Science.gov

Sample records for team performance skills

  1. Teaming Up for Performance Support: A Model of Roles, Skills, and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Burt; Lippincott, Jenifer; McMahon, Cathie; Witt, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    Discusses roles, skills, and competencies that comprise a development team engaged in creating electronic performance support systems (EPSS). Explains intrinsic, extrinsic, and external EPSS, presents case studies for each type, and suggests effective team strategies that include team formation and team-client communication. (LRW)

  2. Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

  3. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26208085

  4. Recruit for Attitude, Train for Skills: Creating High Performing Leadership Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on research investigating the factors which impact on the recruitment and support of high performing leadership teams, funded by the National College. The research involved a comprehensive literature review and case studies of nine English schools. The results show that four themes emerged in relation to high performing teams:…

  5. Recruit for Attitude, Train for Skills: Creating High Performing Leadership Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on research investigating the factors which impact on the recruitment and support of high performing leadership teams, funded by the National College. The research involved a comprehensive literature review and case studies of nine English schools. The results show that four themes emerged in relation to high performing teams

  6. Team Talk: Communication Skills for Early Intervention Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Margaret H.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses ways that early intervention team members can improve their communication, qualities of effective teams, roles that members assume on teams, a step-by-step process for creating a transdisciplinary team, verbal and nonverbal skills necessary for successful communicative interaction, and behaviors that serve as barriers to…

  7. Individual and Team Performance in Team-Handball: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P.

    2014-01-01

    Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key Points The specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested. Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors. PMID:25435773

  8. A Method for Using Player Tracking Data in Basketball to Learn Player Skills and Predict Team Performance

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Player tracking data represents a revolutionary new data source for basketball analysis, in which essentially every aspect of a player’s performance is tracked and can be analyzed numerically. We suggest a way by which this data set, when coupled with a network-style model of the offense that relates players’ skills to the team’s success at running different plays, can be used to automatically learn players’ skills and predict the performance of untested 5-man lineups in a way that accounts for the interaction between players’ respective skill sets. After developing a general analysis procedure, we present as an example a specific implementation of our method using a simplified network model. While player tracking data is not yet available in the public domain, we evaluate our model using simulated data and show that player skills can be accurately inferred by a simple statistical inference scheme. Finally, we use the model to analyze games from the 2011 playoff series between the Memphis Grizzlies and the Oklahoma City Thunder and we show that, even with a very limited data set, the model can consistently describe a player’s interactions with a given lineup based only on his performance with a different lineup. PMID:26351846

  9. Effects of Above Real Time Training (ARTT) On Individual Skills and Contributions to Crew/Team Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia J.; Crane, Peter; Guckenberger, Dutch; Bageon, Kellye

    2001-01-01

    Above Real Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments on training of pilots performed by NASA engineers and others have indicated that real time training (RTT) reinforced with ARTT would offer an effective training strategy for such tasks which require significant effort at time and workload management. A study was conducted to find how ARTT and RTT complement each other for training of novice pilot-navigator teams to fly on a required route. In the experiment, each of the participating pilot-navigator teams was required to conduct simulator flights on a prescribed two-legged ground track while maintaining required air speed and altitude. At any instant in a flight, the distance between the actual spatial point location of the airplane and the required spatial point was used as a measure of deviation from the required route. A smaller deviation represented better performance. Over a segment of flight or over complete flight, an average value of the deviation represented consolidated performance. The deviations were computed from the information on latitude, longitude, and altitude. In the combined ARTT and RTT program, ARTT at intermediate training intervals was beneficial in improving the real time performance of the trainees. It was observed that the team interaction between pilot and navigator resulted in maintaining high motivation and active participation throughout the training program.

  10. Enhancing Team Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains two papers from a symposium on enhancing team performance. "The Impact of Organizational Sub-Cultures on Information Sharing: A Manufacturing Company's Dilemma" (Toni Powell) reports on a qualitative study that examined the subcultures of a company involved in significant change and noted the effects of conflicting values on…

  11. Developing Pupils' Performance in Team Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: To develop pupils' team invasion games (TIG) performance within physical education (PE), practitioners have traditionally adopted teacher-centred, skill-focused approaches. Teaching Games for Understanding and the Tactical approach are alternative approaches to TIG teaching that aim to develop overall game performance, including…

  12. Developing Pupils' Performance in Team Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: To develop pupils' team invasion games (TIG) performance within physical education (PE), practitioners have traditionally adopted teacher-centred, skill-focused approaches. Teaching Games for Understanding and the Tactical approach are alternative approaches to TIG teaching that aim to develop overall game performance, including…

  13. Team Culture and Business Strategy Simulation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, William J.; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Drew, Stephen A. W.; Marlin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Many capstone strategic management courses use computer-based simulations as core pedagogical tools. Simulations are touted as assisting students in developing much-valued skills in strategy formation, implementation, and team management in the pursuit of superior strategic performance. However, despite their rich nature, little is known regarding…

  14. Team Culture and Business Strategy Simulation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, William J.; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Drew, Stephen A. W.; Marlin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Many capstone strategic management courses use computer-based simulations as core pedagogical tools. Simulations are touted as assisting students in developing much-valued skills in strategy formation, implementation, and team management in the pursuit of superior strategic performance. However, despite their rich nature, little is known regarding…

  15. Measuring team skills in crime scene investigation: exploring ad hoc teams.

    PubMed

    Smith, P A; Baber, C; Hunter, J; Butler, M

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the team skills of operational crime scene examiners (CSEs). The techniques used were based on established methods and helped to gain a greater understanding of the domain of forensic investigation. The research begins with a hierarchical task analysis and then adapts pre-established methods for measuring the performance of CSEs in four UK Police Forces. The process supports comparison between prescribed methods of 'good practice' and real world practice. This has allowed the identification of the distributed skills and tasks of the CSE. Using Annett et al.'s HTA(T), crime scene examination can be categorised and the communications and coordination structures occurring between teams investigating a burglary considered. This makes it possible to generalise the method to situations involving ad hoc teams. PMID:18803089

  16. Transformational and transactional leadership skills for mental health teams.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, P W; Garman, A N

    1999-08-01

    Many treatments for persons with severe mental illness are provided by mental health teams. Team members work better when led by effective leaders. Research conducted by organizational psychologists, and validated on mental health teams, have identified a variety of skills that are useful for these leaders. Bass (1990, 1997) identified two sets of especially important skills related to transformational and transactional leadership. Leaders using transformational skills help team members to view their work from more elevated perspectives and develop innovative ways to deal with work-related problems. Skills related to transformational leadership promote inspiration, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration, participative decision making, and elective delegation. Mental health and rehabilitation teams must not only develop creative and innovative programs, they must maintain them over time as a series of leader-team member transactions. Transactional leadership skills include goal-setting, feedback, and reinforcement strategies which help team members maintain effective programs. PMID:10452698

  17. Defining and Assessing Team Skills of Business and Accountancy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghalith, Nabil; Blum, Michael; Medlock, Amanda; Weber, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the project are (1) to define the skills necessary for students to work effectively with others to achieve common goals, and (2) to develop an assessment instrument to measure student progress toward achieving these skills. The defined skill set will form a basis for common expectations related to team skills that will be shared…

  18. The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

  19. The Effects of Development Team Skill on Software Product Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, Justin M.; Schiavone, Guy A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the effect of the skill/experience of the software development team on the quality of the final software product. A method for the assessment of software development team skill and experience is proposed, and was derived from a workforce management tool currently in use by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Using data from 26 smallscale software development projects, the team skill measures are correlated to 5 software product quality metrics from the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering Product Quality standard. in the analysis of the results, development team skill is found to be a significant factor in the adequacy of the design and implementation. In addition, the results imply that inexperienced software developers are tasked with responsibilities ill-suited to their skill level, and thus have a significant adverse effect on the quality of the software product. Keywords: software quality, development skill, software metrics

  20. Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective team performance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective team performance. Teamwork skills essential for successful team performance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective team performance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.

  1. Measuring non-technical skills of medical emergency teams: an update on the validity and reliability of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon J; Cant, Robyn P

    2014-01-01

    Medical emergency team performance including non-technical skills, is receiving increased attention due to the influences on patient safety. The Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) was developed to enable standardized performance assessment and structured team debriefing. From several studies, the TEAM has demonstrated a substantial body of normative data confirming its validity and reliability. This includes high uni-dimensional validity, significant subscale relationships between Teamwork and Leadership and between Teamwork and Task Management (p<0.001), a Cronbach alpha of 0.92 and adequate construct validity. The tool has potential for team training to improve team's non-technical performance. Further testing is required in 'real' clinical settings. PMID:24036193

  2. Enabling performance skills: Assessment in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrone, Jenny Kristina

    Current reform in engineering education is part of a national trend emphasizing student learning as well as accountability in instruction. Assessing student performance to demonstrate accountability has become a necessity in academia. In newly adopted criterion proposed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), undergraduates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in outcomes considered essential for graduating engineers. The case study was designed as a formative evaluation of freshman engineering students to assess the perceived effectiveness of performance skills in a design laboratory environment. The mixed methodology used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess students' performance skills and congruency among the respondents, based on individual, team, and faculty perceptions of team effectiveness in three ABET areas: Communications Skills. Design Skills, and Teamwork. The findings of the research were used to address future use of the assessment tool and process. The results of the study found statistically significant differences in perceptions of Teamwork Skills (p < .05). When groups composed of students and professors were compared, professors were less likely to perceive student's teaming skills as effective. The study indicated the need to: (1) improve non-technical performance skills, such as teamwork, among freshman engineering students; (2) incorporate feedback into the learning process; (3) strengthen the assessment process with a follow-up plan that specifically targets performance skill deficiencies, and (4) integrate the assessment instrument and practice with ongoing curriculum development. The findings generated by this study provides engineering departments engaged in assessment activity, opportunity to reflect, refine, and develop their programs as it continues. It also extends research on ABET competencies of engineering students in an under-investigated topic of factors correlated with team processes, behavior, and student learning.

  3. Teams make it work: how team work engagement mediates between social resources and performance in teams.

    PubMed

    Torrente, Pedro; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2012-02-01

    In this study we analyze the mediating role of team work engagement between team social resources (i.e., supportive team climate, coordination, teamwork), and team performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role performance) as predicted by the Job Demands-Resources Model. Aggregated data of 533 employees nested within 62 teams and 13 organizations were used, whereas team performance was assessed by supervisor ratings. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, team work engagement plays a mediating role between social resources perceived at the team level and team performance as assessed by the supervisor. PMID:22269372

  4. Teaching Teams about Teamwork: Preparation, Practice, and Performance Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on preparation, practice, and performance review to teach teams about teamwork provides a well-supported and effective methodology that both enhances students' collaborative skills and contributes to an effective team project experience. Preparation includes aspects of coaching to introduce and explain effective group processes. After…

  5. Teaching Teams about Teamwork: Preparation, Practice, and Performance Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on preparation, practice, and performance review to teach teams about teamwork provides a well-supported and effective methodology that both enhances students' collaborative skills and contributes to an effective team project experience. Preparation includes aspects of coaching to introduce and explain effective group processes. After…

  6. Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

  7. The role of team goal monitoring in the curvilinear relationship between team efficacy and team performance.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Tammy L; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Adam A; Mullins, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    In this research, we apply a team self-regulatory perspective to build and test theory focusing on the relationships between team efficacy and 2 key team performance criteria: a performance behavior (i.e., team effort) and a performance outcome (i.e., objective team sales). We theorize that rather than having a linear association, the performance benefits of team efficacy reach a point of inflection, reflective of too much of a good thing. Further, in an effort to establish a boundary condition of the inverted-U shaped relationship we predict, we also test the moderating role played by team goal monitoring in the nonmonotonic relationship between team efficacy and team performance. The results from a lagged field test, in which we collect multisource data from 153 technology sales teams, reveal a significant curvilinear association that is moderated by team goal monitoring behavior. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24865579

  8. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores. PMID:26553494

  9. Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

  10. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

  11. Team Interviewing. Workplace Improvement of Necessary Skills (WINS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ramona

    This workbook is a guide for work teams focused on one part of the hiring process--interviewing potential employees. The following sections are included: (1) an overview--what can be learned from interviews; (2) constructing effective interviews--identifying the skills and qualities needed; developing appropriate questions; and gathering useful…

  12. Pay dispersion and performance in teams.

    PubMed

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a "team". This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

  13. The performance and assessment of hospital trauma teams.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Andrew; Lockey, David J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the trauma team is to provide advanced simultaneous care from relevant specialists to the seriously injured trauma patient. When functioning well, the outcome of the trauma team performance should be greater than the sum of its parts. Trauma teams have been shown to reduce the time taken for resuscitation, as well as time to CT scan, to emergency department discharge and to the operating room. These benefits are demonstrated by improved survival rates, particularly for the most severely injured patients, both within and outside of dedicated trauma centres. In order to ensure the best possible performance of the team, the leadership skills of the trauma team leader are essential and their non-technical skills have been shown to be particularly important. Team performance can be enhanced through a process of audit and assessment of the workings of the team and the evidence currently available suggests that this is best facilitated through the process of video review of the trauma resuscitation. The use of human patient simulators to train and assess trauma teams is becoming more commonplace and this technique offers a safe environment for the future education of trauma team staff. Trauma teams are a key component of most programmes which set out to improve trauma care. This article reviews the background of trauma teams, the evidence for benefit and potential techniques of performance assessment. The review was written after a PubMed, Ovid, Athens, Cochrane and guideline literature review of English language articles on trauma teams and their performance and hand searching of references from the relevant searched articles. PMID:21144035

  14. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    PubMed Central

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

  15. Efficacy of simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gjeraa, K; Møller, T P; Østergaard, D

    2014-08-01

    Trauma resuscitation is a complex situation, and most organisations have multi-professional trauma teams. Non-technical skills are challenged during trauma resuscitation, and they play an important role in the prevention of critical incidents. Simulation-based training of these is recommended. Our research question was: Does simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills have effect on reaction, learning, behaviour or patient outcome? The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library and found 13 studies eligible for analysis. We described and compared the educational interventions and the evaluations of effect according to the four Kirkpatrick levels: reaction, learning (knowledge, skills, attitudes), behaviour (in a clinical setting) and patient outcome. No studies were randomised, controlled and blinded, resulting in a moderate to high risk of bias. The multi-professional trauma teams had positive reactions to simulation-based training of non-technical skills. Knowledge and skills improved in all studies evaluating the effect on learning. Three studies found improvements in team performance (behaviour) in the clinical setting. One of these found difficulties in maintaining these skills. Two studies evaluated on patient outcome, of which none showed improvements in mortality, complication rate or duration of hospitalisation. A significant effect on learning was found after simulation-based training of the multi-professional trauma team in non-technical skills. Three studies demonstrated significantly increased clinical team performance. No effect on patient outcome was found. All studies had a moderate to high risk of bias. More comprehensive randomised studies are needed to evaluate the effect on patient outcome. PMID:24828210

  16. Forming Student Online Teams for Maximum Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel D.; Ringhand, Darlene G.; Kalinski, Ray C.; Ziegler, James G.

    2015-01-01

    What is the best way to assign graduate business students to online team-based projects? Team assignments are frequently made on the basis of alphabet, time zones or previous performance. This study reviews personality as an indicator of student online team performance. The personality assessment IDE (Insights Discovery Evaluator) was administered…

  17. Common Factors of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bruce; Madsen, Susan R.

    2005-01-01

    Utilization of work teams is now wide spread in all types of organizations throughout the world. However, an understanding of the important factors common to high performance teams is rare. The purpose of this content analysis is to explore the literature and propose findings related to high performance teams. These include definition and types,…

  18. Perfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabro, A.; Jabro, J.

    2012-04-01

    PPerfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-located research partners and diverse funding sources, dynamic economic and political environments, and a changing workforce. Today's scientists must be prepared to not only perform work in the virtual team environment, but to work effectively and efficiently despite physical and cultural barriers. Research supports that students who have been exposed to virtual team experiences are desirable in the professional and academic arenas. Research supports establishing and maintaining established protocols for communication behavior prior to task discussion provides for successful team outcomes. Research conducted on graduate and undergraduate virtual teams' behaviors led to the development of successful pedagogic practices and assessment strategies.

  19. LETTER REPORT SUMMARY RESULTS OF THE NRC TEAM INTERACTION SKILLS STUDY AT DIABLO CANYON POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, J. T.; Toquam, J. L.; Bramwell, A. T.; Fleming, T. E.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents information to participants in the Team Interaction Skills study conducted at Diablo Canyon Power Plant from September to November 1989. A study was conducted to develop and assess measures of team interaction skills of nuclear power plant control room crews in simulated emergency conditions. Data were collected at a boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWA) using three sets of rating scales; Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS), Behavioral Frequency rating scales, and Technical Performance rating scales. Diablo Canyon Power Plant agreed to serve as the PWR plant in the study. Obse!Vers consisting of contract license examiners, Diablo Canyon Power Plant training instructors, and project staff used the rating scales to provide assessments of team interaction skills and technical skills of control room crews during emerg-3ncy scenarios as part of license requalification training. Crew members were also asked to providH self-ratings of their performance to gather information regarding crew responses to the Team Interactions Skills rating scales.

  20. On Performance Skill Representation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Koichi; Shimizu, Satoshi; Yoshinaga, Saori

    In this paper, we propose a framework for representing performance skill. Firstly, we notice the importance of performance skill representation. We introduce five different representation targets: performance tasks, performance rules, pre-shaping actions, dynamic integrity constraints, and performance states. Performance task description consists of a sequence of performance tasks and expressions. It acts as a goal description in planning. Performance rules describe model performance methods for given tasks including how to shape body parts and how to use various muscles. Pre-shaping action rules are similar to performance rules. Its role is to pre-shape in between consecutive tasks to prepare for the next task. Dynamic integrity constraints specify constraints to be satisfied during performance. They provide such general rules as prohibiting simultaneous strong activations of agonist and antagonist. Performance states are for describing real performance done by players including professionals and amateurs. The aim of the framework is to provide a uniform scheme for representing model performance methods given performance score such as music score. The representation framework will define targets of inducing formal skill rules as well as describing performance states automatically from biomechanical performance data. It also is related to a fundamental research issue of attributes finding/selection in discovering useful rules for skillful performance. We conclude our paper by stating future research direction.

  1. Laying the foundation for successful team performance trajectories: The roles of team charters and performance strategies.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, John E; Rapp, Tammy L

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for both teamwork (i.e., team charters) and taskwork (performance strategies) can pay dividends in terms of more effective team performance over time. Using random coefficients growth modeling techniques, they found that teams with high-quality performance strategies outperformed teams with poorer quality strategies. However, a significant interaction between quality of the charters of teams and their performance strategies was found, such that the highest sustained performances were exhibited by teams that were high on both features. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19186898

  2. An Analysis of Team Composition as It Affects Simulation Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnakumar, Parameswar; Chisholm, Thomas Alexander

    This study investigated the extent to which sex composition and average team academic achievement of student simulation teams affect team effectiveness. Seventy-four students in two sections of a marketing principles class were divided into 20 teams to test their decision-making skills. For 10 weeks, each team operated a simulated supermarket…

  3. Utility and assessment of non-technical skills for rapid response systems and medical emergency teams.

    PubMed

    Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A

    2013-09-01

    Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance. PMID:23611153

  4. Assessing Teamwork Skills for Assurance of Learning Using CATME Team Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughry, Misty L.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Woehr, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Colleges of business must meet assurance of learning requirements to gain or maintain AACSB accreditation under the new standards adopted April 8, 2013. Team skills are among the most important skills desired by recruiters, yet employers and scholars perceive that team skills are frequently deficient in college graduates. This article describes…

  5. Turn Obstacles into Opportunities: Team Leaders Use a Skillful Approach to Move Past Barriers to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Elisa B.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the role of the skillful leader and what practical solutions are needed to overcome hurdles. What distinguishes the skillful team leader from a less-effective leader is his or her approach to overcoming hurdles, and are rooted in the leader's values, mindset, intelligence, and skill. When faced with hurdles to team…

  6. Assessing Teamwork Skills for Assurance of Learning Using CATME Team Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughry, Misty L.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Woehr, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Colleges of business must meet assurance of learning requirements to gain or maintain AACSB accreditation under the new standards adopted April 8, 2013. Team skills are among the most important skills desired by recruiters, yet employers and scholars perceive that team skills are frequently deficient in college graduates. This article describes…

  7. Laying the Foundation for Successful Team Performance Trajectories: The Roles of Team Charters and Performance Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, John E.; Rapp, Tammy L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for…

  8. Relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league. Eighty-six high performance rugby league players underwent measurements of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. A linear discriminant analysis was also conducted comparing those players successful in gaining selection into the professional National Rugby League team with those not selected to determine which, if any, of these qualities could predict selection. Players selected to play in the first National Rugby League game of the season were older, more experienced, leaner, had faster 10 m and 40 m sprint times, and superior vertical jump performances, maximal aerobic power, tackling proficiency and dual-task draw and pass ability than non-selected players. Skinfold thickness and dual-task draw and pass proficiency were the only variables that contributed significantly (P < 0.05) to the discriminant analysis of selected and non-selected players. These findings suggest that selected physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities may influence team selection in professional rugby league. PMID:21834623

  9. Encounter Group Effects of Soccer Team Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen, Zipora

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that a positive relationship exists between encounter group experience and the soccer team performance--a conclusion worthy of consideration in further research in the fields of psychology and sociology of sports. (Author)

  10. Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Marilyn

    This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

  11. Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Marilyn

    This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

  12. Communication Skills to Develop Trusting Relationships on Global Virtual Engineering Capstone Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaugg, Holt; Davies, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    As universities seek to provide cost-effective, cross-cultural experiences using global virtual (GV) teams, the "soft" communication skills typical of all teams, increases in importance for GV teams. Students need to be taught how to navigate through cultural issues and virtual tool issues to build strong trusting relationships with distant team…

  13. Performance assessment task team progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.E.; Curl, R.U.; Armstrong, D.R.; Cook, J.R.; Dolenc, M.R.; Kocher, D.C.; Owens, K.W.; Regnier, E.P.; Roles, G.W.; Seitz, R.R.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, {open_quotes}Low-Level Waste Management{close_quotes}. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team`s purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993.

  14. Team Development for High Performance Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines a team development approach to management that creates shared commitments to performance improvement by focusing the attention of managers on individual workers and their task accomplishments. It uses the "high-performance equation" to help managers confront shared beliefs and concerns about performance and develop realistic…

  15. The Effect of Communication Strategy and Planning Intervention on the Processes and Performance of Course Material Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmo Putri, Dewi A.

    2012-01-01

    In most open and distance learning institutions, the development of learning materials, whether in print or electronic form, is created by teams consisting of people with different skills. Team communication has a critical influence on the development of team shared mental models (SMMs) as well as team performance. A review of the literature…

  16. The Effect of Communication Strategy and Planning Intervention on the Processes and Performance of Course Material Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmo Putri, Dewi A.

    2012-01-01

    In most open and distance learning institutions, the development of learning materials, whether in print or electronic form, is created by teams consisting of people with different skills. Team communication has a critical influence on the development of team shared mental models (SMMs) as well as team performance. A review of the literature…

  17. Interactions of Team Mental Models and Monitoring Behaviors Predict Team Performance in Simulated Anesthesia Inductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtscher, Michael J.; Kolbe, Michaela; Wacker, Johannes; Manser, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated how two team mental model properties (similarity vs. accuracy) and two forms of monitoring behavior (team vs. systems) interacted to predict team performance in anesthesia. In particular, we were interested in whether the relationship between monitoring behavior and team performance was moderated by team…

  18. Team Profiles and Team Performance in a Business Management Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, C.; Delahaye, B.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the effects of team roles on the success of teams in business simulations found, contrary to expectation, that teams analyzing data on the basis of beliefs and values rather than logic were more successful. Implications for use of simulation in management education are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  19. A Survey of Knowledge Management Skills Acquisition in an Online Team-Based Distributed Computing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…

  20. Communication Skills to Develop Trusting Relationships on Global Virtual Engineering Capstone Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaugg, Holt; Davies, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    As universities seek to provide cost-effective, cross-cultural experiences using global virtual (GV) teams, the "soft" communication skills typical of all teams, increases in importance for GV teams. Students need to be taught how to navigate through cultural issues and virtual tool issues to build strong trusting relationships with distant team…

  1. Self and Others in Team-Based Learning: Acquiring Teamwork Skills for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betta, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) was applied within a third-year unit of study about ethics and management with the aim of enhancing students' teamwork skills. A survey used to collect students' opinions about their experience with TBL provided insights about how TBL helped students to develop an appreciation for teamwork and team collaboration. The team…

  2. Communication and relationship skills for rapid response teams at hamilton health sciences.

    PubMed

    Cziraki, Karen; Lucas, Janie; Rogers, Toni; Page, Laura; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Hauer, Lois Ann; Daniels, Charlotte; Gregoroff, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Rapid response teams (RRT) are an important safety strategy in the prevention of deaths in patients who are progressively failing outside of the intensive care unit. The goal is to intervene before a critical event occurs. Effective teamwork and communication skills are frequently cited as critical success factors in the implementation of these teams. However, there is very little literature that clearly provides an education strategy for the development of these skills. Training in simulation labs offers an opportunity to assess and build on current team skills; however, this approach does not address how to meet the gaps in team communication and relationship skill management. At Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) a two-day program was developed in collaboration with the RRT Team Leads, Organizational Effectiveness and Patient Safety Leaders. Participants reflected on their conflict management styles and considered how their personality traits may contribute to team function. Communication and relationship theories were reviewed and applied in simulated sessions in the relative safety of off-site team sessions. The overwhelming positive response to this training has been demonstrated in the incredible success of these teams from the perspective of the satisfaction surveys of the care units that call the team, and in the multi-phased team evaluation of their application to practice. These sessions offer a useful approach to the development of the soft skills required for successful RRT implementation. PMID:18382164

  3. Turn Obstacles into Opportunities: Team Leaders Use a Skillful Approach to Move Past Barriers to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Elisa B.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the role of the skillful leader and what practical solutions are needed to overcome hurdles. What distinguishes the skillful team leader from a less-effective leader is his or her approach to overcoming hurdles, and are rooted in the leader's values, mindset, intelligence, and skill. When faced with hurdles to team…

  4. Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.C.; Toquam, J.; Gaddy, C.

    1991-09-01

    Previous research has shown the value of good team interaction skills to group performance, yet little progress has been made on in terms of how such skills can be measured. In this study rating scales developed previously (Montgomery, et al., 1990) were extensively revised and cast into a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) and a Behavioral Frequency format. Rating data were collected using 13 training instructors at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant, who rated three videotapes of simulator scenario performance during a day-long training session and later evaluated control room crews during requalification training. High levels of interrater agreement on both rating scales were found. However, the factor structure of the ratings was generally inconsistent with that hypothesized. Analysis of training ratings using Cronbach`s components of accuracy (Cronbach, 1955) indicated that BARS ratings generally exhibited less error than did the Behavioral Frequency ratings. The results are discussed in terms of both field and research implications.

  5. Identifying and training non-technical skills for teams in acute medicine

    PubMed Central

    Flin, R; Maran, N

    2004-01-01

    The aviation domain provides a better analogy for the "temporary" teams that are found in acute medical specialities than industrial or military teamwork research based on established teams. Crew resource management (CRM) training, which emphasises portable skills (for whatever crew a pilot is rostered to on a given flight), has been recognised to have potential application in medicine, especially for teams in the operating theatre, intensive care unit, and emergency room. Drawing on research from aviation psychology that produced the behavioural marker system NOTECHS for rating European pilots' non-technical skills for teamwork on the flightdeck, this paper outlines the Anaesthetists Non-Technical Skills behavioural rating system for anaesthetists working in operating theatre teams. This taxonomy was used as the design basis for a training course, Crisis Avoidance Resource Management for Anaesthetists used to develop these skills, based in an operating theatre simulator. Further developments of this training programme for teams in emergency medicine are outlined. PMID:15465960

  6. Identifying and training non-technical skills for teams in acute medicine.

    PubMed

    Flin, R; Maran, N

    2004-10-01

    The aviation domain provides a better analogy for the "temporary" teams that are found in acute medical specialities than industrial or military teamwork research based on established teams. Crew resource management (CRM) training, which emphasises portable skills (for whatever crew a pilot is rostered to on a given flight), has been recognised to have potential application in medicine, especially for teams in the operating theatre, intensive care unit, and emergency room. Drawing on research from aviation psychology that produced the behavioural marker system NOTECHS for rating European pilots' non-technical skills for teamwork on the flightdeck, this paper outlines the Anaesthetists Non-Technical Skills behavioural rating system for anaesthetists working in operating theatre teams. This taxonomy was used as the design basis for a training course, Crisis Avoidance Resource Management for Anaesthetists used to develop these skills, based in an operating theatre simulator. Further developments of this training programme for teams in emergency medicine are outlined. PMID:15465960

  7. Interactions of Team Mental Models and Monitoring Behaviors Predict Team Performance in Simulated Anesthesia Inductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtscher, Michael J.; Kolbe, Michaela; Wacker, Johannes; Manser, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated how two team mental model properties (similarity vs. accuracy) and two forms of monitoring behavior (team vs. systems) interacted to predict team performance in anesthesia. In particular, we were interested in whether the relationship between monitoring behavior and team performance was moderated by team…

  8. Performance of Student Software Development Teams: The Influence of Personality and Identifying as Team Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance…

  9. Nontechnical skills in pediatric surgery: Factors influencing operative performance.

    PubMed

    Youngson, George G

    2016-02-01

    Technical competence is an essential aspect of intraoperative performance but is in itself insufficient to ensure an optimal surgical outcome. A list of other skills complement technical ability and these relate, among others, to surgical judgment and intraoperative decision-making processes as well as the role of the operating surgeon as leader of the surgical team. This article outlines the composite set of nontechnical skills (NTS) and the factors which influence surgical performance by virtue of this skill set. A framework has been developed to allow identification, teaching, and assessment of NTS known as Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS), and the relevance and influence of NOTSS during the intraoperative performance of pediatric surgery is presented. PMID:26644073

  10. Performance of Student Software Development Teams: The Influence of Personality and Identifying as Team Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance…

  11. Finding the Key to a Better Code: Code Team Restructure to Improve Performance and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Cynthia R.; Hines, Elizabeth J.; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient’s status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team’s resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital’s code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role’s position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients. PMID:24667218

  12. Developing Team Skills through a Collaborative Writing Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Theda Ann

    2014-01-01

    Employers want students who are able to work effectively as members of a team, and expect universities to develop this ability in their graduates. This paper proposes a framework for a collaborative writing assignment that specifically develops students' ability to work in teams. The framework has been tested using two iterations of an action…

  13. Developing Team Skills through a Collaborative Writing Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Theda Ann

    2014-01-01

    Employers want students who are able to work effectively as members of a team, and expect universities to develop this ability in their graduates. This paper proposes a framework for a collaborative writing assignment that specifically develops students' ability to work in teams. The framework has been tested using two iterations of an action…

  14. Climate uniformity: its influence on team communication quality, task conflict, and team performance.

    PubMed

    González-Romá, Vicente; Hernández, Ana

    2014-11-01

    We investigated whether climate uniformity (the pattern of climate perceptions of organizational support within the team) is related to task conflict, team communication quality, and team performance. We used a sample composed of 141 bank branches and collected data at 3 time points. The results obtained showed that, after controlling for aggregate team climate, climate strength, and their interaction, a type of nonuniform climate pattern (weak dissimilarity) was directly related to task conflict and team communication quality. Teams with weak dissimilarity nonuniform patterns tended to show higher levels of task conflict and lower levels of team communication quality than teams with uniform climate patterns. The relationship between weak dissimilarity patterns and team performance was fully mediated by team communication quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25198099

  15. [Investigation of team processes that enhance team performance in business organization].

