Sample records for team performance skills

  1. The managerial skills of the top management team and the performance of municipal organisations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abraham Carmeli

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the managerial skills possessed by top management teams affect the performance of municipal organisations in Israel. We evaluated both perceived (education, employment, and culture, recreation and sport services) and objective (collecting efficiency ratio and surplus (deficit) ratio) performance measures. In general, the results show that the managerial skills possessed by the top management

  2. Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

  3. A method for measuring team skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Annett; David Cunningham; Peter Mathias-Jones

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and measuring team skills, specifying team training objectives and the objective assessment of team performance is described. First, a theoretical model of team performance is outlined and then a version of Hierarchical Task Analysis specially adapted to analysing team tasks is described. The two are then combined into an event-related measurement scheme, which provides a set

  4. Using Assessment for Developing Team Building Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Akins, Lean M.

    "Ability to function in teams," "good team building skills," and "teamwork" are all now common phrases in the classifieds. It is increasingly important in society today, both in social and work environments, to be a good team player. But how do we actually develop those skills and evaluate whether our efforts have had a measurable impact so that we can adjust our approach for maximum benefit? This booklet presents a team assessment process developed to track and improve students team building skill as well as a complete description of its implementation. Preliminary research on team building skills development was performed with a group of community college students in the Electrical Technology Program. The results from the two year study indicate that active participation in the team assessment process is beneficial in developing team building and leadership skills in college students. All the materials necessary to implement the team assessment process for a classroom or workplace setting are provided in this booklet. Using these materials and methods can yield evidence of improved team building and leadership skills important in meeting accreditation standards or for use in evaluating corporate team skills and leadership development.

  5. A method for measuring team skills.

    PubMed

    Annett, J; Cunningham, D; Mathias-Jones, P

    2000-08-01

    A method for identifying and measuring team skills, specifying team training objectives and the objective assessment of team performance is described. First, a theoretical model of team performance is outlined and then a version of Hierarchical Task Analysis specially adapted to analysing team tasks is described. The two are then combined into an event-related measurement scheme, which provides a set of objective criteria by which key team skills can be assessed. The method is illustrated by an example from a basic Anti-Submarine Warfare training exercise which forms part of the Principal Warfare Officer's course at the Royal Naval School of Maritime Operations. The potential of the method is discussed, including the opportunities it may provide for the standardization of team performance assessment and in the use of new technology in the partial automation of shore-based and ship-board team training. PMID:10975174

  6. Training Team Problem Solving Skills: An Event-Based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oser, R. L.; Gualtieri, J. W.; Cannon-Bowers, J. A.; Salas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how to train teams in problem-solving skills. Topics include team training, the use of technology, instructional strategies, simulations and training, theoretical framework, and an event-based approach for training teams to perform in naturalistic environments. Contains 68 references. (Author/LRW)

  7. Effects of Above Real Time Training (ARTT) On Individual Skills and Contributions to Crew/Team Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia J.; Crane, Peter; Guckenberger, Dutch; Bageon, Kellye

    2001-01-01

    Above Real Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments on training of pilots performed by NASA engineers and others have indicated that real time training (RTT) reinforced with ARTT would offer an effective training strategy for such tasks which require significant effort at time and workload management. A study was conducted to find how ARTT and RTT complement each other for training of novice pilot-navigator teams to fly on a required route. In the experiment, each of the participating pilot-navigator teams was required to conduct simulator flights on a prescribed two-legged ground track while maintaining required air speed and altitude. At any instant in a flight, the distance between the actual spatial point location of the airplane and the required spatial point was used as a measure of deviation from the required route. A smaller deviation represented better performance. Over a segment of flight or over complete flight, an average value of the deviation represented consolidated performance. The deviations were computed from the information on latitude, longitude, and altitude. In the combined ARTT and RTT program, ARTT at intermediate training intervals was beneficial in improving the real time performance of the trainees. It was observed that the team interaction between pilot and navigator resulted in maintaining high motivation and active participation throughout the training program.

  8. Tactical skills of world-class youth soccer teams.

    PubMed

    Kannekens, Rianne; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between tactical skills and competitive standard of two youth soccer teams by comparing 18 players (age 18-20 years) from the Dutch and 19 players (age 18-23 years) from the Indonesian national youth team. All players completed the declarative and procedural knowledge scales of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sport (TACSIS). Multivariate analyses of variances and effect sizes were conducted to assess between- and within-team differences. There was a positive relationship between competitive standard and level of tactical skills: the higher-ranked (FIFA World Ranking 2005-2006; http://www.fifa.com) Dutch players outscored their Indonesian counterparts on the TACSIS subscales "knowing about ball actions" (F(1,36) = 10.58, P < 0.01), "knowing about others" (F(1,36) = 28.88, P < 0.01), and "positioning and deciding" (F(1,36) = 10.10, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed no relationship between tactical skills and playing time (P > 0.05) in the Dutch team, whereas in the Indonesian team one procedural knowledge factor ("positioning and deciding") did show a positive association (effect size = 0.99). In conclusion, tactical skills are fundamental to high-level soccer performance. Ample, expert-led training and match experience at a high competitive standard, starting at a young age, and high-quality talent development programmes are suggested as key ingredients for the development of good tactical skills. PMID:19437183

  9. Structuring a Project Management Course to Develop Team Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edmonson, Charlie P.

    There is no escaping it. Working in industry requires working in teams. The industries hiring our graduates recognize this. TAC of ABET Criterion 2e requires it, stating graduates need an ability to function effectively on teams. How do we, as teachers, go about ensuring that our students learn how to work effectively on teams? How do we go about teaching them team work and team management skills? The traditional approach to developing team work and team management skills involves assigning students randomly to teams, giving them a project to work on, and expecting them to somehow magically learn to work effectively on teams. This they'll learn about teamwork if they work on teams approach fails to give students adequate preparation and insight into team work and team management skills. It doesn't work. Surveys of students reveal that they do not feel they knew how to effectively work on teams or how to be a team leader. This sentiment was echoed by respondents to last years project management survey. To effectively prepare students to work on teams, coordinated teambuilding and leadership skills training is needed. Beginning with a discussion of necessary project management and team skills, this paper will describe how to structure a project course to include techniques and exercises specifically designed to develop teamwork and team management skills and the benefits they provide.

  10. Transformational and Transactional Leadership Skills for Mental Health Teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick W. Corrigan; Andrew N. Garman

    1999-01-01

    Many treatments for persons with severe mentalillness are provided by mental health teams. Teammembers work better when led by effective leaders.Research conducted by organizational psychologists, and validated on mental health teams, haveidentified a variety of skills that are useful for theseleaders. Bass (1990, 1997) identified two sets ofespecially important skills related to transformational and transactional leadership. Leaders usingtransformational skills help

  11. Tactical skills of world-class youth soccer teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rianne Kannekens; Marije T. Elferink-Gemser; Chris Visscher

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between tactical skills and competitive standard of two youth soccer teams by comparing 18 players (age 18–20 years) from the Dutch and 19 players (age 18–23 years) from the Indonesian national youth team. All players completed the declarative and procedural knowledge scales of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sport (TACSIS). Multivariate analyses of

  12. Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective team performance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective team performance. Teamwork skills essential for successful team performance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective team performance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.

  13. Exploring Predictors of Student Team Project Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Bacon; Kim A. Stewart; Sue Stewart-Belle

    1998-01-01

    In a study of 49 graduate and 172 undergraduate marketing project teams, the average of the individual abilities on the team was found to predict student team performance. Team size had little effect, and gender diversity had no effect on team performance. Among graduate teams, those with a moderate amount of nationality diversity outperformed teams with high or no nationality

  14. Teams for Teams Performance in Multi-Human/Multi-Robot Teams

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Michael

    Teams for Teams Performance in Multi-Human/Multi-Robot Teams Pei-Ju Lee, Huadong Wang, Shih and organization of human teams in controlling large robot teams performing an Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) task operators service robots from the population as needed. The experiment compares two member teams

  15. Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

  16. Entrepreneurial Skills for Engineers - An Interdisciplinary, Team Project Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheryl BALL; George MORGAN; Judy HOOD

    We report on our experience with a course where engineering students learn to create a commercialization plan for a technological innovation. Student teams consisting of both business\\/economics masters students and research engineers design an entrepreneurial strategy for bringing the technology out of the doctoral students' labs and into practical use. Engineering students develop written and oral communications skills as well

  17. Teams for Teams Performance in Multi-Human/Multi-Robot Teams

    E-print Network

    Scerri, Paul

    Teams for Teams Performance in Multi-Human/Multi-Robot Teams We are developing a theory for human control of robot teams based on considering how control varies across different task allocations. Our. The present study addresses the interaction between automation and organization of human teams in controlling

  18. Team perfectionism and team performance: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew P; Stoeber, Joachim; Brown, Anna; Appleton, Paul R

    2014-06-01

    Perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been found to predict sports performance in athletes. To date, however, research has exclusively examined this relationship at an individual level (i.e., athletes' perfectionism predicting their personal performance). The current study extends this research to team sports by examining whether, when manifested at the team level, perfectionism predicts team performance. A sample of 231 competitive rowers from 36 boats completed measures of self-oriented, team-oriented, and team-prescribed perfectionism before competing against one another in a 4-day rowing competition. Strong within-boat similarities in the levels of team members' team-oriented perfectionism supported the existence of collective team-oriented perfectionism at the boat level. Two-level latent growth curve modeling of day-by-day boat performance showed that team-oriented perfectionism positively predicted the position of the boat in midcompetition and the linear improvement in position. The findings suggest that imposing perfectionistic standards on team members may drive teams to greater levels of performance. PMID:24918313

  19. Team Identity and Performance-based Compensation Effects on Performance 

    E-print Network

    Blazovich, Janell L.

    2010-01-16

    This study investigates whether team members work harder and perform better when they are compensated based on both team and individual performance than when compensated based on team or individual performance alone and whether teammates...

  20. Team PerformanceTeam Performance and Trainingand Training

    E-print Network

    Goldwasser, Shafi

    failures (e.g., aircraft, military accidents) Authors identify 3 primary teamwork dimensions: KSA Knowledge SelectionTeam Selection Individual traits (vary with team objectives) KSA's + personality traits

  1. Team Assembly Mechanisms Determine Collaboration Network Structure and Team Performance

    PubMed Central

    Guimerŕ, Roger; Uzzi, Brian; Spiro, Jarrett; Nunes Amaral, Luís A.

    2007-01-01

    Agents in creative enterprises are embedded in networks that inspire, support, and evaluate their work. Here, we investigate how the mechanisms by which creative teams self-assemble determine the structure of these collaboration networks. We propose a model for the self-assembly of creative teams that has its basis in three parameters: team size, the fraction of newcomers in new productions, and the tendency of incumbents to repeat previous collaborations. The model suggests that the emergence of a large connected community of practitioners can be described as a phase transition. We find that team assembly mechanisms determine both the structure of the collaboration network and team performance for teams derived from both artistic and scientific fields. PMID:15860629

  2. Learning strategies and performance in organizational teams

    E-print Network

    Bresman, Henrik M

    2005-01-01

    (cont.) shows that vicarious learning is positively associated with performance. I argue that vicarious team learning is an under-explored dimension of what makes teams and organizations competitive. The chapter concludes ...

  3. Communication Skills to Develop Trusting Relationships on Global Virtual Engineering Capstone Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaugg, Holt; Davies, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    As universities seek to provide cost-effective, cross-cultural experiences using global virtual (GV) teams, the "soft" communication skills typical of all teams, increases in importance for GV teams. Students need to be taught how to navigate through cultural issues and virtual tool issues to build strong trusting relationships with distant team

  4. Selection in Teams: An Exploration of the Teamwork Knowledge, Skills, and Ability Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita C. McClough; Steven G. Rogelberg

    2003-01-01

    In 1994, Stevens and Campion introduced the Teamwork Knowledge, Skills, and Ability test (teamwork KSA test) for selecting employees for team–based organizations. Using experimental data from 57 ad hoc student teams (N = 227), we examined this test's relationship with both the behavior of the assigned leader in a team and the behavior of the other team members, respectively. We

  5. Laying the foundation for successful team performance trajectories: The roles of team charters and performance strategies.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, John E; Rapp, Tammy L

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for both teamwork (i.e., team charters) and taskwork (performance strategies) can pay dividends in terms of more effective team performance over time. Using random coefficients growth modeling techniques, they found that teams with high-quality performance strategies outperformed teams with poorer quality strategies. However, a significant interaction between quality of the charters of teams and their performance strategies was found, such that the highest sustained performances were exhibited by teams that were high on both features. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19186898

  6. Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Marilyn

    This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

  7. An Analysis of Team Composition as It Affects Simulation Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnakumar, Parameswar; Chisholm, Thomas Alexander

    This study investigated the extent to which sex composition and average team academic achievement of student simulation teams affect team effectiveness. Seventy-four students in two sections of a marketing principles class were divided into 20 teams to test their decision-making skills. For 10 weeks, each team operated a simulated supermarket…

  8. A Survey of Knowledge Management Skills Acquisition in an Online Team-Based Distributed Computing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…

  9. The Effect of Communication Strategy and Planning Intervention on the Processes and Performance of Course Material Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmo Putri, Dewi A.

    2012-01-01

    In most open and distance learning institutions, the development of learning materials, whether in print or electronic form, is created by teams consisting of people with different skills. Team communication has a critical influence on the development of team shared mental models (SMMs) as well as team performance. A review of the literature…

  10. Embracing Transformational Leadership: Team Values and the Impact of Leader Behavior on Team Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Schaubroeck; Simon S. K. Lam; Sandra E. Cha

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and group performance in 218 financial services teams that were branches of a bank in Hong Kong and the United States. Transformational leadership influenced team performance through the mediating effect of team potency. The effect of transformational leadership on team potency was moderated by team power distance and team collectivism, such

  11. Staffing work teams: Testing for individual-level knowledge, skill, and ability requirements for teamwork

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J Stevens

    1993-01-01

    The knowledge, skill, and ability requirements (KSAs) needed to be an effective team member in self-managed groups were examined. While substantial literatures address the proper design and management of these teams at group- and organizational-levels, little is known about the necessary characteristics of effective individual team members. An extensive review was conducted to identify these characteristics, focusing on (1) KSAs

  12. Identifying and training non-technical skills of nuclear emergency response teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T Crichton; R Flin

    2004-01-01

    Training of the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills that are crucial to safe and effective management by teams in emergency situations is an issue that is receiving increasing emphasis in many organisations, particularly in the nuclear power industry. As teams play a major role in emergency response organisations (ERO), effective functioning and interactions within, between and across teams is crucial,

  13. Interactions of Team Mental Models and Monitoring Behaviors Predict Team Performance in Simulated Anesthesia Inductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtscher, Michael J.; Kolbe, Michaela; Wacker, Johannes; Manser, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated how two team mental model properties (similarity vs. accuracy) and two forms of monitoring behavior (team vs. systems) interacted to predict team performance in anesthesia. In particular, we were interested in whether the relationship between monitoring behavior and team performance was moderated by team

  14. Teams Organization and Performance in Multi-HumanIMulti-Robot Teams

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Michael

    Teams Organization and Performance in Multi-HumanIMulti-Robot Teams Michael Lewis, Huadong Wang@sis.pitt.edu, huw16@pitt.edu, shc56+@pitt.edu Abstract- We are developing a theory for human control of robot teams the interaction between automation and organization of human teams in controlling large robot teams performing

  15. Performance assessment task team progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.E.; Curl, R.U.; Armstrong, D.R.; Cook, J.R.; Dolenc, M.R.; Kocher, D.C.; Owens, K.W.; Regnier, E.P.; Roles, G.W.; Seitz, R.R. [and others

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, {open_quotes}Low-Level Waste Management{close_quotes}. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team`s purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993.

  16. Perfecting scientists’ collaboration and problem-solving skills in the virtual team environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfecting Scientists’ Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-lo...

  17. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of ?-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements highlighted in this review needs to be conducted using team-sport athletes and using team-sport-relevant testing (e.g. single- and multiple-sprint performance). It should also be considered that there is no guarantee that dietary supplements that improve isolated performance (i.e. single-sprint or jump performance) will remain effective in the context of a team-sport match. Thus, more research is also required to investigate the effects of dietary supplements on simulated or actual team-sport performance. A second aim of this review was to investigate any health issues associated with the ingestion of the more commonly promoted dietary supplements. While most of the supplements described in the review appear safe when using the recommended dose, the effects of higher doses (as often taken by athletes) on indices of health remain unknown, and further research is warranted. Finally, anecdotal reports suggest that team-sport athletes often ingest more than one dietary supplement and very little is known about the potential adverse effects of ingesting multiple supplements. Supplements that have been demonstrated to be safe and efficacious when ingested on their own may have adverse effects when combined with other supplements. More research is required to investigate the effects of ingesting multiple supplements (both on performance and health). PMID:21058748

  18. Developing Team Skills through a Collaborative Writing Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Theda Ann

    2014-01-01

    Employers want students who are able to work effectively as members of a team, and expect universities to develop this ability in their graduates. This paper proposes a framework for a collaborative writing assignment that specifically develops students' ability to work in teams. The framework has been tested using two iterations of an action…

  19. Performance of Student Software Development Teams: The Influence of Personality and Identifying as Team Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance

  20. Finding the Key to a Better Code: Code Team Restructure to Improve Performance and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Cynthia R.; Hines, Elizabeth J.; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient’s status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team’s resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital’s code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role’s position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients. PMID:24667218

  1. Measuring soccer skill performance: a review.

    PubMed

    Ali, A

    2011-04-01

    The ability to execute skilled movement patterns efficiently and effectively is the most important aspect of soccer performance and players must apply cognitive, perceptual and motor skills to rapidly changing situations. There have been attempts to measure these parameters for talent identification (or development) purposes and skill acquisition and intervention research; the aim of this review is to examine the strengths and limitations of these tests. High levels of perceptual and cognitive skill are characteristics of those players who are able look in the right places for information and process this information efficiently before deciding on a suitable course of action. The motor skills required to successfully control, pass, dribble and shoot the ball at goal are fundamental skills of the soccer player and a variety of methods have been used to measure these aspects. The tests mentioned in this review vary in their complexity and the type of skill(s) they purport to measure. The assessment of choice must come down to a number of factors including cost, available time and space, number of athletes in the cohort and experience of researchers. Furthermore, consideration must be given to the aim(s) of the research/assessment and issues relating to validity and reliability. PMID:21210855

  2. An Exploratory Analysis of Personality, Attitudes, and Study Skills on the Learning Curve within a Team-based Learning Environment

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Teague; Campbell, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine factors that determine the interindividual variability of learning within a team-based learning environment. Methods. Students in a pharmacokinetics course were given 4 interim, low-stakes cumulative assessments throughout the semester and a cumulative final examination. Students’ Myers-Briggs personality type was assessed, as well as their study skills, motivations, and attitudes towards team-learning. A latent curve model (LCM) was applied and various covariates were assessed to improve the regression model. Results. A quadratic LCM was applied for the first 4 assessments to predict final examination performance. None of the covariates examined significantly impacted the regression model fit except metacognitive self-regulation, which explained some of the variability in the rate of learning. There were some correlations between personality type and attitudes towards team learning, with introverts having a lower opinion of team-learning than extroverts. Conclusion. The LCM could readily describe the learning curve. Extroverted and introverted personality types had the same learning performance even though preference for team-learning was lower in introverts. Other personality traits, study skills, or practice did not significantly contribute to the learning variability in this course. PMID:25861101

  3. Finding the key to a better code: code team restructure to improve performance and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Prince, Cynthia R; Hines, Elizabeth J; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J

    2014-09-01

    Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient's status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team's resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital's code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role's position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients. PMID:24667218

  4. Attention Theory and Mechanisms for Skilled Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Walter; Fisk, Arthur D.

    This report relates current attentional research and theory to the development of skilled performance, with emphasis on how performance changes with practice. Dual process attention theory is reviewed, and the distinction between automatic and controlled processing is examined. The changing interactions between automatic and controlled processing…

  5. Driving Energy Performance with Energy Management Teams 

    E-print Network

    Younghein, M.; Tunnessen, W.

    2006-01-01

    Driving Energy Performance with Energy Management Teams Meredith Younghein ENERGY STAR Industrial Communications Mgr. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC ABSTRACT Companies today face an uncertain energy future. Businesses... face escalating energy prices which can erode profits. Concerns over supply reliability, and possible regulation of carbon emissions create risk. For many industries in the U.S., energy costs are equal to the cost of raw materials or even employee...

  6. Driving Energy Performance with Energy Management Teams

    E-print Network

    Younghein, M.; Tunnessen, W.

    2006-01-01

    Driving Energy Performance with Energy Management Teams Meredith Younghein ENERGY STAR Industrial Communications Mgr. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC ABSTRACT Companies today face an uncertain energy future. Businesses... face escalating energy prices which can erode profits. Concerns over supply reliability, and possible regulation of carbon emissions create risk. For many industries in the U.S., energy costs are equal to the cost of raw materials or even employee...

  7. [Investigation of team processes that enhance team performance in business organization].

    PubMed

    Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Toru; Aoshima, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Many researchers have suggested team processes that enhance team performance. However, past team process models were based on crew team, whose all team members perform an indivisible temporary task. These models may be inapplicable business teams, whose individual members perform middle- and long-term tasks assigned to individual members. This study modified the teamwork model of Dickinson and McIntyre (1997) and aimed to demonstrate a whole team process that enhances the performance of business teams. We surveyed five companies (member N = 1,400, team N = 161) and investigated team-level-processes. Results showed that there were two sides of team processes: "communication" and "collaboration to achieve a goal." Team processes in which communication enhanced collaboration improved team performance with regard to all aspects of the quantitative objective index (e.g., current income and number of sales), supervisor rating, and self-rating measurements. On the basis of these results, we discuss the entire process by which teamwork enhances team performance in business organizations. PMID:25799865

  8. Interaction mining and skill-dependent recommendations for multi-objective team composition

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Christoph; Skopik, Florian; Schall, Daniel; Dustdar, Schahram

    2011-01-01

    Web-based collaboration and virtual environments supported by various Web 2.0 concepts enable the application of numerous monitoring, mining and analysis tools to study human interactions and team formation processes. The composition of an effective team requires a balance between adequate skill fulfillment and sufficient team connectivity. The underlying interaction structure reflects social behavior and relations of individuals and determines to a large degree how well people can be expected to collaborate. In this paper we address an extended team formation problem that does not only require direct interactions to determine team connectivity but additionally uses implicit recommendations of collaboration partners to support even sparsely connected networks. We provide two heuristics based on Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing for discovering efficient team configurations that yield the best trade-off between skill coverage and team connectivity. Our self-adjusting mechanism aims to discover the best combination of direct interactions and recommendations when deriving connectivity. We evaluate our approach based on multiple configurations of a simulated collaboration network that features close resemblance to real world expert networks. We demonstrate that our algorithm successfully identifies efficient team configurations even when removing up to 40% of experts from various social network configurations. PMID:22298939

  9. Building an Inclusive Research Team: The Importance of Team Building and Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strnadová, Iva; Cumming, Therese M.; Knox, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inclusive research teams typically describe their experiences and analyse the type of involvement of researchers with disability, but the process of building research teams and the need for research training still remain underexplored in the literature. Materials and Method: Four researchers with intellectual disabilities and four…

  10. Teams organization and performance in multi-human\\/multi-robot teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Lewis; Huadong Wang; Shih-Yi Chien; Paul Scerri; Prasanna Velagapudi; Katia P. Sycara; Breelyn Kane

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a theory for human control of robot teams based on considering how control varies across different task allocations. Our current work focuses on domains such as foraging in which robots perform largely independent tasks. The present study addresses the interaction between automation and organization of human teams in controlling large robot teams performing an Urban Search and

  11. The Relationship Between Team Sex Composition and Team Performance in the Context of Training Complex, Psychomotor, Team–based Tasks 

    E-print Network

    Jarrett, Steven

    2011-02-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of team sex composition in team training performance and team processes in the context of a complex, psychomotor, information–processing task. With the growing number of women in the workplace...

  12. Using a Human Patient Simulation Mannequin to Teach Interdisciplinary Team Skills to Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis; Kalus, James S.; Miller, Douglas; Compton, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effectiveness and student acceptance of using a human patient simulation (HPS) training module focused on interdisciplinary teamwork skills. Design During their second-professional year, all pharmacy students were in enrolled in Principles of Pharmacotherapy 4: Cardiovascular Diseases and Patient Care Lab IV, a problem-based learning course. As part of the patient care laboratory, students participated in a simulated case of an acutely ill patient with a hypertensive emergency. During the simulation, students performed a history and physical examination. They then worked as a team to make treatment recommendations to the nursing and physician staff members. Following the exercise, a facilitated debriefing session was conducted. Students completed satisfaction surveys to assess the quality and effectiveness of the session. Assessment Over 98% of students agreed or strongly agreed that they learned material relevant to their current studies. When compared to student lectures, 90% of students felt that they learned clinical patient care better when using a HPS mannequin in simulated patient scenarios. Conclusion HPS-based learning offers a realistic training experience through which clinical knowledge and interpersonal teamwork skills can be taught. Students enjoy the experience and find it relevant to their future practice. Simulation-based training may teach certain topics better than traditional lecture formats and as such could help to fill gaps in the current pharmacy curriculum. PMID:17619651

  13. The “I” in Team: Coach Incivility, Coach Sex, and Team Performance in Female Basketball Teams 

    E-print Network

    Smittick, Amber Leola

    2012-10-19

    With the continuing influx of teams in the workplace it is important to understand how incivility affects team success. The purpose of this study was to address this topic by investigating the effects of leader incivility towards team members...

  14. Enhancing Skills for a Competitive World. Report of the Action Team on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors' Association, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses reforms in lifelong learning undertaken in the 11 states represented on the National Governors' Association Action Team on Lifelong Learning. It is a catalog of initiatives to create greater opportunities for youth and adults to obtain skills needed to compete effectively in a global economy. The reforms discussed in…

  15. The impact of team building and leadership development on nuclear plant performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Fiedler; R. L. Long; J. R. Childress

    1988-01-01

    Within the nuclear utility industry, the pressures of complex technologies, increasing regulations, and critical public scrutiny create a working environment filled with numerous pressures. The difficult nature of the industry puts a premium on effective teamwork, interdepartmental cooperation, and communication skills. A well-conceived and implemented team building and leadership development program can substantially improve the operating performance of a nuclear

  16. Achieving Management Skills. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

    Prepared as part of Platte Technical Community College's project to help managers and supervisors develop practical, up-to-date managerial skills in a relatively short time, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations. Unit I focuses on time management, the causes and management of stress, and…

  17. Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

  18. ----.. -----.----4 Coordination,Overloadand Team Performance

    E-print Network

    Fussell, Susan R.

    @ the communication tactics that tiow management teams to successtiy coordinate without becoming overloaded and through communication. By design we mean the way teams s~cture their tasks and the tools they use to aid are used, such as managerial decision making, software engineering, and home contracting. Participants must

  19. The Influences of Skill Level, Anxiety, and Psychological Skills Use on Amateur Golfers’ Performances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert Hayslip Jr; Trent A. Petrie; Mae M. MacIntire; Gretchen M. Jones

    2010-01-01

    The present study not only explored the influence of golf expertise on mental skills utilization, but also the influences of the use of mental skills and anxiety on performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who had played golf for an average of 23 years, ranged in age (M = 52.17, SD = 11.81) and in skill level (M

  20. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2?h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  1. Shared Knowledge in High School Basketball Teams: Effects on Team Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Aaron Weisman

    2005-01-01

    This study used three high school varsity and three high school junior varsity basketball teams to examine the relationship between players’ basketball experience (with their team, their teammates, and with basketball) with shared knowledge and shared knowledge’s relationship to performance. Participants completed several measures that related to demographic information, basketball experience, and shared knowledge. The results showed that varsity players

  2. The Performance of Environmental Science in Research Teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanesa Castán Broto

    2011-01-01

    Scientists' practices rely not only on the discursive production of science but also on routine interactions whereby scientists manage their teams and their publics. The metaphor of the theatre helps explain how researchers perform impressions to different audiences. This metaphor can also help analyse how scientists and researchers cooperate in performance teams in order to manage credibility impressions. How are

  3. Process and Performance in Human-Robot Teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Lewis; Huadong Wang; Shih Yi Chien; Prasanna Velagapudi; Paul Scerri; Katia Sycara

    2011-01-01

    The authors are developing a theory for human control of robot teams based on considering how control difficulty grows with team size. Current work focuses on domains, such as foraging, in which robots perform largely independent tasks. Such tasks are particularly amenable to analysis because effects on performance and cognitive resources are predicted to be additive, and tasks can safely

  4. Generic Skills. Keys to Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur De W.

    The generic skills studies in Canada have as their objectives the formulation of generic skills, the identification of their uses for certain occupational groups, and the preparation of specifications for instructional modules in an attempt to provide greater flexibility to workers, employers, and vocational training programs. Another objective of…

  5. Reading Skill, Textbook Marking, and Course Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Kenneth E.; Limber, John E.

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed students enrolled in Introductory Psychology courses about their text marking preferences and analyzed the marking in their textbooks. Low-skill readers report more reliance on highlighting strategies and actually mark their texts more than better readers. In addition, low-skilled readers prefer to buy used, previously marked texts…

  6. Team Training and Retention of Skills Acquired Above Real Time Training on a Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Friasat; Guckenberger, Dutch; Crane, Peter; Rossi, Marcia; Williams, Mayard; Williams, Jason; Archer, Matt

    2000-01-01

    Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments related to training of pilots performed by NASA engineers (Kolf in 1973, Hoey in 1976) and others (Guckenberger, Crane and their associates in the nineties) have shown that in comparison with the real time training (RTT), ARTT provides the following benefits: increased rate of skill acquisition, reduced simulator and aircraft training time, and more effective training for emergency procedures. Two sets of experiments have been performed; they are reported in professional conferences and the respective papers are included in this report. The retention of effects of ARTT has been studied in the first set of experiments and the use of ARTT as top-off training has been examined in the second set of experiments. In ARTT, the pace of events was 1.5 times the pace in RTT. In both sets of experiments, university students were trained to perform an aerial gunnery task. The training unit was equipped with a joystick and a throttle. The student acted as a nose gunner in a hypothetical two place attack aircraft. The flight simulation software was installed on a Universal Distributed Interactive Simulator platform supplied by ECC International of Orlando, Florida. In the first set of experiments, two training programs RTT or ART7 were used. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios: either immediately after training or two days later. The effects of ARTT did not decrease over a two day retention interval and ARTT was more time efficient than real time training. Therefore, equal test performance could be achieved with less clock-time spent in the simulator. In the second set of experiments three training programs RTT or ARTT or RARTT, were used. In RTT, students received 36 minutes of real time training. In ARTT, students received 36 minutes of above real time training. In RARTT, students received 18 minutes of real time training and 18 minutes of above real time training as top-off training. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios. The use of ARTT as top-off training after RTT offered better training than RTT alone or ARTT alone. It is, however, suggested that a similar experiment be conducted on a relatively more complex task with a larger sample of participants. Within the proposed duration of the research effort, the setting up of experiments and trial runs on using ARTT for team training were also scheduled but they could not be accomplished due to extra ordinary challenges faced in developing the required software configuration. Team training is, however, scheduled in a future study sponsored by NASA at Tuskegee University.

  7. Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning. Results reveal that the TKS intervention was partially effective in enhancing student team SMM and team scores on meteorology lab assignments. The TKS intervention has potential for use in science courses where a teaming approach is used. Similar interventions could likely be developed, empirically examined, and potentially employed to promote success in handling complex challenges while working in teams in the classroom and beyond.

  8. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  9. The “I” in Team: Coach Incivility, Coach Sex, and Team Performance in Female Basketball Teams

    E-print Network

    Smittick, Amber Leola

    2012-10-19

    an important role in affecting the way individuals process information and make sense of a complex world (Katz, 1960). Common examples of emergent states include team cohesion, satisfaction, and commitment (Ilgen et al., 2005). The IMOI model also shifts... of an event (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). When individuals appraise events as potential stressors, they evaluate the extent to which they have adequate resources to handle and cope with the stressor. When resources are deemed insufficient, the individual...

  10. Comparison of Traditional Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Course Instruction Vs. a Scenario-Based, Performance Oriented Team Instruction (SPOTI) Method for Korean Paramedic Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher C. Lee; Mark Im; Tae Min Kim; Edward R. Stapleton; Kyuseok Kim; Gil Joon Suh; Adam J. Singer; Mark C. Henry

    2010-01-01

    Current Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) course instruction involves a 2-day course with traditional lectures and limited team interaction. We wish to explore the advantages of a scenario-based performance-oriented team instruction (SPOTI) method to implement core ACLS skills for non-English-speaking international paramedic students. The objective of this study was to determine if scenario-based, performance-oriented team instruction (SPOTI) improves educational outcomes

  11. TESTING GAME BASED PERFORMANCE IN TEAM-HANDBALL.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Herbert; Orwat, Matthias; Hinz, Matthias; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Bacharach, David W; Petelin von Duvillard, Serge; Müller, Erich

    2014-06-17

    Team-handball is a fast paced game of defensive and offensive action that includes specific movements of jumping, passing, throwing, checking and screening. To date and to our knowledge, a game based performance test for team-handball does not exist. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop and validate such a test.Seventeen experienced team-handball players performed two game based performance tests separated by seven days between each test, an incremental treadmill-running test, and a team-handball test game (2×20min). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2-peak), blood lactate concentration (BLC), heart rate (HR), sprinting time, time of offensive and defensive actions as well as running intensities, ball velocity and jump height were measured in the game based test. Reliability of the tests was calculated utilizing an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, we measured VO2-peak in the incremental treadmill-running test and BLC, HR and running intensities in the team-handball test game to determine the validity of the game based performance test.For the test-retest reliability, we found an ICC>.70 for the peak BLC and HR, mean offense and defense time as well as ball velocity that yielded an ICC>.90 for the VO2-peak in the game based performance test. Percent walking and standing constituted 73% of total time. Moderate (18%) and high (9%) intensity running in the game based performance test was similar to the team-handball test game.Our results indicated that the game based performance test is a valid and reliable test to analyze team-handball performance (physiological and biomechanical variables) under conditions similar to competition. PMID:24942169

  12. The development and implementation of quality based team and diagnostic skills training at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been involved in Team and Diagnostic Skills training since the early part of 1988. This training was developed in-house utilizing material from numerous sources. To assist in achieving a high quality program that would be both well received by operations and effective in bringing positive behavioral changes, concepts of adult learning were utilized in the development and implementation. This paper will state the concepts and discuss how they were and continue to be used to develop, revise, and implement Team and Diagnostic Skills training at ATR. 4 refs.

