shared leadership within new venture top management teams on the performance of startups using two different samples. Vertical leadership stems from an appointed or formal leader of a team (e.g., the CEO), whereas shared leadership is a form of distributed leadership stemming from within a team. Transformational, transactional, empowering, and

Michael D. Ensley; Keith M. Hmieleski; Craig L. Pearce

2006-01-01

200

Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal…

Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

201

The Cafeteria Workers' Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program was conducted by the Food and Beverage Workers Union in Washington, D.C., to provide workplace literacy classes for food service workers in the city's government agencies, universities, and museums. A curriculum for workplace literacy skills was developed, sites were selected, and students were recruited. From a target audience of…

Burt, Miriam

202

Arizona Essential Skills for Performing Arts, K-12. Dance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual on dance education focuses on relating dance to the entire curriculum and bringing creative energy to learning. Dance activities can be used in the: (1) perceptual/motor domain to facilitate the acquisition of learning readiness skills; (2) cognitive domain to clarify and amplify subject area concepts through physical experience; and…

Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

203

Effects of Attentional Focus on Skilled Performance in Golf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wulf and colleagues (e.g., Wulf, Lauterbach, & Toole, 1999) have demonstrated that the adoption of an external focus of attention is preferable for the learning of complex motor tasks. The present investigation extends the attention focus literature in two ways: (a) it compared the effectiveness of three different foci (internal, proximal external, and distal external) in a sample of skilled

James J. Bell; James Hardy

2009-01-01

204

A Method for Early Identification of Students Likely to Fail a Minimum Competency Exit Level Test: Early Prediction of Scores on the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The public schools reform movement has led to a proliferation of minimum competency testing programs by states. At the 11th/12th grade level, the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS), mandated by Texas House Bill 72, is an exit exam, divided into two sections which measure minimum competencies in math and language skills.…

Bostic, Jeff Q.; And Others

205

Taking the reins: the effects of new leader status and leadership style on team performance.  

PubMed

New leaders face a challenging task when they take charge of their teams. They have to determine how best to guide the work process, and they must understand how their behaviors will affect the members of their team. This research examines how a newly assigned team leader's status moderates subordinates' reactions to different leadership styles to affect assessments of the leader's self-confidence and effectiveness, and how this impacts team performance. Across 2 experimental studies, results demonstrate that low-status leaders are rated as more effective when they use a directive style, whereas high-status leaders are viewed as more effective when they use a participative style, and this relationship is mediated by perceptions of self-confidence. In addition, teams whose leaders are viewed more favorably perform better on a complex group task. These findings imply that low-status individuals are able to enhance their level of personal power by drawing on whatever positional power they hold, whereas high-status individuals are better off relying solely on their personal power to influence others. This research also provides a clear demonstration that assessments of new leaders' behaviors are subject to an appraisal that is clouded by observers' status perceptions and attributions. PMID:21319878

Sauer, Stephen J

2011-05-01

206

A Survey of Quantitative Team Performance Metrics for Human-Robot Collaboration  

E-print Network

between failures, resource utilization and cost, mental workload, etc.). Some of the methodsA Survey of Quantitative Team Performance Metrics for Human-Robot Collaboration Sharon M. Singer and David L. Akin Space Systems Laboratory, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA Humans

Akin, David

207

Evaluating individual performance in team sports : A network analysis of Batsmen and Bowlers in Cricket  

E-print Network

Quantifying individual performance in team activity is critical in team selection in international sports. We explore the application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to rate individuals in an team activity. We choose the game of Cricket as an example. The number runs scored by batsmen and wickets taken by bowlers serves as a natural way of quantifying the performance of a cricketer. Traditionally the batsmen and bowlers are rated on their batting or bowling average respectively. However in a game like cricket it is always important the manner in which one scores the runs or takes a wicket. Scoring runs against a strong bowling line-up or delivering a brilliant performance against a team with strong batting line-up deserves more credit. A player's average is not able to capture this aspect of the game. In this paper we present a refined method to quantify the `quality' of runs scored by a batsman or wickets taken by a bowler. We apply tools of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to judge a cricketer's performance. ...

Mukherjee, Satyam

2012-01-01

208

Measurement of Transformational Leadership and its Relationship with Team Cohesion and Performance Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the construct validity of a Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory and its relationship with team cohesion and performance level. Three hundred and nine club standard ultimate Frisbee players in the United Kingdom (mean age = 24.30 years, SD = 3.90) completed an adapted version of Hardy, Arthur, Jones, Shariff, Munnoch, Isaacs, and Allsopp et al.'s (in press)

Nichola Callow; Matthew J. Smith; Lew Hardy; Calum A. Arthur; James Hardy

2009-01-01

209

Relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams: An examination of mediating effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to examine mediating effects in the relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of collective efficacy in a professional sport. A total of 154 French and foreign professional players completed French or English versions of questionnaires about cohesion and collective efficacy.

Jean-Philippe Heuzé; Nicolas Raimbault; Paul Fontayne

2006-01-01

210

An intelligent tutoring system for the investigation of high performance skill acquisition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issue of training high performance skills is of increasing concern. These skills include tasks such as driving a car, playing the piano, and flying an aircraft. Traditionally, the training of high performance skills has been accomplished through the use of expensive, high-fidelity, 3-D simulators, and/or on-the-job training using the actual equipment. Such an approach to training is quite expensive. The design, implementation, and deployment of an intelligent tutoring system developed for the purpose of studying the effectiveness of skill acquisition using lower-cost, lower-physical-fidelity, 2-D simulation. Preliminary experimental results are quite encouraging, indicating that intelligent tutoring systems are a cost-effective means of training high performance skills.

Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy; Regian, J. Wesley

1991-01-01

211

Information and Strategic Internet Skills of Secondary Students: A Performance Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the information and strategic Internet skills of Dutch secondary students were measured in a performance test. Participating students were asked to complete assignments on the Internet. The findings reveal that the levels of both information and strategic Internet skills have much room for improvement. Of the variables that…

van Deursen, A. J. A. M.; van Diepen, S.

2013-01-01

212

A theoretical framework for examining foundational instructional materials supporting the acquisition of performance skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional approaches to beginning instrumental performance instruction and the teaching materials supporting this process tend to stress technique acquisition and the ability to read written music. Available beginning level instructional materials tend to focus on skill development and note reading thereby doing little to facilitate the acquisition of functional aural skills, to create an awareness of tonality, or to help

Frank Heuser

213

How are seasonal prediction skills related to models' performance on mean state and annual cycle?  

E-print Network

anomalies. We also demonstrate that the skill for individual coupled models in predicting seasonal in the mean state is critical for improving the long-lead seasonal prediction. Most individual coupled modelsHow are seasonal prediction skills related to models' performance on mean state and annual cycle

Wang, Bin

214

Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

2014-01-01

215

The Relationship between Writing Knowledge and Writing Performance among More and Less Skilled Writers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One ingredient that may serve as a catalyst for writing development is changes in writing knowledge. This study assessed the veracity of two tenets underlying this proposal: that skilled writers are more knowledgeable than less skilled writers, and that individual differences in knowledge are related to writing performance. Both of these…

Saddler, Bruce; Graham, Steve

2007-01-01

216

Hyperactive children and peer interaction: Knowledge and performance of social skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated hyperactive children's peer relations using the framework of social skills theory. Subjects' (15 hyperactive and 15 control boys aged 7 through 11) knowledge of socially appropriate behavior was assessed using the Social Knowledge Interview (Geraci & Asher, 1980). Additionally, performance of social skills with peers was rated by independent judges during free play, a cooperative puzzle task,

Marcia M. Grenell; Carol R. Glass; Kathy S. Katz

1987-01-01

217

Relation between Intellectual Ability and Metacognitive Skillfulness as Predictors of Learning Performance of Young Students Performing Tasks in Different Domains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first objective of this study was to establish the relation between intellectual ability and metacognitive skillfulness as predictors of learning performance in young students (aged 12 years). Furthermore, the generality vs. domain-specificity of metacognitive skillfulness was investigated. Thirty-two first-year secondary-school students…

van der Stel, Manita; Veenman, Marcel V. J.

2008-01-01

218

Beyond status: relating status inequality to performance and health in teams.  

PubMed

Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status individuals when uncooperative behavior is high. Trajectories of the outcomes across time are also explored. Analyses using multilevel modeling largely support our hypotheses in a sample of National Basketball Association players across six time points from 2000 to 2005. PMID:20718522

Christie, Amy M; Barling, Julian

2010-09-01

219

Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate

Christiano Robles Rodrigues Alves; Leonardo Pasqua; Guilherme Gianinni Artioli; Marina Solis; Gabriel Tobias; Christian Klansener; Rômulo Bertuzzi; Emerson Franchini; Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior; Bruno Gualano

2011-01-01

220

Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate

Christiano Robles Rodrigues Alves; Leonardo Pasqua; Guilherme Gianinni Artioli; Marina Solis; Gabriel Tobias; Christian Klansener; Rômulo Bertuzzi; Emerson Franchini; Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior; Bruno Gualano

2012-01-01

221

How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.  

PubMed

Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25000359

Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

2014-09-01

222

Professionals’ views on interprofessional stroke team functioning  

PubMed Central

Introduction The quality of integrated stroke care depends on smooth team functioning but professionals may not always work well together. Professionals’ perspectives on the factors that influence stroke team functioning remain largely unexamined. Understanding their experiences is critical to indentifying measures to improve team functioning. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that contributed to the success of interprofessional stroke teams as perceived by team members. Methods We distributed questionnaires to professionals within 34 integrated stroke care teams at various health care facilities in 9 Dutch regions. 558 respondents (response rate: 39%) completed the questionnaire. To account for the hierarchical structure of the study design we fitted a hierarchical random-effects model. The hierarchical structure comprised 558 stroke team members (level 1) nested in 34 teams (level 2). Results Analyses showed that personal development, social well-being, interprofessional education, communication, and role understanding significantly contributed to stroke team functioning. Team-level constructs affecting interprofessional stroke team functioning were communication and role understanding. No significant relationships were found with individual-level personal autonomy and team-level cohesion. Discussion and conclusion Our findings suggest that interventions to improve team members’ social well-being, communication, and role understanding will improve teamsperformance. To further advance interprofessional team functioning, healthcare organizations should pay attention to developing professionals’ interpersonal skills and interprofessional education. PMID:23390409

Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P

2011-01-01

223

Internet Skills Performance Tests: Are People Ready for eHealth?  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the amount of online health information, there are several barriers that limit the Internet’s adoption as a source of health information. One of these barriers is highlighted in conceptualizations of the digital divide which include the differential possession of Internet skills, or “eHealth literacy”. Most measures of Internet skills among populations at large use self-assessments. The research discussed here applies a multifaceted definition of Internet skills and uses actual performance tests. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess how ready a sample of the general population is for eHealth. More specifically, four types of Internet skills were measured in a performance test in which subjects had to complete health-related assignments on the Internet. Methods From November 1, 2009, through February 28, 2010, 88 subjects participated in the study. Subjects were randomly selected from a telephone directory. A selective quota sample was used divided over equal subsamples of gender, age, and education. Each subject had to accomplish assignments on the Internet. The Internet skills accounted for were categorized as operational (basic skills to use the Internet), formal (navigation and orientation), information (finding information), and strategic (using the information for personal benefits). The tests took approximately 1.5 hours and were conducted in a University office, making the setting equally new for all. Successful completion and time spent on the assignments—the two main outcomes—were directly measured by the test leader. Results The subjects successfully completed an average of 73% (5.8/8) of the operational Internet skill tasks and an average of 73% (2.9/4) of the formal Internet skill tasks. Of the information Internet skills tasks, an average of 50% (1.5/3) was completed successfully and, of the strategic Internet skills tasks, 35% (0.7/2). Only 28% (25/88) of the subjects were able to successfully complete all operational skills tasks, 39% (34/88) all formal skills tasks, 13% (11/88) all information skills tasks, and 20% (18/88) both the strategic skill tasks. The time spent on the assignments varied substantially. Age and education were the most important contributors to the operational and formal Internet skills. Regarding the formal Internet skills, years of Internet experience also had some influence. Educational level of attainment was the most important contributor to the information and strategic Internet skills. Conclusions Although the amount of online health-related information and services is consistently growing, it appears that the general population lacks the skills to keep up. Most problematic appear to be the lack of information and strategic Internet skills, which, in the context of health, are very important. The lack of these skills is also problematic for members of younger generations, who are often considered skilled Internet users. This primarily seems to account for the operational and formal Internet skills. The results of the study strongly call for policies to increase the level of Internet skills. PMID:21531690

van Dijk, Jan A G M

2011-01-01

224

The effects of teamwork on individual learning and perceptions of team performance : A comparison of face-to-face and online project settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In light of contradictory research findings, the purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating effects of team setting (face-to-face or online) on the relationship that team member affect and interaction processes have on individual team source learning, and at the team level on the relationship between group cohesiveness and perceived team performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Students enrolled

Ethlyn A. Williams; Stephanie L. Castro

2010-01-01

225

Quantifying police officers' arrest and self-defence skills: Does performance decrease under pressure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated police officers' performance on five selected arrest and self-defence skills that are regularly used in the line of duty. In Experiment 1 a 5-point scale to measure skill performance was developed and tested with 14 police instructors. Results showed that the new scale has satisfactory inter-rater reliability and good intra-rater reliability. In Experiment 2, the external and

Arne Nieuwenhuys; Simone R. Caljouw; Maaike R. Leijsen; Bart A. J. Schmeits; Raôul R. D. Oudejans

2009-01-01

226

The effects of an intervention strategy on children’s heart rates and skill performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of a fitness infusion instructional strategy (FI) on children’s activity levels and skill performance scores. This strategy included aerobic activity within the skill practice tasks and game play. In other words, students performed short bouts of activity between the practice and game\\/application trials. Participants were 86 fifth?grade students who participated

Arlene Ignico; Arleen Corson; Carla Vidoni

2006-01-01

227

Documenting Student Competence through Effective Performance Assessment: Employability Skills. Workshop Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains 26 performance assessments for documenting student employability skills. Each performance assessment consists of the following: a competency; a terminal performance objective (outcome); competency builders and pupil performance objectives (criteria for documenting mastery of the objective); applied academic competencies;…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

228

Integrating Engineering Design Heuristics into a First Year Engineering Course to Enhance Problem Solving and Team Building Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to integrating a module on design into a first year engineering course with goals to facilitate student s' systematic methodology to design while building tea m skills. At the beginning of their academic careers students are usually competent in basic science and math, but have limitations in integrating this knowledge with solving a practical problem.

Kathleen M. Leonard; Joseph J. Mastromonico

229

Clinical performance and skill retention after simulation-based education for nephrology fellows.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that simulation-based education (SBE) improved temporary hemodialysis catheter (THDC) insertion skills by nephrology fellows. SBE, featuring deliberate practice and rigorous achievement standards, was a powerful method to enhance THDC insertion skills in nephrology fellows. However, experts have called for further research to evaluate skill transfer from the simulated environment to actual clinical care and skill retention. This is a prospective observational cohort study of THDC insertion skills. Twelve nephrology fellows from three academic centers in Chicago were evaluated using a skills checklist from July 2008 to June 2009. Simulator-trained fellows were tested after the SBE intervention and expected to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) set by an expert panel. To assess transfer of skill to clinical care, three simulator-trained fellows were assessed at 6 months on actual patient THDC insertions using the checklist. To assess retention of skill, 11 of 12 simulator-trained fellows were reassessed at 1 year using the checklist and central venous catheter simulator. Outcomes were determined by THDC insertion skill performance. Simulator-trained fellows scored similarly during 6-month THDC insertions on actual patients and immediate posttest (M = 86.2%, SD = 22.3% vs. M = 93.5%, SD = 5.3%, p = 0.32). However, 1 year after SBE, simulated THDC insertion scores were significantly lower than at immediate posttest (M = 73.4%, SD = 22.2% vs. M = 93.5%, SD = 5.3%, p = 0.01). Our results show that nephrology fellows who completed SBE displayed high levels of performance during THDC insertions on actual patients 6 months later. At 1 year, there was statistically significant skills decay. We recommend booster training at 6 months. PMID:22309946

Ahya, Shubhada N; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Tuazon, Jennifer; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B

2012-07-01

230

Incorporating Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Knowledge and Skills into the Daily Work of Police Officers: A Focus Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative focus group study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training\\u000a for police officers. Thematic analysis of transcripts of focus group discussions revealed that officers report increased knowledge\\u000a of mental illnesses (which manifests as an improved ability to recognize and respond, reduced stereotyping\\/stigmatization,\\u000a greater empathy toward consumers and their caregivers, more patience when dealing

Sonya Hanafi; Masuma Bahora; Berivan N. Demir; Michael T. Compton

2008-01-01

231

How can leaders foster team learning? Effects of leader-assigned mastery and performance goals and psychological safety.  

PubMed

Learning and adapting to change are imperative as teams today face unprecedented change. Yet, an important part of learning involves challenging assumptions and addressing differences of opinion openly within a group--the kind of behaviors that pose the potential for embarrassment or threat. How can leaders foster an environment in which team members feel it is safe to take interpersonal risks in order to learn? In a study of 71 teams, we found that psychological safety and learning behavior were higher for teams with mastery than performance goal instructions or no goal instructions. Team psychological safety mediated the relationship between mastery and performance goal instructions and learning behavior. Findings contribute to our understanding of how leader-assigned goals are related to psychological safety and learning behavior in a team context, and suggest approaches to foster such processes. PMID:24199511

Ashauer, Shirley A; Macan, Therese

2013-01-01

232

How Individual Performance Affects Variability of Peer Evaluations in Classroom Teams: A Distributive Justice Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business school courses often require team projects, both for pedagogical reasons as well as to prepare students for the kinds of team-based activities that are common in organizations these days. However, social loafing is a common problem in teams, and peer evaluations by team members are sometimes used in such team settings to assess…

Davison, H. Kristl; Mishra, Vipanchi; Bing, Mark N.; Frink, Dwight D.

2014-01-01

233

Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the team members. The self-directed team was more motivated to learn their topic than was the manager-directed team, but they struggled with their path in following their vision whereas the manager-directed team kept their focus under the guidance of their manager. Finally, both teams are in fact effective; however specific circumstances may be an important objective when deciding to utilize either a self-directed or manager-directed team.

Erlick, Katherine

234

Performance Accomplishment Information as Predictors of Self-Efficacy as a Function of Skill Level in Amateur Golf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predictive capabilities of different types of performance accomplishment information (PAI) towards self-efficacy for amateur golfers were compared as a function of skill level. Male golfers (N = 197; skilled n = 84, lesser skilled n = 113) recorded self-efficacy levels before and after competitive golf performance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that handicap was the most significant predictor of PAI

Adam Mark Bruton; Stephen D Mellalieu; David Shearer; Gareth Roderique-Davies; Ross Hall

2012-01-01

235

Deconstructing building blocks: preschoolers' spatial assembly performance relates to early mathematical skills.  

PubMed

This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills was evaluated. Spatial skill independently predicted a significant amount of the variability in concurrent mathematical performance. Finally, the relation between spatial assembly skill and socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and parent-reported spatial language was examined. While children's performance did not differ by gender, lower SES children were already lagging behind higher SES children in block assembly. Furthermore, lower SES parents reported using significantly fewer spatial words with their children. PMID:24112041

Verdine, Brian N; Golinkoff, Roberta M; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S; Filipowicz, Andrew T; Chang, Alicia

2014-01-01

236

Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.

2013-01-01

237

Knowledge, attitude and performance of academic members regarding effective communication skills in education  

PubMed Central

Background: Communication is the most important part of any educational process, the aim of which is to transfer or exchange ideas and thoughts. It would be provided appropriately if academic members had the communication skills. Considering the important role of academic members in the educational process, in this study, the knowledge, attitude and performance of academic members of School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were investigated with regard to effective communication skills. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive–analytic study, all academic members of the School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were studied during the second academic semester of 2006-2007. The data were collected by a valid and reliable three-part questionnaire including knowledge (8 questions and maximum score of 8), attitude (31 questions and maximum score of 155) and observational communication skills checklist (20 questions and maximum score of 20). The obtained data were analyzed by calculating central indices using SPSS software. Findings: The mean knowledge score of studied people in terms of communicational skills, attitude and performance were 4.1 out of 8, 114.4 out of 155 and 16.3 out of 20, respectively. Conclusion: Although the information of the participants of this study in terms of communication skills was not sufficient, they seemed to have a positive attitude and relatively acceptable performance in communication skills. PMID:23555145

Sharifirad, Gholam R.; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Jazini, Akram; Etemadi, Zinat S.