    PubMed

    Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Toru; Aoshima, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Many researchers have suggested team processes that enhance team performance. However, past team process models were based on crew team, whose all team members perform an indivisible temporary task. These models may be inapplicable business teams, whose individual members perform middle- and long-term tasks assigned to individual members. This study modified the teamwork model of Dickinson and McIntyre (1997) and aimed to demonstrate a whole team process that enhances the performance of business teams. We surveyed five companies (member N = 1,400, team N = 161) and investigated team-level-processes. Results showed that there were two sides of team processes: "communication" and "collaboration to achieve a goal." Team processes in which communication enhanced collaboration improved team performance with regard to all aspects of the quantitative objective index (e.g., current income and number of sales), supervisor rating, and self-rating measurements. On the basis of these results, we discuss the entire process by which teamwork enhances team performance in business organizations. PMID:25799865

  16. Effects of team-based learning on perceived teamwork and academic performance in a health assessment subject.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Ran; Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jee-Won; Park, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of team-based learning (a well-recognized learning and teaching strategy), applied in a health assessment subject, on nursing students' perceived teamwork (team-efficacy and team skills) and academic performance (individual and team readiness assurance tests, and examination scores). A prospective, one-group, pre- and post-test design enrolled a convenience sample of 74 second-year nursing students at a university in Suwon, Korea. Team-based learning was applied in a 2-credit health assessment subject over a 16-week semester. All students received written material one week before each class for readiness preparation. After administering individual- and team-readiness assurance tests consecutively, the subject instructor gave immediate feedback and delivered a mini-lecture to the students. Finally, students carried out skill based application exercises. The findings showed significant improvements in the mean scores of students' perceived teamwork after the introduction of team-based learning. In addition, team-efficacy was associated with team-adaptability skills and team-interpersonal skills. Regarding academic performance, team readiness assurance tests were significantly higher than individual readiness assurance tests over time. Individual readiness assurance tests were significantly related with examination scores, while team readiness assurance tests were correlated with team-efficacy and team-interpersonal skills. The application of team-based learning in a health assessment subject can enhance students' perceived teamwork and academic performance. This finding suggests that team-based learning may be an effective learning and teaching strategy for improving team-work of nursing students, who need to collaborate and effectively communicate with health care providers to improve patients' health. PMID:26552201

  17. Increasing team skills: an evaluation of program effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen-Webb, M L

    1985-11-01

    The need for health professionals with caring values and good communication skills is well established. To develop these skills requires building self-esteem, as is supported by the work of Carl Rogers, Maslow, and Jourard, and the development of communication skills, as is supported by Carkhuff. A six-hour developmental program was evaluated using alternate forms of the highly validated Personal Skills Map. The differences in participants' scores showed increases in self-esteem, comfort, and management skills (p less than .00), while aggression (p = .05) and deference (p less than .00) decreased. A longitudinal follow-up of participants showed that 65% continued to use the assessment tool six months to one year later. The program appears to be well suited for service settings, continuing education, and academic settings, and meets the need of a high tech, high touch era of change. PMID:3880062

  18. Self and Others in Team-Based Learning: Acquiring Teamwork Skills for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betta, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) was applied within a third-year unit of study about ethics and management with the aim of enhancing students' teamwork skills. A survey used to collect students' opinions about their experience with TBL provided insights about how TBL helped students to develop an appreciation for teamwork and team collaboration. The team…

  19. Teaching MBA Students Teamwork and Team Leadership Skills: An Empirical Evaluation of a Classroom Educational Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Charles J.; Strupeck, David; Griffin, Andrea; Szostek, Jana; Rominger, Anna S.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive educational program for teaching behavioral teamwork and team leadership skills was rigorously evaluated with 148 MBA students enrolled at an urban regional campus of a Midwestern public university. Major program components included (1) videotaped student teams in leaderless group discussion (LGD) exercises at the course beginning…

  20. A Team-Sports-Based Life-Skills Program in a Physical Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goudas, Marios; Giannoudis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the effectiveness of a team-sports-based life-skills program taught as part of physical education lessons. One hundred sixty-five sixth and eighth graders were assigned either in an experimental or in a control group and received an abbreviated version of SUPER, a team-sports-based program. The program focused…

  1. A Team-Sports-Based Life-Skills Program in a Physical Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goudas, Marios; Giannoudis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the effectiveness of a team-sports-based life-skills program taught as part of physical education lessons. One hundred sixty-five sixth and eighth graders were assigned either in an experimental or in a control group and received an abbreviated version of SUPER, a team-sports-based program. The program focused…

  2. Perfecting scientists’ collaboration and problem-solving skills in the virtual team environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfecting Scientists’ Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-lo...

  3. Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills): Health Care Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

    These Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills) instructional materials consist of five units for use in training health care administrators. Unit 1 contains materials designed to help the health care administrators increase their management skills in regard to self-awareness, time management, problem solving,…

  4. Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills): Independent Business Owner/Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

    These Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Managerial Skills) instructional materials consist of five units for use in training independent business owner/managers. The first unit contains materials which deal with management skills relating to personal characteristics of successful business people, knowledge of self and chosen…

  5. Finding the key to a better code: code team restructure to improve performance and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Prince, Cynthia R; Hines, Elizabeth J; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J

    2014-09-01

    Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient's status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team's resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital's code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role's position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients. PMID:24667218

  6. A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gilad; Kirkman, Bradley L; Kanfer, Ruth; Allen, Don; Rosen, Benson

    2007-03-01

    A multilevel model of leadership, empowerment, and performance was tested using a sample of 62 teams, 445 individual members, 62 team leaders, and 31 external managers from 31 stores of a Fortune 500 company. Leader-member exchange and leadership climate related differently to individual and team empowerment and interacted to influence individual empowerment. Also, several relationships were supported in more but not in less interdependent teams. Specifically, leader-member exchange related to individual performance partially through individual empowerment; leadership climate related to team performance partially through team empowerment; team empowerment moderated the relationship between individual empowerment and performance; and individual performance was positively related to team performance. Contributions to team leadership theory, research, and practices are discussed. PMID:17371082

  7. Democracy, Performance, and Outcomes in Interdisciplinary Health Care Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopman, Stephanie J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines interdisciplinary health care teams, focusing on perceptions of team processes and their relationship to assessments of team performance and individual outcomes. Suggests that hospice interdisciplinary teams are perceived by their members as only somewhat democratic in the practice of decision making. (SG)

  8. Developing Diverse Teams to Improve Performance in the Organizational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Katherine L.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The use of teams in organizations given the current trend toward globalization, population changes, and an aging workforce, especially in high-income countries, makes the issue of diverse team building critical. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of team diversity and team performance through the examination of theory and…

  9. Developing Diverse Teams to Improve Performance in the Organizational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Katherine L.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The use of teams in organizations given the current trend toward globalization, population changes, and an aging workforce, especially in high-income countries, makes the issue of diverse team building critical. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of team diversity and team performance through the examination of theory and…

  10. Building an Inclusive Research Team: The Importance of Team Building and Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strnadová, Iva; Cumming, Therese M.; Knox, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inclusive research teams typically describe their experiences and analyse the type of involvement of researchers with disability, but the process of building research teams and the need for research training still remain underexplored in the literature. Materials and Method: Four researchers with intellectual disabilities and four…

  11. Building an Inclusive Research Team: The Importance of Team Building and Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strnadová, Iva; Cumming, Therese M.; Knox, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inclusive research teams typically describe their experiences and analyse the type of involvement of researchers with disability, but the process of building research teams and the need for research training still remain underexplored in the literature. Materials and Method: Four researchers with intellectual disabilities and four…

  12. Measuring the Impact of the Micronegotiation Technique on Team Member Satisfaction and Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Jeffery David

    2013-01-01

    Conflict is not an uncommon element of team interactions and processes; however, if unchecked it can cause issues in the ability of the team to achieve maximum performance. Research on task conflict and relationship conflict by de Wit, Greer, and Jehn (2012) found that while in many cases task conflict and relationship conflict within teams can…

  13. Measuring the Impact of the Micronegotiation Technique on Team Member Satisfaction and Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Jeffery David

    2013-01-01

    Conflict is not an uncommon element of team interactions and processes; however, if unchecked it can cause issues in the ability of the team to achieve maximum performance. Research on task conflict and relationship conflict by de Wit, Greer, and Jehn (2012) found that while in many cases task conflict and relationship conflict within teams can…

  14. Virtual Team Culture and the Amplification of Team Boundary Permeability on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of virtual teams is briskly increasing, particularly among transnational organizations that find global virtual teams a natural way to address their needs for global reach. While proximal and virtual teams share many attributes, including similar performance measures, they differ in characteristics in the nature of the work.…

  15. Relationships between study skills and academic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Md Rahim, Nasrudin; Meon, Hasni

    2013-04-01

    Study skills play an important role in influencing academic performance of university students. These skills, which can be modified, can be used as an indicator on how a student would perform academically in his course of study. The purpose of the study is to determine the study skills profile among Universiti Selangor's (Unisel) students and to find the relationships of these skills with student's academic performance. A sample of seventy-eight (78) foundation studies and diploma students of Unisel were selected to participate in this study. Using Study Skills Inventory instrument, eight skills were measured. They are note taking; test taking; textbook study; concentration and memory; time management; analytical thinking and problem solving; nutrition; and vocabulary. Meanwhile, student's academic performance was measured through their current Grade Point Average (GPA). The result showed that vocabulary skill scored the highest mean with 3.01/4.00, followed by test taking (2.88), analytical thinking and problem solving (2.80), note taking (2.79), textbook study (2.58), concentration and memory (2.54), time management (2.25) and nutrition (2.21). Correlation analysis showed that test taking (r=0.286, p=0.011), note taking (r=0.224, p=0.048), and analytical thinking and problem solving (r=0.362, p=0.001) skills were positively correlated with GPA achievement.

  16. An Exploratory Analysis of Personality, Attitudes, and Study Skills on the Learning Curve within a Team-based Learning Environment

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Teague; Campbell, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine factors that determine the interindividual variability of learning within a team-based learning environment. Methods. Students in a pharmacokinetics course were given 4 interim, low-stakes cumulative assessments throughout the semester and a cumulative final examination. Students’ Myers-Briggs personality type was assessed, as well as their study skills, motivations, and attitudes towards team-learning. A latent curve model (LCM) was applied and various covariates were assessed to improve the regression model. Results. A quadratic LCM was applied for the first 4 assessments to predict final examination performance. None of the covariates examined significantly impacted the regression model fit except metacognitive self-regulation, which explained some of the variability in the rate of learning. There were some correlations between personality type and attitudes towards team learning, with introverts having a lower opinion of team-learning than extroverts. Conclusion. The LCM could readily describe the learning curve. Extroverted and introverted personality types had the same learning performance even though preference for team-learning was lower in introverts. Other personality traits, study skills, or practice did not significantly contribute to the learning variability in this course. PMID:25861101

  17. Team-Referent Attributions among Sport Performers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlees, Iain; Lane, Andrew; Thelwell, Richard; Holder, Tim; Hobson, Gina

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a team-referent attribution scale. Conducted over three studies, Study 1 modified items from McAuley, Duncan, and Russell's (1992) Causal Dimension Scale II by rewording items to reflect team attributions and adding one item per factor. This led to the development of a 16-item scale (Causal…

  18. Disaster Response Team FAST Skills Training with a Portable Ultrasound Simulator Compared to Traditional Training: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Michael T.; Bailitz, John; Horowitz, Russ; Khishfe, Basem; Cosby, Karen; Sergel, Michelle J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US) simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. Methods We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants’ FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT) with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group’s skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. Results We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not a statistically significant difference between training groups. Conclusion This pilot study of a deployed mixed-provider disaster response team suggests that a novel portable US simulator may provide equivalent skills training in comparison to traditional live instructor and model training. Further studies with a larger sample size and other measures of short- and long-term clinical performance are warranted. PMID:25834682

  19. Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

  20. The Effects of Team Personality Awareness Exercises on Team Satisfaction and Performance: The Context of Marketing Course Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancellotti, Matthew P.; Boyd, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Marketing courses heavily utilize team projects that can enhance student learning and make students more desirable to recruiters seeking greater teamwork skills and experience from students. Unfortunately team projects that provide opportunities to learn and improve such skills can also be great sources of frustration and dissatisfaction for…

  1. Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

  2. Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

  3. Rumination and Performance in Dynamic, Team Sport

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Michael M.; Memmert, Daniel; Frees, Anastasia; Radzevick, Joseph; Pretz, Jean; Noël, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    People high in rumination are good at tasks that require persistence whereas people low in rumination is good at tasks that require flexibility. Here we examine real world implications of these differences in dynamic, team sport. In two studies, we found that professional male football (soccer) players from Germany and female field hockey players on the US national team were lower in rumination than were non-athletes. Further, low levels of rumination were associated with a longer career at a higher level in football players. Results indicate that athletes in dynamic, team sport might benefit from the flexibility associated with being low in rumination. PMID:26779110

  4. Developing Team Skills with Self- and Peer Assessment: Are Benefits Inversely Related to Team Function?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Keith; Gardner, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Self- and peer assessment has proved effective in promoting the development of teamwork and other professional skills in undergraduate students. However, in previous research approximately 30 percent of students reported that its use produced no perceived improvement in their teamwork experience. It was hypothesised that a significant…

  5. Developing Team Skills with Self- and Peer Assessment: Are Benefits Inversely Related to Team Function?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Keith; Gardner, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Self- and peer assessment has proved effective in promoting the development of teamwork and other professional skills in undergraduate students. However, in previous research approximately 30 percent of students reported that its use produced no perceived improvement in their teamwork experience. It was hypothesised that a significant…

  6. Implications for studying team cognition and team performance in network-centric warfare paradigms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Gerald P; Banderet, Louis E

    2007-05-01

    Network-centric warfare's (NCW) information-rich systems involving sophisticated sensors, tracking systems, smart weapons, and enhanced digital communications threaten to overload combatants with voluminous amounts of data. It is unclear whether warfighters will perceive such extensive data as actionable information to which they will respond accurately in a timely enough manner. Members of small teams in command and control centers, operating in crew-served vehicles, or simply "grunting it out" as ground-pounding infantrymen, may be disparately separated by space, but will communicate and be connected by electronic linkages, e.g., radio, text messages, situation displays, or global positioning data. However, team members will also have to remember shared mental models of tasks at hand, pay attention to and share common situation awareness in complex operational environments, perform team cognition and team coordination, and integrate both lower and higher cognitive processes with those of team behaviors. Such exceptional capabilities are required more now than ever before; such capabilities today are far from assured. After two workshops to establish performance metrics for assessing cognitive performance of military personnel in NCW, this preface introduces five manuscripts addressing team cognition and team performance from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. The authors of this preface question if NCW, and perhaps the politico-social ramifications of modern warfare, have already outstripped behavioral scientists' approach to researching team cognition and team performance-expertise that is so crucially needed for combatants on the rapidly changing 21st-century battlegrounds. PMID:17547305

  7. Team performance and collective efficacy in the dynamic psychology of competitive team: a Bayesian network analysis.

    PubMed

    Fuster-Parra, P; García-Mas, A; Ponseti, F J; Leo, F M

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to discover the relationships among 22 relevant psychological features in semi-professional football players in order to study team's performance and collective efficacy via a Bayesian network (BN). The paper includes optimization of team's performance and collective efficacy using intercausal reasoning pattern which constitutes a very common pattern in human reasoning. The BN is used to make inferences regarding our problem, and therefore we obtain some conclusions; among them: maximizing the team's performance causes a decrease in collective efficacy and when team's performance achieves the minimum value it causes an increase in moderate/high values of collective efficacy. Similarly, we may reason optimizing team collective efficacy instead. It also allows us to determine the features that have the strongest influence on performance and which on collective efficacy. From the BN two different coaching styles were differentiated taking into account the local Markov property: training leadership and autocratic leadership. PMID:25546263

  8. Adopting Team Contracts to Initiate Team Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcellino, Patricia Ann

    2008-01-01

    Creighton, Harris and Coleman (2005) suggest that educational leadership instructors introduce aspiring administrators to a sound knowledge base. Currently, engaging in teams is recommended for high performance and problem-solving. Bolton (1999) recommends that instructors coach teams so teaming skills are improved. But, oftentimes, there are team…

  9. Cognitive Style and Motor Skill and Sports Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riding, Richard J.; Al-Salih, Nizar

    2000-01-01

    Presents a study of cognitive style and motor skill performance on a battery of tasks and sports performance. Suggests four skills factors from the motor skills subsample (n=69), specifically bodily movement, interactive skills, mechanical skills, and aiming. Reveals a significant effect of style for tennis from the sports performance subsample…

  10. Introducing a Short Measure of Shared Servant Leadership Impacting Team Performance through Team Behavioral Integration.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Milton; Van Dierendonck, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The research reported in this paper was designed to study the influence of shared servant leadership on team performance through the mediating effect of team behavioral integration, while validating a new short measure of shared servant leadership. A round-robin approach was used to collect data in two similar studies. Study 1 included 244 undergraduate students in 61 teams following an intense HRM business simulation of 2 weeks. The following year, study 2 included 288 students in 72 teams involved in the same simulation. The most important findings were that (1) shared servant leadership was a strong determinant of team behavioral integration, (2) information exchange worked as the main mediating process between shared servant leadership and team performance, and (3) the essence of servant leadership can be captured on the key dimensions of empowerment, humility, stewardship and accountability, allowing for a new promising shortened four-dimensional measure of shared servant leadership. PMID:26779104

  11. Introducing a Short Measure of Shared Servant Leadership Impacting Team Performance through Team Behavioral Integration

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Milton; Van Dierendonck, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this paper was designed to study the influence of shared servant leadership on team performance through the mediating effect of team behavioral integration, while validating a new short measure of shared servant leadership. A round-robin approach was used to collect data in two similar studies. Study 1 included 244 undergraduate students in 61 teams following an intense HRM business simulation of 2 weeks. The following year, study 2 included 288 students in 72 teams involved in the same simulation. The most important findings were that (1) shared servant leadership was a strong determinant of team behavioral integration, (2) information exchange worked as the main mediating process between shared servant leadership and team performance, and (3) the essence of servant leadership can be captured on the key dimensions of empowerment, humility, stewardship and accountability, allowing for a new promising shortened four-dimensional measure of shared servant leadership. PMID:26779104

  12. Defining Projects to Integrate Evolving Team Fundamentals and Project Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harold, III; Smarkusky, Debra; Corrigall, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Industry has indicated the desire for academic programs to produce graduates that are well-versed in collaborative problem solving and general project management concepts in addition to technical skills. The primary focus of a curriculum is typically centered on the technical training with minimal attention given to coalescing team and project…

  13. Defining Projects to Integrate Evolving Team Fundamentals and Project Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harold, III; Smarkusky, Debra; Corrigall, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Industry has indicated the desire for academic programs to produce graduates that are well-versed in collaborative problem solving and general project management concepts in addition to technical skills. The primary focus of a curriculum is typically centered on the technical training with minimal attention given to coalescing team and project…

  14. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  15. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  16. Gender and practical skill performance in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, Roger

    The performance of 18 boys and 18 girls on four problem-solving tasks set in science contexts was compared. The tasks were administered in a one-to-one testing situation and assessments were made by direct observation, questioning, and by using written records. The tasks were valid and reliable, and the samples of boys and girls were matched for ability and curriculum background. Past studies have identified gender differences in performance on science tasks; however, this study found little evidence to support these findings. Few significant differences in performance were found. No gender differences were detected in observation, reporting, or planning skills, and there was no differential performance on the use of scientific language. Girls performed less well in relation to self-reliance, and performance differences on the interpretation skill approached significance with boys' performance superior.

  17. Performance factors in women's team handball: physical and physiological aspects--a review.

    PubMed

    Manchado, Carmen; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan; Vila, Helena; Ferragut, Carmen; Platen, Petra

    2013-06-01

    Team handball is an Olympic sport played professionally in many European countries. Nevertheless, a scientific knowledge regarding women's elite team handball demands is limited. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 33) on physical characteristics, physiological attributes, physical attributes, throwing velocity, and on-court performances of women's team handball players. Such empirical and practical information is essential to design and implement successful short-term and long-term training programs for women's team handball players. Our review revealed that (a) players that have a higher skill level are taller and have a higher fat-free mass; (b) players who are more aerobically resistant are at an advantage in international level women team handball; (c) strength and power exercises should be emphasized in conditioning programs, because they are associated with both sprint performance and throwing velocity; (d) speed drills should also be implemented in conditioning programs but after a decrease in physical training volume; (e) a time-motion analysis is an effective method of quantifying the demands of team handball and provides a conceptual framework for the specific physical preparation of players. According to our results, there are only few studies on on-court performance and time-motion analysis for women's team handball players, especially concerning acceleration profiles. More studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of different training programs of women's team handball players' physiological and physical attributes. PMID:23439330

  18. Team Primacy Concept (TPC) Based Employee Evaluation and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniute, Eivina I.; Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explored how employees learn from Team Primacy Concept (TPC) based employee evaluation and how they use the feedback in performing their jobs. TPC based evaluation is a form of multirater evaluation, during which the employee's performance is discussed by one's peers in a face-to-face team setting. The study used Kolb's…

  19. [When do bad apples not spoil the barrel? Negative relationships in teams, team performance, and buffering mechanisms].

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jeroen P; Cur?eu, Petru L; Leenders, Roger Th A J

    2014-05-01

    The study of negative relationships in teams has primarily focused on the impact of negative relationships on individual team member attitudes and performance in teams. The mechanisms and contingencies that can buffer against the damaging effects of negative relationships on team performance have received limited attention. Building on social interdependence theory and the multilevel model of team motivation, we examine in a sample of 73 work teams the team-level attributes that foster the promotive social interaction that can neutralize the adverse effect of negative relationships on team cohesion and, consequently, on team performance. The results indicate that high levels of team-member exchange as well as high task-interdependence attenuate how team cohesion and team performance suffer from negative relationships. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:24661274

  20. From Group to Team: Skilled Facilitation Moves a Group from a Collection of Individuals to an Effective Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ginny V.

    2009-01-01

    School-based learning depends on teachers' capacity to engage with each other around central issues of teaching and learning. While such collaboration is readily welcomed by some educators, others remain wedded to an "independent contractor" concept of teaching. Supporting teachers to view themselves as team members and to perform effectively as a…

  1. From Group to Team: Skilled Facilitation Moves a Group from a Collection of Individuals to an Effective Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ginny V.

    2009-01-01

    School-based learning depends on teachers' capacity to engage with each other around central issues of teaching and learning. While such collaboration is readily welcomed by some educators, others remain wedded to an "independent contractor" concept of teaching. Supporting teachers to view themselves as team members and to perform effectively as a…

  2. Achieving Management Skills. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

    Prepared as part of Platte Technical Community College's project to help managers and supervisors develop practical, up-to-date managerial skills in a relatively short time, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations. Unit I focuses on time management, the causes and management of stress, and…

  3. Endoscopic non-technical skills team training: The next step in quality assurance of endoscopy training

    PubMed Central

    Matharoo, Manmeet; Haycock, Adam; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether novel, non-technical skills training for Bowel Cancer Screening (BCS) endoscopy teams enhanced patient safety knowledge and attitudes. METHODS: A novel endoscopy team training intervention for BCS teams was developed and evaluated as a pre-post intervention study. Four multi-disciplinary BCS teams constituting BCS endoscopist(s), specialist screening practitioners, endoscopy nurses and administrative staff (A) from English BCS training centres participated. No patients were involved in this study. Expert multidisciplinary faculty delivered a single day’s training utilising real clinical examples. Pre and post-course evaluation comprised participants’ patient safety awareness, attitudes, and knowledge. Global course evaluations were also collected. RESULTS: Twenty-three participants attended and their patient safety knowledge improved significantly from 43%-55% (P ? 0.001) following the training intervention. 12/41 (29%) of the safety attitudes items significantly improved in the areas of perceived patient safety knowledge and awareness. The remaining safety attitude items: perceived influence on patient safety, attitudes towards error management, error management actions and personal views following an error were unchanged following training. Both qualitative and quantitative global course evaluations were positive: 21/23 (91%) participants strongly agreed/agreed that they were satisfied with the course. Qualitative evaluation included mandating such training for endoscopy teams outside BCS and incorporating team training within wider endoscopy training. Limitations of the study include no measure of increased patient safety in clinical practice following training. CONCLUSION: A novel comprehensive training package addressing patient safety, non-technical skills and adverse event analysis was successful in improving multi-disciplinary teams’ knowledge and safety attitudes. PMID:25516665

  4. Speech acts, communication problems, and fighter pilot team performance.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Jonathan; Andersson, Jan

    Two aspects of team communication, speech acts and communication problems, and their relation to team performance in a team air combat simulator were studied. The purpose was to enhance the understanding of how team performance is related to team communication. Ten Swedish fighter pilots and four fighter controllers of varying experience participated. Data were collected during fighter simulator training involving four pilots and one fighter controller in each of two teams. Speech acts were collapsed over seven categories and communication problems over five categories. Communication was studied from two perspectives: critical situation outcome and mission outcome. Some problems were closely related to particular speech acts. Speech act frequency, especially meta-communications and tactics, was highest when winning. However, the timing of tactics in critical situations needs further research. Communication problem frequency was highest for runs which ended equally. The most common problem was simultaneous speech, possibly because of the simulator radio system. The number of speech acts was related to enhanced performance but in a complex manner. Thus in order to work efficiently team members need to communicate, but to communicate sufficiently and at appropriate times. This work has applications for fighter pilot and controller team training and the development of communication standards. PMID:17008254

  5. 49 CFR 240.127 - Criteria for examining skill performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for examining skill performance. 240.127... Elements of the Certification Process § 240.127 Criteria for examining skill performance. (a) Each railroad... description shall include the skills to be tested and the weight or possible score that each skill will...

  6. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  7. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  8. Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning.…

  9. Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning.…

  10. Peer led team learning in introductory biology: effects on peer leader critical thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Julia J; Wiles, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups. PMID:25629311

  11. Peer Led Team Learning in Introductory Biology: Effects on Peer Leader Critical Thinking Skills

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Julia J.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders’ critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders’ perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders’ critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups. PMID:25629311

  12. Human Performance Modeling and Simulation for Launch Team Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peaden, Cary J.; Payne, Stephen J.; Hoblitzell, Richard M., Jr.; Chandler, Faith T.; LaVine, Nils D.; Bagnall, Timothy M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing research into modeling and simulation of humans for launch team analysis, training, and evaluation. The initial research is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) and NASA's Exploration Program and is focused on current and future launch team operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The paper begins with a description of existing KSC launch team environments and procedures. It then describes the goals of new Simulation and Analysis of Launch Teams (SALT) research. The majority of this paper describes products from the SALT team's initial proof-of-concept effort. These products include a nominal case task analysis and a discrete event model and simulation of launch team performance during the final phase of a shuttle countdown; and a first proof-of-concept training demonstration of launch team communications in which the computer plays most roles, and the trainee plays a role of the trainee's choice. This paper then describes possible next steps for the research team and provides conclusions. This research is expected to have significant value to NASA's Exploration Program.

  13. High-performance teams and the physician leader: an overview.

    PubMed

    Majmudar, Aalap; Jain, Anshu K; Chaudry, Joseph; Schwartz, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of health care delivery within the United States continues to escalate in an exponential fashion driven by an explosion of medical technology, an ever-expanding research enterprise, and a growing emphasis on evidence-based practices. The delivery of care occurs on a continuum that spans across multiple disciplines, now requiring complex coordination of care through the use of novel clinical teams. The use of teams permeates the health care industry and has done so for many years, but confusion about the structure and role of teams in many organizations contributes to limited effectiveness and suboptimal outcomes. Teams are an essential component of graduate medical education training programs. The health care industry's relative lack of focus regarding the fundamentals of teamwork theory has contributed to ineffective team leadership at the physician level. As a follow-up to our earlier manuscripts on teamwork, this article clarifies a model of teamwork and discusses its application to high-performance teams in health care organizations. Emphasized in this discussion is the role played by the physician leader in ensuring team effectiveness. By educating health care professionals on the fundamentals of high-performance teamwork, we hope to stimulate the development of future physician leaders who use proven teamwork principles to achieve the goals of trainee education and excellent patient care. PMID:20816354

  14. The Effect of Personality Type on Team Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, John H.; Hebert, Frederic J.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of the performance of two information systems development teams similar in demographics and cognitive ability revealed that significant differences in personality type, as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator, determined performance differences. Better performance was influenced by balance of types, good match between…

  15. Maintaining Team Performance. For the Practicing Manager. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaga, Kim; Browning, Henry

    This booklet provides ways for organizational team leaders to assess their team's effectiveness at regular intervals and to monitor their team's performance. The booklet identifies six key aspects, or dimensions, consistent across all teams. If all six dimensions are strong within a team, the team has the means to conduct its work and perform…

  16. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    PubMed Central

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport. PMID:22997498

  17. Oxytocin and the biopsychology of performance in team sports.

    PubMed

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport. PMID:22997498

  18. The Mediating Effect of Team-Level Knowledge Creation on Organizational Procedural Justice and Team Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ingu; Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woocheol

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how organizational procedural justice affects team performance through team-level knowledge creation practices and the extent to which these practices mediate the association between organizational procedural justice and team performance. The target samples were drawn from six organizations in Korea. A total of 348 cases were…

  19. Getting Groups to Develop Good Strategies: Effects of Reflexivity Interventions on Team Process, Team Performance, and Shared Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtner, Andrea; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K.; Nagele, Christof

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effect of guided reflection on team processes and performance, based on West's (1996, 2000) concept of reflexivity. Communicating via e-mail, 49 hierarchically structured teams (one commander and two specialists) performed seven 15 min shifts of a simulated team-based military air-surveillance task (TAST) in two meetings, a…

  20. Motivating Your Team: Coaching for Performance in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peter R.

    2007-01-01

    Designed to help you get the best out of your team, this practical book shows you how to motivate and engage people through the effective design, application and review of performance management. Checklists and practical guidance notes are provided to help you understand the principles and practice of effective performance management and how the…

  1. Team Training and Retention of Skills Acquired Above Real Time Training on a Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Friasat; Guckenberger, Dutch; Crane, Peter; Rossi, Marcia; Williams, Mayard; Williams, Jason; Archer, Matt

    2000-01-01

    Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments related to training of pilots performed by NASA engineers (Kolf in 1973, Hoey in 1976) and others (Guckenberger, Crane and their associates in the nineties) have shown that in comparison with the real time training (RTT), ARTT provides the following benefits: increased rate of skill acquisition, reduced simulator and aircraft training time, and more effective training for emergency procedures. Two sets of experiments have been performed; they are reported in professional conferences and the respective papers are included in this report. The retention of effects of ARTT has been studied in the first set of experiments and the use of ARTT as top-off training has been examined in the second set of experiments. In ARTT, the pace of events was 1.5 times the pace in RTT. In both sets of experiments, university students were trained to perform an aerial gunnery task. The training unit was equipped with a joystick and a throttle. The student acted as a nose gunner in a hypothetical two place attack aircraft. The flight simulation software was installed on a Universal Distributed Interactive Simulator platform supplied by ECC International of Orlando, Florida. In the first set of experiments, two training programs RTT or ART7 were used. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios: either immediately after training or two days later. The effects of ARTT did not decrease over a two day retention interval and ARTT was more time efficient than real time training. Therefore, equal test performance could be achieved with less clock-time spent in the simulator. In the second set of experiments three training programs RTT or ARTT or RARTT, were used. In RTT, students received 36 minutes of real time training. In ARTT, students received 36 minutes of above real time training. In RARTT, students received 18 minutes of real time training and 18 minutes of above real time training as top-off training. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios. The use of ARTT as top-off training after RTT offered better training than RTT alone or ARTT alone. It is, however, suggested that a similar experiment be conducted on a relatively more complex task with a larger sample of participants. Within the proposed duration of the research effort, the setting up of experiments and trial runs on using ARTT for team training were also scheduled but they could not be accomplished due to extra ordinary challenges faced in developing the required software configuration. Team training is, however, scheduled in a future study sponsored by NASA at Tuskegee University.