  13. A note on the stability of team performance.

    PubMed

    Landis, R S

    2001-06-01

    Yearly winning percentages of 23 professional basketball teams over a 10-year period were used to evaluate the stability of team performance. The intercorrelation matrix produced by these data is characterized by strong, positive correlations in adjacent time periods. As the number of intervening time periods increased, however, the observed correlations systematically decreased and ultimately became negative. Significant negative correlations of earlier performance with later performance are almost never observed with typical time-related performance data. Possible explanations and boundary conditions for these atypical results are discussed. PMID:11419804

  14. Getting Groups to Develop Good Strategies: Effects of Reflexivity Interventions on Team Process, Team Performance, and Shared Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtner, Andrea; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K.; Nagele, Christof

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effect of guided reflection on team processes and performance, based on West's (1996, 2000) concept of reflexivity. Communicating via e-mail, 49 hierarchically structured teams (one commander and two specialists) performed seven 15 min shifts of a simulated team-based military air-surveillance task (TAST) in two meetings, a…

  15. The Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Beverage Workers Union, Local 32, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a joint labor-management workplace literacy program called SET (Skills Enhancement Training) that targeted the more than 2,000 unionized employees of food service contractors at U.S. government institutions in Washington, D.C. Nineteen classes were offered and a total of 191 people self-selected themselves into the program.…

  16. Basic Math Skills and Performance in an Introductory Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

    2006-01-01

    We identify the student characteristics most associated with success in an introductory business statistics class, placing special focus on the relationship between student math skills and course performance, as measured by student grade in the course. To determine which math skills are important for student success, we examine (1) whether the…

  17. The Port of Baltimore Workplace Skills Development Project. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amarantides, Niki; Blumner, Ellen

    The Port of Baltimore Workplace Skills Development Project had the following objectives: perform literacy audits on at least 20 job titles within the port-related industries; develop curriculum modules providing literacy skill instruction using a functional context approach reflecting the Port of Baltimore needs; offer instructional services to at…

  18. Democracy, Performance, and Outcomes in Interdisciplinary Health Care Teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie J. Coopman

    2001-01-01

    Central to hospice care is the interdisciplinary team. Such health care teams are by definition democratic, self-managing teams. Fifty-two team members on seven hospice teams in three hospice organizations participated in the study. Hospice team members perceived the teams to be not as democratic as might be expected. One dimension of team democracy, perceived involvement of all members in team

  19. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    PubMed Central

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport. PMID:22997498

  20. Using Performance Measurement To Evaluate Teams and Organizational Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Carrie

    1998-01-01

    Describes the assumptions and goals of the Performance Effectiveness Management System (PEMS) of the University of Arizona Library and explains how to integrate performance measurement with a new system that focuses on teams and organizational outcomes. Phases of PEMS include: mission-critical services, programs, and activities; setting quality…

  1. Using Diverse Professional Teams and a Graduate Qualities Framework To Develop Generic Skills within a Commerce Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, John; Graves, Christopher; McGowan, Sue

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the use of teams of professionals and a Graduate Qualities framework at the University of South Australia to develop students' generic skills within a Bachelor of Commerce degree. Explains the Graduate Qualities framework, discusses its importance to government, employees, and universities, and includes a summary of Graduate Qualities…

  2. Simulation for the Training of Human Performance and Technical Skills: The Intersection of How We Will Train Health Care Professionals in the Future

    PubMed Central

    Hamman, William R.; Beaubien, Jeffrey M.; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims The aims of this research are to begin to understand health care teams in their operational environment, establish metrics of performance for these teams, and validate a series of scenarios in simulation that elicit team and technical skills. The focus is on defining the team model that will function in the operational environment in which health care professionals work. Methods Simulations were performed across the United States in 70- to 1000-bed hospitals. Multidisciplinary health care teams analyzed more than 300 hours of videos of health care professionals performing simulations of team-based medical care in several different disciplines. Raters were trained to enhance inter-rater reliability. Results The study validated event sets that trigger team dynamics and established metrics for team-based care. Team skills were identified and modified using simulation scenarios that employed the event-set-design process. Specific skills (technical and team) were identified by criticality measurement and task analysis methodology. Discussion In situ simulation, which includes a purposeful and Socratic Method of debriefing, is a powerful intervention that can overcome inertia found in clinician behavior and latent environmental systems that present a challenge to quality and patient safety. In situ simulation can increase awareness of risks, personalize the risks, and encourage the reflection, effort, and attention needed to make changes to both behaviors and to systems. PMID:21975987

  3. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes. PMID:22845561

  4. The performance environment of the England youth soccer teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Pain; Chris Harwood

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a semi-structured protocol with a prospective sample, national coaches (n = 6), sport scientists (n = 3), and players (n = 4) were interviewed directly following international tournaments about the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. Qualitative content analysis revealed the following factors as major positive influences on performance:

  5. The Relationship between Work-Team Personality Composition and the Job Performance of Teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Neuman; Stephen H. Wagner; Neil D. Christiansen

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between work team effectiveness and two distinct aspects of the personality composition of teams: (a) the average level of a given trait within a team, referred to as team personality elevation (TPE); and (b) the variability or differences in personality traits found within a team, or team personality diversity (TPD). Retail assistants

  6. Composition and performance of a small resuscitation team in a deployed military hospital.

    PubMed

    Smith, H; Conlon, L

    2001-07-01

    The Royal Australian Navy deployed a 5-person resuscitation team, including 2 nursing officers, to East Timor from February to August 2000 as part of the United Nations Military Hospital. The team managed a wide variety of emergency presentations, effectively utilising the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) model. The 2 nursing officers, in addition to using their clinical skills, also provided leadership, enhancing communication and cohesion within the team and ultimately providing an essential contribution to the team's excellent patient outcomes. PMID:15129535

  7. An examination of team reactions to negative performance feedback and their relationship to team performance 

    E-print Network

    Philo, Joel Richard

    2005-02-17

    ..................................................... 42 8 Descriptives on Profit Across Conditions...................................................... 43 9 Effect Sizes for Profit Between and Within Conditions................................ 44 10 Descriptives on Viability Across Conditions........................................ 49 17 Effect Sizes for Deindividuation Between and Within Conditions ............... 49 x Page 18 Team-level Regression Predicting Profit at Time 2....................................... 50 19 Regression Predicting Viability at Time 2...

  8. The impact of team building and leadership development on nuclear plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, P.B.; Long, R.L.; Childress, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Within the nuclear utility industry, the pressures of complex technologies, increasing regulations, and critical public scrutiny create a working environment filled with numerous pressures. The difficult nature of the industry puts a premium on effective teamwork, interdepartmental cooperation, and communication skills. A well-conceived and implemented team building and leadership development program can substantially improve the operating performance of a nuclear plant. This paper describes one such implementation effort at GPU Nuclear Corporation and at the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station (OCNGS) over an 18-month period.

  9. Understanding interdisciplinary health care teams: using simulation design processes from the Air Carrier Advanced Qualification Program to identify and train critical teamwork skills.

    PubMed

    Hamman, William R; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M; Beaubien, Jeffrey M

    2010-09-01

    In the report "Five Years After 'To Err is Human' ", it was noted that "the combination of complexity, professional fragmentation, and a tradition of individualism, enhanced by a well-entrenched hierarchical authority structure and diffuse accountability, forms a daunting barrier to creating the habits and beliefs of common purpose, teamwork, and individual accountability for successful interdependence that a safe culture requires". Training physicians, nurses, and other professionals to work in teams is a concept that has been promoted by many patient safety experts. However the model of teamwork in healthcare is diffusely defined, no clear performance metrics have been established, and the use of simulation to train teams has been suboptimal. This paper reports on the first three years of work performed in the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) Tri-Corridor life science grant to apply concepts and processes of simulation design that were developed in the air carrier industry to understand and train healthcare teams. This work has been monitored by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAA) and is based on concepts designed in the Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) from the air carrier industry, which trains and assesses teamwork skills in the same manner as technical skills. This grant has formed the foundation for the Center of Excellence for Simulation Education and Research (CESR). PMID:21491786

  10. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance.

    PubMed

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Allen, Joseph A

    2014-11-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor-performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter during 54 regular organizational team meetings. Performance ratings were obtained immediately following the team meetings as well as at a later time point from the teams' supervisors. At the behavioral unit level within the team interaction process, lag sequential analysis identified humor and laughter patterns occurring above chance (e.g., a joke followed by laughter, followed by another joke). Moreover, humor patterns triggered positive socioemotional communication, procedural structure, and new solutions. At the team level, humor patterns (but not humor or laughter alone) positively related to team performance, both immediately and 2 years later. Team-level job insecurity climate was identified as a boundary condition: In low job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns were positively related to performance, whereas in high job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns did not relate to team performance. The role of job insecurity as a boundary condition persisted at both time points. These findings underscore the importance of studying team interactions for understanding the role of humor in organizations and considering team-level boundary conditions over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25314363

  11. Predictors of Performance in Navy Electronics Skills: The Effect of Mathematical Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Meryl S.

    This effort is part of a project designed to identify mathematical requirements related to Navy electronics training. The relationship between mathematics ability and electronics performance in the Navy's Basic Electricity and Electronics (BE/E), Class "A," and Class "C" schools was examined to identify the mathematics skills required to complete…

  12. Manual skill, hand skill asymmetry, and cognitive performances in young children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georges Dellatolas; Maria De Agostini; Florence Curt; Helgard Kremin; Alexia Letierce; Jean Maccario; Joseph Lellouch

    2003-01-01

    A total of 1022 children aged 3 to 6 years were examined in their preschools and 27% of them were followed up for 2 years. A computerised version of the peg?moving task was used repeatedly to assess hand skill of the dominant and the nondominant hand. Cognitive performance was repeatedly evaluated by tasks involving speech, vocabulary, phonological memory, and visual?spatial

  13. Analysis of Team Communications in \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan G. Hutchins; Susan P. Hocevar; William G. Kemple

    Successful mission accomplishment depends on more than individual skills and knowledge. Communication is essential to team performance in complex tasks. Interaction processes that occur via team communications are critical for appropriate use of individual resources, especially when situations call for sharing resources and coordinated responses. This paper reports on results of an analysis of team communications to document the extent

  14. Standardized patient and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting: validation of a new performance-based assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Misuzu; Nagoshi, Michael; Oshiro-Wong, Celeste; Tin, Maung; Wen, Aida; Masaki, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach is critical in the care of elderly adults. Performance-based tools to assess IDT skills have not been well validated. A novel assessment tool, the standardized patient (SP) and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting (SIDTM), consisting of two stations, was developed. First, trainees evaluate a SP hospitalized after a fall. Second, trainees play the role of the physician in a standardized IDT meeting with a standardized registered nurse (SRN) and standardized medical social worker (SMSW) for discharge planning. The SP-SIDTM was administered to 52 fourth-year medical students (MS4s) and six geriatric medicine fellows (GMFs) in 2011/12. The SP, SRN, and SMSW scored trainee performance on dichotomous checklists of clinical tasks and Likert scales of communication skills, which were compared according to level of training using t-tests. Trainees rated the SP-SIDTM experience as moderately difficult, length of time about right, and believability moderate to high. Reliability was high for both cases (Cronbach ? = 0.73-0.87). Interobserver correlation between SRN and SMSW checklist scores (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.82, P < .001) and total scores (r = 0.69, P < .001) were high. The overall score on the SP-SIDTM case was significantly higher for GMF (75) than for MS4 (65, P = .002). These observations support the validity of this novel assessment tool. PMID:24383978

  15. Development of a Notational Analysis System for Selected Soccer Skills of a Women's College Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Camille; Fellingham, Gilbert; Vehrs, Pat

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a notational system to evaluate passing, dribbling, first touch, and individual defensive skills as they relate to success during women's soccer games and to develop a statistical model to weigh the importance of each skill on creating scoring opportunities. Sequences of skills in ten games of a National…

  16. The Effect of Talent Disparity on Team Performance in Soccer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Egon Franck; Stephan Nźesch

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between talent disparity and team productivity based on panel data from German soccer teams. Holding average ability and unobserved team heterogeneity constant, we find evidence that the players selected to play on the competition team should be rather homogeneous regarding their playing talent. If, however, the team is defined at the preparatory stage, which includes

  17. Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuster, J.

    1998-01-01

    Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.

  18. The Relationship between Shared Mental Models and Task Performance in an Online Team- Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tristan E.; Lee, Youngmin

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to better understand learning teams, this study examines the effects of shared mental models on team and individual performance. The results indicate that each team's shared mental model changed significantly over the time that subjects participated in team-based learning activities. The results also showed that the shared mental…

  19. Research on the influencing mechanism of transformational leadership on team performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huang Qing

    2011-01-01

    This pa per is intended to explore the influencing mechanism of transformational leadership on team performance from the perspective of team efficacy and team cohesion by making an investigation of 12 working groups in Chinese enterprises and using structural equation modeling to analyze the collected data. The research results imply that transformational leadership has a positive correlation with team cohesion,

  20. Using Psychological Skills Training to Develop Soccer Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Thelwell; Iain A. Greenlees; Neil J. V. Weston

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of a soccer, midfielder-specific psychological skills intervention comprising relaxation, imagery and self-talk on position-specific performance measures. Using a multiple-baseline-across-individuals design, five participants had three per-formance subcomponents assessed across nine competitive matches. The results of the study indicated the position-specific intervention to enable at least small improvements on the three dependent variables for each participant.

  1. Validation of a self-efficacy instrument and its relationship to performance of crisis resource management skills.

    PubMed

    Plant, Jennifer L; van Schaik, Sandrijn M; Sliwka, Diane C; Boscardin, Christy K; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2011-12-01

    Self-efficacy is thought to be important for resuscitation proficiency in that it influences the development of and access to the associated medical knowledge, procedural skills and crisis resource management (CRM) skills. Since performance assessment of CRM skills is challenging, self-efficacy is often used as a measure of competence in this area. While self-efficacy may influence performance, the true relationship between self-efficacy and performance in this setting has not been delineated. We developed an instrument to measure pediatric residents' self-efficacy in CRM skills and assessed its content validity, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. After administering the instrument to 125 pediatric residents, critical care fellows and faculty, we performed an exploratory factor analysis within a confirmatory factor analysis as well as a known group comparison. The analyses specified four factors that we defined as: situation awareness, team management, environment management, and decision making. Pediatric residents reported lower self-efficacy than fellows and faculty in each factor. We also examined the correlation between self-efficacy and performance scores for a subset of 30 residents who led video recorded simulated resuscitations and had their performances rated by three observers. We found a significant, positive correlation between residents' self-efficacy in situation awareness and environment management and their overall performance of CRM skills. Our findings suggest that in a specific context, self-efficacy as a form of self-assessment may be informative with regards to performance. PMID:21264508

  2. A Survey of Quantitative Team Performance Metrics for Human-Robot Collaboration

    E-print Network

    Akin, David

    A Survey of Quantitative Team Performance Metrics for Human-Robot Collaboration Sharon M. Singer of the field of collaborative human and robot team performance metric models, and examines existing overall team quantitative performance models to determine which are more applicable to future human and robotic

  3. The big five personality factors and team performance: implications for selecting successful product design teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Kichuk; Willi H. Wiesner

    1997-01-01

    In the pursuit of faster product development, product design teams are a growing phenomenon in many organizations. In order to be successful, these teams must be composed of people who work well together. However, despite the benefit of selecting the optimal combination of team members, this topic has received little attention. Personality has been identified as a potentially helpful selection

  4. A Framework for Cross-Disciplinary Team Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Scott P.; Lei, Kimfong; Paulino, Lisette Reyes

    2008-01-01

    The construct of teamwork has been of considerable interest to researchers and practitioners across domains. The literature on teams includes many studies related to team composition, processes, and roles, but it pays much less attention to how teams learn and innovate. Studies examining how cross-disciplinary teams interact during projects are…

  5. Using an Undergraduate Materials Research Project to Foster Multidisciplinary Teaming Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, James A.; Cleary, Doug D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the use of undergraduate materials multidisciplinary research projects as a means of addressing the growing industrial demand for graduates experienced in working in multidisciplinary teams. It includes a detailed description of a project in which a multidisciplinary team of chemical engineering and civil engineering students…

  6. Working in Partnership: Skills Transfer in Developing a Cross-Cultural Research Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Jill; Dance, Phyll; Cubillo, Carmen; McDonald, David; Tongs, Julie; Brideson, Tom; Bammer, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    As part of a broader study on Indigenous illegal drug use, the authors undertook skills training to increase cross-cultural mutual understanding of the often different approaches and methodologies between research and practice, as well as Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal understandings of these approaches. The study and the skills transfer training…

  7. Conflict, Culture, and Performance in Virtual Teams: Results from a Cross-Cultural Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia V. Gallenkamp; Jakob J. Assmann; Marcus A. Drescher; Arnold Picot; Isabell M. Welpe

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between different types of conflict and performance in virtual teams is still unclear. Therefore, this paper tries to shed light on the relationship between conflict and team performance as well as the moderating role of culture. Using survey and archival data of 1,683 virtual teams from 23 countries from a massively multiplayer online game (MMOG), this study's findings

  8. Team Performance Assessment and Measurement: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Series in Applied Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannick, Michael T., Ed.; Salas, Eduardo, Ed.; Prince, Carolyn, Ed.

    This volume presents thoughts on measuring team performance written by experts currently working with teams in fields such as training, evaluation, and process consultation. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview of Team Performance Measurement" (Michael T. Brannick and Carolyn Prince); (2) "A Conceptual Framework for Teamwork Measurement" (Terry L.…

  9. The Cognitive Basis of Effective Team Performance: Features of Failure and Success in Simulated Cardiac Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pallavi; Cohen, Trevor; Patel, Bhavesh; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite a body of research on teams in other fields relatively little is known about measuring teamwork in healthcare. The aim of this study is to characterize the qualitative dimensions of team performance during cardiac resuscitation that results in good and bad outcomes. We studied each team’s adherence to Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) protocol for ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia and identified team behaviors during simulated critical events that affected their performance. The process was captured by a developed task checklist and a validated team work coding system. Results suggest that deviation from the sequence suggested by the ACLS protocol had no impact on the outcome as the successful team deviated more from this sequence than the unsuccessful team. It isn’t the deviation from the protocol per se that appears to be important, but how the leadership flexibly adapts to the situational changes with deviations is the crucial factor in team competency. PMID:20351925

  10. The Wrong Kind of Lean: Over-Commitment and Under-Represented Skills on Technology Teams

    E-print Network

    Lucas, William

    2000-05-17

    This paper reports on results from five companies in the aerospace and automotive industries to show that over-commitment of technical professionals and under-representation of key skills on technology development and ...

  11. Lessons Learned: 20 Keys to Successful Training and Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Dean R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to training and performance improvement, including practice required for skill learning; knowledge versus skills; core skills; competence; learning to learn; team orientation; enabling business results; interpersonal and conceptual skills; timing; focusing on priorities; organizational learning and management…

  12. Dynamically Formed Human-Robot Teams Performing Coordinated Tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Dias; T. K. Harris; B. Browning; E. G. Jones; B. Argall; M. Veloso; A. Stentz; A. Rudnicky

    In this new era of space exploration where human-robot teams are envisioned maintaining a long-term presence on other planets, effective coordination of human-robot teams is paramount. Two critical research challenges that must be solved to realize this vision are the human-robot team chal- lenge and the pickup-team challenge. In this paper, we ad- dress these two challenges, propose a novel

  13. Assessment of Individual Student Performance in Online Team Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The use of team projects has been shown to be beneficial in higher education. There is also general agreement that team efforts should be assessed and that the grading ought to represent both (1) the quality of the product developed jointly by the team, as well as (2) the degree of participation and quality of contribution by each individual…

  14. When Both the Skilled and Unskilled are Unaware: Consequences for Academic Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krista D. Mattern; Jeremy Burrus; Emily Shaw

    2010-01-01

    The authors replicate Kruger and Dunning (1999) by demonstrating that the most unskilled students overestimate their skill level, whereas highly skilled students underestimate their skill level. Furthermore, this misestimation of skill is related to academic performance. Misestimation was positively related to first year college GPA, persistence to the fourth year of college, and graduation. At times, this effect can lead

  15. Key Performance Outcomes of Patient Safety Curricula: Root Cause Analysis, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, and Structured Communications Skills

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    As colleges and schools of pharmacy develop core courses related to patient safety, course-level outcomes will need to include both knowledge and performance measures. Three key performance outcomes for patient safety coursework, measured at the course level, are the ability to perform root cause analyses and healthcare failure mode effects analyses, and the ability to generate effective safety communications using structured formats such as the Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation (SBAR) situational briefing model. Each of these skills is widely used in patient safety work and competence in their use is essential for a pharmacist's ability to contribute as a member of a patient safety team. PMID:22102754

  16. Shared Mental Models on the Performance of e-Learning Content Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to investigate team-based e-Learning content development projects from the perspective of the shared mental model (SMM) theory. The researcher conducted a study of 79 e-Learning content development teams in Korea to examine the relationship between taskwork and teamwork SMMs and the performance of the teams.…

  17. Evaluating Team Work on Student Projects: The Use of Behaviorally Anchored Scales To Evaluate Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Daniel; Cadiz, David

    One of the biggest problems students face in team projects is social loafing, a situation in which students may view team projects as a free ride. Social loafers let others do the work, knowing that the professor will only grade the completed project. This research examined the performance of students grading other student team members on a group…

  18. Success Skills for the Textile Industry: Team Building (SS2). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on team building is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

  19. Team-Based Learning Exercise Efficiently Teaches Brief Intervention Skills to Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Maria A.; Julian, Katherine A.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Batki, Steven L.; Satre, Derek D.; Satterfield, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evaluations of substance use screening and brief intervention (SBI) curricula typically focus on learner attitudes and knowledge, although effects on clinical skills are of greater interest and utility. Moreover, these curricula often require large amounts of training time and teaching resources. This study examined whether a 3-hour…

  20. Updating Polytechnic Teachers' Knowledge and Skills through Teacher Design Teams in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    While teachers and administrators in polytechnics in Ghana have categorically expressed the growing need for the former's knowledge and skills to be updated in the era of polytechnic transformation, little attention has been paid to the subject. This study reports a professional development intervention organised for 16 engineering teachers…

  1. Communication, and Team-Working Skills in Second-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Goldrick, Niamh B.; Marzec, Bartosz; Scully, P. Noelle; Draper, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2002, a multidisciplinary program has been used to encourage science students to build on their chemical knowledge and to appreciate how it applies to the world around them. The program is interactive and instills a new set of core learning skills that are often underrepresented in undergraduate curricula, namely, cooperative learning,…

  2. Skill mix, roles and remuneration in the primary care workforce: who are the healthcare professionals in the primary care teams across the world?

    PubMed

    Freund, Tobias; Everett, Christine; Griffiths, Peter; Hudon, Catherine; Naccarella, Lucio; Laurant, Miranda

    2015-03-01

    World-wide, shortages of primary care physicians and an increased demand for services have provided the impetus for delivering team-based primary care. The diversity of the primary care workforce is increasing to include a wider range of health professionals such as nurse practitioners, registered nurses and other clinical staff members. Although this development is observed internationally, skill mix in the primary care team and the speed of progress to deliver team-based care differs across countries. This work aims to provide an overview of education, tasks and remuneration of nurses and other primary care team members in six OECD countries. Based on a framework of team organization across the care continuum, six national experts compare skill-mix, education and training, tasks and remuneration of health professionals within primary care teams in the United States, Canada, Australia, England, Germany and the Netherlands. Nurses are the main non-physician health professional working along with doctors in most countries although types and roles in primary care vary considerably between countries. However, the number of allied health professionals and support workers, such as medical assistants, working in primary care is increasing. Shifting from 'task delegation' to 'team care' is a global trend but limited by traditional role concepts, legal frameworks and reimbursement schemes. In general, remuneration follows the complexity of medical tasks taken over by each profession. Clear definitions of each team-member's role may facilitate optimally shared responsibility for patient care within primary care teams. Skill mix changes in primary care may help to maintain access to primary care and quality of care delivery. Learning from experiences in other countries may inspire policy makers and researchers to work on efficient and effective teams care models worldwide. PMID:25577306

  3. Modeling reciprocal team cohesion-performance relationships, as impacted by shared leadership and members' competence.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, John E; Kukenberger, Michael R; D'Innocenzo, Lauren; Reilly, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Despite the lengthy history of team cohesion-performance research, little is known about their reciprocal relationships over time. Using meta-analysis, we synthesize findings from 17 CLP design studies, and analyze their results using SEM. Results support that team cohesion and performance are related reciprocally with each other over time. We then used longitudinal data from 205 members of 57 student teams who competed in a complex business simulation over 10 weeks, to test: (a) whether team cohesion and performance were related reciprocally over multiple time periods, (b) the relative magnitude of those relationships, and (c) whether they were stable over time. We also considered the influence of team members' academic competence and degree of shared leadership on these dynamics. As anticipated, cohesion and performance were related positively, and reciprocally, over time. However, the cohesion ? performance relationship was significantly higher than the performance ? cohesion relationship. Moreover, the cohesion ? performance relationship grew stronger over time whereas the performance ? cohesion relationship remained fairly consistent over time. As expected, shared leadership related positively to team cohesion but not directly to their performance; whereas average team member academic competence related positively to team performance but was unrelated to team cohesion. Finally, we conducted and report a replication using a second sample of students competing in a business simulation. Our earlier substantive relationships were mostly replicated, and we illustrated the dynamic temporal properties of shared leadership. We discuss these findings in terms of theoretical importance, applied implications, and directions for future research. PMID:25751749

  4. Northwest Simulation Center—Sharpens Clinical and Communication Skills for Individuals and Teams

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviano, Georgina; Washington, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Many authorities have suggested that some variant of team training is likely to reduce human error in operating rooms, Emergency Departments, resuscitation teams and other settings within health care—where human interaction is common, and where breakdowns in communication and teamwork can have critical consequences. The Kaiser Sunnyside Medical Center Regional Simulation Center achieves this end. In particular, simulation prepares people for error-prone, high-risk, or unusual situations. Here, we will cite several scenarios and two actual protocols; five principles for managing critical events; results (2006 People Pulse favorability, 2007–2008 postsimulation survey favorability); Kaiser Permanente Northwest departments trained; strategic initiatives supported including service internalization; collaboration with local and regional community programs; and process transferability. PMID:21373228

  5. Training high performance skills using above real-time training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

    1993-01-01

    The Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) concept is a unique approach to training high performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. Such a training paradigm represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. These techniques allow individuals to acquire these critical skills faster and with greater retention. ARTT also allows an individual trained in 'fast time' to operate at what appears to be a more confident state, when the same task is performed in a real-time environment. Two related experiments are discussed. The findings appear to be consistent with previous findings that show positive effects of task variation during training. Moreover, ARTT has merit in improving or maintaining transfer with sharp reductions in training time. There are indications that the effectiveness of ARTT varies as a function of task content and possibly task difficulty. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

  6. Goal orientation of team leaders: Its effects on performance and group interaction in software development projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Sonnentag; Michael Frese; Wolfgang Stolte; Torsten Heinbokel; Felix C. Brodbeck

    1994-01-01

    Goal orientation is an action style implying the development of long-range and precise goals, and persistent pursuit of these goals. Goal orientation is not only important for a person's own performance but also for the performance of others in a co-operative work setting. This applies particularly to team leaders, whose goal orientation was predicted to correlate with both team performance

  7. Scheduling robot task performance for a cooperative human and robotic team

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon M. Singer; David L. Akin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will benefit from leveraging the unique capabilities of a cooperative human and robot team for performing operational and exploration activities. This research extends the task allocation and scheduling methodology demonstrated in previous research to characterize the effect of the robotic agent's performance of tasks on overall team performance. Analysis of this parameter in future scheduling projects would

  8. Degree of Online Collaboration and Team Performance: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ling; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2010-01-01

    This case study investigated the relationship between degree of online collaboration and quality of group project among four teams. Thirteen participants were randomly assigned to form 4 teams to work on 4 collaborative projects across 16 weeks. Two different data sources of discussion archives and quality of group projects were collected and…

  9. Shoestring Budgets, Band-Aids, and Team Work: Challenges and Motivators in the Development of a Web-Based Resource for Undergraduate Clinical Skills Teaching

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Collan; Nyhof-Young, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    Background Learning how to conduct a medical interview and perform a physical examination is fundamental to the practice of medicine; however, when this project began, the methods used to teach these skills to medical students at the University of Toronto (U of T) had not changed significantly since the early 1990s despite increasing outpatient care, shorter hospital stays, and heavy preceptor workloads. In response, a Web-based clinical skills resource was developed for the first-year undergraduate medical course—The Art and Science of Clinical Medicine I (ASCM I). Objectives This paper examines our experiences with the development of the ASCM I website and details the challenges and motivators inherent in the production of a Web-based, multimedia medical education tool at a large Canadian medical school. Methods Interviews and a focus group were conducted with the development team to discover the factors that positively and negatively affected the development process. Results Motivating factors included team attributes such as strong leadership and judicious use of medical students and faculty volunteers as developers. Other motivators included a growing lack of instructional equivalency across diverse clinical teaching sites and financial and resource support by the Faculty of Medicine. Barriers to development included an administrative environment that did not yet fully incorporate information technology into its teaching vision and framework, a lack of academic incentive for faculty participation, and inadequate technical support, space, and equipment. Conclusions The success of electronic educational resources such as the ASCM I website has caused a significant cultural shift within the Faculty of Medicine, resulting in the provision of more space, resources, and support for IT endeavours in the undergraduate medical curriculum. PMID:15914461

  10. Using geographic information systems to track polio vaccination team performance: pilot project report.

    PubMed

    Gammino, Victoria M; Nuhu, Adamu; Chenoweth, Paul; Manneh, Fadinding; Young, Randall R; Sugerman, David E; Gerber, Sue; Abanida, Emmanuel; Gasasira, Alex

    2014-11-01

    The application of geospatial data to public health problems has expanded significantly with increased access to low-cost handheld global positioning system (GPS) receivers and free programs for geographic information systems analysis. In January 2010, we piloted the application of geospatial analysis to polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in northern Nigeria. SIA teams carried GPS receivers to compare hand-drawn catchment area route maps with GPS tracks of actual vaccination teams. Team tracks overlaid on satellite imagery revealed that teams commonly missed swaths of contiguous households and indicated that geospatial data can improve microplanning and provide nearly real-time monitoring of team performance. PMID:25316882

  11. The demographic antecedents and performance consequences of the social-network structure in work teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaisa Henttonen; Minna Janhonen; Jan-Erik Johanson; Kaisu Puumalainen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Businesses are increasingly using teams as their fundamental organisational unit. This paper aims to explore the impact of demographic antecedents and the social-network structure, measured in terms of task-related advice-network density, centralisation and fragmentation, on work-team performance. The paper seeks to examine: the impact of the social-network structure (dense, fragmented or centralised) on work-team performance and the origins

  12. Comprehensive Development Plan in Office Skills. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waubonsee Community Coll., Sugar Grove, IL.

    The Waubonsee Community College Comprehensive Development Plan in Office Skills served 208 students by assessment of basic skills and referral to appropriate programs or help with job skills and referral to employment during the 18-month grant period from December 1988 through June 30, 1990. The target population was minority women or economically…

  13. Detailed Analysis of Team Movement and Communication Affecting Team Performance in the America's Army Game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Il-Chul Moon; Kathleen M. Carley; Mike Schneider; Oleg Shigiltchoff

    We conducted the second data analysis with a new game log record dataset and focused on what the optimal team structure is in terms of communication and movement. We utilized regression analyses and correspondence analyses to make the optimal network, and we identified several important features of optimal networks from those analyses. Furthermore we coded 'Network Fitter' and used it

  14. Team Satisfaction and Student Group Performance: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitun, Rami M.; Abdulqader, Khalid Shams; Alshare, Khaled A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between team satisfaction and students' performance in group projects in two universities, one from the United States and one from Qatar. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between team satisfaction and group performance only for the American students. Demographic factors…

  15. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team

  16. Aural Dictation Affects High Achievement in Sight Singing, Performance and Composition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The nature of skill acquisition has long been of interest to music educators. This study considers the research context for relationships between aural dictation, sight singing, performance and composition skills. Then, relationships between these skill areas are quantitatively investigated using data from the Australian New South Wales Music 2…

  17. Staffing multi-skill call centers via search methods and a performance approximation

    E-print Network

    Staffing multi-skill call centers via search methods and a performance approximation Athanassios N a multi-skill staffing problem in a call center where the agent skill sets are exogenous and the call to mathematical programs with such constraints. The first stage uses search methods supported by the approximation

  18. 2010 The Psychonomic Society, Inc. 474 There is a paradox in skilled performance. Experts

    E-print Network

    Logan, Gordon D.

    their performance, but they have little explicit access to that knowledge. In the case of typewriting, skilled, but that knowledge will not be explicitly available. In typewriting, the paradox of skill is resolved by proposing of this article is to further investigate the paradox of skill in typewriting by measuring the accuracy

  19. The Development of Team Trust over Time and Its Effect on Performance When Using Michaelsen's Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preast, Vanessa A.

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Michaelsen's Team-Based Learning (TBL) have claimed this teaching method quickly produces highly effective teams which are characterized by high trust among team members. Presumably, the high trust boosts performance because members feel less inhibited during discussions involving sharing personal views and challenging…

  20. An Investigation of the Effect of After-Action Reviews on Teams' Performance-Efficacy Relationships

    E-print Network

    Schurig, Ira

    2012-07-16

    Performance and efficacy are reciprocally causal; however, the effect of performance on subsequent perceptions of efficacy has received little attention, especially in the context of team training. In addition, the moderating effect of feedback...

  1. 49 CFR 240.211 - Procedures for making the determination on performance skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Implementation of the Certification Process § 240.211 Procedures for making the determination on performance skills. (a)...

  2. Virtual student exchange: lessons learned in virtual international teaming in interdisciplinary design education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Doerry; R. Klempous; J. Nikodem; W. Paetzold

    2004-01-01

    The increasing globalization of corporate economies has changed the face of engineering practice. In addition to core engineering skills, modern engineers must possess cross-cultural communication skills, team management skills, and the ability to perform on geographically-distributed teams. As part of a novel curricular paradigm we are exploring the so called Global Engineering College (GEC). We have developed the concept of

  3. Scheduling robot task performance for a cooperative human and robotic team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Sharon M.; Akin, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will benefit from leveraging the unique capabilities of a cooperative human and robot team for performing operational and exploration activities. This research extends the task allocation and scheduling methodology demonstrated in previous research to characterize the effect of the robotic agent's performance of tasks on overall team performance. Analysis of this parameter in future scheduling projects would provide guidance in selecting a robot design that not only satisfies all operational goals but also contributes to the overall cooperative team performance. The schedules developed meet all of the mission constraints while minimizing overall task list completion time and minimizing the wait time between agents.

  4. Brief Report: Suitability of the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) for the Assessment of Social Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, E. W. M.; Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at examining whether the "Social Skills Performance Assessment" (SSPA; Patterson et al. in "Schizophr Res" 48(2-3):351-360, 2001) is a suitable performance-based measure to assess social skills in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). For this purpose, social skills of individuals with ASD and…

  5. Constrained Planning and Wargame Performance in Military and Civilian Teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monique Kardos; Taryn Chapman

    The TLCAC study, conducted during January 2001, involved two military and three civilian teams conducting planning activities under time constraint and fighting a battle with a designated enemy using the Janus wargame. This report outlines the planning behaviours observed in military and civilian participants, and briefly discusses their possible relation(s) with the wargame outcomes. It is concluded that the current

  6. Gender differences in Brazilian children's fundamental movement skill performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Coiro Spessato; Carl Gabbard; Nadia Valentini; Mary Rudisill

    2012-01-01

    Children who master fundamental movement skills (FMS) are more likely to engage in healthy physical activity during childhood and adolescence. This study compared the fundamental motor status of Brazilian boys and girls, 3–10 years of age. Participants were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Boys displayed superior scores for object control (OC) and locomotor (LOC) composite skill values.

  7. Goal congruence in project teams: does the fit between members' personal mastery and performance goals matter?

    PubMed

    Kristof-Brown, A L; Stevens, C K

    2001-12-01

    Research on team goals rarely considers the impact of congruence in perceptions of personal goals of self versus other members. In this study of 324 members of 64 short-term project teams, polynomial regression analysis was used to explore how congruence in personal and perceived team mastery and performance goals affected individual outcomes. Results indicated that congruence in perceived performance goals elicited greater individual satisfaction and contributions, regardless of goal strength (i.e.. high or low personal performance goals). Conversely, perceived team mastery goals had a greater effect on individual outcomes than did perceived congruence in self-other mastery goals. Congruent self-actual team goals showed weaker but similar relationships to individual outcomes, but contrary to hypotheses, this effect was not mediated by congruence in perceived self-other goals. PMID:11768052

  8. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills.

    PubMed

    Fastré, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based assessment criteria, describing what students should do, for the task at hand. The performance-based group is compared to a competence-based assessment group in which students receive a preset list of competence-based assessment criteria, describing what students should be able to do. The test phase revealed that the performance-based group outperformed the competence-based group on test task performance. In addition, higher performance of the performance-based group was reached with lower reported mental effort during training, indicating a higher instructional efficiency for novice students. PMID:20054648

  9. Mental Models and the Acquisition of a Complex Skill across Individuals and Teams: A Multilevel Study 

    E-print Network

    Munoz Galvez, Gonzalo Javier

    2014-01-13

    -level studies, the extant literature has not yet tested the validity of mental models as a multilevel construct. Consequently, the purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which the relationships between mental models and performance generalizes...