2012-01-01

238

Base Rates of Social Skills Acquisition/Performance Deficits, Strengths, and Problem Behaviors: An Analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…

Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.

2010-01-01

239

Base rates of social skills acquisition/performance deficits, strengths, and problem behaviors: an analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales.  

PubMed

Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally representative sample of children and adolescent ages 3-18 years. Using the national standardization sample of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales (N = 4,550) across 3 informants (teacher, parent, and student) and across 3 broad age groupings (3-5 years, 5-12 years, and 13-18 years), these base rates were computed. Results showed that the base rates for social skills acquisition deficits and problem behaviors are extremely low in the general population. Base rates for social skills performance deficits and social skills strengths were considerably higher, with students in the 5- to 12-year-old age group reporting fewer performance deficits and more social skills strengths than older children (13-18 years). Teachers and parents reported more performance deficits and fewer social skills strengths across all age groups than students in the 5- to 12-year-old age group. These results are discussed in terms of the utility of base rate information in clinical decision making. PMID:20804259

Gresham, Frank M; Elliott, Stephen N; Kettler, Ryan J

2010-12-01

240

Team-based learning increases active engagement and enhances development of teamwork and communication skills in a first-year course for veterinary and animal science undergraduates.  

PubMed

Team-based learning (TBL) was implemented into a first-year course (Principles in Animal Behaviour, Welfare and Ethics) for BSc Veterinary Bioscience (VB) and Animal Science (AS) students. TBL is now used widely in teaching medical students, but has had more limited uptake in veterinary education. This study reports its use over 2 years with cohorts of 126 and 138 students in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Average individual marks for multiple-choice question (MCQ) tests in the Readiness Assurance component of TBL were higher for the teams than for individuals for each session, explicitly demonstrating the advantages of teamwork. Students reported that they felt actively involved and that TBL helped them both with their learning and in developing other important skills, such as teamwork and communication. Qualitative analysis of written feedback from the students revealed positive themes of discussion, application, revelation, socializing, engagement, clarification, and retention/revision. In 2011 negative comments included the need to shorten the TBL sessions, but in 2012 tightening of the timelines meant that this was no longer a major concern. Requests to provide better introductory and background materials and ambiguity in questions in the TBL activities were what students least liked about the TBL. However, most comments were positive rather than negative in nature, and many students preferred the TBL to lectures. With requirements for curricula to teach professional skills, such as communication and teamwork, and the positive results from TBL's implementation, it is hoped that this study will encourage others to trial the use of TBL in veterinary education. PMID:24077314

Hazel, Susan J; Heberle, Nicole; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Adams, Karen

2013-01-01

241

Body Segment Contributions to Sport Skill Performance: Two Contrasting Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methods for approaching the problems of body segment contributions to motor performance are joint immobilization with restraint and resultant muscle torque pattern. Although the second approach is preferred, researchers face major challenges when using it. (CJ)

Miller, Doris I.

1980-01-01

242

"We've Got Creative Differences": The Effects of Task Conflict and Participative Safety on Team Creative Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although both participative safety and team task conflict are widely thought to be related to team creative performance, the nature of this relationship is still not well understood, and prior studies have frequently yielded conflicting results. This study examines the ambiguity in the extant literature and proposes that "both"…

Fairchild, Joshua; Hunter, Samuel T.

2014-01-01

243

Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance.  

PubMed

Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes. PMID:25202292

Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilali?, Merim

2014-01-01

244

Model of practical skill performance as an instrument for supervision and formative assessment.  

PubMed

There are still weaknesses in the practical skills of newly graduated nurses. There is also an escalating pressure on existing clinical placements due to increasing student numbers and structural changes in health services. Innovative educational practices and the use of tools that might support learning are sparsely researched in the field of clinical education for nursing students. This paper reports on an action research study that promoted and investigated use of The Model of Practical Skill Performance as a learning tool during nursing students' clinical placement. Clinical supervisors and two cohorts of nursing students placed in a hospital setting shared their experiences on the use of the model in six focus group interviews. Data was also generated through the supervisors' reflective logs. The model was viewed as highly applicable in the planning of learning situations as well as during practice, performance and formative assessment of practical skills learning. It provided a common language about practical skills and enhanced the participants' understanding of professionalism in practical nursing skill. In conclusion, the model helped to highlight the complexity in mastering practical skills, afforded help in sequencing a learning process that supported the novice, and contributed to a more nuanced feedback by supervisors. PMID:23021010

Nielsen, Carsten; Sommer, Irene; Larsen, Karin; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

2013-05-01

245

An Analysis of High School Students' Performance on Five Integrated Science Process Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined Jamaican high school students' level of performance on five integrated science process skills and if there were statistically significant differences in their performance linked to their gender, grade level, school location, school type, student type and socio-economic background (SEB). The 305 subjects comprised 133 males, 172 females, 146 ninth graders, 159 10th graders, 150 traditional and 155

Yvonne Beaumont-Walters; Kola Soyibo

2001-01-01

246

Enabling Engineering Performance Skills: A Program to Teach Communication, Leadership, and Teamwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

A minor in Engineering Communication and Performance is being created at the University of Tennessee in conjunction with the engage Freshman Engineering Program. This minor provides engineering undergraduate students with formal training and a credential in complementary performance skills necessary for success in today's workplace. This interdisciplinary program is designed to improve the ability of engineering graduates to work on

Elaine Seat

247

The Impact of Performance Skills on Students' Attitudes towards the Learning Experience in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to assist in transforming a lecture experience into an occasion that can attract and engage students is via the use of performance techniques. Investigating the impact of certain types of performance skills on students' attitudes towards the learning experience can help better understand the relevance of such techniques in face to face and…

Hains-Wesson, Rachael

2011-01-01

248

To Think or Not to Think: The Apparent Paradox of Expert Skill in Music Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expert skill in music performance involves an apparent paradox. On stage, expert musicians are required accurately to retrieve information that has been encoded over hours of practice. Yet they must also remain open to the demands of the ever-changing situational contingencies with which they are faced during performance. To further explore this…

Geeves, Andrew; McIlwain, Doris J. F.; Sutton, John; Christensen, Wayne

2014-01-01

249

Computer-Based Study Skills Training: The Role of Technology in Improving Performance and Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Randomly assigned first-year chemical engineering students to a treatment group using R.E.S.U.L.T.S. [copyright] study skills software and a comparison group. Examined pre-university and first-term academic performance, student goals, use of time, self assessments, and feedback. Although improvements in post-treatment performance were observed,…

Zinatelli, M.; Dube, M. A.; Jovanovic, R.

2003-01-01

250

INTRODUCTION Adult reading skill spans a wide performance  

E-print Network

an association between reading performance and the structure of white matter tracts in the developing child (Adams, 1990). Individual psychological issues also play a role - a child must be motivated and have some's brain. To assess the white matter structure, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a relatively recent

Wandell, Brian A.

251

Flow Theory and the Development of Musical Performance Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the extent to which flow experiences account for differences in the amount of time young musicians spend practicing and their levels of performance achievement. Suggests that the moderate achievers' musical experiences at the specialist music school may not be conducive to sustaining long-term interest and progress in music. (CMK)

O'Neill, Susan

1999-01-01

252

Measurement, Prediction, and Training of Harmonic Audiation and Performance Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated music majors' ability to harmonize notated melodies and recorded melodies with chord symbols, and to perform harmonic accompaniments to recorded melodies. Results showed, among other findings, that subjects (n = 45) improved ability to harmonize simple melodic patterns and that melodic echo-playing ability was highly correlated with…

Humphreys, Jere T.

1986-01-01

253

Tainted visions: the effect of visionary leader behaviors and leader categorization tendencies on the financial performance of ethnically diverse teams.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing prevalence of ethnic diversity, findings regarding its effects on team performance remain contradictory. We suggest that past inconsistencies can be reconciled by examining the joint impact of leader behavior and leader categorization tendencies in ethnically diverse teams. We propose that leaders who exhibit high levels of visionary leader behavior and also have the tendency to categorize their team members into in- and out-groups will facilitate a negative effect of ethnic diversity on team communication and financial performance, whereas leaders who exhibit visionary behaviors but do not tend to categorize will lead ethnically diverse teams to positive outcomes. We find support for these ideas in a study of 100 retail outlets. PMID:21942407

Greer, Lindred L; Homan, Astrid C; De Hoogh, Annebel H B; Den Hartog, Deanne N

2012-01-01

254

Expectations for Achievement and Performance: Assessing Student Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schools are moving toward high expectations for student achievement, a collaborative culture among teachers and students, and greater accountability for student performance. Everyone must focus on the same high expectations and work together to achieve success. The prin cipal is in a prime position to align those efforts.You are a writer for a documentary film about a 21-year-old who emigrated

Barbara stripling

1999-01-01

255

Mental practice promotes motor anticipation: evidence from skilled music performance  

PubMed Central

Mental practice (MP) has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP). Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of MP to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed. PMID:23970859

Bernardi, Nicolo F.; De Buglio, Matteo; Trimarchi, Pietro D.; Chielli, Alfonso; Bricolo, Emanuela

2013-01-01

256

Validation of a Self-Efficacy Instrument and Its Relationship to Performance of Crisis Resource Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy is thought to be important for resuscitation proficiency in that it influences the development of and access to the associated medical knowledge, procedural skills and crisis resource management (CRM) skills. Since performance assessment of CRM skills is challenging, self-efficacy is often used as a measure of competence in this…

Plant, Jennifer L.; van Schaik, Sandrijn M.; Sliwka, Diane C.; Boscardin, Christy K.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.

2011-01-01

257

Comparison of Simulation-Based Performance with Metrics of Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing Students: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative approaches to evaluating critical thinking skills are needed, as pencil and paper assessments may not accurately predict simulated or actual clinical performance. To ensure patient safety, it is imperative to determine how to best promote and measure critical thinking skills. Few studies have examined how these skills are related to…

Fero, Laura J.

2009-01-01

258

48 CFR 1.102-4 - Role of the acquisition team.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a) Government members of the Team must be empowered to...consistent with law. (c) The Team must be prepared to perform...and improving the knowledge, skills, and abilities for all Government participants on the Team, both with regard to...

2010-10-01

259

The influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence and performance in marathon runners.  

PubMed

There has been a considerable increase in the number of participants running marathons over the past several years. The 26.2-mile race requires physical and mental stamina to successfully complete it. However, studies have not investigated how running and mental skills preparation influence injury and performance. The purpose of our study was to describe the training and mental skills preparation of a typical group of runners as they began a marathon training program, assess the influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence, and examine how training and mental skills preparation influence marathon performance. Healthy adults (N = 1,957) participating in an 18-week training program for a fall 2011 marathon were recruited for the study. One hundred twenty-five runners enrolled and received 4 surveys: pretraining, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, posttraining. The pretraining survey asked training and mental skills preparation questions. The 6- and 12-week surveys asked about injury incidence. The posttraining survey asked about injury incidence and marathon performance. Tempo runs during training preparation had a significant positive relationship to injury incidence in the 6-week survey (?[93] = 0.26, p = 0.01). The runners who reported incorporating tempo and interval runs, running more miles per week, and running more days per week in their training preparation ran significantly faster than did those reporting less tempo and interval runs, miles per week, and days per week (p ? 0.05). Mental skills preparation did not influence injury incidence or marathon performance. To prevent injury, and maximize performance, while marathon training, it is important that coaches and runners ensure that a solid foundation of running fitness and experience exists, followed by gradually building volume, and then strategically incorporating runs of various speeds and distances. PMID:23439344

Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Coumbe-Lilley, John E; Kim, Hajwa; McFarland, Jose A; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

2013-10-01

260

Improving Virtual Team Collaboration Outcomes through Collaboration Process Structuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to collaborate in a virtual team is a necessary skill set for today's knowledge workers and students to be effective in their work. Past research indicates that knowledge workers and students need to establish a formal process to perform work, develop clear goals and objectives, and facilitate better communication among team members.…

Dittman, Dawn R.; Hawkes, Mark; Deokar, Amit V.; Sarnikar, Surendra

2010-01-01

261

Match performance and physiological capacity of female elite team handball players.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the physical demands imposed on female elite team handball players in relation to playing position. Female elite team handball field players were examined during match-play over a 5-year period using video based computerized locomotion analysis of tournament matches. In addition, physiological measurements during match-play and in separate physical tests were carried out. A total distance of 4002±551?m (group means±SD) was covered per match with a total effective playing time of 50:42±5:50?min:s, while full-time players covered 4693±333?m. On average, each player (n=83) performed 663.8±99.7 activity changes per match, and the mean speed was 5.31±0.33?km?·?h(-1). High-intensity running constituted 0.8±0.5% of total effective playing time per match corresponding to 2.5±1.8% of the total distance covered. The amount of high-intensity running was reduced (p<0.05) 21.9% in the second half (44.9±16.8?m) compared to the first (57.5±21.3?m). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2-max) was 3.49±0.37?l O2?·?min(-1) corresponding to 49.6±4.8?ml O2?·?min(-1)?·?kg(-1). Mean relative workload during match-play was 79.4±6.4% of VO2-max. Mean total running distance in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) was 1436±222?m, which was greater in wing players (1516±172?m, p<0.05) than pivots (1360±118?m) and backcourt players (1352±148?m). In conclusion, modern female elite team handball is a physically demanding intermittent team sport, where players are exposed to high relative workloads with substantial estimated aerobic energy expenditure interspersed by short periods of dominant anaerobic energy production as reflected by the limited amount of high-intensity running. Indications of fatigue and a resulting decline in physical performance were identified, since the amount of high-intensity running and the relative workload levels decreased in the second half. Positional differences were observed, with wing players covering a greater total distance than backcourt players, performing more high-intensity running and demonstrating a better intermittent recovery capacity (Yo-Yo test outcome) compared to both backcourt players and pivots. PMID:24264766

Michalsik, L B; Madsen, K; Aagaard, P

2014-06-01

262

Association Between Neuromuscular Tests and Kumite Performance on The Brazilian Karate National Team  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to verify the relationship of strength and power with performance on an international level karate team during official kumite simulations. Fourteen male black belt karate athletes were submitted to anthropometric data collection and then performed the following tests on two different days: vertical jump test, bench press and squat maximum dynamic strength (1RM) tests. We also tested power production for both exercises at 30 and 60%1RM and performed a kumite match simulation. Blood samples were obtained at rest and immediately after the kumite matches to measure blood lactate concentration. Karate players were separated by performance (winners vs. defeated) on the kumite matches. We found no significant differences between winners and defeated for strength, vertical jump height, anthropometric data and blood lactate concentration. Interestingly, winners were more powerful in the bench press and squat exercises at 30% 1RM. Maximum strength was correlated with absolute (30% 1RM r = 0.92; 60% 1RM r = 0.63) and relative power (30% 1RM r = 0.74; 60% 1RM r = 0.11, p > 0.05) for the bench press exercise. We concluded that international level karate players’ kumite match performance are influenced by higher levels of upper and lower limbs power production. Key Points Muscle power at low workloads seems to be a reasonable predictor of karate performance. There are differences in neuromuscular characteristics between winners and defeated karate players among an international level karate team. Karate players rely more on muscle power, rather than on muscle strength. PMID:24474882

Roschel, Hamilton; Batista, Mauro; Monteiro, Rodrigo; Bertuzzi, Romulo C.; Barroso, Renato; Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Franchini, Emerson

2009-01-01

263

The myth of the top management team.  

PubMed

Companies all across the economic spectrum are making use of teams. They go by a variety of names and can be found at all levels. In fact, you are likely to find the group at the very top of an organization professing to be a team. But even in the best of companies, a so-called top team seldom functions as a real team. Real teams must follow a well-defined discipline to achieve their performance potential. And performance is the key issue--not the fostering of "team values" such as empowerment, sensitivity, or involvement. In recent years, the focus on performance was lost in many companies. Even today, CEOs and senior executives often see few gains in performance from their attempts to become more teamlike. Nevertheless, a team effort at the top can be essential to capturing the highest performance results possible--when the conditions are right. Good leadership requires differentiating between team and nonteam opportunities, and then acting accordingly. Three litmus tests must be passed for a team at the top to be effective. First, the team must shape collective work-products--these are tangible performance results that the group can achieve working together that surpass what the team members could have achieved working on their own. Second, the leadership role must shift, depending on the task at hand. And third, the team's members must be mutually accountable for the group's results. When these criteria can be met, senior executives should come together to achieve real team performance. When the criteria cannot be met, they should rely on the individual leadership skills that they have honed over the years. PMID:10174799

Katzenbach, J R

1997-01-01

264

What Is Team Science? - Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

Team science is a collaborative effort to address a scientific challenge that leverages the strengths and expertise of professionals trained in different fields. Although traditional single-investigator driven approaches are ideal for many scientific endeavors, coordinated teams of investigators with diverse skills and knowledge may be especially helpful for studies of complex social problems with multiple causes.

265

The Case for Unit-Based Teams: A Model for Front-line Engagement and Performance Improvement.  

PubMed

Unit-based teams (UBTs)-defined as natural work groups of physicians, managers, and frontline staff who work collaboratively to solve problems, improve performance, and enhance quality-were established by the 2005 national agreement between Kaiser Permanente (KP) and the Coalition of KP Unions. They use established performance-improvement techniques and employee-engagement principles (including social-movement theory) to achieve clinical and operational goals. UBT members identify performance gaps and opportunities within their purview-issues they can address in the course of the day-to-day work, such as workflow or process improvement. By focusing on clear, agreed-on goals, UBTs encourage greater accountability and allow members to perform their full scope of work. UBTs are designed to deliver measurable benefits in clinical outcomes and operations, patient-experience enhancements, and physician-team performance or work life. For many physicians, UBTs will require new ways of engaging with their teams. However, evidence suggests that with organizational and physician support, these teams can achieve their goals. This article presents case examples of successful UBTs' outcomes; physicians' comments on their experience working with teams; an overview of UBTs' employee-engagement principles; and advice on how physicians can support and participate in the work of such teams. PMID:20740124

Cohen, Paul M; Ptaskiewicz, Mark; Mipos, Debra

2010-01-01

266

Sleep spindle and slow wave frequency reflect motor skill performance in primary school-age children  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: The role of sleep in the enhancement of motor skills has been studied extensively in adults. We aimed to determine involvement of sleep and characteristics of spindles and slow waves in a motor skill in children. Hypothesis: We hypothesized sleep-dependence of skill enhancement and an association of interindividual differences in skill and sleep characteristics. Methods: 30 children (19 females, 10.7 ± 0.8 years of age; mean ± SD) performed finger sequence tapping tasks in a repeated-measures design spanning 4 days including 1 polysomnography (PSG) night. Initial and delayed performance were assessed over 12 h of wake; 12 h with sleep; and 24 h with wake and sleep. For the 12 h with sleep, children were assigned to one of three conditions: modulation of slow waves and spindles was attempted using acoustic perturbation, and compared to yoked and no-sound control conditions. Analyses: Mixed effect regression models evaluated the association of sleep, its macrostructure and spindles and slow wave parameters with initial and delayed speed and accuracy. Results and Conclusions: Children enhance their accuracy only over an interval with sleep. Unlike previously reported in adults, children enhance their speed independent of sleep, a capacity that may to be lost in adulthood. Individual differences in the dominant frequency of spindles and slow waves were predictive for performance: children performed better if they had less slow spindles, more fast spindles and faster slow waves. On the other hand, overnight enhancement of accuracy was most pronounced in children with more slow spindles and slower slow waves, i.e., the ones with an initial lower performance. Associations of spindle and slow wave characteristics with initial performance may confound interpretation of their involvement in overnight enhancement. Slower frequencies of characteristic sleep events may mark slower learning and immaturity of networks involved in motor skills.