  2. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes. PMID:22845561

  3. Music Experience Influences Laparoscopic Skills Performance

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Tanner; Jung, Inkyung; Van Sickle, Kent; Schwesinger, Wayne; Michalek, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Background: Music education affects the mathematical and visuo-spatial skills of school-age children. Visuo-spatial abilities have a significant effect on laparoscopic suturing performance. We hypothesize that prior music experience influences the performance of laparoscopic suturing tasks. Methods: Thirty novices observed a laparoscopic suturing task video. Each performed 3 timed suturing task trials. Demographics were recorded. A repeated measures linear mixed model was used to examine the effects of prior music experience on suturing task time. Results: Twelve women and 18 men completed the tasks. When adjusted for video game experience, participants who currently played an instrument performed significantly faster than those who did not (P<0.001). The model showed a significant sex by instrument interaction. Men who had never played an instrument or were currently playing an instrument performed better than women in the same group (P=0.002 and P<0.001). There was no sex difference in the performance of participants who had played an instrument in the past (P=0.29). Conclusion: This study attempted to investigate the effect of music experience on the laparoscopic suturing abilities of surgical novices. The visuo-spatial abilities used in laparoscopic suturing may be enhanced in those involved in playing an instrument. PMID:18765055

  4. Performance assessment in complex individual and team tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is an eclectic, performance based approach to assessing cognitive performance from multiple perspectives. The experience gained from assessing the effects of antihistamines and scenario difficulty on C (exp 2) decision making performance in Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) weapons director (WD) teams can serve as a model for realistic simulations in space operations. Emphasis is placed on the flexibility of measurement, hierarchical organization of measurement levels, data collection from multiple perspectives, and the difficulty of managing large amounts of data.

  5. Team Proactivity as a Linking Mechanism between Team Creative Efficacy, Transformational Leadership, and Risk-Taking Norms and Team Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Yuhyung; Eom, Chanyoung

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on creativity in team contexts, very few attempts have been made to explore the team-level antecedents and the mediating processes of team creative performance on the basis of a theoretical framework. To address this gap, drawing on Paulus and Dzindolet's (2008) group creativity model, this study proposed…

  6. Team Proactivity as a Linking Mechanism between Team Creative Efficacy, Transformational Leadership, and Risk-Taking Norms and Team Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Yuhyung; Eom, Chanyoung

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on creativity in team contexts, very few attempts have been made to explore the team-level antecedents and the mediating processes of team creative performance on the basis of a theoretical framework. To address this gap, drawing on Paulus and Dzindolet's (2008) group creativity model, this study proposed…

  7. Leadership is the essential non-technical skill in the trauma team - results of a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hjortdahl, Magnus; Ringen, Amund H; Naess, Anne-Cathrine; Wisborg, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Background Trauma is the leading cause of death for young people in Norway. Studies indicate that several of these deaths are avoidable if the patient receives correct initial treatment. The trauma team is responsible for initial hospital treatment of traumatized patients, and team members have previously reported that non-technical skills as communication, leadership and cooperation are the major challenges. Better team function could improve patient outcome. The aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of which non-technical skills are important to members of the trauma team during initial examination and treatment of trauma patients. Methods Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted at four different hospitals of various sizes and with different trauma load. At each hospital a nurse, an anaesthesiologist and a team leader (surgeon) were interviewed. The conversations were transcribed and analyzed using systematic text condensation according to the principles of Giorgi's phenomenological analysis as modified by Malterud. Results and conclusion Leadership was perceived as an essential component in trauma management. The ideal leader should be an experienced surgeon, have extensive knowledge of trauma care, communicate clearly and radiate confidence. Team leaders were reported to have little trauma experience, and the team leaders interviewed requested more guidance and supervision. The need for better training of trauma teams and especially team leaders requires further investigation and action. PMID:19781093

  8. Affective mechanisms linking dysfunctional behavior to performance in work teams: a moderated mediation study.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael S; Walter, Frank; Bruch, Heike

    2008-09-01

    The present study examines the association between dysfunctional team behavior and team performance. Data included measures of teams' dysfunctional behavior and negative affective tone as well as supervisors' ratings of teams' (nonverbal) negative emotional expressivity and performance. Utilizing a field sample of 61 work teams, the authors tested the proposed relationships with robust data analytic techniques. Results were consistent with the hypothesized conceptual scheme, in that negative team affective tone mediated the relationship between dysfunctional team behavior and performance when teams' nonverbal negative expressivity was high but not when nonverbal expressivity was low. On the basis of the findings, the authors conclude that the connection between dysfunctional behavior and performance in team situations is more complex than was previously believed--thereby yielding a pattern of moderated mediation. In sum, the findings demonstrated that team members' collective emotions and emotional processing represent key mechanisms in determining how dysfunctional team behavior is associated with team performance. PMID:18808218

  9. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance.

    PubMed

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Allen, Joseph A

    2014-11-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor-performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter during 54 regular organizational team meetings. Performance ratings were obtained immediately following the team meetings as well as at a later time point from the teams' supervisors. At the behavioral unit level within the team interaction process, lag sequential analysis identified humor and laughter patterns occurring above chance (e.g., a joke followed by laughter, followed by another joke). Moreover, humor patterns triggered positive socioemotional communication, procedural structure, and new solutions. At the team level, humor patterns (but not humor or laughter alone) positively related to team performance, both immediately and 2 years later. Team-level job insecurity climate was identified as a boundary condition: In low job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns were positively related to performance, whereas in high job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns did not relate to team performance. The role of job insecurity as a boundary condition persisted at both time points. These findings underscore the importance of studying team interactions for understanding the role of humor in organizations and considering team-level boundary conditions over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25314363

  10. The development and implementation of quality based team and diagnostic skills training at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been involved in Team and Diagnostic Skills training since the early part of 1988. This training was developed in-house utilizing material from numerous sources. To assist in achieving a high quality program that would be both well received by operations and effective in bringing positive behavioral changes, concepts of adult learning were utilized in the development and implementation. This paper will state the concepts and discuss how they were and continue to be used to develop, revise, and implement Team and Diagnostic Skills training at ATR. 4 refs.

  11. The impact of team building and leadership development on nuclear plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, P.B.; Long, R.L.; Childress, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Within the nuclear utility industry, the pressures of complex technologies, increasing regulations, and critical public scrutiny create a working environment filled with numerous pressures. The difficult nature of the industry puts a premium on effective teamwork, interdepartmental cooperation, and communication skills. A well-conceived and implemented team building and leadership development program can substantially improve the operating performance of a nuclear plant. This paper describes one such implementation effort at GPU Nuclear Corporation and at the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station (OCNGS) over an 18-month period.

  12. The performance environment of the England youth soccer teams.

    PubMed

    Pain, Matthew A; Harwood, Chris

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, we examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a semi-structured protocol with a prospective sample, national coaches (n = 6), sport scientists (n = 3), and players (n = 4) were interviewed directly following international tournaments about the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. Qualitative content analysis revealed the following factors as major positive influences on performance: adhering to a consistent tournament strategy, player understanding, strong team cohesion, organized entertainment activities, detailed knowledge of opposition, an effective physical rest/recovery strategy, and previous tournament experience. Major factors perceived to have negatively influenced performance included: over-coaching, player boredom, player anxiety, physical superiority of the opposition, physical fatigue over the tournament, problems sleeping, and lack of information on the opposition. Eight overall dimensions emerged to describe the performance environment: planning and organization, physical environment, tactical factors, development and performance philosophy, psychological factors, physical factors, social factors, and coaching. The findings support recent work that suggests the performance environment is multifaceted, with performance being contingent upon a broad range of interacting factors that go beyond the traditional psychosocial and physical domains. PMID:17786684

  13. Technological Supports for Onsite and Distance Education and Students' Perceptions of Acquisition of Thinking and Team-Building Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer D. E.; Morin, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares students' perceptions of support provided in the acquisition of various thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the various activities, resources and technologies (ART) integrated into an upper level Distributed Computing (DC) course. The findings indicate that students perceived strong support for their acquisition…

  14. Self-Assessed Skill Needs and Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappelli, Peter; Rogovsky, Nikolai

    Since 1983, discussions focused increasingly on the contribution to economic performance associated with the skills of the work force. Government policy went further by specifying skills important to economic performance and advocating their introduction into schools and training programs. Surprisingly little empirical research examined the…

  15. Prosocial Bonuses Increase Employee Satisfaction and Team Performance

    PubMed Central

    Anik, Lalin; Aknin, Lara B.; Norton, Michael I.; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    In three field studies, we explore the impact of providing employees and teammates with prosocial bonuses, a novel type of bonus spent on others rather than on oneself. In Experiment 1, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of donations to charity lead to happier and more satisfied employees at an Australian bank. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of expenditures on teammates lead to better performance in both sports teams in Canada and pharmaceutical sales teams in Belgium. These results suggest that a minor adjustment to employee bonuses – shifting the focus from the self to others – can produce measurable benefits for employees and organizations. PMID:24058691

  16. Prosocial bonuses increase employee satisfaction and team performance.

    PubMed

    Anik, Lalin; Aknin, Lara B; Norton, Michael I; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    In three field studies, we explore the impact of providing employees and teammates with prosocial bonuses, a novel type of bonus spent on others rather than on oneself. In Experiment 1, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of donations to charity lead to happier and more satisfied employees at an Australian bank. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of expenditures on teammates lead to better performance in both sports teams in Canada and pharmaceutical sales teams in Belgium. These results suggest that a minor adjustment to employee bonuses--shifting the focus from the self to others--can produce measurable benefits for employees and organizations. PMID:24058691

  17. Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuster, J.

    1998-01-01

    Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.

  18. The Five-Factor Model Personality Assessment for Improved Student Design Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogot, Madara; Okudan, Gul E.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have long noted the correlation of various personality traits and team performance. Studies relating aggregate team personality traits to team performance are scattered in the literature and may not always be relevant to engineering design teams. This paper synthesizes the results from applicable Five-Factor Model (FFM)-based…

  19. The Five-Factor Model Personality Assessment for Improved Student Design Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogot, Madara; Okudan, Gul E.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have long noted the correlation of various personality traits and team performance. Studies relating aggregate team personality traits to team performance are scattered in the literature and may not always be relevant to engineering design teams. This paper synthesizes the results from applicable Five-Factor Model (FFM)-based…

  20. Team-Teaching in Physical Education for Promoting Coordinative Motor Skills in Children: The More You Invest the More You Get

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardaglio, Giulia; Marasso, Danilo; Magno, Francesca; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Ciairano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard physical education (PE) programs and the team-teaching methodology have rarely been evaluated to investigate their real efficacy in changing children's motor skills. Aims: The aims of this study are two-fold: The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a PE program for improving coordinative motor skills in the team…

  1. Does Virtual Team Composition Matter? Trait and Problem-Solving Configuration Effects on Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turel, Ofir; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increased importance and usage of self-managed virtual teams, many recent studies have examined factors that affect their success. One such factor that merits examination is the configuration or composition of virtual teams. This article tackles this point by (1) empirically testing trait-configuration effects on virtual team…

  2. Life Skills Yield Stronger Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Tommie, Jr.; Mabie, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    After one failed attempt to buttress the prospects of black males at a racially diverse high school, teachers fashioned a life skills class that was heavy on racial pride and personal insight. In so doing they borrowed liberally from the Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching by Margery Ginsberg and Raymond Wlodkowski that leans…

  3. Schneider Skills Enhancement Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider (USA), Inc., Plymouth, MN.

    The Schneider Skills Enhancement Program is a workplace literacy partnership between the medical manufacturing firm Schneider, Inc., and the Adult Academic Program of the Robbinsdale Area Schools in Minnesota. A literacy audit of 39 Schneider employees established a need for instruction in literacy, numeracy, and English as a Second Language (ESL)…

  4. Life Skills Yield Stronger Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Tommie, Jr.; Mabie, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    After one failed attempt to buttress the prospects of black males at a racially diverse high school, teachers fashioned a life skills class that was heavy on racial pride and personal insight. In so doing they borrowed liberally from the Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching by Margery Ginsberg and Raymond Wlodkowski that leans…

  5. Standardized patient and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting: validation of a new performance-based assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Misuzu; Nagoshi, Michael; Oshiro-Wong, Celeste; Tin, Maung; Wen, Aida; Masaki, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach is critical in the care of elderly adults. Performance-based tools to assess IDT skills have not been well validated. A novel assessment tool, the standardized patient (SP) and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting (SIDTM), consisting of two stations, was developed. First, trainees evaluate a SP hospitalized after a fall. Second, trainees play the role of the physician in a standardized IDT meeting with a standardized registered nurse (SRN) and standardized medical social worker (SMSW) for discharge planning. The SP-SIDTM was administered to 52 fourth-year medical students (MS4s) and six geriatric medicine fellows (GMFs) in 2011/12. The SP, SRN, and SMSW scored trainee performance on dichotomous checklists of clinical tasks and Likert scales of communication skills, which were compared according to level of training using t-tests. Trainees rated the SP-SIDTM experience as moderately difficult, length of time about right, and believability moderate to high. Reliability was high for both cases (Cronbach ? = 0.73-0.87). Interobserver correlation between SRN and SMSW checklist scores (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.82, P < .001) and total scores (r = 0.69, P < .001) were high. The overall score on the SP-SIDTM case was significantly higher for GMF (75) than for MS4 (65, P = .002). These observations support the validity of this novel assessment tool. PMID:24383978

  6. Outperforming whom? A multilevel study of performance-prove goal orientation, performance, and the moderating role of shared team identification.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Bart; van Knippenberg, Daan; Hirst, Giles; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D

    2015-11-01

    Performance-prove goal orientation affects performance because it drives people to try to outperform others. A proper understanding of the performance-motivating potential of performance-prove goal orientation requires, however, that we consider the question of whom people desire to outperform. In a multilevel analysis of this issue, we propose that the shared team identification of a team plays an important moderating role here, directing the performance-motivating influence of performance-prove goal orientation to either the team level or the individual level of performance. A multilevel study of salespeople nested in teams supports this proposition, showing that performance-prove goal orientation motivates team performance more with higher shared team identification, whereas performance-prove goal orientation motivates individual performance more with lower shared team identification. Establishing the robustness of these findings, a second study replicates them with individual and team performance in an educational context. PMID:26011723

  7. Teamwork education improves trauma team performance in undergraduate health professional students

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Valerie O’Toole; Cuzzola, Ronald; Knox, Carolyn; Liotta, Cynthia; Cornfield, Charles S.; Tarkowski, Robert D.; Masters, Carolynn; McCarthy, Michael; Sturdivant, Suzanne; Carlson, Jestin N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Effective trauma resuscitation requires efficient and coordinated care from a team of providers; however, providers are rarely instructed on how to be effective members of trauma teams. Team-based learning using Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) has been shown to improve team dynamics among practicing professionals, including physicians and nurses. The impact of TeamSTEPPS on students being trained in trauma management in an undergraduate health professional program is currently unknown. We sought to determine the impact of TeamSTEPPS on team dynamics among undergraduate students being trained in trauma resuscitation. Methods: We enrolled teams of undergraduate health professional students from four programs: nursing, physician assistant, radiologic science, and respiratory care. After completing an online training on trauma resuscitation principles, the participants completed a trauma resuscitation scenario. The participants then received teamwork training using TeamSTEPPS and completed a second trauma resuscitation scenario identical to the first. All resuscitations were recorded and scored offline by two blinded research assistants using both the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) and Trauma Team Performance Observation Tool (TPOT) scoring systems. Pre-test and post-test TEAM and TPOT scores were compared. Results: We enrolled a total of 48 students in 12 teams. Team leadership, situational monitoring, and overall communication improved with TeamSTEPPS training (P=0.04, P=0.02, and P=0.03, respectively), as assessed by the TPOT scoring system. TeamSTEPPS also improved the team’s ability to prioritize tasks and work together to complete tasks in a rapid manner (P<0.01 and P=0.02, respectively) as measured by TEAM. Conclusions: Incorporating TeamSTEPPS into trauma team education leads to improved TEAM and TPOT scores among undergraduate health professionals. PMID:26101404

  8. A Framework for Cross-Disciplinary Team Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Scott P.; Lei, Kimfong; Paulino, Lisette Reyes

    2008-01-01

    The construct of teamwork has been of considerable interest to researchers and practitioners across domains. The literature on teams includes many studies related to team composition, processes, and roles, but it pays much less attention to how teams learn and innovate. Studies examining how cross-disciplinary teams interact during projects are…

  9. A Framework for Cross-Disciplinary Team Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Scott P.; Lei, Kimfong; Paulino, Lisette Reyes

    2008-01-01

    The construct of teamwork has been of considerable interest to researchers and practitioners across domains. The literature on teams includes many studies related to team composition, processes, and roles, but it pays much less attention to how teams learn and innovate. Studies examining how cross-disciplinary teams interact during projects are…

  10. Basic Math Skills and Performance in an Introductory Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

    2006-01-01

    We identify the student characteristics most associated with success in an introductory business statistics class, placing special focus on the relationship between student math skills and course performance, as measured by student grade in the course. To determine which math skills are important for student success, we examine (1) whether the…

  11. The Port of Baltimore Workplace Skills Development Project. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amarantides, Niki; Blumner, Ellen

    The Port of Baltimore Workplace Skills Development Project had the following objectives: perform literacy audits on at least 20 job titles within the port-related industries; develop curriculum modules providing literacy skill instruction using a functional context approach reflecting the Port of Baltimore needs; offer instructional services to at…

  12. Problem-Solving Teams and the Improvement of Organizational Performance in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkin, Alan B.; Wanat, Carolyn L.

    1994-01-01

    Problem-solving teams substantially influence organizational performance in restructured schools. This article examines the concepts of teamwork and team effectiveness, as related to functions of problem-solving teams. A case study of a successful team effort to improve elementary students' reading scores provides a framework for developing…

  13. Understanding interdisciplinary health care teams: using simulation design processes from the Air Carrier Advanced Qualification Program to identify and train critical teamwork skills.

    PubMed

    Hamman, William R; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M; Beaubien, Jeffrey M

    2010-09-01

    In the report "Five Years After 'To Err is Human' ", it was noted that "the combination of complexity, professional fragmentation, and a tradition of individualism, enhanced by a well-entrenched hierarchical authority structure and diffuse accountability, forms a daunting barrier to creating the habits and beliefs of common purpose, teamwork, and individual accountability for successful interdependence that a safe culture requires". Training physicians, nurses, and other professionals to work in teams is a concept that has been promoted by many patient safety experts. However the model of teamwork in healthcare is diffusely defined, no clear performance metrics have been established, and the use of simulation to train teams has been suboptimal. This paper reports on the first three years of work performed in the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) Tri-Corridor life science grant to apply concepts and processes of simulation design that were developed in the air carrier industry to understand and train healthcare teams. This work has been monitored by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAA) and is based on concepts designed in the Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) from the air carrier industry, which trains and assesses teamwork skills in the same manner as technical skills. This grant has formed the foundation for the Center of Excellence for Simulation Education and Research (CESR). PMID:21491786

  14. A multi-level approach of evaluating crew resource management training: a laboratory-based study examining communication skills as a function of team congruence.

    PubMed

    Sauer, J; Darioly, A; Mast, M Schmid; Schmid, P C; Bischof, N

    2010-11-01

    The article proposes a multi-level approach for evaluating communication skills training (CST) as an important element of crew resource management (CRM) training. Within this methodological framework, the present work examined the effectiveness of CST in matching or mismatching team compositions with regard to hierarchical status and competence. There is little experimental research that evaluated the effectiveness of CRM training at multiple levels (i.e. reaction, learning, behaviour) and in teams composed of members of different status and competence. An experiment with a two (CST: with vs. without) by two (competence/hierarchical status: congruent vs. incongruent) design was carried out. A total of 64 participants were trained for 2.5 h on a simulated process control environment, with the experimental group being given 45 min of training on receptiveness and influencing skills. Prior to the 1-h experimental session, participants were assigned to two-person teams. The results showed overall support for the use of such a multi-level approach of training evaluation. Stronger positive effects of CST were found for subjective measures than for objective performance measures. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work provides some guidance for the use of a multi-level evaluation of CRM training. It also emphasises the need to collect objective performance data for training evaluation in addition to subjective measures with a view to gain a more accurate picture of the benefits of such training approaches. PMID:20967655

  15. Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Stuster, J

    1998-09-01

    Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars. PMID:12190074

  16. Simulation for the Training of Human Performance and Technical Skills: The Intersection of How We Will Train Health Care Professionals in the Future

    PubMed Central

    Hamman, William R.; Beaubien, Jeffrey M.; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims The aims of this research are to begin to understand health care teams in their operational environment, establish metrics of performance for these teams, and validate a series of scenarios in simulation that elicit team and technical skills. The focus is on defining the team model that will function in the operational environment in which health care professionals work. Methods Simulations were performed across the United States in 70- to 1000-bed hospitals. Multidisciplinary health care teams analyzed more than 300 hours of videos of health care professionals performing simulations of team-based medical care in several different disciplines. Raters were trained to enhance inter-rater reliability. Results The study validated event sets that trigger team dynamics and established metrics for team-based care. Team skills were identified and modified using simulation scenarios that employed the event-set-design process. Specific skills (technical and team) were identified by criticality measurement and task analysis methodology. Discussion In situ simulation, which includes a purposeful and Socratic Method of debriefing, is a powerful intervention that can overcome inertia found in clinician behavior and latent environmental systems that present a challenge to quality and patient safety. In situ simulation can increase awareness of risks, personalize the risks, and encourage the reflection, effort, and attention needed to make changes to both behaviors and to systems. PMID:21975987

  17. Does Virtual Team Composition Matter? Trait and Problem-Solving Configuration Effects on Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turel, Ofir; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increased importance and usage of self-managed virtual teams, many recent studies have examined factors that affect their success. One such factor that merits examination is the configuration or composition of virtual teams. This article tackles this point by (1) empirically testing trait-configuration effects on virtual team…

  18. Examining the Critical Factors of Success in Virtual Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Virtual teams are a burgeoning presence in the corporate environment today. Research shows that virtual teams have begun to surpass conventional teams in meeting the demands of organizations that are increasingly called on to apply and respond to new technologies that support, and in some cases, require a virtual teamwork approach. In order to…

  19. Assessment of Individual Student Performance in Online Team Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The use of team projects has been shown to be beneficial in higher education. There is also general agreement that team efforts should be assessed and that the grading ought to represent both (1) the quality of the product developed jointly by the team, as well as (2) the degree of participation and quality of contribution by each individual…

  20. Team improvement and patient safety conferences: culture change and slowing the revolving door between skilled nursing facility and the hospital.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Randi E; Schreiber, Robert; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2012-01-01

    To improve the safety culture of a skilled nursing facility, we conducted multidisciplinary "Team Improvement for Patient and Safety" (TIPS) case conferences biweekly to identify causes of transfers to acute care hospitals and improvement opportunities. Staff perceptions of organizational patient safety culture were assessed with the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Over the course of the year, we held 22 TIPS conferences. Mean item scores increased during the study, indicating improved staff perceptions of patient safety culture (P < .005). PMID:22361932

  1. Perceiving patterns of play in dynamic sport tasks: investigating the essential information underlying skilled performance.

    PubMed

    Willams, A Mark; Hodges, Nicola J; North, Jamie S; Barton, Gabor

    2006-01-01

    The perceptual-cognitive information used to support pattern-recognition skill in soccer was examined. In experiment 1, skilled players were quicker and more accurate than less-skilled players at recognising familiar and unfamiliar soccer action sequences presented on film. In experiment 2, these action sequences were converted into point-light displays, with superficial display features removed and the positions of players and the relational information between them made more salient. Skilled players were more accurate than less-skilled players in recognising sequences presented in point-light form, implying that each pattern of play can be defined by the unique relations between players. In experiment 3, various offensive and defensive players were occluded for the duration of each trial in an attempt to identify the most important sources of information underpinning successful performance. A decrease in response accuracy was observed under occluded compared with non-occluded conditions and the expertise effect was no longer observed. The relational information between certain key players, team-mates and their defensive counterparts may provide the essential information for effective pattern-recognition skill in soccer. Structural feature analysis, temporal phase relations, and knowledge-based information are effectively integrated to facilitate pattern recognition in dynamic sport tasks. PMID:16619949

  2. The Delta Cooperative Model: a Dynamic and Innovative Team-Work Activity to Develop Research Skills in Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    RIOS-VELAZQUEZ, CARLOS; ROBLES-SUAREZ, REYNALDO; GONZALEZ-NEGRON, ALBERTO J.; BAEZ-SANTOS, IVAN

    2006-01-01

    The Delta Cooperative Model (DCM) is a dynamic and innovative teamwork design created to develop fundamentals in research skills. High school students in the DCM belong to the Upward Bound Science and Math (UBSM) program at the Inter American University, Ponce Campus. After workshops on using the scientific method, students were organized into groups of three students with similar research interests. Each student had to take on a role within the group as either a researcher, data analyst, or research editor. Initially, each research team developed hypothesis-driven ideas on their proposed project. In intrateam research meetings, they emphasized team-specific tasks. Next, interteam meetings were held to present ideas and receive critical input. Finally, oral and poster research presentations were conducted at the UBSM science fair. Several team research projects covered topics in medical, environmental, and general microbiology. The three major assessment areas for the workshop and DCM included: (i) student’s perception of the workshops’ effectiveness in developing skills, content, and values; (ii) research team self- and group participation evaluation, and (iii) oral and poster presentation during the science fair. More than 91% of the students considered the workshops effective in the presentation of scientific method fundamentals. The combination of the workshop and the DCM increased student’s knowledge by 55% from pre- to posttests. Two rubrics were designed to assess the oral presentation and poster set-up. The poster and oral presentation scores averaged 83% and 75% respectively. Finally, we present a team assessment instrument that allows the self- and group evaluation of each research team. While the DCM has educational plasticity and versatility, here we document how the this model has been successfully incorporated in training and engaging students in scientific research in microbiology. PMID:23653564

  3. The delta cooperative model: a dynamic and innovative team-work activity to develop research skills in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Rios-Velazquez, Carlos; Robles-Suarez, Reynaldo; Gonzalez-Negron, Alberto J; Baez-Santos, Ivan

    2006-05-01

    The Delta Cooperative Model (DCM) is a dynamic and innovative teamwork design created to develop fundamentals in research skills. High school students in the DCM belong to the Upward Bound Science and Math (UBSM) program at the Inter American University, Ponce Campus. After workshops on using the scientific method, students were organized into groups of three students with similar research interests. Each student had to take on a role within the group as either a researcher, data analyst, or research editor. Initially, each research team developed hypothesis-driven ideas on their proposed project. In intrateam research meetings, they emphasized team-specific tasks. Next, interteam meetings were held to present ideas and receive critical input. Finally, oral and poster research presentations were conducted at the UBSM science fair. Several team research projects covered topics in medical, environmental, and general microbiology. The three major assessment areas for the workshop and DCM included: (i) student's perception of the workshops' effectiveness in developing skills, content, and values; (ii) research team self- and group participation evaluation, and (iii) oral and poster presentation during the science fair. More than 91% of the students considered the workshops effective in the presentation of scientific method fundamentals. The combination of the workshop and the DCM increased student's knowledge by 55% from pre- to posttests. Two rubrics were designed to assess the oral presentation and poster set-up. The poster and oral presentation scores averaged 83% and 75% respectively. Finally, we present a team assessment instrument that allows the self- and group evaluation of each research team. While the DCM has educational plasticity and versatility, here we document how the this model has been successfully incorporated in training and engaging students in scientific research in microbiology. PMID:23653564

  4. Regressing Team Performance on Collective Efficacy: Considerations of Temporal Proximity and Concordance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Paiement, Craig A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree collective efficacy judgments based on summative team performance capabilities exhibited different levels of prediction for three additive intervals of team performance in women's ice hockey. Collective efficacy beliefs of 12 teams were assessed prior to Friday's game and Saturday's game…

  5. Improving the Performance of Online Learning Teams--A Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying Chieh; Burn, Janice M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the processes of Face-To-Face (FTF) teams and Online Learning Teams (OLTs) and proposes methods to improve the performance of OLTs. An empirical study reviewed the performance of fifteen FTF teams and OLTs and their communication patterns were coded by the TEMPO system developed by Futoran et al. (1989) in order to develop a…

  6. Centrality and Charisma: Comparing How Leader Networks "and" Attributions Affect Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A.

    2011-01-01

    When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model…

  7. Regressing Team Performance on Collective Efficacy: Considerations of Temporal Proximity and Concordance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Paiement, Craig A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree collective efficacy judgments based on summative team performance capabilities exhibited different levels of prediction for three additive intervals of team performance in women's ice hockey. Collective efficacy beliefs of 12 teams were assessed prior to Friday's game and Saturday's game…

  8. Designing student learning teams improving team performance in a college biology laboratory by designing learning teams based on student's intra-team function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Lisarenee

    Cooperative learning is likely the most utilized form of classroom management in college science laboratory courses. Time restrictions, equipment availability and physical space limitations promote use of cooperation if for no other reason than convenience and necessity. In college laboratory courses, students are often assigned to learning teams the first day of class. Student placement in these learning teams is usually a task for the instructor in charge and may depend on student preference, proximity, or random assignment according to an arbitrary character such as the student's last name. Regardless of placement method, learning teams often experience negative outcomes due to friction between team members. This study addresses the possibility that friction is caused by intra team competition and that intra team competition can be eliminated through team design using the Intra-Team Function Assay (ITFA) (English 2001). Eight hundred and ninety one college students, in 62 sections of an introductory biology laboratory course, participated in the ITFA study during the Fall 2001, Spring 2002, and Summer 2002 semesters. Using a Latin Square all laboratory sections were assigned to one of the following groups: control, Hawthorne, or experimental. Students in the control and Hawthorne sections were assigned to student teams randomly without regard for the ITFA results, while students in the experimental group were assigned to teams dependent on their identified intra-team function. In seven out of ten grade assessments, students in the experimental group earned significantly higher grades than did students in the control group; with no significant difference in the remaining three measures. Student grades in the experimental group where significantly higher than student grades in the Hawthorne group on all team assessments with the exception of the final examination. Students in the experimental group also earned higher semester grades than did students in either the control or Hawthorne groups.