  10. The Impact of Team Identification on Biased Predictions of Player Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wann, Daniel L.; Koch, Katrina; Knoth, Tasha; Fox, David; Aljubaily, Hesham; Lantz, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    The current investigation examined sport fans' impressions of an athlete described as a potential member of their team or a potential member of a rival team. In Study 1, we predicted that individuals would exhibit an ingroup favoritism effect by reporting more positive evaluations of the player's performance when he was described as a…

  11. Individual differences in SA measurement and performance in human-robot teaming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Schuster; Joseph R. Keebler; Jorge Zuniga; Florian Jentsch

    2012-01-01

    In human-robot teams, robots with a high degree of autonomy and intelligence may be able to coordinate with humans and contribute to, rather than tax, SA. We investigated team member SA and individual differences as potential performance metrics. Results indicated a relationship between the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) and individual differences, but only the Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART)

  12. Beyond Status: Relating Status Inequality to Performance and Health in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Amy M.; Barling, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status…

  13. The interventional cardiologist as cath lab team leader.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, James C; Feldman, Barry; Ranaweera, Priyantha; Dent, John; Huang, Xiaoyan; Singer, Sara

    2015-06-01

    Interventional cardiologists act as leaders every time they step into a catheterization laboratory (cath lab), but leadership training is rarely included in cardiology training programs. Cath lab physicians should cultivate and practice effective leadership skills. Specifically, (1) before each procedure assess whether the cath lab team is prepared; (2) delegate authority to trainees and team members when appropriate; (3) use every procedure to improve the performance of team members through teaching, coaching, and mentorship; (4) debrief the team after adverse events; (5) develop the traits, styles, and skills associated with successful leadership; and (6) provide team training for the cath lab team. PMID:26028665

  14. Team performance in process control: influences of interface design and staffing levels.

    PubMed

    Sebok, A

    2000-08-01

    A study performed at the OECD Halden Reactor Project compared the effects of interface design and staffing levels on various aspects of team performance. Teams of nuclear power plant operators participated in challenging simulator scenarios, working in either a simulated conventional plant, with a hard-control interface, or in a simulated advanced plant, with a computerized interface. Two-team staffing levels, normal and minimum, were evaluated in each plant condition. All teams participated in the same five study conditions, lasting 1-3 h each. Several measures assessed team performance: situation awareness, workload, rated team interactions, rated overall performance and objective performance. The findings revealed that combinations of interface design and staffing levels supported different aspects of performance. Larger crews consistently performed better than smaller crews in the conventional plant. In the advanced plant, both crew types performed equally well; however, smaller crews had better situation awareness than larger crews. In general, performance was better for crews using the advanced plant interface, but workload was higher. Workload also was consistently higher in the smaller crews than in the larger crews, regardless of interface type. Links between the performance measures were also noted. PMID:10975181

  15. A comparison of mental strategies during athletic skills performance.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Eugenio A; Ross, Michael J; Gfeller, Jeffrey D; Lavoie, Donna J

    2005-12-01

    The current study examined the effects of performance enhancement techniques (PET's) on motor skill performance. Specifically, one hundred fifty college student volunteers (Men = 41; 27.3% and Women = 109; 72.6%) were randomly assigned to one of the nine conditions (Cond): Cond 1 and 2, simultaneous, externally verbalized self-talk or imagery (e.g., participants were instructed to say "aim, back, birdie "or engaged in imagery out loud while putting); Cond 3 and 4, delayed externally verbalized self-talk or imagery (e.g., participants were instructed to say "aim, back, birdie "or engaged in imagery out loud before putting); Cond 5 and 6, simultaneous, internally verbalized self-talk or imagery (e.g., participants were instructed to say "aim, back, birdie "or engaged in imagery silently to oneself while putting); Cond 7 and 8, delayed internally verbalized (e.g., participant were instructed to say "aim, back, birdie "or engaged in imagery silently to oneself before putting); and Cond 9, no instruction control group. All participants were asked to perform a golf-putting task. Results indicated that participants who implemented several (PET's) increased their putting accuracy across overall difference score evaluations F (8, 141) = 4.01, p < 0.05 when compared to a no instruction control condition. Follow-up analyses indicated that participants who reportedly engaged in ten hours or less of athletic activities per week preferred self-talk strategies F (2, 119) = 4.38, p < 0.05 whereas participants who endorsed ten hours or more of athletic activity per week preferred imagery strategies F (2, 25) = 5.27, p < 0.05. Key PointsMental imagery and self-talk strategies are implemented by athletes in order to regulate arousal, reduce maladaptive behaviors, reconstruct negative thoughts, and to increase one's concentration and focus.Results of the current study suggest that participants who engaged in several performance enhancement techniques exhibited enhanced performance on a golf putting task when compared to participants in a control condition.Participants who endorsed limited athletic familiarity and activity (e.g., ten hours or less) preferred self-talk practice whereas participants who endorsed higher ratings scores of athletic familiarity and activity (e.g., ten hours or more) preferred imagery strategies.The results of this study demonstrate the flexibility of Performance Enhancement Techniques (e.g., imagery v. self-talk, internal v. external, simultaneous v. delayed) and how they can be implemented to help an athlete reach his or her full potential. PMID:24501566

  16. Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: performance expectations of residency program directors

    PubMed Central

    Langenau, Erik E.; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Roberts, William L.; DeChamplain, Andre F.; Boulet, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%), advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) (91.1%), basic life support (BLS) (90.0%), interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4%) and blood gas (88.7%). Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later) and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%), sterile technique (67.2%), BLS (68.9%), ACLS (65.9%) and phlebotomy (63.5%). Discussion Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the first year of residency training or later. Conclusions Gathering data from residency program directors provides support for developing new assessment tools in high-stakes licensing examinations. PMID:22833698

  17. Oral Communication Skills in Higher Education: Using a Performance-Based Evaluation Rubric to Assess Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Norah E.; Brooks, Catherine F.; Kubicka-Miller, Tara

    2006-01-01

    This study used "The Competent Speaker", a rubric developed by the National Communication Association (S. P. Morreale, M. R. Moore, K. P. Taylor, D. Surges-Tatum, & R. Hulbert-Johnson, 1993), to evaluate student performance in general education public speaking courses as a case study of student skills and programmatic assessment. Results indicate…

  18. The Role of a Multidimensional Concept of Trust in the Performance of Global Virtual Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodensteiner, Nan Muir; Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the concept of trust as an important ingredient of effective global virtual team performance. Definitions of trust and virtual teams are presented. The concept of trust is developed from its unilateral application (trust, absence of trust) to a multidimensional concept including cognitive and affective components. The special challenges of a virtual team are then discussed with particular emphasis on how a multidimensional concept of trust impacts these challenges. Propositions suggesting the multidimensional concept of trust moderates the negative impacts of distance, cross cultural and organizational differences, the effects of electronically mediated communication, reluctance to share information and a lack of hi story/future on the performance of virtual teams are stated. The paper concludes with recommendations and a set of techniques to build both cognitive and affective trust in virtual teams.

  19. Technical performance effectiveness subsequent to complex motor skills training in young boxers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Said El Ashker

    2011-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that comprises a wide variety of integrated offensive, defensive and counter-attack skills performed in an unpredictable environment. Mastering the variety of complex motor skills (CMS) that are required in a boxing match allows the player to employ the best motor performance in most positions of the actual game. This study aimed to assess the associations between

  20. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

  1. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

  2. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

  3. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

  4. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

  5. Social Skill as Moderator of the Conscientiousness-Performance Relationship: Convergent Results Across Four Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Witt; Gerald R. Ferris

    2003-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies to test the hypothesis that the relationship between Conscientiousness and job performance reflecting interpersonal effectiveness is more strongly positive among workers who are higher rather than lower in social skill. Results of hierarchical moderated regression analyses supported the hypothesis in all 4 studies. Among workers high in social skill, Conscientiousness was positively related to performance.

  6. Development of Sensor-Based Measures of Rifle Marksmanship Skill and Performance. CRESST Report 756

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Paul D.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Parks, Daniel; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of rifle marksmanship skill and performance were developed using a prototype instrumented laser-based training system. Measures of performance were derived from laser strikes on a video-projected target. Measures of rifle marksmanship skill--breath control, trigger control, and muzzle wobble--were developed from shooters' breathing and…

  7. Two-Sided Search, Heterogeneous Skills and Labor Market Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Danthine

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative model of two-sided search with ex-ante heterogeneity in both worker and entrepreneurial skills is proposed. It is possible to characterize both the competitive equilibrium and the optimal solution numerically. The competitive equilibrium is shown to be suboptimal. Less-skilled workers and firms are too selective, not matching with their comparable counterparts. High-types, on the other hand, are not selective

  8. Investigation of team dynamics and group performance in the product engineering process

    E-print Network

    Lee, Stephanie K. (Stephanie Kwai Ling)

    2006-01-01

    The cultural traits of a project engineering team can strongly influence the performance of its members and the quality of the product. The 2.009 Product Engineering Processes class provides an opportunity for investigating ...

  9. When paying attention becomes counterproductive: impact of divided versus skill-focused attention on novice and experienced performance of sensorimotor skills.

    PubMed

    Beilock, Sian L; Carr, Thomas H; MacMahon, Clare; Starkes, Janet L

    2002-03-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of attention on sensorimotor skills. In Experiment 1, experienced golfers putted under dual-task conditions designed to distract attention from putting and under skill-focused conditions that prompted attention to step-by-step putting performance. Dual-task condition putting was more accurate. In Experiment 2, right-footed novice and experienced soccer players dribbled through a slalom course under dual-task or skill-focused conditions. When using their dominant right foot, experts again performed better in the dual-task condition. However, when using their less proficient left foot, experts performed better in the skill-focused condition. Novices performed better under skill-focus regardless of foot. Whereas novices and the less-proficient performances of experts benefit from online attentional monitoring of step-by-step performance, high-level skill execution is harmed. PMID:12009178

  10. Believing in "us": exploring leaders' capacity to enhance team confidence and performance by building a sense of shared social identity.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Steffens, Niklas K; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Boen, Filip

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined the impact of athlete leaders' perceived confidence on their teammates' confidence and performance. Male basketball players (N = 102) participated in groups of 4. To manipulate leaders' team confidence, the appointed athlete leader of each newly formed basketball team (a confederate) expressed either high or low team confidence. The results revealed an effect of team confidence contagion such that team members had greater team confidence when the leader expressed high (rather than low) confidence in the team's success. Second, the present study sought to explain the mechanisms through which this contagion occurs. In line with the social identity approach to leadership, structural equation modeling demonstrated that this effect was partially mediated by team members' increased team identification. Third, findings indicated that when leaders expressed high team confidence, team members' performance increased during the test, but when leaders expressed low confidence, team members' performance decreased. Athlete leaders thus have the capacity to shape team members' confidence--and hence their performance--in both positive and negative ways. In particular, by showing that they believe in "our team," leaders are able not only to make "us" a psychological reality, but also to transform "us" into an effective operational unit. PMID:25401268

  11. False alarm demand: A new metric for measuring robot performance in human robot teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohan Rajesh Elara; Carlos A. Acosta Calderon; Changjiu Zhou; Wijerupage Sardha Wijesoma

    2009-01-01

    Performance of robots in human robot teams has always been a topic of interest for many researchers in human robot interaction community. Traditionally adopted Crandall's model for performance measurements assume ideal conditions in which the operator switches control between robots sequentially based on acceptable performance level ignoring any false alarms due to erroneous interactions. In this paper, we present the

  12. Performance Consistency of International Soccer Teams in Euro 2012: a Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shafizadeh, Mohsen; Taylor, Marc; Peńas, Carlos Lago

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of performance in successive matches for international soccer teams from Europe which qualified for the quarter final stage of EURO 2012 in Poland and Ukraine. The eight teams that reached the quarter final stage and beyond were the sample teams for this time series analysis. The autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions were used to analyze the consistency of play and its association with the result of match in sixteen performance indicators of each team. The results of autocorrelation function showed that based on the number of consistent performance indicators, Spain and Italy demonstrated more consistency in successive matches in relation to other teams. This appears intuitive given that Spain played Italy in the final. However, it is arguable that other teams played at a higher performance levels at various parts of the competition, as opposed to performing consistently throughout the tournament. The results of the cross-correlation analysis showed that in relation to goal-related indicators, these had higher associations with the match results of Spain and France. In relation to the offensive-related indicators, France, England, Portugal, Greece, Czech Republic and Spain showed a positive correlation with the match result. In relation to the defensive-related indicators, France, England, Greece and Portugal showed a positive correlation with match results. In conclusion, in an international soccer tournament, the successful teams displayed a greater degree of performance consistency across all indicators in comparison to their competitors who occasionally would show higher levels of performance in individual games, yet not consistently across the overall tournament. The authors therefore conclude that performance consistency is more significant in international tournament soccer, versus occasionally excelling in some metrics and indicators in particular games. PMID:24235996

  13. Motor skill performance and sports participation in deaf elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine their active involvement in organized sports. The deaf children had significantly more borderline and definite motor problems than the normative sample: 62% (manual dexterity), 52% (ball skills), and 45% (balance skills). Participation in organized sports was reported by 43% of the children; these children showed better performance on ball skills and dynamic balance. This study demonstrates the importance of improving deaf children's motor skill performance, which might contribute positively to their sports participation. PMID:21757785

  14. Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

    A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal…

  15. Assessing Motor and Sport Skill Performance. Two Practical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Brett

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two practical assessment procedures that enable teachers to use time more efficiently in physical education class. One approach is for teachers who want to use validated or invalidated skills tests, and the other approach takes advantage of instructional progression steps. (SM)

  16. The Columbia-Willamette Skill Builders Consortium. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Community Coll., OR.

    The Columbia-Willamette Skill Builders Consortium was formed in early 1988 in response to a growing awareness of the need for improved workplace literacy training and coordinated service delivery in Northwest Oregon. In June 1990, the consortium received a National Workplace Literacy Program grant to develop and demonstrate such training. The…

  17. Arizona Essential Skills for Performing Arts, K-12. Dance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This manual on dance education focuses on relating dance to the entire curriculum and bringing creative energy to learning. Dance activities can be used in the: (1) perceptual/motor domain to facilitate the acquisition of learning readiness skills; (2) cognitive domain to clarify and amplify subject area concepts through physical experience; and…

  18. A theoretical framework for examining foundational instructional materials supporting the acquisition of performance skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Heuser

    Conventional approaches to beginning instrumental performance instruction and the teaching materials supporting this process tend to stress technique acquisition and the ability to read written music. Available beginning level instructional materials tend to focus on skill development and note reading thereby doing little to facilitate the acquisition of functional aural skills, to create an awareness of tonality, or to help

  19. A Longitudinal Assessment of Executive Function Skills and Their Association with Math Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michčle M. M. Mazzocco; Sara T. Kover

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine both concurrent and predictive associations between scores on a measure of executive function (EF) skills, the Contingency Naming Test (CNT), during the early school-age years. A secondary aim of the study was to examine the association between EF skills and mathematics performance. We administered tests of mathematics ability, and the CNT, to 178

  20. Information and Strategic Internet Skills of Secondary Students: A Performance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deursen, A. J. A. M.; van Diepen, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the information and strategic Internet skills of Dutch secondary students were measured in a performance test. Participating students were asked to complete assignments on the Internet. The findings reveal that the levels of both information and strategic Internet skills have much room for improvement. Of the variables that…

  1. Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

  2. Contribution of cross-functional teams to the improvement in operational performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Santa; Mario Ferrer; Phil Bretherton; Paul Hyland

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of cross-functional teams in the alignment between system effectiveness and operational effectiveness after the implementation of enterprise information systems (EIS). In addition, it aims to explore the contribution of cross-functional teams to improvement in operational performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods,

  3. Behavioral and Brain Dynamics of Team Coordination Part II: Neurobehavioral Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Tognoli; A. J. Kovacs; B. Suutari; D. Afergan; J. Coyne; G. Gibson; R. Stripling; J. A. S. Kelso

    \\u000a In this study, pairs of subjects performed a team-intensive task with the shared goal of clearing a virtual room from threats.\\u000a The neurobehavioral dynamics of both subjects was analyzed to identify signatures of efficient team work. An ecologically\\u000a valid task of room clearing was designed and a novel analysis framework was developed to address the challenge of understanding\\u000a complex, continuous

  4. Training to Enhance Design Team Performance: A Cure for Tunnel Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, James W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Design Team performance is a function of the quality and degree of academic training and the cumulative, learned experience of the individual members of the team. Teamwork, leadership, and communications certainly are factors that affect the measure of the performance of the team, but they are not addressed here. This paper focuses on accelerating the learned experience of team members and describes an organizational approach that can significantly increase the effective experience level for any engineering design team. The performance measure of the whole team can be increased by increasing the engineering disciplines' cross awareness of each other and by familiarizing them with their affect at the system level. Discipline engineers know their own discipline well, but typically are not intimately familiar with their technical interaction with and dependencies on all the other disciplines of engineering. These dependencies are design integration functions and are worked out well by the discipline engineers as long as they are involved in the design of types of systems that they have experience with.

  5. Modelling the Progression of Competitive Performance of an Academy’s Soccer Teams

    PubMed Central

    Malcata, Rita M.; Hopkins, Will G; Richardson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Progression of a team’s performance is a key issue in competitive sport, but there appears to have been no published research on team progression for periods longer than a season. In this study we report the game-score progression of three teams of a youth talent-development academy over five seasons using a novel analytic approach based on generalised mixed modelling. The teams consisted of players born in 1991, 1992 and 1993; they played totals of 115, 107 and 122 games in Asia and Europe between 2005 and 2010 against teams differing in age by up to 3 years. Game scores predicted by the mixed model were assumed to have an over-dispersed Poisson distribution. The fixed effects in the model estimated an annual linear pro-gression for Aspire and for the other teams (grouped as a single opponent) with adjustment for home-ground advantage and for a linear effect of age difference between competing teams. A random effect allowed for different mean scores for Aspire and opposition teams. All effects were estimated as factors via log-transformation and presented as percent differences in scores. Inferences were based on the span of 90% confidence intervals in relation to thresholds for small factor effects of x/÷1.10 (+10%/-9%). Most effects were clear only when data for the three teams were combined. Older teams showed a small 27% increase in goals scored per year of age difference (90% confidence interval 13 to 42%). Aspire experienced a small home-ground advantage of 16% (-5 to 41%), whereas opposition teams experienced 31% (7 to 60%) on their own ground. After adjustment for these effects, the Aspire teams scored on average 1.5 goals per match, with little change in the five years of their existence, whereas their opponents’ scores fell from 1.4 in their first year to 1.0 in their last. The difference in progression was trivial over one year (7%, -4 to 20%), small over two years (15%, -8 to 44%), but unclear over >2 years. In conclusion, the generalized mixed model has marginal utility for estimating progression of soccer scores, owing to the uncertainty arising from low game scores. The estimates are likely to be more precise and useful in sports with higher game scores. Key pointsA generalized linear mixed model is the approach for tracking game scores, key performance indicators or other measures of performance based on counts in sports where changes within and/or between games/seasons have to be considered.Game scores in soccer could be useful to track performance progression of teams, but hundreds of games are needed.Fewer games will be needed for tracking performance represented by counts with high scores, such as game scores in rugby or key performance indicators based on frequent events or player actions in any team sport. PMID:24149364

  6. The performance environment of the England youth soccer teams: A quantitative investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Pain; Chris G. Harwood

    2008-01-01

    We examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a conceptually grounded questionnaire developed from the themes identified by Pain and Harwood (2007), 82 players and 23 national coaches and support staff were surveyed directly following international tournaments regarding the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. The survey enabled data to be captured regarding both the

  7. Student teams and comparison among equals: Effects on academic performance and student attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Slavin

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the independent effects of level of reward (recognition based on the performance of a 4- to 5-member cooperative learning team vs recognition based on individual performance) and comparison of student quiz scores (comparison with ability-homogeneous groups vs comparison with entire class) on student achievement and attitudes. Ss were 205 7th graders in 8 intact English classes. The experiment used

  8. Coach Mid-Season Replacement and Team Performance in Professional Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Lago-Peńas, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The coaching carousel or turnover is an extreme but frequently occurring phenomenon in soccer. Among the reasons for firing a coach, the most common is the existence of a shock-effect: a new coach would be able to motivate the players better and therefore to improve results. Using data from the Spanish Soccer League during the seasons from 1997–1998 to 2006–2007, this paper investigates the relationship between team performance and coach change over time. The empirical analysis shows that the shock effect of a turnover has a positive impact on team performance in the short term. Results reveal no impact of coach turnover in the long term. The favourable short-term impact on team performance of a coach turnover is followed by continued gradual worsening of results. The turnover effect is nonexistent when the comparison between the new coach and the old coach is done over 10, 15 or 20 matches before and after termination. PMID:23487177

  9. The importance of vertical and shared leadership within new venture top management teams: Implications for the performance of startups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Ensley; Keith M. Hmieleski; Craig L. Pearce

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated the relative influence of vertical versus shared leadership within new venture top management teams on the performance of startups using two different samples. Vertical leadership stems from an appointed or formal leader of a team (e.g., the CEO), whereas shared leadership is a form of distributed leadership stemming from within a team. Transformational, transactional, empowering, and

  10. Testing the Causality between Team Performance and Payroll: The Cases of Major League Baseball and English Soccer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Hall; Stefan Szymanski; Andrew S. Zimbalist

    2002-01-01

    The link between team payroll and competitive balance plays a central role in the theory of team sports but is seldom investigated empirically. This paper uses data on team payrolls in Major League Baseball between 1980 and 2000 to examine the link and implements Granger causality tests to establish whether the relationship runs from payroll to performance or vice versa.

  11. Modelling the Progression of Competitive Performance of an Academy's Soccer Teams.

    PubMed

    Malcata, Rita M; Hopkins, Will G; Richardson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Progression of a team's performance is a key issue in competitive sport, but there appears to have been no published research on team progression for periods longer than a season. In this study we report the game-score progression of three teams of a youth talent-development academy over five seasons using a novel analytic approach based on generalised mixed modelling. The teams consisted of players born in 1991, 1992 and 1993; they played totals of 115, 107 and 122 games in Asia and Europe between 2005 and 2010 against teams differing in age by up to 3 years. Game scores predicted by the mixed model were assumed to have an over-dispersed Poisson distribution. The fixed effects in the model estimated an annual linear pro-gression for Aspire and for the other teams (grouped as a single opponent) with adjustment for home-ground advantage and for a linear effect of age difference between competing teams. A random effect allowed for different mean scores for Aspire and opposition teams. All effects were estimated as factors via log-transformation and presented as percent differences in scores. Inferences were based on the span of 90% confidence intervals in relation to thresholds for small factor effects of x/÷1.10 (+10%/-9%). Most effects were clear only when data for the three teams were combined. Older teams showed a small 27% increase in goals scored per year of age difference (90% confidence interval 13 to 42%). Aspire experienced a small home-ground advantage of 16% (-5 to 41%), whereas opposition teams experienced 31% (7 to 60%) on their own ground. After adjustment for these effects, the Aspire teams scored on average 1.5 goals per match, with little change in the five years of their existence, whereas their opponents' scores fell from 1.4 in their first year to 1.0 in their last. The difference in progression was trivial over one year (7%, -4 to 20%), small over two years (15%, -8 to 44%), but unclear over >2 years. In conclusion, the generalized mixed model has marginal utility for estimating progression of soccer scores, owing to the uncertainty arising from low game scores. The estimates are likely to be more precise and useful in sports with higher game scores. Key pointsA generalized linear mixed model is the approach for tracking game scores, key performance indicators or other measures of performance based on counts in sports where changes within and/or between games/seasons have to be considered.Game scores in soccer could be useful to track performance progression of teams, but hundreds of games are needed.Fewer games will be needed for tracking performance represented by counts with high scores, such as game scores in rugby or key performance indicators based on frequent events or player actions in any team sport. PMID:24149364

  12. Transformational leadership: relations to the five-factor model and team performance in typical and maximum contexts.

    PubMed

    Lim, Beng-Chong; Ployhart, Robert E

    2004-08-01

    This study examined the 5-factor model of personality, transformational leadership, and team performance under conditions similar to typical and maximum performance contexts. Data were collected from 39 combat teams from an Asian military sample (N = 276). Results found that neuroticism and agreeableness were negatively related to transformational leadership ratings. Team performance ratings correlated at only.18 across the typical and maximum contexts. Furthermore, transformational leadership related more strongly to team performance in the maximum rather than the typical context. Finally, transformational leadership fully mediated the relationship between leader personality and team performance in the maximum context but only partially mediated the relationship between leader personality and team performance in the typical context. The Discussion section focuses on how these findings, although interesting, need to be replicated with different designs, contexts, and measures. PMID:15327348

  13. Using a Surrogate Test of Math Skills to Predict Performance of Non-Traditional Accounting Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Jonathan B.

    1989-01-01

    A study was designed to predict student performance in the introductory accounting course, specifically the performance of nontraditional students. A predictive instrument to measure mathematical abilities was employed; outcomes were compared to individuals' final course grade. Results indicate that a brief math skills test can predict performance

  14. Predicting Students' Performance with SimStudent: Learning Cognitive Skills from Observation1

    E-print Network

    Matsuda, Noboru

    Predicting Students' Performance with SimStudent: Learning Cognitive Skills from Observation1 students solving problems. It then creates a cognitive model that can replicate the students' performance. If the model is accurate, it would predict the human students' performance on novel problems. An evaluation

  15. Cognitive-behaviour therapy and skilled motor performance in adults with chronic tic disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kieron P. Oconnor; Marc E. Lavoie; Emmanuel Stip; François Borgeat; Anick Laverdure

    2008-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of

  16. Assessment of Team Leader Effectiveness Within Self-Managed Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gust-Thomason, Suzzanne; Yantis, John T.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study that attempts to assess team leader skills and effectiveness within self-managed teams at the College of the Mainland in Texas. Indicates that communication skills, problem solving, and defining team goals were the skills participants considered most important in a leader. (JDI)

  17. Multiple measures of visual attention predict novice motor skill performance when attention is focused externally.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Ryan W; Elliott, James C; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2012-10-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the control of attention and motor skill performance are related. Athletes of various skill levels differ in terms of their control over the focus of attention and directing athletes to adopt an internal or external focus of attention modulates performance. However, it is unclear (a) whether the relationship between skill level and attentional control arises from preexisting individual differences in attention or from practice of the motor skill and (b) whether the effect of adopting an internal or external focus of attention on motor performance is influenced by individual differences in attention. To address these issues, individuals were measured on three distinct attention functions - orienting, alerting, and executive - prior to engaging in a novel golf-putting task performed with either external or internal focus instructions. The results indicated that, on average, attentional functioning and putting performance were related but that the strong relationships with orienting and executive attention were only present in the group given external focus instructions. These findings suggest that individual differences in attentional abilities are predictive of novel skill performance under an external focus of attention and they shed light on the mechanisms underlying the effects of focus instructions during motor performance. PMID:22516836

  18. Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematics Skills

    PubMed Central

    Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematics skills was evaluated. Spatial skill independently predicted a significant amount of the variability in concurrent mathematics performance. Finally, the relationship between spatial assembly skill and socioeconomic status, gender, and parent-reported spatial language was examined. While children's performance did not differ by gender, lower-SES children were already lagging behind higher-SES children in block assembly. Furthermore, lower-SES parents reported using significantly fewer spatial words with their children. PMID:24112041

  19. How we built our team: collaborating with partners to strengthen skills in pregnancy, delivery, and newborn care.

    PubMed

    Pecci, Christine Chang; Hines, Thomas C; Williams, Charles T; Culpepper, Larry

    2012-01-01

    We describe how collaboration with outpatient community health centers and other disciplines resulted in the creation of a novel interdisciplinary inpatient maternal child health system that focuses on safety and collaboration. Our maternal child health faculty team includes a mix of fellowship- and non-fellowship-trained, inpatient- and outpatient-based family physicians. Our team provides a sustainable framework for faculty to practice both inpatient and outpatient maternity care and provides strong role models for our trainees. PMID:22773719

  20. Factors that Facilitated an Alabama School Assistance Team's Success in a Low-Performing School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Virginia; Kochan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the perceived factors that enabled an Alabama School Assistance Team (ASAT) to be effective in helping improve a low performing school. A case study was conducted with the ASATs and the Local Education Agency (LEA) site they served. Data were collected from interviews, documents and observations. The perceptions explored in…

  1. The performance environment of the England youth soccer teams: a quantitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Pain, Matthew A; Harwood, Chris G

    2008-09-01

    We examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a conceptually grounded questionnaire developed from the themes identified by Pain and Harwood (2007), 82 players and 23 national coaches and support staff were surveyed directly following international tournaments regarding the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. The survey enabled data to be captured regarding both the extent and magnitude of the impact of the factors comprising the performance environment. Overall, team and social factors were generally perceived to have the greatest positive impact, with players and staff showing high levels of consensus in their evaluations. Team leadership and strong team cohesion were identified by both groups as having the greatest positive impact. Overall, far fewer variables were perceived to have a negative impact on performance, especially for players. The main negatives common to both groups were players losing composure during games, player boredom, and a lack of available activities in the hotel. The major findings support those of Pain and Harwood (2007) and in using a larger sample helped to corroborate and strengthen the generalizability of the findings. PMID:18720205

  2. A Memory Game to Demonstrate the Power of Collaborative Efforts to Improve Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buche, Mari W.

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration is an important aspect of information systems (IS) education since work is typically performed in teams. However, IS students often do not fully appreciate the value of group work in their business courses. This teaching tip describes an activity that will objectively demonstrate the value of collaboration and diversity of…

  3. Linking top management team age heterogeneity to firm performance: juxtaposing two mid-range theories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orlando C. Richard; Roger M. Shelor

    2002-01-01

    Previous research on top management team heterogeneity and firm performance has focused almost exclusively on the non-visible attributes (e.g. functional background, tenure) of cultural diversity as opposed to the visible attributes (e.g. age, race and gender). The few studies there are show inconsistent results. For example, most field work - consistent with social identity theory notions - shows that cultural

  4. Have Basic Mathematical Skills Grown Obsolete in the Computer Age: Assessing Basic Mathematical Skills and Forecasting Performance in a Business Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noser, Thomas C.; Tanner, John R.; Shah, Situl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the comprehension of basic mathematical skills of students enrolled in statistics classes at a large regional university, and to determine if the scores earned on a basic math skills test are useful in forecasting student performance in these statistics classes, and to determine if students' basic math…

  5. A study on the effect of varying sequence of lab performance skills on lab performance of high school physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bournia-Petrou, Ethel A.

    The main goal of this investigation was to study how student rank in class, student gender and skill sequence affect high school students' performance on the lab skills involved in a laboratory-based inquiry task in physics. The focus of the investigation was the effect of skill sequence as determined by the particular task. The skills considered were: Hypothesis, Procedure, Planning, Data, Graph, Calculations and Conclusion. Three physics lab tasks based on the simple pendulum concept were administered to 282 Regents physics high school students. The reliability of the designed tasks was high. Student performance was evaluated on individual student written responses and a scoring rubric. The tasks had high discrimination power and were of moderate difficulty (65%). It was found that, student performance was weak on Conclusion (42%), Hypothesis (48%), and Procedure (51%), where the numbers in parentheses represent the mean as a percentage of the maximum possible score. Student performance was strong on Calculations (91%), Data (82%), Graph (74%) and Plan (68%). Out of all seven skills, Procedure had the strongest correlation (.73) with the overall task performance. Correlation analysis revealed some strong relationships among the seven skills which were grouped in two distinct clusters: Hypothesis, Procedure and Plan belong to one, and Data, Graph, Calculations, and Conclusion belong to the other. This distinction may indicate different mental processes at play within each skill cluster. The effect of student rank was not statistically significant according to the MANOVA results due to the large variation of rank levels among the participating schools. The effect of gender was significant on the entire test because of performance differences on Calculations and Graph, where male students performed better than female students. Skill sequence had a significant effect on the skills of Procedure, Plan, Data and Conclusion. Students are rather weak in proposing a sensible, detailed procedure for the inquiry task which involves the "novel" concept. However they perform better on Procedure and Plan, if the "novel" task is not preceded by another, which explicitly offers step-by-step procedure instructions. It was concluded that the format of detailed, structured instructions often adopted by many commercial and school-developed lab books and conventional lab practices, fails to prepare students to propose a successful, detailed procedure when faced with a slightly "novel", lab-based inquiry task. Student performance on Data collection was higher in the tasks that involved the more familiar experimental arrangement than in the tasks using the slightly "novel" equipment. Student performance on Conclusion was better in tasks where they had to collect the Data themselves than in tasks, where all relevant Data information was given to them.

  6. How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.

    PubMed

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25000359

  7. Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-12-01

    Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies. PMID:25400063

  8. Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance

    PubMed Central

    Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilali?, Merim

    2014-01-01

    Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes. PMID:25202292

  9. Defining Administrative Tasks, Evaluating Performance, and Developing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Janice L.; Herman, Jerry J.

    1995-01-01

    To ensure high performance, administrators should develop an articulated structure and process systems approach that identifies the critical success factors (CSFs) of performance for each position; appropriate indicators and scales; and a personal-improvement plan based on last year's evaluation. Once CSFs are identified and written into the…

  10. Estimation of Characteristics of a Software Team for Implementing Effective Inspection Process through Inspection Performance Metric

    E-print Network

    Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    The continued existence of any software industry depends on its capability to develop nearly zero-defect product, which is achievable through effective defect management. Inspection has proven to be one of the promising techniques of defect management. Introductions of metrics like, Depth of Inspection (DI, a process metric) and Inspection Performance Metric (IPM, a people metric) enable one to have an appropriate measurement of inspection technique. This article elucidates a mathematical approach to estimate the IPM value without depending on shop floor defect count at every time. By applying multiple linear regression models, a set of characteristic coefficients of the team is evaluated. These coefficients are calculated from the empirical projects that are sampled from the teams of product-based and service-based IT industries. A sample of three verification projects indicates a close match between the IPM values obtained from the defect count (IPMdc) and IPM values obtained using the team coefficients usi...

  11. PLATT: a flexible platform for experimental research on team performance in complex environments.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Wim; Essens, Peter J M D; Houttuin, Kees; Gaillard, Anthony W K

    2010-08-01

    The present article introduces PLATT, a recently developed task environment for controlled experimental research on team performance in complex environments. PLATT was developed to meet the research demands posed by the complexity that present-day teams face. It consists of a flexible, modular software architecture and research-specific scenarios. The scenarios can target various types of tasks (e.g., planning, problem solving, and decision making) in different operational contexts. Different software configurations can be used to investigate questions pertaining to team structure, team virtuality, and multiteam systems. We describe the software architecture, one of the scenarios, and the broad range of automated and embedded measurement possibilities that PLATT offers. To illustrate PLATT's possibilities, in the present article, we describe a number of experiments that have used PLATT for a variety of research questions. We conclude that PLATT meets the formulated research demands and provides researchers with a flexible platform to investigate the complex issues that present-day teams face. PMID:20805596

  12. Modeling and Quantification of Team Performance in Human Reliability Analysis for Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. JOe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) are important technical contributors to the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) risk-informed and performance based approach to regulating U.S. commercial nuclear activities. Furthermore, all currently operating commercial NPPs in the U.S. are required by federal regulation to be staffed with crews of operators. Yet, aspects of team performance are underspecified in most HRA methods that are widely used in the nuclear industry. There are a variety of "emergent" team cognition and teamwork errors (e.g., communication errors) that are 1) distinct from individual human errors, and 2) important to understand from a PRA perspective. The lack of robust models or quantification of team performance is an issue that affects the accuracy and validity of HRA methods and models, leading to significant uncertainty in estimating HEPs. This paper describes research that has the objective to model and quantify team dynamics and teamwork within NPP control room crews for risk informed applications, thereby improving the technical basis of HRA, which improves the risk-informed approach the NRC uses to regulate the U.S. commercial nuclear industry.

  13. Anthropometric, physiological and performance characteristics of elite team-handball players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anis Chaouachi; Matt Brughelli; Gregory Levin; Nahla Ben Brahim Boudhina; John Cronin; Karim Chamari

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide anthropometric, physiological, and performance characteristics of an elite international handball team. Twenty-one elite handball players were tested and categorized according to their playing positions (goalkeepers, backs, pivots, and wings). Testing consisted of anthropometric and physiological measures of height, body mass, percentage body fat and endurance ([Vdot]O2max), performance measures of speed (5, 10,

  14. Human performance moderator functions for human-robot peer-based teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline E. Harriott; Julie A. Adams

    2010-01-01

    Interaction between humans and robots in peer-based teams can be dramatically affected by human performance. Our research is focused on determining if existing human performance moderator functions apply to peer-based human-robot interaction and if not, how such functions must be modified. Our initial work focuses on modeling workload. Validation of the models will require human subject evaluations. Future work will

  15. Personal Performance Plan: Application of Mental Skills Training to Real-World Military Tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven DeWiggins; Brian Hite; Valerie Alston

    2010-01-01

    Recently, several authors have discussed the potential benefits of interdisciplinary cooperation between the military and the field of performance psychology. The purpose of this article is to build upon their suggestions by presenting a phased approach to mental skills training grounded in performance, learning, and military literature that can be applied to a wide variety of military tasks. After discussing

  16. The Impact of Performance Skills on Students' Attitudes towards the Learning Experience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hains-Wesson, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    One way to assist in transforming a lecture experience into an occasion that can attract and engage students is via the use of performance techniques. Investigating the impact of certain types of performance skills on students' attitudes towards the learning experience can help better understand the relevance of such techniques in face to face and…

  17. Skill Acquisition in Music Performance: Relations between Planning and Temporal Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Carolyn; Palmer, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated acquisition of music performance skills over 11 practice trials in novice and expert pianists differing in age, training, and sight-reading ability. The finding of a strong positive relationship between the mastery of temporal constraints and planning abilities within performance suggested that these two cognitive…

  18. The effects of a mental skills package on ‘repeatable good performance’ in cricketers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C Thelwell; I. W Maynard

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the efficacy of a mental skills package to both improve consistency and level of performance in cricketers, and to investigate the influence of different performance measures on cricketing performance.Method: Semi-professional cricketers (n=16) were matched into experimental and control groups. Cricketing performance was monitored subjectively and objectively across two seasons. Prior to the second season, the experimental group

  19. Validation of a Self-Efficacy Instrument and Its Relationship to Performance of Crisis Resource Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Jennifer L.; van Schaik, Sandrijn M.; Sliwka, Diane C.; Boscardin, Christy K.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.