Astill, Rebecca G.; Piantoni, Giovanni; Raymann, Roy J. E. M.; Vis, Jose C.; Coppens, Joris E.; Walker, Matthew P.; Stickgold, Robert; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

2014-01-01

267

Learning style and laparoscopic experience in psychomotor skill performance using a virtual reality surgical simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPeople learn in different ways, and training techniques and technologies should accommodate individual learning needs. This pilot study looks at the relationship between learning style, as measured with the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS), laparoscopic surgery experience and psychomotor skill performance using the MIST VR surgical simulator.

John A. Windsor; Scott Diener; Farah Zoha

2008-01-01

268

Transferring the Soft-Skills Technology of Workplace Learning and Performance to China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses international business and workplace learning and performance (WLP), and describes a long-term strategic alliance between Motorola University China, Penn State University, Beijing University, and Nankai University. Highlights include a needs assessment of multinational corporations in China; transferring the soft-skills technology of WLP…

Yan, Jenny; Rothwell, William J.; Webster, Lois

2001-01-01

269

Skill Level as a Factor in the Relationship Between Worker Satisfaction and Worker Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-three adult male employees at a chemical plant completed a Worker Opinion Questionnaire (WOQ) designed to yield a measure of worker satisfaction. The quality of their job performance was obtained by means of supervisor ratings. Eighteen of the subjects were involved in "skilled labor and fifteen in "unskilled" labor. It was hypothesized…

Warner, Dennis A.; Warner, Stephen J.

270

Inference of Performer Artistic Skill from Artistic Pose Features in Motion Capture Data  

E-print Network

and Asymmetry (B) metrics calculate angles of the torso and limbs (Asymmetry relates to Barba's Opposition and Disney's Anticipation, and is measured by the difference between limbAsymmetry metric is intended to measure the ambidextrous counter-body skill a performer has in varying the limb

Maraffi, Christopher

2014-01-01

271

Investigating the Effects of Group Practice Performed Using Psychodrama Techniques on Adolescents' Conflict Resolution Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of group practice which is performed using psychodrama techniques on adolescents' conflict resolution skills. The subjects, for this study, were selected among the high school students who have high aggression levels and low problem solving levels attending Haci Zekiye Arslan High School, in Nigde.…

Karatas, Zeynep

2011-01-01

272

Relationship Between Personality and Color in Performance of a Gross Motor Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research attempts to determine whether or not a relationship exists between personality variables and frequency with which specific-colored targets are hit. Addresses the question of the relationship between color and personality and if it manifests itself in a reaction to color when a gross motor skill is performed. (Author/RK)

Schick, Jacquelin

1977-01-01

273

The Effect of Classroom Performance Assessment on EFL Students' Basic and Inferential Reading Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of classroom performance assessment on the EFL students' basic and inferential reading skills. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was employed in the study. The subjects of the study consisted of 64 first-year secondary school students in Menouf Secondary School for Boys at Menoufya…

El-Koumy, Abdel Salam Abdel Khalek

2009-01-01

274

The Attention Skills and Academic Performance of Aggressive/Rejected and Low Aggressive/Popular Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…

Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa

2011-01-01

275

Personal Statement A family of teachers, writers and performers underlie the skills, interest and  

E-print Network

Ezra Brown Personal Statement A family of teachers, writers and performers underlie the skills of a human being: sacrificing self to idea. Students fail, not because too much is expected of them to explore the world beyond their barrier. Give them encouragement, confidence, practice, and feedback. Help

Brown, Ezra

276

How Pre-Service Teachers' Understand and Perform Science Process Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding and performance on science process skills. A sample comprised 91 elementary pre-service teachers at a university in the Midwest of the USA. Participants were enrolled in two science education courses; introductory science teaching methods course and advanced science methods course.…

Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simeon

2012-01-01

277

Project Leader's Dual Socialization and Its Impact on Team Learning and Performance: A Diagnostic Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the important challenges for leadership in project teams is the ability to manage the knowledge, communication and coordination related activities of team. In cross-team collaboration, different boundaries contribute to the situated nature of knowledge and hamper the flow of knowledge and prevent shared understanding with those on the other…

Gautam, Tanvi

2009-01-01

278

Improving Agent Team Performance through Helper Marie D Manner and Maria Gini  

E-print Network

side of the field lies a civilian camp in need of food and medical supplies; on the other, a force to motivate our research with teams in imperfect environments. Teamwork is a well-known force for efficiently solving tasks. A team is different than simply a group of people ­ good teams have coordinated action

Gini, Maria

279

Transfer of piano practice in fast performance of skilled finger movements  

PubMed Central

Background Transfer of learning facilitates the efficient mastery of various skills without practicing all possible sensory-motor repertoires. The present study assessed whether motor practice at a submaximal speed, which is typical in sports and music performance, results in an increase in a maximum speed of finger movements of trained and untrained skills. Results Piano practice of sequential finger movements at a submaximal speed over days progressively increased the maximum speed of trained movements. This increased maximum speed of finger movements was maintained two months after the practice. The learning transferred within the hand to some extent, but not across the hands. Conclusions The present study confirmed facilitation of fast finger movements following a piano practice at a submaximal speed. In addition, the findings indicated the intra-manual transfer effects of piano practice on the maximum speed of skilled finger movements. PMID:24175946

2013-01-01

280

Are performance-based and self-report measures of children's motor skill abilities linked?  

PubMed

Traditionally, children's motor skills were assessed using standardized performance-based tests; however, practitioners are now being encouraged to utilize client-centered and child-centered assessment approaches (such as self-report scales). The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between standardized performance-based and child-report measures of children's motor skill abilities using a convenience sample of 93 typically developing school-age children (52 boys and 41 girls with a mean age of 10.3 years [standard deviation = 1.4]). Data obtained from the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-second edition (BOT-2) and the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) were analyzed using Spearman's rho correlations. Of the eight BOT-2 subscales, the three that significantly correlated with 8 or more of the 11 PSDQ subscales were the BOT-2 Balance, Running Speed and Agility, and Strength subscales. The PSDQ Body Fat and Flexibility subscales did not correlate with any of the BOT-2 subscale scores. This suggests that children offer a unique perspective of their motor skill performance relative to other sources of assessment information. The PSDQ is recommended for inclusion as part of the motor skill assessment repertoire that practitioners use with children. PMID:23899202

Brown, Ted

2012-10-01

281

Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments.  

PubMed

Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ? p ? 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ? p ? 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills. PMID:25014271

Haibach, Pamela S; Wagner, Matthias O; Lieberman, Lauren J

2014-10-01

282

The Effect of Caffeine Ingestion on Field Hockey Skill Performance Following Physical Fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of caffeine ingestion on field hockey skill performance following high-intensity fatigue. Thirteen male hockey players (mean age = 21.1 ± 1.2 years) performed hockey sprint dribble and ball handling tests at rest and after a bout of total body fatigue (90% maximal capacity) following caffeine (5mg kg) or placebo ingestion. Sprint dribble times were slower

Michael J. Duncan; Samantha Taylor; Mark Lyons

2012-01-01

283

Openness and conscientiousness as predictors of performance on a complex perceptual-motor skill task  

E-print Network

in the proposed study was performance on Space Fortress (Gopher, 1992), a complex perceptual-motor task. Space Fortress is a video game-like research tool which has been used in laboratories around the world to investigate the acquisition of complex skills... their overall performance and in the strategies they use when playing the game. The game- playing strategies differ in their sophistication and effectiveness (Foss, Fabiani, Mane, & Donchin, 1989). Space Fortress has been used for both research and applied...

Gottesfeld, Noga

2012-06-07

284

Team research at the biology-mathematics interface: project management perspectives.  

PubMed

The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics background and an experimentally oriented biology student. The team mentors typically ranked the students' performance very good to excellent over a range of attributes that included creativity and ability to conduct independent research. However, the research teams experienced problems meeting prespecified deadlines due to poor time and project management skills. Because time and project management skills can be readily taught and moreover typically reflect good research practices, simple modifications should be made to undergraduate curricula so that the promise of initiatives, such as MATH-BIO 2010, can be implemented. PMID:20810964

Milton, John G; Radunskaya, Ami E; Lee, Arthur H; de Pillis, Lisette G; Bartlett, Diana F

2010-01-01

285

Team Research at the Biology–Mathematics Interface: Project Management Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics background and an experimentally oriented biology student. The team mentors typically ranked the students' performance very good to excellent over a range of attributes that included creativity and ability to conduct independent research. However, the research teams experienced problems meeting prespecified deadlines due to poor time and project management skills. Because time and project management skills can be readily taught and moreover typically reflect good research practices, simple modifications should be made to undergraduate curricula so that the promise of initiatives, such as MATH-BIO 2010, can be implemented. PMID:20810964

Radunskaya, Ami E.; Lee, Arthur H.; de Pillis, Lisette G.; Bartlett, Diana F.

2010-01-01

286

Two tests of approach-iron golf skill and their ability to predict tournament performance.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the convergent and predictive validity of two skill tests that examine the ability of golfers to hit accurate approach-iron shots. Twenty-four high-level golfers (handicap = 2.6 ± 1.7) performed the Nine-Ball Skills Test (assesses the ability to shape/control ball trajectory with high accuracy) and the Approach-Iron Skill Test (assesses the ability to hit straight shots from varying distances with high accuracy). Participants then completed at least eight rounds of tournament golf over the following 90 days and reported an indicator of approach-iron accuracy (per cent error index). A moderate correlation (r = 0.50, P < 0.05) was noted between scores for both tests. Generalised estimating equations, using two covariates (lie of the ball and distance to hole), were used to determine model fit and the amount of variance explained for tournament per cent error index. Results showed that the Approach-Iron Skill Test was the slightly stronger predictor of on-course per cent error index. With both test scores considered together, a minimal amount of additional variance was explained. These findings suggest that either of the tests used individually or combined may be used to predict tournament approach iron performance in high-level golfers. PMID:24702161

Robertson, Sam; Burnett, Angus F; Gupta, Ritu

2014-07-01

287

The Effect of Student Self-Video of Performance on Clinical Skill Competency: A Randomised Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging technologies and student information technology literacy are enabling new methods of teaching and learning for clinical skill performance. Facilitating experiential practice and reflection on performance through student self-video, and exposure to peer benchmarks, may promote greater levels of skill competency. This study examines the…

Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

2013-01-01

288

“Toward Integrative Models of Flow”: Effects of Performance, Skill, Challenge, Playfulness, and Presence on Flow in Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined various predictors of flow in video games. Study 1 examined the effects of performance on flow across two game genres (shooting and medical simulation games) and demonstrated that successful performance results in greater flow. Study 2 demonstrated an interaction effect of skill and challenge on flow across three genres (racing, violent, and prosocial games). Highly skilled players

Seung-A Annie Jin

2012-01-01

289

The assessment of laboratory performance skills in grade 9 science via individuals and pairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research study focused on the development and administration of a laboratory investigation task involving ninth grade students currently studying Earth Science. Students were required to Plan and Perform the investigation based on concepts of Chemical Weathering. Science inquiry skills associated with Planning, Data Collection, Graphing, and Reasoning were evaluated using an analytical scoring rubric. Students completed a Survey Instrument, which provided contextual information about their prior laboratory experiences, and preferences about working individually versus pairs while completing science experiments. The sample was composed of 446 students from five schools in Western New York. Students completed the laboratory investigation individually and in pairs. One hundred and fifty students completed the task individually, and 296 students assigned to 148 pairs completed the task. T-tests and ANOVA's were used to evaluate achievement differences between individuals and pairs; by gender and individual ability for the individual sub-sample; and by the gender and ability composition for the pairs' sub-sample respectively. Mean scores for the Likert type Survey instrument provided contextual data about students' prior laboratory experiences. Factor analysis generally supported the theoretical model used to design the investigation. The results indicated there were significant differences in achievement between individuals and pairs in Graphing and Reasoning skills. Females outperformed males on the Total task, Data Collection, Graphing and Reasoning categories of skills. High ability students outperformed medium and low ability students on the Total Task, Planning, Graphing and Reasoning categories of skills. The composition of pairs by ability indicated significant differences in achievement on the Total Task, Planning and Reasoning skills. There were significant differences in achievement by female/female versus male/male and male/female pairs on the Total Task, Data Collection, Graphing and Reasoning skills.

Chan, Alfred William

290

Trauma team.  

PubMed

The introduction of trauma teams has improved patient outcome independently. The aim of establishing a trauma team is to ensure the early mobilization and involvement of more experienced medical staff and thereby to improve patient outcome. The team approach allows for distribution of the several tasks in assessment and resuscitation of the patient in a 'horizontal approach', which may lead to a reduction in time from injury to critical interventions and thus have a direct bearing on the patient's ultimate outcome. A trauma team leader or supervisor, who coordinates the resuscitation and ensures adherence to guidelines, should lead the trauma team. There is a major national and international variety in trauma team composition, however crucial are a surgeon, an Emergency Medicine physician or both and anaesthetist. Advanced Trauma Life Support training, simulation-based training, and video review have all improved patient outcome and trauma team performance. Developments in the radiology, such as the use of computed tomography scanning in the emergency room and the endovascular treatment of bleeding foci, have changed treatment algorithms in selected patients. These developments and new insights in shock management may have a future impact on patient management and trauma team composition. PMID:24980423

Tiel Groenestege-Kreb, D; van Maarseveen, O; Leenen, L

2014-08-01

291

Sprint acceleration performance in team sports : biomechanical characteristics and training methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sprinting is a fundamental activity in many team sports such as soccer, rugby, football, field hockey, and basketball. Specifically, the ability to rapidly increase sprint running velocity over short distances, which is often referrcd to as sprint acceleration ability, is of major importance to team-sport athletes since sprint efforts during team-sport matches are typically of short duration (e.g., 10-20 m,

Naoki Kawamori

2008-01-01

292

The effect of performance context and skill level on the frequency of flow experiences.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to examine interaction effects between skill level and performance contexts on the experience of flow in adolescent tennis players. The study employed a factorial design to examine differences in flow frequency between competition and training settings and the independent groups factor of ranking list and club players. Junior tennis players (55 males, 29 females) completed the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 in training and competition settings. A repeated-measure ANCOVA, with years of tennis experience and training hours per week as covariates, showed a significant main effect for skill level, F(1, 82) = 6.67, p<0.05, ?2 p = 0.08, a significant main effect for performance contexts, F(1, 82) = 7.69, p < 0.01, ?2 p = 0.09, and a significant disordinal interaction, F(1, 82) = 9.93, p < 0.01, ?2 p = 0.11. Lower skilled athletes experienced flow with similar frequency across performance contexts, whereas advanced players experienced flow more often during training than competition. Qualitative results showed that club players' involvement in both performance contexts was mainly based on intrinsic reasons, whereas ranking list players reported intrinsic reasons for training, but a high number of extrinsic reasons for competition. Future studies should take propositions of the flow model into account in order to advance theoretical developments on interaction effects and shed more light into the complex processes underlying flow in sport. PMID:24444243

Koehn, Stefan; Morris, Tony

2014-01-01

293

Locomotion characteristics and match-induced impairments in physical performance in male elite team handball players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the physical demands and match-induced impairments in physical performance in male elite Team Handball (TH) players in relation to playing position. Male elite TH field players were closely observed during 6 competitive seasons. Each player (wing players: WP, pivots: PV, backcourt players: BP) was evaluated during match-play using video recording and subsequently performing locomotion match analysis. A total distance of 3 627±568 m (group means±SD) was covered per match with a total effective playing time (TPT) of 53:51±5:52 min:s, while full-time players covered 3 945±538 m. The mean speed was 6.40±1.01 km · h - 1. High-intensity running constituted only 1.7±0.9% of TPT per match corresponding to 7.9±4.9% of the total distance covered. An average of 1 482.4±312.6 activity changes per player (n=82) with 53.2±14.1 high-intensity runs were observed per match. Total distance covered was greater in BP (3 765±532 m) and WP (3 641±501 m) than PV (3 295±495 m) (p<0.05), and WP performed more high-intensity running (10.9±5.7% of total distance covered) than PV (8.5±4.3%, p<0.05) and BP (6.2±3.2%, p<0.01). The amount of high-intensity running was lower (p<0.05) in the second (130.4±38.4 m) than in the first half (155.3±47.6 m) corresponding to a decrease of 16.2%.In conclusion, modern male elite TH is a complex team sport that comprises several types of movement categories, which during match-play place moderate-to-high demands on intermittent endurance running capacity and where the amount of high-intensity running may be high during brief periods of the match. Signs of fatigue-related changes were observed in terms of temporary impaired physical performance, since the amount of high-intensity running was reduced in the second half. Notably, physical demands differed between playing positions, with WP demonstrating a more intensive activity pattern than BP and PV, respectively. PMID:23258606

Michalsik, L B; Aagaard, P; Madsen, K

2013-07-01

294

It Is Not Only Mentoring: The Combined Influences of Individual-Level and Team-Level Support on Job Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper aims to follow social exchange theory and group social capital theory, to predict positive relationships between (informal) mentoring and various support resources for two types of performance (i.e. perceptions of individual and team performance). Design/methodology/approach: The associations of individual-level mentoring and…

van Emmerik, I. J. Hetty

2008-01-01

295

Carbohydrate gel ingestion significantly improves the intermittent endurance capacity, but not sprint performance, of adolescent team games players during a simulated team games protocol.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate (CHO) gel on the intermittent endurance capacity and sprint performance of adolescent team games players. Eleven participants [mean age 13.5 ± 0.7 years, height 1.72 ± 0.08 m, body mass (BM) 62.1 ± 9.4 kg] performed two trials separated by 3-7 days. In each trial, they completed four 15 min periods of part A of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST), followed by an intermittent run to exhaustion (part B). In the 5 min pre-exercise, participants consumed 0.818 mL kg(-1) BM of a CHO or a non-CHO placebo gel, and a further 0.327 mL kg(-1) BM every 15 min during part A of the LIST (38.0 ± 5.5 g CHO h(-1) in the CHO trial). Intermittent endurance capacity was increased by 21.1% during part B when the CHO gel was ingested (4.6 ± 2.0 vs. 3.8 ± 2.4 min, P < 0.05, r = 0.67), with distance covered in part B significantly greater in the CHO trial (787 ± 319 vs. 669 ± 424 m, P < 0.05, r = 0.57). Gel ingestion did not significantly influence mean 15 m sprint time (P = 0.34), peak sprint time (P = 0.81), or heart rate (P = 0.66). Ingestion of a CHO gel significantly increases the intermittent endurance capacity of adolescent team games players during a simulated team games protocol. PMID:21750974

Phillips, Shaun M; Turner, Anthony P; Sanderson, Mark F; Sproule, John

2012-03-01

296

Academic performance and self-regulatory skills in elite youth soccer players.  

PubMed

Although elite athletes have been reported to be high academic achievers, many elite soccer players struggle with a stereotype of being low academic achievers. The purpose of this study was to compare the academic level (pre-university or pre-vocational) and self-regulatory skills (planning, self-monitoring, evaluation, reflection, effort, and self-efficacy) of elite youth soccer players aged 12-16 years (n = 128) with those of 164 age-matched controls (typical students). The results demonstrate that the elite youth soccer players are more often enrolled in the pre-university academic system, which means that they are high academic achievers, compared with the typical student. The elite players also report an increased use of self-regulatory skills, in particular self-monitoring, evaluation, reflection, and effort. In addition, control students in the pre-university system had more highly developed self-regulatory skills than those in the pre-vocational system, whereas no difference was observed within the soccer population. This suggests that the relatively stronger self-regulatory skills reported by the elite youth soccer players may be essential for performance at the highest levels of sport competition and in academia. PMID:21104520

Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Toering, Tynke T; Lyons, James; Visscher, Chris

2010-12-01

297

The Effects of Depleted Self-Regulation on Skilled Task Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of depleted self-regulation on skillful task performance. Participants completed a baseline dart-tossing task (20 tosses), and were instructed to toss as quickly and as close to the bulls-eye as possible when a particular cue light flashed. Participants then underwent a self-regulatory depleting (experimental) or a non-depleting (control) manipulation before completing

Desmond McEwan

2012-01-01

298

The Preoperative Assessment of Hepatic Tumours: Evaluation of UK Regional Multidisciplinary Team Performance.  