  9. Manual flying skills under the influence of performance shaping factors.

    PubMed

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Schubert, Ekkehart; Onnasch, Linda; Hüttig, Gerhard; Bubb, Heiner; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study investigating pilots' manual flying skills. In today's line oriented flight training, basic flying skills are neglected frequently. So, the study examines the manual flying skills of commercial airline pilots under the influence of several performance shaping factors like training, practice or fatigue in a landing scenario. The landing phase shows a disproportionate high percentage of aircraft accidents and it is typically flown by hand. The study is to be undertaken with randomly selected pilots in a full motion flight simulator to ensure a high validity of the results. PMID:22316719

  10. Personality, Political Skill, and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blickle, Gerhard; Meurs, James A.; Zettler, Ingo; Solga, Jutta; Noethen, Daniela; Kramer, Jochen; Ferris, Gerald R.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction [Hogan, R. (1991). Personality and personality assessment. In M. D. Dunnette, L. Hough, (Eds.), "Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology" (2nd ed., pp. 873-919). Chicago: Rand McNally; Hogan, R., & Shelton, D. (1998). A socioanalytic perspective on job performance

  11. Personality, Political Skill, and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blickle, Gerhard; Meurs, James A.; Zettler, Ingo; Solga, Jutta; Noethen, Daniela; Kramer, Jochen; Ferris, Gerald R.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction [Hogan, R. (1991). Personality and personality assessment. In M. D. Dunnette, L. Hough, (Eds.), "Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology" (2nd ed., pp. 873-919). Chicago: Rand McNally; Hogan, R., & Shelton, D. (1998). A socioanalytic perspective on job performance.…

  12. Instructional Strategies Designed to Develop Trust and Team Building Skills in School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Virgil

    2006-01-01

    This paper will provide readers with insight into "Team Building and Decision-Making" curriculum methods and strategies utilized in leadership for our administrators. The content is based on "The Five Dysfunctions of a Team: A Leadership Fable" by Lencioni (2002). The writer is working on developing a unique cascade of…

  13. Using an Undergraduate Materials Research Project to Foster Multidisciplinary Teaming Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, James A.; Cleary, Doug D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the use of undergraduate materials multidisciplinary research projects as a means of addressing the growing industrial demand for graduates experienced in working in multidisciplinary teams. It includes a detailed description of a project in which a multidisciplinary team of chemical engineering and civil engineering students…

  14. Using an Undergraduate Materials Research Project to Foster Multidisciplinary Teaming Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, James A.; Cleary, Doug D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the use of undergraduate materials multidisciplinary research projects as a means of addressing the growing industrial demand for graduates experienced in working in multidisciplinary teams. It includes a detailed description of a project in which a multidisciplinary team of chemical engineering and civil engineering students…

  15. Degree of Online Collaboration and Team Performance: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ling; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2010-01-01

    This case study investigated the relationship between degree of online collaboration and quality of group project among four teams. Thirteen participants were randomly assigned to form 4 teams to work on 4 collaborative projects across 16 weeks. Two different data sources of discussion archives and quality of group projects were collected and…

  16. Degree of Online Collaboration and Team Performance: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ling; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2010-01-01

    This case study investigated the relationship between degree of online collaboration and quality of group project among four teams. Thirteen participants were randomly assigned to form 4 teams to work on 4 collaborative projects across 16 weeks. Two different data sources of discussion archives and quality of group projects were collected and…

  17. Portraying the Contribution of Individual Behaviors to Team Cohesion and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, Bonny; Orasanu, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Behaviors of individuals in teams both contribute to and are molded by team dynamics. How they do so has been the subject of much research. A method of portraying individuals' behaviors in teams, the Team Diagramming Method (TDM) is presented. Behaviors are rated by other team members on three important dimensions: positivity/negativity, dominant/submissive, and task-orientedness/expressiveness. A study of 5-person teams engaging in a 3-day moon simulation task demonstrated that measures of these perceived behaviors as well as the variances of these behaviors correlated with cohesion measures and performance. The method shows strengths and weaknesses of particular teams and, by comparison with high-performing teams, suggests interventions based on individual as well as team behaviors. The primary goal of this study was to determine the extent to which these team level variables, derived from all team members' rated behaviors, were associated with previous methods of measuring cohesion and with performance. A secondary goal was to determine the stability of TDM measures over time by comparing team level variables based on ratings early and later in the team s work together.

  18. Shared Mental Models on the Performance of e-Learning Content Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to investigate team-based e-Learning content development projects from the perspective of the shared mental model (SMM) theory. The researcher conducted a study of 79 e-Learning content development teams in Korea to examine the relationship between taskwork and teamwork SMMs and the performance of the teams

  19. Evaluating Team Work on Student Projects: The Use of Behaviorally Anchored Scales To Evaluate Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Daniel; Cadiz, David

    One of the biggest problems students face in team projects is social loafing, a situation in which students may view team projects as a free ride. Social loafers let others do the work, knowing that the professor will only grade the completed project. This research examined the performance of students grading other student team members on a group…

  20. The Effects of Programmed Culture Training Upon the Performance of Volunteer Medical Teams in Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Gordon E.; And Others

    This study compares the performance of volunteer medical teams who received a programmed culture assimilator test with teams who did not receive the assimilator. All team members, citizens of the United States, worked for three-week periods in Honduras and Guatemala and were rated on their success in conducting clinics and managing community…

  1. A Fair Go for All? The Impact of Intragroup Diversity and Diversity-Management Skills on Student Experiences and Outcomes in Team-Based Class Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, James B.

    2004-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 390 students in 64 Practical Organizational Behavior Education (PROBE) project teams was conducted on the effects of intragroup diversity and student diversity-management skills. The impact of gender, age, and nationality variables on student grades, cognitive processes, perceptions of team effectiveness, and satisfaction…

  2. A Qualitative Investigation into How Problem-Based Learning Impacts on the Development of Team-Working Skills in Occupational Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Alison

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that problem-based learning (PBL) has a positive impact on the team-working skills of medical, health and social care students. These skills are important for graduates to master to enable effective collaborative working in today's diverse health and social care settings. What is not clear from the literature is how…

  3. A Qualitative Investigation into How Problem-Based Learning Impacts on the Development of Team-Working Skills in Occupational Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Alison

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that problem-based learning (PBL) has a positive impact on the team-working skills of medical, health and social care students. These skills are important for graduates to master to enable effective collaborative working in today's diverse health and social care settings. What is not clear from the literature is how…

  4. Team-Teaching in Physical Education for Promoting Coordinative Motor Skills in Children: The More You Invest the More You Get

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardaglio, Giulia; Marasso, Danilo; Magno, Francesca; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Ciairano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard physical education (PE) programs and the team-teaching methodology have rarely been evaluated to investigate their real efficacy in changing children's motor skills. Aims: The aims of this study are two-fold: The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a PE program for improving coordinative motor skills in the team…

  5. How To Form a Team: Five Keys to High Performance. For the Practicing Manager. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaga, Kim; Kossler, Michael E.

    This practical guidebook is designed for managers and leaders who have responsibility for the creation and success of teams. First, a team is described as a workgroup whose members are dependent upon one another for the completion of a given task, and whose members possess different but complementary skill sets. A team manages its own work within…

  6. Acquisition and performance of a problem-solving skill.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.

  7. The development of a tool to predict team performance.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, M A; Siemieniuch, C E; Haslam, R A; Henshaw, M J D C; Evans, L

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a tool to predict quantitatively the success of a team when executing a process. The tool was developed for the UK defence industry, though it may be useful in other domains. It is expected to be used by systems engineers in initial stages of systems design, when concepts are still fluid, including the structure of the team(s) which are expected to be operators within the system. It enables answers to be calculated for questions such as "What happens if I reduce team size?" and "Can I reduce the qualifications necessary to execute this process and still achieve the required level of success?". The tool has undergone verification and validation; it predicts fairly well and shows promise. An unexpected finding is that the tool creates a good a priori argument for significant attention to Human Factors Integration in systems projects. The simulations show that if a systems project takes full account of human factors integration (selection, training, process design, interaction design, culture, etc.) then the likelihood of team success will be in excess of 0.95. As the project derogates from this state, the likelihood of team success will drop as low as 0.05. If the team has good internal communications and good individuals in key roles, the likelihood of success rises towards 0.25. Even with a team comprising the best individuals, p(success) will not be greater than 0.35. It is hoped that these results will be useful for human factors professionals involved in systems design. PMID:21665189

  8. Centrality and charisma: comparing how leader networks and attributions affect team performance.

    PubMed

    Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A

    2011-11-01

    When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model according to which the leader's charisma facilitates the occupation of a central position in the informal advice network. From this central position, the leader positively influences team performance. Second, we examined the centrality-to-charisma model according to which charisma is attributed to those leaders who are socially active in terms of giving and receiving advice. Attributed charisma facilitates increased team performance. We tested these 2 models in 2 different studies. In the first study, based on time-separated, multisource data emanating from members of 56 work teams, we found support for the centrality-to-charisma model. Formal leaders who were central within team advice networks were seen as charismatic by subordinates, and this charisma was associated with high team performance. To clarify how leader network centrality affected the emergence of charismatic leadership, we designed Study 2 in which, for 79 student teams, we measured leader networking activity and leader charisma at 2 different points in time and related these variables to team performance measured at a third point in time. On the basis of this temporally separated data set, we again found support for the centrality-to-charisma model. PMID:21895351

  9. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test and Business School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bycio, Peter; Allen, Joyce S.

    2009-01-01

    An intent of many business programs is to enhance the critical thinking capabilities of their students. Since AACSB accreditation requires evidence that business schools fulfill their goals, our students were required to take the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). As expected, the CCTST was significantly related to SAT performance…

  10. Skills Enhancement Program. Performance Report, Evaluation Report, and Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne County Community Coll., Detroit, MI.

    This document contains three products of the Skills Enhancement Program, a cooperative venture between Industrial Technology Institute (ITI), Wayne County (Michigan) Community College (WCCC), and Great Lakes Steel (GLS). The performance report describes the project's objective of designing a job-related literacy curriculum for hourly workers and…

  11. Using geographic information systems to track polio vaccination team performance: pilot project report.

    PubMed

    Gammino, Victoria M; Nuhu, Adamu; Chenoweth, Paul; Manneh, Fadinding; Young, Randall R; Sugerman, David E; Gerber, Sue; Abanida, Emmanuel; Gasasira, Alex

    2014-11-01

    The application of geospatial data to public health problems has expanded significantly with increased access to low-cost handheld global positioning system (GPS) receivers and free programs for geographic information systems analysis. In January 2010, we piloted the application of geospatial analysis to polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in northern Nigeria. SIA teams carried GPS receivers to compare hand-drawn catchment area route maps with GPS tracks of actual vaccination teams. Team tracks overlaid on satellite imagery revealed that teams commonly missed swaths of contiguous households and indicated that geospatial data can improve microplanning and provide nearly real-time monitoring of team performance. PMID:25316882

  12. Success Skills for the Textile Industry: Team Building (SS2). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on team building is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

  13. Circadian Phenotype Composition is a Major Predictor of Diurnal Physical Performance in Teams

    PubMed Central

    Facer-Childs, Elise; Brandstaetter, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Team performance is a complex phenomenon involving numerous influencing factors including physiology, psychology, and management. Biological rhythms and the impact of circadian phenotype have not been studied for their contribution to this array of factors so far despite our knowledge of the circadian regulation of key physiological processes involved in physical and mental performance. This study involved 216 individuals from 12 different teams who were categorized into circadian phenotypes using the novel RBUB chronometric test. The composition of circadian phenotypes within each team was used to model predicted daily team performance profiles based on physical performance tests. Our results show that the composition of circadian phenotypes within teams is variable and unpredictable. Predicted physical peak performance ranged from 1:52 to 8:59 p.m. with performance levels fluctuating by up to 14.88% over the course of the day. The major predictor for peak performance time in the course of a day in a team is the occurrence of late circadian phenotypes. We conclude that circadian phenotype is a performance indicator in teams that allows new insight and a better understanding of team performance variation in the course of a day as often observed in different groupings of individuals. PMID:26483754

  14. Harming high performers: a social comparison perspective on interpersonal harming in work teams.

    PubMed

    Lam, Catherine K; Van der Vegt, Gerben S; Walter, Frank; Huang, Xu

    2011-05-01

    This study developed a multilevel model of the interpersonal harming behavior associated with social comparison processes in work teams. We tested this model using temporally lagged data from a sample of student teams (Study 1) and cross-sectional data from a sample of work teams in a telecommunication services company (Study 2). In both studies, social relations analyses revealed that in teams with less cooperative goals, comparison to a higher performing team member was positively associated with interpersonal harming behavior, but only when expectations of future performance similarity to that member were low. The interactive relationship of social comparison and expected future performance similarity with interpersonal harming was buffered, however, in teams with more cooperative goals. PMID:21171734

  15. Temporal guidance of musicians' performance movement is an acquired skill.

    PubMed

    Rodger, M W M; O'Modhrain, S; Craig, C M

    2013-04-01

    The ancillary (non-sounding) body movements made by expert musicians during performance have been shown to indicate expressive, emotional, and structural features of the music to observers, even if the sound of the performance is absent. If such ancillary body movements are a component of skilled musical performance, then it should follow that acquiring the temporal control of such movements is a feature of musical skill acquisition. This proposition is tested using measures derived from a theory of temporal guidance of movement, "General Tau Theory" (Lee in Ecol Psychol 10:221-250, 1998; Lee et al. in Exp Brain Res 139:151-159, 2001), to compare movements made during performances of intermediate-level clarinetists before and after learning a new piece of music. Results indicate that the temporal control of ancillary body movements made by participants was stronger in performances after the music had been learned and was closer to the measures of temporal control found for an expert musician's movements. These findings provide evidence that the temporal control of musicians' ancillary body movements develops with musical learning. These results have implications for other skillful behaviors and nonverbal communication. PMID:23392474

  16. Independent Business Owner/Managers. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

    Prepared as part of Platte Technical Community College's project to help managers and supervisors develop practical, up-to-date managerial skills in a relatively short time, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations encountered by independent business owner/managers. Unit I provides…

  17. Communication, and Team-Working Skills in Second-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Goldrick, Niamh B.; Marzec, Bartosz; Scully, P. Noelle; Draper, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2002, a multidisciplinary program has been used to encourage science students to build on their chemical knowledge and to appreciate how it applies to the world around them. The program is interactive and instills a new set of core learning skills that are often underrepresented in undergraduate curricula, namely, cooperative learning,…

  18. Business and Industrial Supervisors. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

    The result of a project to develop short courses to help business and industrial supervisors in developing practical, up-to-date managerial skills, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations. Unit I covers the following aspects of management: leadership techniques, problem solving, decision…

  19. Communication, and Team-Working Skills in Second-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Goldrick, Niamh B.; Marzec, Bartosz; Scully, P. Noelle; Draper, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2002, a multidisciplinary program has been used to encourage science students to build on their chemical knowledge and to appreciate how it applies to the world around them. The program is interactive and instills a new set of core learning skills that are often underrepresented in undergraduate curricula, namely, cooperative learning,…

  20. Team-Based Learning Exercise Efficiently Teaches Brief Intervention Skills to Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Maria A.; Julian, Katherine A.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Batki, Steven L.; Satre, Derek D.; Satterfield, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evaluations of substance use screening and brief intervention (SBI) curricula typically focus on learner attitudes and knowledge, although effects on clinical skills are of greater interest and utility. Moreover, these curricula often require large amounts of training time and teaching resources. This study examined whether a 3-hour…

  1. Integrating Academic Skills into Postsecondary Vocational Education Programs through Accommodation Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Strategies for integrating academic and vocational skill have been the focus of increasing attention in recent years. The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990 mandates that state and local education agencies integrate these programs so students achieve both academic and vocational competencies. Implementation of…

  2. Leader Behaviors Affecting Team Performance: Similarities and Differences between Leader/Member Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Shows that self-assessments of leader performance were more favorable than assessments by team members for 12 of 13 measured dimensions of leader behavior. Finds agreement of leader strengths and weaknesses, but less agreement of the effect of specific leader behaviors on team performance. (SR)

  3. Toward Automated Computer-Based Visualization and Assessment of Team-Based Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to provide insights into the valid assessment of team performance. However, in many settings, manual and therefore labor-intensive assessment instruments for team performance have limitations. Therefore, automated assessment instruments enable more flexible and detailed insights into the…

  4. Team Satisfaction and Student Group Performance: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitun, Rami M.; Abdulqader, Khalid Shams; Alshare, Khaled A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between team satisfaction and students' performance in group projects in two universities, one from the United States and one from Qatar. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between team satisfaction and group performance only for the American students. Demographic factors…

  5. Toward Automated Computer-Based Visualization and Assessment of Team-Based Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to provide insights into the valid assessment of team performance. However, in many settings, manual and therefore labor-intensive assessment instruments for team performance have limitations. Therefore, automated assessment instruments enable more flexible and detailed insights into the…

  6. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  7. The Development of Team Trust over Time and Its Effect on Performance When Using Michaelsen's Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preast, Vanessa A.

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Michaelsen's Team-Based Learning (TBL) have claimed this teaching method quickly produces highly effective teams which are characterized by high trust among team members. Presumably, the high trust boosts performance because members feel less inhibited during discussions involving sharing personal views and challenging…

  8. The Development of Team Trust over Time and Its Effect on Performance When Using Michaelsen's Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preast, Vanessa A.

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Michaelsen's Team-Based Learning (TBL) have claimed this teaching method quickly produces highly effective teams which are characterized by high trust among team members. Presumably, the high trust boosts performance because members feel less inhibited during discussions involving sharing personal views and challenging…

  9. Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ? 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition. PMID:24506819

  10. Skill mix, roles and remuneration in the primary care workforce: who are the healthcare professionals in the primary care teams across the world?

    PubMed

    Freund, Tobias; Everett, Christine; Griffiths, Peter; Hudon, Catherine; Naccarella, Lucio; Laurant, Miranda

    2015-03-01

    World-wide, shortages of primary care physicians and an increased demand for services have provided the impetus for delivering team-based primary care. The diversity of the primary care workforce is increasing to include a wider range of health professionals such as nurse practitioners, registered nurses and other clinical staff members. Although this development is observed internationally, skill mix in the primary care team and the speed of progress to deliver team-based care differs across countries. This work aims to provide an overview of education, tasks and remuneration of nurses and other primary care team members in six OECD countries. Based on a framework of team organization across the care continuum, six national experts compare skill-mix, education and training, tasks and remuneration of health professionals within primary care teams in the United States, Canada, Australia, England, Germany and the Netherlands. Nurses are the main non-physician health professional working along with doctors in most countries although types and roles in primary care vary considerably between countries. However, the number of allied health professionals and support workers, such as medical assistants, working in primary care is increasing. Shifting from 'task delegation' to 'team care' is a global trend but limited by traditional role concepts, legal frameworks and reimbursement schemes. In general, remuneration follows the complexity of medical tasks taken over by each profession. Clear definitions of each team-member's role may facilitate optimally shared responsibility for patient care within primary care teams. Skill mix changes in primary care may help to maintain access to primary care and quality of care delivery. Learning from experiences in other countries may inspire policy makers and researchers to work on efficient and effective teams care models worldwide. PMID:25577306

  11. Do team processes really have an effect on clinical performance? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, J; Manser, T

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing literature on the relationship between team processes and clinical performance. The purpose of this review is to summarize these articles and examine the impact of team process behaviours on clinical performance. We conducted a literature search in five major databases. Inclusion criteria were: English peer-reviewed papers published between January 2001 and May 2012, which showed or tried to show (i) a statistical relationship of a team process variable and clinical performance or (ii) an improvement of a performance variable through a team process intervention. Study quality was assessed using predefined quality indicators. For every study, we calculated the relevant effect sizes. We included 28 studies in the review, seven of which were intervention studies. Every study reported at least one significant relationship between team processes or an intervention and performance. Also, some non-significant effects were reported. Most of the reported effect sizes were large or medium. The study quality ranged from medium to high. The studies are highly diverse regarding the specific team process behaviours investigated and also regarding the methods used. However, they suggest that team process behaviours do influence clinical performance and that training results in increased performance. Future research should rely on existing theoretical frameworks, valid, and reliable methods to assess processes such as teamwork or coordination and focus on the development of adequate tools to assess process performance, linking them with outcomes in the clinical setting. PMID:23454826

  12. How to improve the performance of a good medical practice team: twelve techniques.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    It is incredibly easy to ignore the medical practice team that is doing a good job. However, when we allow good performers to continue as they are, they probably won't improve. Their performance may even worsen. This is unfortunate because with a little bit of effort and support, good performers can often learn to excel. This article offers 12 techniques medical practice managers can use to bring their team members from good performance to excellent. It describes how to use goal-setting, work assignments, modeling, confidence building, team retreats, rewards, incentives, and reinforcement to ratchet up a good medical practice team's performance. This article also identifies the signs of medical employee mediocrity. It describes why setting higher expectations of your medical practice employees will ultimately improve their performance. Finally, this article suggests 10 practical and affordable strategies that medical practice managers can use to reinforce excellent performance in their good employees. PMID:23866656

  13. Cognition-Based and Affect-Based Trust as Mediators of Leader Behavior Influences on Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S. K.; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based…

  14. Cognition-Based and Affect-Based Trust as Mediators of Leader Behavior Influences on Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S. K.; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based…

  15. The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

  16. Incorporating Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) knowledge and skills into the daily work of police officers: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Hanafi, Sonya; Bahora, Masuma; Demir, Berivan N; Compton, Michael T

    2008-12-01

    This qualitative focus group study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training for police officers. Thematic analysis of transcripts of focus group discussions revealed that officers report increased knowledge of mental illnesses (which manifests as an improved ability to recognize and respond, reduced stereotyping/stigmatization, greater empathy toward consumers and their caregivers, more patience when dealing with consumers, and fewer arrests/more redirection toward treatment), as well as practical application of learned skills (evidenced by an ability to put individuals with mental illnesses at ease, reduced unpredictability of the crisis situation, and reduced risk of injury). Results highlight the potential for collaboration between law enforcement (and other public safety/criminal justice professions) and the mental health professions in the expanding CIT collaborative model. PMID:18465226

  17. Beyond Status: Relating Status Inequality to Performance and Health in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Amy M.; Barling, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status…

  18. The Impact of Team Identification on Biased Predictions of Player Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wann, Daniel L.; Koch, Katrina; Knoth, Tasha; Fox, David; Aljubaily, Hesham; Lantz, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    The current investigation examined sport fans' impressions of an athlete described as a potential member of their team or a potential member of a rival team. In Study 1, we predicted that individuals would exhibit an ingroup favoritism effect by reporting more positive evaluations of the player's performance when he was described as a…

  19. Beyond Status: Relating Status Inequality to Performance and Health in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Amy M.; Barling, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status…

  20. The Impact of Team Identification on Biased Predictions of Player Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wann, Daniel L.; Koch, Katrina; Knoth, Tasha; Fox, David; Aljubaily, Hesham; Lantz, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    The current investigation examined sport fans' impressions of an athlete described as a potential member of their team or a potential member of a rival team. In Study 1, we predicted that individuals would exhibit an ingroup favoritism effect by reporting more positive evaluations of the player's performance when he was described as a…

  1. Shoestring Budgets, Band-Aids, and Team Work: Challenges and Motivators in the Development of a Web-Based Resource for Undergraduate Clinical Skills Teaching

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Collan; Nyhof-Young, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    Background Learning how to conduct a medical interview and perform a physical examination is fundamental to the practice of medicine; however, when this project began, the methods used to teach these skills to medical students at the University of Toronto (U of T) had not changed significantly since the early 1990s despite increasing outpatient care, shorter hospital stays, and heavy preceptor workloads. In response, a Web-based clinical skills resource was developed for the first-year undergraduate medical course—The Art and Science of Clinical Medicine I (ASCM I). Objectives This paper examines our experiences with the development of the ASCM I website and details the challenges and motivators inherent in the production of a Web-based, multimedia medical education tool at a large Canadian medical school. Methods Interviews and a focus group were conducted with the development team to discover the factors that positively and negatively affected the development process. Results Motivating factors included team attributes such as strong leadership and judicious use of medical students and faculty volunteers as developers. Other motivators included a growing lack of instructional equivalency across diverse clinical teaching sites and financial and resource support by the Faculty of Medicine. Barriers to development included an administrative environment that did not yet fully incorporate information technology into its teaching vision and framework, a lack of academic incentive for faculty participation, and inadequate technical support, space, and equipment. Conclusions The success of electronic educational resources such as the ASCM I website has caused a significant cultural shift within the Faculty of Medicine, resulting in the provision of more space, resources, and support for IT endeavours in the undergraduate medical curriculum. PMID:15914461

  2. Investigating information-processing performance of different command team structures in the NATO Problem Space.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Neville A; Rothrock, Ling; Harvey, Catherine; Sorensen, Linda

    2015-12-01

    The structure of command teams is a significant factor on their communications and ability to process, and act upon, information. The NATO Problem Space was used in this study to represent three of the main dimensions in the battle-space environment: familiarity, rate of change, and strength of information position. Results show that the five common team structures (chain, Y, circle, wheel and all-connected) did not generally perform as predicted in team literature. Findings suggest that under dynamic and highly variable conditions, high levels of synchronisation and trust should be present. On the other hand, synchronisation and trust are less important in hierarchical, highly centralised structures, because team members are more willing to accept the authority of a single leader and this tight control ensures that these teams can perform well as long as the Problem Space is familiar, information is explicit and the environment does not change. PMID:25992491

  3. The Role of a Multidimensional Concept of Trust in the Performance of Global Virtual Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodensteiner, Nan Muir; Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the concept of trust as an important ingredient of effective global virtual team performance. Definitions of trust and virtual teams are presented. The concept of trust is developed from its unilateral application (trust, absence of trust) to a multidimensional concept including cognitive and affective components. The special challenges of a virtual team are then discussed with particular emphasis on how a multidimensional concept of trust impacts these challenges. Propositions suggesting the multidimensional concept of trust moderates the negative impacts of distance, cross cultural and organizational differences, the effects of electronically mediated communication, reluctance to share information and a lack of hi story/future on the performance of virtual teams are stated. The paper concludes with recommendations and a set of techniques to build both cognitive and affective trust in virtual teams.

  4. Lessons Learned: 20 Keys to Successful Training and Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Dean R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to training and performance improvement, including practice required for skill learning; knowledge versus skills; core skills; competence; learning to learn; team orientation; enabling business results; interpersonal and conceptual skills; timing; focusing on priorities; organizational learning and management…

  5. Evaluating the effect of a reader worker program on team performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.A.; Alvarez, Y.P.

    1994-03-01

    When safety, security, or other logistical concerns prevent direct objective assessment of team performance, other evaluation techniques become necessary. In this paper, the effect of a Department of Energy-mandated reader worker program on team performance at a particular DOE facility was evaluated using unstructured observations, informal discussions with technicians, and human reliability analysis. The reader worker program is intended to enhance nuclear explosive safety by improving the reliability of team performance. The three methods used for the evaluation combine to provide a strong indication that team performance is in fact enhanced by a properly implemented reader worker procedure. Because direct quantitative data on dependent variables particular to the task of interest is not available, however, there has been some skepticism regarding the results by staff at the facility.

  6. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  7. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  8. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  9. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  10. Teacher Design in Teams as a Professional Development Arrangement for Developing Technology Integration Knowledge and Skills of Science Teachers in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of teacher design teams as a professional development arrangement for developing technology integration knowledge and skills among in-service science teachers. The study was conducted at a secondary school in Tanzania, where 12 in-service science teachers participated in a workshop about technology integration in…

  11. Development of Environmental Knowledge, Team Working Skills and Desirable Behaviors on Environmental Conservation of Matthayomsuksa 6 Students Using Good Science Thinking Moves Method with Metacognition Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladawan, Charinrat; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate environmental knowledge, team working skills, and desirable behaviors of students learning through the good science thinking moves method with metacognition techniques. The sample group included Matthayomsuksa 6 students from Nadoon Prachasan School, Nadoon District, Maha Sarakham Province. The research tools were…

  12. Development of Environmental Knowledge, Team Working Skills and Desirable Behaviors on Environmental Conservation of Matthayomsuksa 6 Students Using Good Science Thinking Moves Method with Metacognition Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladawan, Charinrat; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate environmental knowledge, team working skills, and desirable behaviors of students learning through the good science thinking moves method with metacognition techniques. The sample group included Matthayomsuksa 6 students from Nadoon Prachasan School, Nadoon District, Maha Sarakham Province. The research tools were…

  13. Training high performance skills using above real-time training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

    1993-01-01

    The Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) concept is a unique approach to training high performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. Such a training paradigm represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. These techniques allow individuals to acquire these critical skills faster and with greater retention. ARTT also allows an individual trained in 'fast time' to operate at what appears to be a more confident state, when the same task is performed in a real-time environment. Two related experiments are discussed. The findings appear to be consistent with previous findings that show positive effects of task variation during training. Moreover, ARTT has merit in improving or maintaining transfer with sharp reductions in training time. There are indications that the effectiveness of ARTT varies as a function of task content and possibly task difficulty. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

  14. The impact of subgroup type and subgroup configurational properties on work team performance.

    PubMed

    Carton, Andrew M; Cummings, Jonathon N

    2013-09-01

    Scholars have invoked subgroups in a number of theories related to teams, yet certain tensions in the literature remain unresolved. In this article, we address 2 of these tensions, both relating to how subgroups are configured in work teams: (a) whether teams perform better with a greater number of subgroups and (b) whether teams perform better when they have imbalanced subgroups (majorities and minorities are present) or balanced subgroups (subgroups are of equal size). We predict that the impact of the number and balance of subgroups depends on the type of subgroup-whether subgroups are formed according to social identity (i.e., identity-based subgroups) or information processing (i.e., knowledge-based subgroups). We first propose that teams are more adversely affected by 2 identity-based subgroups than by any other number, yet the uniquely negative impact of a 2-subgroup configuration is not apparent for knowledge-based subgroups. Instead, a larger number of knowledge-based subgroups is beneficial for performance, such that 2 subgroups is worse for performance when compared with 3 or more subgroups but better for performance when compared with no subgroups or 1 subgroup. Second, we argue that teams perform better when identity-based subgroups are imbalanced yet knowledge-based subgroups are balanced. We also suggest that there are interactive effects between the number and balance of subgroups-however, the nature of this interaction depends on the type of subgroup. To test these predictions, we developed and validated an algorithm that measures the configurational properties of subgroups in organizational work teams. Results of a field study of 326 work teams from a multinational organization support our predictions. PMID:23915429

  15. Performance Consistency of International Soccer Teams in Euro 2012: a Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shafizadeh, Mohsen; Taylor, Marc; Peñas, Carlos Lago

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of performance in successive matches for international soccer teams from Europe which qualified for the quarter final stage of EURO 2012 in Poland and Ukraine. The eight teams that reached the quarter final stage and beyond were the sample teams for this time series analysis. The autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions were used to analyze the consistency of play and its association with the result of match in sixteen performance indicators of each team. The results of autocorrelation function showed that based on the number of consistent performance indicators, Spain and Italy demonstrated more consistency in successive matches in relation to other teams. This appears intuitive given that Spain played Italy in the final. However, it is arguable that other teams played at a higher performance levels at various parts of the competition, as opposed to performing consistently throughout the tournament. The results of the cross-correlation analysis showed that in relation to goal-related indicators, these had higher associations with the match results of Spain and France. In relation to the offensive-related indicators, France, England, Portugal, Greece, Czech Republic and Spain showed a positive correlation with the match result. In relation to the defensive-related indicators, France, England, Greece and Portugal showed a positive correlation with match results. In conclusion, in an international soccer tournament, the successful teams displayed a greater degree of performance consistency across all indicators in comparison to their competitors who occasionally would show higher levels of performance in individual games, yet not consistently across the overall tournament. The authors therefore conclude that performance consistency is more significant in international tournament soccer, versus occasionally excelling in some metrics and indicators in particular games. PMID:24235996

  16. Effects of Training and Feedback on Discrete Trial Teaching Skills and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Andrew; Downs, Robyn Conley; Rau, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of training and feedback on instructor performance of Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) and support skills. This included an examination of the generalization and maintenance of instructor skills, and the impact of instructor skills on student performance. Six undergraduate research assistants received an 8-hour…

  17. Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

  18. Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

  19. Peer-based control in self-managing teams: linking rational and normative influence with individual and group performance.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Greg L; Courtright, Stephen H; Barrick, Murray R

    2012-03-01

    The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how peer-based rational control, which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with the more commonly studied normative control force of group cohesion to explain both individual and collective performance in teams. On the basis of data from 587 factory workers in 45 self-managing teams at 3 organizations, peer-based rational control corresponded with higher performance for both individuals and collective teams. Results further demonstrated that the rational and normative mechanism of peer-based control interacted to explain performance at both the individual and team levels. Increased peer-based rational control corresponded with higher individual and collective performance in teams with low cohesion, but the positive effects on performance were attenuated in cohesive teams. PMID:21895352

  20. Comprehensive Development Plan in Office Skills. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waubonsee Community Coll., Sugar Grove, IL.