    2011-01-01

    Self-efficacy is thought to be important for resuscitation proficiency in that it influences the development of and access to the associated medical knowledge, procedural skills and crisis resource management (CRM) skills. Since performance assessment of CRM skills is challenging, self-efficacy is often used as a measure of competence in this…

  20. Individual vs. Team Competition: The Interpersonal Consequences of Academic Performance. Center for Social Organization of Schools, Report Number 188.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; And Others

    This study utilized the Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT) concept, an educational technique employing team competition within the classroom. The hypothesis was that mediating TGT's effects on academic performance is a change in the relationship between academic performance and sociometric status of students. Subjects were 232 seventh grade students…

  1. The impact of cross-functional teams on operational performance after the implementation of intelligent information systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Santa; W K Daniel Pun

    2009-01-01

    This study examines cross-functional teams and their impact in line with operational performance and system effectiveness after the implementation of intelligent information and retrieval systems in organisations. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the structural relationships and look for the phenomenon of cross-functional teams, operational effectiveness, and system effectiveness in the betterment of operational performance. Preliminary findings suggest that

  2. Previous-day hypohydration impairs skill performance in elite female field hockey players.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, H; Sunderland, C

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 2% hypohydration on skill performance in elite female field hockey players following intermittent exercise in the heat. Eight elite female field hockey players performed 50 min of a field hockey-specific intermittent treadmill running protocol (FHITP) in hot environmental conditions (33 °C, 60% relative humidity) in different hydration states: euhydrated (EUH) and hypohydrated by 2% body mass (HYPO). Hydration status was manipulated via a period (121±10 min) of passive hyperthermia (40 °C, 75% relative humidity) and controlled fluid intake 1 day preceding testing. Ad libitum fluid intake was permitted throughout both trials. Field hockey skill tests were performed pre- and post-FHITP. Skill performance time increased (P=0.029) in the HYPO trial compared with the EUH trial, which may be attributed to an increase in penalty time (P=0.024). Decision-making time increased (P=0.008) in the HYPO trial and was significantly impaired compared with EUH (P=0.016) pre-FHITP. Ad libitum drinking appeared to be sufficient to maintain decision-making performance as no interaction effects were evident post-FHITP. Players who commence match-play in a state of hypohydration may be susceptible to decrements in skill and decision-making performance. PMID:20973829

  3. Mental practice promotes motor anticipation: evidence from skilled music performance

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Nicolň F.; De Buglio, Matteo; Trimarchi, Pietro D.; Chielli, Alfonso; Bricolo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Mental practice (MP) has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP). Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of MP to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed. PMID:23970859

  4. Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC) during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  5. WRF Performance Skills in Predicting Rainfall Over the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, G. J. P.; Combinido, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used for predicting rainfall over the Philippines. The period of October 2013 to May 2014 is chosen for the evaluation because of the unprecedented number of new ground instruments (300 to 500 automated rain gauges). It also gives us a good statistical representation of wet and dry seasons in the country. The WRF model configuration makes use of NCEP FNL for the initial boundary condition. Hindcasts are produced at 12-km resolution with 12 hours up to 144 hours lead-time. To assess the predictability of rainfall, we look at the dichotomous case, wherein we evaluate if the model is able to predict correctly the number of rainfall events. The left column in Figure 1 shows the monthly Percent Correct and Critical Success Index (CSI) for different lead-time. Percent Correct represents how well the model performs, 1 being the highest score, with equal bearing on correct positives and correct negatives. On the other hand, CSI is a balanced score that accounts for false alarm and missed events - it has a range of 0 to 1, where 1 means perfect forecast. Results show that during the wet season (October, November and December), PC is approximately 0.7 while in dry season (January, February and March), PC reaches values of around 0.9, which suggests improvement in the performance from wet to dry season. The increase in performance is attributed to the increase in number of correct negatives during the dry season. The CSI score, which excludes the correct negatives, shows that the ability of WRF to predict rainfall events drastically decline in December or during the transition from wet to dry season. This is due to the inability of WRF to pinpoint exact locations of small convective rainfall events. The predictability of actual rainfall values is indicated by the Mean Absolute Errors (MAE) and Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) in Figure 1. The MAE for 3-hour accumulated rainfall is smallest during the dry season.

  6. An Investigation of the Effect of After-Action Reviews on Teams' Performance-Efficacy Relationships 

    E-print Network

    Schurig, Ira

    2012-07-16

    of information (e.g., team members? perceptions or objective performance feedback). This data verification process serves to minimize the effects of cognitive errors such as hindsight bias?the influence that knowledge of outcomes has on views of past... experiences (Fischhoff, 1982)?and confirmation bias?the tendency to overlook information not compatible with a priori hypotheses (Brehmer, 1980). Confronting different perceptions of the same data enables participants in AARs to integrate external sources...

  7. Physiological and performance test correlates of prolonged, high-intensity, intermittent running performance in moderately trained women team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Sirotic, Anita C; Coutts, Aaron J

    2007-02-01

    A large number of team sports require athletes to repeatedly produce maximal or near maximal sprint efforts of short duration interspersed with longer recovery periods of submaximal intensity. This type of team sport activity can be characterized as prolonged, high-intensity, intermittent running (PHIIR). The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the physiological factors that best relate to a generic PHIIR simulation that reflects team sport running activity. The second purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between common performance tests and the generic PHIIR simulation. Following a familiarization session, 16 moderately trained (VO2max = 40.0 +/- 4.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) women team sport athletes performed various physiological, anthropometrical, and performance tests and a 30-minute PHIIR sport simulation on a nonmotorized treadmill. The mean heart rate and blood lactate concentration during the PHIIR sport simulation were 164 +/- 6 b x min(-1) and 8.2 +/- 3.3 mmol x L(-1), respectively. Linear regression demonstrated significant relationships between the PHIIR sport simulation distance and running velocity attained at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol x L(-1) (LT) (r = 0.77, p < 0.05), 5 x 6-second repeated cycle sprint work (r = 0.56, p < 0.05), 30-second Wingate test (r = 0.61, p < 0.05), peak aerobic running velocity (Vmax) (r = 0.69, p < 0.05), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo IR1) distance (r = 0.50, p < 0.05), respectively. These results indicate that an increased LT is associated with improved PHIIR performance and that PHIIR performance may be monitored by determining Yo-Yo IR1 performance, 5 x 6-second repeated sprint cycle test work, 30-second Wingate test performance, Vmax, or LT. We suggest that training programs should focus on improving both LT and Vmax for increasing PHIIR performance in moderately trained women. Future studies should examine optimal training methods for improving these capacities in team sport athletes. PMID:17313257

  8. Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

  9. Moving forward in patient safety: multidisciplinary team training.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kay; Auguste, Tamika

    2013-06-01

    Communication and teamwork deficiencies have been identified as major contributors to poor clinical outcomes in the labor and delivery unit. In response to these findings, multidisciplinary simulation-based team training techniques have developed to focus specifically on skills training for teams. The evidence demonstrates that multidisciplinary simulation-based team training minimizes poor outcomes by perfecting the elusive teamwork skills that cannot be taught in a didactic setting. Multidisciplinary simulation-based team training is also being used to detect latent system errors in existing or new units, to rehearse complicated procedures (surgical dress rehearsal), and to identify knowledge gaps of labor and delivery teams. Multidisciplinary simulation-based team training should be an integral component of ongoing quality-improvement efforts to ultimately produce teams of experts that perform proficiently. PMID:23721769

  10. Motor Skill Performance of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Hartman, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews studies on variables that are related to the motor skill performance of children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI). Three major groups of variables are considered (child, environmental, and task). Thirty-nine studies are included in this review, 26 of which examined the effects of child, environmental, and/or task…

  11. The Attention Skills and Academic Performance of Aggressive/Rejected and Low Aggressive/Popular Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…

  12. Relationship Between Personality and Color in Performance of a Gross Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Jacquelin

    1977-01-01

    This research attempts to determine whether or not a relationship exists between personality variables and frequency with which specific-colored targets are hit. Addresses the question of the relationship between color and personality and if it manifests itself in a reaction to color when a gross motor skill is performed. (Author/RK)

  13. Study on the relationship between skill performance and selected physical fitness variables of hand ball players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Ibrahim; K Azeem

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between skill performance and selected physical fitness variables of hand ball players of Osmania University, Hyderabad, India. 30 handball players aged 18-11 years were randomly selected from players undergoing rigorous training camp for the All India Inter-University tournament. Defensive ability, passing ability and dribbling ability were assessed by defence movement test, passing test and control

  14. Transferring the Soft-Skills Technology of Workplace Learning and Performance to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jenny; Rothwell, William J.; Webster, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Discusses international business and workplace learning and performance (WLP), and describes a long-term strategic alliance between Motorola University China, Penn State University, Beijing University, and Nankai University. Highlights include a needs assessment of multinational corporations in China; transferring the soft-skills technology of WLP…

  15. Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

  16. Predicting Performance on the Communication Skills and General Knowledge Portions of the National Teacher Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Larry R.

    1989-01-01

    A study was designed to determine how well selected academic variables predict student performance on the Communication Skills and General Knowledge portions of the National Teachers Examinations (NTE). A strong association was found between the independent variables, Scholastic Aptitude Test-Verbal scores, and required freshman English grade…

  17. Improving Virtual Team Collaboration Outcomes through Collaboration Process Structuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittman, Dawn R.; Hawkes, Mark; Deokar, Amit V.; Sarnikar, Surendra

    2010-01-01

    The ability to collaborate in a virtual team is a necessary skill set for today's knowledge workers and students to be effective in their work. Past research indicates that knowledge workers and students need to establish a formal process to perform work, develop clear goals and objectives, and facilitate better communication among team members.…

  18. The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

    PubMed Central

    GHAZIVAKILI, ZOHRE; NOROUZI NIA, ROOHANGIZ; PANAHI, FARIDE; KARIMI, MEHRDAD; GHOLSORKHI, HAYEDE; AHMADI, ZARRIN

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Our findings indicated the significant difference of mean score in four learning style, suggesting university students with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students’ performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (p<0.05). Furthermore, evaluation skills and deductive reasoning had significant relationship. On the other hand, the mean total score of critical thinking had significant difference between different learning styles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the learning styles, critical thinking and academic performance are significantly associated with one another. Considering the growing importance of critical thinking in enhancing the professional competence of individuals, it's recommended to use teaching methods consistent with the learning style because it would be more effective in this context. PMID:25512928

  19. Medical students as EMTs: skill building, confidence and professional formation

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Thomas; Rennie, William; Fornari, Alice; Akbar, Salaahuddin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The first course of the medical curriculum at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, From the Person to the Professional: Challenges, Privileges and Responsibilities, provides an innovative early clinical immersion. The course content specific to the Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) curriculum was developed using the New York State Emergency Medical Technician curriculum. Students gain early legitimate clinical experience and practice clinical skills as team members in the pre-hospital environment. We hypothesized this novel curriculum would increase students’ confidence in their ability to perform patient care skills and enhance students’ comfort with team-building skills early in their training. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from first-year medical students (n=97) through a survey developed to assess students’ confidence in patient care and team-building skills. The survey was completed prior to medical school, during the final week of the course, and at the end of their first year. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare self-ratings on 12 patient care and 12 team-building skills before and after the course, and a theme analysis was conducted to examine open-ended responses. Results Following the course, student confidence in patient care skills showed a significant increase from baseline (p<0.05) for all identified skills. Student confidence in team-building skills showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in 4 of the 12 identified skills. By the end of the first year, 84% of the first-year students reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their patient care skills, while 72% reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their team-building skills. Conclusions The incorporation of EMT training early in a medical school curriculum provides students with meaningful clinical experiences that increase their self-reported level of confidence in the performance of patient care skills early in their medical education. PMID:25056855

  20. Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context.

    PubMed

    Cools, Wouter; De Martelaer, Kristine; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline

    2011-04-01

    Evidence suggests the development of fundamental movement skill (FMS) is a key factor in promoting long-term physical activity. Low levels of activity among preschool children and the relationship between physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills underline the need to determine the factors associated with children's development of such skills. As parents play an important role in the socialization process, the aim of this study was to examine correlates of family and neighbourhood characteristics as well as parental behaviour and beliefs on FMS performance in 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. Relationships between preschool children's FMS performance and family contextual variables were examined within a sample of 846 preschool children. Results identified positive associations of FMS performance with parental education, father's physical activity, transport to school by bicycle, and the high value placed by parents high on sport-specific aspects of children's physical activity. Variables negatively associated with preschool children's FMS performance included father-child interaction in TV-viewing and reading books, the high importance placed by parents on winning and performance in children's physical activity. Furthermore, the ambiguity of associations between FMS performance and parental beliefs underlined its complexity. PMID:21424981

  1. Transformational and transactional leadership enabling (disabling) knowledge acquisition of self-managed teams: the consequences for performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Politis

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge has been identified as one of the most important resources that contribute to the competitive advantage of an organisation. The problems associated with poor leadership and interpersonal skills manifest themselves in the loss of organisational knowledge and the expensive duplication of knowledge creation and acquisition, rising costs and reduced performance. Although behavioural and interpersonal skills are most often cited

  2. Effects of Cognitive Learning Strategies, Verbal Reinforcement, and Gender on the Performance of Closed Motor Skills in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Greenwood; Harry Meeuwsen; Ron French

    1993-01-01

    The effectiveness of a content dependent learning strategy and a content independent learning strategy on the performance of a closed motor skill (underhand dart throw) and the transfer of these strategies to the performance of two related closed motor skills (an underhand jart throw and a ball toss) were examined in 50 female and 50 male older adults (range =

  3. The Effect of Student Self-Video of Performance on Clinical Skill Competency: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies and student information technology literacy are enabling new methods of teaching and learning for clinical skill performance. Facilitating experiential practice and reflection on performance through student self-video, and exposure to peer benchmarks, may promote greater levels of skill competency. This study examines the…

  4. The effect of caffeine ingestion on field hockey skill performance following physical fatigue.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Taylor, Samantha; Lyons, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of caffeine ingestion on field hockey skill performance following high-intensity fatigue. Thirteen male hockey players (mean age = 21.1 ± 1.2 years) performed hockey sprint dribble and ball handling tests at rest and after a bout of total body fatigue (90% maximal capacity) following caffeine (5 mg kg(-1)) or placebo ingestion. Sprint dribble times were slower postfatigue compared with rest but were significantly faster postfatigue with caffeine compared with postfatigue with placebo ingestion (P < 0.01). Ball handling scores were higher at rest compared with postfatigue, but scores postfatigue were higher following caffeine than placebo ingestion (P < 0.01). Rating of perceived exhaustion (RPE) was lower (P < 0.01) and readiness to invest physical (P < 0.01) and mental effort (P = 0.01) were significantly higher in the caffeine condition. Caffeine ingestion may therefore be effective in offsetting decrements in skilled performance associated with fatigue. PMID:22242735

  5. Motor Skill Assessment of Children: Is There an Association between Performance-Based, Child-Report, and Parent-Report Measures of Children's Motor Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Johanna; Brown, Ted; Chien, Chi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Client-centered practice requires therapists to actively seek the perspectives of children and families. Several assessment tools are available to facilitate this process. However, when evaluating motor skill performance, therapists typically concentrate on performance-based assessment. To improve understanding of the information provided by the…

  6. Team Research at the Biology–Mathematics Interface: Project Management Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Radunskaya, Ami E.; Lee, Arthur H.; de Pillis, Lisette G.; Bartlett, Diana F.

    2010-01-01

    The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics background and an experimentally oriented biology student. The team mentors typically ranked the students' performance very good to excellent over a range of attributes that included creativity and ability to conduct independent research. However, the research teams experienced problems meeting prespecified deadlines due to poor time and project management skills. Because time and project management skills can be readily taught and moreover typically reflect good research practices, simple modifications should be made to undergraduate curricula so that the promise of initiatives, such as MATH-BIO 2010, can be implemented. PMID:20810964

  7. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (?1200-2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude. PMID:24282202

  8. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (?1200–2500?m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude. PMID:24282202

  9. The assessment of laboratory performance skills in grade 9 science via individuals and pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Alfred William

    This research study focused on the development and administration of a laboratory investigation task involving ninth grade students currently studying Earth Science. Students were required to Plan and Perform the investigation based on concepts of Chemical Weathering. Science inquiry skills associated with Planning, Data Collection, Graphing, and Reasoning were evaluated using an analytical scoring rubric. Students completed a Survey Instrument, which provided contextual information about their prior laboratory experiences, and preferences about working individually versus pairs while completing science experiments. The sample was composed of 446 students from five schools in Western New York. Students completed the laboratory investigation individually and in pairs. One hundred and fifty students completed the task individually, and 296 students assigned to 148 pairs completed the task. T-tests and ANOVA's were used to evaluate achievement differences between individuals and pairs; by gender and individual ability for the individual sub-sample; and by the gender and ability composition for the pairs' sub-sample respectively. Mean scores for the Likert type Survey instrument provided contextual data about students' prior laboratory experiences. Factor analysis generally supported the theoretical model used to design the investigation. The results indicated there were significant differences in achievement between individuals and pairs in Graphing and Reasoning skills. Females outperformed males on the Total task, Data Collection, Graphing and Reasoning categories of skills. High ability students outperformed medium and low ability students on the Total Task, Planning, Graphing and Reasoning categories of skills. The composition of pairs by ability indicated significant differences in achievement on the Total Task, Planning and Reasoning skills. There were significant differences in achievement by female/female versus male/male and male/female pairs on the Total Task, Data Collection, Graphing and Reasoning skills.

  10. Physician assistants and nurse practitioners perform effective roles on teams caring for Medicare patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Everett, Christine; Thorpe, Carolyn; Palta, Mari; Carayon, Pascale; Bartels, Christie; Smith, Maureen A

    2013-11-01

    One approach to the patient-centered medical home, particularly for patients with chronic illnesses, is to include physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) on primary care teams. Using Medicare claims and electronic health record data from a large physician group, we compared outcomes for two groups of adult Medicare patients with diabetes whose conditions were at various levels of complexity: those whose care teams included PAs or NPs in various roles, and those who received care from physicians only. Outcomes were generally equivalent in thirteen comparisons. In four comparisons, outcomes were superior for the patients receiving care from PAs or NPs, but in three other comparisons the outcomes were superior for patients receiving care from physicians only. Specific roles performed by PAs and NPs were associated with different patterns in the measure of the quality of diabetes care and use of health care services. No role was best for all outcomes. Our findings suggest that patient characteristics, as well as patients' and organizations' goals, should be considered when determining when and how to deploy PAs and NPs on primary care teams. Accordingly, training and policy should continue to support role flexibility for these health professionals. PMID:24191084

  11. Angular relationships regulate coordination tendencies of performers in attacker-defender dyads in team sports.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Pedro T; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Davids, Keith; Esteves, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the continuous interpersonal interactions of performers in dyadic systems in team sports, as a function of changing information constraints. As a task vehicle, we investigated how attackers attained success in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball by exploring angular relations with immediate opponents and the basket. We hypothesized that angular relations would convey information for the attackers to dribble past defenders. Four basketball players performed as an attacker and defender in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball, in which the co-positioning and orientation of participants relative to the basket was manipulated. After video recording performance behaviors, we digitized participant movement displacement trajectories and categorized trials as successful or unsuccessful (from the attackers' viewpoint). Results revealed that, to successfully dribble past a defender, attackers tended to explore the left hand side of the space by defenders by increasing their angular velocity and decreasing their angular variability, especially in the center of the court. Interpersonal interactions and goal-achievement in attacker-defender dyads appear to have been constrained by the angular relations sustained between participants relative to the scoring target. Results revealed the functionality of exploratory behaviors of participants attempting re-align spatial relations with an opponent in 1v1 sub-phases of team games. PMID:25625811

  12. Cortical activity of skilled performance in a complex sports related motor task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Baumeister; Kirsten Reinecke; Heinz Liesen; Michael Weiss

    2008-01-01

    A skilled player in goal-directed sports performance has the ability to process internal and external information in an effective\\u000a manner and decide which pieces of information are important and which are irrelevant. Focused attention and somatosensory\\u000a information processing play a crucial role in this process. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings are able to demonstrate\\u000a cortical changes in conjunction with this concept and

  13. Relationships between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players. Fifty-eight high-performance rugby league players underwent measurements for anthropometry (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and estimated maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. National Rugby League matches were coded for attacking (e.g. line breaks, try assists, etc.) and defensive (e.g. missed tackles, tackling efficiency, etc.) statistics commonly used to assess rugby league playing performance. The number of line break assists was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with greater playing experience (r = 0.36), dual-task draw and pass proficiency (r = 0.54), reactive agility (r = 0.29), and pattern recall (r = 0.32) and prediction (r = 0.28) ability, while faster speed over 40 m (r = -0.42) was associated (P < 0.05) with a higher number of tries scored. Greater age and playing experience, better lower body muscular power, and faster 10 m and 40 m speed were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the number of tackle attempts (positive), tackles completed (positive), and proportion of missed tackles (negative). These findings demonstrate that well-developed physical and skill qualities are associated with effective playing performance in National Rugby League players. PMID:22092276

  14. Association Between Neuromuscular Tests and Kumite Performance on The Brazilian Karate National Team

    PubMed Central

    Roschel, Hamilton; Batista, Mauro; Monteiro, Rodrigo; Bertuzzi, Romulo C.; Barroso, Renato; Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Franchini, Emerson

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the relationship of strength and power with performance on an international level karate team during official kumite simulations. Fourteen male black belt karate athletes were submitted to anthropometric data collection and then performed the following tests on two different days: vertical jump test, bench press and squat maximum dynamic strength (1RM) tests. We also tested power production for both exercises at 30 and 60%1RM and performed a kumite match simulation. Blood samples were obtained at rest and immediately after the kumite matches to measure blood lactate concentration. Karate players were separated by performance (winners vs. defeated) on the kumite matches. We found no significant differences between winners and defeated for strength, vertical jump height, anthropometric data and blood lactate concentration. Interestingly, winners were more powerful in the bench press and squat exercises at 30% 1RM. Maximum strength was correlated with absolute (30% 1RM r = 0.92; 60% 1RM r = 0.63) and relative power (30% 1RM r = 0.74; 60% 1RM r = 0.11, p > 0.05) for the bench press exercise. We concluded that international level karate players’ kumite match performance are influenced by higher levels of upper and lower limbs power production. Key Points Muscle power at low workloads seems to be a reasonable predictor of karate performance. There are differences in neuromuscular characteristics between winners and defeated karate players among an international level karate team. Karate players rely more on muscle power, rather than on muscle strength. PMID:24474882

  15. Match performance and physiological capacity of female elite team handball players.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, L B; Madsen, K; Aagaard, P

    2014-06-01

    The present study evaluated the physical demands imposed on female elite team handball players in relation to playing position. Female elite team handball field players were examined during match-play over a 5-year period using video based computerized locomotion analysis of tournament matches. In addition, physiological measurements during match-play and in separate physical tests were carried out. A total distance of 4002±551?m (group means±SD) was covered per match with a total effective playing time of 50:42±5:50?min:s, while full-time players covered 4693±333?m. On average, each player (n=83) performed 663.8±99.7 activity changes per match, and the mean speed was 5.31±0.33?km?·?h(-1). High-intensity running constituted 0.8±0.5% of total effective playing time per match corresponding to 2.5±1.8% of the total distance covered. The amount of high-intensity running was reduced (p<0.05) 21.9% in the second half (44.9±16.8?m) compared to the first (57.5±21.3?m). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2-max) was 3.49±0.37?l O2?·?min(-1) corresponding to 49.6±4.8?ml O2?·?min(-1)?·?kg(-1). Mean relative workload during match-play was 79.4±6.4% of VO2-max. Mean total running distance in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) was 1436±222?m, which was greater in wing players (1516±172?m, p<0.05) than pivots (1360±118?m) and backcourt players (1352±148?m). In conclusion, modern female elite team handball is a physically demanding intermittent team sport, where players are exposed to high relative workloads with substantial estimated aerobic energy expenditure interspersed by short periods of dominant anaerobic energy production as reflected by the limited amount of high-intensity running. Indications of fatigue and a resulting decline in physical performance were identified, since the amount of high-intensity running and the relative workload levels decreased in the second half. Positional differences were observed, with wing players covering a greater total distance than backcourt players, performing more high-intensity running and demonstrating a better intermittent recovery capacity (Yo-Yo test outcome) compared to both backcourt players and pivots. PMID:24264766

  16. Effect of oral contraceptive cycle phase on performance in team sport players.

    PubMed

    Rechichi, Claire; Dawson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether common team sport performance variables (anaerobic power, reactive strength and repeat sprint ability) are affected by acute hormonal fluctuation within a monophasic oral contraceptive (OC) cycle. Ten female team sport athletes completed performance tests at three time points of a single OC cycle, during the consumption phase (CONS), early (WITH1) and late in the withdrawal phase (WITH2). Tests included drop jumps (30cm and 45cm heights), a counter movement jump, a 10s cycle sprint test and a 5x 6s repeated sprint cycle test. Resting endogenous serum oestradiol and progesterone concentrations were also measured. No significant differences were observed between phases for the counter movement jump and cycle tests (total work and peak power). Reactive strength measured from the 30cm drop height was significantly lower during WITH2 (162+/-38cms(-1)) compared to both CONS (177+/-44cms(-1)) and WITH1 (178+/-40cms(-1)) (p<0.05). Reactive strength measured from the 45cm drop height was significantly higher in CONS (178+/-48cms(-1)) compared to both WITH1 and WITH2 (161+/-39cms(-1) and 158+/-29cms(-1), respectively) (p<0.05). Serum oestradiol levels were greater during WITH2 compared to both WITH1 and CONS (p<0.05) but there was no difference in serum progesterone levels. The results demonstrate that for female team sport athletes, only reactive strength varied significantly throughout an OC cycle, possibly due to the action of hormones on neuromuscular timing and the stretch-shortening cycle. PMID:18054842

  17. Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured activities are of the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  18. The prediction of task and contextual performance by political skill: A meta-analysis and moderator test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark N. Bing; H. Kristl Davison; Inneka Minor; Milorad M. Novicevic; Dwight D. Frink

    2011-01-01

    Political skill is a relatively newly articulated construct. Despite its novelty, it has been investigated in a variety of contexts, showing promise not only as a descriptor of several organizational phenomena, but also as a predictor of job performance. Given this status, it seems appropriate to review the empirical literature to this point for political skill's overall viability as a

  19. Formative Assessment of Procedural Skills: Students' Responses to the Objective Structured Clinical Examination and the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nestel, Debra; Kneebone, Roger; Nolan, Carmel; Akhtar, Kash; Darzi, Ara

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of clinical skills is a critical element of undergraduate medical education. We compare a traditional approach to procedural skills assessment--the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) with the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument (IPPI). In both approaches, students work through "stations" or "scenarios" undertaking…

  20. Learning Roles: Behavioral Diversity in Robot Teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tucker Balch

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes research investigating behavioralspecialization in learning robot teams. Each agent isprovided a common set of skills (motor schema-basedbehavioral assemblages) from which it builds a taskachievingstrategy using reinforcement learning. Theagents learn individually to activate particular behavioralassemblages given their current situation and areward signal. The experiments, conducted in robotsoccer simulations, evaluate the agents in terms of performance, policy...

  1. Analyzing Social Capital to Improve Product Development Team Performance: Action-Research Investigations in the Aerospace Industry With TRW and GKN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomi J. Brookes; Sue C. Morton; Steve Grossman; Paul Joesbury; Duncan Varnes

    2007-01-01

    Social capital is gaining preeminence as a concept to interpret the behavior of organizational entities, especially in new product development (NPD). Significant research is accumulating that links the performance of NPD teams with the patterns of social capital that they exhibit. The research suggests that analyzing teams' social capital could provide insights to improve substantively the performance of NPD teams.

  2. Cognitive-behaviour therapy and skilled motor performance in adults with chronic tic disorder

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Kieron P.; Lavoie, Marc E.; Stip, Emmanuel; Borgeat, François; Laverdure, Anick

    2015-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of 55 patients with TD were recruited at baseline from participants in a behavioural management programme. A comparison group of 55 patients suffering from a variety of habit disorders (HD) involving complex manual movements, were matched on age and level of education to 34 non-psychiatric controls. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-treatment and post-waitlist with a neuropsychological evaluation focusing on executive function (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST) and skilled motor performance (Purdue Pegboard, Hole Steadiness Test, and the Groove Test). Results revealed WCST scores in the normal range, while motor performance differed significantly on the Purdue Pegboard Tests in both TD and HD as compared to the control group. Cognitive-behavioural treatment selectively improved motor performance in both clinical groups compared to waitlist control, and this improvement related to clinical outcome measures. PMID:18058387

  3. What Is Team Science? - Team Science Toolkit

    Cancer.gov

    Team science is a collaborative effort to address a scientific challenge that leverages the strengths and expertise of professionals trained in different fields. Although traditional single-investigator driven approaches are ideal for many scientific endeavors, coordinated teams of investigators with diverse skills and knowledge may be especially helpful for studies of complex social problems with multiple causes.

  4. Examining communication and team performance during clinical handover in a complex environment: the private sector post-anaesthetic care unit.

    PubMed

    Botti, Mari; Bucknall, Tracey; Cameron, Peter; Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Redley, Bernice; Evans, Sue; Jeffcott, Shelly

    2009-06-01

    Threats to patient safety during clinical handover have been identified as an ongoing problem in health care delivery. In complex handover situations, organisational, cultural, behavioural and environmental factors associated with team performance can affect patient safety by undermining the stability of team functioning and the effectiveness of interprofessional communication. We present a practical framework for promoting systematic, comprehensive measurement of the factors involved in clinical handover. The framework can be used to develop viable solutions to the problems of clinical handover. The framework was devised and used in a recent project examining interprofessional communication and team performance during clinical handover in post-anaesthetic care units. The framework combines five key concepts: clinical governance, clinician engagement, ecological validity, safety culture and team climate, and sustainability. We believe that use of this framework will help overcome the limitations of previous research that has not taken into account the complex and multifaceted influences on clinical handover and interprofessional communication. PMID:19485868

  5. Research Performed within the Non-Destructive Evaluation Team at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Erin A.

    2004-01-01

    Non-destructive testing is essential in many fields of manufacturing and research in order to perform reliable examination of potentially damaged materials and parts without destroying the inherent structure of the materials. Thus, the Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Team at NASA Glenn Research Center partakes in various projects to improve materials testing equipment as well as analyze materials, material defects, and material deficiencies. Due to the array of projects within the NDE Team at this time, five research aims were supplemental to some current projects. A literature survey of "DE and testing methodologies as related to rocks was performed. Also, Mars Expedition Rover technology was assessed to understand the requirements for instrumentation in harsh space environments (e.g. temperature). Potential instrumentation and technologies were also considered and documented. The literature survey provided background and potential sources for a proposal to acquire funding for ultrasonic instrumentation on board a future Mars expedition. The laboratory uses a Santec Systems AcousticScope AS200 acoustography system. Labview code was written within the current program in order to improve the current performance of the acoustography system. A sample of Reinforced Carbon/Carbon (RCC) material from the leading edge of the space shuttle underwent various non-destructive tests (guided wave scanning, thermography, computed tomography, real time x-ray, etc.) in order to characterize its structure and examine possible defects. Guided wave scan data of a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel was reanalyzed utilizing image correlations and signal processing variables. Additional guided wave scans and thermography were also performed on the CMC panel. These reevaluated data and images will be used in future presentations and publications. An additional axis for the guided wave scanner was designed, constructed, and implemented. This additional axis allowed incremental spacing of the previously fixed transducers for ultrasonic velocity measurements.

  6. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-04-01

    To determine the physical demands placed on female elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry, female elite TH primarily field players were monitored during match-play using video recording and subsequent computerized technical match analysis during 5 regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Furthermore, anthropometric measurements were performed. Each player had 28.3 ± 11.0 (group means ± SD) high-intense playing actions per match with a total effective playing time of 50.70 ± 5.83 minutes. On average, each player made 2.8 ± 2.6 fast breaks, gave 7.9 ± 14.4 screenings, received 14.6 ± 9.2 tackles in total, and performed 7.7 ± 3.7 shots while in offense, along with 3.5 ± 3.8 blockings, 1.9 ± 2.7 claspings, and 6.2 ± 3.8 hard tackles in defense. Mean body height, body mass, and age in the Danish Premier Female Team Handball League were 175.4 ± 6.1 cm, 69.5 ± 6.5 kg, and 25.4 ± 3.7 years, respectively. Wing players were lighter (63.5 ± 4.8 kg, p < 0.001) and smaller (169.3 ± 4.9 cm, p < 0.001) than backcourt players (BP) (70.6 ± 5.3 kg, 177.0 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (PV) (72.5 ± 4.9 kg, 177.7 ± 4.9 cm). In conclusion, the present match observations revealed that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions remained unchanged in the second half. Marked positional differences in the physical demands were demonstrated, with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations than BP and PV. Body anthropometry differed substantially between different playing positions. Consequently, this should lead to an increase in physical training in modern female elite TH directed at specific positions and individual physical capacity. PMID:25353073

  7. Team Performance and Risk-Adjusted Health Outcomes in the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana B. Mukamel; Helena Temkin-Greener; Rachel Delavan; Derick R. Peterson; Diane Gross; Stephen Kunitz; T. Franklin Williams

    Purpose: The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) is a community-based program pro- viding primary, acute, and long-term care to frail elderly individuals. A central component of the PACE model is the interdisciplinary care team, which includes both professionals and non-professionals. The purpose of this study was to examine the asso- ciation between the team's overall performance and

  8. Exploring Relationship between Face-to-Face Interaction and Team Performance Using Wearable Sensor Badges

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Ishibashi, Nozomu; Yano, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of human-generated data collected in various fields have uncovered many patterns of complex human behaviors. However, thus far the quantitative evaluation of the relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance has been inadequate. Here, we present findings demonstrating the significant relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance via experiments we conducted in inbound call centers while the employees wore sensor badges. There were two main findings. First, we found that face-to-face interaction among telecommunicators and the frequency of their bodily movements caused by the face-to-face interaction had a significant correlation with the entire call center performance, which we measured as “Calls per Hour.” Second, our trial to activate face-to-face interaction on the basis of data collected by the wearable sensor badges the employees wore significantly increased their performance. These results demonstrate quantitatively that human-human interaction in the physical world plays an important role in team performance. PMID:25501748

  9. Performance evaluation of high-performing IS project teams: An analytic network process approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. L. Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of information system (IS) is a perennial decision problem for businesses as they seek to improve their performance and sustain a competitive advantage. The effective implementation of an IS essentially depends upon how effective individual, organizational, task-related, technological, and environmental factors are integrated to the organizational fabric. An important issue rarely addressed in the literature has been the

  10. Performance of gymnastics skill benefits from an external focus of attention.

    PubMed

    Abdollahipour, Reza; Wulf, Gabriele; Psotta, Rudolf; Palomo Nieto, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    The present study was designed to fill a gap in the literature on attentional focus and sports performance. Specifically, in contrast to most previous studies in which an external focus was directed at an implement, we used a gymnastics skill that did not involve the use of an implement. Furthermore, while most studies used only outcome measures of performance, we also assessed movement quality. Twelve-year-old gymnasts performed a maximum vertical jump with a 180-degree turn while airborne, with their hands crossing in front of their chest during the turn under three different focus conditions. Under the external focus condition, participants were asked to focus on the direction in which a tape marker, which was attached to their chest, was pointing after the turn. Under the internal focus condition, they were asked to focus on the direction in which their hands were pointing after the turn. Under the control condition, no focus instructions were given. The external focus condition resulted in both superior movement form and greater jump height than did the other two conditions, which produced comparable results. The present findings show that, similar to other tasks, the performance of form-based skills can be enhanced relatively easily by appropriate external focus instructions. PMID:25774536

  11. Explanations of successful performance on sex-linked tasks: What is skill for the male is luck for the female

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Deaux; Tim Emswiller

    1974-01-01

    Instructed 55 male and 75 female undergraduates to evaluate the performance of either a male or female stimulus person who was heard to perform in an above-average manner on either a male- or female-related task. Analysis of the attributions made to luck vs skill in explaining the performance of the stimulus person showed that as predicted, performance by a male

  12. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Shih, Mu-Chin; Yang, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Ming-Hsiang; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaHCO3 (0.3 g. kg-1) or NaCl (0.209 g. kg-1) before the trial. An additional supplementation of 0.1 g. kg-1 NaHCO3 or 0.07 g. kg-1 NaCl was ingested after the third game in the simulated match. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22 ± 0.54; post: 2.17 ± 1.46 mM) and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23 ± 0.41; post: 3.21 ± 1.89 mM) trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.32; post: 7.37 ± 0.14) but was significantly increased in the bicarbonate trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.26; post: 7.45 ± 0.63), indicating a more alkaline environment. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency scores were declined significantly after the simulated match in the placebo trial, while they were maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The match-induced declines in the consistency scores were significantly larger in the placebo trial than those in the bicarbonate trial. This study suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent the decline in skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. PMID:20977701

  13. A feasibility study comparing checklists and global rating forms to assess resident performance in clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Ringsted, C; Řstergaard, D; Ravn, L; Pedersen, J A; Berlac, P A; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2003-11-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of two different scoring forms for assessing the clinical performance of residents in anaesthesiology. One of the forms had a checklist format including task-specific items and the other was a global rating form with general dimensions of competence including 'clinical skills', 'communication skills' and 'knowledge'. Thirty-two clinicians representing 25 (83%) of the 30 training hospitals in the country participated in the study. The clinicians were randomized into two groups, each of which used one of the scoring formats to assess a resident's performance in four simulated clinical scenarios on videotape. Clinicians' opinions about the appropriateness of the scoring forms were rated on a scale of 1-5. The checklist format was rated significantly higher compared with the global rating form (mean 4.6, 0.5 vs. mean 3.5, 1.4, p < 0.001). The inter-rater agreement regarding pass/fail decisions was poor irrespective of the scoring form used. This was explained by clinicians' leniency as assessors rather than by lack of vigilance in the observations or disagreements on standards for good performance. PMID:15369915

  14. Basic life support knowledge and skills of Iranian general dental practitioners to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Jamalpour, Mohammad Reza; Asadi, Hossein Kimiaei; Zarei, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    Background: When cardiopulmonary arrest occurs, the dentist's ability to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the most important factor to minimize morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the basic life support (BLS) knowledge and performance of general dental practitioners in Hamadan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The participants in the study were 80 Iranian general dental practitioners who were chosen randomly. Their CPR knowledge was evaluated by verbal questions and their CPR skills were determined by CPR execution on a special manikin. Nearly 39% (n = 31) of dentists answered none of the questions and only 2.50% (n = 2) answered all of the questions correctly. Thirty six dentists had been participated CPR course after graduation. Result: There was a significant difference between dentists who participated in CPR training course and those that did not participate (P value = 0.000). Only 3.75% (n = 3) were able to perform CPR properly. Conclusion: The results showed that the amount of CPR knowledge and skills were low in participated Iranian general dental practitioners. However, CPR training courses after graduation increased the amount of knowledge significantly, thus, retraining CPR courses is necessary for dentists. PMID:25838633

  15. Are there any differences in power performance and morphological characteristics of Croatian adolescent soccer players according to the team position?