PubMed

Introduction. In the UK, patients where liver resection is contemplated are discussed at hepatobiliary multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings. The aim was to assess MDT performance by identification of patients where radiological and pathological diagnoses differed. Materials and Methods. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all cases undergoing liver resection from March 2006 to January 2012 was performed. The presumed diagnosis as a result of radiological investigation and MDT discussion is recorded at the time of surgery. Imaging was reviewed by specialist gastrointestinal radiologists, and resultswereagreedonby consensus. Results. Four hundred and thirty-eight patients were studied. There was a significant increase in the use of preoperative imaging modalities (P ? 0.01) but no change in the rate of discrepant diagnosis over time. Forty-two individuals were identified whose final histological diagnosis was different to that following MDT discussion (9.6%). These included 30% of patients diagnosed preoperatively with hepatocellular carcinoma and 25% with cholangiocarcinoma of a major duct. Discussion. MDT assessment of patients preoperatively is accurate in terms of diagnosis. The highest rate of discrepancies occurred in patients with focal lesions without chronic liver disease or primary cancer, where hepatocellular carcinoma was overdiagnosed and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma underdiagnosed, where particular care should be taken. Additional care should be taken in these groups and preoperative multimodality imaging considered. PMID:24062601

Wiggans, M G; Jackson, S A; Fox, B M T; Mitchell, J D; Aroori, S; Bowles, M J; Armstrong, E M; Shirley, J F; Stell, D A

2013-01-01

299

The Preoperative Assessment of Hepatic Tumours: Evaluation of UK Regional Multidisciplinary Team Performance  

PubMed Central

Introduction. In the UK, patients where liver resection is contemplated are discussed at hepatobiliary multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings. The aim was to assess MDT performance by identification of patients where radiological and pathological diagnoses differed. Materials and Methods. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all cases undergoing liver resection from March 2006 to January 2012 was performed. The presumed diagnosis as a result of radiological investigation and MDT discussion is recorded at the time of surgery. Imaging was reviewed by specialist gastrointestinal radiologists, and resultswereagreedonby consensus. Results. Four hundred and thirty-eight patients were studied. There was a significant increase in the use of preoperative imaging modalities (P ? 0.01) but no change in the rate of discrepant diagnosis over time. Forty-two individuals were identified whose final histological diagnosis was different to that following MDT discussion (9.6%). These included 30% of patients diagnosed preoperatively with hepatocellular carcinoma and 25% with cholangiocarcinoma of a major duct. Discussion. MDT assessment of patients preoperatively is accurate in terms of diagnosis. The highest rate of discrepancies occurred in patients with focal lesions without chronic liver disease or primary cancer, where hepatocellular carcinoma was overdiagnosed and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma underdiagnosed, where particular care should be taken. Additional care should be taken in these groups and preoperative multimodality imaging considered. PMID:24062601

Wiggans, M. G.; Jackson, S. A.; Fox, B. M. T.; Mitchell, J. D.; Aroori, S.; Bowles, M. J.; Armstrong, E. M.; Shirley, J. F.; Stell, D. A.

2013-01-01

300

Team Up!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the physical and psychological effect of stress and tension on human beings. They develop their observing, thinking, writing and teamwork skills by working on a group art project and reporting about it. They learn about the stages of group formation, group dynamics and team member roles that make for effective teams. In the process, they discover how collective action can foster a sense of community support, which can alleviate personal feelings of stress and tension. Note: The literacy activities for the Mechanics unit are based on physical themes that have broad application to our experience in the world â concepts of rhythm, balance, spin, gravity, levity, inertia, momentum, friction, stress and tension.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

301

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PERFORMANCE TEST CORRELATES OF PROLONGED ,H IGH-INTENSITY, INTERMITTENT RUNNING PERFORMANCE IN MODERATELY TRAINED WOMEN TEAM SPORT ATHLETES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sirotic, A.C., and A.J. Coutts. Physiological and per- formance test correlates of prolonged, high-intensity, intermit- tent running performance in moderately trained women team sport athletes. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21(1):138-144. 2007.—A large number of team sports require athletes to repeatedly pro- duce maximal or near maximal sprint efforts of short duration interspersed with longer recovery periods of submaximal inten- sity.

ANITA C. SIROTIC; AARON J. COUTTS

302

Developing Expert Teams with a Strong Safety Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Would you like to lead a world renowned team that draws out all the talents and expertise of its members and consistently out performs all others in the industry? Ever wonder why so many organizations fail to truly learn from past mistakes only to repeat the same ones at a later date? Are you a program/project manager or team member in a high-risk organization where the decisions made often carry the highest of consequences? Leadership, communication, team building, critical decision-making and continuous team improvement skills and behaviors are mere talking points without the attitudes, commitment and strategies necessary to make them the very fabric of a team. Developing Expert Teams with a Strong Safety Culture, will provide you with proven knowledge and strategies to take your team soaring to heights you may have not thought possible. A myriad of teams have applied these strategies and techniques within their organization team environments: military and commercial aviation, astronaut flight crews, Shuttle flight controllers, members of the Space Shuttle Program Mission Management Team, air traffic controllers, nuclear power control teams, surgical teams, and the fire service report having spectacular success. Many industry leaders are beginning to realize that although the circumstances and environments of these teams may differ greatly to their own, the core elements, governing principles and dynamics involved in managing and building a stellar safety conscious team remain identical.

Rogers, David G.

2010-01-01

303

Cortical activity of skilled performance in a complex sports related motor task.  

PubMed

A skilled player in goal-directed sports performance has the ability to process internal and external information in an effective manner and decide which pieces of information are important and which are irrelevant. Focused attention and somatosensory information processing play a crucial role in this process. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings are able to demonstrate cortical changes in conjunction with this concept and were examined during a golf putting performance in an expert-novice paradigm. The success in putting (score) and performance-related cortical activity were recorded with an EEG during a 5 x 4 min putting series. Subjects were asked to putt balls for four min at their own pace. The EEG data was divided into different frequencies: Theta (4.75-6.75 Hz), Alpha-1 (7-9.5 Hz), Alpha-2 (9.75-12.5 Hz) and Beta-1 (12.75-18.5 Hz) and performance related power values were calculated. Statistical analysis shows significant better performance in the expert golfers (P < 0.001). This was associated with higher fronto-midline Theta power (P < 0.05) and higher parietal Alpha-2 power values (P < 0.05) compared to the novices in golf putting. Frontal Theta and parietal Alpha-2 spectral power in the ongoing EEG demonstrate differences due to skill level. Furthermore the findings suggest that with increasing skill level, golfers have developed task solving strategies including focussed attention and an economy in parietal sensory information processing which lead to more successful performance. In a theoretical framework both cortical parameters may play a role in the concept of the working memory. PMID:18607621

Baumeister, Jochen; Reinecke, Kirsten; Liesen, Heinz; Weiss, Michael

2008-11-01

304

Formative Assessment of Procedural Skills: Students' Responses to the Objective Structured Clinical Examination and the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of clinical skills is a critical element of undergraduate medical education. We compare a traditional approach to procedural skills assessment--the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) with the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument (IPPI). In both approaches, students work through "stations" or "scenarios" undertaking…

Nestel, Debra; Kneebone, Roger; Nolan, Carmel; Akhtar, Kash; Darzi, Ara

2011-01-01

305

Workplace Communication Skills, Workplace Basic Skills, & Literacy Training in UAW-Chrysler Region 3. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A workplace literacy partnership program model was demonstrated at four Chrysler plants in Indiana. Objectives were to improve workers' individual skills, enhance personal productivity, and increase work force job security and plant competitiveness. During the 3-month start-up phase, project staff worked with management and labor representatives…

Indiana Vocational Technical Coll., Indianapolis.

306

Sex is not everything: the role of gender in early performance of a fundamental laparoscopic skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Existing literature on the acquisition of surgical skills suggests that women generally perform worse than men. This literature\\u000a is limited by looking at an arbitrary number of trials and not adjusting for potential confounders. The objective of this\\u000a study was to evaluate the impact of gender on the learning curve for a fundamental laparoscopic task.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty-two medical students performed the

Nicoleta O. Kolozsvari; Amin Andalib; Pepa Kaneva; Jiguo Cao; Melina C. Vassiliou; Gerald M. Fried; Liane S. Feldman

2011-01-01

307

Cognitive skills and literacy performance of Chinese adolescents with and without dyslexia.  

PubMed

The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with dyslexia and to assess how these abilities were associated with Chinese word reading, word dictation, and reading comprehension. The cognitive skills of interest were morphological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid naming, and verbal working memory. A total of 90 junior secondary school students, 30 dyslexic, 30 chronological age controls, and 30 reading level controls was tested on a range of cognitive and literacy tasks. Dyslexic students were less competent than the control students in all cognitive and literacy measures. The regression analyses also showed that verbal working memory, rapid naming, morphological awareness, and visual-orthographic knowledge were significantly associated with literacy performance. Findings underscore the importance of these cognitive skills for Chinese literacy acquisition. Overall, this study highlights the persistent difficulties of Chinese dyslexic adolescents who seem to have multiple causes for reading and spelling difficulties. PMID:21841896

Chung, Kevin K H; Ho, Connie S-H; Chan, David W; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

2011-08-01

308

Analyses of WIN Team Functioning and Job Requirements, Final Report: Duties Performed and Style of Functioning, in Relation to Team Effectiveness. Technical Report 72-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were collected from a total of 110 WIN (Work Incentive Programs) Employability Development Teams to obtain information regarding the staffing composition of WIN teams, the extent to which distribution of job effort among team members emphasizes duty area specialization by job position title, the style of functioning in making client-oriented…

Kern, Richard P.

309

School-age adopted Chinese girls' behavioral adjustment, academic performance, and social skills: longitudinal results.  

PubMed

Longitudinal data on 177 school-age adopted Chinese girls (Time 1: mean age = 8.92 years, SD = 1.76; Time 2: mean age = 11.18 years, SD = 1.79) were analyzed to determine their long-term outcomes in behavioral adjustment, academic performance (measured with the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18), and social skills (measured with the Social Skills Rating System) and how these outcomes were related to preadoption adversity. More than 90% of the girls were adopted at 24 months or younger (M = 19.25, SD = 21.67). Results revealed that over a 2-year period, there was a moderate to strong stability in the children's behavioral adjustment and academic performance. However, there was a significant increase in the number of children with deviant internalizing problems. At both times, higher degrees of preadoption adversity were related to more internalizing problems and poorer academic performance. Children who were adopted at older ages had poorer academic performance. Children who were older had a lower level of assertion and a higher level of responsibility. Children's attention problems at Time 1 mediated the effect of preadoption adversity on academic performance at Time 2. PMID:19485642

Tan, Tony Xing

2009-04-01

310

Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…

Kent, Richard

2012-01-01

311

Position statement--altitude training for improving team-sport players' performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues  

PubMed Central

Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213

Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, Francois; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Gregoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

2013-01-01

312

Physician Assistants and Nurse Practitioners Perform Effective Roles on Teams Caring for Medicare Patients with Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Redesigning healthcare systems to deliver team-based care is considered important to improving care for chronically ill patients. Including physician assistants and/or nurse practitioners on primary care teams is one approach to the patient-centered medical home. However, understanding of the impact of team structure on outcomes is limited. Using Medicare claims and electronic health record data from a large physician group, we compared multiple patient outcomes for older patients with diabetes between patient panels receiving physician only care and panels where primary care physician assistants/nurse practitioners served in different roles. Specific roles were associated with different quality of diabetes care and health service utilization patterns and no role was best for all outcomes. Findings suggest multiple potential approaches to implementing roles on primary care teams exist; however, local factors, including the characteristics of the patients served and prioritization of goals may be important considerations when implementing roles. PMID:24191084

Everett, Christine M.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.; Palta, Mari; Carayon, Pascale; Bartels, Christie; Smith, Maureen A.

2014-01-01

313

Performance Comparison of Item-to-Item Skills Models with the IRT Single Latent Trait Model  

E-print Network

's mastery of a set of skills is a fundamen- tal issue in intelligent learning environments. We compare the probability of mastery of skills given observed items. Another approach relies on a Q-matrix [20], which denes is a skills mastery vector which readily can be normalized to obtain the percent mastery of each skill

Desmarais, Michel C.

314

Field test evaluation of aerobic, anaerobic, and wheelchair basketball skill performances.  

PubMed

Forty-six male wheelchair basketball players performed a set of field tests to evaluate aerobic capacity (25 m shuttle run), anaerobic capacity (30s sprint), and six specific wheelchair basketball skills. Overall test-retest reliability (n = 20) ranged from r = 0.65 to r = 0.97. To study the validity (criterion related evidence) of the shuttle run test, heart rate (HR) was recorded for 15 subjects, who also performed a continuous, multistage arm cranking exercise until volitional fatigue. Moderate to high correlations were calculated between shuttle run distances covered (1375 243,6 m) and VO2max (2208+/-461.6 mL/min) and POmax (93.8+/-17.97 W), measured during maximal arm cranking (respectively r = 0.64 and r = 0.87). Maximal HR during shuttle run (174.9+/-16.6 B/min) and arm cranking (169+/-14.21 B/min) were correlated (r = 0.78). High correlations between shuttle run test and anaerobic field tests, however, indicate high implication of anaerobic and wheelchair maneuverability performances. The 30 s sprint test was validated (n = 15) against a Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) on a roller ergometer. Comparing distance (field test: 90+/-6.7 m) with mean power output (WAnT: 852.1+/-234.9 W) the correlation was r = 0.93. Principal components factor analysis identified 'wheelchair propulsion dynamics' and 'eye-hand-coordination' as the underlying constructs of the six skill proficiency measurements, accounting for 80.1% of the variance. In conclusion, the newly developed field test battery is a reliable and valid tool for anaerobic capacity and skill proficiency assessment in wheelchair basketball players. PMID:10606220

Vanlandewijck, Y C; Daly, D J; Theisen, D M

1999-11-01

315

THE VIEWING OF ONESELF PERFORMING SELECTED MOTOR SKILLS IN MOTION PICTURES AND ITS EFFECT UPON THE EXPRESSED CONCEPT OF SELF IN MOVEMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE IF ONE'S EXPRESSED CONCEPT OF HIS PERFORMANCE OF CERTAIN SELECTED MOTOR SKILLS IS CHANGED THROUGH THE PROCESS OF VIEWING MOTION PICTURES OF HIMSELF PERFORMING THESE SAME SKILLS. SIXTY-FIVE COLLEGE STUDENTS 17 TO 21 YEARS OF AGE, PARTICIPATED. EACH SUBJECT PERFORMED FIVE MOTOR SKILLS IN SEQUENCE (1) WALKED 30 FEET…

CLIFTON, MARGUERITE A.; SMITH, HOPE M.

316

Hybrid Teams in Virtual Environments: Samurai Joins the Training Team  

E-print Network

Hybrid Teams in Virtual Environments: Samurai Joins the Training Team Jurriaan van Diggelen, Tijmen has been developed by NATO for training military team skills. Normally, SABRE is played by a group of humans which collaboratively explore a village to find weapons hidden by terrorists. In this project, we

Diggelen, Jurriaan van

317

Multivariate Predictors of Social Skills Performance in Middle-Aged and Older Outpatients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive impairment and negative symptoms are two of the primary features of schizophrenia associated with poor social functioning. We examined the relationships between clinical characteristics, specific cognitive abilities, and social skills performance in middle-aged and older outpatients with schizophrenia and normal comparison subjects. Method One hundred ninety-four middle-aged and older schizophrenia outpatients and 60 normal comparison subjects were administered a standardized, performance-based measure of social skills using role-plays of various social situations (Social Skills Performance Assessment; SSPA), and measures of current level of social contact (Lehman Quality of Life Interview), psychiatric symptom severity (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), insight (The (Birchwood et al.) Insight Scale), and cognitive functioning (Mattis Dementia Rating Scale). Results Patients demonstrated worse social skills than did normal subjects. Better performance on the SSPA was associated with having less severe positive and negative symptoms, fewer social contacts, and better attention, initiation/freedom from perseveration, visuospatial ability, abstraction ability, and memory. After controlling for demographic, clinical, and insight-related factors, abstraction ability was the strongest predictor of social skills performance, followed by frequency of social contact. Conclusions Social functioning (as measured through direct observation of social skills performance) was related to cognitive ability in outpatients with schizophrenia. Addressing such cognitive impairment may help improve social functioning and result in greater overall quality of life. PMID:17803830

Sitzer, David I.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Jeste, Dilip V.

2008-01-01

318

Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams.  

PubMed

Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams is examined in an UAV (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle) simulation. Five 3-person teams with experience working together in a command-and-control setting were compared to 10 inexperienced teams. Each team participated in five 40-min missions of a simulation in which interdependent team members control a UAV to take reconnaissance photos. Experienced teams exceeded performance of inexperienced teams, suggesting transfer of previous command-and-control experience. Compared to inexperienced teams, experienced teams had fewer errors on process-related training knowledge, superior team process ratings, and communications containing fewer coordination-related utterances. These findings support the view that team cognition emerges through the interactions of team members, that interactions distinguish high-performing teams from average teams, and that these interactions transfer across different tasks. PMID:17924800

Cooke, Nancy J; Gorman, Jamie C; Duran, Jasmine L; Taylor, Amanda R

2007-09-01

319

Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students. Methods Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics) were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately. Results There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects. Conclusion In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students’ psychomotor performance. PMID:24159266

Afify, Ahmed R; Zawawi, Khalid H; Othman, Hisham I; Al-Dharrab, Ayman A

2013-01-01

320

The Romance of Learning from Disagreement. The Effect of Cohesiveness and Disagreement on Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Individual Performance Within Teams.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of disagreement and cohesiveness on knowledge sharing in teams, and on the performance of individual team members. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Data were obtained from a survey among 1,354 employees working in 126 teams in 17 organizations. FINDINGS: The results show that cohesiveness has a positive effect on the exchange of advice between team members and on openness for sharing opinions, whereas disagreement has a negative effect on openness for sharing opinions. Furthermore, the exchange of advice in a team has a positive effect on the performance of individual team members and acts as a mediator between cohesiveness and individual performance. IMPLICATIONS: Managers who want to stimulate knowledge sharing processes and performance within work teams may be advised to take measures to prevent disagreement between team members and to enhance team cohesiveness. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although some gurus in organizational learning claim that disagreement has a positive effect on group processes such as knowledge sharing and team learning, this study does not support this claim. PMID:20174445

van Woerkom, Marianne; Sanders, Karin

2010-03-01

321

The effect of student self-video of performance on clinical skill competency: a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Emerging technologies and student information technology literacy are enabling new methods of teaching and learning for clinical skill performance. Facilitating experiential practice and reflection on performance through student self-video, and exposure to peer benchmarks, may promote greater levels of skill competency. This study examines the impact of student self-video on the attainment of clinical skills. A total of 60 Physiotherapy students (100%) consented to participate in the randomised controlled trial. One group (50%) was taught a complex clinical skill with regular practical tutoring, whilst the other group (50%) supplemented the tutoring with a self-video task aimed at promoting reflection on performance. Student skill performance was measured in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Students also completed an anonymous questionnaire, which explored their perception of their learning experiences. Students received significantly higher scores in the OSCE when the examined clinical skill had been supplemented with a self-video of performance task (P = 0.048). Descriptive analysis of the questionnaires relating to student perceptions on the teaching methods identified that the self-video of performance task utilised contributed to improvement in their clinical performance and their confidence for future clinical practice. Students identified a number of aspects of the submission process that contributed to this perception of educational value. The novel results of this study demonstrate that greater clinical skill competency is achieved when traditional tutoring methods are supplemented with student self-video of performance tasks. Additional benefits included the ability of staff and students to monitor longitudinal performance, and an increase in feedback opportunities. PMID:22354337

Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

2013-03-01

322

From Scientific Management Through Fun and Games to High-Performing Teams: A Historical Perspective on Consulting to Team-Based Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of team theory, research, and practice in the 20th century is discussed. The influence of important schools of social and organizational psychology as well as the political and social milieu of the times on the research and theory of teams is identified: scientific management in the 1920s, the emergence of social psychology in the 1930s, World War II,

H. Skipton Leonard; Arthur M. Freedman

2000-01-01

323

Team Teaching in the Conservatoire: The Views of Music Performance Staff and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Team teaching--two or more teachers sharing the training of a group of students--has only recently been implemented in the curricula of many higher music education institutions. This article reports on a survey of 142 music students and their tutors from three departments (the Schools of Strings, Vocal and Opera Studies, and Wind, Brass and…

Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane

2011-01-01

324

High Performance Team: Building a Business Program with Part- and Full-Time Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business programs at colleges and universities presently face wide-ranging challenges in delivering quality education. As more and more business programs find it necessary to conserve or redirect resources, successfully leading through change becomes paramount for departments and their faculty teams. This challenge is compounded by a growing…

Marsh, F. K.