    The Waubonsee Community College Comprehensive Development Plan in Office Skills served 208 students by assessment of basic skills and referral to appropriate programs or help with job skills and referral to employment during the 18-month grant period from December 1988 through June 30, 1990. The target population was minority women or economically…

  1. Analogy learning and the performance of motor skills under pressure.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wing Kai; Maxwell, Jon P; Masters, Richard

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of analogical instruction, relative to explicit instruction, for the acquisition of a complex motor skill and subsequent performance under pressure was investigated using a modified (seated) basketball shooting task. Differences in attentional resource allocation associated with analogy and explicit learning were also examined using probe reaction times (PRT). Access to task-relevant explicit (declarative) knowledge was assessed. The analogy and explicit learning groups performed equally well during learning and delayed retention tests. The explicit group experienced a drop in performance during a pressured transfer test, relative to their performance during a preceding retention test. However, the analogy group's performance was unaffected by the pressure manipulation. Results from PRTs suggested that both groups allocated equal amounts of attentional resources to the task throughout learning and test trials. Analogy learners had significantly less access to rules about the mechanics of their movements, relative to explicit learners. The results are interpreted in the context of Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory and Masters's (1992) theory of reinvestment. PMID:19798997

  2. Measuring Human Performance within Computer Security Incident Response Teams

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, Jonathan T.; Silva, Austin Ray; Avina, Glory Emmanuel; Forsythe, James C.

    2015-09-01

    Human performance has become a pertinen t issue within cyber security. However, this research has been stymied by the limited availability of expert cyber security professionals. This is partly attributable to the ongoing workload faced by cyber security professionals, which is compound ed by the limited number of qualified personnel and turnover of p ersonnel across organizations. Additionally, it is difficult to conduct research, and particularly, openly published research, due to the sensitivity inherent to cyber ope rations at most orga nizations. As an alternative, the current research has focused on data collection during cyb er security training exercises. These events draw individuals with a range of knowledge and experience extending from seasoned professionals to recent college gradu ates to college students. The current paper describes research involving data collection at two separate cyber security exercises. This data collection involved multiple measures which included behavioral performance based on human - machine transactions and questionnaire - based assessments of cyber security experience.

  3. Believing in "us": exploring leaders' capacity to enhance team confidence and performance by building a sense of shared social identity.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Steffens, Niklas K; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Boen, Filip

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined the impact of athlete leaders' perceived confidence on their teammates' confidence and performance. Male basketball players (N = 102) participated in groups of 4. To manipulate leaders' team confidence, the appointed athlete leader of each newly formed basketball team (a confederate) expressed either high or low team confidence. The results revealed an effect of team confidence contagion such that team members had greater team confidence when the leader expressed high (rather than low) confidence in the team's success. Second, the present study sought to explain the mechanisms through which this contagion occurs. In line with the social identity approach to leadership, structural equation modeling demonstrated that this effect was partially mediated by team members' increased team identification. Third, findings indicated that when leaders expressed high team confidence, team members' performance increased during the test, but when leaders expressed low confidence, team members' performance decreased. Athlete leaders thus have the capacity to shape team members' confidence--and hence their performance--in both positive and negative ways. In particular, by showing that they believe in "our team," leaders are able not only to make "us" a psychological reality, but also to transform "us" into an effective operational unit. PMID:25401268

  4. Technical performance and match-to-match variation in elite football teams.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyou; Gómez, Miguel-Angel; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sampaio, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Recent research suggests that match-to-match variation adds important information to performance descriptors in team sports, as it helps measure how players fine-tune their tactical behaviours and technical actions to the extreme dynamical environments. The current study aims to identify the differences in technical performance of players from strong and weak teams and to explore match-to-match variation of players' technical match performance. Performance data of all the 380 matches of season 2012-2013 in the Spanish First Division Professional Football League were analysed. Twenty-one performance-related match actions and events were chosen as variables in the analyses. Players' technical performance profiles were established by unifying count values of each action or event of each player per match into the same scale. Means of these count values of players from Top3 and Bottom3 teams were compared and plotted into radar charts. Coefficient of variation of each match action or event within a player was calculated to represent his match-to-match variation of technical performance. Differences in the variation of technical performances of players across different match contexts (team and opposition strength, match outcome and match location) were compared. All the comparisons were achieved by the magnitude-based inferences. Results showed that technical performances differed between players of strong and weak teams from different perspectives across different field positions. Furthermore, the variation of the players' technical performance is affected by the match context, with effects from team and opposition strength greater than effects from match location and match outcome. PMID:26613399

  5. Training to Enhance Design Team Performance: A Cure for Tunnel Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, James W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Design Team performance is a function of the quality and degree of academic training and the cumulative, learned experience of the individual members of the team. Teamwork, leadership, and communications certainly are factors that affect the measure of the performance of the team, but they are not addressed here. This paper focuses on accelerating the learned experience of team members and describes an organizational approach that can significantly increase the effective experience level for any engineering design team. The performance measure of the whole team can be increased by increasing the engineering disciplines' cross awareness of each other and by familiarizing them with their affect at the system level. Discipline engineers know their own discipline well, but typically are not intimately familiar with their technical interaction with and dependencies on all the other disciplines of engineering. These dependencies are design integration functions and are worked out well by the discipline engineers as long as they are involved in the design of types of systems that they have experience with.

  6. Performance improvement through best practice team management: human factors in complex trauma.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Simon; Arul, G S; Pugh, H E J

    2014-06-01

    Human factors or non-technical skills are now commonplace in the medical literature, having taken the lead from the airline and nuclear industries and more recently Formula One motor racing. They have been suggested as playing a vital role in the success of the trauma teams in recent conflicts. This article outlines the background to human factors, referring to early papers and reports and also outlines high profile cases that highlight their importance. We then describe the importance of human factors in the deployed setting and some of the lessons that have been learnt from current conflicts. PMID:24389744

  7. The interventional cardiologist as cath lab team leader.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, James C; Feldman, Barry; Ranaweera, Priyantha; Dent, John; Huang, Xiaoyan; Singer, Sara

    2015-06-01

    Interventional cardiologists act as leaders every time they step into a catheterization laboratory (cath lab), but leadership training is rarely included in cardiology training programs. Cath lab physicians should cultivate and practice effective leadership skills. Specifically, (1) before each procedure assess whether the cath lab team is prepared; (2) delegate authority to trainees and team members when appropriate; (3) use every procedure to improve the performance of team members through teaching, coaching, and mentorship; (4) debrief the team after adverse events; (5) develop the traits, styles, and skills associated with successful leadership; and (6) provide team training for the cath lab team. PMID:26028665

  8. Team Research at the Biology-Mathematics Interface: Project Management Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, John G.; Radunskaya, Ami E.; Lee, Arthur H.; de Pillis, Lisette G.; Bartlett, Diana F.

    2010-01-01

    The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics…

  9. Team Research at the Biology-Mathematics Interface: Project Management Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, John G.; Radunskaya, Ami E.; Lee, Arthur H.; de Pillis, Lisette G.; Bartlett, Diana F.

    2010-01-01

    The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics…

  10. Explaining match outcome in elite Australian Rules football using team performance indicators.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sam; Back, Nicole; Bartlett, Jonathan D

    2016-04-01

    The relationships between team performance indicators and match outcome have been examined in many team sports, however are limited in Australian Rules football. Using data from the 2013 and 2014 Australian Football League (AFL) regular seasons, this study assessed the ability of commonly reported discrete team performance indicators presented in their relative form (standardised against their opposition for a given match) to explain match outcome (Win/Loss). Logistic regression and decision tree (chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID)) analyses both revealed relative differences between opposing teams for "kicks" and "goal conversion" as the most influential in explaining match outcome, with two models achieving 88.3% and 89.8% classification accuracies, respectively. Models incorporating a smaller performance indicator set displayed a slightly reduced ability to explain match outcome (81.0% and 81.5% for logistic regression and CHAID, respectively). However, both were fit to 2014 data with reduced error in comparison to the full models. Despite performance similarities across the two analysis approaches, the CHAID model revealed multiple winning performance indicator profiles, thereby increasing its comparative feasibility for use in the field. Coaches and analysts may find these results useful in informing strategy and game plan development in Australian Rules football, with the development of team-specific models recommended in future. PMID:26176890

  11. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

  12. Cognition-based and affect-based trust as mediators of leader behavior influences on team performance.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-07-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based trust and team psychological safety. Transformational leadership influenced team performance indirectly through cognition-based trust. Cognition-based trust directly influenced team potency and indirectly (through affect-based trust) influenced team psychological safety. The effects of leader behavior on team performance were fully mediated through the trust in leader variables and the team psychological states. Servant leadership explained an additional 10% of the variance in team performance beyond the effect of transformational leadership. We discuss implications of these results for research on the relationship between leader behavior and team performance, and for efforts to enhance leader development by combining knowledge from different leadership theories. PMID:21299271

  13. Skills™

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Joshua K.

    2013-01-01

    The SKILLS curriculum is a web-based curriculum of (4k) targets for designing and managing applied behavior analysis-based treatment programs for children with autism and related disorders. PMID:25729511

  14. Coach Mid-Season Replacement and Team Performance in Professional Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Lago-Peñas, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The coaching carousel or turnover is an extreme but frequently occurring phenomenon in soccer. Among the reasons for firing a coach, the most common is the existence of a shock-effect: a new coach would be able to motivate the players better and therefore to improve results. Using data from the Spanish Soccer League during the seasons from 1997–1998 to 2006–2007, this paper investigates the relationship between team performance and coach change over time. The empirical analysis shows that the shock effect of a turnover has a positive impact on team performance in the short term. Results reveal no impact of coach turnover in the long term. The favourable short-term impact on team performance of a coach turnover is followed by continued gradual worsening of results. The turnover effect is nonexistent when the comparison between the new coach and the old coach is done over 10, 15 or 20 matches before and after termination. PMID:23487177

  15. The Impact of Diagnosing Skill Deficiencies and Assessment-Based Communication Training on Managerial Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papa, Michael J.; Graham, Elizabeth E.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluates an organizational diagnosis program that assesses managerial communication skills and provides the frame for follow-up training programs. Finds that managers participating in follow-up communication skills training performed significantly higher on interpersonal skills, problem-solving ability, and productivity over three long-term…

  16. Aural Dictation Affects High Achievement in Sight Singing, Performance and Composition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The nature of skill acquisition has long been of interest to music educators. This study considers the research context for relationships between aural dictation, sight singing, performance and composition skills. Then, relationships between these skill areas are quantitatively investigated using data from the Australian New South Wales Music 2…

  17. Modelling the Progression of Competitive Performance of an Academy's Soccer Teams.

    PubMed

    Malcata, Rita M; Hopkins, Will G; Richardson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Progression of a team's performance is a key issue in competitive sport, but there appears to have been no published research on team progression for periods longer than a season. In this study we report the game-score progression of three teams of a youth talent-development academy over five seasons using a novel analytic approach based on generalised mixed modelling. The teams consisted of players born in 1991, 1992 and 1993; they played totals of 115, 107 and 122 games in Asia and Europe between 2005 and 2010 against teams differing in age by up to 3 years. Game scores predicted by the mixed model were assumed to have an over-dispersed Poisson distribution. The fixed effects in the model estimated an annual linear pro-gression for Aspire and for the other teams (grouped as a single opponent) with adjustment for home-ground advantage and for a linear effect of age difference between competing teams. A random effect allowed for different mean scores for Aspire and opposition teams. All effects were estimated as factors via log-transformation and presented as percent differences in scores. Inferences were based on the span of 90% confidence intervals in relation to thresholds for small factor effects of x/÷1.10 (+10%/-9%). Most effects were clear only when data for the three teams were combined. Older teams showed a small 27% increase in goals scored per year of age difference (90% confidence interval 13 to 42%). Aspire experienced a small home-ground advantage of 16% (-5 to 41%), whereas opposition teams experienced 31% (7 to 60%) on their own ground. After adjustment for these effects, the Aspire teams scored on average 1.5 goals per match, with little change in the five years of their existence, whereas their opponents' scores fell from 1.4 in their first year to 1.0 in their last. The difference in progression was trivial over one year (7%, -4 to 20%), small over two years (15%, -8 to 44%), but unclear over >2 years. In conclusion, the generalized mixed model has marginal utility for estimating progression of soccer scores, owing to the uncertainty arising from low game scores. The estimates are likely to be more precise and useful in sports with higher game scores. Key pointsA generalized linear mixed model is the approach for tracking game scores, key performance indicators or other measures of performance based on counts in sports where changes within and/or between games/seasons have to be considered.Game scores in soccer could be useful to track performance progression of teams, but hundreds of games are needed.Fewer games will be needed for tracking performance represented by counts with high scores, such as game scores in rugby or key performance indicators based on frequent events or player actions in any team sport. PMID:24149364

  18. An examination of the cohesion-performance relationship in university hockey teams.

    PubMed

    Slater, M R; Sewell, D F

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess, using the Group Environment Questionnaire, whether team cohesion in university-level field hockey was a cause for, or an effect of, successful performance. A quasi-experimental longitudinal design with cross-lagged correlational analysis was adopted and measures of cohesion and performance were taken midway and later in the season. The results of the synchronous correlations showed a positive relationship (with good stationarity) between team cohesion and performance outcome. Although non-significant cross-lagged differentials indicated a circular relationship, the magnitudes of both the cross-lagged correlations and the partial correlations, together with multiple-regression analyses, revealed that the stronger flow was from cohesion to performance. The socially oriented aspects of cohesion, in particular, had significant associations with performance. The results imply that cohesion-performance relationships should be examined within a circular model, in which cohesion and performance are interdependent. PMID:7799471

  19. Effectiveness of quality-control aids in verifying K-9-team explosive detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallowell, Susan F.; Fischer, Douglas S.; Brasher, Jeffrey D.; Malone, Robert L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Rae, Cathy

    1997-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and supporting agencies conducted a developmental test and evaluation (DTE) to determine if quality control aids (QCAs) could be developed that would provide effective surrogates to actual explosives used for training and testing K-9 explosives detection teams. Non-detonable surrogates are required to alleviate logistics and contamination issues with explosives used sa training aids. Comparative K-9 team detection performance for explosives used as training aids and QCAs configurations of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCA configuration of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCAs. The configurations were a paper patch impregnated with a solution of the explosive, a cloth pouch filed with small amounts of solid explosive, and the non-hazardous explosive for security training and testing material. The DTE was conducted at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, where the K-9 teams undergo initial training. Six FAA certified operational teams participated. All explosives and QCAs were presented to the K-9 teams using a 10 scent box protocol. The results show that K-9 team as are more sensitive to explosives than the candidate QCAs. More importantly, it was discovered that the explosives at Lackland AFB are cross-contaminated, meaning that explosives possessed volatile artifacts from other explosives. There are two potential hypotheses explaining why the dogs did not detect the QCAs. First, the cross-contamination of Lackland training explosives may mean that K-9 teams are only trained to detect the explosives with the most volatile chemical signatures. Alternatively, the QCA configurations may have been below the trained detection threshold of the K-9s. It is recommended that K-9 teams train on uncontaminated odors from properly designed QCAs to ensure that dogs respond to the appropriate explosive components, and not some other constituent or contaminant.

  20. Basic Math Skills and Performance in an Introductory Economics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Charles L.; Johnson, Marianne F.

    2004-01-01

    The authors measure math skills with a broader set of explanatory variables than have been used in previous studies. To identify what math skills are important for student success in introductory microeconomics, they examine (1) the student's score on the mathematics portion of the ACT Assessment Test, (2) whether the student has taken calculus,…

  1. Contextualised Performance: Reframing the Skills Debate in Research Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Jim

    2010-01-01

    In Australia, as in the UK, much of the skills debate in research education has reflected a deficit model, whereby candidates are deemed to be in need of supplementary training. In response to the demands of employers and governments, most universities have added employability skills to postgraduate curricula, while simultaneously boosting their…

  2. Contextualised Performance: Reframing the Skills Debate in Research Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Jim

    2010-01-01

    In Australia, as in the UK, much of the skills debate in research education has reflected a deficit model, whereby candidates are deemed to be in need of supplementary training. In response to the demands of employers and governments, most universities have added employability skills to postgraduate curricula, while simultaneously boosting their…

  3. DOPS (Direct Observation of Procedural Skills) in undergraduate skills-lab: Does it work? Analysis of skills-performance and curricular side effects

    PubMed Central

    Profanter, Christoph; Perathoner, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Sufficient teaching and assessing clinical skills in the undergraduate setting becomes more and more important. In a surgical skills-lab course at the Medical University of Innsbruck fourth year students were teached with DOPS (direct observation of procedural skills). We analyzed whether DOPS worked or not in this setting, which performance levels could be reached compared to tutor teaching (one tutor, 5 students) and which curricular side effects could be observed. Methods: In a prospective randomized trial in summer 2013 (April – June) four competence-level-based skills were teached in small groups during one week: surgical abdominal examination, urethral catheterization (phantom), rectal-digital examination (phantom), handling of central venous catheters. Group A was teached with DOPS, group B with a classical tutor system. Both groups underwent an OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) for assessment. 193 students were included in the study. Altogether 756 OSCE´s were carried out, 209 (27,6%) in the DOPS- and 547 (72,3%) in the tutor-group. Results: Both groups reached high performance levels. In the first month there was a statistically significant difference (p<0,05) in performance of 95% positive OSCE items in the DOPS-group versus 88% in the tutor group. In the following months the performance rates showed no difference anymore and came to 90% in both groups. In practical skills the analysis revealed a high correspondence between positive DOPS (92,4%) and OSCE (90,8%) results. Discussion: As shown by our data DOPS furnish high performance of clinical skills and work well in the undergraduate setting. Due to the high correspondence of DOPS and OSCE results DOPS should be considered as preferred assessment tool in a students skills-lab. The approximation of performance-rates within the months after initial superiority of DOPS could be explained by an interaction between DOPS and tutor system: DOPS elements seem to have improved tutoring and performance rates as well. DOPS in students ‘skills-lab afford structured feedback and assessment without increased personnel and financial resources compared to classic small group training. Conclusion: In summary, this study shows that DOPS represent an efficient method in teaching clinical skills. Their effects on didactic culture reach beyond the positive influence of performance rates. PMID:26483858

  4. Taking the reins: the effects of new leader status and leadership style on team performance.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Stephen J

    2011-05-01

    New leaders face a challenging task when they take charge of their teams. They have to determine how best to guide the work process, and they must understand how their behaviors will affect the members of their team. This research examines how a newly assigned team leader's status moderates subordinates' reactions to different leadership styles to affect assessments of the leader's self-confidence and effectiveness, and how this impacts team performance. Across 2 experimental studies, results demonstrate that low-status leaders are rated as more effective when they use a directive style, whereas high-status leaders are viewed as more effective when they use a participative style, and this relationship is mediated by perceptions of self-confidence. In addition, teams whose leaders are viewed more favorably perform better on a complex group task. These findings imply that low-status individuals are able to enhance their level of personal power by drawing on whatever positional power they hold, whereas high-status individuals are better off relying solely on their personal power to influence others. This research also provides a clear demonstration that assessments of new leaders' behaviors are subject to an appraisal that is clouded by observers' status perceptions and attributions. PMID:21319878

  5. Quiet eye training: the acquisition, refinement and resilient performance of targeting skills.

    PubMed

    Vine, Samuel J; Moore, Lee J; Wilson, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    How we learn and refine motor skills in the most effective manner and how we prevent performance breakdown in pressurised or demanding circumstances are among the most important questions within the sport psychology and skill acquisition literature. The quiet eye (QE) has emerged as a characteristic of highly skilled perceptual and motor performance in visually guided motor tasks. Defined as the final fixation that occurs prior to a critical movement, over 70 articles have been published in the last 15 years probing the role that the QE plays in underpinning skilled performance. The aim of this review is to integrate research findings from studies examining the QE as a measure of visuomotor control in the specific domain of targeting skills; motor skills requiring an object to be propelled to a distant target. Previous reviews have focused primarily on the differences in QE between highly skilled performers and their less skilled counterparts. The current review aims to discuss contemporary findings relating to 1. The benefits of QE training for the acquisition and refinement of targeting skills; 2. The effects of anxiety upon the QE and subsequent targeting skill performance and 3. The benefits of QE training in supporting resilient performance under elevated anxiety. Finally, potential processes through which QE training proffers this advantage, including improved attentional control, response programming and external focus, will be discussed and directions for future research proposed. PMID:24444212

  6. Establishing and Maintaining High-Performing Leadership Teams: A Primary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Ian; Bush, Tony

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the findings from a study into high-performing leadership teams in English primary schools. The schools, in the sample, received "outstanding" Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) grades overall, and for leadership and management, in their most recent school inspection. The evidence suggests that developing…

  7. The performance environment of the England youth soccer teams: a quantitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Pain, Matthew A; Harwood, Chris G

    2008-09-01

    We examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a conceptually grounded questionnaire developed from the themes identified by Pain and Harwood (2007), 82 players and 23 national coaches and support staff were surveyed directly following international tournaments regarding the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. The survey enabled data to be captured regarding both the extent and magnitude of the impact of the factors comprising the performance environment. Overall, team and social factors were generally perceived to have the greatest positive impact, with players and staff showing high levels of consensus in their evaluations. Team leadership and strong team cohesion were identified by both groups as having the greatest positive impact. Overall, far fewer variables were perceived to have a negative impact on performance, especially for players. The main negatives common to both groups were players losing composure during games, player boredom, and a lack of available activities in the hotel. The major findings support those of Pain and Harwood (2007) and in using a larger sample helped to corroborate and strengthen the generalizability of the findings. PMID:18720205

  8. Establishing and Maintaining High-Performing Leadership Teams: A Primary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Ian; Bush, Tony

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the findings from a study into high-performing leadership teams in English primary schools. The schools, in the sample, received "outstanding" Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) grades overall, and for leadership and management, in their most recent school inspection. The evidence suggests that developing…

  9. A Memory Game to Demonstrate the Power of Collaborative Efforts to Improve Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buche, Mari W.

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration is an important aspect of information systems (IS) education since work is typically performed in teams. However, IS students often do not fully appreciate the value of group work in their business courses. This teaching tip describes an activity that will objectively demonstrate the value of collaboration and diversity of…

  10. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Individual and Team Performance Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Individual and Team Performance Guidelines. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  11. The crossover of psychological distress from leaders to subordinates in teams: The role of abusive supervision, psychological capital, and team performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhui; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Liu-Qin; Liu, Songbo

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the underlying mechanism of the crossover process in work teams. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that a leader's psychological distress positively influences subordinates' psychological distress through abusive supervision. We further hypothesize that team performance attenuates the association between a leader's psychological distress and abusive supervision. In addition, we expect that psychological capital attenuates the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress. Participants were drawn from 86 business teams, and multisource data were collected. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analysis. Results supported the crossover of psychological distress from leader to subordinates, and abusive supervision serves as a mediating mechanism. The positive relationship between a leader's distress and abusive supervision is stronger when team performance is lower. In addition, the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress is stronger when subordinates' psychological capital is lower. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26652269

  12. Brief Report: Suitability of the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) for the Assessment of Social Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, E. W. M.; Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at examining whether the "Social Skills Performance Assessment" (SSPA; Patterson et al. in "Schizophr Res" 48(2-3):351-360, 2001) is a suitable performance-based measure to assess social skills in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). For this purpose, social skills of individuals with ASD and…

  13. Avenger team performance during engagement operations in a chemical environment. Final report, November 1991-February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, J.D.; Lockhart, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    For this report, the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on Avenger weapon system operation were tested in an engagement simulation facility. Two experiments were conducted, each using the Avenger system in a different mode of operation. The same teams participated in each experiment, but team members switched duty positions for the second experiment. The team chief's ability to identify aircraft was significantly impaired by the MOPP gear in both modes of weapon system operation. The reduced field of view (FOV) created by the chemical protective (CP) mask is believed to have caused the MOPP4 performance decrement. The gunner, on the other hand, was not affected by the CP clothing, regardless of mode of weapon system operation. The advanced technology available to the gunner (easily seen displays and aids) seems to overcome the adverse effects of the MOPP gear. Chemical protective (CP) clothing, Avenger, Forward area air defense (FAAD), Range target system (RTS), Mission oriented protective posture (MOPP).

  14. Modeling and Quantification of Team Performance in Human Reliability Analysis for Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. JOe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) are important technical contributors to the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) risk-informed and performance based approach to regulating U.S. commercial nuclear activities. Furthermore, all currently operating commercial NPPs in the U.S. are required by federal regulation to be staffed with crews of operators. Yet, aspects of team performance are underspecified in most HRA methods that are widely used in the nuclear industry. There are a variety of "emergent" team cognition and teamwork errors (e.g., communication errors) that are 1) distinct from individual human errors, and 2) important to understand from a PRA perspective. The lack of robust models or quantification of team performance is an issue that affects the accuracy and validity of HRA methods and models, leading to significant uncertainty in estimating HEPs. This paper describes research that has the objective to model and quantify team dynamics and teamwork within NPP control room crews for risk informed applications, thereby improving the technical basis of HRA, which improves the risk-informed approach the NRC uses to regulate the U.S. commercial nuclear industry.

  15. We're All in This Together Now: Group Performance Feedback to Increase Classroom Team Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E.; Eisenhart, Donald; Kane, Meghan; Schoener, Christine; Turkel, Kimberly; Riley, Megan; Mandell, David S.

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary goal was to evaluate the use of performance feedback procedures delivered to a classroom team to increase daily data collection. Performance feedback (PFB) was delivered to four classroom teams responsible for the daily collection of data representing student performance during prescribed instructional activities. Using a…

  16. Technical match characteristics and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in male elite team handball.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, Per

    2015-02-01

    Modern team handball match-play imposes substantial physical and technical demands on elite players. However, only limited knowledge seems to exist about the specific working requirements in elite team handball. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on male elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry. Based on continuous video recording of individual players during elite team handball match-play (62 tournament games, ?4 players per game), computerized technical match analysis was performed in male elite team handball players along with anthropometric measurements over a 6 season time span. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, tackles, technical errors, and defense errors) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., hard or light tackles, type of shot, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Players showed 36.9 ± 13.1 (group mean ± SD) high-intense technical playing actions per match with a mean total effective playing time of 53.85 ± 5.87 minutes. In offense, each player performed 6.0 ± 5.2 fast breaks, received 34.5 ± 21.3 tackles in total, and performed in defense 3.7 ± 3.5 blockings, 3.9 ± 3.0 claspings, and 5.8 ± 3.6 hard tackles. Wing players (84.5 ± 5.8 kg, 184.9 ± 5.7 cm) were less heavy and smaller (p < 0.001) than backcourt players (94.7 ± 7.1 kg, 191.9 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (99.4 ± 6.2 kg, 194.8 ± 3.6 cm). In conclusion, modern male elite team handball match-play is characterized by a high number of short-term, high-intense intermittent technical playing actions. Indications of technical fatigue were observed. Physical demands differed between playing positions with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations with opponent players than backcourt players and pivots. Body anthropometry seemed to have an important influence on playing performance because it is highly related to playing positions. The present observations suggest that male elite team handball players should implement more position-specific training regimens, while also focusing on anaerobic training and strength training. PMID:24978832

  17. Effects of focus of attention on baseball batting performance in players of differing skill levels.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Brooke; Gray, Rob

    2007-02-01

    This study addressed the question, what should baseball players focus their attention on while batting? Less-skilled and highly skilled (college) baseball players participated in four dual-task conditions in a baseball batting simulation: two that directed attention to skill execution (skill/internal [movement of the hands] and skill/external [movement of the bat]) and two that directed attention to the environment (environmental/irrelevant [auditory tones] and environmental/external [the ball leaving the bat]). Batting performance for highly skilled players was best in the environmental/external condition and worst in the skill/internal condition. Performance of less-skilled batters was significantly better in the two skill conditions than in either of the two environmental conditions. We conclude that the optimal focus of attention for highly skilled batters is one that does not disrupt proceduralized knowledge and permits attention to the perceptual effect of the action, whereas the optimal focus of attention for less-skilled batters is one that allows attention to the step-by-step execution of the swing. PMID:17556776

  18. How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.

    PubMed

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25000359

  19. Simulating a Skilled Typist: A Study of Skilled Cognitive Motor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Norman, Donald A.