    PubMed

    Sporis, Goran; Vuceti?, Vlatko; Jovanovi?, Mario; Milanovi?, Zoran; Rucevi?, Marijan; Vuleta, Dinko

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze differences in power performance and morphological characteristics of young Croatian soccer players with respect to their team positions and to establish correlations between the power performance variables. Anthropometric characteristics and jumping and sprint performances were analyzed for 45 soccer players (age 14-15; mean body height 175.4 +/- 6.61 cm; body weight 63.6 +/- 8.06 kg) according to their team positions (defender, midfielder, forward). Pearsons coefficient of correlation was used to determine the relationship between the power performance variables. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the power performance of players according to their team position. The only significant differences between players were in some of the anthropometric characteristics, such as height and weight linear relationship was determined between almost all the power performance variables. Since the players in this study were very young and their sports careers have not reached their peak performance, it is possible that their nominal team positions may change during their soccer careers. PMID:22397243

  16. Preliminary results on mood state, salivary testosterone:cortisol ratio and team performance in a professional soccer team

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Filaire; X. Bernain; M. Sagnol; G. Lac

    2001-01-01

    .   Mood, as measured by the profile of mood states questionnaire (POMS), salivary cortisol (F) and testosterone (T) levels,\\u000a and performance were examined in 17 male soccer players 4 times during a season. Soccer players provided three saliva samples\\u000a when getting up (resting values, 8 a.m.), before breakfast (11.30 a.m.), and between 4.00p.m. and 6.00 p.m. The initial measures\\u000a were performed 1 day following

  17. Implicit guidance to stable performance in a rhythmic perceptual-motor skill.

    PubMed

    Huber, Meghan E; Sternad, Dagmar

    2015-06-01

    Feedback about error or reward is regarded essential for aiding learners to acquire a perceptual-motor skill. Yet, when a task has redundancy and the mapping between execution and performance outcome is unknown, simple error feedback does not suffice in guiding the learner toward the optimal solutions. The present study developed and tested a new means of implicitly guiding learners to acquire a perceptual-motor skill, rhythmically bouncing a ball on a racket. Due to its rhythmic nature, this task affords dynamically stable solutions that are robust to small errors and noise, a strategy that is independent from actively correcting error. Based on the task model implemented in a virtual environment, a time-shift manipulation was designed to shift the range of ball-racket contacts that achieved dynamically stable solutions. In two experiments, subjects practiced with this manipulation that guided them to impact the ball with more negative racket accelerations, the indicator for the strategy with dynamic stability. Subjects who practiced under normal conditions took longer time to acquire this strategy, although error measures were identical between the control and experimental groups. Unlike in many other haptic guidance or adaptation studies, the experimental groups not only learned, but also maintained the stable solution after the manipulation was removed. These results are a first demonstration that more subtle ways to guide the learner to better performance are needed especially in tasks with redundancy, where error feedback may not be sufficient. PMID:25821180

  18. Can skilled readers perform a second task in parallel? A functional connectivity MRI study.

    PubMed

    Newman, Aaron J; Kenny, Sophie; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Klein, Raymond M

    2013-01-01

    When asked to search for a target letter while reading, the patterns with which people miss the target letter reveal information about the process of reading itself. Questions remain as to whether this paradigm reflects normal reading processes however. We used a novel continuous-performance neuroimaging paradigm to address this question. In separate scanning runs, subjects either read alone, read while searching for a target letter, or searched non-words continuously. Functional connectivity analysis recovered the full extent of brain areas identified for reading in a localizer scan, with no differences between reading alone and the dual task condition. Differences were found, however, between both reading conditions and the nonword search condition. These results demonstrate that in skilled readers brain activation associated with reading is unaffected by a concurrent letter-search task. They further demonstrate the utility of a naturalistic, continuous-performance paradigm for studying the neural basis of language processing. PMID:23291725

  19. Griffith Graduate Attributes Teamwork Skills Toolkit

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Griffith Graduate Attributes Teamwork Skills Toolkit (B) Effective Communicators and Team Members 1............................................................................................3 Why your students need teamwork skills ..............................................................5 What employers, graduates and students say about teamwork skills...................7 Teaching tips

  20. The Preoperative Assessment of Hepatic Tumours: Evaluation of UK Regional Multidisciplinary Team Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wiggans, M. G.; Jackson, S. A.; Fox, B. M. T.; Mitchell, J. D.; Aroori, S.; Bowles, M. J.; Armstrong, E. M.; Shirley, J. F.; Stell, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In the UK, patients where liver resection is contemplated are discussed at hepatobiliary multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings. The aim was to assess MDT performance by identification of patients where radiological and pathological diagnoses differed. Materials and Methods. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all cases undergoing liver resection from March 2006 to January 2012 was performed. The presumed diagnosis as a result of radiological investigation and MDT discussion is recorded at the time of surgery. Imaging was reviewed by specialist gastrointestinal radiologists, and resultswereagreedonby consensus. Results. Four hundred and thirty-eight patients were studied. There was a significant increase in the use of preoperative imaging modalities (P ? 0.01) but no change in the rate of discrepant diagnosis over time. Forty-two individuals were identified whose final histological diagnosis was different to that following MDT discussion (9.6%). These included 30% of patients diagnosed preoperatively with hepatocellular carcinoma and 25% with cholangiocarcinoma of a major duct. Discussion. MDT assessment of patients preoperatively is accurate in terms of diagnosis. The highest rate of discrepancies occurred in patients with focal lesions without chronic liver disease or primary cancer, where hepatocellular carcinoma was overdiagnosed and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma underdiagnosed, where particular care should be taken. Additional care should be taken in these groups and preoperative multimodality imaging considered. PMID:24062601

  1. Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990. PMID:23623961

  2. Team Peer Evaluations: A Student-Generated Quantitative Measurement of Group Membership Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Keith F.

    Students in an advertising research course at a large southern university were assigned to teams for a semester project and developed an instrument to evaluate their peers in the group. Students identified approximately 30 characteristics of working as a member of a team and later honed down the list to 14 individual characteristics. An overall…

  3. To transfer or not to transfer? Investigating the combined effects of trainee characteristics, team leader support, and team climate.

    PubMed

    Smith-Jentsch, K A; Salas, E; Brannick, M T

    2001-04-01

    Eighty pilots participated in a study of variables influencing the transfer process. Posttraining performance was assessed in a flight simulation under 1 of 2 conditions. Those in the maximum performance condition were made aware of the skill to be assessed and the fact that their teammates were confederates, whereas those in the typical performance condition were not. The results indicated that (a) simulator ratings correlated with a measure of transfer to the cockpit for those in the typical condition only; (b) team leader support, manipulated in a pretask brief, moderated the disparity between maximum and typical performance; (c) team climate mediated the impact of support on performance in the typical condition; (d) those with a stronger predisposition toward the trained skill viewed their climate as more supportive; and (e) perceptions of team climate were better predictors of performance for those with a more external locus of control. PMID:11393440

  4. Skilled performance tests and their use in diagnosing handedness and footedness at children of lower school age 8–10

    PubMed Central

    Musalek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that hand and foot preferences do not develop in parallel in children and it has been discovered that in children foot preference stabilizes later. Therefore, the aim of this study is to verify whether the differences in stabilization will also be manifested through less consistent results of selected skilled foot performance tests in a comparison with selected skilled hand performance tests. A total of 210 8–10 year old children from elementary schools were recruited for this study. Hand and foot preferences were first tested using hand and foot preference observable measure tasks; consequently, all participants performed four skilled hand performance tests and three foot performance tests. Unlike in complex skilled hand performance tests, which showed a significant convergent validity 0.56–0.89 with hand preference tasks, in complex skilled foot performance tests a very low convergent validity 0.25–0.46 with foot preference tasks was detected. The only skilled foot performance indicator which showed an acceptable convergent validity with foot preference tasks was the “foot tapping” test 0.65–0.85, which represents rather a gross motor activity. Moreover, further results of the tests suggest that complex or fine motor performance tests used for diagnosing laterality of the lower limb that have a manipulative character probably do not represent suitable indicators for children in the given age category. The same trend was revealed in both females and males. This indicates that the level of laterality assessed as difference in skilfulness between the preferred and the non-preferred limb in children in the given age group probably develops in the same way in both genders. PMID:25628579

  5. When Goal Orientations Collide: Effects of Learning and Performance Orientation on Team Adaptability in Response to Workload Imbalance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christopher O. L. H.; Webb, Justin W.; Gogus, Celile Itir

    2010-01-01

    The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results…

  6. Who You Know vs. What You Know: The Impact of Social Position and Knowledge on Team Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL J. ASHWORTH; KATHLEEN M. CARLEY

    2006-01-01

    Organizational behavior theories generally agree that human capital is critical to teams and organizations, but little guidance exists on the extent to which such theories accurately explain the relative contributions of individual actors to overall performance. Using newly created network measures and simulations based on data obtained from a software development firm, we investigate the relative effectiveness of social network

  7. Age-dependent and coordinated shift in performance between implicit and explicit skill learning

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, József

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported recently that while general sequence learning across ages conforms to the typical inverted-U shape pattern, with best performance in early adulthood, surprisingly, the basic ability of picking up in an implicit manner triplets that occur with high vs. low probability in the sequence is best before 12 years of age and it significantly weakens afterwards. Based on these findings, it has been hypothesized that the cognitively controlled processes coming online at around 12 are useful for more targeted explicit learning at the cost of becoming relatively less sensitive to raw probabilities of events. To test this hypothesis, we collected data in a sequence learning task using probabilistic sequences in five age groups from 11 to 39 years of age (N = 288), replicating the original implicit learning paradigm in an explicit task setting where subjects were guided to find repeating sequences. We found that in contrast to the implicit results, performance with the high- vs. low-probability triplets was at the same level in all age groups when subjects sought patterns in the sequence explicitly. Importantly, measurements of explicit knowledge about the identity of the sequences revealed a significant increase in ability to explicitly access the true sequences exactly around the age where the earlier study found the significant drop in ability to learn implicitly raw probabilities. These findings support the conjecture that the gradually increasing involvement of more complex internal models optimizes our skill learning abilities by compensating for the performance loss due to down-weighting the raw probabilities of the sensory input, while expanding our ability to acquire more sophisticated skills. PMID:24155717

  8. The influence of time management skill on the curvilinear relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Adam A; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Tammy L

    2013-07-01

    In this research we integrate resource allocation and social exchange perspectives to build and test theory focusing on the moderating role of time management skill in the nonmonotonic relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and task performance. Results from matching survey data collected from 212 employees and 41 supervisors and from task performance metrics collected several months later indicate that the curvilinear association between OCB and task performance is significantly moderated by employees' time management skill. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23379912

  9. Performing a successful audience analysis: How to improve your proposal-writing skills

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, O. Jr.

    1992-08-01

    Proposal teams conduct an audience analysis in much the same way as they write proposals: they search for characteristics (features) and attempt to conform to such characteristics (benefits). For example, based on experience, the proposal team knows that a specific proposal review board has short attention spans and is graphics-oriented. The team also known that the evaluators will have to score more then thirty proposals in one weekend. Based on these characteristics, the team decides to use more photos and less text and establish many heads and subheads. The team then begins to write the proposal.

  10. Predicting Teacher Certification Success: The Effect of Cumulative Grade Point Average and Preprofessional Academic Skills Test Scores on Testing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Barbara L. Michiels; Ward, Susan; Strickland, George

    2006-01-01

    Legislative mandates and reforms hold universities accountable for student certification test performance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if cumulative grade point average scores and the preprofessional academic skills test scores predict performance on elementary certification test (professional development) scores of…

  11. Gender Differences in Alcohol Impairment of Simulated Driving Performance and Driving-Related Skills

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa A.; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Methods: Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Results: Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Conclusions: Both biological and social–cultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference. PMID:19786725

  12. A minimal limit-cycle model to profile movement patterns of individuals during agility drill performance: Effects of skill level.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Sina; Arshi, Ahmed Reza; Davids, Keith

    2015-06-01

    Identification of control strategies during agility performance is significant in understanding movement behavior. This study aimed at providing a fundamental mathematical model for describing the motion of participants during an agility drill and to determine whether skill level constrained model components. Motion patterns of two groups of skilled and unskilled participants (n=8 in each) during performance of a forward/backward agility drill modeled as limit-cycles. Participant movements were recorded by motion capture of a reflective marker attached to the sacrum of each individual. Graphical and regression analyses of movement kinematics in Hooke's plane, phase plane and velocity profile were performed to determine components of the models. Results showed that the models of both skilled and unskilled groups had terms from Duffing stiffness as well as Van der Pol damping oscillators. Data also indicated that the proposed models captured on average 97% of the variance for both skilled and unskilled groups. Findings from this study revealed the movement patterning associated with skilled and unskilled performance in a typical forward/backward agility drill which might be helpful for trainers and physiotherapists in enhancing agility. PMID:25828582

  13. Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Nancy J; Gorman, Jamie C; Duran, Jasmine L; Taylor, Amanda R

    2007-09-01

    Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams is examined in an UAV (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle) simulation. Five 3-person teams with experience working together in a command-and-control setting were compared to 10 inexperienced teams. Each team participated in five 40-min missions of a simulation in which interdependent team members control a UAV to take reconnaissance photos. Experienced teams exceeded performance of inexperienced teams, suggesting transfer of previous command-and-control experience. Compared to inexperienced teams, experienced teams had fewer errors on process-related training knowledge, superior team process ratings, and communications containing fewer coordination-related utterances. These findings support the view that team cognition emerges through the interactions of team members, that interactions distinguish high-performing teams from average teams, and that these interactions transfer across different tasks. PMID:17924800

  14. Motor skills and school performance in children with daily physical education in school--a 9-year intervention study.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, I; Karlsson, M K

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to study long-term effects on motor skills and school performance of increased physical education (PE). All pupils born 1990-1992 from one school were included in a longitudinal study over nine years. An intervention group (n = 129) achieved daily PE (5 × 45 min/week) and if needed one extra lesson of adapted motor training. The control group (n = 91) had PE two lessons/week. Motor skills were evaluated by the Motor Skills Development as Ground for Learning observation checklist and school achievements by marks in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school. In school year 9 there were motor skills deficits in 7% of pupils in the intervention group compared to 47% in the control group (P < 0.001), 96% of the pupils in the intervention group compared to 89% in the control group (P < 0.05) qualified for upper secondary school. The sum of evaluated marks was higher among boys in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The sum of marks was also higher in pupils with no motor skills deficit than among pupils with motor skills deficits (P < 0.01), as was the proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school (97% vs 81%, P < 0.001). Daily PE and adapted motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school. PMID:22487170

  15. The Effects of Plyometric Type Neuromuscular Training on Postural Control Performance of Male Team Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Asadi, A, Saez de Villarreal, E, and Arazi, H. The effects of plyometric type neuromuscular training on postural control performance of male team basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 1870-1875, 2015-Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ? 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity. PMID:25563677

  16. Multidisciplinary mental health teams.

    PubMed

    Slade, M; Rosen, A; Shankar, R

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed current practice amongst 91 Indian and Australian staff working within multidisciplinary mental health teams, looking at leadership skills, conflict resolution and therapeutic abilities. Length of training was associated with management skills, though these skill were more developed by psychiatric nurses and occupational therapists working in community settings. Hospital settings involved less consensual decision-making than community teams. Psychiatric nurses spent most time in clinical work, and occupational therapists were rated as less skilled in the therapeutic activities assessed than any other profession. Psychiatrists and clinical psychologists undertook most research. The activities assessed in this study could be undertaken by a team comprising psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses and social workers, with clinical psychologists employed where possible, especially for research or service evaluation. PMID:8847199

  17. Virtuoso teams.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bill; Boynton, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Managing a traditional team seems pretty straightforward: Gather up whoever's available, give them time and space to do their jobs, and make sure they all play nicely together. But these teams produce results that are often as unremarkable as the teams themselves. When big change and high performance are required, a virtuoso team is far more likely to deliver outstanding and innovative results. Virtuoso teams are fundamentally different from the garden-variety work groups that most organizations form to pursue more modest goals. They comprise the top experts in their particular fields, are specially convened for ambitious projects, work with frenetic rhythm, and emanate a discernible energy. Not surprisingly, however, the superstars who make up these teams are renowned for being elitist, temperamental, egocentric, and difficult to work with. As a result, many managers fear that if they force such people to interact on a high-stakes project, the group just might implode. In this article, Bill Fischer and Andy Boynton put the inner workings of highly successful virtuoso teams on full display through three examples: the creative group behind West Side Story, the team of writers for Sid Caesar's 1950s-era television hit Your Show of Shows, and the high-powered technologists who averted an investor-relations crisis for Norsk Hydro, the Norwegian energy giant. Each of these teams accomplished enormous goals and changed their businesses, their customers, even their industries. And they did so by breaking all the conventional rules of collaboration--from the way they recruited the best members to the way they enforced their unusual processes, and from the high expectations they held to the exceptional results they produced. PMID:16028822

  18. Improved human-robot team performance using chaski, a human-inspired plan execution system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Shah; James Wiken; Brian C. Williams; Cynthia Breazeal

    2011-01-01

    We describe the design and evaluation of Chaski, a robot plan execution system that uses insights from human-human teaming to make human-robot teaming more natural and fluid. Chaski is a task-level executive that enables a robot to collaboratively execute a shared plan with a person. The system chooses and schedules the robot's actions, adapts to the human partner, and acts

  19. Instructions and skill level influence reliability of dual-task performance in young adults.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Prudence; Grewal, Gurtej; Najafi, Bijan; Ballard, Amy

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the trial-to-trial repeatability of dual-task performance and establish the minimal detectable change (MDC95) of gait-related dual-task interference. Thirty-one healthy young adults (22.5, SD 2.1 years) performed texting and walking tasks in isolation (single-task) and in combination (dual-task). The dual-task was repeated with three different instructional sets regarding how attention should be prioritized (no-priority, gait-priority, texting-priority) in two different environments (low-distraction, high-distraction). Participants performed two trials for each condition. Trial-to-trial repeatability of gait speed, texting speed, texting accuracy, and the relative dual-task effects (DTE) on each was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients and standard error of measurement. MDC95 scores were also computed for each performance measure. Among young adults, reliability of gait speed in a challenging dual-task situation is excellent, even in a high-distraction environment. In the absence of specific task prioritization instructions, changes in dual-task gait speed greater than 0.15m/s or 11.9% DTE represent real change. Reliability of the more novel, non-gait task has poor to good reliability. Dual-task effects are more reliable when participants are given specific instructions about how to prioritize their attention. The findings also suggest that reliability of dual-task performance in a novel or challenging task is greater when individuals are more skilled at the task. Implications for clinical assessment of dual-task performance are discussed. PMID:25891529

  20. Cyberinfrastructure and Scientific Collaboration: Application of a Virtual Team Performance Framework with Potential Relevance to Education. WCER Working Paper No. 2010-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, Sara; Thorn, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify and describe some of the dimensions of scientific collaborations using high throughput computing (HTC) through the lens of a virtual team performance framework. A secondary purpose was to assess the viability of using a virtual team performance framework to study scientific collaborations using…

  1. Nominal and functional task difficulty in skill acquisition: Effects on performance in two tests of transfer.

    PubMed

    Sanli, Elizabeth A; Lee, Timothy D

    2015-06-01

    The influence of nominal and functional task difficulty during the acquisition of a motor skill was examined in two tests of transfer of learning. The task involved a ballistic, target-directed, finger action. Nominal task difficulty was defined as the distance of the target from the home position. Functional task difficulty was created by manipulating the progression of target distances during practice. Based on the challenge point framework (Guadagnoli & Lee, 2004), we predicted that practice with a set of targets farther away from the performer would benefit from less functional task difficulty, while practice with a closer set of targets would benefit from more functional task difficulty. In single-task transfer tests, learners who practiced using the high nominal task difficulty targets benefitted in terms of persistence of performance over time. In dual-task transfer tests, groups with an intermediate combined (nominal and functional) task difficulty performed with greater persistence over time on tests of transfer than those who practiced with the highest or lowest combined difficulty. Together these findings suggest that the influences of nominal and functional task difficulty during acquisition are weighted differentially depending upon the transfer test context. The challenge point framework does not accurately capture this complex relationship in its current form. PMID:25846951

  2. 'The Days of Brilliancy are Past': Skill, Styles and the Changing Rules of Surgical Performance, ca. 1820-1920.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Nicholas; Schlich, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines how, over the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the appreciation of skill in surgery shifted in characteristic ways. Skill is a problematic category in surgery. Its evaluation is embedded into wider cultural expectations and evaluations, which changed over time. The paper examines the discussions about surgical skill in a variety of contexts: the highly competitive environment of celebrity practitioners in the amphitheatres of early nineteenth-century Britain; the science-oriented, technocratic German-language university hospitals later in the century; and the elitist surgeons of late nineteenth and early twentieth-century United States with their concerns about distancing themselves from commercialism and cheap showmanship. For analysing the interaction of surgical practices with their various contexts the paper makes use of the concept of 'performance' and examines how the rules of surgical performance varied according to the prevailing technical, social, and moral conditions. Over the course of the century, surgical performance looked more and more recognisably modern, increasingly following the ideals of replicability, universality and standardisation. The changing ideals of surgical skill are a crucial element of the complex history of the emergence of modern surgery, but also an illuminating example of the history of skill in modern medicine. PMID:26090735

  3. Adapting the McMaster-Ottawa scale and developing behavioral anchors for assessing performance in an interprofessional Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Désirée; May, Win; Richter-Lagha, Regina; Forest, Christopher; Banzali, Yvonne; Lohenry, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Current scales for interprofessional team performance do not provide adequate behavioral anchors for performance evaluation. The Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter (TOSCE) provides an opportunity to adapt and develop an existing scale for this purpose. We aimed to test the feasibility of using a retooled scale to rate performance in a standardized patient encounter and to assess faculty ability to accurately rate both individual students and teams. Methods The 9-point McMaster-Ottawa Scale developed for a TOSCE was converted to a 3-point scale with behavioral anchors. Students from four professions were trained a priori to perform in teams of four at three different levels as individuals and teams. Blinded faculty raters were trained to use the scale to evaluate individual and team performances. G-theory was used to analyze ability of faculty to accurately rate individual students and teams using the retooled scale. Results Sixteen faculty, in groups of four, rated four student teams, each participating in the same TOSCE station. Faculty expressed comfort rating up to four students in a team within a 35-min timeframe. Accuracy of faculty raters varied (38–81% individuals, 50–100% teams), with errors in the direction of over-rating individual, but not team performance. There was no consistent pattern of error for raters. Conclusion The TOSCE can be administered as an evaluation method for interprofessional teams. However, faculty demonstrate a ‘leniency error’ in rating students, even with prior training using behavioral anchors. To improve consistency, we recommend two trained faculty raters per station. PMID:26004993

  4. Development of Body Composition, Hormone Profile, Physical Fitness, General Perceptual Motor Skills, Soccer Skills and On-The-Ball Performance in Soccer-Specific Laboratory Test Among Adolescent Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group). The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy) in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (? = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01) of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01) in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01), counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01), dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05) in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05), fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05), 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05) in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific laboratory test was significant only in the 14-year-old age group (r = 0.76, p < 0.01). To conclude, on-the-ball skill performance in soccer-specific laboratory test improved with age and it seemed that soccer-specific perceptual skills became more and general perceptual motor skills less important with age in soccer-specific laboratory test. Key points Physical fitness characteristics and general perceptual motor skills predicted performance time of the open skill soccer-specific laboratory test in the group of 10-14 year-old regional soccer players. Before puberty the players were able to compensate weaker soccer-specific skills with better general physical performance abilities. Soccer-specific skills became more important with age and at the age of 14 the players were not able to compensate soccer-specific skills with general physical performance abilities. Beside basic ball-handling skills it also important to recognize the importance of soccer-specific perceptual skills (anticipation and reaction) as a part of successful soccer performance. PMID:24149780

  5. Using Item-Type Performance Covariance to Improve the Skill Model of an Existing Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.; Cen, Hao; Wu, Lili; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from an existing pre-algebra computer-based tutor, we analyzed the covariance of item-types with the goal of describing a more effective way to assign skill labels to item-types. Analyzing covariance is important because it allows us to place the skills in a related network in which we can identify the role each skill plays in learning…

  6. Effects of the eyerobics visual skills training program on static balance performance of male and female subjects.

    PubMed

    McLeod, B; Hansen, E

    1989-12-01

    10 male and 10 female students in physical education aged 19 to 23 yr. were each randomly assigned to both the experimental and control groups. Experimental subjects were given the 4-wk. Eyerobics visual skills training to assess its effects on static balance performance as measured on a balance stabilometer. Analysis indicated that the women performed significantly better than the men over-all. Balance performance by the trained group improved significantly. PMID:2622724

  7. The effect of positive and negative verbal feedback on surgical skills performance and motivation.

    PubMed

    Kannappan, Aarthy; Yip, Dana T; Lodhia, Nayna A; Morton, John; Lau, James N

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable effort and time invested in providing feedback to medical students and residents during their time in training. However, little effort has been made to measure the effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on skills performance and motivation to learn and practice. To probe these questions, first-year medical students (n = 25) were recruited to perform a peg transfer task on Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery box trainers. Time to completion and number of errors were recorded. The students were then randomized to receive either positive or negative verbal feedback from an expert in the field of laparoscopic surgery. After this delivery of feedback, the students repeated the peg transfer task. Differences in performance pre- and post-feedback and also between the groups who received positive feedback (PF) vs negative feedback (NF) were analyzed. A survey was then completed by all the participants. Baseline task times were similar between groups (PF 209.3 seconds; NF 203 seconds, p = 0.58). The PF group averaged 1.83 first-time errors while the NF group 1 (p = 0.84). Post-feedback task times were significantly decreased for both groups (PF 159.75 seconds, p = 0.05; NF 132.08 seconds, p = 0.002). While the NF group demonstrated a greater improvement in mean time than the PF group, this was not statistically significant. Both groups also made fewer errors (PF 0.33 errors, p = 0.04; NF 0.38 errors, p = 0.23). When surveyed about their responses to standardized feedback scenarios, the students stated that both positive and negative verbal feedback could be potent stimulants for improved performance and motivation. Further research is required to better understand the effects of feedback on learner motivation and the interpersonal dynamic between mentors and their trainees. PMID:23111049

  8. Adaptive heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail the experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  9. Dawn Orbit Determination Team: Trajectory and Gravity Prediction Performance During Vesta Science Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Brian; Abrahamson, Matt; Ardito, Alessandro; Han, Dongsuk; Haw, Robert; Mastrodemos, Nicholas; Nandi, Sumita; Park, Ryan; Rush, Brian; Vaughan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Dawn spacecraft was launched on September 27th, 2007. Its mission is to consecutively rendezvous with and observe the two largest bodies in the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres. It has already completed over a year's worth of direct observations of Vesta (spanning from early 2011 through late 2012) and is currently on a cruise trajectory to Ceres, where it will begin scientific observations in mid-2015. Achieving this data collection required careful planning and execution from all spacecraft teams. Dawn's Orbit Determination (OD) team was tasked with accurately predicting the trajectory of the Dawn spacecraft during the Vesta science phases, and also determining the parameters of Vesta to support future science orbit design. The future orbits included the upcoming science phase orbits as well as the transfer orbits between science phases. In all, five science phases were executed at Vesta, and this paper will describe some of the OD team contributions to the planning and execution of those phases.

  10. High performance team-based care for persons with chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Okun, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Care for patients with complex chronic conditions such as diabetes requires a coordinated and collaborative team working in partnership with the patient. Israel has taken important steps forward with the development of structured diabetes follow-up by Clalit Health Services, including several measures of diabetes care in the National Program for Quality Indicators in Community Healthcare, and efforts to develop health information exchange and measures of continuity between hospital and community-based care. Achieving even better results will require purposeful development of health care teams to meet the needs of patients with single and multiple chronic conditions, including robust interprofessional education programs for the next generation of health professionals, and developing partnerships between the teams and the patients. PMID:25729565

  11. Using Model-Tracing to Conduct Performance Assessment of Students' Inquiry Skills within a Microworld

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobert, Janice D.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    The National frameworks for science emphasize inquiry skills (NRC, 1996), however, in typical classroom practice, science learning often focuses on rote learning in part because science process skills are difficult to assess (Fadel, Honey, & Pasnick, 2007) and rote knowledge is prioritized on high-stakes tests. Short answer assessments of inquiry…

  12. Relation between Deaf Children's Phonological Skills in Kindergarten and Word Recognition Performance in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colin, S.; Magnan, A.; Ecalle, J.; Leybaert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was twofold: 1) to determine whether phonological skills measured in deaf prereaders predict their later phonological and reading skills after one year of reading instruction as is the case for hearing children; 2) to examine whether the age of exposure to a fully specified phonological input such as Cued…

  13. Net Knowledge: Performance of New College Students on an Internet Skills Proficiency Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews recent data on computing and information literacy research skills of new college students and describes results from an Internet skills proficiency test administered to freshmen during a summer orientation at Ohio State University. Considers technological preparedness in regard to race, class, gender, and academic background. (Author/LRW)

  14. Motivation and Math Skills as Determinants of First-Year Performance in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.; Straten, Jerry T.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of math skills for study success in economics has been widely researched. This article adds to the literature by combining information on students' math skills and their motivation. The authors are thus able to present a rich picture of why students succeed in their study of economics and to confirm previous findings that deficient…

  15. Sex differences in the relation between math performance, spatial skills, and attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colleen M. Ganley; Marina Vasilyeva

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences have been previously found in cognitive and affective predictors of math achievement, including spatial skills and math attitudes. It is important to determine whether there are sex differences not only in the predictors themselves, but also in the nature of their relation to math achievement. The present paper examined spatial skills and math attitudes as predictors of curriculum-based

  16. Relationship Skills in a Clinical Performance Examination: Reliability and Validity of the Relationship Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Cynthia; And Others

    Among the repertoire of clinical skills necessary for the professional development of medical students is the ability to create a positive doctor-patient relationship through effective communication skills. The purpose of this study was to create an instrument that reliably measures the relationship between physician and patient. The Relationship…

  17. In Demand: Adult Skills in the 21st Century. A Performance and Innovation Unit Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document consists of a two-part report that was developed as part of a project to develop a national workforce development (WfD) system to ensure that people in the United Kingdom develop the basic, intermediate, and other skills needed in the 21st century. The first report sets out proposals for a more demand-led system that places skill

  18. Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills

  19. BDNF polymorphism predicts the rate of decline in skilled task performance and hippocampal volume in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, M Millan; Das, D; Taylor, J L; Noda, A; Yesavage, J A; Salehi, A

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated a link between the presence of polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive and affective disorders. However, only a few have studied these effects longitudinally along with structural changes in the brain. This study was carried out to investigate whether valine-to-methionine substitution at position 66 (val66met) of pro-BDNF could be linked to alterations in the rate of decline in skilled task performance and structural changes in hippocampal volume. Participants consisted of 144 healthy Caucasian pilots (aged 40–69 years) who completed a minimum of 3 consecutive annual visits. Standardized flight simulator score (SFSS) was measured as a reliable and quantifiable indicator for skilled task performance. In addition, a subset of these individuals was assessed for hippocampal volume alterations using magnetic resonance imaging. We found that val66met substitution in BDNF correlated longitudinally with the rate of decline in SFSS. Structurally, age-dependent hippocampal volume changes were also significantly altered by this substitution. Our study suggests that val66met polymorphism in BDNF can be linked to the rate of decline in skilled task performance. Furthermore, this polymorphism could be used as a predictor of the effects of age on the structure of the hippocampus in healthy individuals. Such results have implications for understanding possible disabilities in older adults performing skilled tasks who are at a higher risk for cognitive and affective disorders. PMID:22833197

  20. Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

    The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

  1. Which Specific Skills Developing during Preschool Years Predict the Reading Performance in the First and Second Grade of Primary School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Artemis M.; Vlachos, Filippos M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if specific skills that are developed during preschool years could predict the reading performance in the first and second grade of primary school. Two hundred and eighty-seven children participated in this longitudinal study. At the kindergarten level, phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatised naming,…

  2. Perception of Teachers' Knowledge, Attitude and Teaching Skills as Predictor of Academic Performance in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adediwura, A. A.; Tayo, Bada

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship/effect of students' perception of teachers' knowledge of subject matter, attitude to work and teaching skills on students' academic performance. The population consisted of senior secondary three (SS.III) students in the South West Nigeria senior secondary schools. The study sample consisted of 1600…

  3. Apprentices' and Trainees' English Language and Literacy Skills in Workplace Learning and Performance: Employer and Employee Opinion. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Shirley; Gish, Annabelle

    A study investigated ways employers and their apprentices and trainees perceive how these employees' English language and literacy (ELL) skills affect their learning and performance in the workplace in the current context of New Apprenticeships. The research design and methodology involved sending an opinion survey to a stratified random sample of…

  4. The Prediction of Task and Contextual Performance by Political Skill: A Meta-Analysis and Moderator Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bing, Mark N.; Davison, H. Kristl; Minor, Inneka; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Frink, Dwight D.

    2011-01-01

    Political skill is a relatively newly articulated construct. Despite its novelty, it has been investigated in a variety of contexts, showing promise not only as a descriptor of several organizational phenomena, but also as a predictor of job performance. Given this status, it seems appropriate to review the empirical literature to this point for…

  5. Correlates of Student Performance in the Science Olympiad: The Test of Integrated Process Skills and Other Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.; And Others

    The Test of Integrated Process Skills (TIPS) was administered to 667 students in grades 9-12 who were registering to participate in a regional science Olympiad on a southern university campus in February 1988. Each student's score on the test was correlated with subsequent performance in one or more of the 11 Olympiad events. Of the 667 students…

  6. Confidence versus Performance as an Indicator of the Presence of Alternative Conceptions and Inadequate Problem-Solving Skills in Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Marietjie; Malatje, Esther; Gaigher, Estelle; Venter, Elsie

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the use of performance-confidence relationships to signal the presence of alternative conceptions and inadequate problem-solving skills in mechanics. A group of 33 students entering physics at a South African university participated in the project. The test instrument consisted of 20 items derived from existing standardised…

  7. Assessment Training Effects on Student Assessment Skills and Task Performance in a Technology-Facilitated Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of an assessment training module on student assessment skills and task performance in a technology-facilitated peer assessment. Seventy-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants completed an assessment training exercise, prior to engaging in peer-assessment activities. During the…

  8. Performance Pay Improves Engagement, Progress, and Satisfaction in Computer-Based Job Skills Training of Low-Income Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training…

  9. Squad management, injury and match performance in a professional soccer team over a championship-winning season.

    PubMed

    Carling, Christopher; Le Gall, Franck; McCall, Alan; Nédélec, Mathieu; Dupont, Gregory

    2014-09-12

    Abstract Squad management, injury and physical, tactical and technical match performance were investigated in a professional soccer team across five consecutive league seasons (2008-2013, 190 league games) with specific focus on a championship-winning season (2010/11). For each player, match participation and time-loss injuries were recorded, the latter prospectively diagnosed by the team's physician. Defending and attacking tactical and technical performance indicators investigated included ball possession and possession in opponents' half, passes, forward passes, completed passes and forward passes, crosses and completed crosses, goal attempts and goal attempts on target, successful final third entries, free-kicks and 50/50 duels won/lost. Physical performance measures included total distance and distance covered at high-speeds (?19.1 km/h). Results showed that during the 2010/11 season, squad utilisation was lowest potentially owing to the observed lower match injury occurrence and working days lost to injury thereby increasing player availability. In 2010/11, the team won both its highest number of points and conceded its lowest number of goals especially over the second half of this season. The team also won its highest number of games directly via a goal from a substitute and scored and conceded a goal first on the highest and lowest number of occasions, respectively. While multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) detected a significant difference in some attacking and defensive performance indicators across the five seasons, these were generally not distinguishing factors in 2010/11. Similarly, univariate ANOVAs showed a significant difference in running distances covered across seasons, but the trend was for less activity in 2010/11. PMID:25216043

  10. Half-time strategies to enhance second-half performance in team-sports players: a review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mark; West, Daniel J; Harper, Liam D; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2015-03-01

    A number of intermittent team sports require that two consecutive periods of play (lasting for ~30-45 min) are separated by a 10-20 min half-time break. The half-time practices employed by team-sports players generally include returning to the changing rooms, temporarily relaxing from the cognitive and physical demands of the first half, rehydration and re-fuelling strategies, addressing injury or equipment concerns, and receiving tactical instruction and coach feedback. However, the typically passive nature of these actions has been associated with physiological changes that impair performance during the second half. Both physical and cognitive performances have been found to decline in the initial stages of subsequent exercise that follows half-time. An increased risk of injury has also been observed during this period. Therefore, half-time provides sports scientists and strength and conditioning coaches with an opportunity to optimise second-half performance. An overview of strategies thought to benefit team-sports athletes is presented; specifically, the efficacy of heat maintenance strategies (including passive and active methods), post-activation potentiation, hormonal priming, and modified hydro-nutritional practices are discussed. A theoretical model of applying these strategies in a manner that compliments current practice is also offered. PMID:25504550

  11. The TeamSTEPPS Approach to Safety and Quality.

    PubMed

    Epps, Howard R; Levin, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in patient safety since the landmark Institute of Medicine Report To Err is Human was published, adverse events and medical errors remain a persistent problem throughout health care. Safety experts have examined the practices in high-risk industries that maintain outstanding safety records for strategies to address the problem. Those efforts led to the development of Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS), a patient safety program that incorporates the principles of crew resource management and teamwork successfully used by industry into the health care setting. Evidence supports that the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, that comprise the core of TeamSTEPPS program, can improve safety and outcomes when used by members of the health care team. Successful implementation should assist the transition of health care workers from functioning as individual experts to performing as members of expert teams. PMID:26049298

  12. Distributed Leadership in Action: Leading High-Performing Leadership Teams in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Heroic models of leadership based on the role of the principal have been supplemented by an emerging recognition of the value of "distributed leadership". The work of effective senior leadership teams (SLTs) is an important manifestation of distributed leadership, but there has been only limited research addressing the relationship between this…

  13. Understanding the assembly of interdisciplinary teams and its impact on performance

    PubMed Central

    Lungeanu, Alina; Huang, Yun; Contractor, Noshir S.