2010-01-01

325

Performance Posting, Goal Setting, and Activity-Contingent Praise as Applied to a University Hockey Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate of legal body checking (hit rate) was targeted for change for each of two consecutive seasons for a university hockey team that had a chronic losing record. Following baseline recording (A), the interventions of publicly posted individual feedback (B), goal setting (C), and praise (D) were successively introduced \\

D. Chris Anderson; Charles R. Crowell; Mark Doman; George S. Howard

1988-01-01

326

Comparing the performance of us college football teams in the web and on the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous research it has been shown that link-based web page metrics can be used to predict experts' assessment of quality. We are interested in a related question: do expert rankings of real-world entities correlate with search engine (SE) rankings of corresponding web resources? To answer this question we compared rankings of college football teams in the US with rankings

Martin Klein; Olena Hunsicker; Michael L. Nelson

2009-01-01

327

The Link between Self-Managed Work Teams and Learning Organisations Using Performance Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the learning organization literature and the self-managed work team literature have alluded to the potential links between teamwork and learning. However, as yet the link between these two concepts remains undeveloped. This study uses a survey of a random sample of 200 Australian organizations to empirically examine the relationships between…

Power, Joe; Waddell, Di

2004-01-01

328

Using Agile Project Management to Enhance the Performance of Instructional Design Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional design models describe in detail methodologies for designing effective instruction. Several widely adopted models include suggestions for managing instructional design projects. However, these suggestions focus on how to manage the instructional design steps rather than the instructional design and development team process. The…

Sweeney, David S.; Cifuentes, Lauren

2010-01-01

329

Evaluating the Impact and Determinants of Student Team Performance: Using LMS and CATME Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practitioners find it difficult to allocate grades to individual students based on their contributions to the team project. They often use classroom observation of teamwork and student peer evaluations to differentiate an individual's grade from the group's grade, which can be subjective and imprecise. We used objective data from student…

Braender, Lynn M.; Naples, Michele I.

2013-01-01

330

Getting More out of Team Projects: Incentivizing Leadership to Enhance Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses changes in student perceptions when team leaders are incentivized. Although the benefits of groupwork have been thoroughly studied and documented, minimizing dysfunctional teamwork may prove difficult because of leadership incentives, social loafing, and organizational justice implications. Using an innovative pedagogical…

Ferrante, Claudia J.; Green, Steve G.; Forster, William R.

2006-01-01

331

Research and Teaching: Team-Based Learning Enhances Performance in Introductory Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the problems associated with the traditional lecture method, the constraints associated with large classes, and the effectiveness of active learning, continued development and testing of efficient student-centered learning approaches are needed. This study explores the effectiveness of team-based learning (TBL) in a large-enrollment introductory biology class.

Carmichael, Jeffrey

2009-03-01

332

Culture Change in Elite Sport Performance Teams: Examining and Advancing Effectiveness in the New Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflecting the importance of optimizing culture for elite teams, Fletcher and Arnold (2011) recently suggested the need for expertise in culture change. Acknowledging the dearth of literature on the specific process, however, the potential effectiveness of practitioners in this area is unknown. The present paper examines the activity's precise demands and the validity of understanding in sport psychology and organizational

Andrew Cruickshank; Dave Collins

2012-01-01

333

To transfer or not to transfer? Investigating the combined effects of trainee characteristics, team leader support, and team climate.  

PubMed

Eighty pilots participated in a study of variables influencing the transfer process. Posttraining performance was assessed in a flight simulation under 1 of 2 conditions. Those in the maximum performance condition were made aware of the skill to be assessed and the fact that their teammates were confederates, whereas those in the typical performance condition were not. The results indicated that (a) simulator ratings correlated with a measure of transfer to the cockpit for those in the typical condition only; (b) team leader support, manipulated in a pretask brief, moderated the disparity between maximum and typical performance; (c) team climate mediated the impact of support on performance in the typical condition; (d) those with a stronger predisposition toward the trained skill viewed their climate as more supportive; and (e) perceptions of team climate were better predictors of performance for those with a more external locus of control. PMID:11393440

Smith-Jentsch, K A; Salas, E; Brannick, M T

2001-04-01

334

Cyberinfrastructure and Scientific Collaboration: Application of a Virtual Team Performance Framework with Potential Relevance to Education. WCER Working Paper No. 2010-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify and describe some of the dimensions of scientific collaborations using high throughput computing (HTC) through the lens of a virtual team performance framework. A secondary purpose was to assess the viability of using a virtual team performance framework to study scientific collaborations using…

Kraemer, Sara; Thorn, Christopher A.

2010-01-01

335

Choose Colleagues before Friends for Teaching Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What makes a good team? If people understand teams to be collections of individuals who bring together their complementary knowledge and skills to accomplish a common purpose, then they can put together effective teams whether or not the individuals have a fondness for one another. Knowledge and skills are complementary when they combine in such a…

Kain, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

336

Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990. PMID:23623961

Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

2013-01-01

337

The effect of a carbohydrate enriched diet on the skill performance of midfield soccer players after intermittent treadmill exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION\\u000aConsiderable depletion of intramuscular glycogen stores occurs during soccer games which affects the distance covered by players during the second-half of a match-play (Saltin, 1973). Although it appears that players skills deteriorate with fatigue, it is difficult to quantitatively investigate the skill performance during a soccer game. Additionally, the effects of muscle glycogen depletion and a carbohydrate enriched diet

Grant A Abt; Shi Zhou; Robert P Weatherby

1996-01-01

338

Systematic development of a communication skills training course for physicians performing work disability assessments: from evidence to practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source\\u000a of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses\\u000a during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for\\u000a them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1) to systematically develop a training course

H Jolanda van Rijssen; Antonius JM Schellart; Johannes R Anema; Wout EL de Boer; Allard J van der Beek

2011-01-01

339

An Exploratory Study of Factors Influencing Resuscitation Skills Retention and Performance among Health Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Resuscitation and life support skills training comprises a significant proportion of continuing education programming for health professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes of certified resuscitation providers toward the retention of resuscitation skills, regular skills updating, and methods…

Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; Greene, Melanie

2012-01-01

340

Observation interventions for motor skill learning and performance: an applied model for the use of observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the 5 Ws and 1 H journalistic approach of Beveridge Mackie (2011), we reviewed the observation intervention research that targeted sport skills or daily movement tasks. Through this review, it became apparent that while there is much research that examines observation of a live or video (what), skilled model (who) for enhanced skill learning (why) in laboratory settings (where),

Diane M. Ste-Marie; Barbi Law; Amanda M. Rymal; O Jenny; Craig Hall; Penny McCullagh

2012-01-01

341

Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests the development of fundamental movement skill (FMS) is a key factor in promoting long-term physical activity. Low levels of activity among preschool children and the relationship between physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills underline the need to determine the factors associated with children's development of such skills. As parents play an important role in the

Wouter Cools; Kristine De Martelaer; Christiane Samaey; Caroline Andries

2011-01-01

342

Analysis of the resilience of team performance during a nuclear emergency response exercise.  

PubMed

The current work presents results from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of a nuclear disaster simulation. Audio-visual records were collected from an emergency room team composed of individuals from 26 different agencies as they responded to multiple scenarios in a simulated nuclear disaster. This simulation was part of a national emergency response training activity for a nuclear power plant located in a developing country. The objectives of this paper are to describe sources of resilience and brittleness in these activities, identify cues of potential improvements for future emergency simulations, and leveraging the resilience of the emergency response system in case of a real disaster. Multiple CTA techniques were used to gain a better understanding of the cognitive dimensions of the activity and to identify team coordination and crisis management patterns that emerged from the simulation exercises. PMID:24239564

Gomes, José Orlando; Borges, Marcos R S; Huber, Gilbert J; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R

2014-05-01

343

Selected Musculoskeletal and Performance Characteristics of Members of a Women's Professional Football Team: Application of a Pre-participation Examination  

PubMed Central

Background Although it is common practice to administer pre-participation examinations (PPE) of athletes prior to training, there are no clearly established formats. Elements integral to the PPE fall within the scope of physical therapist practice, and are often categorized as a form of primary prevention for musculoskeletal disorders as defined in the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe the design and implementation of a PPE for a women's professional (gridiron) football team. The results and findings from this PPE provide one of the first musculoskeletal profiles and information about selected physical characteristics from members of a female professional football team. Methods Players from the Kentucky Karma women's football team, a member of the National Women's Football League (NWFA), volunteered to participate in a PPE. Of twenty-five eligible team members, thirteen consented to participate. The PPE consisted of a health history questionnaire, a musculoskeletal screening, and a series of physical performance and agility tests. Results The players' average (± SD) age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage were 29.6 (± 5.6) yrs., 1.66 (± .05) m, 66.8 (± 12.6) kg, 24.1 (± 3.7), and 27.4 (± 6.6) %, respectively. Commonly reported injuries were similar to those reported in men's collegiate football. Conclusion This is one of the first papers to report on a model PPE for a women's professional football team. Future research is needed to establish a standard PPE, recognize common injuries, and develop prevention strategies unique to women's professional football. PMID:21509153

Nett, Beth; Velarde, Lynnuel; Pariser, David P.; Boyce, David A.

2010-01-01

344

Simulation based teamwork training for emergency department staff: does it improve clinical team performance when added to an existing didactic teamwork curriculum?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if high fidelity simulation based team training can improve clinical team performance when added to an existing didactic teamwork curriculum.Setting: Level 1 trauma center and academic emergency medicine training program.Participants: Emergency department (ED) staff including nurses, technicians, emergency medicine residents, and attending physicians.Intervention: : ED staff who had recently received didactic training in the Emergency Team Coordination

M J Shapiro; J C Morey; S D Small; V Langford; C J Kaylor; L Jagminas; S Suner; M L Salisbury; R Simon; G D Jay

2004-01-01

345

The influence of time management skill on the curvilinear relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.  

PubMed

In this research we integrate resource allocation and social exchange perspectives to build and test theory focusing on the moderating role of time management skill in the nonmonotonic relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and task performance. Results from matching survey data collected from 212 employees and 41 supervisors and from task performance metrics collected several months later indicate that the curvilinear association between OCB and task performance is significantly moderated by employees' time management skill. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23379912

Rapp, Adam A; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Tammy L

2013-07-01

346

Does past performance guarantee future skill of climate models? A new approach to an important problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an ongoing argument on "whether past performance of climate models has any guarantee of future skill" [Reifen and Toumi, 2009; Macadm et al. 2010; Weigel et al. 2010; Pennell and Reichler, 2011]. To contribute to this debate we start with our recently developed analytical approach that partitions the variance between space and time [Sun et al. 2010]. We show that the same framework can be used to answer the question by incorporating the covariance. This approach allows the multiple representations that are needed for handling a climate model ensemble. The covariance partitioning scheme can accommodate variations at various space and time scales. We show that the argument arose originally because of improper handling of intra- versus inter-annual variations. Reference: Sun, F., M. L. Roderick, G. D. Farquhar, W. H. Lim, Y. Zhang, N. Bennett, and S. H. Roxburgh (2010), Partitioning the variance between space and time, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L12704, doi:10.1029/2010GL043323.

Sun, F.; Roderick, M. L.; Farquhar, G. D.

2011-12-01

347

Adaptive heterogeneous multi-robot teams  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail the experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

Parker, L.E.

1998-11-01

348

Predicting Teacher Certification Success: The Effect of Cumulative Grade Point Average and Preprofessional Academic Skills Test Scores on Testing Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legislative mandates and reforms hold universities accountable for student certification test performance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if cumulative grade point average scores and the preprofessional academic skills test scores predict performance on elementary certification test (professional development) scores of…

Hernandez, Barbara L. Michiels; Ward, Susan; Strickland, George

2006-01-01

349

The Romance of Learning from Disagreement. The Effect of Cohesiveness and Disagreement on Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Individual Performance Within Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of disagreement and cohesiveness on knowledge sharing in teams, and on\\u000a the performance of individual team members.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design\\/methodology\\/approach  Data were obtained from a survey among 1,354 employees working in 126 teams in 17 organizations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Findings  The results show that cohesiveness has a positive effect on the exchange of advice between team members

Marianne van Woerkom; Karin Sanders

2010-01-01

350

Examination of Communication Delays on Team Performance: Utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a Test Bed for Analog Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance as well as an insight into how teams perform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.

Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.

2011-01-01

351

A Longitudinal Comparison of Leader-Follower Relationships between High and Low Performing Self-Managed Work Teams in Virtual Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a semester-long study that examined the influence of emergent leaders’ behaviors on followers’ behaviors in high- and low-performing teams over time. Our results indicated that in highperforming teams, followers engaged in greater adaptive, goal and stability behaviors solely as a function of time. Neither the virtualness nor the behaviors of leaders influenced the behaviors of followers in high

JoAnne Yong-Kwan Lim; Laku Chidambaram

2011-01-01

352

Predicting student performance in sonographic scanning using spatial ability as an ability determinent of skill acquisition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial ability refers to an individual's capacity to visualize and mentally manipulate three dimensional objects. Since sonographers manually manipulate 2D and 3D sonographic images to generate multi-viewed, logical, sequential renderings of an anatomical structure, it can be assumed that spatial ability is central to the perception and interpretation of these medical images. Using Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skilled performance as a conceptual framework, this study explored the relationship of spatial ability and learning sonographic scanning. Beginning first year sonography students from four different educational institutions were administered a spatial abilities test prior to their initial scanning lab coursework. The students' spatial test scores were compared with their scanning competency performance scores. A significant relationship between the students' spatial ability scores and their scanning performance scores was found. This result suggests that the use of spatial ability tests for admission to sonography programs may improve candidate selection, as well as assist programs in adjusting instruction and curriculum for students who demonstrate low spatial ability.

Clem, Douglas Wayne

353

How are seasonal prediction skills related to models' performance on mean state and annual cycle?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given observed initial conditions, how well do coupled atmosphere-ocean models predict precipitation climatology with 1-month lead forecast? And how do the models’ biases in climatology in turn affect prediction of seasonal anomalies? We address these questions based on analysis of 1-month lead retrospective predictions for 21 years of 1981-2001 made by 13 state-of-the-art coupled climate models and their multi-model ensemble (MME). The evaluation of the precipitation climatology is based on a newly designed metrics that consists of the annual mean, the solstitial mode and equinoctial asymmetric mode of the annual cycle, and the rainy season characteristics. We find that the 1-month lead seasonal prediction made by the 13-model ensemble has skills that are much higher than those in individual model ensemble predictions and approached to those in the ERA-40 and NCEP-2 reanalysis in terms of both the precipitation climatology and seasonal anomalies. We also demonstrate that the skill for individual coupled models in predicting seasonal precipitation anomalies is positively correlated with its performances on prediction of the annual mean and annual cycle of precipitation. In addition, the seasonal prediction skill for the tropical SST anomalies, which are the major predictability source of monsoon precipitation in the current coupled models, is closely link to the models’ ability in simulating the SST mean state. Correction of the inherent bias in the mean state is critical for improving the long-lead seasonal prediction. Most individual coupled models reproduce realistically the long-term annual mean precipitation and the first annual cycle (solstitial mode), but they have difficulty in capturing the second annual (equinoctial asymmetric) mode faithfully, especially over the Indian Ocean (IO) and Western North Pacific (WNP) where the seasonal cycle in SST has significant biases. The coupled models replicate the monsoon rain domains very well except in the East Asian subtropical monsoon and the tropical WNP summer monsoon regions. The models also capture the gross features of the seasonal march of the rainy season including onset and withdraw of the Asian-Australian monsoon system over four major sub-domains, but striking deficiencies in the coupled model predictions are observed over the South China Sea and WNP region, where considerable biases exist in both the amplitude and phase of the annual cycle and the summer precipitation amount and its interannual variability are underestimated.

Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin; Kang, I.-S.; Shukla, J.; Kumar, A.; Kug, J.-S.; Schemm, J. K. E.; Luo, J.-J.; Yamagata, T.; Fu, X.; Alves, O.; Stern, B.; Rosati, T.; Park, C.-K.

2010-08-01

354

Arm hand skilled performance in cerebral palsy: activity preferences and their movement components  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of arm-hand use is very important in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who encounter arm-hand problems. To determine validity and reliability of new instruments to assess actual performance, a set of standardized test situations including activities of daily living (ADL) is required. This study gives information with which such a set for upper extremity skill research may be fine-tuned, relative to a specific research question. Aim of this study is to a) identify upper extremity related ADL children with CP want to improve on, b) determine the 10 most preferred goals of children with CP, and c) identify movement components of all goals identified. Method The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to identify upper extremity-related ADL preferences (goals) of 53 children with CP encountering arm-hand problems (mean age 9 ± 4.5 year). Goals were ranked based on importance attributed to each goal and the number of times a goal was mentioned, resulting in a gross list with goals. Additionally, two studies were performed, i.e. study A to determine the 10 most preferred goals for 3 age groups (2.5-5 years; 6-11 years, 12-19 years), based on the total preference score, and study B to identify movement components, like reaching and grasping, of all goals identified for both the leading and the assisting arm-hand. Results Seventy-two goals were identified. The 10 most preferred goals differed with age, changing from dressing and leisure-related goals in the youngest children to goals regarding personal care and eating for children aged 6-11 years. The oldest children preferred goals regarding eating, personal care and computer use. The movement components ‘positioning’, ‘reach’, ‘grasp’, and ‘hold’ were present in most tasks. ‘Manipulating’ was more important for the leading arm-hand, whereas ‘fixating’ was more important for the assisting arm-hand. Conclusion This study gave insight into the preferences regarding ADL children with CP would like to improve on, and the movement components characterizing these activities. This information can be used to create a set of standardized test situations, which can be used to assess the validity and reliability of new measurement instruments to gauge actual arm-hand skilled performance. PMID:24646071

2014-01-01

355

The performance of a rapid response team in the management of code yellow events at a university hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the epidemiological data of the clinical instability events in patients attended to by the rapid response team and to identify prognostic factors. Methods This was a longitudinal study, performed from January to July 2010, with an adult inpatient population in a hospital environment. The data collected regarding the code yellow service included the criteria of the clinical instability, the drug and non-drug therapies administered and the activities and procedures performed. The outcomes evaluated were the need for intensive care unit admission and the hospital mortality rates. A level of p=0.05 was considered to be significant. Results A total of 150 code yellow events that occurred in 104 patients were evaluated. The most common causes were related to acute respiratory insufficiency with hypoxia or a change in the respiratory rate and a concern of the team about the patient's clinical condition. It was necessary to request a transfer to the intensive care unit in 80 of the 150 cases (53.3%). It was necessary to perform 42 procedures. The most frequent procedures were orotracheal intubation and the insertion of a central venous catheter. The patients who were in critical condition and had to wait for an intensive care unit bed had a higher risk of death compared to the other patients (hazard ratio: 3.12; 95% CI: 1.80-5.40; p<0.001). Conclusions There are patients in critical condition that require expert intensive care in the regular ward unit hospital beds. The events that most frequently led to the code yellow activation were related to hemodynamic and respiratory support. The interventions performed indicate the need for a physician on the team. The situation of pent-up demand is associated with a higher mortality rate. PMID:23917974

Taguti, Priscila da Silva; Dotti, Adriana Zanoni; de Araujo, Karinne Peres; de Pariz, Paula Silva; Dias, Gustavo Ferreira; Kauss, Ivanil Aparecida Moro; Grion, Cintia Magalhaes Carvalho; Cardoso, Lucienne Tibery Queiroz

2013-01-01

356

Ability-based pairing strategies in the team-based training of a complex skill: Does the intelligence of your training partner matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligence researchers traditionally focus their attention on the individual level and overlook the role of intelligence at the interindividual level. This research investigated the interplay of the effects of intelligence at the individual and interindividual levels by manipulating the intelligence-based composition of dyadic training teams. Using a sample of 176 young adult males and a complex computer-based criterion task, homogeneous

Eric Anthony Day; Winfred Arthur; Suzanne T. Bell; Bryan D. Edwards; Winston Bennett; Jorge L. Mendoza; Travis C. Tubré

2005-01-01

357

Ability-Based Pairing Strategies in the Team-Based Training of a Complex Skill: Does the Intelligence of Your Training Partner Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intelligence researchers traditionally focus their attention on the individual level and overlook the role of intelligence at the interindividual level. This research investigated the interplay of the effects of intelligence at the individual and interindividual levels by manipulating the intelligence-based composition of dyadic training teams.…

Day, Eric Anthony; Arthur, Winfred Jr.; Bell, Suzanne T.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Bennett, Winston Jr.; Mendoza, Jorge L.; Tubre, Travis C.