    A project studied the problem of control of skilled motor movements by concentrating on typing. The fundamental phenomena of typing, which fall into three categories, were reviewed: timing of key strokes, pattern of errors, and general organization of typing. A model for the simulation of these phenomena was developed, based on an…

  20. Oral Communication Skills in Higher Education: Using a Performance-Based Evaluation Rubric to Assess Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Norah E.; Brooks, Catherine F.; Kubicka-Miller, Tara

    2006-01-01

    This study used "The Competent Speaker", a rubric developed by the National Communication Association (S. P. Morreale, M. R. Moore, K. P. Taylor, D. Surges-Tatum, & R. Hulbert-Johnson, 1993), to evaluate student performance in general education public speaking courses as a case study of student skills and programmatic assessment. Results indicate…

  1. Designing Preclinical Instruction for Psychomotor Skills (I)--Theoretical Foundations of Motor Skill Performance and Their Applications to Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feil, Philip H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A theory of motor skill performance in dentistry is presented, and studies of its use in improving preclinical laboratory instruction are reviewed. The model explains how the mind directs the hand so specific outcomes can be achieved, a theory which can be operationalized in instructional design. (MSE)

  2. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section 1620.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are...

  3. Development of Sensor-Based Measures of Rifle Marksmanship Skill and Performance. CRESST Report 756

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Paul D.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Parks, Daniel; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of rifle marksmanship skill and performance were developed using a prototype instrumented laser-based training system. Measures of performance were derived from laser strikes on a video-projected target. Measures of rifle marksmanship skill--breath control, trigger control, and muzzle wobble--were developed from shooters' breathing and…

  4. Teacher Compliance and Accuracy in State Assessment of Student Motor Skill Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Tina J.; Hicklin, Lori K.; French, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher compliance with state mandated assessment protocols and teacher accuracy in assessing student motor skill performance. Method: Middle school teachers (N = 116) submitted eighth grade student motor skill performance data from 318 physical education classes to a trained monitoring…

  5. The Effects of an Intervention Strategy on Children's Heart Rates and Skill Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignico, Arlene; Corson, Arleen; Vidoni, Carla

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of a fitness infusion instructional strategy (FI) on children's activity levels and skill performance scores. This strategy included aerobic activity within the skill practice tasks and game play. In other words, students performed short bouts of activity between the practice and…

  6. The Effects of an Intervention Strategy on Children's Heart Rates and Skill Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignico, Arlene; Corson, Arleen; Vidoni, Carla

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of a fitness infusion instructional strategy (FI) on children's activity levels and skill performance scores. This strategy included aerobic activity within the skill practice tasks and game play. In other words, students performed short bouts of activity between the practice and…

  7. Advances in Teaching and Assessing Nontechnical Skills.

    PubMed

    Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick

    2015-08-01

    The importance of surgeons' nontechnical skills is gaining widespread recognition as a critical element of high-quality and safe surgical care. This article reviews the knowledge base on training and assessing surgeons, and operating room (OR) teams, in nontechnical aspects of their performance. Nontechnical skills are defined in the context of the OR and key assessment instruments that have been developed to capture these skills are reviewed. Key developments that have taken place in the past decade on formal skills training are discussed, and recommendations to further advance nontechnical skills and team-based training and assessment in surgery are presented. PMID:26210977

  8. Vertical jump performance in Italian male and female national team soccer players.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Carlo; Castellini, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity of vertical jump (VJ) performance variables in elite-standard male and female Italian soccer players. One hundred eighteen national team soccer players (n = 56 men and n = 62 women) were tested for countermovement (CMJ) and squatting jump (SJ) heights. The stretch-shortening cycle efficiency (SSCE) was assessed as percentage of CMJ gain over SJ ([INCREMENT]CMJ-SJ), difference (CMJ-SJ), and ratio (CMJ:SJ). Results showed significant sex difference in SJ and CMJ. Differences in SSCE were mainly in the absolute variables between sexes. Cutoff values for CMJ and SJ using sex as construct were 34.4 and 32.9 cm, respectively. No competitive level differences in VJ performance were detected in the male players. Female national team players showed VJ performance higher than the under 17 counterpart. The results of this study showed that VJ performance could not discriminate between competitive levels in male national team-selected soccer players. However, the use of CMJ and SJ normative data may help strength and conditioning coaches in prescribing lower limb explosive strength training in elite soccer players. In this, variations in VJ performance in the range of approximately 1 cm may be regarded as of interest in tracking noncasual variation in elite-standard soccer players. PMID:22692110

  9. Speeding Up Team Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Amy; Bohmer, Richard; Pisano, Gary

    2001-01-01

    A study of 16 cardiac surgery teams looked at how the teams adapted to new ways of working. The challenge of team management is to implement new processes as quickly as possible. Steps for creating a learning team include selecting a mix of skills and expertise, framing the challenge, and creating an environment of psychological safety. (JOW)

  10. Assessment of Team Leader Effectiveness Within Self-Managed Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gust-Thomason, Suzzanne; Yantis, John T.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study that attempts to assess team leader skills and effectiveness within self-managed teams at the College of the Mainland in Texas. Indicates that communication skills, problem solving, and defining team goals were the skills participants considered most important in a leader. (JDI)

  11. The Columbia-Willamette Skill Builders Consortium. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Community Coll., OR.

    The Columbia-Willamette Skill Builders Consortium was formed in early 1988 in response to a growing awareness of the need for improved workplace literacy training and coordinated service delivery in Northwest Oregon. In June 1990, the consortium received a National Workplace Literacy Program grant to develop and demonstrate such training. The…

  12. Success Skills for Textile Workers. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steck, Susan

    The Success Skills for Textile Workers project was established in November 1994 by Alabama educational institutions and textile manufacturers to provide workplace literacy training for textile workers. This report details project objectives and outcomes through October 31, 1997. Introductory materials describe project components and list…

  13. Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

    A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal…

  14. 49 CFR 240.127 - Criteria for examining skill performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... locomotive engineer in either train or locomotive service to determine whether the person has the skills to... practices; (iii) Train handling practices; and (iv) Compliance with Federal safety rules; (4) Be of... person either (i) Is at the controls of the type of train normally operated on that railroad or...

  15. 49 CFR 240.127 - Criteria for examining skill performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... locomotive engineer in either train or locomotive service to determine whether the person has the skills to... practices; (iii) Train handling practices; and (iv) Compliance with Federal safety rules; (4) Be of... person either (i) Is at the controls of the type of train normally operated on that railroad or...

  16. Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC) during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  17. Effects of Student Skill Level on Knowledge, Decision Making, Skill Execution and Game Performance in a Mini-Volleyball Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…

  18. Effects of Student Skill Level on Knowledge, Decision Making, Skill Execution and Game Performance in a Mini-Volleyball Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…

  19. Team-based learning in the gross anatomy laboratory improves academic performance and students' attitudes toward teamwork.

    PubMed

    Huitt, Tiffany W; Killins, Anita; Brooks, William S

    2015-01-01

    As the healthcare climate shifts toward increased interdisciplinary patient care, it is essential that students become accomplished at group problem solving and develop positive attitudes toward teamwork. Team-based learning (TBL) has become a popular approach to medical education because of its ability to promote active learning, problem-solving skills, communication, and teamwork. However, its documented use in the laboratory setting and physical therapy education is limited. We used TBL as a substitute for one-third of cadaveric dissections in the gross anatomy laboratories at two Doctor of Physical Therapy programs to study its effect on both students' perceptions and academic performance. We surveyed students at the beginning and completion of their anatomy course as well as students who had previously completed a traditional anatomy course to measure the impact of TBL on students' perceptions of teamwork. We found that the inclusion of TBL in the anatomy laboratory improves students' attitudes toward working with peers (P?performance between TBL and non-TBL students revealed that students who participated in TBL scored significantly higher on their first anatomy practical examination and on their head/neck written examination (P?team, a 10.5% increase in the mean rank score for Problem Solver resulted after the completion of the TBL-based anatomy course. Our data indicate that TBL is an effective supplement to cadaveric dissection in the laboratory portion of gross anatomy, improving both students' grades and perceptions of teamwork. PMID:24799448

  20. Distributed teaming on JPL projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, L. E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses structures, actions and technologies that contribute to real team development of a distributed team, and the leadership skills and tools that are used to implement that team development.

  1. How Individual Performance Affects Variability of Peer Evaluations in Classroom Teams: A Distributive Justice Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, H. Kristl; Mishra, Vipanchi; Bing, Mark N.; Frink, Dwight D.

    2014-01-01

    Business school courses often require team projects, both for pedagogical reasons as well as to prepare students for the kinds of team-based activities that are common in organizations these days. However, social loafing is a common problem in teams, and peer evaluations by team members are sometimes used in such team settings to assess…

  2. An intelligent tutoring system for the investigation of high performance skill acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy; Regian, J. Wesley

    1991-01-01

    The issue of training high performance skills is of increasing concern. These skills include tasks such as driving a car, playing the piano, and flying an aircraft. Traditionally, the training of high performance skills has been accomplished through the use of expensive, high-fidelity, 3-D simulators, and/or on-the-job training using the actual equipment. Such an approach to training is quite expensive. The design, implementation, and deployment of an intelligent tutoring system developed for the purpose of studying the effectiveness of skill acquisition using lower-cost, lower-physical-fidelity, 2-D simulation. Preliminary experimental results are quite encouraging, indicating that intelligent tutoring systems are a cost-effective means of training high performance skills.

  3. Information and Strategic Internet Skills of Secondary Students: A Performance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deursen, A. J. A. M.; van Diepen, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the information and strategic Internet skills of Dutch secondary students were measured in a performance test. Participating students were asked to complete assignments on the Internet. The findings reveal that the levels of both information and strategic Internet skills have much room for improvement. Of the variables that…

  4. National Skill Standards for Advanced High Performance Manufacturing. Version 2.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing, Washington, DC.

    This document presents and discusses the national skill standards for advanced high-performance manufacturing that were developed during a project that was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Education. The introduction explains the need for national skill standards. Discussed in the next three sections are the following: benefits of national…

  5. Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

  6. Information and Strategic Internet Skills of Secondary Students: A Performance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deursen, A. J. A. M.; van Diepen, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the information and strategic Internet skills of Dutch secondary students were measured in a performance test. Participating students were asked to complete assignments on the Internet. The findings reveal that the levels of both information and strategic Internet skills have much room for improvement. Of the variables that…

  7. Does Navigation Always Predict Performance? Effects of Navigation on Digital Reading Are Moderated by Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumann, Johannes; Salmerón, Ladislao

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interactive effects of navigation and offline comprehension skill on digital reading performance. As indicators of navigation, relevant page selection and irrelevant page selection were considered. In 533 Spanish high school students aged 11-17 positive effects of offline comprehension skill and relevant page selection on…

  8. The Effects of Teaching Styles on Motor Performance, Self Concept, and Social Skill Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Michael

    The effects of three teaching styles in Mosston's Spectrum of Teaching Styles were examined in terms of the motor skill acquisition and social skill development of 96 randomly selected fifth grade students, who were taught a hockey accuracy task. Performance data were collected prior to, midway through, and following training and were analyzed:…

  9. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the team members. The self-directed team was more motivated to learn their topic than was the manager-directed team, but they struggled with their path in following their vision whereas the manager-directed team kept their focus under the guidance of their manager. Finally, both teams are in fact effective; however specific circumstances may be an important objective when deciding to utilize either a self-directed or manager-directed team.

  10. We're all in this together now: group performance feedback to increase classroom team data collection.

    PubMed

    Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E; Eisenhart, Donald; Kane, Meghan; Schoener, Christine; Turkel, Kimberly; Riley, Megan; Mandell, David S

    2011-08-01

    This study's primary goal was to evaluate the use of performance feedback procedures delivered to a classroom team to increase daily data collection. Performance feedback (PFB) was delivered to four classroom teams responsible for the daily collection of data representing student performance during prescribed instructional activities. Using a multiple-baseline design, the effects of the team performance-feedback were evaluated for the target student, and for generalization to data collection for all classroom students. A secondary question evaluated if student on-task behavior correlated with increased data collection. Finally, social validity was investigated to evaluate team satisfaction with the PFB intervention. The results demonstrate improved data collection across all four classroom teams for the target student in each classroom and generalization within classrooms to all remaining students. Slight increases in student on-task behavior were observed in three of the four classrooms, and teacher satisfaction ratings were high. PMID:21723998

  11. Team Performance Improvement: Mediating Roles of Employee Job Autonomy and Quality of Team Leader-Member Relations in Supportive Organizations in the Korean Business Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the mediating roles of job autonomy and the quality of the leader-member relationship to explain the impact of organizational support on team performance. A total of 228 cases collected from Korean business organizations were used for data analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression, Type 1 SS-based…

  12. Stochastic Dominance and Analysis of ODI Batting Performance: the Indian Cricket Team, 1989-2005

    PubMed Central

    Damodaran, Uday

    2006-01-01

    Relative to other team games, the contribution of individual team members to the overall team performance is more easily quantifiable in cricket. Viewing players as securities and the team as a portfolio, cricket thus lends itself better to the use of analytical methods usually employed in the analysis of securities and portfolios. This paper demonstrates the use of stochastic dominance rules, normally used in investment management, to analyze the One Day International (ODI) batting performance of Indian cricketers. The data used span the years 1989 to 2005. In dealing with cricketing data the existence of ‘not out’ scores poses a problem while processing the data. In this paper, using a Bayesian approach, the ‘not-out’ scores are first replaced with a conditional average. The conditional average that is used represents an estimate of the score that the player would have gone on to score, if the ‘not out’ innings had been completed. The data thus treated are then used in the stochastic dominance analysis. To use stochastic dominance rules we need to characterize the ‘utility’ of a batsman. The first derivative of the utility function, with respect to runs scored, of an ODI batsman can safely be assumed to be positive (more runs scored are preferred to less). However, the second derivative needs not be negative (no diminishing marginal utility for runs scored). This means that we cannot clearly specify whether the value attached to an additional run scored is lesser at higher levels of scores. Because of this, only first-order stochastic dominance is used to analyze the performance of the players under consideration. While this has its limitation (specifically, we cannot arrive at a complete utility value for each batsman), the approach does well in describing player performance. Moreover, the results have intuitive appeal. Key Points The problem of dealing with ‘not out’ scores in cricket is tackled using a Bayesian approach. Stochastic dominance rules are used to characterize the utility of a batsman. Since the marginal utility of runs scored is not diminishing in nature, only first order stochastic dominance rules are used. The results, demonstrated using data for the Indian cricket team are intuitively appealing. The limitation of the approach is that it cannot arrive at a complete utility value for the batsman. PMID:24357944

  13. Does Emotional Intelligence Change during Medical School Gross Anatomy Course? Correlations with Students' Performance and Team Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Michelle A.; Porter, Samuel G.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course…

  14. Does Emotional Intelligence Change during Medical School Gross Anatomy Course? Correlations with Students' Performance and Team Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Michelle A.; Porter, Samuel G.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course…

  15. The Impact of Virtual Collaboration and Collaboration Technologies on Knowledge Transfer and Team Performance in Distributed Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Ngoma Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    Virtual teams are increasingly viewed as a powerful determinant of competitive advantage in geographically distributed organizations. This study was designed to provide insights into the interdependencies between virtual collaboration, collaboration technologies, knowledge transfer, and virtual team performance in an effort to understand whether…

  16. "We've Got Creative Differences": The Effects of Task Conflict and Participative Safety on Team Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Joshua; Hunter, Samuel T.

    2014-01-01

    Although both participative safety and team task conflict are widely thought to be related to team creative performance, the nature of this relationship is still not well understood, and prior studies have frequently yielded conflicting results. This study examines the ambiguity in the extant literature and proposes that "both"…

  17. "We've Got Creative Differences": The Effects of Task Conflict and Participative Safety on Team Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Joshua; Hunter, Samuel T.

    2014-01-01

    Although both participative safety and team task conflict are widely thought to be related to team creative performance, the nature of this relationship is still not well understood, and prior studies have frequently yielded conflicting results. This study examines the ambiguity in the extant literature and proposes that "both"…

  18. The Impact of Virtual Collaboration and Collaboration Technologies on Knowledge Transfer and Team Performance in Distributed Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Ngoma Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    Virtual teams are increasingly viewed as a powerful determinant of competitive advantage in geographically distributed organizations. This study was designed to provide insights into the interdependencies between virtual collaboration, collaboration technologies, knowledge transfer, and virtual team performance in an effort to understand whether…

  19. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Lee J; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Jackman, Sarah R; Erm?dis, Georgios; Kelly, James; Black, Matthew I; Bailey, Stephen J; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that dietary inorganic nitrate (NO?(-)) supplementation may improve muscle efficiency and endurance exercise tolerance but possible effects during team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise have not been examined. We hypothesized that NO?(-) supplementation would enhance high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Fourteen male recreational team-sport players were assigned in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design to consume 490 mL of concentrated, nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) and nitrate-depleted placebo juice (PL) over ~30 h preceding the completion of a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1). Resting plasma nitrite concentration ([NO?(-)]) was ~400% greater in BR compared to PL. Plasma [NO?(-)] declined by 20% in PL (P < 0.05) and by 54 % in BR (P < 0.05) from pre-exercise to end-exercise. Performance in the Yo-Yo IR1 was 4.2% greater (P < 0.05) with BR (1,704 ± 304 m) compared to PL (1,636 ± 288 m). Blood [lactate] was not different between BR and PL, but the mean blood [glucose] was lower (3.8 ± 0.8 vs. 4.2 ± 1.1 mM, P < 0.05) and the rise in plasma [K(+)] tended to be reduced in BR compared to PL (P = 0.08). These findings suggest that NO?(-) supplementation may promote NO production via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and enhance Yo-Yo IR1 test performance, perhaps by facilitating greater muscle glucose uptake or by better maintaining muscle excitability. Dietary NO?(-) supplementation improves performance during intense intermittent exercise and may be a useful ergogenic aid for team sports players. PMID:23370859

  20. Constraints on competitive performance of attacker-defender dyads in team sports.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Luís; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Travassos, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on coordination dynamics of 1 vs. 1 sub-phases in team sports has reported stable emergent patterns of coordination in the displacement trajectories of attackers and defenders. The aim of this study was to use attacker-defender interactions in competitive team match-play to investigate how the locations of the goal and ball constrain the pattern-forming dynamics of attacker-defender dyadic systems. Ten high-level futsal matches were filmed and 13 goal sequences selected for analysis. Displacements of the players and the ball were filmed and digitized from 52 attacker-defender dyadic system interactions. Results showed that, although attackers and defenders exhibited similar angular orientations to the goal, the latter always remained closer to the goal than attackers. Observations revealed that in-phase patterns of coordination emerged from changes to both the distances and angles of attackers and defenders to the goal. Attackers always remained closer to the ball than defenders, while the latter exhibited a lower angle to the ball than attackers. A pattern of in-phase coordination modes emerged between the attackers and defenders' distances and angles to the ball. This study helps us to understand interpersonal interactions in team sports by explaining how attackers and defenders use information about their relative positioning to the goal and the ball to perform successfully. PMID:22260194

  1. Visual and skill effects on soccer passing performance, kinematics, and outcome estimations

    PubMed Central

    Basevitch, Itay; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Land, William M.; Ward, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The role of visual information and action representations in executing a motor task was examined from a mental representations approach. High-skill (n = 20) and low-skill (n = 20) soccer players performed a passing task to two targets at distances of 9.14 and 18.29 m, under three visual conditions: normal, occluded, and distorted vision (i.e., +4.0 corrective lenses, a visual acuity of approximately 6/75) without knowledge of results. Following each pass, participants estimated the relative horizontal distance from the target as the ball crossed the target plane. Kinematic data during each pass were also recorded for the shorter distance. Results revealed that performance on the motor task decreased as a function of visual information and task complexity (i.e., distance from target) regardless of skill level. High-skill players performed significantly better than low-skill players on both the actual passing and estimation tasks, at each target distance and visual condition. In addition, kinematic data indicated that high-skill participants were more consistent and had different kinematic movement patterns than low-skill participants. Findings contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms required for successful performance in a self-paced, discrete and closed motor task. PMID:25784886

  2. Visual and skill effects on soccer passing performance, kinematics, and outcome estimations.

    PubMed

    Basevitch, Itay; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Land, William M; Ward, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The role of visual information and action representations in executing a motor task was examined from a mental representations approach. High-skill (n = 20) and low-skill (n = 20) soccer players performed a passing task to two targets at distances of 9.14 and 18.29 m, under three visual conditions: normal, occluded, and distorted vision (i.e., +4.0 corrective lenses, a visual acuity of approximately 6/75) without knowledge of results. Following each pass, participants estimated the relative horizontal distance from the target as the ball crossed the target plane. Kinematic data during each pass were also recorded for the shorter distance. Results revealed that performance on the motor task decreased as a function of visual information and task complexity (i.e., distance from target) regardless of skill level. High-skill players performed significantly better than low-skill players on both the actual passing and estimation tasks, at each target distance and visual condition. In addition, kinematic data indicated that high-skill participants were more consistent and had different kinematic movement patterns than low-skill participants. Findings contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms required for successful performance in a self-paced, discrete and closed motor task. PMID:25784886

  3. Internet Skills Performance Tests: Are People Ready for eHealth?

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jan A G M

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the amount of online health information, there are several barriers that limit the Internet’s adoption as a source of health information. One of these barriers is highlighted in conceptualizations of the digital divide which include the differential possession of Internet skills, or “eHealth literacy”. Most measures of Internet skills among populations at large use self-assessments. The research discussed here applies a multifaceted definition of Internet skills and uses actual performance tests. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess how ready a sample of the general population is for eHealth. More specifically, four types of Internet skills were measured in a performance test in which subjects had to complete health-related assignments on the Internet. Methods From November 1, 2009, through February 28, 2010, 88 subjects participated in the study. Subjects were randomly selected from a telephone directory. A selective quota sample was used divided over equal subsamples of gender, age, and education. Each subject had to accomplish assignments on the Internet. The Internet skills accounted for were categorized as operational (basic skills to use the Internet), formal (navigation and orientation), information (finding information), and strategic (using the information for personal benefits). The tests took approximately 1.5 hours and were conducted in a University office, making the setting equally new for all. Successful completion and time spent on the assignments—the two main outcomes—were directly measured by the test leader. Results The subjects successfully completed an average of 73% (5.8/8) of the operational Internet skill tasks and an average of 73% (2.9/4) of the formal Internet skill tasks. Of the information Internet skills tasks, an average of 50% (1.5/3) was completed successfully and, of the strategic Internet skills tasks, 35% (0.7/2). Only 28% (25/88) of the subjects were able to successfully complete all operational skills tasks, 39% (34/88) all formal skills tasks, 13% (11/88) all information skills tasks, and 20% (18/88) both the strategic skill tasks. The time spent on the assignments varied substantially. Age and education were the most important contributors to the operational and formal Internet skills. Regarding the formal Internet skills, years of Internet experience also had some influence. Educational level of attainment was the most important contributor to the information and strategic Internet skills. Conclusions Although the amount of online health-related information and services is consistently growing, it appears that the general population lacks the skills to keep up. Most problematic appear to be the lack of information and strategic Internet skills, which, in the context of health, are very important. The lack of these skills is also problematic for members of younger generations, who are often considered skilled Internet users. This primarily seems to account for the operational and formal Internet skills. The results of the study strongly call for policies to increase the level of Internet skills. PMID:21531690

  4. The comparative effect of subjective and objective after-action reviews on team performance on a complex task.

    PubMed

    Villado, Anton J; Arthur, Winfred

    2013-05-01

    The after-action review (AAR; also known as the after-event review or debriefing) is an approach to training based on a review of trainees' performance on recently completed tasks or performance events. Used by the military for decades, nonmilitary organizations' use of AARs has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite the prevalence of AARs, empirical research investigating their effectiveness has been limited. This study sought to investigate the comparative effectiveness of objective AARs (reviews based on an objective recording and playback of trainees' recent performance) and subjective AARs (reviews based on a subjective, memory-based recall of trainees' recent performance). One hundred eighty-eight individuals, participating in 47 4-person teams, were assigned to 1 of 3 AAR conditions and practiced and tested on a cognitively complex performance task. Although there were no significant differences between objective and subjective AAR teams across the 5 training outcomes, AAR teams had higher levels of team performance, team efficacy, openness of communication, and cohesion than did non-AAR teams but no differences in their levels of team declarative knowledge. Our results suggest that AARs are effective at enhancing training outcomes. Furthermore, AARs may not be dependent on objective reviews and therefore may be a viable training intervention when objective reviews are not feasible or possible. PMID:23356248

  5. Validity of specific motor skills in predicting table-tennis performance in novice players.

    PubMed

    Toriola, Abel L; Toriola, Olutoyin M; Igbokwe, Nicholas U

    2004-04-01

    An experiment assessed whether novice table-tennis players' ball-balancing and bouncing skills could predict their performances after a semester of being coached. A pretest-posttest design was used to test this hypothesis with 82 male and 77 female physical education students who initially performed the skills and subsequently participated in a round-robin tournament. Moderate negative but significant (p<.01) Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients were obtained between some of the ball control skills scores and overall ranking in the table-tennis tournament. PMID:15141923

  6. A sense of presence and self-reported performance in international teams.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Gary

    2004-08-01

    Research over the last two decades has explored the relationship between a variety of states of consciousness, performance, and motivation. These have included flow and a sense of presence in face-to-face, online, and virtual environments. This study examined the relationship between presence and flow experienced by 75 male and female participants from several Pacific Rim nations on 4 international teams and their self-reported performance, enjoyment, and motivation associated with team-related tasks. The results indicate that in these task situations, which are relatively novel because of their cultural diversity, self-reported performance correlated more highly with presence (r=.34, df=72, p<.01) than flow (r=.26, df=71, p<.05). Enjoyment and motivation, however, correlated more highly with flow (r =.60, df=71, p<.01 and r=.40, df=71, p<.01, respectively) than presence (r=.26, p<.05 and r=.25, p<.05). These findings suggest the need to explore further the relationship between activity- or task-related states of consciousness, the characteristics of the tasks involved, particularly in terms of their novelty, and the effect on performance and motivation. PMID:15460370

  7. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (?1200–2500?m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude. PMID:24282202

  8. Driving and sustaining culture change in Olympic sport performance teams: a first exploration and grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Andrew; Collins, Dave; Minten, Sue

    2014-02-01

    Stimulated by growing interest in the organizational and performance leadership components of Olympic success, sport psychology researchers have identified performance director-led culture change as a process of particular theoretical and applied significance. To build on initial work in this area and develop practically meaningful understanding, a pragmatic research philosophy and grounded theory methodology were engaged to uncover culture change best practice from the perspective of newly appointed performance directors. Delivered in complex and contested settings, results revealed that the optimal change process consisted of an initial evaluation, planning, and impact phase adjoined to the immediate and enduring management of a multidirectional perception- and power-based social system. As the first inquiry of its kind, these findings provide a foundation for the continued theoretical development of culture change in Olympic sport performance teams and a first model on which applied practice can be based. PMID:24501148

  9. Physiological, physical and on-ice performance criteria for selection of elite ice hockey teams.

    PubMed

    Roczniok, R; Stanula, A; Maszczyk, A; Mostowik, A; Kowalczyk, M; Fidos-Czuba, O; Zając, A

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiological and physical determinants of ice-hockey performance in order to assess their impact on the result during a selection for ice hockey. A total of 42 ice hockey players took part in the selection camp. At the end of the camp 20 best players were selected by team of expert coaches to the ice hockey team and created group G1, while the second group (G2) consisted of not selected players (non-successful group Evaluation of goodness of fit of the model to the data was based on the Hosmer Lemeshow test. Ice hockey players selected to the team were taller 181.95±4.02 cm, had lower% body fat 13.17±3.17%, a shorter time to peak power 2.47±0.35 s, higher relative peak power 21.34±2.41 W·kg(-1) and higher relative total work 305.18±28.41 J·kg(-1). The results of the aerobic capacity test showed significant differences only in case of two variables. Ice hockey players in the G1 had higher VO2max 4.07±0.31 l·min(-1) values than players in the G2 as well as ice hockey players in G1 showed a higher level of relative VO2max 51.75±2.99 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1) than athletes in G2. Ice hockey players selected to the team (G1) performed better in the 30 m Forwards Sprint 4.28±0.31 s; 6x9 Turns 12.19±0.75 s; 6x9 stops 12.79±0.49 s and Endurance test (6x30 m stops) 32.01±0.80 s than players in G2. The logistic regression model showed that the best predictors of success in the recruitment process of top level ice hockey players were time to peak power, relative peak power, VO2max and 30 m sprint forwards on ice. On the basis of the constructed predictive logistic regression model it will be possible to determine the probability of success of the athletes during following the selection processes to the team. PMID:26985133

  10. Physiological, physical and on-ice performance criteria for selection of elite ice hockey teams

    PubMed Central

    Roczniok, R; Stanula, A; Mostowik, A; Kowalczyk, M; Fidos-Czuba, O; Zając, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiological and physical determinants of ice-hockey performance in order to assess their impact on the result during a selection for ice hockey. A total of 42 ice hockey players took part in the selection camp. At the end of the camp 20 best players were selected by team of expert coaches to the ice hockey team and created group G1, while the second group (G2) consisted of not selected players (non-successful group Evaluation of goodness of fit of the model to the data was based on the Hosmer Lemeshow test. Ice hockey players selected to the team were taller 181.95±4.02 cm, had lower% body fat 13.17±3.17%, a shorter time to peak power 2.47±0.35 s, higher relative peak power 21.34±2.41 W·kg−1 and higher relative total work 305.18±28.41 J·kg−1. The results of the aerobic capacity test showed significant differences only in case of two variables. Ice hockey players in the G1 had higher VO2max 4.07±0.31 l·min−1 values than players in the G2 as well as ice hockey players in G1 showed a higher level of relative VO2max 51.75±2.99 ml·min−1·kg−1 than athletes in G2. Ice hockey players selected to the team (G1) performed better in the 30 m Forwards Sprint 4.28±0.31 s; 6x9 Turns 12.19±0.75 s; 6x9 stops 12.79±0.49 s and Endurance test (6x30 m stops) 32.01±0.80 s than players in G2. The logistic regression model showed that the best predictors of success in the recruitment process of top level ice hockey players were time to peak power, relative peak power, VO2max and 30 m sprint forwards on ice. On the basis of the constructed predictive logistic regression model it will be possible to determine the probability of success of the athletes during following the selection processes to the team. PMID:26985133

  11. Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

  12. Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

  13. Tainted visions: the effect of visionary leader behaviors and leader categorization tendencies on the financial performance of ethnically diverse teams.

    PubMed

    Greer, Lindred L; Homan, Astrid C; De Hoogh, Annebel H B; Den Hartog, Deanne N

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of ethnic diversity, findings regarding its effects on team performance remain contradictory. We suggest that past inconsistencies can be reconciled by examining the joint impact of leader behavior and leader categorization tendencies in ethnically diverse teams. We propose that leaders who exhibit high levels of visionary leader behavior and also have the tendency to categorize their team members into in- and out-groups will facilitate a negative effect of ethnic diversity on team communication and financial performance, whereas leaders who exhibit visionary behaviors but do not tend to categorize will lead ethnically diverse teams to positive outcomes. We find support for these ideas in a study of 100 retail outlets. PMID:21942407

  14. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Motor Skills in Relation to Cognition and Academic Performance in Children – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Eero A.