    2013-01-01

    Interdisciplinary teams are assembled in scientific research and are aimed at solving complex problems. Given their increasing importance, it is not surprising that considerable attention has been focused on processes of collaboration in interdisciplinary teams. Despite such efforts, we know less about the factors affecting the assembly of such teams in the first place. In this paper, we investigate the structure and the success of interdisciplinary scientific research teams. We examine the assembly factors using a sample of 1,103 grant proposals submitted to two National Science Foundation interdisciplinary initiatives during a 3-year period, including both awarded and non-awarded proposals. The results indicate that individuals’ likelihood of collaboration on a proposal is higher among those with longer tenure, lower institutional tier, lower H-index, and with higher levels of prior co-authorship and citation relationships. However, successful proposals have a little bit different relational patterns: individuals’ likelihood of collaboration is higher among those with lower institutional tier, lower H-index, (female) gender, higher levels of prior co-authorship, but with lower levels of prior citation relationships. PMID:24470806

  14. Augmented autonomy: Improving human-robot team performance in Urban search and rescue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yashodhan Nevatia; Todor Stoyanov; Ravi Rathnam; Max Pfingsthorn; Stefan Markov; Rares Ambrus; Andreas Birk

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of unknown environments remains one of the fundamental problems of mobile robotics. It is also a prime example for a task that can benefit significantly from multi-robot teams. We present an integrated system for semi- autonomous cooperative exploration, augmented by an intuitive user interface for efficient human supervision and control. In this preliminary study we demonstrate the effectiveness of

  15. Understanding the assembly of interdisciplinary teams and its impact on performance.

    PubMed

    Lungeanu, Alina; Huang, Yun; Contractor, Noshir S

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary teams are assembled in scientific research and are aimed at solving complex problems. Given their increasing importance, it is not surprising that considerable attention has been focused on processes of collaboration in interdisciplinary teams. Despite such efforts, we know less about the factors affecting the assembly of such teams in the first place. In this paper, we investigate the structure and the success of interdisciplinary scientific research teams. We examine the assembly factors using a sample of 1,103 grant proposals submitted to two National Science Foundation interdisciplinary initiatives during a 3-year period, including both awarded and non-awarded proposals. The results indicate that individuals' likelihood of collaboration on a proposal is higher among those with longer tenure, lower institutional tier, lower H-index, and with higher levels of prior co-authorship and citation relationships. However, successful proposals have a little bit different relational patterns: individuals' likelihood of collaboration is higher among those with lower institutional tier, lower H-index, (female) gender, higher levels of prior co-authorship, but with lower levels of prior citation relationships. PMID:24470806

  16. Contextualism adds realism: nursing students' perceptions of and performance in numeracy skills tests.

    PubMed

    Ramjan, Lucie M

    2011-11-01

    This project investigated nursing students' perceptions of and performance in a de-contextualised diagnostic maths paper (i.e. questions only) and a contextualised diagnostic maths paper (i.e. visual pictures along with questions). Sampling was purposive, the criteria being that participants would be from the population of student nurses (n=700) in their second year, of a three-year Bachelor of Nursing course, undertaking a Unit 'Medical-Surgical Nursing 1' (MSN1) at one of four campuses across the University of Western Sydney (UWS), NSW, Australia. The numerical test scores for both papers were analysed with the assistance of SPSS software and a Professional Development Officer. The survey data were analysed manually and thematically by the researcher. There was a substantive improvement in scores from Test 1 (de-contextualised) to Test 2 (contextualised). It is uncertain whether the change occurred because Test 2 is a genuinely better presentation than Test 1 or just a practice effect. Nevertheless, the contextualised paper was preferred by the majority of students (80%). Students preferred the visual images and revealed that it led to a "deeper learning" of numeracy skills, reduced stress and anxiety levels and simulated 'the real life' clinical setting, thus adding "an element of realism" to the situation. PMID:21126812

  17. Business and Industry Project-Based Capstone Courses: A Reflection on the Performance of Student Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maleki, Reza A.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two articles in which the author shares experiences gained from the development and delivery of a business/industry project-based capstone course. The course integrates research, proposal development and design experience based on knowledge and skills acquired in earlier coursework. It also incorporates standards and…

  18. Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A.

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits play a role in the modulation of the serial correlations of timing fluctuations exhibited in skilled musical performance. PMID:25309487

  19. Imagery Integration Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one-of-a-kind imagery assets and skill sets, such as ground-based fixed and tracking cameras, crew-in the-loop imaging applications, and the integration of custom or commercial-off-the-shelf sensors onboard spacecraft. For spaceflight applications, the Integration 2 Team leverages modeling, analytical, and scientific resources along with decades of experience and lessons learned to assist the customer in optimizing engineering imagery acquisition and management schemes for any phase of flight - launch, ascent, on-orbit, descent, and landing. The Integration 2 Team guides the customer in using NASA's world-class imagery analysis teams, which specialize in overcoming inherent challenges associated with spaceflight imagery sets. Precision motion tracking, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry, image stabilization, 3D modeling of imagery data, lighting assessment, and vehicle fiducial marking assessments are available. During a mission or test, the Integration 2 Team provides oversight of imagery operations to verify fulfillment of imagery requirements. The team oversees the collection, screening, and analysis of imagery to build a set of imagery findings. It integrates and corroborates the imagery findings with other mission data sets, generating executive summaries to support time-critical mission decisions.

  20. Teaching high-performance skills using above-real-time training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

    1993-01-01

    The above real-time training (ARTT) concept is an approach to teaching high-performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. It represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. Two related experiments are discussed. In the first, 25 naive male subjects performed three tank gunnery tasks on a simulator under varying levels of time acceleration (i.e., 1.0x, 1.6x, 2.0x, sequential, and mixed). They were then transferred to a standard (1.0x) condition for testing. Every accelerated condition or combination of conditions produced better training and transfer than the standard condition. Most effective was the presentation of trials at 1.0x, 1.6x, and 2.0x in a random order during training. Overall, the best ARTT group scored about 50 percent higher and trained in 25 percent less time compared to the real-time control group. In the second experiment, 24 mission-capable F-16 pilots performed three tasks on a part-task F-16A flight simulator under varying levels of time compression (i.e., 1.0x, 1.5x, 2.0x, and random). All subjects were then tested in a real-time environment. The emergency procedure (EP) task results showed increased accuracy for the ARTT groups. In testing (transfer), the ARTT groups not only performed the EP more accurately, but dealt with a simultaneous enemy significantly better than a real-time control group. Although the findings on an air combat maneuvering task and stern conversion task were mixed, most measures indicated that the ARTT groups performed better and faster than a real-time control group. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

  1. School Improvement Planning Teams: Lessons from Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwood, Kenneth W.; Tallerico, Marilyn

    1990-01-01

    A recent study of school improvement planning teams in central New York State attempted to capture practicing team members' perspectives and identify and elaborate factors helping or hindering team development or effectiveness. Skill development, adequate time, and strong administrative support are critical to successful team development. (20…

  2. Politics Perceptions as Moderator of the Political Skill-Job Performance Relationship: A Two-Study, Cross-National, Constructive Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoutsis, Ilias; Papalexandris, Alexandros; Nikolopoulos, Andreas; Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Ferris, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a two-study, cross-national, constructive replication to examine the role of organizational politics perceptions as a contextual moderator of the political skill-job performance relationship. Specifically, we hypothesized that high levels of political skill would demonstrate its strongest positive effects on job performance when…

  3. Performance of Public High School Graduates on the Comparative Guidance and Placement Test for Basic Skills Assessment, Fall Term 1983. Research Report No. 84-05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Cathy

    A study was conducted at Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC) to provide data on the basic skills performance of first-time-in-college students who graduated from area public high schools between August 1982 and September 1983 and enrolled at MDCC in fall 1983. The entering basic skills performance of students who graduated in the top 20% of their…

  4. Hierarchical reactive control for a team of humanoid soccer robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Behnke; J. Stuckler; M. Schreiber; H. Schulz; M. Bohnert; K. Meier

    2007-01-01

    Humanoid soccer serves as benchmark problem for artificial intelligence research and robotics. Every year, more teams are competing, e.g., in the RoboCup Humanoid league. As the robots manage the basic skills of walking, kicking, and getting up better, teams can focus on soccer skills and team coordination. The complexity of soccer behaviors and team play calls for structured behavior engineering.

  5. Acquisition of cognitive skill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Anderson

    1982-01-01

    A framework for skill acquisition is proposed that includes two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill: a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowl- edge is directly embodied in procedures for performing the skill. This general framework has been instantiated in the ACT system

  6. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of top-elite, elite and non-elite youth female team handball players.

    PubMed

    Moss, Samantha Louise; McWhannell, Nicola; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Twist, Craig

    2015-09-01

    In order to maximise the potential for success, developing nations need to produce superior systems to identify and develop talent, which requires comprehensive and up-to-date values on elite players. This study examined the anthropometric and physical characteristics of youth female team handball players (16.07 ± 1.30 years) in non-elite (n = 47), elite (n = 37) and top-elite players (n = 29). Anthropometric profiling included sum of eight skinfolds, body mass, stature, girths, breadths and somatotype. Performance tests included 20 m sprint, counter-movement jump, throwing velocity, repeated shuttle sprint and jump ability test, and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1. Youth top-elite players had greater body mass, lean mass, stature, limb girths and breadths than elite and non-elite players, while only stature and flexed arm were higher in elite compared to non-elite players (all P < 0.05). Sum of skinfolds and waist-to-hip ratio were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Top-elite performed better in most performance tests compared to both elite and non-elite players (P < 0.05), although maximal and repeated 10 m sprints were similar between playing standards (P > 0.05). Elite outperformed non-elite players only in throwing velocity. The findings reveal that non-elite players compare unfavourably to top-elite international European players in many anthropometric and performance characteristics, and differ in a few characteristics compared to elite European club team players. This study is useful for emerging team handball nations in improving talent identification processes. PMID:25685995

  7. Effects of Plyometric and Sprint Training on Physical and Technical Skill Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, Gregory G; Ferrete, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Sáez de Villarreal, E, Suarez-Arrones, L, Requena, B, Haff, GG, and Ferrete, C. Effects of plyometric and sprint training on physical and technical skill performance in adolescent soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 1894-1903, 2015-To determine the influence of a short-term combined plyometric and sprint training (9 weeks) within regular soccer practice on explosive and technical actions of pubertal soccer players during the in-season. Twenty-six players were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control group (CG) (soccer training only) and combined group (CombG) (plyometric + acceleration + dribbling + shooting). All players trained soccer 4 times per week and the experimental groups supplemented the soccer training with a proposed plyometric-sprint training program for 40 minutes (2 days per weeks). Ten-meter sprint, 10-m agility with and without ball, CMJ and Abalakov vertical jump, ball-shooting speed, and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test were measured before and after training. The experimental group followed a 9-week plyometric and sprint program (i.e., jumping, hurdling, bouncing, skipping, and footwork) implemented before the soccer training. Baseline-training results showed no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested. No improvement was found in the CG; however, meaningful improvement was found in all variables in the experimental group: CMJ (effect size [ES] = 0.9), Abalakov vertical jump (ES = 1.3), 10-m sprint (ES = 0.7-0.9), 10-m agility (ES = 0.8-1.2), and ball-shooting speed (ES = 0.7-0.8). A specific combined plyometric and sprint training within regular soccer practice improved explosive actions compared with conventional soccer training only. Therefore, the short-term combined program had a beneficial impact on explosive actions, such as sprinting, change of direction, jumping, and ball-shooting speed which are important determinants of match-winning actions in soccer performance. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for pubertal soccer players to include combined plyometric and speed training for athlete preparation in this sport. PMID:25635606

  8. Self-directed work teams in marketing organizations.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, T F

    1999-01-01

    As marketing organizations move toward the 21st century they are becoming concerned with the development of self-directed work teams. Marketing organizations that have informed, motivated, skilled, trained, and committed employees will out perform organizations which operate in the traditional manner. Many self-directed work teams have grown out of the quality circles. The goal of these teams is to increase employee involvement in decisions of the organization to the greatest extent that employees' knowledge and training allow. In fact, today's marketing organizations need to be able to respond quickly to change driven by internal and external customers. The winning organizations will be able to produce more product with better quality in less time by staying lean, flexible, and implementing self-directed work teams. Marketing organizations that can commit to self-directed work teams will benefit by having customer and employee satisfaction, money saved, and excessive bureaucracy eliminated. PMID:10623198

  9. Assessing individual and team readiness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanna Chang; William Gibson; Emma Lander; Kelly O'Hargan; Susan Donohue; Stephanie Guerlain; Brian Clark; B. Eugene Parker

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine if teams can successfully predict their readiness to perform a mission via noninvasive methods. We present a method for assessing individual and team readiness in the form of a questionnaire designed to allow team members to predict the readiness of their team to perform a particular mission. To test the questionnaire's utility,

  10. Soft Skills at the Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakir, Roselina

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses human capital development through the seven soft skills elements which comprise communication skills, critical thinking and problem solving skills, team work, lifelong learning and information management skills, entrepreneurship skills, ethics, and professional moral and leadership skills. The Ministry of Higher Education,…

  11. The Laborers-AGC Construction Skills Training Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippie, John L.; Rice, Eric

    Patterned after a previously successful Laborers-Associated General Contractors model named the Construction Skills Training Program, a demonstration project was implemented at five regional training centers. At least eight courses were created, combined, or revised. Four full-length audiovisual support pieces were completed. Three courses were…

  12. Basic Skills for Job Performance: Private Industry Councils and Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide is designed to provide private industry councils (PICs) with information on developing workplace literacy or job-related basic skills programs. Chapter 1 contains an overview of the nation's literacy problem and how it affects business and is designed to provide PIC members with background information to use when discussing the problem…

  13. How Much Do Study Habits, Skills, and Attitudes Affect Student Performance in Introductory College Accounting Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Darwin D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Financial accounting is a skills course which to a large extent can be best learned through deliberate practice. Teachers implement this by continuously assigning homeworks, encouraging good study habits, asking students to budget time for studying, and generally exhorting students to "work hard". Aims: This paper examines the impact…

  14. Development of the Performance of Process Skills (POPS) Test for Middle Grades Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheis, Floyd E.; Nakayama, Genzo

    The purpose of this project was to construct a valid and reliable noncurriculum specific measure of integrated science process skills intended for use with middle school students. The major efforts in test development were focused on the refinements and modifications of the set of objectives and test items assessed by the existing Middle Grades…

  15. Sex Differences in the Relation between Math Performance, Spatial Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences have been previously found in cognitive and affective predictors of math achievement, including spatial skills and math attitudes. It is important to determine whether there are sex differences not only in the predictors themselves, but also in the nature of their relation to math achievement. The present paper examined spatial…

  16. Increasing Skill Performances of Problem Solving in Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Debra; Pierce, Tom; Higgins, Kyle; Miller, Susan; Tandy, Richard; Sparks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Problem-solving instruction facilitates children in becoming successful real-world problem solvers. Research that incorporates problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. However, this population of students needs increased opportunities to learn the skills of problem solving. Using a…

  17. Team-Based Learning in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Ofstad, William

    2013-01-01

    Instructors wanting to engage students in the classroom seek methods to augment the delivery of factual information and help students move from being passive recipients to active participants in their own learning. One such method that has gained interest is team-based learning. This method encourages students to be prepared before class and has students work in teams while in the classroom. Key benefits to this pedagogy are student engagement, improved communication skills, and enhanced critical-thinking abilities. In most cases, student satisfaction and academic performance are also noted. This paper reviews the fundamentals of team-based learning in pharmacy education and its implementation in the classroom. Literature reports from medical, nursing, and pharmacy programs are also discussed. PMID:23716738

  18. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Swine Farmer. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, J. Rick; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the swine farmer is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

  19. Higher-Order and Lower-Order Thinking Skills Achievement in Secondary-Level Animal Science: Does Block Scheduling Pattern Influence End-of-Course Learner Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. Craig; Briers, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of 184 animal science students in modified alternating day block schedule with 136 in 9-week accelerated block schedule showed that higher-order thinking skills achievement was less than half of the passing standard. Higher- and lower-order skills performance of modified schedule students was superior, which may be explained by teacher…

  20. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Soil Conservation District Aide. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddy, Paul H.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the soil conservation district aide is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are…

  1. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Floral Designer. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Daniel R.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the floral designer is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

  2. Self-Regulated Learning Skills and Online Activities between Higher and Lower Performers on a Web-Intensive Undergraduate Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry B.; Lawanto, Kevin N.; Goodridge, Wade

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate students' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills used in a Web-intensive learning environment. The research question guiding the study was: How did the use of student SRL skills and student engagement in online activities compare between higher- and lower-performing students participating in a…

  3. A Cohort Analysis of the Relationship between Entering Basic Skills and CLAST Performance for Fall 1981 First-Time-In-College Students. Research Report No. 84-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Marcia

    A study was conducted at a Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC) to determine the relationship between students' level of basic skills at entry and their pass/fail performance on the College-Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST). Specifically, the study focused on students' Comparative Guidance and Placement Test (CGP) scores in reading, writing, and…

  4. Team Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from Round Rock's Project on Incentives in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Pane, John F.; Springer, Matthew G.; Burns, Susan F.; Haas, Ann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a rigorous experiment examining the impact of pay for performance on student achievement and instructional practice. This study, conducted by the National Center on Performance Incentives, examines a pay-for-performance program in Round Rock (Texas) which distributed performance awards to teachers based on a…

  5. Adult Basic Skills: What's the Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights a five-year project known as Enhancing "Skills for Life": Adult Basic Skills and Workplace Learning which focuses on what workplace basic skills programmes "do" work, when and by what means. A research team headed by Alison Wolf will assess the impact of workplace basic skills programmes on employers and their workers. The…

  6. US EPA team study of inhalable particles (PM10): Study design, response rate, and sampler performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.; Pellizzari, E.; Spengler, J.; Jenkins, P.; Sheldon, L.

    1991-03-01

    The US EPA studied the exposures of 175 residents of Riverside, CA to inhalable particles (<10 micrometers diameter) in the early fall of 1990. Participants were probabilistically selected to represent most of the Riverside nonsmoking population over the age of 10. They wore a newly-designed personal monitor (4 Lpm pump and filter) for two consecutive 12-hour periods (day and night) to determine their exposure to PM-10. Exposure to nicotine was also determined by a citric acid treated filter. Indoor and outdoor samples were collected concurrently at each home. Air exchange rates were determined for each household for the day and night periods. The response rate of the population was about 50%, roughly comparable to previous TEAM Studies. The personal and fixed particle monitors showed excellent precision of about 4% RSD.

  7. National performance review: Internal Team report to the Secretary. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The team received over 300 suggestions for changes in legislation, procedures, and directives that govern the operations of DOE. The suggestions were distilled to 41 issues. DOE employees want to be empowered in areas of decision-making and responsibility, believe that contracting can be done better, are eager to learn quality management, and believe that communications between HQ and field can be improved. A number of internal barriers to efficient operation were identified, that fell away; this can be continued through the Quality Council. Recommendations for action are listed. It is recommended that each of the issues that have been referred for action to a task force or focus group be followed by the Quality Council to successful resolution.

  8. Using Fine-Grained Skill Models to Fit Student Performance with Bayesian Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary A. Pardos; Neil T. Heffernan; Brigham Anderson; Cristina L Heffernan

    2006-01-01

    The ASSISTment online tutoring system was used by over 600 students during the school year 2004-2005. Each student used the system as part of their math classes 1-2 times a month, doing on average over 100+ state-test items, and getting tutored on the ones they got incorrect. The ASSISTment system has 4 different skill models, each at different grain-size involving

  9. Visuospatial working memory in adolescents with poor performance in mathematics: variation depending on reading skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minna Kyttälä

    2008-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to investigate whether the visuospatial working memory (VSWM) skills of 15–16?year?old pupils with difficulties in mathematics differ from those of their normally achieving peers. The goal was to broaden the view of the complex system of VSWM. A set of passive and active VSWM tasks was used. The study’s second purpose was to

  10. The influence of self-talk on the performance of skilled female tennis players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Landin; Edward P. Hebert

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and implementation of a self-talk (ST) strategy designed to improve the volleying skill of collegiate tennis players (N = 5). A two-word ST strategy was developed, implemented, and evaluated using a single-case, multiple-baseline design. Dependent measures were movement patterns and outcome scores. After intervention, four players displayed immediate, positive changes with no overlapping datapoints

  11. The effects of fatigue on decision making and shooting skill performance in water polo players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kylie A. Royal; Damian Farrow; Ińigo Mujika; Shona L. Halson; David Pyne; Bruce Abernethy

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fatigue on decision making and goal shooting skill in water polo. Fourteen junior elite male players (age 17.2 ± 0.5 years; mass 84.2 ± 7.6 kg; height 1.85 ± 0.05 m) completed four sets of eight repetitions of an approximately 18 s maximal water polo specific drill. Progressively declining rest ratios for each successive set of the drill

  12. Dutch police officers' preparation and performance of their arrest and self-defence skills: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Renden, Peter G; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2015-07-01

    We investigated how Dutch police officers perceive their preparation for arrest and self-defence skills (ASDS) and their ability to manage violence on duty. Furthermore, we assessed whether additional experience (i.e., by having encountered violence on duty or by practicing martial arts) and self-perceived anxiety have an influence on these perceptions. Results of an online questionnaire (n = 922) showed that having additional experience was associated with self-perceived better performance. Officers who experience anxiety more often, on the other hand, reported more problems. Although most officers report sufficiently effective performance on duty, they, especially those with additional experience, feel that training frequency is too low and that the currently taught ASDS are only moderately usable (at least with the current amount of training). Based on the results, we suggest that increasing officers' ASDS experience, teaching officers to perform with high anxiety, or reconsidering the taught skills, may be necessary to further improve performance of police officers on duty. PMID:25766417

  13. The Influence of Individual and Team Cognitive Ability on Operators’ Task and Safety Performance: A Multilevel Field Study in Nuclear Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yongjuan; Wu, Changxu

    2013-01-01

    While much research has investigated the predictors of operators’ performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA) at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators’ GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a “big-fish-little-pond” effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers’ extra-role behaviors (safety participation) compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance). The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed. PMID:24391964

  14. An Assessment of Cooperative Learning Used for Basic Computer Skills Instruction in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Carolyn M.; Anson, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Reports research on cooperative learning strategies used in a college computer skills lab course and compares learning performance and retention of students taught via cooperative teams or traditional individual learning. Results show that both performance and retention were significantly improved with the use of cooperative learning. (Author/JMV)

  15. Examining the influence of acute instructional approaches on the decision-making performance of experienced team field sport players.

    PubMed

    Buszard, Tim; Farrow, Damian; Kemp, Justin

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of instructions on decision-making accuracy using video simulations of game-specific scenarios in Australian football. Skilled performers (average age of 23.4 ± 4.2 years) differing in experience (range 0 to 339 Australian Football League (AFL) matches) assumed the role of the key attacker and verbally indicated their kicking decision. Participants were randomly stratified into three groups: (1) LOOSE (n = 15)--instructed to "keep the ball away from the loose defender"; (2) TTF (n = 15) - instructed to "take the first option"; and (3) NI (control) (n = 16)--given no instructions. Gaze behaviour for a subset of participants (n = 20) was recorded. In the scenarios with an even number of attacking and defensive players, the decision-making accuracy of LOOSE was greater than TTF. This difference was most evident for lesser experienced performers, highlighting that lesser experienced performers are more affected by instructional foci than experienced performers. Gaze behaviour was not affected by instructional foci, but visual search rate was greater in scenarios of greater player number and complexity. PMID:23046418

  16. Hierarchical Reactive Control for a Team of Humanoid Soccer Robots

    E-print Network

    Behnke, Sven

    Hierarchical Reactive Control for a Team of Humanoid Soccer Robots Sven Behnke, J¨org St.uni-freiburg.de Abstract-- Humanoid soccer serves as benchmark problem for artificial intelligence research and robotics the basic skills of walking, kicking, and getting up better, teams can focus on soccer skills and team

  17. Cockpit resource management skills enhance combat mission performance in a B-52 simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povenmire, H. Kingsley; Rockway, Marty R.; Bunecke, Joseph L.; Patton, Mark W.

    1989-01-01

    A cockpit resource management (CRM) program for mission-ready B-52 aircrew is developed. The relationship between CRM performance and combat mission performance is studied. The performances of six crew members flying a simulated high workload mission in a B-52 weapon system trainer are evaluated. The data reveal that CRM performance enhances tactical maneuvers and bombing accuracy.

  18. Adaptive Aiding of Human-Robot Teaming: Effects of Imperfect Automation on Performance, Trust, and Workload

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewart de Visser; Raja Parasuraman

    2011-01-01

    In many emerging civilian and military operations, human operators are increasingly being tasked to supervise multiple robotic uninhabited vehicles (UVs) with the support of automation. As 100% automation reliability cannot be assured, it is important to understand the effects of automation imperfection on performance. In addition, adaptive aiding may help counter any adverse effects of static (fixed) automation. Using a

  19. Usefulness of the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA) for Predicting Residential Independence in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T.; Bowie, Christopher R.; Harvey, Philip D.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Goldman, Sherrill R.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of a performance-based measure of functional capacity, the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) for the prediction of independent living status in patients with chronic schizophrenia-related conditions. A sample of 434 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was administered the UPSA and assessed for independent living status. Participants were classified as “independent” if they were living alone in an apartment, house, or single-resident occupancy (e.g., hotel room) and non-independent if they resided in a care facility (e.g., Board-and-Care home, Skilled Nursing Facility). Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated with the UPSA and Mattis’ Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) scores as predictor variables and residential independence as the state variable. Of the 434 participants, 99 (23%) were living independently at the time of assessment. The discriminant validity of the UPSA was adequate (ROC area under the curve = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.68–0.79), with greatest dichotomization for the UPSA at a cutoff score of 75 (68% accuracy, 69% sensitivity, 66% specificity), or 80 (68% accuracy, 59% sensitivity, 76% specificity). The UPSA was also a significantly better predictor of living status than was the DRS, based on ROC (z = 2.43, p = .015). The UPSA is a brief measure of functional capacity that predicts the ability of patients with schizophrenia to reside independently in the community. PMID:17303168

  20. Team Performance and Error Management in Chinese and American Simulated Flight Crews: The Role of Cultural and Individual Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve teamwork. This is followed by discussion of the potential influence of national culture on teamwork and crew resource management. We then examine the influence of other individual and team differences, such as personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload. We provide a heuristic model that depicts the influence of national culture and individual differences on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the model for future research.

  1. Safety in the operating theatre--part 1: interpersonal relationships and team performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors examine the application of interpersonal human factors training on operating room (OR) personnel. Mortality studies of OR deaths and critical incident studies of anesthesia are examined to determine the role of human error in OR incidents. Theoretical models of system vulnerability to accidents are presented with emphasis on a systems approach to OR performance. Input, process, and outcome factors are discussed in detail.

  2. The Performance of Bach: Study of Rhythmic Timing by Skilled Musicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher M.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes 15 performances of "Bach's Suite Number 3 for Violoncello solo, Bourree Number 1" and determines what patterns of rhythmic variation (rubato) were used by soloists. Indicates that the soloists demonstrated four identifiable and similar trends in the performances. (CMK)

  3. The associations among fundamental movement skills, self-reported physical activity and academic performance during junior high school in Finland.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Timo; Hillman, Charles; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the longitudinal associations between (1) fundamental movement skills (FMSs) and academic performance, and (2) self-reported physical activity and academic performance through junior high school in Finland. The participants of the study were 325 Finnish students (162 girls and 163 boys), who were 13 years old at the beginning of the study at Grade 7. Students performed three FMS tests and responded to a self-reported physical activity questionnaire at Grades 7 and 8. Marks in Finnish language, mathematics and history from Grades 7, 8 and 9 were collected. Structural equation modelling with multigroup method demonstrated that in the boys' group, a correlation (0.17) appeared between FMS and academic performance measured at Grade 7. The results also indicated that FMS collected at Grade 8 were significantly but weakly (path coefficient 0.14) associated with academic performance at Grade 9 for both gender groups. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that self-reported physical activity was not significantly related to academic performance during junior high school. The findings of this study suggest that mastery of FMS may contribute to better student achievement during junior high school. PMID:25649279

  4. Self-Paced and Temporally Constrained Throwing Performance by Team-Handball Experts and Novices without Foreknowledge of Target Position.

    PubMed

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Noutsos, Konstantinos S; Bayios, Ioannis A; Boudolos, Konstantinos D

    2015-03-01

    The fixed duration of a team-handball game and its continuously changing situations incorporate an inherent temporal pressure. Also, the target's position is not foreknown but online determined by the player's interceptive processing of visual information. These ecological limitations do not favour throwing performance, particularly in novice players, and are not reflected in previous experimental settings of self-paced throws with foreknowledge of target position. The study investigated the self-paced and temporally constrained throwing performance without foreknowledge of target position, in team-handball experts and novices in three shot types (Standing Shot, 3Step Shot, Jump Shot). The target position was randomly illuminated on a tabloid surface before (self-paced condition) and after (temporally constrained condition) shot initiation. Response time, throwing velocity and throwing accuracy were measured. A mixed 2 (experience) X 2 (temporal constraint condition) ANOVA was applied. The novices performed with significantly lower throwing velocity and worse throwing accuracy in all shot types (p = 0.000) and, longer response time only in the 3Step Shot (p = 0.013). The temporal constraint (significantly shorter response times in all shot types at p = 0.000) had a shot specific effect with lower throwing velocity only in the 3Step Shot (p = 0.001) and an unexpected greater throwing accuracy only in the Standing Shot (p = 0.002). The significant interaction between experience and temporal constraint condition in throwing accuracy (p = 0.003) revealed a significant temporal constraint effect in the novices (p = 0.002) but not in the experts (p = 0.798). The main findings of the study are the shot specificity of the temporal constraint effect, as well as that, depending on the shot, the novices' throwing accuracy may benefit rather than worsen under temporal pressure. Key pointsThe temporal constraint induced a shot specific significant difference in throwing velocity in both the experts and the novices.The temporal constraint induced a shot specific significant difference in throwing accuracy only in the novices.Depending on the shot demands, the throwing accuracy of the novices may benefit under temporally constrained situations. PMID:25729288

  5. Columbia/Willamette Skill Builders Consortium. Final Performance Report. Appendix 5C: Nabisco, Inc. Individualized Skill Enhancement. Instructors' Reports and Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary

    A workplace basic skills program was designed to complement technical training for mixing personnel at the Portland Bakery of Nabisco, Inc. Management, the union, and Portland Community College (Oregon) collaborated in the program. The company released workers on company time to attend classes prior to, during, and after the technical training…

  6. NeoCITIES: an experimental test-bed for quantifying the effects of cognitive aids on team performance in C2 situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellar, D. B.; Hall, David L.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and development of the NeoCITIES Simulation task environment. The enhanced NeoCITIES environment allows repeatable experiments in which artifacts are introduced to improve team performance and measure quantities such as inference accuracy as a function of crisis tempo, data rate, decision complexity and individual factors such as induced stress. NeoCITIES was developed to study the effectiveness of cognitive artifacts within a simulated command and control environment. This paper describes the initial results of a human in the loop experiment to quantify the effects of data overload on human analyst performance. The experiment involves the introduction of cognitive aids to support improved team coordination and understanding of team-member interactions in a simulated extreme events scenario.

  7. The Perceptual Cognitive Processes Underpinning Skilled Performance in Volleyball: Evidence From Eye-Movements and Verbal Reports of Thinking Involving an in Situ Representative Task

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, José; Garganta, Jęlio; Mcrobert, Allistair; Williams, Andrew M.; Mesquita, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    An extensive body of work has focused on the processes underpinning perceptual-cognitive expertise. The majority of researchers have used film-based simulations to capture superior performance. We combined eye movement recording and verbal reports of thinking to explore the processes underpinning skilled performance in a complex, dynamic, and externally paced representative volleyball task involving in situ data collection. Altogether, 27 female volleyball players performed as centre backcourt defenders in simulated sessions while wearing an eye-tracking device. After each sequence, athletes were questioned concerning their perception of the situation. The visual search strategies employed by the highly-skilled players were more exploratory than those used by skilled players, involving more fixations to a greater number of locations. Highly-skilled participants spent more time fixating on functional spaces between two or more display areas, while the skilled participants fixated on the ball trajectory and specific players. Moreover, highly-skilled players generated more condition concepts with higher levels of sophistication than their skilled counterparts. Findings highlight the value of using representative task designs to capture performance in situ. Key pointsDecision-making in complex sports relies deeply on perceptual-cognitive expertise. In turn, the effect of expertise is highly dependent on the nature and complexity of the task.Nonetheless, most researchers use simple tasks in their research designs, risking not capturing performance in a meaningful way. We proposed to use a live action setting with a complex task design, representative of real world situations.We combined eye movement registration with collection of immediate retrospective verbal reports. Although the two data sets are not directly comparable, they may be used in a complementary manner, providing a deeper and fuller understanding of the processes underpinning superior performance.Highly-skilled players exhibited more exploratory visual search behaviors than their skilled counterparts, performing more fixations into more locations. They also attended more to functional spaces between two or more areas of the display. Furthermore, highly-skilled players produced more condition concepts and with superior level of sophistication, revealing a deeper and more meaningful attunement to the task constraints. PMID:24149208

  8. Using life coaching techniques to enhance leadership skills in nursing.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Catherine

    This article describes a recent initiative, which used life-coaching to develop strong leadership skills and empower individual team members and the team as a whole. A three-stage process was used to enable a team of nurses in a GP practice to improve working relationships, leadership skills and stress management. PMID:19331079

  9. Effects of Role Division, Interaction, and Shared Mental Model on Team Performance in Project-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive mechanism of project-based learning teams of college students on the basis of the Shared Mental Model (SMM) theory. The study participants were 237 female college students in Korea organized into 51 project teams. To test the study hypotheses, a structural equation modeling was employed.…

  10. Soft Skills in Higher Education: Importance and Improvement Ratings as a Function of Individual Differences and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Arteche, Adriane; Bremner, Andrew J.; Greven, Corina; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Three UK studies on the relationship between a purpose-built instrument to assess the importance and development of 15 "soft skills" are reported. "Study 1" (N = 444) identified strong latent components underlying these soft skills, such that differences "between-skills" were over-shadowed by differences "between-students". Importance and…

  11. A Comparative Study of Teacher Ratings of Emergent Literacy Skills and Student Performance on a Standardized Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, J. F.; Willms, J. Douglas; Sloat, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    In view of the current emphasis on teachers' contextual assessment of emergent literacy skills, we need to determine the degree to which such assessments are valid judgments about children's early literacy skill development. One approach to this issue would be to examine closely the relationship between teacher ratings of literacy skills and…

  12. Performing a successful audience analysis: How to improve your proposal-writing skills. [Technical writing of proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, O. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Proposal teams conduct an audience analysis in much the same way as they write proposals: they search for characteristics (features) and attempt to conform to such characteristics (benefits). For example, based on experience, the proposal team knows that a specific proposal review board has short attention spans and is graphics-oriented. The team also known that the evaluators will have to score more then thirty proposals in one weekend. Based on these characteristics, the team decides to use more photos and less text and establish many heads and subheads. The team then begins to write the proposal.

  13. EVA Skills Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Parazynski and a colleague from Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Robotics, & Crew Systems Operations (DX) worked closely to build the EVA Skills Training Program, and for the first time, defined the gold standards of EVA performance, allowing crewmembers to increase their performance significantly. As part of the program, individuals had the opportunity to learn at their own rate, taking additional water time as required, to achieve that level of performance. This focus on training to one's strengths and weaknesses to bolster them enabled the Crew Office and DX to field a much larger group of spacewalkers for the daunting "wall of EVA" required for the building and maintenance of the ISS. Parazynski also stressed the need for designers to understand the capabilities and the limitations of a human in a spacesuit, as well as opportunities to improve future generations of space. He shared lessons learned (how the Crew Office engaged in these endeavors) and illustrated the need to work as a team to develop these complex systems.