2005-01-01

358

The Effects of Team Training on Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis was conducted to determine relationships between team training and team effectiveness. Results from the 21 studies provided evidence that training is positively related to team effectiveness and effectiveness in five outcome categories: affective, cognitive, subjective task-based skill, objective task-based skill, and teamwork…

Delise, Lisa A.; Gorman, C. Allen; Brooks, Abby M.; Rentsch, Joan R.; Steele-Johnson, Debra

2010-01-01

359

National performance review: Internal Team report to the Secretary. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The team received over 300 suggestions for changes in legislation, procedures, and directives that govern the operations of DOE. The suggestions were distilled to 41 issues. DOE employees want to be empowered in areas of decision-making and responsibility, believe that contracting can be done better, are eager to learn quality management, and believe that communications between HQ and field can be improved. A number of internal barriers to efficient operation were identified, that fell away; this can be continued through the Quality Council. Recommendations for action are listed. It is recommended that each of the issues that have been referred for action to a task force or focus group be followed by the Quality Council to successful resolution.

Not Available

1993-09-01

360

Evaluating capacity to live independently and safely in the community: Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills  

PubMed Central

To determine clients’ capacity for community living, occupational therapists must use measures that capture the person–task–environment transaction and compare clients’ task performance to a performance standard. The Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills, a performance-based, criterion-referenced, observational tool, fulfills this purpose. In this practice analysis, using data from this tool from multiple clinical studies (N = 941), the authors describe tasks that clients from various diagnostic populations could and could not perform independently and safely. For clinicians, the Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills can be used to identify which daily tasks are compromised and the point of task breakdown, as well as to provide guidance about potential interventions.

Chisholm, Denise; Toto, Pamela; Raina, Ketki; Holm, Margo; Rogers, Joan

2014-01-01

361

In Demand: Adult Skills in the 21st Century. A Performance and Innovation Unit Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of a two-part report that was developed as part of a project to develop a national workforce development (WfD) system to ensure that people in the United Kingdom develop the basic, intermediate, and other skills needed in the 21st century. The first report sets out proposals for a more demand-led system that places skill

2001

362

Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematical Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills

Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

2014-01-01

363

Critical Thinking Skills among Elementary School Students: Comparing Identified Gifted and General Education Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education reform efforts, including the current adoption of Common Core State Standards, have increased attention to teaching critical thinking skills to all students. This study investigated the critical thinking skills of fourth-grade students from a school district in Texas, including 45 identified gifted students and 163 general education…

Kettler, Todd

2014-01-01

364

Using Model-Tracing to Conduct Performance Assessment of Students' Inquiry Skills within a Microworld  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National frameworks for science emphasize inquiry skills (NRC, 1996), however, in typical classroom practice, science learning often focuses on rote learning in part because science process skills are difficult to assess (Fadel, Honey, & Pasnick, 2007) and rote knowledge is prioritized on high-stakes tests. Short answer assessments of inquiry…

Gobert, Janice D.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

2011-01-01

365

A Comparison of Temperament and Social Skills in Predicting Academic Performance in First Graders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between temperament, social skills, academic competence, and reading and math achievement in a group of rural first grade children. At the beginning of first grade, parents and teachers rated 104 children with the Temperament Assessment Battery and the Social Skills Rating System. At the end of first grade, the children were administered the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational

Ronald K. Bramlett; Paula Scott; R. Kevin Rowell

2000-01-01

366

Comparing Applied Literacy and Basic Skills Tests as Measures of Adult Literacy Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Tests of Adult Basic Education (TABE) is a widely used multiple-choice test battery of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. The Test of Applied Literacy Skills (TALS) is an applied literacy battery consisting of document, prose, and quantitative literacy tests. The central issue in this study was the relationship of the TABE and…

Sabatini, John P.; And Others

367

See It, Be It, Write It: Using Performing Arts to Improve Writing Skills and Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improve students' writing skills and boost their assessment scores while adding arts education, creativity, and fun to your writing curriculum. With this vibrant resource, improving writing skills goes hand-in-hand with improving test scores. Students learn how to use acting and visualization as prewriting activities to help them connect writing…

Blecher-Sass, Hope Sara; Moffitt, Maryellen

2010-01-01

368

Assessing Early Literacy and Numeracy Skills among Indigenous Children with the "Performance Indicators in Primary Schools" Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the "Performance Indicators in Primary Schools" (PIPS) test as a reliable and cohesive instrument to assess early literacy and numeracy skills among Indigenous children. The process includes the examination of the reliability of the PIPS test using the Cronbach Alpha and the Split-half method with Pearson's r correlation…

Godfrey, John R.; Galloway, Ann

2004-01-01

369

Cognitive functioning, social skills, and vocational performance for secondary students with learning disabilities in regular education vocational classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although cognitive functioning levels have been widely used to make placement decisions for students with learning disabilities, the current study illustrates that for many students these scores may be of limited value. Traditional predictors of performance in a regular education environment (e.g., verbal and nonverbal cognitive functioning) were used along with social skills variables (Cooperation, Assertion, Self-Control) to evaluate the

Patricia Mary Carroll

2001-01-01

370

Correlates of Study Skills and Academic Performance of Secretarial Studies Student Teachers of Rivers State University of Science and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine correlates of study skills and academic performance of high and low achievers among secretarial studies student teachers at a Nigerian university. Results with 21 high and 21 low achievers demonstrate personality and study habits differences among the groups. (SLD)

Ojoko, Sydney; Koko, Maureen

1994-01-01

371

Perception of Teachers' Knowledge, Attitude and Teaching Skills as Predictor of Academic Performance in Nigerian Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the relationship/effect of students' perception of teachers' knowledge of subject matter, attitude to work and teaching skills on students' academic performance. The population consisted of senior secondary three (SS.III) students in the South West Nigeria senior secondary schools. The study sample consisted of 1600…

Adediwura, A. A.; Tayo, Bada

2007-01-01

372

Apprentices' and Trainees' English Language and Literacy Skills in Workplace Learning and Performance: Employer and Employee Opinion. Australian Apprenticeships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated ways employers and their apprentices and trainees perceive how these employees' English language and literacy (ELL) skills affect their learning and performance in the workplace in the current context of New Apprenticeships. The research design and methodology involved sending an opinion survey to a stratified random sample of…

O'Neill, Shirley; Gish, Annabelle

373

Impact of Managerial Skills Learnt through MA Educational Planning Management Programme of AIOU on the Performance of Institutional Heads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Management provides formal coordination in an organization for achieving pre-determined goals. The educational manager particulary performs his duties by using different planning and management techniques. These techniques are equally important for the manager of other sectors. The present study was focused on the impact of managerial skills

Chuadhry, Muhammad Asif; Shah, Syed Manzoor Hussain

2012-01-01

374

Confidence versus Performance as an Indicator of the Presence of Alternative Conceptions and Inadequate Problem-Solving Skills in Mechanics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the use of performance-confidence relationships to signal the presence of alternative conceptions and inadequate problem-solving skills in mechanics. A group of 33 students entering physics at a South African university participated in the project. The test instrument consisted of 20 items derived from existing standardised…

Potgieter, Marietjie; Malatje, Esther; Gaigher, Estelle; Venter, Elsie

2010-01-01

375

The Descriptive Tests of Mathematics Skills: A Follow-Up of Performance of Older Upper Division Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two tests of the Descriptive Tests of Mathematics Skills (DTMS) were employed for screening and placement of business majors. For calculus and statistics courses, the average performance level of the students who had passed the DTMS was significantly higher than that for students who had successfully remediated their identified weakness.…

Suddick, David E.; Collins, Burton A.

1982-01-01

376

The Effects of Age on the Ability to Read and Remember Textual Material Describing How to Perform Skilled Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to determine factors that facilitate or inhibit the ability of young and old adults to read and remember information about how to perform skilled procedures. Few age differences were found in the time taken to read texts that provided an explicit organizationalframework to interpret the material. Further, older adults memory for the central actions of the

Mark Byrd

1993-01-01

377

Emotion and automaticity: Impact of positive and negative emotions on novice and experienced performance of a sensorimotor skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention was directed towards negative, neutral, and positive word stimuli to explore the effect of emotions on sensorimotor skill performance. Forty novice and 40 experienced basketballers simultaneously completed a free-throw shooting task and a secondary word semantics task. A manipulation check confirmed that the secondary task influenced participants' feelings. Both groups responded faster to neutral and positive words than negative

Robyn Vast; Robyn Young; Patrick R. Thomas

2011-01-01

378

Correlates of Student Performance in the Science Olympiad: The Test of Integrated Process Skills and Other Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Test of Integrated Process Skills (TIPS) was administered to 667 students in grades 9-12 who were registering to participate in a regional science Olympiad on a southern university campus in February 1988. Each student's score on the test was correlated with subsequent performance in one or more of the 11 Olympiad events. Of the 667 students…

Baird, William E.; And Others

379

Which Specific Skills Developing during Preschool Years Predict the Reading Performance in the First and Second Grade of Primary School?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine if specific skills that are developed during preschool years could predict the reading performance in the first and second grade of primary school. Two hundred and eighty-seven children participated in this longitudinal study. At the kindergarten level, phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatised naming,…

Papadimitriou, Artemis M.; Vlachos, Filippos M.

2014-01-01

380

Teaming with Opportunity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the merits of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)/Toshiba ExploraVision competition, one of the world's largest international science competitions. Gives teams of three to four students the opportunity to use imagination and other skills to create a vision of technology in the future. (DDR)

Stone, David M.

1998-01-01

381

Aging Q3: an initiative to improve internal medicine residents' geriatrics knowledge, skills, and clinical performance.  

PubMed

A growing number of older adults coupled with a limited number of physicians trained in geriatrics presents a major challenge to ensuring quality medical care for this population. Innovations to incorporate geriatrics education into internal medicine residency programs are needed. To meet this need, in 2009, faculty at the Medical University of South Carolina developed Aging Q(3)-Quality Education, Quality Care, and Quality of Life. This multicomponent initiative recognizes the need for improved geriatrics educational tools and faculty development as well as systems changes to improve the knowledge and clinical performance of residents. To achieve these goals, faculty employ multiple intervention strategies, including lectures, rounds, academic detailing, visual cues, and electronic medical record prompts and decision support. The authors present examples from specific projects, based on care areas including vision screening, fall prevention, and caring for patients with dementia, all of which are based on the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders quality indicators. The authors describe the principles driving the design, implementation, and evaluation of the Aging Q(3) program. They present data from multiple sources that illustrate the effectiveness of the interventions to meet the knowledge, skill level, and behavior goals. The authors also address major challenges, including the maintenance of the teaching and modeling interventions over time within the context of demanding primary care and inpatient settings. This organized, evidence-based approach to quality improvement in resident education, as well as faculty leadership development, holds promise for successfully incorporating geriatrics education into internal medicine residencies. PMID:22450181

Moran, William P; Zapka, Jane; Iverson, Patty J; Zhao, Yumin; Wiley, M Kathleen; Pride, Pamela; Davis, Kimberly S

2012-05-01

382

Preliminary evaluation of SensHand V1 in assessing motor skills performance in Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

Nowadays, the increasing old population 65+ as well as the pace imposed by work activities lead to a high number of people that have particular injuries for limbs. In addition to persistent or temporary disabilities related to accidental injuries we must take into account that part of the population suffers from motor deficits of the hands due to stroke or diseases of various clinical nature. The most recurrent technological solutions to measure the rehabilitation or skill motor performance of the hand are glove-based devices, able to faithfully capture the movements of the hand and fingers. This paper presents a system for hand motion analysis based on 9-axis complete inertial modules and dedicated microcontroller which are fixed on fingers and forearm. The technological solution presented is able to track the patients' hand motions in real-time and then to send data through wireless communication reducing the clutter and the disadvantages of a glove equipped with sensors through a different technological structure. The device proposed has been tested in the study of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24187283

Cavallo, Filippo; Esposito, Dario; Rovini, Erika; Aquilano, Michela; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Dario, Paolo; Maremmani, Carlo; Bongioanni, Paolo

2013-06-01

383

Teaching high-performance skills using above-real-time training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The above real-time training (ARTT) concept is an approach to teaching high-performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. It represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. Two related experiments are discussed. In the first, 25 naive male subjects performed three tank gunnery tasks on a simulator under varying levels of time acceleration (i.e., 1.0x, 1.6x, 2.0x, sequential, and mixed). They were then transferred to a standard (1.0x) condition for testing. Every accelerated condition or combination of conditions produced better training and transfer than the standard condition. Most effective was the presentation of trials at 1.0x, 1.6x, and 2.0x in a random order during training. Overall, the best ARTT group scored about 50 percent higher and trained in 25 percent less time compared to the real-time control group. In the second experiment, 24 mission-capable F-16 pilots performed three tasks on a part-task F-16A flight simulator under varying levels of time compression (i.e., 1.0x, 1.5x, 2.0x, and random). All subjects were then tested in a real-time environment. The emergency procedure (EP) task results showed increased accuracy for the ARTT groups. In testing (transfer), the ARTT groups not only performed the EP more accurately, but dealt with a simultaneous enemy significantly better than a real-time control group. Although the findings on an air combat maneuvering task and stern conversion task were mixed, most measures indicated that the ARTT groups performed better and faster than a real-time control group. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

1993-01-01

384

Performance of Physical Examination Skills in Medical Students during Diagnostic Medicine Course in a University Hospital of Northwest China  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of physical examination (PE) skills during our diagnostic medicine course and analyze the characteristics of the data collected to provide information for practical guidance to improve the quality of teaching. Seventy-two fourth-year medical students were enrolled in the study. All received an assessment of PE skills after receiving a 17-week formal training course and systematic teaching. Their performance was evaluated and recorded in detail using a checklist, which included 5 aspects of PE skills: examination techniques, communication and care skills, content items, appropriateness of examination sequence, and time taken. Error frequency and type were designated as the assessment parameters in the survey. The results showed that the distribution and the percentage in examination errors between male and female students and among the different body parts examined were significantly different (p<0.001). The average error frequency per student in females (0.875) was lower than in males (1.375) although the difference was not statistically significant (p?=?0.167). The average error frequency per student in cardiac (1.267) and pulmonary (1.389) examinations was higher than in abdominal (0.867) and head, neck and nervous system examinations (0.917). Female students had a lower average error frequency than males in cardiac examinations (p?=?0.041). Additionally, error in examination techniques was the highest type of error among the 5 aspects of PE skills irrespective of participant gender and assessment content (p<0.001). These data suggest that PE skills in cardiac and pulmonary examinations and examination techniques may be included in the main focus of improving the teaching of diagnostics in these medical students. PMID:25329685

Li, Yan; Li, Na; Han, Qunying; He, Shuixiang; Bae, Ricard S.; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Shi, Bingyin

2014-01-01

385

Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation.  

PubMed

Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits play a role in the modulation of the serial correlations of timing fluctuations exhibited in skilled musical performance. PMID:25309487

Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A

2014-01-01

386

Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits play a role in the modulation of the serial correlations of timing fluctuations exhibited in skilled musical performance.

Herrojo Ruiz, Maria; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmuller, Eckart; Kuhn, Andrea A.

2014-01-01

387

Self-directed work teams in marketing organizations.  

PubMed

As marketing organizations move toward the 21st century they are becoming concerned with the development of self-directed work teams. Marketing organizations that have informed, motivated, skilled, trained, and committed employees will out perform organizations which operate in the traditional manner. Many self-directed work teams have grown out of the quality circles. The goal of these teams is to increase employee involvement in decisions of the organization to the greatest extent that employees' knowledge and training allow. In fact, today's marketing organizations need to be able to respond quickly to change driven by internal and external customers. The winning organizations will be able to produce more product with better quality in less time by staying lean, flexible, and implementing self-directed work teams. Marketing organizations that can commit to self-directed work teams will benefit by having customer and employee satisfaction, money saved, and excessive bureaucracy eliminated. PMID:10623198

Gilbertson, T F

1999-01-01

388

Are recent graduates enough prepared to perform obstetric skills in their rural and compulsory year? A study from Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the possible mismatch of obstetrical skills between the training offered in Ecuadorian medical schools and the tasks required for compulsory rural service. Setting Primary care, rural health centres in Southern Ecuador. Participants A total of 92 recent graduated medical doctors during their compulsory rural year. Primary and secondary outcomes measures A web-based survey was developed with 21 obstetrical skills. The questionnaire was sent to all rural doctors who work in Loja province, Southern Ecuador, at the Ministry of Health (n=92). We measured two categories ‘importance of skills in rural practice’ with a five-point Likert-type scale (1= strongly disagree; 5= strongly agree); and ‘clerkship experience’ using a nominal scale divided in five levels: level 1 (not seen, not performed) to level 5 (performed 10 times or more). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to observe associations. Results A negative correlation was found in the skills: ‘episiotomy and repair’, ‘umbilical vein catheterisation’, ‘speculum examination’, ‘evaluation of cervical dilation during active labour’, ‘neonatal resuscitation’ and ‘vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery’. For instance ‘Episiotomy and repair’ is important (strongly agree and agree) to 100% of respondents, but in practice, only 38.9% of rural doctors performed the task three times and 8.3% only once during the internship, similar pattern is seen in the others. Conclusions In this study we have noted the gap between the medical needs of populations in rural areas and training provided during the clerkship experiences of physicians during their rural service year. It is imperative to ensure that rural doctors are appropriately trained and skilled in the performance of routine obstetrical duties. This will help to decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality in rural Ecuador. PMID:25082424

Sanchez del Hierro, Galo; Remmen, Roy; Verhoeven, Veronique; Van Royen, Paul; Hendrickx, Kristin

2014-01-01

389

Using Artificial Team Members for Military Team Training in Virtual Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Developing good team skills usually involves exercises with all team members playing their role. This approach is costly and has organizational and educational drawbacks. For the Netherlands army, we developed a more efficient and flexible approach by set...

A. Heuvelink, J. Diggelen, K. Bosch, T. Muller

2010-01-01

390

Using a Dual Role Assignment to Improve Group Dynamics and Performance: The Effects of Facilitating Social Capital in Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a project that simulates the interplay between management and development project teams in a business environment. Each student team was assigned a management role supervising one project and a development role implementing another project. Results indicate that teams that communicate regularly and interact socially outside…

Aquino, Karl; Serva, Mark A.

2005-01-01

391

Relationship between leadership behaviors and performance : The moderating role of a work team's level of age, gender, and cultural heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In today's organizations, the heterogeneity of work teams is increasing. For example, members of work teams have different ages, genders, and\\/or cultural backgrounds. As a consequence, team leaders have to face the challenge of taking into account the various needs, values, and motives of their followers. However, there has been very little empirical research to test whether the

Jens Rowold

2011-01-01

392

Team-Based Learning in Pharmacy Education  

PubMed Central

Instructors wanting to engage students in the classroom seek methods to augment the delivery of factual information and help students move from being passive recipients to active participants in their own learning. One such method that has gained interest is team-based learning. This method encourages students to be prepared before class and has students work in teams while in the classroom. Key benefits to this pedagogy are student engagement, improved communication skills, and enhanced critical-thinking abilities. In most cases, student satisfaction and academic performance are also noted. This paper reviews the fundamentals of team-based learning in pharmacy education and its implementation in the classroom. Literature reports from medical, nursing, and pharmacy programs are also discussed. PMID:23716738

Ofstad, William

2013-01-01

393

What makes maternity teams effective and safe? Lessons from a series of research on teamwork, leadership and team training.  