    2013-01-01

    Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies. PMID:23717355

  15. Angular relationships regulate coordination tendencies of performers in attacker-defender dyads in team sports.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Pedro T; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Davids, Keith; Esteves, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the continuous interpersonal interactions of performers in dyadic systems in team sports, as a function of changing information constraints. As a task vehicle, we investigated how attackers attained success in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball by exploring angular relations with immediate opponents and the basket. We hypothesized that angular relations would convey information for the attackers to dribble past defenders. Four basketball players performed as an attacker and defender in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball, in which the co-positioning and orientation of participants relative to the basket was manipulated. After video recording performance behaviors, we digitized participant movement displacement trajectories and categorized trials as successful or unsuccessful (from the attackers' viewpoint). Results revealed that, to successfully dribble past a defender, attackers tended to explore the left hand side of the space by defenders by increasing their angular velocity and decreasing their angular variability, especially in the center of the court. Interpersonal interactions and goal-achievement in attacker-defender dyads appear to have been constrained by the angular relations sustained between participants relative to the scoring target. Results revealed the functionality of exploratory behaviors of participants attempting re-align spatial relations with an opponent in 1v1 sub-phases of team games. PMID:25625811

  16. Clinical performance and skill retention after simulation-based education for nephrology fellows.

    PubMed

    Ahya, Shubhada N; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Tuazon, Jennifer; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B

    2012-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that simulation-based education (SBE) improved temporary hemodialysis catheter (THDC) insertion skills by nephrology fellows. SBE, featuring deliberate practice and rigorous achievement standards, was a powerful method to enhance THDC insertion skills in nephrology fellows. However, experts have called for further research to evaluate skill transfer from the simulated environment to actual clinical care and skill retention. This is a prospective observational cohort study of THDC insertion skills. Twelve nephrology fellows from three academic centers in Chicago were evaluated using a skills checklist from July 2008 to June 2009. Simulator-trained fellows were tested after the SBE intervention and expected to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) set by an expert panel. To assess transfer of skill to clinical care, three simulator-trained fellows were assessed at 6 months on actual patient THDC insertions using the checklist. To assess retention of skill, 11 of 12 simulator-trained fellows were reassessed at 1 year using the checklist and central venous catheter simulator. Outcomes were determined by THDC insertion skill performance. Simulator-trained fellows scored similarly during 6-month THDC insertions on actual patients and immediate posttest (M = 86.2%, SD = 22.3% vs. M = 93.5%, SD = 5.3%, p = 0.32). However, 1 year after SBE, simulated THDC insertion scores were significantly lower than at immediate posttest (M = 73.4%, SD = 22.2% vs. M = 93.5%, SD = 5.3%, p = 0.01). Our results show that nephrology fellows who completed SBE displayed high levels of performance during THDC insertions on actual patients 6 months later. At 1 year, there was statistically significant skills decay. We recommend booster training at 6 months. PMID:22309946

  17. Association Between Neuromuscular Tests and Kumite Performance on The Brazilian Karate National Team

    PubMed Central

    Roschel, Hamilton; Batista, Mauro; Monteiro, Rodrigo; Bertuzzi, Romulo C.; Barroso, Renato; Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Franchini, Emerson

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the relationship of strength and power with performance on an international level karate team during official kumite simulations. Fourteen male black belt karate athletes were submitted to anthropometric data collection and then performed the following tests on two different days: vertical jump test, bench press and squat maximum dynamic strength (1RM) tests. We also tested power production for both exercises at 30 and 60%1RM and performed a kumite match simulation. Blood samples were obtained at rest and immediately after the kumite matches to measure blood lactate concentration. Karate players were separated by performance (winners vs. defeated) on the kumite matches. We found no significant differences between winners and defeated for strength, vertical jump height, anthropometric data and blood lactate concentration. Interestingly, winners were more powerful in the bench press and squat exercises at 30% 1RM. Maximum strength was correlated with absolute (30% 1RM r = 0.92; 60% 1RM r = 0.63) and relative power (30% 1RM r = 0.74; 60% 1RM r = 0.11, p > 0.05) for the bench press exercise. We concluded that international level karate players’ kumite match performance are influenced by higher levels of upper and lower limbs power production. Key Points Muscle power at low workloads seems to be a reasonable predictor of karate performance. There are differences in neuromuscular characteristics between winners and defeated karate players among an international level karate team. Karate players rely more on muscle power, rather than on muscle strength. PMID:24474882

  18. The Performance of Fundamental Gross Motor Skills by Children Enrolled in Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Rebecca J.; Yun, Joonkoo

    2001-01-01

    This study sought to descriptively evaluate the performance of fundamental gross motor skills among Head Start children. Levels of performance were compared and contrasted with performance profiles of the Test of Gross Motor Development. Findings suggest that Head Start curriculum should focus on the importance of developing fundamental gross…

  19. Social density processes regulate the functioning and performance of foraging human teams.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew J; Myatt, Julia P; Fürtbauer, Ines; Oesch, Nathan; Dunbar, Robin I M; Sumner, Seirian; Usherwood, James R; Hailes, Stephen; Brown, M Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Social density processes impact the activity and order of collective behaviours in a variety of biological systems. Much effort has been devoted to understanding how density of people affects collective human motion in the context of pedestrian flows. However, there is a distinct lack of empirical data investigating the effects of social density on human behaviour in cooperative contexts. Here, we examine the functioning and performance of human teams in a central-place foraging arena using high-resolution GPS data. We show that team functioning (level of coordination) is greatest at intermediate social densities, but contrary to our expectations, increased coordination at intermediate densities did not translate into improved collective foraging performance, and foraging accuracy was equivalent across our density treatments. We suggest that this is likely a consequence of foragers relying upon visual channels (local information) to achieve coordination but relying upon auditory channels (global information) to maximise foraging returns. These findings provide new insights for the development of more sophisticated models of human collective behaviour that consider different networks for communication (e.g. visual and vocal) that have the potential to operate simultaneously in cooperative contexts. PMID:26675584

  20. Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured activities are of the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  1. Contracting and chaining to improve the performance of a college golf team: improvement and deterioration.

    PubMed

    Simek, T C; O'Brien, R M; Figlerski, L B

    1994-06-01

    Recent work with operant procedures in sports has shown that feedback, reinforcement, and chaining can be effective techniques in improving performance. In many cases, however, a problem remains in getting the participants to practice the appropriate responses. In the present study, 14 college golfers were put on successive contingency contracts over three weeks to go through the Total Golf chaining-mastery program of Simek and O'Brien. Rewards consisted of activities such as spots on the starting team and the opportunity to play better courses as well as tangible rewards such as new golf balls. After the first two weeks of training, through 19 steps backward from the green, the mean of three posttraining rounds for these 14 golfers was 3.4 strokes lower than the mean of their three rounds at baseline. At this point, the coach did not follow through with the rewards promised in the second contract. Having been placed on extinction, only three of the 14 players followed through on the third contract. In this return to baseline-like condition an average increase of over two strokes for the team as a whole was noted. The number of steps of the chain mastered in practice and the difference between mean scores at baseline and the last measurement period correlated .86, indicating that 74% of the improvement in golf scores was accounted for by performance on the mastery chain. PMID:7936932

  2. Social density processes regulate the functioning and performance of foraging human teams

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrew J.; Myatt, Julia P.; Fürtbauer, Ines; Oesch, Nathan; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Sumner, Seirian; Usherwood, James R.; Hailes, Stephen; Brown, M. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Social density processes impact the activity and order of collective behaviours in a variety of biological systems. Much effort has been devoted to understanding how density of people affects collective human motion in the context of pedestrian flows. However, there is a distinct lack of empirical data investigating the effects of social density on human behaviour in cooperative contexts. Here, we examine the functioning and performance of human teams in a central-place foraging arena using high-resolution GPS data. We show that team functioning (level of coordination) is greatest at intermediate social densities, but contrary to our expectations, increased coordination at intermediate densities did not translate into improved collective foraging performance, and foraging accuracy was equivalent across our density treatments. We suggest that this is likely a consequence of foragers relying upon visual channels (local information) to achieve coordination but relying upon auditory channels (global information) to maximise foraging returns. These findings provide new insights for the development of more sophisticated models of human collective behaviour that consider different networks for communication (e.g. visual and vocal) that have the potential to operate simultaneously in cooperative contexts. PMID:26675584

  3. A study on the effect of varying sequence of lab performance skills on lab performance of high school physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bournia-Petrou, Ethel A.

    The main goal of this investigation was to study how student rank in class, student gender and skill sequence affect high school students' performance on the lab skills involved in a laboratory-based inquiry task in physics. The focus of the investigation was the effect of skill sequence as determined by the particular task. The skills considered were: Hypothesis, Procedure, Planning, Data, Graph, Calculations and Conclusion. Three physics lab tasks based on the simple pendulum concept were administered to 282 Regents physics high school students. The reliability of the designed tasks was high. Student performance was evaluated on individual student written responses and a scoring rubric. The tasks had high discrimination power and were of moderate difficulty (65%). It was found that, student performance was weak on Conclusion (42%), Hypothesis (48%), and Procedure (51%), where the numbers in parentheses represent the mean as a percentage of the maximum possible score. Student performance was strong on Calculations (91%), Data (82%), Graph (74%) and Plan (68%). Out of all seven skills, Procedure had the strongest correlation (.73) with the overall task performance. Correlation analysis revealed some strong relationships among the seven skills which were grouped in two distinct clusters: Hypothesis, Procedure and Plan belong to one, and Data, Graph, Calculations, and Conclusion belong to the other. This distinction may indicate different mental processes at play within each skill cluster. The effect of student rank was not statistically significant according to the MANOVA results due to the large variation of rank levels among the participating schools. The effect of gender was significant on the entire test because of performance differences on Calculations and Graph, where male students performed better than female students. Skill sequence had a significant effect on the skills of Procedure, Plan, Data and Conclusion. Students are rather weak in proposing a sensible, detailed procedure for the inquiry task which involves the "novel" concept. However they perform better on Procedure and Plan, if the "novel" task is not preceded by another, which explicitly offers step-by-step procedure instructions. It was concluded that the format of detailed, structured instructions often adopted by many commercial and school-developed lab books and conventional lab practices, fails to prepare students to propose a successful, detailed procedure when faced with a slightly "novel", lab-based inquiry task. Student performance on Data collection was higher in the tasks that involved the more familiar experimental arrangement than in the tasks using the slightly "novel" equipment. Student performance on Conclusion was better in tasks where they had to collect the Data themselves than in tasks, where all relevant Data information was given to them.

  4. Gross motor skill performance in children with and without visual impairments--research to practice.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Matthias O; Haibach, Pamela S; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an empirical basis for teaching gross motor skills in children with visual impairments. For this purpose, gross motor skill performance of 23, 6-12 year old, boys and girls who are blind (ICD-10 H54.0) and 28 sighted controls with comparable age and gender characteristics was compared on six locomotor and six object control tasks using the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition. Results indicate that children who are blind perform significantly (p<.05) worse in all assessed locomotor and object control skills, whereby running, leaping, kicking and catching are the most affected skills, and corresponding differences are related to most running, leaping, kicking and catching component. Practical implications are provided. PMID:23891733

  5. Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematics Skills

    PubMed Central

    Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematics skills was evaluated. Spatial skill independently predicted a significant amount of the variability in concurrent mathematics performance. Finally, the relationship between spatial assembly skill and socioeconomic status, gender, and parent-reported spatial language was examined. While children's performance did not differ by gender, lower-SES children were already lagging behind higher-SES children in block assembly. Furthermore, lower-SES parents reported using significantly fewer spatial words with their children. PMID:24112041

  6. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Jaime; McLellan, Chris; Minahan, Clare

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration) of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets) repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444) in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN) with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH). Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order) between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La-] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45), set 2 (p = 0.26), or set 3 (p = 0.23) between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01). Measurements of [La-] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02). Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %), post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 %) and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01). In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140) conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed) to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution. Key points The RSR444 is a practical, multiple-set repeated-sprint running protocol designed for team-sport athletes. During performance of the RSR444 in hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140), amateur team-sport athletes were unable to replicate the peak speed, distance covered or acceleration achieved in the final set(s) during sprints in normoxia. A decrease in SpO2 and an increase in [La-] were observed during performance of the RSR444 in hypoxia, compared with normoxia. PMID:26664284

  7. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jaime; McLellan, Chris; Minahan, Clare

    2015-12-01

    The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration) of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets) repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444) in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN) with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH). Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order) between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La(-)] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45), set 2 (p = 0.26), or set 3 (p = 0.23) between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01). Measurements of [La(-)] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02). Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %), post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 %) and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01). In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140) conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed) to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution. Key pointsThe RSR444 is a practical, multiple-set repeated-sprint running protocol designed for team-sport athletes.During performance of the RSR444 in hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140), amateur team-sport athletes were unable to replicate the peak speed, distance covered or acceleration achieved in the final set(s) during sprints in normoxia.A decrease in SpO2 and an increase in [La(-)] were observed during performance of the RSR444 in hypoxia, compared with normoxia. PMID:26664284

  8. Focus of Attention Affects Performance of Motor Skills in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Robert A.; Cash, Carla Davis; Allen, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    To test the extent to which learners performing a simple keyboard passage would be affected by directing their focus of attention to different aspects of their movements, 16 music majors performed a brief keyboard passage under each of four focus conditions arranged in a counterbalanced design--a total of 64 experimental sessions. As they…

  9. Focus of Attention Affects Performance of Motor Skills in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Robert A.; Cash, Carla Davis; Allen, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    To test the extent to which learners performing a simple keyboard passage would be affected by directing their focus of attention to different aspects of their movements, 16 music majors performed a brief keyboard passage under each of four focus conditions arranged in a counterbalanced design--a total of 64 experimental sessions. As they…

  10. Thinking Skills and Work Habits: Contributors to Course Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert L.; Worth, Stephen L.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that base-level critical thinking, attendance, and notetaking differentially predicted performance measures in a large human development course. Multiple regression analyses showed that critical thinking was the strongest indicator of multiple-choice examination performance, while notetaking was the best predictor of total course…

  11. Performance-Based Compensation: Linking Performance to Teacher Salaries. Ask the Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrstock-Sherratt, Ellen; Potemski, Amy

    2013-01-01

    To achieve the goal of attracting and retaining talented professionals in education, performance-based compensation systems (PBCS) must offer salaries that are both fair and sufficiently competitive at each point across an educator's career continuum. Although many states, especially with the support of the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grants,…

  12. Research Performed within the Non-Destructive Evaluation Team at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Erin A.

    2004-01-01

    Non-destructive testing is essential in many fields of manufacturing and research in order to perform reliable examination of potentially damaged materials and parts without destroying the inherent structure of the materials. Thus, the Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Team at NASA Glenn Research Center partakes in various projects to improve materials testing equipment as well as analyze materials, material defects, and material deficiencies. Due to the array of projects within the NDE Team at this time, five research aims were supplemental to some current projects. A literature survey of "DE and testing methodologies as related to rocks was performed. Also, Mars Expedition Rover technology was assessed to understand the requirements for instrumentation in harsh space environments (e.g. temperature). Potential instrumentation and technologies were also considered and documented. The literature survey provided background and potential sources for a proposal to acquire funding for ultrasonic instrumentation on board a future Mars expedition. The laboratory uses a Santec Systems AcousticScope AS200 acoustography system. Labview code was written within the current program in order to improve the current performance of the acoustography system. A sample of Reinforced Carbon/Carbon (RCC) material from the leading edge of the space shuttle underwent various non-destructive tests (guided wave scanning, thermography, computed tomography, real time x-ray, etc.) in order to characterize its structure and examine possible defects. Guided wave scan data of a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel was reanalyzed utilizing image correlations and signal processing variables. Additional guided wave scans and thermography were also performed on the CMC panel. These reevaluated data and images will be used in future presentations and publications. An additional axis for the guided wave scanner was designed, constructed, and implemented. This additional axis allowed incremental spacing of the previously fixed transducers for ultrasonic velocity measurements.

  13. Knowledge, attitude and performance of academic members regarding effective communication skills in education

    PubMed Central

    Sharifirad, Gholam R.; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Jazini, Akram; Etemadi, Zinat S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Communication is the most important part of any educational process, the aim of which is to transfer or exchange ideas and thoughts. It would be provided appropriately if academic members had the communication skills. Considering the important role of academic members in the educational process, in this study, the knowledge, attitude and performance of academic members of School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were investigated with regard to effective communication skills. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive–analytic study, all academic members of the School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were studied during the second academic semester of 2006-2007. The data were collected by a valid and reliable three-part questionnaire including knowledge (8 questions and maximum score of 8), attitude (31 questions and maximum score of 155) and observational communication skills checklist (20 questions and maximum score of 20). The obtained data were analyzed by calculating central indices using SPSS software. Findings: The mean knowledge score of studied people in terms of communicational skills, attitude and performance were 4.1 out of 8, 114.4 out of 155 and 16.3 out of 20, respectively. Conclusion: Although the information of the participants of this study in terms of communication skills was not sufficient, they seemed to have a positive attitude and relatively acceptable performance in communication skills. PMID:23555145

  14. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-04-01

    To determine the physical demands placed on female elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry, female elite TH primarily field players were monitored during match-play using video recording and subsequent computerized technical match analysis during 5 regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Furthermore, anthropometric measurements were performed. Each player had 28.3 ± 11.0 (group means ± SD) high-intense playing actions per match with a total effective playing time of 50.70 ± 5.83 minutes. On average, each player made 2.8 ± 2.6 fast breaks, gave 7.9 ± 14.4 screenings, received 14.6 ± 9.2 tackles in total, and performed 7.7 ± 3.7 shots while in offense, along with 3.5 ± 3.8 blockings, 1.9 ± 2.7 claspings, and 6.2 ± 3.8 hard tackles in defense. Mean body height, body mass, and age in the Danish Premier Female Team Handball League were 175.4 ± 6.1 cm, 69.5 ± 6.5 kg, and 25.4 ± 3.7 years, respectively. Wing players were lighter (63.5 ± 4.8 kg, p < 0.001) and smaller (169.3 ± 4.9 cm, p < 0.001) than backcourt players (BP) (70.6 ± 5.3 kg, 177.0 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (PV) (72.5 ± 4.9 kg, 177.7 ± 4.9 cm). In conclusion, the present match observations revealed that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions remained unchanged in the second half. Marked positional differences in the physical demands were demonstrated, with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations than BP and PV. Body anthropometry differed substantially between different playing positions. Consequently, this should lead to an increase in physical training in modern female elite TH directed at specific positions and individual physical capacity. PMID:25353073

  15. Body Segment Contributions to Sport Skill Performance: Two Contrasting Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Doris I.

    1980-01-01

    Two methods for approaching the problems of body segment contributions to motor performance are joint immobilization with restraint and resultant muscle torque pattern. Although the second approach is preferred, researchers face major challenges when using it. (CJ)

  16. Collective Efficacy Beliefs in Student Work Teams: Relation to Self-Efficacy, Cohesion, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Schmidt, Janet; Schmidt, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A measure of collective efficacy was developed and administered to undergraduates working in project teams in engineering courses. Findings in each of two samples revealed that the measure contained a single factor and was related to ratings of team cohesion and personal efficacy. Collective efficacy was also found to relate to indicators of team…

  17. Project Leader's Dual Socialization and Its Impact on Team Learning and Performance: A Diagnostic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gautam, Tanvi

    2009-01-01

    One of the important challenges for leadership in project teams is the ability to manage the knowledge, communication and coordination related activities of team. In cross-team collaboration, different boundaries contribute to the situated nature of knowledge and hamper the flow of knowledge and prevent shared understanding with those on the other…

  18. Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance

    PubMed Central

    Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilali?, Merim

    2014-01-01

    Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes. PMID:25202292

  19. Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-12-01

    Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies. PMID:25400063

  20. Base Rates of Social Skills Acquisition/Performance Deficits, Strengths, and Problem Behaviors: An Analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…

  1. Have Basic Mathematical Skills Grown Obsolete in the Computer Age: Assessing Basic Mathematical Skills and Forecasting Performance in a Business Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noser, Thomas C.; Tanner, John R.; Shah, Situl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the comprehension of basic mathematical skills of students enrolled in statistics classes at a large regional university, and to determine if the scores earned on a basic math skills test are useful in forecasting student performance in these statistics classes, and to determine if students' basic math…

  2. Improving Virtual Team Collaboration Outcomes through Collaboration Process Structuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittman, Dawn R.; Hawkes, Mark; Deokar, Amit V.; Sarnikar, Surendra

    2010-01-01

    The ability to collaborate in a virtual team is a necessary skill set for today's knowledge workers and students to be effective in their work. Past research indicates that knowledge workers and students need to establish a formal process to perform work, develop clear goals and objectives, and facilitate better communication among team members.…

  3. Improving Virtual Team Collaboration Outcomes through Collaboration Process Structuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittman, Dawn R.; Hawkes, Mark; Deokar, Amit V.; Sarnikar, Surendra

    2010-01-01

    The ability to collaborate in a virtual team is a necessary skill set for today's knowledge workers and students to be effective in their work. Past research indicates that knowledge workers and students need to establish a formal process to perform work, develop clear goals and objectives, and facilitate better communication among team members.…

  4. Association of Hematological Variables with Team-Sport Specific Fitness Performance

    PubMed Central

    Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P.; Hauser, Anna; Steiner, Thomas; Wehrlin, Jon P.; Rysman, Julien; Girard, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated association of hematological variables with specific fitness performance in elite team-sport players. Methods Hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured in 25 elite field hockey players using the optimized (2 min) CO-rebreathing method. Hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), hematocrit and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were analyzed in venous blood. Fitness performance evaluation included a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test (8 x 20 m sprints, 20 s of rest) and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YYIR2). Results Hbmass was largely correlated (r = 0.62, P<0.01) with YYIR2 total distance covered (YYIR2TD) but not with any RSA-derived parameters (r ranging from -0.06 to -0.32; all P>0.05). [Hb] and MCHC displayed moderate correlations with both YYIR2TD (r = 0.44 and 0.41; both P<0.01) and RSA sprint decrement score (r = -0.41 and -0.44; both P<0.05). YYIR2TD correlated with RSA best and total sprint times (r = -0.46, P<0.05 and -0.60, P<0.01; respectively), but not with RSA sprint decrement score (r = -0.19, P>0.05). Conclusion Hbmass is positively correlated with specific aerobic fitness, but not with RSA, in elite team-sport players. Additionally, the negative relationships between YYIR2 and RSA tests performance imply that different hematological mechanisms may be at play. Overall, these results indicate that these two fitness tests should not be used interchangeably as they reflect different hematological mechanisms. PMID:26641647

  5. Students’ performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Mansor, Azura; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Foong, Chan Choong; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare students’ performance in the different clinical skills (CSs) assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Methods Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students’ exit examination (n=185). Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Results Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs), procedural skills (PSs), and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332)=20.253, p<0.001]. Pairwise multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between the means of the eight pairs of CSs assessed, at p<0.05. Conclusions CRSs appeared to be the weakest while PSs were the strongest, among the six CSs assessed. Students’ unsatisfactory performance in CRS needs to be addressed as CRS is one of the core competencies in medical education and a critical skill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students’ clinical reasoning development. PMID:25697602

  6. Impact of a Peer-Tutoring Course on Skill Performance, Assessment, and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulling, Andy R.; Allen, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the completion of a peer-teaching course impacted pre-service teachers ability to perform, teach, and assess motor skills. Central Michigan University (CMU) implemented a required course for physical education teacher education majors in which enrollees were evaluated on how well they performed…

  7. Expert Performance in SCRABBLE: Implications for the Study of the Structure and Acquisition of Complex Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuffiash, Michael; Roring, Roy W.; Ericsson, K. Anders

    2007-01-01

    Applied psychologists have long been interested in examining expert performance in complex cognitive domains. In the present article, we report the results from a study of expert cognitive skill in which elements from two historically distinct research paradigms are incorporated--the individual differences tradition and the expert-performance…

  8. Computer-Based Study Skills Training: The Role of Technology in Improving Performance and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinatelli, M.; Dube, M. A.; Jovanovic, R.

    2003-01-01

    Randomly assigned first-year chemical engineering students to a treatment group using R.E.S.U.L.T.S. [copyright] study skills software and a comparison group. Examined pre-university and first-term academic performance, student goals, use of time, self assessments, and feedback. Although improvements in post-treatment performance were observed,…

  9. To Think or Not to Think: The Apparent Paradox of Expert Skill in Music Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geeves, Andrew; McIlwain, Doris J. F.; Sutton, John; Christensen, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Expert skill in music performance involves an apparent paradox. On stage, expert musicians are required accurately to retrieve information that has been encoded over hours of practice. Yet they must also remain open to the demands of the ever-changing situational contingencies with which they are faced during performance. To further explore this…

  10. To Think or Not to Think: The Apparent Paradox of Expert Skill in Music Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geeves, Andrew; McIlwain, Doris J. F.; Sutton, John; Christensen, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Expert skill in music performance involves an apparent paradox. On stage, expert musicians are required accurately to retrieve information that has been encoded over hours of practice. Yet they must also remain open to the demands of the ever-changing situational contingencies with which they are faced during performance. To further explore this…

  11. The Impact of Performance Skills on Students' Attitudes towards the Learning Experience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hains-Wesson, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    One way to assist in transforming a lecture experience into an occasion that can attract and engage students is via the use of performance techniques. Investigating the impact of certain types of performance skills on students' attitudes towards the learning experience can help better understand the relevance of such techniques in face to face and…

  12. The Prediction of Long-Term Academic Performance after the Completion of a Study Skills Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robyak, James E.; Downey, Ronald G.

    1979-01-01

    A follow-up of participants completing a study skills course showed after one year no differences in attrition rates and significant increases in academic performance. Factors predictive of GPA varied over time. Results suggest that factors related to academic performance change as a function of demands of a university environment. (Author)

  13. Mental practice promotes motor anticipation: evidence from skilled music performance

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Nicolò F.; De Buglio, Matteo; Trimarchi, Pietro D.; Chielli, Alfonso; Bricolo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Mental practice (MP) has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP). Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of MP to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed. PMID:23970859

  14. What Is Team Science? - Team Science Toolkit

    Cancer.gov

    Team science is a collaborative effort to address a scientific challenge that leverages the strengths and expertise of professionals trained in different fields. Although traditional single-investigator driven approaches are ideal for many scientific endeavors, coordinated teams of investigators with diverse skills and knowledge may be especially helpful for studies of complex social problems with multiple causes.

  15. Empowerment, span of control, and safety performance in work teams after workforce reduction.

    PubMed

    Hechanova-Alampay, R; Beehr, T A

    2001-10-01

    Relationships of empowerment and span of control with 2 safety measures (unsafe behaviors and accidents) were investigated among 24 workgroups comprising 531 employees of a large chemical company in 3 U.S. states. The company recently implemented a reengineering process. Data were from an anonymous survey (unsafe behaviors), company records (accidents, span of control), and trained expert raters (empowerment). Span of control (positively) and level of empowerment (negatively) correlated with both measures of poor safety performance, but only empowerment predicted unique variance in safety criteria. Together, these structural measures predicted one third of the variance in safety measures. Structural variables such as span of control and team empowerment have been largely overlooked in past safety research but can be important. PMID:11605822

  16. Aerobic conditioning for team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Stone, Nicholas M; Kilding, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    Team sport athletes require a high level of aerobic fitness in order to generate and maintain power output during repeated high-intensity efforts and to recover. Research to date suggests that these components can be increased by regularly performing aerobic conditioning. Traditional aerobic conditioning, with minimal changes of direction and no skill component, has been demonstrated to effectively increase aerobic function within a 4- to 10-week period in team sport players. More importantly, traditional aerobic conditioning methods have been shown to increase team sport performance substantially. Many team sports require the upkeep of both aerobic fitness and sport-specific skills during a lengthy competitive season. Classic team sport trainings have been shown to evoke marginal increases/decreases in aerobic fitness. In recent years, aerobic conditioning methods have been designed to allow adequate intensities to be achieved to induce improvements in aerobic fitness whilst incorporating movement-specific and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games and dribbling circuits. Such 'sport-specific' conditioning methods have been demonstrated to promote increases in aerobic fitness, though careful consideration of player skill levels, current fitness, player numbers, field dimensions, game rules and availability of player encouragement is required. Whilst different conditioning methods appear equivalent in their ability to improve fitness, whether sport-specific conditioning is superior to other methods at improving actual game performance statistics requires further research. PMID:19769413

  17. Comparison of Simulation-Based Performance with Metrics of Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fero, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative approaches to evaluating critical thinking skills are needed, as pencil and paper assessments may not accurately predict simulated or actual clinical performance. To ensure patient safety, it is imperative to determine how to best promote and measure critical thinking skills. Few studies have examined how these skills are related to…

  18. Validation of a Self-Efficacy Instrument and Its Relationship to Performance of Crisis Resource Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Jennifer L.; van Schaik, Sandrijn M.; Sliwka, Diane C.; Boscardin, Christy K.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.

    2011-01-01

    Self-efficacy is thought to be important for resuscitation proficiency in that it influences the development of and access to the associated medical knowledge, procedural skills and crisis resource management (CRM) skills. Since performance assessment of CRM skills is challenging, self-efficacy is often used as a measure of competence in this…

  19. WRF Performance Skills in Predicting Rainfall Over the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, G. J. P.; Combinido, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used for predicting rainfall over the Philippines. The period of October 2013 to May 2014 is chosen for the evaluation because of the unprecedented number of new ground instruments (300 to 500 automated rain gauges). It also gives us a good statistical representation of wet and dry seasons in the country. The WRF model configuration makes use of NCEP FNL for the initial boundary condition. Hindcasts are produced at 12-km resolution with 12 hours up to 144 hours lead-time. To assess the predictability of rainfall, we look at the dichotomous case, wherein we evaluate if the model is able to predict correctly the number of rainfall events. The left column in Figure 1 shows the monthly Percent Correct and Critical Success Index (CSI) for different lead-time. Percent Correct represents how well the model performs, 1 being the highest score, with equal bearing on correct positives and correct negatives. On the other hand, CSI is a balanced score that accounts for false alarm and missed events - it has a range of 0 to 1, where 1 means perfect forecast. Results show that during the wet season (October, November and December), PC is approximately 0.7 while in dry season (January, February and March), PC reaches values of around 0.9, which suggests improvement in the performance from wet to dry season. The increase in performance is attributed to the increase in number of correct negatives during the dry season. The CSI score, which excludes the correct negatives, shows that the ability of WRF to predict rainfall events drastically decline in December or during the transition from wet to dry season. This is due to the inability of WRF to pinpoint exact locations of small convective rainfall events. The predictability of actual rainfall values is indicated by the Mean Absolute Errors (MAE) and Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) in Figure 1. The MAE for 3-hour accumulated rainfall is smallest during the dry season.