  14. The socialization of sex-differentiated skills and academic performance: A mediational model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A. Serbin; Phyllis Zelkowitz; Anna-Beth Doyle; Dolores Gold; Blair Wheaton

    1990-01-01

    Using a multifactorial model, sex differences in academic performance were examined in a sample of 347 elementary school children. As expected, girls' academic performance averaged higher than boys'. Path analysis confirmed initial hypotheses that girls' advantage is partially due to their characteristic of greater responsiveness to social cues and compliance with adult direction. This advantage was partially offset in this

  15. Predicting Performance in a Community College Content-Area Course from Academic Skill Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Miriam T.; Perin, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Binary logistic regression analyses were performed on institutional data from a large urban community college in order to identify predictors of performance in a content course (psychology) that had high literacy demands. It was found that students who completed college English were more likely to pass the content course than students with…

  16. Map Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Ali

    2010-02-23

    Map Skill Activities Map Skills Follow the directions below and write your answers on the worksheet provided. 1. Continents Quiz: Continents Quiz 2. Latitude/Longitude Reviews latitude and longitude quiz latitude/longitude map game lat/long multiple choice quiz 3. Map Scale Map Scale Activity 4.Map Skills map skills game map skills quiz ...

  17. Performance Optimization of an Internal Combustion Engine Team: David Apgood, Cameron Blaylock, Joshua Crump, Tyler Kolste, Aaron Jorgensen, Brett Sampson; Advisors: Drs. Eric Pardyjak, Samuel Drake

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    Performance Optimization of an Internal Combustion Engine Team: David Apgood, Cameron Blaylock SAE competition limits power by choking the engine of necessary air for combustion. In order University of Utah, Department of Mechanical Engineering Project Overview The objective of this project

  18. Studies in Interactive Communication: II. The Effects of Four Communication Modes on the Linguistic Performance of Teams during Cooperative Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alphonse Chapanis; Robert N. Parrish; Robert B. Ochsman

    1977-01-01

    Two-man teams solved credible, “real world” problems for which computer assistance has been or could be useful. Conversations were carried on in one of four modes of communication: (1) typewriting, (2) handwriting, (3) voice, and (4) natural, unrestricted communication. Both experienced and inexperienced typists were tested in the typewriting mode. Performance was assessed on three classes of dependent measures: time

  19. Human-Robot Teaming in a Multi-Agent Space Assembly Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Currie, Nancy; Ambrose, Robert O.; Culbert, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by pairs of suited human astronauts. These Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) are severely restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower. An expanded multi-agent EVA team combining the information-gathering and problem-solving skills of humans with the survivability and physical capabilities of robots is proposed and illustrated by example. Such teams are useful for large-scale, complex missions requiring dispersed manipulation, locomotion and sensing capabilities. To study collaboration modalities within a multi-agent EVA team, a 1-g test is conducted with humans and robots working together in various supporting roles.

  20. Leading virtual teams: hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Julia E; Kozlowski, Steve W J

    2014-05-01

    Using a field sample of 101 virtual teams, this research empirically evaluates the impact of traditional hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership on team performance. Building on Bell and Kozlowski's (2002) work, we expected structural supports and shared team leadership to be more, and hierarchical leadership to be less, strongly related to team performance when teams were more virtual in nature. As predicted, results from moderation analyses indicated that the extent to which teams were more virtual attenuated relations between hierarchical leadership and team performance but strengthened relations for structural supports and team performance. However, shared team leadership was significantly related to team performance regardless of the degree of virtuality. Results are discussed in terms of needed research extensions for understanding leadership processes in virtual teams and practical implications for leading virtual teams. PMID:23205494

  1. The effects of alternative input devices and repeated exposures on the Test of Basic Aviation Skills (TBAS) performance.

    PubMed

    Momen, Nausheen

    2009-12-01

    The use of computer-based, psychomotor testing systems for personnel selection and classification has gained popularity in the civilian and military worlds in recent years. However, several issues need to be resolved before adopting a computerized, psychomotor test. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of alternative input devices used for the Test Of Basic Aviation Skills (TBAS) as well as to explore the practice effects of the TBAS. In study 1, participants were administered the TBAS tracking tests once with a throttle and once with foot pedals in a classic test-retest paradigm. The results confirmed that neither of the input devices provided a significant advantage on TBAS performance. In study 2, participants were administered the TBAS twice with a 24-hour interval between testing. The results demonstrated significant practice effects for all the TBAS subtests except for the dichotic listening tests. PMID:20055069

  2. Teaching Social Skills in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacek, E. Jane

    1988-01-01

    Many learning-disabled students experience social skill problems which call for training to promote success in school, work, and social settings. Social skill problems fall into three categories: skill deficits, performance deficits, and behavioral excesses. Interventions generally focus on increasing the individual's repertoire of skills, using…

  3. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft…

  4. Visuospatial skills and computer game experience influence the performance of virtual endoscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Enochsson; Bengt Isaksson; René Tour; Ann Kjellin; Leif Hedman; Torsten Wredmark; Li Tsai-Felländer

    2004-01-01

    Advanced medical simulators have been introduced to facilitate surgical and endoscopic training and thereby improve patient\\u000a safety. Residents trained in the Procedicus Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR) laparoscopic simulator\\u000a perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy safer and faster than a control group. Little has been reported regarding whether factors\\u000a like gender, computer experience, and visuospatial tests can predict the performance with a

  5. Safety teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R. Muscatello; Brian P. Heshizer

    2002-01-01

    Background: Safety teams have become a popular means to recognize and prevent injuries in the workplace. In fact, organizations, such as OSHA, NIOSH, NIEHS, DOE, and the Ohio BWC, not only encourage safety teams, but have implemented them in their organizations. However, safety teams may not be legal as defined by NLRB Act Sections 2(5) and 8(a)(2). Objective: To determine

  6. Does self-reflection and peer-assessment improve Saudi pharmacy students’ academic performance and metacognitive skills?

    PubMed Central

    Yusuff, Kazeem B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The patient-centered focus of clinical pharmacy practice which demands nuanced application of specialized knowledge and skills targeted to meeting patient-specific therapeutic needs warrant that the training strategy used for PharmD graduates must empower with the ability to use the higher level cognitive processes and critical thinking effectively in service delivery. However, the historical disposition to learning in the Middle East and among Saudi students appeared heavily focused on rote memorization and recall of memorized facts. Objectives: To assess the impact of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer assessment on pharmacy students’ academic performance and metacognitive skills, and evaluate students’ feedback on the impact of these active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Method: An exploratory prospective cohort study was conducted among 4th year students at the College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia to assess the impact of self-reflection and peer-assessment in a semester-wide assessment tasks in two compulsory first semester 4th year courses (Therapeutics-3 and Pharmacoeconomics). An end-of-course evaluation survey with a pre-tested 5-item open-ended questionnaire was also conducted to evaluate students’ feedback on the impact of active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Result: Male students (study group) constituted 40.7% of the cohort while 59.3% were females (control group) with mean ± SD age of 23.2 ± 5.6 and 22.1 ± 4.9 years respectively. The mean ± SD scores for quizzes, mid-term and final exams, and the overall percentage pass were significantly higher in the study group for both courses (P < 0.001). The majority of the students in the study group opined that the exposure to active pedagogic strategies enabled them to improve their use of critical thinking, facilitated deeper engagement with their learning and improved their clinical decision-making and discussion skills. Conclusion: The use of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer-assessment appeared to significantly improve examination performance, facilitate deep and constructive engagement with learning and fostered students’ confidence in the use of critical thinking and clinical decision-making.

  7. Psychological Safety and Learning Behavior in Work Teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Edmondson

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a model of team learning and tests it in a multimethod field study. It introduces the construct of team psychological safety—a shared belief held by members of a team that the team is safe for interpersonal risk taking—and models the effects of team psychological safety and team efficacy together on learning and performance in organizational work teams.

  8. Research into the interaction between high performance and cognitive skills in an intelligent tutoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Pamela K.

    1991-01-01

    Two intelligent tutoring systems were developed. These tutoring systems are being used to study the effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems in training high performance tasks and the interrelationship of high performance and cognitive tasks. The two tutoring systems, referred to as the Console Operations Tutors, were built using the same basic approach to the design of an intelligent tutoring system. This design approach allowed researchers to more rapidly implement the cognitively based tutor, the OMS Leak Detect Tutor, by using the foundation of code generated in the development of the high performance based tutor, the Manual Select Keyboard (MSK). It is believed that the approach can be further generalized to develop a generic intelligent tutoring system implementation tool.

  9. Frequency of provision of knowledge of performance on skill acquisition in older persons

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Marcelo E. S.; Souza, Marina G. T. X.; Basso, Luciano; Monteiro, Carlos B. M.; Corręa, Umberto C.; Santos, Suely

    2014-01-01

    The provision of feedback is a crucial factor for the evolution of the learner’s performance. It is known that the knowledge of performance has the function of guiding the learner’s attention to critical aspects of the movement pattern. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of frequency of knowledge of performance (KP) during the acquisition of the basketball free throw in older persons. Sixty active individuals (men and women) aged 60–69 years of age, divided into three experimental groups received KP in 100, 66, and 33% of their attempts during three practice sessions totaling 90 trials. The task was the basketball free throw. Volunteers were asked to conduct tests of immediate retention, 24 h retention, and 24 h transfer test, after the last practice session. During the acquisition phase, the volunteers received KP on the movement pattern on the previous attempt, which was obtained from a qualitative hierarchical checklist of the free throw (14 items). Sessions were recorded in order to confirm whether volunteers were able to score throughout sessions. ANOVA indicated that all individuals showed an improved performance in the retention and transfer tests. But the KP frequency of 66% was superior in both qualitative (movement pattern) and quantitative (score) measurements throughout the trials (p ? 0.05). In conclusion older persons seem to need an optimal KP frequency supply during the learning process. PMID:25566134

  10. Phonological and Non-Phonological Language Skills as Predictors of Early Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batson-Magnuson, LuAnn

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of early childhood reading performance could help identify at-risk students, aid in the development of evidence-based intervention strategies, and further our theoretical understanding of reading development. This study assessed the validity of the Developmental Indicator for the Assessment of Learning (DIAL) language-based…

  11. Educational Implications of Expertise Reversal Effects in Learning and Performance of Complex Cognitive and Sensorimotor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyuga, Slava; Rikers, Remy; Paas, Fred

    2012-01-01

    There have been several rather counterintuitive phenomena observed in different fields of research that compared the performance of experts and novices. For example, studies of medical expertise demonstrated that less experienced medical students may in some situations outperform seasoned medical practitioners on recall of specific cases. Studies…

  12. Effects of Model Performances on Music Skill Acquisition and Overnight Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Carla D.; Allen, Sarah E.; Simmons, Amy L.; Duke, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extent to which the presentation of an auditory model prior to learning a novel melody affects performance during active practice and the overnight consolidation of procedural memory. During evening training sessions, 32 nonpianist musicians practiced a 13-note keyboard melody with their left…

  13. Counterfactual Thinking and Anticipated Emotions Enhance Performance in Computer Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Amy Y. C.; Caputi, Peter; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Browne, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between novice learners' counterfactual thinking (i.e. generating "what if" and "if only" thoughts) about their initial training experience with a computer application and subsequent improvement in task performance. The role of anticipated emotions towards goal attainment in task…

  14. Drawing Students' Attention to Relevant Assessment Criteria: Effects on Self-Assessment Skills and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastre, Greet M. J.; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Sluijsmans, Dominique; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study among students in secondary vocational education programmes in nursing and care (N = 68). The students work on learning tasks, self-assess their task performance and formulate points for improvement. We compared two groups of students on self-assessment, identification of points of improvement and perceived effort for the…

  15. Assertive Skills and Academic Performance in Primary and Secondary Education, Giftedness, and Conflictive Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marugan de Miguelsanz, Montserrat; Carbonero Martin, Miguel Angel; Palazuelo Martinez, Ma Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the level of assertiveness in various samples of students from Primary and Secondary Education. With the data obtained, on the one hand, we analyzed the relation between assertiveness and academic performance and, on the other, we verified whether students who are excluded from the norm, either because of their…

  16. The link between cerebellar dominance and skilled hand performance in 8-10-year-old right-handed children.

    PubMed

    Musalek, Martin; Scharoun, Sara M; Bryden, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Although literature surrounding handedness and cerebellar asymmetry is limited, many researchers have suggested that a relationship exists (e.g., A. A. Beaton, 2003 ; L. Jäncke, K. Specht, S. Mirzazade, & M. Peters, 1999 ; I. C. McManus & K. M. Cornish, 1997 ; M. Peters, 1995 ; P. J. Snyder, R. M. Bilder, H. Wu, B. Bogerts, & J. A. Lieberman, 1995 ). For example, J. Tichy and J. Belacek ( 2008 , 2009 ) identified a link between cerebellar dominance and hand preference. The authors aimed to assess the relationship between cerebellar dominance and handedness, in 8-10-year-olds (N = 157 right-handers) as assessed with hand performance tests. Articular joint passivity in the wrist and performance differences between the hands were used as a means of assessing cerebellar dominance, where a link to skilled hand performance tests was revealed. Specifically, significant correlations between articular joint passivity and all measurements of handedness (p < .001) were observed. Greater hypotonia was seen in the left wrist of 95% of right-handers. This result supports the assumption that the preferred and nonpreferred hand could be controlled by the cerebellum in a different ways. PMID:25675379

  17. Drawing students’ attention to relevant assessment criteria: effects on self-assessment skills and performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greet M. J. Fastré; Marcel R. van der Klink; Dominique Sluijsmans; Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study among students in secondary vocational education programmes in nursing and care (N?=?68). The students work on learning tasks, self-assess their task performance and formulate points for improvement. We compared two groups of students on self-assessment, identification of points of improvement and perceived effort for the assessment task. One group was given a list of all possible

  18. Changes in frontal-parietal activation and math skills performance following adaptive number sense training: Preliminary results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kesler, Shelli R.; Sheau, Kristen; Koovakkattu, Della; Reiss, Allan L.

    2011-01-01

    Number sense is believed to be critical for math development. It is putatively an implicitly learned skill and may therefore have limitations in terms of being explicitly trained, particularly in individuals with altered neurodevelopment. A case series study was conducted using an adaptive, computerized program that focused on number sense and general problem solving skills was designed to investigate training effects on performance as well as brain function in a group of children with Turner syndrome who are at risk for math difficulties and altered development of math-related brain networks. Standardized measurements of math and math-related cognitive skills as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to assess behavioral and neurobiologic outcomes following training. Participants demonstrated significantly increased basic math skills, including number sense, and calculation as well as processing speed, cognitive flexibility and visual-spatial processing skills. With the exception of calculation, increased scores also were clinically significant (i.e. recovered) based on reliable change analysis. Participants additionally demonstrated significantly increased bilateral parietal lobe activation and decreased frontal-striatal and mesial temporal activation following the training program. These findings show proof of concept for an accessible training approach that may be potentially associated with improved number sense, math and related skills, as well as functional changes in math-related neural systems, even among individuals at risk for altered brain development. PMID:21714745

  19. Effects of Peyton's Four-Step Approach on Objective Performance Measures in Technical Skills Training: A Controlled Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Krautter; Peter Weyrich; Jobst-Hendrik Schultz; Sebastian J. Buss; Imad Maatouk; Jana Jünger; Christoph Nikendei

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although skills-lab training is widely used for training undergraduates in technical procedures, the way in which clinical skills are to be used and instructed remains a matter of debate. Purpose: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the learning outcome of two different instructional approaches in the context of acquiring procedural–technical skills. Methods: Volunteer 2nd- and 3rd-year medical

  20. Competency Interpersonal and Communication Skills Sub Domain Collaborative Relationships

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Competency Interpersonal and Communication Skills Sub Domain Collaborative Relationships Learning of communication and constructive professional relationships ** (2) · Describes importance of team-based care team (2) · Develops a therapeutic relationship that is interpersonally challenging while completing

  1. Extra-team connections for knowledge transfer between staff teams

    PubMed Central

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Wiecha, Jean L.; Emmons, Karen M.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2009-01-01

    As organizations implement novel health promotion programs across multiple sites, they face great challenges related to knowledge management. Staff social networks may be a useful medium for transferring program-related knowledge in multi-site implementation efforts. To study this potential, we focused on the role of extra-team connections (ties between staff members based in different site teams) as potential channels for knowledge sharing. Data come from a cross-sectional study of afterschool childcare staff implementing a health promotion program at 20 urban sites of the Young Men's Christian Association of Greater Boston. We conducted a sociometric social network analysis and attempted a census of 91 program staff members. We surveyed 80 individuals, and included 73 coordinators and general staff, who lead and support implementation, respectively, in this study. A multiple linear regression model demonstrated a positive relationship between extra-team connections (? = 3.41, P < 0.0001) and skill receipt, a measure of knowledge transfer. We also found that intra-team connections (within-team ties between staff members) were also positively related to skill receipt. Connections between teams appear to support knowledge transfer in this network, but likely require greater active facilitation, perhaps via organizational changes. Further research on extra-team connections and knowledge transfer in low-resource, high turnover environments is needed. PMID:19528313

  2. ]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

  3. An I-P-O model of team goal, leader goal orientation, team cohesiveness, and team effectiveness

    E-print Network

    Yu, Chien-Feng

    2006-04-12

    the prominence of groups and teams in organizations, information related to team goals is increasingly valuable (O?Leary-Kelly, Martocchio & Frink, 1994). Moreover, this model represents an effort to examine the influence of team goals on team effectiveness... compared to most extant studies of group goals that only look at the influence of team goals on performance (cf. Locke & Latham, 1990; O?Leary-Kelly, Martocchio & Frink, 1994). In contrast to previous studies on team composition that looked at factors...

  4. Relationship between hand-skill exercises and other admissions criteria and students' performance in dental school.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Cheramie, Toby

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of correlations between dental admissions criteria, including a chalk carving exercise, and students' subsequent academic performance. The retrospective cohort study examined the records of dental students at Louisiana State University Health Science Center School of Dentistry for the years 1998 to 2008. Only those students who could be categorized into the following four groups were included: 1) those who graduated in the top 10% of their class, 2) those who graduated in the bottom 10% of their class, 3) those who repeated a year of dental school, and 4) those who were dismissed or resigned. The study sample consisted of 176 students: 62 in the first group, 62 in the second group, 25 in the third group, and 27 in the fourth group. Data collected were each student's undergraduate grade point average (GPA); chalk carving score; undergraduate biology, chemistry, physics (BCP) GPA; Dental Admission Test (DAT) Academic Average; Perceptual Ability Test (PAT) score of the DAT; total DAT score; grade in preclinical operative dentistry class; grade in morphology and occlusion class; and dental school GPA at graduation. The results showed that only the undergraduate GPA and BCP GPA were significantly higher for students in the top 10% of their class than for other groups. The only positive correlation involving the chalk carving scores was with the preclinical operative dentistry course grade. This study thus found limited correlations between this institution's admissions criteria and its students' success in dental school. PMID:25941149

  5. MathPatch - Raising Retention and Performance in an Intro-geoscience Class by Raising Students' Quantitative Skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Baer; C. Whittington; H. Burn

    2008-01-01

    The geological sciences are fundamentally quantitative. However, the diversity of students' mathematical preparation and skills makes the successful use of quantitative concepts difficult in introductory level classes. At Highline Community College, we have implemented a one-credit co-requisite course to give students supplemental instruction for quantitative skills used in the course. The course, formally titled \\

  6. The relationships between spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematics performance and kinematics graph interpretation skills of 12th grade physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    Graphs have a broad use in science classrooms, especially in physics. In physics, kinematics is probably the topic for which graphs are most widely used. The participants in this study were from two different grade-12 physics classrooms, advanced placement and calculus-based physics. The main purpose of this study was to search for the relationships between student spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematical achievement, and kinematics graphs interpretation skills. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the Middle Grades Integrated Process Skills Test (MIPT), and the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) were used for quantitative data collection. Classroom observations were made to acquire ideas about classroom environment and instructional techniques. Factor analysis, simple linear correlation, multiple linear regression, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Each instrument has two principal components. The selection and calculation of the slope and of the area were the two principal components of TUG-K. MIPT was composed of a component based upon processing text and a second component based upon processing symbolic information. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was composed of a component based upon one-step processing and a second component based upon two-step processing of information. Student ability to determine the slope in a kinematics graph was significantly correlated with spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement. However, student ability to determine the area in a kinematics graph was only significantly correlated with student pre-calculus semester 2 grades. Male students performed significantly better than female students on the slope items of TUG-K. Also, male students performed significantly better than female students on the PSAT mathematics assessment and spatial ability. This study found that students have different levels of spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement levels. These different levels were related to student learning of kinematics and they need to be considered when kinematics is being taught. It might be easier for students to understand the kinematics graphs if curriculum developers include more activities related to spatial ability and logical thinking.

  7. Development of Curricula and Materials to Teach Performance Skills Essential to Accurate Computer Assisted Transcription from Machine Shorthand Notes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honsberger, Marion M.

    This project was conducted at Edmonds Community College to develop curriculum and materials for use in teaching hands-on, computer-assisted court reporting. The final product of the project was a course with support materials designed to teach court reporting students performance skills by which each can rapidly create perfect computer-aided…

  8. Examination of the Relation between an Assessment of Skills and Performance on Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodak, Tiffany; Clements, Andrea; Paden, Amber R.; LeBlanc, Brittany; Mintz, Joslyn; Toussaint, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation evaluated repertoires that may be related to performance on auditory-to-visual conditional discrimination training with 9 students who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The skills included in the assessment were matching, imitation, scanning, an auditory discrimination, and a visual discrimination. The…

  9. The Effects of Mind Mapping with Cooperative Learning on Programming Performance, Problem Solving Skill and Metacognitive Knowledge among Computer Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Mohd Nasir; Ngah, Nor Azilah; Umar, Irfan Naufal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of mind mapping with cooperative learning (MMCL) and cooperative learning (CL) on: (a) programming performance; (b) problem solving skill; and (c) metacognitive knowledge among computer science students in Malaysia. The moderating variable is the students' logical thinking level with two…

  10. Gender Differences in Examinee Performance on the Step 2 Clinical Skills[R] Data Gathering (DG) and Patient Note (PN) Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swygert, Kimberly A.; Cuddy, Monica M.; van Zanten, Marta; Haist, Steven A.; Jobe, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies examining the relationship between physician gender and performance on examinations have found consistent significant gender differences, but relatively little information is available related to any gender effect on interviewing and written communication skills. The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE[R]) Step 2…

  11. The Impact of a Computer Based Math Instruction Program on Fifth Grade Student Academic Performance on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills in One School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Brian B.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the differences between two groups of fifth grade students' performance on the 2010 fifth grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) math test. The sample consisted of a group of fifth grade students receiving the traditional instruction from their classroom teacher and a group of fifth grade…

  12. Sensitivity and Specificity of the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) for Identifying Functional Milestones in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T; Depp, Colin A; Bowie, Christopher R.; Harvey, Philip D; McGrath, John A; Thronquist, Mary H; Luke, James R; Wolyniec, Paula S; Pulver, Ann E; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly debilitating illness that often results in disruption to independent living and employment. However, “gold standard” methods of assessing functional abilities to achieve these milestones are still lacking. In a sample of 367 individuals with schizophrenia, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the Brief UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) to predict both residential and employment status. Of all individuals residing independently, 75.9% scored 78 or above on the UPSA-B, and of all individuals not residing independently, 59% scored below 78 on the UPSA-B. Of individuals who were employed, 73.9% scored above 82 on the UPSA-B, and of those not employed, 57.8% scored below 82. These results expand upon both the population base and functional milestones with which the UPSA-B is validated, although future work should examine whether the UPSA-B can be used as a decision aid in the likelihood of success in a longitudinal study, such as at critical transitions (post-hospitalization, cessation of supported housing). PMID:21843926

  13. A Causal-Comparative Analysis of the Effects of a Student Support Team (SST) Intervention Model at a Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mid D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify and examine the effectiveness of a "Student Support Team" (SST) intervention model designed to increase the performance of struggling secondary students and to help them achieve prescribed state standards on the mathematics "Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS)" administered to school…

  14. Successfully Applying Team Teaching with Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Kevin; Nelson, Peggy; Donaldson, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Team teaching is a great strategy to convey systems thinking to students, families, and communities and to help learners gain multiple perspectives. Learners benefit from the professional interaction among skilled instructors. This article uses a program of land stewardship to demonstrate the advantages of team teaching. Both the advantages and…

  15. Interdisciplinary Matchmaking: Choosing Collaborators by Skill, Acquaintance and Trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupa, Albert; Rzadca, Krzysztof; Wierzbicki, Adam; Datta, Anwitaman

    Social networks are commonly used to enhance recommender systems. Most of such systems recommend a single resource or a person. However, complex problems or projects usually require a team of experts that must work together on a solution. Team recommendation is much more challenging, mostly because of the complex interpersonal relations between members. This chapter presents fundamental concepts on how to score a team based on members' social context and their suitability for a particular project. We represent the social context of an individual as a three-dimensional social network (3DSN) composed of a knowledge dimension expressing skills, a trust dimension and an acquaintance dimension. Dimensions of a 3DSN are used to mathematically formalize the criteria for prediction of the team's performance. We use these criteria to formulate the team recommendation problem as a multi-criteria optimization problem. We demonstrate our approach on empirical data crawled from two web2.0 sites: onephoto.net and a social networking site. We construct 3DSNs and analyze properties of team's performance criteria.

  16. Understanding medical practice team roles.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Do you believe that the roles your employees play on your medical practice team are identical to their job titles or job descriptions? Do you believe that team roles are determined by personality type? This article suggests that a more effective way to build and manage your medical practice team is to define team roles through employee behaviors. It provides 10 rules of behavioral team roles that can help practice managers to select and build high-performing teams, build more productive team relationships, improve the employee recruitment process, build greater team trust and understanding; and increase their own effectiveness. This article describes in detail Belbin's highly regarded and widely used team role theory and summarizes four additional behavioral team role theories and systems. It offers lessons learned when applying team role theory to practice. Finally, this article offers an easy-to-implement method for assessing current team roles. It provides a simple four-question checklist that will help practice managers balance an imbalanced medical practice team. PMID:26062328

  17. Team Performance and Risk-Adjusted Health Outcomes in the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukamel, Dana B.; Temkin-Greener, Helena; Delavan, Rachel; Peterson, Derick R.; Gross, Diane; Kunitz, Stephen; Williams, T. Franklin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) is a community-based program providing primary, acute, and long-term care to frail elderly individuals. A central component of the PACE model is the interdisciplinary care team, which includes both professionals and non-professionals. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  18. Climbing the Value Chain: A Case Study in Rethinking the Corporate Library Function and Developing High Performance Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Nancy; Blinn, Carla K.

    1996-01-01

    In response to marketplace and organizational changes, Owens Corning Corporate Library developed a strategic plan to secure its function within the organization. Describes outsourcing transactional services, creating an Intranet/Internet tool for users, redefining the library as a knowledge resource center, and achieving team commitment. A sidebar…

  19. “Who writes what?” Using written comments in team-based assessment to better understand medical student performance: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Observation of the performance of medical students in the clinical environment is a key part of assessment and learning. To date, few authors have examined written comments provided to students and considered what aspects of observed performance they represent. The aim of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of written comments provided to medical students by different assessors using a team-based model of assessment, and to determine the aspects of medical student performance on which different assessors provide comments. Methods Medical students on a 7-week General Surgery & Anesthesiology clerkship received written comments on ‘Areas of Excellence’ and ‘Areas for Improvement’ from physicians, residents, nurses, patients, peers and administrators. Mixed-methods were used to analyze the quality and quantity of comments provided and to generate a conceptual framework of observed student performance. Results 1,068 assessors and 127 peers provided 2,988 written comments for 127 students, a median of 188 words per student divided into 26 “Areas of Excellence” and 5 “Areas for Improvement”. Physicians provided the most comments (918), followed by patients (692) and peers (586); administrators provided the fewest (91). The conceptual framework generated contained four major domains: ‘Student as Physician-in-Training’, ‘Student as Learner’, ‘Student as Team Member’, and ‘Student as Person.’ Conclusions A wide range of observed medical student performance is recorded in written comments provided by members of the surgical healthcare team. Different groups of assessors provide comments on different aspects of student performance, suggesting that comments provided from a single viewpoint may potentially under-represent or overlook some areas of student performance. We hope that the framework presented here can serve as a basis to better understand what medical students do every day, and how they are perceived by those with whom they work. PMID:23249445

  20. Mathematics, Grade 9. TEAMS Instructional Strategies Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The Texas Educational Assessement of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) was developed by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), in response to Texas House Bill 72 (1984), which mandated as new basic skills assessment program for mathematics, reading, and writing at grades 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11. This is one in a series of Instructional Strategies Guides designed to…

  1. COMPARISON OF LAPAROSCOPIC SKILLS PERFORMANCE USING SINGLE-SITE ACCESS (SSA) DEVICES VS. AN INDEPENDENT-PORT SSA APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Schill, Matthew R.; Varela, J. Esteban; Frisella, Margaret M.; Brunt, L. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared performance of validated laparoscopic tasks on four commercially available single site access (SSA) access devices (AD) versus an independent port (IP) SSA set-up. Methods A prospective, randomized comparison of laparoscopic skills performance on four AD (GelPOINT™, SILS™ Port, SSL Access System™, TriPort™) and one IP SSA set-up was conducted. Eighteen medical students (2nd–4th year), four surgical residents, and five attending surgeons were trained to proficiency in multi-port laparoscopy using four laparoscopic drills (peg transfer, bean drop, pattern cutting, extracorporeal suturing) in a laparoscopic trainer box. Drills were then performed in random order on each IP-SSA and AD-SSA set-up using straight laparoscopic instruments. Repetitions were timed and errors recorded. Data are mean ± SD, and statistical analysis was by two-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post-hoc tests. Results Attending surgeons had significantly faster total task times than residents or students (p< 0.001), but the difference between residents and students was NS. Pair-wise comparisons revealed significantly faster total task times for the IP-SSA set-up compared to all four AD-SSA’s within the student group only (p<0.05). Total task times for residents and attending surgeons showed a similar profile, but the differences were NS. When data for the three groups was combined, the total task time was less for the IP-SSA set-up than for each of the four AD-SSA set-ups (p < 0.001). Similarly,, the IP-SSA set-up was significantly faster than 3 of 4 AD-SSA set-ups for peg transfer, 3 of 4 for pattern cutting, and 2 of 4 for suturing. No significant differences in error rates between IP-SSA and AD-SSA set-ups were detected. Conclusions When compared to an IP-SSA laparoscopic set-up, single site access devices are associated with longer task performance times in a trainer box model, independent of level of training. Task performance was similar across different SSA devices. PMID:21993938

  2. Improving Performance through Personal Mastery: A Case Study with Fairchild Semiconductor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Timothy A.; Nuer, Lara H.; Guman, Elizabeth C.

    1999-01-01

    This case study of Fairchild Semiconductor, a global company, illustrates how leadership training that stresses personal mastery (the ability to achieve a vision through recognizing and addressing individual and team obstacles) can lead to performance improvement. Topics include management skills; change agents; team and individual goals; and…

  3. A Self-Paced Intermittent Protocol on a Non-Motorised Treadmill: A Reliable Alternative to Assessing Team-Sport Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    Tofari, Paul J.; McLean, Blake D.; Kemp, Justin; Cormack, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the reliability of a ‘self-paced’ 30-min, team-sport running protocol on a Woodway Curve 3.0 non-motorised treadmill (NMT). Ten male team-sport athletes (20.3 ± 1.2 y, 74.4 ± 9.7 kg, VO2peak 57.1 ± 4.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) attended five sessions (VO2peak testing + familiarisation; four reliability trials). The 30-min protocol consisted of three identical 10-min activity blocks, with visual and audible commands directing locomotor activity; however, actual speeds were self-selected by participants. Reliability of variables was estimated using typical error ± 90% confidence limits expressed as a percentage [coefficient of variation (CV)] and intraclass correlation coefficient. The smallest worthwhile change (SWC) was calculated as 0.2 × between participant standard deviation. Peak/mean speed and distance variables assessed across the 30-min protocol exhibited a CV < 5%, and < 6% for each 10-min activity block. All power variables exhibited a CV < 7.5%, except walking (CV 8.3-10.1%). The most reliable variables were maximum and mean sprint speed (CV < 2%). All variables produced a CV% greater than the SWC. A self-paced, team-sport running protocol performed on a NMT produces reliable speed/distance and power data. Importantly, a single familiarisation session allowed for adequate test-retest reliability. The self-paced design provides an ecologically-valid alternative to externally-paced team-sport running simulations. Key points Self-paced team-sport running protocols on a curved NMT that closely match the locomotor demands of competition deliver reliable test-retest measures of speed, distance and power. Such protocols may be sensitive to changes in running profile following an intervention that may not be detectable during externally-paced protocols. One familiarisation session is adequate to ensure test-retest reliability. PMID:25729291

  4. Why Simulation-Based Team Training Has Not Been Used Effectively and What Can Be Done about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masiello, Italo

    2012-01-01

    Advanced medical education simulators are broadly used today to train both technical/procedural and team-based skills. While there is convincing evidence of the benefits of training technical skills, this is not the case for team-based skills. Research on medical expertise could drive the creation of a new regime of simulation-based team training.…

  5. A Shift in Task Routines during the Learning of a Motor Skill: Group-Averaged Data May Mask Critical Phases in the Individuals' Acquisition of Skilled Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Karni, Avi; Parnes, Ariel; Loewenschuss, Iris; Vakil, Eli

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a transient phase during training on a movement sequence wherein, after an initial improvement in speed and decrease in variability, individual participants' performance showed a significant increase in variability without change in mean performance speed. Subsequent to this phase, as practice continued, variability again…

  6. Learning curves and impact of previous operative experience on performance on a virtual reality simulator to test laparoscopic surgical skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teodor P Grantcharov; Linda Bardram; Peter Funch-Jensen; Jacob Rosenberg

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundThe study was carried out to analyze the learning rate for laparoscopic skills on a virtual reality training system and to establish whether the simulator was able to differentiate between surgeons with different laparoscopic experience.

  7. Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Coolen, Ester H; Draaisma, Jos M; den Hamer, Sabien; Loeffen, Jan L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or failure of team-based work systems. Pediatricians often function as team leaders in the resuscitation of a critically ill child. However, pediatric residents often report having little opportunity to perform in the role of team leader during residency. In order to gain more insight into leadership skills and behaviors, we classified leadership styles of pediatric residents during simulated emergencies. Methods We conducted a prospective quantitative study to investigate leadership styles used by pediatric residents during simulated emergencies with clinical deterioration of a child at a pediatric ward. Using videotaped scenarios of 48 simulated critical events among 12 residents, we were able to classify verbal and nonverbal communication into different leadership styles according to the situational leadership theory. Results The coaching style (mean 54.5%, SD 7.8) is the most frequently applied by residents, followed by the directing style (mean 35.6%, SD 4.1). This pattern conforms to the task- and role-related requirements in our scenarios and it also conforms to the concept of situational leadership. We did not find any significant differences in leadership style according to the postgraduate year or scenario content. Conclusion The model used in this pilot study helps us to gain a better understanding of the development of effective leadership behavior and supports the applicability of situational leadership theory in training leadership skills during residency. PMID:25610010

  8. Technology-based vs. traditional instruction. A comparison of two methods for teaching the skill of performing a 12-lead ECG.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Pamela R; Woolf, Shirley; Linde, Beverly

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of an interactive, multimedia CD-ROM with traditional methods of teaching the skill of performing a 12-lead ECG. A randomized pre/posttest experimental design was used. Seventy-seven baccalaureate nursing students in a required, senior-level critical-care course at a large midwestern university were recruited for the study. Two teaching methods were compared. The traditional method included a self-study module, a brief lecture and demonstration by an instructor, and hands-on experience using a plastic manikin and a real 12-lead ECG machine in the learning laboratory. The second method covered the same content using an interactive, multimedia CD-ROM embedded with virtual reality and supplemented with a self-study module. There were no significant (p < .05) baseline differences in pretest scores between the two groups and no significant differences by group in cognitive gains, student satisfaction with their learning method, or perception of self-efficacy in performing the skill. Overall results indicated that both groups were satisfied with their instructional method and were similar in their ability to demonstrate the skill correctly on a live, simulated patient. This evaluation study is a beginning step to assess new and potentially more cost-effective teaching methods and their effects on student learning outcomes and behaviors, including the transfer of skill acquisition via a computer simulation to a real patient. PMID:12743975

  9. Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union, Fair Haven, VT.