PubMed

We describe lessons for safety from a synthesis of seven studies of teamwork, leadership and team training across a healthcare region. Two studies identified successes and challenges in a unit with embedded team training: a staff survey demonstrated a positive culture but a perceived need for greater senior presence; training improved actual emergency care, but wide variation in team performance remained. Analysis of multicenter simulation records showed that variation in patient safety and team efficiency correlated with their teamwork but not individual knowledge, skills or attitudes. Safe teams tended to declare the emergency earlier, hand over in a more structured way, and use closed-loop communication. Focused and directed communication was also associated with better patient-actor perception of care. Focus groups corroborated these findings, proposed that the capability and experience of the leader is more important than seniority, and identified teamwork and leadership issues that require further research. PMID:23980798

Siassakos, Dimitrios; Fox, Robert; Bristowe, Katherine; Angouri, Jo; Hambly, Helen; Robson, Lauren; Draycott, Timothy J

2013-11-01

394

Repeated-sprint performance in team sport players: associations with measures of aerobic fitness, metabolic control and locomotor function.  

PubMed

To examine the respective associations between indices of aerobic fitness, metabolic control and locomotor function and repeated sprint-performance, 61 team sport players performed: a repeated-sprint sequence (RSS), an incremental test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2max) and peak incremental test speed (Inc. test speed), and 2-4 submaximal runs to determine the time constant of the primary phase of V?O2 kinetics at exercise onset (V?O2?on) and cessation (V?O2?off). The best (RSbest) sprint times and mean sprint times (RSmean) and the percent sprint decrement (%Dec) were calculated. RSmean was almost perfectly correlated with RSbest (r=0.92;90%CL(0.88;0.95)), largely correlated with Inc. test speed (r=-0.71;90%CL(-?0.79;?-?0.59)) and moderately correlated with V?O2max (r=?-?0.58;90%CL(-?0.70;?-?0.43)); the correlations with V?O2?on or V?O2?off were unclear. For%Dec, the correlations with Inc. test speed, V?O2max and V?O2?on were moderate (r=-?0.41;90%CL(-?0.56;?-?0.23)), small (r=-?0.26;90%CL(-?0.43;?-?0.06)) and small (r=0.28;90%CL(0.09;0.46)), respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that the only significant predictors of RSmean were RSbest and Inc. test speed (r 2=0.88). Inc. test speed and RSbest were also the only significant predictors of %Dec (r 2=0.26). Present results obtained in a large sample of team sport players highlight that locomotor factors (i.?e., RSbest and Inc. test speed) show much larger associations with repeated-sprint performance than V?O2max and V?O2 kinetics. PMID:22290323

Buchheit, M

2012-03-01

395

Politics Perceptions as Moderator of the Political Skill-Job Performance Relationship: A Two-Study, Cross-National, Constructive Replication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed a two-study, cross-national, constructive replication to examine the role of organizational politics perceptions as a contextual moderator of the political skill-job performance relationship. Specifically, we hypothesized that high levels of political skill would demonstrate its strongest positive effects on job performance when…

Kapoutsis, Ilias; Papalexandris, Alexandros; Nikolopoulos, Andreas; Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Ferris, Gerald R.

2011-01-01

396

Performance and injury incidence rate in home and away games in Iran Premier League teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In soccer, home advantage is a very important factor in determining the outcome of a game. The main purpose of this study was to compare the performance and injury incidence rate in home and away games in Iran Premier League. The information about the number of wins and losses, received and scored goals, yellow and red cards in home and

Mostafa Zarei; Nader Rahnama; Effat Bambaeichi

2010-01-01

397

An Investigation of the Effect of After-Action Reviews on Teams' Performance-Efficacy Relationships  

E-print Network

.................................................................................................... 35 Measures ........................................................................................................ 36 Performance task?Steel Beasts Pro PE .............................................. 36 Steel Beasts Pro PE missions... of the roles within and between tanks ...................................... 38 4 Mission map for test missions and the second practice mission ................ 41 5 Mission map for first practice mission...

Schurig, Ira

2012-07-16

398

Safety in the operating theatre--part 1: interpersonal relationships and team performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors examine the application of interpersonal human factors training on operating room (OR) personnel. Mortality studies of OR deaths and critical incident studies of anesthesia are examined to determine the role of human error in OR incidents. Theoretical models of system vulnerability to accidents are presented with emphasis on a systems approach to OR performance. Input, process, and outcome factors are discussed in detail.

Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

1995-01-01

399

Team Building: Helping Your Staff Learn to Work Together.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After defining team building, describes Patrick Henry Community College's (PHCC's) Team Development program, which, in three sessions, presents a rationale for team development, identifies the characteristics of effective teams, and develops team building skills. Reviews followup activities and the results of PHCC's efforts to gain support for…

Reece, Barry L.; Cooper, John F.

1980-01-01

400

Among health care professionals effective communication is vital to achieve the best patient outcomes possible. Improving communication and other teamwork skills will result in improved  

E-print Network

outcomes possible. Improving communication and other teamwork skills will result in improved performance Among health care professionals effective communication is vital to achieve the best patient. During emergencies and critical situations, communication among all health care team members

401

Preseason variations in aerobic fitness and performance in elite-standard soccer players: a team study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of individual training loads considered as permanent in selected heart-rate (HR) zones on aerobic fitness and performance in elite professional soccer players. Eighteen professional soccer players were observed during the prechampionship training period (8 weeks). Speeds and HR at 2 and 4 mmol · L blood-lactate concentrations (S2, S4, respectively), VO2max, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 performance (Yo-Yo IR1) were assessed pretraining and posttraining. Training intensities were categorized using 3 HR zones: low intensity (


HR 4 mmol · L). Training-session HRs (n = 900) showed a polarized distribution with 73.6 ± 3.7 (2,945 ± 148 minutes), 19.1 ± 3.5 (763 ± 141 minutes), and 7.3 ± 2.9% (292 ± 116 minutes) of the total training time spent at low, moderate, and high intensities, respectively (p < 0.001). The S2 and S4 significantly improved posttraining (+10 and 7%, respectively, p < 0.001). The VO2max and Yo-Yo IR1 values were 6 and 19.5% higher posttraining, respectively (p < 0.01). Training performed at high intensity was significantly related to relative improvement in S2 (r = 0.78, p = 0.002), S4 (r = 0.60, p = 0.03), VO2max (r = 0.65, p = 0.02), and Yo-Yo IR1 (r = 0.66, p = 0.01). The results of this study provided further evidence for HR longitudinal validity and effectiveness of the high-intensity training (i.e., >90% HRmax) in men's professional soccer. In this regard, the time spent at high intensity should be in the range of 7-8% of the total training time during preseason. PMID:23442266

Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chaouachi, Anis; Manzi, Vincenzo

2013-11-01

402

The Influence of Individual and Team Cognitive Ability on Operators' Task and Safety Performance: A Multilevel Field Study in Nuclear Power Plants  

PubMed Central

While much research has investigated the predictors of operators’ performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA) at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators’ GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a “big-fish-little-pond” effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers’ extra-role behaviors (safety participation) compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance). The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed. PMID:24391964

Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yongjuan; Wu, Changxu

2013-01-01

403

The Nut Island effect. When good teams go wrong.  

PubMed

The team that operated the Nut Island sewage treatment plant in Quincy, Massachusetts, was every manager's dream. Members of the group performed difficult, dangerous work without complaint. They needed little supervision. They improvised their way around operational difficulties and budgetary constraints. They were dedicated to the organization's mission. But their hard work led to catastrophic failure. How could such a good team go so wrong? In this article, the author tells the story of the Nut Island plant and identifies a common, yet destructive organizational dynamic that can strike any business. The Nut Island effect begins with a deeply committed team that is isolated from a company's mainstream activities. Pitted against this team is its senior management. Preoccupied with high-visibility problems, management assigns the team a vital but behind-the-scenes task. Allowed considerable autonomy, team members become adept at managing themselves. Management takes the team's self-sufficiency for granted and ignores team members when they ask for help. When trouble strikes and management is unresponsive, team members feel betrayed and develop an us-against-the-world mentality. They stay out of management's line of sight, hiding problems. The team begins to make up its own rules, which mask grave problems in its operations. Management, disinclined in the first place to focus on the team's work, is easily misled by team members' skillful disguising of its performance deficiencies. The resulting stalemate typically can be broken only by an external event. The Nut Island story serves as a warning to managers who concentrate their efforts on their organization's most visible shortcomings: sometimes the most debilitating problems are the ones we can't see. PMID:11246924

Levy, P F

2001-03-01

404

Differences in biological maturation, anthropometry and physical performance between playing positions in youth team handball.  

PubMed

It was the goal of this cross-sectional study to examine differences in maturity, anthropometry and physical performance between youth handball players across different playing positions (i.e. goalkeeper, back, pivot and wing). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), accounting for biological maturation, was used to assess positional differences in 472 male youth handball players from three age groups: U14, U15 and U16. Differences in age at peak height velocity were found in all age groups. Backs were significantly more mature than wings in U14 and U15 and than wings and pivots in U16. Furthermore, backs are overall taller, have a bigger arm span and perform best on tests for strength, agility and speed, especially in the U15 age group. Therefore, it can be concluded that youth players with the most advanced maturation status and the most favourable anthropometry and physical fitness scores, are consistently positioned in the back position. Players with a less advanced maturity status and an overall smaller stature are placed on the wing or pivot positions. In conclusion, it seems that anthropometrical and maturational characteristics are used by coaches to directly and/or indirectly select players for specific field positions. This strategy is risky since anthropometry and maturity status change over the years. PMID:23656188

Matthys, Stijn P J; Fransen, Job; Vaeyens, Roel; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat

2013-01-01

405

Upper Extremity Performance and Self-Care Skill Changes in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy following Selective Posterior Rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in upper extremity and self-care performance following selective posterior rhizotomy (SPR) are reported frequently, but rarely quantified. In this study, 36 children with spastic cerebral palsy were assessed preoperatively and 1 year following SPR using the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST). Twenty-six children were assessed at similar intervals using the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) as

Patricia Loewen; Paul Steinbok; Liisa Holsti; Margot MacKay

1998-01-01

406

Cognitive Skills and Literacy Performance of Chinese Adolescents with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with dyslexia and to assess how these abilities were associated with Chinese word reading, word dictation, and reading comprehension. The cognitive skills of interest were morphological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid…

Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

2011-01-01

407

The Effect of Cognitive Imagery Training on Spelling Performance with Students with Spelling Skills Deficits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spelling skills are essential for school success (Fulk & Stormont-Spurgin, 1995; Matz, 1994). Teachers need an efficient method for teaching spelling strategies to students with learning disabilities. Although research in spelling has attempted to improve spelling instruction for teachers in classrooms (Henderson, 1985; Graham & Miller, 1979;…

Webber, Laura A.

2009-01-01

408

Increasing Skill Performances of Problem Solving in Students with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem-solving instruction facilitates children in becoming successful real-world problem solvers. Research that incorporates problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. However, this population of students needs increased opportunities to learn the skills of problem solving. Using a…

Cote, Debra; Pierce, Tom; Higgins, Kyle; Miller, Susan; Tandy, Richard; Sparks, Shannon

2010-01-01

409

Visuospatial Working Memory in Adolescents with Poor Performance in Mathematics: Variation Depending on Reading Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first purpose of this study was to investigate whether the visuospatial working memory (VSWM) skills of 15-16-year-old pupils with difficulties in mathematics differ from those of their normally achieving peers. The goal was to broaden the view of the complex system of VSWM. A set of passive and active VSWM tasks was used. The study's second…

Kyttala, Minna

2008-01-01

410

Basic Skills for Job Performance: Private Industry Councils and Workplace Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide private industry councils (PICs) with information on developing workplace literacy or job-related basic skills programs. Chapter 1 contains an overview of the nation's literacy problem and how it affects business and is designed to provide PIC members with background information to use when discussing the problem…

National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

411

Sex Differences in the Relation between Math Performance, Spatial Skills, and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex differences have been previously found in cognitive and affective predictors of math achievement, including spatial skills and math attitudes. It is important to determine whether there are sex differences not only in the predictors themselves, but also in the nature of their relation to math achievement. The present paper examined spatial…

Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina

2011-01-01

412

The Laborers-AGC Construction Skills Training Program. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterned after a previously successful Laborers-Associated General Contractors model named the Construction Skills Training Program, a demonstration project was implemented at five regional training centers. At least eight courses were created, combined, or revised. Four full-length audiovisual support pieces were completed. Three courses were…

Tippie, John L.; Rice, Eric

413

Physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazilian Olympic Wushu (kung-fu) team.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine physiological, nutritional, and performance profiles of elite Olympic Wushu (kung-fu) athletes. Ten men and four women elite athletes took part in the study. They completed the following tests: body composition, nutritional assessment, upper-body Wingate Test, vertical jump, lumbar isometric strength, and flexibility. Blood lactate was determined at rest and after the Wingate Test. Blood lactate was also determined during a training session (combat and Taolu training). We found low body fat (men: 9.5 +/- 6.3%; women: 18.0 +/- 4.8%), high flexibility (sit-and-reach-men: 45.5 +/- 6.1 cm; women: 44.0 +/- 6.3 cm), high leg power (vertical jump-men: 37.7 +/- 8.4 cm; women: 32.3 +/- 1.1 cm), high lumbar isometric strength (men: 159 +/- 13 cm; women: 94 +/- 6 cm), moderate arm mean and peak power (Wingate Test-men: 4.1 +/- 0.4 and 5.8 +/- 0.5 Wxkg, respectively; women: 2.5 +/- 0.3 and 3.4 +/- 0.3 W.kg, respectively), and elevated blood lactate after the Wingate Test (men: 10.8 +/- 2.0 mmolxL; women: 10.2 +/- 2.0 mmolxL) and during training (combat: 12.0 +/- 1.8 mmolxL; Taolu: 7.7 +/- 3.3 mmolxL). Men athletes consume a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet, whereas women consume a moderate, high-carbohydrate diet. Energy consumption was markedly variable. In conclusion, Olympic Wushu seems to be a highly anaerobic-dependent combat sport. Low body fat, high flexibility, leg anaerobic power, isometric strength, and moderately high arm anaerobic power seem to be important for successful competitive performance. PMID:19077742

Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Gualano, Bruno; Franchini, Emerson; Batista, Rafael Novaes; Polacow, Viviane Ozores; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

2009-01-01

414

Team Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how a team cleaning approach can be cost-effective and efficient means of school maintenance. Assigning staffing responsibilities and work schedules are addressed and the advantages of using a team system are explained. (GR)

Frank, David

1999-01-01

415

Team Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Employee involvement, teams, and employee empowerment enable people to make decisions about their work. This employee involvement, teambuilding approach, and employee empowerment increases loyalty and fosters ownership. These links tell you how to do team building and effectively involve people.

About.com (About.com)

2011-08-18

416

An Empirical Investigation of How Trust, Cohesion, and Performance Vary in Virtual and Face-to-Face Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

As technology improves, more teams are meeting virtually. In this study, we analyze how individual levels of trust, cohesion, output, outcome satisfaction, and process satisfaction differ in virtual and face-to-face teams completing different tasks. A controlled experiment in which business students were randomly assigned to either a virtual or face-to-face team, completing either an intellective or a preference task, was

Kimberly A. Furumo; John Michael Pearson

2006-01-01

417

Team Performance and Error Management in Chinese and American Simulated Flight Crews: The Role of Cultural and Individual Differences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve teamwork. This is followed by discussion of the potential influence of national culture on teamwork and crew resource management. We then examine the influence of other individual and team differences, such as personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload. We provide a heuristic model that depicts the influence of national culture and individual differences on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the model for future research.

Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.

2005-01-01

418

Empowering interprofessional teams to perform effective handoffs through online hybrid simulation education.  

PubMed

In recent years, the health care field has recognized the importance of handoff communications, as these crucial events may have serious implications for patient safety if not completed properly. To perform these handoffs correctly, patient information and responsibility must be exchanged accurately and thoroughly between health care providers despite any distractions, interruptions, and/or cultural issues that may exist. To overcome any such obstacles, institutions have experimented with various approaches over the years to determine the best method to ensure the highest probability of effective exchanges. This article describes major barriers that exist to efficient handoff communications and proposes an online, hybrid simulation course as a primary solution to many of the interpersonal obstacles. This highly accessible course uses the dynamic approach of teaching handoff communication with pretests/posttests, videos, a PowerPoint presentation, and interactive exercises. This course emphasizes the importance of teamwork and the SBAR standardization method and has been well received by residents, fellows, and employees of a large health system. PMID:24595260

Daniel, Laura; N-Wilfong, Donamarie

2014-01-01

419

Team Building Activities for Young Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Team building activities are an excellent way to challenge students and teach them the critical communication and problem solving skills that encourage trust, empathy, and ability to work together. They create an atmosphere that enhances the ability to meet fitness and skill goals because students, regardless of skill level, will possess increased…

Rogers, Kelly

2004-01-01

420

Soft Skills at the Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses human capital development through the seven soft skills elements which comprise communication skills, critical thinking and problem solving skills, team work, lifelong learning and information management skills, entrepreneurship skills, ethics, and professional moral and leadership skills. The Ministry of Higher Education,…

Shakir, Roselina

2009-01-01

421

An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Beef Farmer. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the beef farmer is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

Byrd, J. Rick; And Others

422

An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Floral Designer. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the floral designer is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

Miller, Daniel R.; And Others

423

Jet lag and travel fatigue: a comprehensive management plan for sport medicine physicians and high-performance support teams.  

PubMed

The impact of transcontinental travel and high-volume travel on athletes can result in physiologic disturbances and a complicated set of physical symptoms. Jet lag and travel fatigue have been identified by athletes, athletic trainers, coaches, and physicians as important but challenging problems that could benefit from practical solutions. Currently, there is a culture of disregard and lack of knowledge regarding the negative effects of jet lag and travel fatigue on the athlete's well-being and performance. In addition, the key physiologic metric (determination of the human circadian phase) that guides jet lag treatment interventions is elusive and thus limits evidence-based therapeutic advice. A better understanding of preflight, in-flight, and postflight management options, such as use of melatonin or the judicious application of sedatives, is important for the sports clinician to help athletes limit fatigue symptoms and maintain optimal performance. The purpose of this article was to provide a practical applied method of implementing a travel management program for athletic teams. PMID:22450594

Samuels, Charles H

2012-05-01

424

The influence of self-talk on the performance of skilled female tennis players  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development and implementation of a self-talk (ST) strategy designed to improve the volleying skill of collegiate tennis players (N = 5). A two-word ST strategy was developed, implemented, and evaluated using a single-case, multiple-baseline design. Dependent measures were movement patterns and outcome scores. After intervention, four players displayed immediate, positive changes with no overlapping datapoints

Dennis Landin; Edward P. Hebert

1999-01-01

425

The combined effect of mathematics skills and formal operational reasoning on student performance in the general physics course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Precourse tests of computational skills in algebra and trigonometry and of formal operational reasoning have been correlated with performance in the algebra-based introductory physics course for 80 students. The correlation coefficient for mathematics and physics was 0.345 (p < 0.001) and for formal operational reasoning and physics was 0.435 (p < 0.001). However, a multiple regression analysis of the combined effect of mathematics and formal operational reasoning on the total physics grade yielded a multiple R of 0.518, R2=0.268. This study found that the combination of precourse measures of mathematics computational skills and abstract reasoning explained over 25% of the variance in the final physics grade distribution.

Hudson, H. T.; Liberman, Dov

2005-11-02

426

Effects of Role Division, Interaction, and Shared Mental Model on Team Performance in Project-Based Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive mechanism of project-based learning teams of college students on the basis of the Shared Mental Model (SMM) theory. The study participants were 237 female college students in Korea organized into 51 project teams. To test the study hypotheses, a structural equation modeling was employed.…

Jo, Il-Hyun

2011-01-01

427

Peer-Based Control in Self-Managing Teams: Linking Rational and Normative Influence with Individual and Group Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how "peer-based rational control", which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with…

Stewart, Greg L.; Courtright, Stephen H.; Barrick, Murray R.

2012-01-01

428

Hierarchical Reactive Control for a Team of Humanoid Soccer Robots  

E-print Network

Hierarchical Reactive Control for a Team of Humanoid Soccer Robots Sven Behnke, J¨org St.uni-freiburg.de Abstract-- Humanoid soccer serves as benchmark problem for artificial intelligence research and robotics the basic skills of walking, kicking, and getting up better, teams can focus on soccer skills and team

Behnke, Sven

429

Neuropsychological performance in mainland china: the effect of urban/rural residence and self-reported daily academic skill use.  

PubMed

Age, education, and gender are the most common covariates used to define normative standards against which neuropsychological (NP) performance is interpreted, but influences of other demographic factors have begun to be appreciated. In developing nations, urban versus rural residence may differentially affect numerous factors that could influence cognitive test performances, including quality of both formal and informal educational experiences and employment opportunities. Such disparities may necessitate corrections for urban/rural (U/R) status in NP norms. Prior investigations of the U/R effect on NP performance typically have been confounded by differences in educational attainment. We addressed in this by comparing the NP performance of large, Chinese urban (Yunnan Province, n = 201) and rural (Anhui Province, n = 141) cohorts of healthy adults, while controlling for other demographic differences. Although the groups did not differ in global NP scores, a more complex pattern was observed within specific NP ability domains and tests. Urban participants showed better performance in select measures of processing speed and executive functions, verbal fluency, and verbal learning. Self-reported daily use of academic skills was predictive of many U/R differences. Controlling for academic skill use abrogated most U/R differences but revealed rural advantages in select measures of visual reasoning and motor dexterity. PMID:21083967

Gupta, Saurabh; Vaida, Florin; Riggs, Katie; Jin, Hua; Grant, Igor; Cysique, Lucette; Shi, Chuan; Yu, Xin; Wu, Zunyou; Heaton, Robert K

2011-01-01

430

Nutrition in Team Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs

Iñigo Mujika; Louise M. Burke

2010-01-01

431

An I-P-O model of team goal, leader goal orientation, team cohesiveness, and team effectiveness  

E-print Network

that team effectiveness can be broadly defined by performance, member satisfaction, and team viability (Guzzo & Dickson, 1996; Hackman, 1987; Sundstrom, De Meuse & Futrell, 1990). Accordingly, a) performance is indicated by team-produced outputs (quantity...? capability to work together in the future. According to Sundstrom, De Meuse & Futrell (1990) team viability entails, at a minimum, members? willingness to continue working together. The importance of team performance and team viability is straightforward...

Yu, Chien-Feng

2006-04-12

432

Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.  

PubMed

Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker. PMID:12846457

Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

2003-06-01

433

Enhancing Adherence to a Problem Solving Model for Middle-School Pre-Referral Teams: A Performance Feedback and Checklist Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance feedback and checklists were used to improve the degree to which middle-school teams adhered to elements of systematic problem solving as described in the Instructional Consultation literature (Bartels & Mortenson, 2002; Rosenfield, 1987). Direct observations of problem-solving meetings were conducted to determine levels of adherence…

Bartels, Susan M.; Mortensen, Bruce P.

2006-01-01

434

Studies in Interactive Communication: II. The Effects of Four Communication Modes on the Linguistic Performance of Teams during Cooperative Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-man teams solved credible, “real world” problems for which computer assistance has been or could be useful. Conversations were carried on in one of four modes of communication: (1) typewriting, (2) handwriting, (3) voice, and (4) natural, unrestricted communication. Both experienced and inexperienced typists were tested in the typewriting mode. Performance was assessed on three classes of dependent measures: time

Alphonse Chapanis; Robert N. Parrish; Robert B. Ochsman

1977-01-01

435

Strategy knowledge and strategy change in skilled performance: a study of the game Othello.  

PubMed

Skill and skill development in playing the game Othello were investigated. In particular, we studied the role of strategies and strategy change, rather than focusing on knowledge of particular board patterns. The history of the development of the game suggests a shift from positional to mobility strategies, a change which also is reproduced in the development of individual players. The first two studies used historical analysis of tournament transcripts to study strategy change. The third study investigated one possible basis for the greater accessibility or ease of positional versus mobility strategy, namely differential encoding and memorability of typical board patterns. Study 3 demonstrated that completely naive as well as positional players remember positional games and moves more easily than mobility games and moves. The easier mastery of positional strategy may be caused in part by the greater ease of encoding typical positional patterns. We suggest that strategic change and conceptual reorganization may be particularly important for domains where the naive encoding of events is not the most apt. We also suggest that similarities exist between strategy change in Othello and other domains. PMID:2349975

Billman, D; Shaman, D

1990-01-01

436

The Effect of Interactional Fairness on the Performance of Cross-Functional Product Development Teams: A Multilevel Mediated Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-functional product development teams (CFPDTs) are receiving increasing attention as a fundamental mechanism for achieving greater interfunctional inte- gration in the product development process. However, little is known about how team members' interactional fairness perception—fairness perception based on the quality of interpersonal treatment received from the project manager during the new product development process—affects cross-functional communication and the per- formance

Tianjiao Qiu; William Qualls; Jonathan Bohlmann; Deborah E. Rupp

2009-01-01

437

Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A dissociation between hand preference and skill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hand preferences were recorded for 35 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they manipulated a joystick in response to 2 computerized tasks. These preferences were then used to contrast 8 left- and 10 right-handed subjects on performance measures of hand skill. Individual hand preferences were found, but no significant population asymmetry was observed across the sample. However, the performance data reveal substantial benefits of right-handedness for joystick manipulation, as this group of monkeys mastered the 2 psychomotor tasks significantly faster than did their left-handed counterparts. The data support earlier reports of a right-hand advantage for joystick manipulation and also support the importance of distinguishing between hand preference and manual performance in research on functional asymmetries.

Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Berke, Leslie; Williams, Mary

1992-01-01

438

Performance evaluation of AR4 Climate Models in simulating daily precipitation over the Indian region using skill scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of Coupled General Circulation Models (CGCMs) participating in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change's fourth assessment report (IPCC AR4) for the 20th century climate (20C3M scenario) to simulate the daily precipitation over the Indian region is explored. The skill is evaluated on a 2.5° × 2.5° grid square compared with the Indian Meteorological Department's (IMD) gridded dataset, and every GCM is ranked for each of these grids based on its skill score. Skill scores (SSs) are estimated from the probability density functions (PDFs) obtained from observed IMD datasets and GCM simulations. The methodology takes into account (high) extreme precipitation events simulated by GCMs. The results are analyzed and presented for three categories and six zones. The three categories are the monsoon season (JJASO — June to October), non-monsoon season (JFMAMND — January to May, November, December) and for the entire year ("Annual"). The six precipitation zones are peninsular, west central, northwest, northeast, central northeast India, and the hilly region. Sensitivity analysis was performed for three spatial scales, 2.5° grid square, zones, and all of India, in the three categories. The models were ranked based on the SS. The category JFMAMND had a higher SS than the JJASO category. The northwest zone had higher SSs, whereas the peninsular and hilly regions had lower SS. No single GCM can be identified as the best for all categories and zones. Some models consistently outperformed the model ensemble, and one model had particularly poor performance. Results show that most models underestimated the daily precipitation rates in the 0-1 mm/day range and overestimated it in the 1-15 mm/day range.

Anandhi, Aavudai; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

2014-03-01

439

The profile of performance skills and emotional factors in the context of participation among young children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.  

PubMed

Participation is a person's involvement in daily activities in a variety of environments, roles and life situations. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience difficulties in gaining academic achievements or in their engagement in activity of daily living. Motor difficulties have a negative effect on the ability to participate, as well as on various affective components. Senses of coherence, effort and hope have not yet been assessed, within the context of participation, in children with DCD. The purpose of the present study is to look into the relations between participation and senses of coherence, effort and hope among children with DCD, in comparison to typically developed children. Fifty subjects aged 5-6 years participated in the study, 25 of whom are children diagnosed with DCD, the other 25 being typical children. The DCD diagnosis was established according to the DSM-IV criteria and the M-ABC test. All children completed the coherence questionnaire for children as well as the children's questionnaire on effort and hope. Parents completed the Children Participation Questionnaire (CPQ), and the Performance Skills Questionnaire (PSQ). Children with DCD had lower performance skills, lower sense of coherence, hope, and effort than their peers. They less enjoy their participation and their parents are less satisfied in comparison to control group. Significant correlations were found between sense of coherence and hope to participation. Process skills were found to be the main predictor for explaining child's participation. While treating children with DCD we have to consider also socio-psychological aspects that may be weakened. PMID:22940162

Liberman, Lihi; Ratzon, Navah; Bart, Orit

2013-01-01

440

Team Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts one Montessori teacher's experience team teaching in a secondary Montessori classroom. Illustrates how a conflict over decision making with a co-teacher helped to create better relationships with students in the classroom and better communication on the teaching team. Contends that resolving issues of conflict between teachers is vital…

Fisher, Stephen

2003-01-01

441

Managing Intercultural Teams: the Eorganization Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's global environment, intercultural teams may become the most effective teams in an organization when their diversity is managed as an asset. However, because of miscommunication and conflict, intercultural teams often become dysfunctional. This experiential group exercise demonstrates how cultural dimensions such as individualism and collectivism affect the performance of intercultural teams—in particular, globally dispersed virtual teams. Five cultural

Michelle Humes; Anne H. Reilly

2008-01-01

442

The Relationship Between Coping Strategies,Goal Setting And Competitive Anxiety With Athletic Performance Of The Students In Single And Group Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study considers the relationship between coping strategies, goal-setting and competitive anxiety with athletic performance of the students in single and group teams. The subjects were 170 boys selected at random out of high school students in 2008-2009.To gather the data,we conducted coping strategies in sport,goal setting and competitive anxiety questionnaires as well as athletic performance checklist. The results

S. NSajadi; Sogra KhanMohamadi; Shahram Eskandari; Akbar Heidary; Hossein Darbani

2011-01-01

443

SHARP's systems engineering challenge: rectifying integrated product team requirements with performance issues in an evolutionary spiral development acquisition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Completing its final development and early deployment on the Navy's multi-role aircraft, the F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet, the SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) provides the war fighter with the latest digital tactical reconnaissance (TAC Recce) Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor system. The SHARP program is an evolutionary acquisition that used a spiral development process across a prototype development phase tightly coupled into overlapping Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) and Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) phases. Under a tight budget environment with a highly compressed schedule, SHARP challenged traditional acquisition strategies and systems engineering (SE) processes. Adopting tailored state-of-the-art systems engineering process models allowd the SHARP program to overcome the technical knowledge transition challenges imposed by a compressed program schedule. The program's original goal was the deployment of digital TAC Recce mission capabilities to the fleet customer by summer of 2003. Hardware and software integration technical challenges resulted from requirements definition and analysis activities performed across a government-industry led Integrated Product Team (IPT) involving Navy engineering and test sites, Boeing, and RTSC-EPS (with its subcontracted hardware and government furnished equipment vendors). Requirements development from a bottoms-up approach was adopted using an electronic requirements capture environment to clarify and establish the SHARP EMD product baseline specifications as relevant technical data became available. Applying Earned-Value Management (EVM) against an Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) resulted in efficiently managing SE task assignments and product deliveries in a dynamically evolving customer requirements environment. Application of Six Sigma improvement methodologies resulted in the uncovering of root causes of errors in wiring interconnectivity drawings, pod manufacturing processes, and avionics requirements specifications. Utilizing the draft NAVAIR SE guideline handbook and the ANSI/EIA-632 standard: Processes for Engineering a System, a systems engineering tailored process approach was adopted for the accelerated SHARP EMD prgram. Tailoring SE processes in this accelerated product delivery environment provided unique opportunities to be technically creative in the establishment of a product performance baseline. This paper provides an historical overview of the systems engineering activities spanning the prototype phase through the EMD SHARP program phase, the performance requirement capture activities and refinement process challenges, and what SE process improvements can be applied to future SHARP-like programs adopting a compressed, evolutionary spiral development acquisition paradigm.

Kuehl, C. Stephen

2003-08-01

444

Team Machine: A Decision Support System for Team Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the cross-disciplinary research that resulted in a decision-support tool, Team Machine (TM), which was designed to create maximally diverse student teams. TM was used at a large United States university between 2004 and 2012, and resulted in significant improvement in the performance of student teams, superior overall balance…

Bergey, Paul; King, Mark

2014-01-01

445

Five challenges to virtual team success: lessons from Sabre Inc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in communications and information technology create new opportunities for organizations to build and manage virtual teams. Such teams are composed of employees with unique skills, located at a distance from each other, who must collaborate to accomplish important organizational tasks. Based on a comprehensive set of interviews with a subset of team members, team leaders, general managers, and executives

Bradley L. Kirkman; Benson Rosen; Cristina B. Gibson; Paul E. Tesluk; Simon O. McPherson

2002-01-01

446

Training students to become effective workplace team leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employers often comment on the lack of good team leadership skills exhibited by newly graduated business students. While an understanding of the factors that contribute to effective communication in workplace teams does exist, are we certain that the factors influencing quality of communication between student team leaders and team members are the same as the factors influencing quality of communication

Rebecca A. Thacker; Christine A. Yost

2002-01-01

447

Essential Skills for Principals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

Terry, Paul M.

1999-01-01

448

The impact of a resident’s seniority on operative time and length of hospital stay for laparoscopic appendectomy: outcomes used to measure the resident’s laparoscopic skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) frequently is performed by residents during calls. This study aimed at evaluating residents’ surgical skills using parameters of operating time, length of hospital stay (LOS), and conversion rate in correlation with the operating team’s level of seniority. In addition, this study compared the operating time for LA with that for open appendectomy performed by the same

M. Shabtai; D. Rosin; O. Zmora; Y. Munz; A. Scarlat; E. L. Shabtai; B. Bar Zakai; M. Natour; M. Ben-Haim; A. Ayalon

2004-01-01

449

Columbia/Willamette Skill Builders Consortium. Final Performance Report. Appendix 5C: Nabisco, Inc. Individualized Skill Enhancement. Instructors' Reports and Curriculum Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A workplace basic skills program was designed to complement technical training for mixing personnel at the Portland Bakery of Nabisco, Inc. Management, the union, and Portland Community College (Oregon) collaborated in the program. The company released workers on company time to attend classes prior to, during, and after the technical training…

Smith, Mary

450

Transfer Of Argumentation Skills In Conceptual Physics Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate the integration of argumentation in a physics course for future elementary teachers. Students were divided into two groups â construct and evaluate â to solve conceptual physics problems using corresponding forms of written argumentation. After training in small teams, each group received tasks that required transfer of skills to new problems requiring a different form of argumentation i.e. students trained to construct arguments were now required to evaluate arguments and vice versa. The process was repeated after three weeks during which more training was provided. Results indicate no significant improvement of argumentation on team training tasks over this period, but a statistically significant improvement on individual transfer tasks. Thus, three weeks of training did not improve studentsâ performance on the team tasks, but it prepared them to transfer these skills to individual argumentation tasks.

Rebello, Carina M.; Rebello, N. S.

2014-02-19

451

An Assessment of Cooperative Learning Used for Basic Computer Skills Instruction in the College Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports research on cooperative learning strategies used in a college computer skills lab course and compares learning performance and retention of students taught via cooperative teams or traditional individual learning. Results show that both performance and retention were significantly improved with the use of cooperative learning. (Author/JMV)

Keeler, Carolyn M.; Anson, Robert

1995-01-01

452

Training of Leadership Skills in Medical Education  

PubMed Central

Background: Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians’ everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. Objective: The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills in medicine and tries to integrate the findings to guide future research and training development. Method: The PubMED, ERIC, and PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Academic search complete of EBSCOhost were searched for training of leadership skills in medicine in German and English. Relevant articles were identified and findings were integrated and consolidated regarding the leadership principles, target group of training and number of participants, temporal resources of the training, training content and methods, the evaluation design and trainings effects. Results: Eight studies met all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria. The range of training programs is very broad and leadership skill components are diverse. Training designs implied theoretical reflections of leadership phenomena as well as discussions of case studies from practice. The duration of training ranged from several hours to years. Reactions of participants to trainings were positive, yet no behavioral changes through training were examined. Conclusions: More research is needed to understand the factors critical to success in the development of leadership skills in medical education and to adapt goal-oriented training methods. Requirements analysis might help to gain knowledge about the nature of leadership skills in medicine. The authors propose a stronger focus on behavioral training methods like simulation-based training for leadership skills in medical education. PMID:24282452

Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C.; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R.

2013-01-01

453

]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

2000-01-01

454

Human-Robot Teaming in a Multi-Agent Space Assembly Task  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by pairs of suited human astronauts. These Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) are severely restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower. An expanded multi-agent EVA team combining the information-gathering and problem-solving skills of humans with the survivability and physical capabilities of robots is proposed and illustrated by example. Such teams are useful for large-scale, complex missions requiring dispersed manipulation, locomotion and sensing capabilities. To study collaboration modalities within a multi-agent EVA team, a 1-g test is conducted with humans and robots working together in various supporting roles.

Rehnmark, Fredrik; Currie, Nancy; Ambrose, Robert O.; Culbert, Christopher

2004-01-01

455

Soft Skills in Higher Education: Importance and Improvement Ratings as a Function of Individual Differences and Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three UK studies on the relationship between a purpose-built instrument to assess the importance and development of 15 "soft skills" are reported. "Study 1" (N = 444) identified strong latent components underlying these soft skills, such that differences "between-skills" were over-shadowed by differences "between-students". Importance and…

Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Arteche, Adriane; Bremner, Andrew J.; Greven, Corina; Furnham, Adrian

2010-01-01

456

Validating the Performance of Haptic Motor Skill Training Xing-Dong Yang, Walter F. Bischof, and Pierre Boulanger  

E-print Network

/Machine Systems--Human information processing; Human factors; H.5.2 [Information Interfaces and Presentation motor skills [4]-[6]. A motor skill is a skill that requires effective utilization of muscle, skeleton children to write. The teacher physically guides the child's hand to show how to write in a correct way

Alberta, University of

457

Virtual Teams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual work teams scattered around the globe are becoming a feature of corporate workplaces. Although most people prefer face-to-face meetings and interactions, reality often requires telecommuting. (JOW)

Geber, Beverly

1995-01-01

458

Enhancing the Performance of Software Development Virtual Teams through the Use of Agile Methods: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a conceptual model that explicates the role of synchronous communication media in enabling – directly and indirectly, via social presence – virtual software development teams to adopt and apply Agile methods. In turn, Agile methods, as well as perceived social presence, are theorized to have a positive impact on communication convergence and transactive memory. Ultimately, these outcomes

Saggi Nevo; InduShobha N. Chengalur-Smith

2011-01-01

459

The effectiveness of coach turnover and the effect on home team advantage, team quality and team ranking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of coach turnover on team performance is widely discussed in the literature due to the indirect impact of a team's performance on a club's revenues. This study examines the effect of coach turnover within a competition season by focusing on the change in team quality and the change in home team advantage under the new coach. The change

Anne-Line Balduck; Anita Prinzie; Marc Buelens

2010-01-01

460

The Effect of Electronic Performance Support Systems on Self-Regulated Learning Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic performance support systems (EPSSs) are the software programs commonly used in commercial environments since the early 1990s. These software programs are generally called performance-based systems and focus on the complete job rather than providing individual development. For that reason, the usage of these systems in learning…

Kert, Serhat Bahadir; Kurt, Adile Askim

2012-01-01

461

Aerobraking Teams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Group and team photos of Langely's Aerobraking teams. These photo's were taken right after the 75 day aerobraking phase. People in the photographs include: Paul V. Tartabini, Mary Kae Lockwood, Richard W. Powell, Eric M. Queen, Bob Tolson, Alicia Dwyer, Jill Hanna, Michelle Munk, Zack Q. Chavis, dick Wilmoth, Naru Takashima, Ruth Amundsen, John Aguirre, Allison Roberts, Loreyna Young, Charles W. Davis, John Dec, Joe Gasbarre