    This publication lists basic skills curriculum objectives for kindergarten through eighth grade in the schools of the Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union in Fair Haven, Vermont. Objectives concern language arts, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies instruction. Kindergarten objectives for general skills, physical growth, motor skills,…

  10. Library Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karin; Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Branch, Jennifer L.; Solowan, Diane Galloway; Case, Roland; Abilock, Debbie; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Koechlin, Carol; Zwaan, Sandi; Hughes, Sandra; Low, Ann; Litch, Margaret; Lowry, Cindy; Irvine, Linda; Stimson, Margaret; Schlarb, Irene; Wilson, Janet; Warriner, Emily; Parsons, Les; Luongo-Orlando, Katherine; Hamilton, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Includes 19 articles that address issues related to library skills and Canadian school libraries. Topics include information literacy; inquiry learning; critical thinking and electronic research; collaborative inquiry; information skills and the Big 6 approach to problem solving; student use of online databases; library skills; Internet accuracy;…

  11. Skill Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Tom

    2007-01-01

    With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

  12. Communication skills in palliative surgery: skill and effort are key.

    PubMed

    Miner, Thomas J

    2011-04-01

    Excellence as a surgeon requires not only the technical and intellectual ability to effectively take care of surgical disease but also an ability to respond to the needs and questions of patients. This article provides an overview of the importance of communication skills in optimal surgical palliation and offers suggestions for a multidisciplinary team approach, using the palliative triangle as the ideal model of communication and interpersonal skills. This article also discusses guidelines for advanced surgical decision making and outlines methods to improve communication skills. PMID:21419258

  13. Prevention of surgical skill decay.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ray S; Skinner, Anna; Weyhrauch, Peter; Niehaus, James; Lathan, Corinna; Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Cao, Caroline G L

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. military medical community spends a great deal of time and resources training its personnel to provide them with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform life-saving tasks, both on the battlefield and at home. However, personnel may fail to retain specialized knowledge and skills if they are not applied during the typical periods of nonuse within the military deployment cycle, and retention of critical knowledge and skills is crucial to the successful care of warfighters. For example, we researched the skill and knowledge loss associated with specialized surgical skills such as those required to perform laparoscopic surgery (LS) procedures. These skills are subject to decay when military surgeons perform combat casualty care during their deployment instead of LS. This article describes our preliminary research identifying critical LS skills, as well as their acquisition and decay rates. It introduces models that identify critical skills related to laparoscopy, and proposes objective metrics for measuring these critical skills. This research will provide insight into best practices for (1) training skills that are durable and resistant to skill decay, (2) assessing these skills over time, and (3) introducing effective refresher training at appropriate intervals to maintain skill proficiency. PMID:24084308

  14. SLI Results and Student Leadership Development The Student Leadership Inventory (SLI) was developed by the Student Affairs Student Leadership Team

    E-print Network

    Missouri-Rolla, University of

    SLI Results and Student Leadership Development The Student Leadership Inventory (SLI) was developed by the Student Affairs Student Leadership Team several years ago and has been used for leadership skill dimensions of leadership skills: Critical Thinking Communication Interpersonal Skills Ethics

  15. A Statics Skills Inventory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Danielson, Scott

    Engineering faculty recognize the value of assessment instruments to measure student learningand to evaluate changes in teaching. As a result, a number of engineering subject assessmentinstruments formulated as â??conceptâ?ť inventories have been developed. Taking a different tack,the authors of this paper decided to focus on assessment of student skills in statics and this paperprovides details of the development of a statics skills assessment tool. The use of only conceptinventories to provide proof of student learning is an incomplete assessment as effectiveapplication of engineering knowledge consists of both a sound understanding of conceptualknowledge and skill intertwined. For instance, while demonstrating understanding of theconcept of equilibrium is valuable, it is also important students are able to generate correctequations of equilibrium. A multi-step Delphi process involving statics educators was used toreach consensus on the important skills of statics. The Delphi rankings, including the importanceof the skill as judged by the Delphi participants as well as an estimate of the proportion ofstudents whom can perform the skill, were used to develop the final list of top ranked skills.Initial skill-based questions were developed to probe these areas and tested with students. Thecurrent status of the skill assessment instrument is discussed.

  16. Team Size Impact on Assessment of Teamwork in Simulation-based Trauma Team Training

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yong-Su; Steinemann, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Non-technical skills (teamwork) assessment is used to improve competence during training for interprofessional trauma teams. We hypothesized non-technical skills assessment is less reliable for large size teams, and evaluated team size effects during teamwork training. Small-teams (n = 5; 5–7 members) and Large-teams (n = 6; 8–9 members) participated in three simulation-based trauma team training scenarios. Following each scenario, teamwork was scored by participating trauma attending physicians (TA), non-participating critical care trauma nurses (CRN), and two expert teamwork debriefers (E), using the Trauma Nontechnical Skills Assessment tool (T-NOTECHS). Large-team scores by TA and CRN were higher than E scores (P < .003); small-team scores did not differ by rater. Small-team inter-observer agreement was substantial (ICC = 0.60); large-team agreement was low (ICC = 0.29). E and TA scores showed no concordance, whereas E and CRN scores showed poor concordance for large teams (ICC = 0.41, r = 0.53, P = .02). By contrast, correlation between E and TA (ICC = 0.52, r = 0.80, P < .001) as well as E and CRN (ICC = 0.57, and r = 0.65, P < .01) for small teams was high. Team size should be considered in team-training design, and when using teamwork rating instruments such as T-NOTECHS for assessment of simulated or actual trauma teams. Modified rating scales and enhanced training for raters of large groups versus small groups may be warranted. PMID:25414806

  17. [Role of pharmacists in disaster medicine: required knowledge and skills].

    PubMed

    Nakura, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    Immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011, Okayama University dispatched a medical assistance team based on the request of Iwate Prefecture. The first team was followed by 12 medical teams. I was one of the members of the fourth and fifth medical teams sent to Rikuzen-takata and Ofunato for a week beginning March 16th to support medical relief operations as a pharmacist during the sub-acute phase of the disaster. As a member of the team at the temporary clinic in Rikuzen-takata, pharmacists such as myself required physical assessment skills to perform related tasks, along with expertise in drug dispensing and consultation. In my next medical team, which headed the pneumonia unit at Oofunato Hospital, I played a critical role in the effective use of medicine reserved/provided for disasters, including antibiotics. Throughout the relief operations, strong clinical reasoning and decision making, as well as good teamwork, proved vital, especially in emergency situations. For future community medical systems, emergency/disaster medicine should be included in pharmacy education. The School of Pharmacy at Okayama University will establish emergency medicine program in the next school year, in cooperation with the Medical, Dental and Health Care Departments. PMID:24389607

  18. Relationship of the Brief UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) to multiple indicators of functioning in people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T; Harvey, Philip D; Pulver, Ann E; Depp, Colin A; Wolyniec, Paula S; Thornquist, Mary H; Luke, James R; McGrath, John A; Bowie, Christopher; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the relationship between multiple indicators of ‘real-world’ functioning and scores on a brief performance-based measure of functional capacity known as the Brief University of California San Diego (UCSD) Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) in a sample of 205 patients with either serious bipolar disorder (n = 89) or schizophrenia (n = 116). Methods Participants were administered the UPSA-B and assessed on the following functional domains: (i) independent living status (e.g., residing independently as head of household, living in residential care facility); (ii) informant reports of functioning (e.g., work skills, daily living skills); (iii) educational attainment and estimated premorbid IQ as measured by years of education and Wide Range Achievement Test reading scores, respectively; and (iv) employment. Results Better scores on the UPSA-B were associated with greater residential independence after controlling for age, diagnosis, and symptoms of psychopathology. Among both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients, higher UPSA-B scores were significantly related to better informant reports of functioning in daily living skills and work skills domains. Greater estimated premorbid IQ was associated with higher scores on the UPSA-B for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder participants. Participants who were employed scored higher on the UPSA-B when controlling for age and diagnosis, but not when controlling for symptoms of psychopathology. Conclusions These data suggest the UPSA-B may be useful for assessing capacity for functioning in a number of domains in both people diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:20148866

  19. Innovation in healthcare team feedback.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Christine; Beard, Leslie; Fonzo, Anthony Di; Tommaso, Michael Di; Mujawaz, Yaman; Serra-Julia, Marcel; Morra, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare delivery is evolving from individual, autonomous practice to collaborative team practice. However, barriers such as professional autonomy, time constraints and the perception of error as failure preclude learning behaviours that can facilitate organizational learning and improvement. Although experimentation, engaging in questions and feedback, discussing errors and reflecting on results can facilitate learning and promote effective performance, the cultural barriers within healthcare can prevent or inhibit this type of behaviour among teams. At the University Health Network's Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, we realize the need for a tool that facilitates learning behaviour and is sensitive to the risk-averse nature of the clinical environment. The vehicle for the Team Feedback Tool is a web-based application called Rypple (www.rypple.com), which allows team members to provide anonymous, rapid-fire feedback on team processes and performance. Rypple facilitates communication, elicits feedback and provokes discussion. The process enables follow-up face-to-face team discussions and encourages teams to create actionable solutions for incremental changes to enhance team health and performance. The Team Feedback Tool was implemented and piloted in general internal medicine at the University Health Network's Toronto General Hospital from early May 2009 to July 2009 to address the issues of teamwork and learning behaviour in the clinical environment. This article explores the opportunities and barriers associated with the implementation of the Team Feedback Tool. PMID:21841396

  20. The effects of Stress Management Training on collegiate football athletes' anxiety, self-esteem, self-efficacy, motivation, academic performance and coping skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Lucille Sepulvelda

    2008-01-01

    The study sought to examine the differential effects of a Stress Management Training on the anxiety, self-esteem, self-efficacy, motivation, academic performance, and coping skills for collegiate football athletes. It was hypothesized the Stress Management Training would have a positive effect on outcomes. The study was conducted using collegiate football athletes at a large urban university. Eighty-five collegiate football athletes participated,

  1. Interdisciplinary Team Training: Content and Methodology. Interdisciplinary Team Training and Humanistic Patient Care for Hospices. Monograph 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dottie C.; Grady, Kathleen A.

    This monograph, the fourth in a series of five, provides training information for hospice staff in improving interdisciplinary team functions and humanistic care provisions. Its purpose is to prepare a skilled team of trainers with information about hospices that is relevant to hospice interdisciplinary team training and to document experiences in…

  2. Proficiency-based Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery skills training results in durable performance improvement and a uniform certification pass rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madelyn E. Rosenthal; E. Matt Ritter; Mouza T. Goova; Antonio O. Castellvi; Seifu T. Tesfay; Elisabeth A. Pimentel; Robert Hartzler; Daniel J. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background  The authors have previously documented a 100% certification pass rate immediately after a proficiency-based skills training\\u000a curriculum for the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) program. This study aimed to determine the durability of skills\\u000a acquired after initial training.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  For this study, 21 novice medical students were enrolled in institutional review board (IRB)-approved protocols at two institutions.\\u000a As previously reported, all

  3. A comprehension-based model of correct performance and errors in skilled, display-based, human-computer interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muneo Kitajima; Peter G. Polson

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a computational model of skilled use of an application with a graphical user interface. The model provides a principled explanation of action slips, errors made by experienced users. The model is based on Hutchins, Holland and Norman's analysis of direct manipulation and is implemented using Kintsch and Mannes's construction-integration theory of action planning. The model attends to

  4. Criterion Referenced Assessment: Delineating Curricular Related Performance Skills Necessary for the Development of a Table of Test Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacQuarrie, David; Applegate, Brooks; Lacefield, Warren

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on defining and delineating core skills and tasks needed for successful CTE student educational growth and success through a curriculum and assessment alignment process. The context for this project lies within Automotive Service Technology (AST), which must additionally meet the National Institute of Automotive Service…

  5. Line-Bisecting Performance in Highly Skilled Athletes: Does Preponderance of Rightward Error Reflect Unique Cortical Organization and Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstedt, Roland A.

    2004-01-01

    A line-bisecting test was administered to 250 highly skilled right-handed athletes and a control group of 60 right-handed age matched non-athletes. Results revealed that athletes made overwhelmingly more rightward errors than non-athletes, who predominantly bisected lines to the left of the veridical center. These findings were interpreted in the…

  6. The Linkage System[C]: Linking Academic Content Standards and Occupational Skill Standards. A Process To Enhance Workforce Quality and Improve Academic Performance. Version 1.2. Revised [and] Taxonomy of Academic Performance Indicators: An Update of the V-TECS/Snyder Basic/Essential Skills Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    The Linkage System is a process that was designed in 1997 to improve academic performance for all students and to enhance work force quality by linking academic content standards to occupational skill standards. The Linkage System is based on research and development conducted by the Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS).…

  7. Team training to establish a safety culture in dialysis access surgery.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ingemar; Widmer, Matthias K; Nolen, Billy; Ross, John; Slakey, Douglas P

    2015-01-01

    Operating room (OR) team safety training and learning in the field of dialysis access is well suited for the use of simulators, simulated case learning and root cause analysis of adverse outcomes. The objectives of OR team training are to improve communication and leadership skills, to use checklists and to prevent errors. Other objectives are to promote a change in the attitudes towards vascular access from learning through mistakes in a nonpunitive environment, to positively impact the employee performance and to increase staff retention by making the workplace safer, more efficient and user friendly. PMID:25676295

  8. The Associations Between Executive Functions' Capacities, Performance Process Skills, and Dimensions of Participation in Activities of Daily Life Among Children of Elementary School Age.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Limor

    2015-01-01

    Effective executive functions (EFs) are crucial for efficient daily functioning. Daily functioning or involvement in life situations is defined as "participation" (International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health [ICF]; World Health Organization, 2001 ). Yet associations between them have been inadequately studied for children. The present study aimed to explore the associations between EFs and child participation. Participants were 60 typically developing children aged 6 to 9 years old and their parents. The children were individually evaluated using five EF cognitive tests. The parents completed three questionnaires: the Children Participation Questionnaire, the Process Skills (the observed executive performance) Questionnaire, and the Environmental Restrictions Questionnaire. Most of the EF scores were associated with the child's age. A unique contribution of executive capacities was found for the "independence" aspect of child participation, though the quantum of contribution was limited compared with the other predictors' process skills and environmental restrictions. In the context of child participation, EFs should be studied through multivariate analysis, as otherwise, the unique contribution of executive capacities measured by neuropsychological cognitive tests are likely to be ignored. Process skills are crucial for a child's independence and autonomy in daily functioning. These findings are supported by the capacity-performance distinction suggested by the ICF model. PMID:25072941

  9. UvA Drone Team Team Description Paper

    E-print Network

    Visser, Arnoud

    UvA Drone Team Team Description Paper IMAV 2011, Parrot AR.Drone competition Martijn van der Veen;2 The Challenge The ultimate goal is to perform both indoor challenges fully autonomous with the Parrot Drone of a Bachelor thesis. The challenge will be to find a scientific method to train the AR.Drone to accomplish (a

  10. Individual Reactions to Failure in Virtual Teams 

    E-print Network

    Diaz, Ismael

    2012-02-14

    about others without considering situational and contextual information (Cramton, 2001). In the face of team failure or after a violation of group expectations or performance norms, these dispositional attributions based on limited information... Interaction (H3) for Locus of Causality Attribution (Teammate Performance)......................................................... 54 Figure 3 Team Identification Scores by Collaboration Configuration and Team Identity...

  11. Team Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begg, Roddy

    2005-01-01

    A personal reminiscence of the events surrounding the establishment of Tertiary Education and Management (TEAM), the journal of the European Association for Institutional Research EAIR, the European Higher Education Society--and its development over its first decade, by the founding Editor, at the time of his retirement from the post.

  12. Is There a Career for Me? Antarctic Meteorite Teams

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about the scientific careers and opportunities in Antarctic meteorite team(s). Learners will view slides and read about meteorite recovery expeditions to Antarctica, explore science careers, evaluate the characteristics and skills required for curating and working with meteorites, create scientific teams, and make written and oral presentations about their chosen scientific teams. Materials and vocabulary lists, and advanced preparation and procedural tips are included. This is lesson 18 of 19 in Exploring Meteorite Mysteries.

  13. Presentation skills.

    PubMed

    Dougan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    Presentations are integral to my role as a learning and development practitioner. The CPD article enabled me to develop my presentation skills and those of my colleagues. Many healthcare staff have up-to-date knowledge, experience and understanding of the requirements of the organisation, yet lack confidence in their presentation skills. PMID:26153972

  14. Human-robot teaming in a multi-agent space assembly task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FREDRIK REHNMARK; NANCY CURRIE; R. O. Ambrose; C. Culbert

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by pairs of suited human astronauts. These extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) are severely restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower. An expanded multi-agent EVA team combining the information-gathering and problem-solving skills of humans with the survivability and physical capabilities of robots is proposed and illustrated by example.

  15. Effect of Pre-Cooling on Repeat-Sprint Performance in Seasonally Acclimatised Males During an Outdoor Simulated Team-Sport Protocol in Warm Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Brade, Carly J.; Dawson, Brian T.; Wallman, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Whether precooling is beneficial for exercise performance in warm climates when heat acclimatised is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of precooling on repeat-sprint performance during a simulated team-sport circuit performed outdoors in warm, dry field conditions in seasonally acclimatised males (n = 10). They performed two trials, one with precooling (PC; ice slushy and cooling jacket) and another without (CONT). Trials began with a 30-min baseline/cooling period followed by an 80 min repeat-sprint protocol, comprising 4 x 20-min quarters, with 2 x 5-min quarter breaks and a 10-min half-time recovery/cooling period. A clear and substantial (negative; PC slower) effect was recorded for first quarter circuit time. Clear and trivial effects were recorded for overall circuit time, third and fourth quarter sprint times and fourth quarter best sprint time, otherwise unclear and trivial effects were recorded for remaining performance variables. Core temperature was moderately lower (Cohen's d=0.67; 90% CL=-1.27, 0.23) in PC at the end of the precooling period and quarter 1. No differences were found for mean skin temperature, heart rate, thermal sensation, or rating of perceived exertion, however, moderate Cohen's d effect sizes suggested a greater sweat loss in PC compared with CONT. In conclusion, repeat- sprint performance was neither clearly nor substantially improved in seasonally acclimatised players by using a combination of internal and external cooling methods prior to and during exercise performed in the field in warm, dry conditions. Of practical importance, precooling appears unnecessary for repeat-sprint performance if athletes are seasonally acclimatised or artificially acclimated to heat, as it provides no additional benefit. Key Points Pre-cooling did not improve repeated sprint performance during a prolonged team-sport circuit in field conditions. If individuals are already heat acclimatised/acclimated, pre-cooling is unnecessary for performance enhancement. Acclimation/acclimatisation seems to be the more powerful method for protecting against heat strain. PMID:24149166

  16. Essential Learning Skills in Vocational Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document provides basic skill performance expectations for all Oregon students by the end of grade 11 to be incorporated into 15 vocational programs. (Exceptions are that in technology education, the skills identified are only for grade 8; in home economics, the identified skills are for grades 8 and 11.) The skills, which are in reading,…

  17. Hotel Executive Teams: Balance of Power Among Department Heads?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie M. Farber

    1994-01-01

    The focus on team approaches to performing work and insuring quality in hospitality organizations has raised questions about the effectiveness of work teams. This study examines power balances among department heads in hotel executive teams to assess political variables that may undermine the team's objectives of integrating departmental efforts in achieving quality in the participating hotels. An analysis of team

  18. A randomized controlled pilot trial comparing the impact of access to clinical endocrinology video demonstrations with access to usual revision resources on medical student performance of clinical endocrinology skills

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Demonstrating competence in clinical skills is key to course completion for medical students. Methods of providing clinical instruction that foster immediate learning and potentially serve as longer-term repositories for on-demand revision, such as online videos demonstrating competent performance of clinical skills, are increasingly being used. However, their impact on learning has been little studied. The aim of this study was to determine the value of adjunctive on-demand video-based training for clinical skills acquisition by medical students in endocrinology. Methods Following an endocrinology clinical tutorial program, 2nd year medical students in the pre-assessment revision period were recruited and randomized to either a set of bespoke on-line clinical skills training videos (TV), or to revision as usual (RAU). The skills demonstrated on video were history taking in diabetes mellitus (DMH), examination for diabetes lower limb complications (LLE), and examination for signs of thyroid disease (TE). Students were assessed on these clinical skills in an observed structured clinical examination two weeks after randomization. Assessors were blinded to student randomization status. Results For both diabetes related clinical skills assessment tasks, students in the TV group performed significantly better than those in the RAU group. There were no between group differences in thyroid examination performance. For the LLE, 91.7% (n?=?11/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 40% (n?=?4/10) of students not randomized to the video (p?=?0.024). For the DMH, 83.3% (n?=?10/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 20% (n?=?2/10) of students not randomized to the video (p?=?0.007). Conclusion Exposure to high quality videos demonstrating clinical skills can significantly improve medical student skill performance in an observed structured clinical examination of these skills, when used as an adjunct to clinical skills face-to-face tutorials and deliberate practice of skills in a blended learning format. Video demonstrations can provide an enduring, on-demand, portable resource for revision, which can even be used at the bedside by learners. Such resources are cost-effectively scalable for large numbers of learners. PMID:24090039

  19. Live theater on a virtual stage: incorporating soft skills and teamwork in computer graphics education.

    PubMed

    Schweppe, M; Geigel, J

    2011-01-01

    Industry has increasingly emphasized the need for "soft" or interpersonal skills development and team-building experience in the college curriculum. Here, we discuss our experiences with providing such opportunities via a collaborative project called the Virtual Theater. In this joint project between the Rochester Institute of Technology's School of Design and Department of Computer Science, the goal is to enable live performance in a virtual space with participants in different physical locales. Students work in teams, collaborating with other students in and out of their disciplines. PMID:24807973

  20. A Mixed Initiative Human-Robots Team Performance Assessment System For Use in Operational and Training Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Freedy; J. McDonough; R. Jacobs; E. Freedy; S. Thayer; G. Weltman; M. Kalphat; D. Palmer; Orlando FL

    Military forces of the future will use mixed manned and unmanned forces for a broad variety of functions. Measurement of overall effectiveness in these mixed initiative systems will be essential in order to achieve optimal system performance levels. Behavioral measures of both human and unmanned performance obtained in system simulations or in live exercises will be used to continuously diagnose

  1. The Effect of Energy Psychology on Athletic Performance: A Randomized Controlled Blind Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawson Church

    This study investigated whether the most widely practiced form of Energy Psychology, called Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT), could affect athletic performance. It evaluated whether a single brief EFT treatment for performance stress could produce an improvement in two skills for high-performance men's and women's college basketball teams at Oregon State University. The treatment group received a brief EFT session while

  2. Interpersonal dynamics and relative positioning to scoring target of performers in 1 vs. 1 sub-phases of team sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro T. Esteves; Duarte Araújo; Keith Davids; Luís Vilar; Bruno Travassos; Carlos Esteves

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of relative positioning of attacker–defender dyads to the basket on interpersonal coordination tendencies in basketball. To achieve this aim, four right-hand dominant basketball players performed in a 1 vs. 1 sub-phase, at nine different playing locations relative to the basket (from 0° to 180°, in 20° increments). Performers’ movement displacement trajectories were video-recorded

  3. Interprofessional Teamwork Skills as Predictors of Clinical Outcomes in a Simulated Healthcare Setting

    E-print Network

    Shrader, Sarah; Kern, Donna; Zoller, James; Blue, Amy

    2013-01-01

    e1 PURPOSE: Teaching interprofessional teamwork skills is a goal of interprofessional education. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IP team- work skills, attitudes and clinical outcomes in a simulated clinical setting... Scale (IEPS) attitudinal survey instrument. Students’ responses were averaged by team to create an IEPS attitudes score. Teamwork skills for each team were rated by trained observers using a checklist to calculate a teamwork score (TWS). Clinical outcome...

  4. Relationships between anthropometric measures and athletic performance, with special reference to repeated-sprint ability, in the Qatar national soccer team.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Forchino, Fabricio; Al Haddad, Hani; Dos Santos, Gilvan A; Millet, Grégoire P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine potential relationships between anthropometric parameters and athletic performance with special consideration to repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Sixteen players of the senior male Qatar national soccer team performed a series of anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement jumps without (CMJ) and with free arms (CMJwA), straight-line 20 m sprint, RSA (6 × 35 m with 10 s recovery) and incremental field test. Significant (P < 0.05) relationships occurred between muscle-to-bone ratio and both CMJs height (r ranging from 0.56 to 0.69) as well as with all RSA-related variables (r < -0.53 for sprinting times and r = 0.54 for maximal sprinting speed) with the exception of the sprint decrement score (Sdec). The sum of six skinfolds and adipose mass index were largely correlated with Sdec (r = 0.68, P < 0.01 and r = 0.55, P < 0.05, respectively) but not with total time (TT, r = 0.44 and 0.33, P > 0.05, respectively) or any standard athletic tests. Multiple regression analyses indicated that muscular cross-sectional area for mid-thigh, adipose index, straight-line 20 m time, maximal sprinting speed and CMJwA are the strongest predictors of Sdec (r(2) = 0.89) and TT (r(2) = 0.95) during our RSA test. In the Qatar national soccer team, players' power-related qualities and RSA are associated with a high muscular profile and a low adiposity. This supports the relevance of explosive power for the soccer players and the larger importance of neuromuscular qualities determining the RSA. PMID:24742185

  5. Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interdisciplinary team work is increasingly prevalent, supported by policies and practices that bring care closer to the patient and challenge traditional professional boundaries. To date, there has been a great deal of emphasis on the processes of team work, and in some cases, outcomes. Method This study draws on two sources of knowledge to identify the attributes of a good interdisciplinary team; a published systematic review of the literature on interdisciplinary team work, and the perceptions of over 253 staff from 11 community rehabilitation and intermediate care teams in the UK. These data sources were merged using qualitative content analysis to arrive at a framework that identifies characteristics and proposes ten competencies that support effective interdisciplinary team work. Results Ten characteristics underpinning effective interdisciplinary team work were identified: positive leadership and management attributes; communication strategies and structures; personal rewards, training and development; appropriate resources and procedures; appropriate skill mix; supportive team climate; individual characteristics that support interdisciplinary team work; clarity of vision; quality and outcomes of care; and respecting and understanding roles. Conclusions We propose competency statements that an effective interdisciplinary team functioning at a high level should demonstrate. PMID:23663329

  6. Self-Efficacy and Political Skill as Comparative Predictors of Task and Contextual Performance: A Two-Study Constructive Replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Jawahar; James A. Meurs; Gerald R. Ferris; Wayne A. Hochwarter

    2008-01-01

    Task and contextual performance are distinct and critical components of job performance. However, empirical studies of antecedents have tended to focus on one or the other type of performance, but not both. Furthermore, sound theoretical rationale has not always been provided for the prediction of different dimensions of job performance. Two studies were conducted to address these issues. In Study

  7. Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

  8. Individual Skills Based Volunteerism and Life Satisfaction among Healthcare Volunteers in Malaysia: Role of Employer Encouragement, Self-Esteem and Job Performance, A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Veerasamy, Chanthiran; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze two important outcomes of individual skills-based volunteerism (ISB-V) among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia. The outcomes are: job performance and life satisfaction. This study has empirically tested the impact of individual dimensions of ISB-V along with their inter-relationships in explaining the life satisfaction and job performance. Besides, the effects of employer encouragement to the volunteers, demographic characteristics of volunteers, and self-esteem of volunteers on job performance and life satisfaction have been studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 1000 volunteers of St. John Ambulance in Malaysia. Three hundred and sixty six volunteers responded by giving their feedback. The model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The main results of this study are: (1) Volunteer duration and nature of contact affects life satisfaction, (2) volunteer frequency has impact on volunteer duration, (3) self-esteem of volunteers has significant relationships with volunteer frequency, job performance and life satisfaction, (4) job performance of volunteers affect their life satisfaction and (5) current employment level has significant relationships with duration of volunteering, self esteem, employer encouragement and job performance of volunteers. The model in this study has been able to explain 39% of the variance in life satisfaction and 45% of the variance in job performance. The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on healthcare volunteerism. PMID:24194894

  9. EXCEL SKILLS TO KNOW AT THE START Listed below is an outline of some of the basic skills/topics that you are expected to know and be able to perform in

    E-print Network

    Salama, Khaled

    EXCEL SKILLS TO KNOW AT THE START Listed below is an outline of some of the basic skills coursework. Excel Review Workshops will be available in the first few weeks of fall 2012 semester in worksheets - Using spelling checkers in worksheets - Printing worksheets - Paste Options in Excel o Formulas

  10. Teams, Performance-Related Pay, Profit Sharing and Productive Efficiency: Evidence from a Food-Processing Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. Jones; Panu Kalmi; Antti Kauhanen

    2006-01-01

    By assembling and analyzing new panel data, we investigate the impact of important changes in HR practices on firm performance for a food-processing plant. Our principal economic data are most unusual - weekly records on efficiency for all four production lines in the plant during 1999-2005. Compared to other insider econometric studies our case experienced an unusual degree of change

  11. Interpersonal dynamics and relative positioning to scoring target of performers in 1 vs. 1 sub-phases of team sports.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Pedro T; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Vilar, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Esteves, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of relative positioning of attacker-defender dyads to the basket on interpersonal coordination tendencies in basketball. To achieve this aim, four right-hand dominant basketball players performed in a 1 vs. 1 sub-phase, at nine different playing locations relative to the basket (from 0° to 180°, in 20° increments). Performers' movement displacement trajectories were video-recorded and digitized in 162 trials. Results showed that interpersonal coordination tendencies changed according to the scaling of the relative position of performers to the basket. Stable in-phase modes of coordination were observed between performers' longitudinal and lateral displacements (50.47% and 43.02%) on the left side of the court. On the right side of the court, a shift in the dominant mode of coordination was observed to a defender lead-lag of -30°, both for longitudinal and lateral displacements (30.51% and 32.65%). These results suggest how information about dribbler hand dominance and relative position to the basket may have constrained attacker-defender coordination tendencies in 1 vs. 1 sub-phases of basketball. PMID:22852826

  12. Laparoscopic Surgery Skills Evaluation: Analysis Based on Accelerometers

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Omaira; Sánchez, Renata; Benítez, Gustavo; Pena, Romina; Salamo, Oriana; Baez, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Technical skills assessment is considered an important part of surgical training. Subjective assessment is not appropriate for training feedback, and there is now increased demand for objective assessment of surgical performance. Economy of movement has been proposed as an excellent alternative for this purpose. The investigators describe a readily available method to evaluate surgical skills through motion analysis using accelerometers in Apple's iPod Touch device. Methods: Two groups of individuals with different minimally invasive surgery skill levels (experts and novices) were evaluated. Each group was asked to perform a given task with an iPod Touch placed on the dominant-hand wrist. The Accelerometer Data Pro application makes it possible to obtain movement-related data detected by the accelerometers. Average acceleration and maximum acceleration for each axis (x, y, and z) were determined and compared. Results: The analysis of average acceleration and maximum acceleration showed statistically significant differences between groups on both the y (P = .04, P = .03) and z (P = .04, P = .04) axes. This demonstrates the ability to distinguish between experts and novices. The analysis of the x axis showed no significant differences between groups, which could be explained by the fact that the task involves few movements on this axis. Conclusion: Accelerometer-based motion analysis is a useful tool to evaluate laparoscopic skill development of surgeons and should be used in training programs. Validation of this device in an in vivo setting is a research goal of the investigators' team. PMID:25489218

  13. Product design team interactions and peer feedback as indicators of team success

    E-print Network

    Maouyo, Stephen Jojimbai

    2014-01-01

    Teams have become ubiquitous. They are used at all levels of academia, government, and industry, and their use spans all sectors and fields. Much work has been done on the factors that affect a team's performance and how ...

  14. Attributes of top elite team-handball players.

    PubMed

    Massuça, Luís M; Fragoso, Isabel; Teles, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers in the field of excellence in sport performance are becoming increasingly focused on the study of sport-specific characteristics and requirements. In accordance with this, the purposes of this study were (a) to examine the morphologic-, fitness-, handball-specific skills and psychological and "biosocial" differences between top elite and nontop elite team-handball players and (b) to investigate the extent to which they may be used to identify top elite team-handball players. One hundred sixty-seven adult male team-handball players were studied and divided in 2 groups: top elite (n = 41) and nontop elite (n = 126). Twenty-eight morphologic-, 9 fitness-, 1 handball-specific skills and 2 psychological-based and 2 "biosocial"-based attributes were used. Top elite and nontop elite groups were compared for each variable of interest using Student's t-test, and 5 logistic regression analyses were performed with the athlete's performance group (top elite or nontop elite) as the dependent variable and the variables of each category as predictors. The results showed that (a) body mass, waist girth, radiale-dactylion length, midstylion-dactylion length, and absolute muscle mass (morphologic model); (b) 30-m sprint time, countermovement jump height and average power, abdominal strength and the class of performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test (fitness model); (c) offensive power (specific-skills model); (d) ego-based motivational orientation (psychological model); (e) socioeconomic status and the energy spent (for week) in handball activity (biosocial model); significantly (p < 0.05) contributed to predict the probability of an athlete to be a top elite team-handball player. Moreover, the fitness model exhibited higher percentages of correct classification (i.e., 91.5%) than all the other models did. This study provided (a) the rational to reduce the battery of tests for evaluation purposes, and (b) the initial step to work on building a multidisciplinary model to predict the probability of a handball athlete to be a top elite player. PMID:23591948

  15. Medical Training Issues and Skill Mix for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janney, R. P.; Armstrong, C. W.; Stepaniak, P. C.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The approach for treating in-flight medical events during exploration-class missions must reflect the need for an autonomous crew, and cannot be compared to current space flight therapeutic protocols. An exploration mission exposes the crew to periods of galactic cosmic radiation, isolation, confinement, and microgravity deconditioning far exceeding the low-Earth orbital missions performed to date. In addition, exploration crews will not be able to return to Earth at the onset of a medical event and will need to control the situation in-flight. Medical consultations with Earth-based physicians will be delayed as much as 40 minutes, dictating the need for a highly-trained medical team on board. This presentation will address the mix of crew medical skills and the training required for crew health care providers for missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Both low- and high-risk options for medical skill mix and preflight training will be compared.

  16. Cammp Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evertt, Shonn F.; Collins, Michael; Hahn, William

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Configuration Analysis Modeling and Mass Properties (CAMMP) Team is presenting a demo of certain CAMMP capabilities at a Booz Allen Hamilton conference in San Antonio. The team will be showing pictures of low fidelity, simplified ISS models, but no dimensions or technical data. The presentation will include a brief description of the contract and task, description and picture of the Topology, description of Generic Ground Rules and Constraints (GGR&C), description of Stage Analysis with constraints applied, and wrap up with description of other tasks such as Special Studies, Cable Routing, etc. The models include conceptual Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Lunar Lander images and animations created for promotional purposes, which are based entirely on public domain conceptual images from public NASA web sites and publicly available magazine articles and are not based on any actual designs, measurements, or 3D models. Conceptual Mars rover and lander are completely conceptual and are not based on any NASA designs or data. The demonstration includes High Fidelity Computer Aided Design (CAD) models of ISS provided by the ISS 3D CAD Team which will be used in a visual display to demonstrate the capabilities of the Teamcenter Visualization software. The demonstration will include 3D views of the CAD models including random measurements that will be taken to demonstrate the measurement tool. A 3D PDF file will be demonstrated of the Blue Book fidelity assembly complete model with no vehicles attached. The 3D zoom and rotation will be displayed as well as random measurements from the measurement tool. The External Configuration Analysis and Tracking Tool (ExCATT) Microsoft Access Database will be demonstrated to show its capabilities to organize and track hardware on ISS. The data included will be part numbers, serial numbers, historical, current, and future locations, of external hardware components on station. It includes dates of all external ISS events and flights and the associated hardware changes for each event. The hardware location information does not always reveal the exact location of the hardware, only the general location. In some cases the location is a module or carrier, in other cases it is a WIF socket, handrail, or attach point. Only small portions of the data will be displayed for demonstration purposes.

  17. Integrated Safety Analysis Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jonathan C.

    2008-01-01

    Today's complex systems require understanding beyond one person s capability to comprehend. Each system requires a team to divide the system into understandable subsystems which can then be analyzed with an Integrated Hazard Analysis. The team must have both specific experiences and diversity of experience. Safety experience and system understanding are not always manifested in one individual. Group dynamics make the difference between success and failure as well as the difference between a difficult task and a rewarding experience. There are examples in the news which demonstrate the need to connect the pieces of a system into a complete picture. The Columbia disaster is now a standard example of a low consequence hazard in one part of the system; the External Tank is a catastrophic hazard cause for a companion subsystem, the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The interaction between the hardware, the manufacturing process, the handling, and the operations contributed to the problem. Each of these had analysis performed, but who constituted the team which integrated this analysis together? This paper will explore some of the methods used for dividing up a complex system; and how one integration team has analyzed the parts. How this analysis has been documented in one particular launch space vehicle case will also be discussed.

  18. Monitoring deployed agent teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gal A. Kaminka; David V. Pynadath; Milind Tambe

    2001-01-01

    Recent years are seeing an increasing need for on-line monitoring of deployed distributed teams of cooperating agents, e.g., for visualization, or performance tracking. However, in deployed systems, we often cannot rely on the agents to communicate their state to the monitoring system: (a) we rarely can change the behavior of already-deployed agents to communicate the required information (e.g., in legacy

  19. Team Science Toolkit

    Cancer.gov

    Stephen M. Fiore, PhD, is President of the Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research and faculty with the University of Central Florida's Cognitive Sciences Program in the Department of Philosophy and Director of the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory at UCF's Institute for Simulation and Training. He maintains a multidisciplinary research interest that incorporates aspects of the cognitive, social, organizational, and computational sciences in the investigation of learning and performance in individuals and teams.

  20. Methods to Improve Performance of Students with Weaker Math Skills in an Algebra-based Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Leigh

    2015-03-01

    I will describe methods used at the University of Cincinnati to enhance student success in an algebra-based physics course. The first method is to use ALEKS, an adaptive online mathematics tutorial engine, before the term begins. Approximately three to four weeks before the beginning of the term, the professor in the course emails all of the students in the course informing them of the possibility of improving their math proficiency by using ALEKS. Using only a minimal reward on homework, we have achieved a 70% response rate with students spending an average of 8 hours working on their math skills before classes start. The second method is to use a flipped classroom approach. The class of 135 meets in a tiered classroom twice per week for two hours. Over the previous weekend students spend approximately 2 hours reading the book, taking short multiple choice conceptual quizzes, and viewing videos covering the material. In class, students use Learning Catalytics to work through homework problems in groups, guided by the instructor and one learning assistant. Using these interventions, we have reduced the student DWF rate (the fraction of students receiving a D or lower in the class) from an historical average of 35 to 40% to less than 20%.