  20. Previous-day hypohydration impairs skill performance in elite female field hockey players.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, H; Sunderland, C

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 2% hypohydration on skill performance in elite female field hockey players following intermittent exercise in the heat. Eight elite female field hockey players performed 50 min of a field hockey-specific intermittent treadmill running protocol (FHITP) in hot environmental conditions (33 °C, 60% relative humidity) in different hydration states: euhydrated (EUH) and hypohydrated by 2% body mass (HYPO). Hydration status was manipulated via a period (121±10 min) of passive hyperthermia (40 °C, 75% relative humidity) and controlled fluid intake 1 day preceding testing. Ad libitum fluid intake was permitted throughout both trials. Field hockey skill tests were performed pre- and post-FHITP. Skill performance time increased (P=0.029) in the HYPO trial compared with the EUH trial, which may be attributed to an increase in penalty time (P=0.024). Decision-making time increased (P=0.008) in the HYPO trial and was significantly impaired compared with EUH (P=0.016) pre-FHITP. Ad libitum drinking appeared to be sufficient to maintain decision-making performance as no interaction effects were evident post-FHITP. Players who commence match-play in a state of hypohydration may be susceptible to decrements in skill and decision-making performance. PMID:20973829

  1. Aerobic, anaerobic, and skill performance with regard to classification in wheelchair rugby athletes.

    PubMed

    Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Molik, Bartosz; Yilla, Abu B; Laskin, James J

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the sport-specific performance of wheelchair rugby players with regard to their classification. A group of 30 male athletes from the Polish Wheelchair Rugby League participated in the study. The seven International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classes were collapsed into four groups. Standardized measures of aerobic, anaerobic, and skill performance were examined to identify performance differences among the four groups. Major findings were that most differences were between Group I players and all others and that anaerobic performance was the most sensitive to classification differences. Another important finding was that for all other groups, with one exception, adjacent groups did not differ in anaerobic, aerobic, and sport-specific skill performance. The results of this study demonstrate the need to investigate other performance measures that will help in evaluating the current wheelchair rugby classification system. PMID:21462686

  2. The effect of teamwork training on team performance and clinical outcome in elective orthopaedic surgery: a controlled interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Lauren; Hadi, Mohammed; Pickering, Sharon; Robertson, Eleanor; Griffin, Damian; Collins, Gary; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Catchpole, Ken; McCulloch, Peter; New, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of aviation-style teamwork training in improving operating theatre team performance and clinical outcomes. Setting 3 operating theatres in a UK district general hospital, 1 acting as a control group and the other 2 as the intervention group. Participants 72 operations (37 intervention, 35 control) were observed in full by 2 trained observers during two 3-month observation periods, before and after the intervention period. Interventions A 1-day teamwork training course for all staff, followed by 6?weeks of weekly in-service coaching to embed learning. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured team non-technical skills using Oxford NOTECHS II, (evaluating the whole team and the surgical, anaesthetic and nursing subteams, and evaluated technical performance using the Glitch count. We evaluated compliance with the WHO checklist by recording whether time-out (T/O) and sign-out (S/O) were attempted, and whether T/O was fully complied with. We recorded complications, re-admissions and duration of hospital stay using hospital administrative data. We compared the before–after change in the intervention and control groups using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression modelling. Results Mean NOTECHS II score increased significantly from 71.6 to 75.4 in the active group but remained static in the control group (p=0.047). Among staff subgroups, the nursing score increased significantly (p=0.006), but the anaesthetic and surgical scores did not. The attempt rate for WHO T/O procedures increased significantly in both active and control groups, but full compliance with T/O improved only in the active group (p=0.003). Mean glitch rate was unchanged in the control group but increased significantly (7.2–10.2/h, p=0.002) in the active group. Conclusions Teamwork training was associated with improved non-technical skills in theatre teams but also with a rise in operative glitches. PMID:25897025

  3. MTF Database: A Repository of Students' Academic Performance Measurements for the Development of Techniques for Evaluating Team Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Chin-Min; Zheng, Xiang-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The Measurements for Team Functioning (MTF) database contains a series of student academic performance measurements obtained at a national university in Taiwan. The measurements are acquired from unit tests and homework tests performed during a core mechanical engineering course, and provide an objective means of assessing the functioning of…

  4. It Is Not Only Mentoring: The Combined Influences of Individual-Level and Team-Level Support on Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, I. J. Hetty

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to follow social exchange theory and group social capital theory, to predict positive relationships between (informal) mentoring and various support resources for two types of performance (i.e. perceptions of individual and team performance). Design/methodology/approach: The associations of individual-level mentoring and…

  5. MTF Database: A Repository of Students' Academic Performance Measurements for the Development of Techniques for Evaluating Team Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Chin-Min; Zheng, Xiang-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The Measurements for Team Functioning (MTF) database contains a series of student academic performance measurements obtained at a national university in Taiwan. The measurements are acquired from unit tests and homework tests performed during a core mechanical engineering course, and provide an objective means of assessing the functioning of…

  6. It Is Not Only Mentoring: The Combined Influences of Individual-Level and Team-Level Support on Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, I. J. Hetty

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to follow social exchange theory and group social capital theory, to predict positive relationships between (informal) mentoring and various support resources for two types of performance (i.e. perceptions of individual and team performance). Design/methodology/approach: The associations of individual-level mentoring and…

  7. Motor Skill Performance of School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, S.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Hartman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was…

  8. Motor Skill Performance of School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, S.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Hartman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was…

  9. Learning to tie well with others: bimanual versus intermanual performance of a highly practised skill.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jamie C; Crites, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate that novices are faster in manual tasks when performing with a partner ('intermanual') than with their own two hands ('bimanual'). The generality of this 'mode effect' was examined using a highly practised bimanual task, shoe tying, at which participants were experts. Speed-variability correlations confirmed participants were bimanually skilled but not intermanually skilled. Contrary to results using novices, intermanual was slower, such that prior skill reverses the effect. Analyses incorporating the similarity of shoe-tying strategies across dyads implicated a perceptual rather than shared knowledge/representation basis for intermanual performance. Practice effects indicated that intermanual performance built upon prior bimanual skill, such that novel relative timings between dyads' hands must be acquired. Motor transfer effects provided support for this conclusion. During shoe tying, hands were tightly coupled in the intermanual mode due to the perceptual coupling constraints of intermanual performance. Increased coupling was correlated with slower performance. Implications for real-world tasks (e.g. surgical knot tying) are described. PMID:25536870

  10. Performance-based measures of functional skills: usefulness in clinical treatment studies.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip D; Velligan, Dawn I; Bellack, Alan S

    2007-09-01

    Recently, attention to the assessment and treatment of functional disability has increased notably. It is widely understood that impairments in everyday living skills, including independent living skills, social functions, vocational functioning, and self-care, are present in people with schizophrenia. It has also become clear recently that assessment of these skills can pose substantial challenges. These challenges include selection of meaningful short-term outcome measures and avoiding bias and reduced validity in the data. Self-report, direct observation, and informant reports of everyday disability all have certain advantages but appear to be inferior to direct assessment of skills with performance-based measures. This review outlines the issues associated with the assessment of functional skills and everyday functioning and provides a description of the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches. We conclude that direct assessment of functional capacity has substantial advantages over other measures and may actually provide a more direct and valid estimate of functional disability than performance on the more distal neuropsychological assessment measures. PMID:17493956

  11. Team Research at the Biology–Mathematics Interface: Project Management Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Radunskaya, Ami E.; Lee, Arthur H.; de Pillis, Lisette G.; Bartlett, Diana F.

    2010-01-01

    The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics background and an experimentally oriented biology student. The team mentors typically ranked the students' performance very good to excellent over a range of attributes that included creativity and ability to conduct independent research. However, the research teams experienced problems meeting prespecified deadlines due to poor time and project management skills. Because time and project management skills can be readily taught and moreover typically reflect good research practices, simple modifications should be made to undergraduate curricula so that the promise of initiatives, such as MATH-BIO 2010, can be implemented. PMID:20810964

  12. Team research at the biology-mathematics interface: project management perspectives.

    PubMed

    Milton, John G; Radunskaya, Ami E; Lee, Arthur H; de Pillis, Lisette G; Bartlett, Diana F

    2010-01-01

    The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics background and an experimentally oriented biology student. The team mentors typically ranked the students' performance very good to excellent over a range of attributes that included creativity and ability to conduct independent research. However, the research teams experienced problems meeting prespecified deadlines due to poor time and project management skills. Because time and project management skills can be readily taught and moreover typically reflect good research practices, simple modifications should be made to undergraduate curricula so that the promise of initiatives, such as MATH-BIO 2010, can be implemented. PMID:20810964

  13. Trauma team.

    PubMed

    Tiel Groenestege-Kreb, D; van Maarseveen, O; Leenen, L

    2014-08-01

    The introduction of trauma teams has improved patient outcome independently. The aim of establishing a trauma team is to ensure the early mobilization and involvement of more experienced medical staff and thereby to improve patient outcome. The team approach allows for distribution of the several tasks in assessment and resuscitation of the patient in a 'horizontal approach', which may lead to a reduction in time from injury to critical interventions and thus have a direct bearing on the patient's ultimate outcome. A trauma team leader or supervisor, who coordinates the resuscitation and ensures adherence to guidelines, should lead the trauma team. There is a major national and international variety in trauma team composition, however crucial are a surgeon, an Emergency Medicine physician or both and anaesthetist. Advanced Trauma Life Support training, simulation-based training, and video review have all improved patient outcome and trauma team performance. Developments in the radiology, such as the use of computed tomography scanning in the emergency room and the endovascular treatment of bleeding foci, have changed treatment algorithms in selected patients. These developments and new insights in shock management may have a future impact on patient management and trauma team composition. PMID:24980423

  14. Sleep spindle and slow wave frequency reflect motor skill performance in primary school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Astill, Rebecca G.; Piantoni, Giovanni; Raymann, Roy J. E. M.; Vis, Jose C.; Coppens, Joris E.; Walker, Matthew P.; Stickgold, Robert; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The role of sleep in the enhancement of motor skills has been studied extensively in adults. We aimed to determine involvement of sleep and characteristics of spindles and slow waves in a motor skill in children. Hypothesis: We hypothesized sleep-dependence of skill enhancement and an association of interindividual differences in skill and sleep characteristics. Methods: 30 children (19 females, 10.7 ± 0.8 years of age; mean ± SD) performed finger sequence tapping tasks in a repeated-measures design spanning 4 days including 1 polysomnography (PSG) night. Initial and delayed performance were assessed over 12 h of wake; 12 h with sleep; and 24 h with wake and sleep. For the 12 h with sleep, children were assigned to one of three conditions: modulation of slow waves and spindles was attempted using acoustic perturbation, and compared to yoked and no-sound control conditions. Analyses: Mixed effect regression models evaluated the association of sleep, its macrostructure and spindles and slow wave parameters with initial and delayed speed and accuracy. Results and Conclusions: Children enhance their accuracy only over an interval with sleep. Unlike previously reported in adults, children enhance their speed independent of sleep, a capacity that may to be lost in adulthood. Individual differences in the dominant frequency of spindles and slow waves were predictive for performance: children performed better if they had less slow spindles, more fast spindles and faster slow waves. On the other hand, overnight enhancement of accuracy was most pronounced in children with more slow spindles and slower slow waves, i.e., the ones with an initial lower performance. Associations of spindle and slow wave characteristics with initial performance may confound interpretation of their involvement in overnight enhancement. Slower frequencies of characteristic sleep events may mark slower learning and immaturity of networks involved in motor skills. PMID:25426055

  15. Predictors of Performance on the Mathematics Test of the Pre-Professional Skills Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Deborah G.; Duke, John Richard

    This study assessed whether there was any relationship between scores on the mathematics section of the Pre-Professional Skills Tests (PPST) and selected possible predictors of performance for 118 students at Harding University in Searcy (Arkansas) who took the PPST between January 1, and October 1, 1989. Focus was on providing information that…

  16. Motor Skill Performance of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Hartman, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews studies on variables that are related to the motor skill performance of children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI). Three major groups of variables are considered (child, environmental, and task). Thirty-nine studies are included in this review, 26 of which examined the effects of child, environmental, and/or task…

  17. Measuring Primary Students' Graph Interpretation Skills via a Performance Assessment: A Case Study in Instrument Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, Karen; Cranston, Kayla A.; Pryor, Marie; Kermish-Allen, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This case study was conducted within the context of a place-based education project that was implemented with primary school students in the USA. The authors and participating teachers created a performance assessment of standards-aligned tasks to examine 6-10-year-old students' graph interpretation skills as part of an exploratory research…

  18. The Effect of Classroom Performance Assessment on EFL Students' Basic and Inferential Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Koumy, Abdel Salam Abdel Khalek

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of classroom performance assessment on the EFL students' basic and inferential reading skills. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was employed in the study. The subjects of the study consisted of 64 first-year secondary school students in Menouf Secondary School for Boys at Menoufya…

  19. Impact of a Peer-Tutoring Course on Skill Performance, Assessment, and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulling, Andy R.; Allen, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the completion of a peer-teaching course impacted pre-service teachers ability to perform, teach, and assess motor skills. Central Michigan University (CMU) implemented a required course for physical education teacher education majors in which enrollees were evaluated on how well they performed…

  20. Skills for Successful 21st Century School Leaders: Standards for Peak Performers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, John R.; English, Fenwick W.; Steffy, Betty E.

    This guide presents a description of the standards and related skills school leaders must master and apply. Since every school leader needs a well-defined philosophy to make decisions, the guide emphasizes philosophical, performance, and ethical dimensions of school leadership. The book's 10 chapters address such issues as visionary leadership,…

  1. Transferring the Soft-Skills Technology of Workplace Learning and Performance to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jenny; Rothwell, William J.; Webster, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Discusses international business and workplace learning and performance (WLP), and describes a long-term strategic alliance between Motorola University China, Penn State University, Beijing University, and Nankai University. Highlights include a needs assessment of multinational corporations in China; transferring the soft-skills technology of WLP…

  2. Measuring Primary Students' Graph Interpretation Skills via a Performance Assessment: A Case Study in Instrument Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, Karen; Cranston, Kayla A.; Pryor, Marie; Kermish-Allen, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This case study was conducted within the context of a place-based education project that was implemented with primary school students in the USA. The authors and participating teachers created a performance assessment of standards-aligned tasks to examine 6-10-year-old students' graph interpretation skills as part of an exploratory research…

  3. How Pre-Service Teachers' Understand and Perform Science Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding and performance on science process skills. A sample comprised 91 elementary pre-service teachers at a university in the Midwest of the USA. Participants were enrolled in two science education courses; introductory science teaching methods course and advanced science methods course.…

  4. Motor Skill Performance and Sports Participation in Deaf Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…

  5. Investigating the Effects of Group Practice Performed Using Psychodrama Techniques on Adolescents' Conflict Resolution Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of group practice which is performed using psychodrama techniques on adolescents' conflict resolution skills. The subjects, for this study, were selected among the high school students who have high aggression levels and low problem solving levels attending Haci Zekiye Arslan High School, in Nigde.…

  6. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests E Appendix E to Part 240 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Pt. 240, App. E Appendix E to Part 240—Recommended Procedures for Conducting...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests E Appendix E to Part 240 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Pt. 240, App. E Appendix E to Part 240—Recommended Procedures for Conducting...

  8. Effects of Two Instructional Approaches on Skill Development, Knowledge, and Game Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hawkins, Andrew; Wiegand, Robert; Metzler, Jonathan N.

    2008-01-01

    Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 x…

  9. Monitoring Children's Growth in Early Literacy Skills: Effects of Feedback on Performance and Classroom Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Carrie; Gettinger, Maribeth

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the benefits of providing kindergarten teachers with feedback about students' performance on early literacy progress-monitoring probes. Students were administered the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)" in fall, winter, and spring; classroom environment was evaluated using the "Early Language and…

  10. Computer Technology and Academic Skill Training for Improving Disabled Students' Academic Performance: Applications and Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severs, Mary K.

    The Educational Center for Disabled Students at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln is designed to improve the academic performance and attitudes toward success of disabled students through computer technology and academic skills training. Adaptive equipment interventions take into account keyboard access and screen and voice output. Non-adaptive…

  11. Effects of Two Instructional Approaches on Skill Development, Knowledge, and Game Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hawkins, Andrew; Wiegand, Robert; Metzler, Jonathan N.

    2008-01-01

    Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 x…

  12. The Attention Skills and Academic Performance of Aggressive/Rejected and Low Aggressive/Popular Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…

  13. Motor Skill Performance of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Hartman, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews studies on variables that are related to the motor skill performance of children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI). Three major groups of variables are considered (child, environmental, and task). Thirty-nine studies are included in this review, 26 of which examined the effects of child, environmental, and/or task…

  14. Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

  15. Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

  16. 49 CFR 240.211 - Procedures for making the determination on performance skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on performance skills. 240.211 Section 240.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Implementation of...

  17. Final Evaluation Report. SAELP Interagengy Collaborative Governance Project. Creating a Culture that Supports High Performing Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, representatives of the New Jersey Department of Education, the New Jersey School Boards Association, and the New Jersey Association of School Administrators, conceived a joint venture aimed at assisting board of education teams, including their superintendents, to function better as cohesive teams and foster improved academic achievement…

  18. Physical Fitness Attributes of Team-Handball Players are Related to Playing Position and Performance Level

    PubMed Central

    Massuca, Luis; Branco, Braulio; Miarka, Bianca; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Investigations have reported differences amongst player position groups in elite team-Handball (HB) players. Nevertheless, studies with normative physical fitness data of the HB playing positions at more than two different levels of male HB players have not been reported yet. Objectives: This study aimed: 1) to describe and compare the physical fitness (PF) attributes of male HB players in different playing positions, and 2) to determine which combination of PF measures best discriminate the performance level groups in each one of the individual HB playing position groups. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty-one male HB players participated in this study. The participants were divided into five playing position groups: 1) Goalkeeper (GK, n = 24), 2) Wing (W, n = 48), 3) Back left/right (BLR, n = 38), 4) Back center (BC, n = 29), 5) Pivot (Pi, n = 22), complementarily, performance level was recorded for each participant according to the national HB association, i.e. 1) Top Elite, 2) Moderate Elite, 3) Sub-Elite or, 4) Moderately Trained. Stature and body mass measures were taken from each HB player, and six fitness tests were performed (30 -m sprint, handgrip, vertical jumps-SJ and CMJ, sit-ups, and Yo-Yo IE2). Results: Significant differences were observed between HB playing position groups in body size, speed, and lower limb power and handgrip strength. Nevertheless, 1) the performance in Yo-Yo IE2 was the best measure to discriminate the performance level groups when considering the HB goalkeeper group, HB center back group, and HB pivot group; 2) the average leg power (in squat jump) and the number of executions in sit up test successfully discriminated HB wing performance level groups; and, 3) Stature, countermovement jump height and the position in the Yo-Yo IE2, successfully discriminated HB left/right back performance level groups. Conclusions: It can be concluded that HB players profile, 1) differs according to HB playing position group, and, 2) for the same playing position group, it differs according to HB performance level. This study also demonstrated the influence of aerobic capacity for HB excellence, and according to playing positions. PMID:25883775

  19. Hand-Eye Dominance and Depth Perception Effects in Performance on a Basic Laparoscopic Skills Set

    PubMed Central

    Suleman, Rabiya; Yang, Tong; Paige, John; Chauvin, Sheila; Alleyn, Jaime; Brewer, Martha; Johnson, Stephen I.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Our study determined whether depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance affect an individual's ability to perform laparoscopic skills. Methods: The study cohort comprised 104 third-year medical students from LSU School of Medicine who completed a questionnaire including information on handedness and were tested for eye dominance and depth perception by using standardized methods. Training sessions involved an initial recorded performance, a 20-minute practice session, followed by a final recorded performance. Recorded sessions were randomized and rated by using a visual analog scale (maximal possible score = 16) based on overall performance (OPS) and depth perception (DPS). A general linear model was used to correlate depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance with assessment scores for OPS and DPS. Results: Students with depth perception defects scored significantly lower on their initial performance than did those with normal depth perception (OPS, 4.80 vs. 7.16, P=0.0008; DPS, 5.25 vs. 6.93, P=0.0195). After training, the depth perception defect group continued to have lower scores compared with the normal depth perception group. However, the 2 groups showed similar increases in pre- to posttraining performance scores (OPS, 3.84 vs. 3.18, P=0.0732). Hand-eye dominance did not significantly affect scores. Conclusions: Depth perception defects appear to compromise an individual's ability to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Individuals with defects can improve their skills by a proportion comparable to that of people with uncompromised depth perception. Differences in hand-eye dominance do not correlate with performance differences in basic laparoscopic skills. Although further research is necessary, the findings indicate that training can be tailored for individuals with depth perception defects to improve laparoscopic performance. PMID:20529525

  20. The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

    PubMed Central

    GHAZIVAKILI, ZOHRE; NOROUZI NIA, ROOHANGIZ; PANAHI, FARIDE; KARIMI, MEHRDAD; GHOLSORKHI, HAYEDE; AHMADI, ZARRIN

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Our findings indicated the significant difference of mean score in four learning style, suggesting university students with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students’ performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (p<0.05). Furthermore, evaluation skills and deductive reasoning had significant relationship. On the other hand, the mean total score of critical thinking had significant difference between different learning styles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the learning styles, critical thinking and academic performance are significantly associated with one another. Considering the growing importance of critical thinking in enhancing the professional competence of individuals, it's recommended to use teaching methods consistent with the learning style because it would be more effective in this context. PMID:25512928

  1. Transfer of piano practice in fast performance of skilled finger movements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transfer of learning facilitates the efficient mastery of various skills without practicing all possible sensory-motor repertoires. The present study assessed whether motor practice at a submaximal speed, which is typical in sports and music performance, results in an increase in a maximum speed of finger movements of trained and untrained skills. Results Piano practice of sequential finger movements at a submaximal speed over days progressively increased the maximum speed of trained movements. This increased maximum speed of finger movements was maintained two months after the practice. The learning transferred within the hand to some extent, but not across the hands. Conclusions The present study confirmed facilitation of fast finger movements following a piano practice at a submaximal speed. In addition, the findings indicated the intra-manual transfer effects of piano practice on the maximum speed of skilled finger movements. PMID:24175946

  2. Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Haibach, Pamela S; Wagner, Matthias O; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills. PMID:25014271

  3. The Discipline of Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzenbach, Jon R.; Smith, Douglas K.

    1993-01-01

    Teams share commitment, translate purpose into performance goals, and have members be accountable with and to their teammates. Types of teams are those that recommend, make or do things, and run things. The distinction between teams and other working groups is performance: an effective team is worth more than the sum of its parts. (SK)

  4. Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context.

    PubMed

    Cools, Wouter; De Martelaer, Kristine; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline

    2011-04-01

    Evidence suggests the development of fundamental movement skill (FMS) is a key factor in promoting long-term physical activity. Low levels of activity among preschool children and the relationship between physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills underline the need to determine the factors associated with children's development of such skills. As parents play an important role in the socialization process, the aim of this study was to examine correlates of family and neighbourhood characteristics as well as parental behaviour and beliefs on FMS performance in 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. Relationships between preschool children's FMS performance and family contextual variables were examined within a sample of 846 preschool children. Results identified positive associations of FMS performance with parental education, father's physical activity, transport to school by bicycle, and the high value placed by parents high on sport-specific aspects of children's physical activity. Variables negatively associated with preschool children's FMS performance included father-child interaction in TV-viewing and reading books, the high importance placed by parents on winning and performance in children's physical activity. Furthermore, the ambiguity of associations between FMS performance and parental beliefs underlined its complexity. PMID:21424981

  5. Bringing evidence to practice: a team approach to teaching skills required for an informationist role in evidence-based clinical and public health practice*†

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Kathleen Burr; Dalrymple, Prudence; Lehmann, Harold P.; McClellan, Deborah Ann; Robinson, Karen A.; Twose, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were (1) to develop an academic, graduate-level course designed for information professionals seeking to bring evidence to clinical medicine and public health practice and to address, in the course approach, the “real-world” time constraints of these domains and (2) to further specify and realize identified elements of the “informationist” concept. Setting: The course took place at the Division of Health Sciences Informatics, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University. Participants: A multidisciplinary faculty, selected for their expertise in the course core competencies, and three students, two post-graduate National Library of Medicine (NLM) informationist fellows and one NLM second-year associate, participated in the research. Intervention: A 1.5-credit, graduate-level course, “Informationist Seminar: Bringing the Evidence to Practice,” was offered in October to December 2006. In this team-taught course, a series of lectures by course faculty and panel discussions involving outside experts were combined with in-class discussion, homework exercises, and a major project that involved choosing and answering, in both oral and written form, a real-world question based on a case scenario in clinical or public health practice. Conclusion: This course represents an approach that could be replicated in other academic health centers with similar pools of expertise. Ongoing journal clubs that reiterate the question-and-answer process with new questions derived from clinical and public health practice and incorporate peer review and faculty mentoring would reinforce the skills acquired in the seminar. PMID:18219381

  6. Nurses' Perceptions of Role, Team Performance, and Education Regarding Resuscitation in the Adult Medical-Surgical Patient.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Sharon C; DeSanto-Madeya, Susan; Fealy, Natalie; Saba, Christine R; Smith, Stacey; McHugh, Allison T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' perception of their roles, team performance, and educational needs during resuscitation using an electronic survey. Findings provide direction for clinical practice, nursing education, and future research to improve resuscitation care. PMID:26665866

  7. When Goal Orientations Collide: Effects of Learning and Performance Orientation on Team Adaptability in Response to Workload Imbalance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christopher O. L. H.; Webb, Justin W.; Gogus, Celile Itir

    2010-01-01

    The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results…

  8. Does emotional intelligence change during medical school gross anatomy course? Correlations with students' performance and team cohesion.

    PubMed

    Holman, Michelle A; Porter, Samuel G; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-03-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT). Individual EI scores were then compared with composite course performance grade and team cohesion survey results. Mean pre-course EI score was 140.3 out of a possible 160. During the course, mean individual EI scores did not change significantly (P = 0.17) and no correlation between EI scores and academic performance was noted (P = 0.31). In addition, EI did not correlate with team cohesion (P = 0.16). While business has found significant utility for EI in increasing performance and productivity, its role in medical education is still uncertain. Anat Sci Educ 9: 143-149. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26062161

  9. On angry leaders and agreeable followers. How leaders' emotions and followers' personalities shape motivation and team performance.

    PubMed

    Van Kleef, Gerben A; Homan, Astrid C; Beersma, Bianca; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2010-12-01

    Do followers perform better when their leader expresses anger or when their leader expresses happiness? We propose that this depends on the follower's level of agreeableness. Anger is associated with hostility and conflict-states that are at odds with agreeable individuals' goals. Happiness facilitates affiliation and positive relations-states that are in line with agreeable individuals' goals. Accordingly, the two studies we conducted showed that agreeableness moderates the effects of a leader's emotional displays. In a scenario study, participants with lower levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to an angry leader, whereas participants with higher levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to a neutral leader. In an experiment involving four-person teams, teams composed of participants with lower average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed anger, whereas teams composed of participants with higher average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed happiness. Team performance was mediated by experienced workload, which was highest among agreeable followers with an angry leader. Besides having important practical implications, the findings shed new light on the fundamental question of how emotional expressions regulate social behavior. PMID:20974710

  10. Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    "Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…

  11. Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    "Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…

  12. Inclusion and Student Learning: A Quantitative Comparison of Special and General Education Student Performance Using Team and Solo-Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to determine whether there were significant statistical differences between the performance scores of special education and general education students' scores when in team or solo-teaching environments as may occur in inclusively taught classrooms. The investigated problem occurs because despite education's stated…

  13. Two tests of approach-iron golf skill and their ability to predict tournament performance.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sam; Burnett, Angus F; Gupta, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the convergent and predictive validity of two skill tests that examine the ability of golfers to hit accurate approach-iron shots. Twenty-four high-level golfers (handicap = 2.6 ± 1.7) performed the Nine-Ball Skills Test (assesses the ability to shape/control ball trajectory with high accuracy) and the Approach-Iron Skill Test (assesses the ability to hit straight shots from varying distances with high accuracy). Participants then completed at least eight rounds of tournament golf over the following 90 days and reported an indicator of approach-iron accuracy (per cent error index). A moderate correlation (r = 0.50, P < 0.05) was noted between scores for both tests. Generalised estimating equations, using two covariates (lie of the ball and distance to hole), were used to determine model fit and the amount of variance explained for tournament per cent error index. Results showed that the Approach-Iron Skill Test was the slightly stronger predictor of on-course per cent error index. With both test scores considered together, a minimal amount of additional variance was explained. These findings suggest that either of the tests used individually or combined may be used to predict tournament approach iron performance in high-level golfers. PMID:24702161

  14. Position statement—altitude training for improving team-sport players’ performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-01-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213

  15. Position statement--altitude training for improving team-sport players' performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues.

    PubMed

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-12-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213

  16. The Effect of Student Self-Video of Performance on Clinical Skill Competency: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies and student information technology literacy are enabling new methods of teaching and learning for clinical skill performance. Facilitating experiential practice and reflection on performance through student self-video, and exposure to peer benchmarks, may promote greater levels of skill competency. This study examines the…

  17. Political Skill as Neutralizer of Felt Accountability-Job Tension Effects on Job Performance Ratings: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Ferris, Gerald R.; Gavin, Mark B.; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Hall, Angela T.; Frink, Dwight D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of felt accountability, political skill, and job tension on job performance ratings. Specifically, we hypothesized that felt accountability would lead to higher (lower) job performance ratings when coupled with high (low) levels of political skill, and that these relationships would be mediated by job tension. Data…

  18. The Effect of Student Self-Video of Performance on Clinical Skill Competency: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies and student information technology literacy are enabling new methods of teaching and learning for clinical skill performance. Facilitating experiential practice and reflection on performance through student self-video, and exposure to peer benchmarks, may promote greater levels of skill competency. This study examines the…

  19. The assessment of laboratory performance skills in grade 9 science via individuals and pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Alfred William

    This research study focused on the development and administration of a laboratory investigation task involving ninth grade students currently studying Earth Science. Students were required to Plan and Perform the investigation based on concepts of Chemical Weathering. Science inquiry skills associated with Planning, Data Collection, Graphing, and Reasoning were evaluated using an analytical scoring rubric. Students completed a Survey Instrument, which provided contextual information about their prior laboratory experiences, and preferences about working individually versus pairs while completing science experiments. The sample was composed of 446 students from five schools in Western New York. Students completed the laboratory investigation individually and in pairs. One hundred and fifty students completed the task individually, and 296 students assigned to 148 pairs completed the task. T-tests and ANOVA's were used to evaluate achievement differences between individuals and pairs; by gender and individual ability for the individual sub-sample; and by the gender and ability composition for the pairs' sub-sample respectively. Mean scores for the Likert type Survey instrument provided contextual data about students' prior laboratory experiences. Factor analysis generally supported the theoretical model used to design the investigation. The results indicated there were significant differences in achievement between individuals and pairs in Graphing and Reasoning skills. Females outperformed males on the Total task, Data Collection, Graphing and Reasoning categories of skills. High ability students outperformed medium and low ability students on the Total Task, Planning, Graphing and Reasoning categories of skills. The composition of pairs by ability indicated significant differences in achievement on the Total Task, Planning and Reasoning skills. There were significant differences in achievement by female/female versus male/male and male/female pairs on the Total Task, Data Collection, Graphing and Reasoning skills.

  20. Developing Expert Teams with a Strong Safety Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Would you like to lead a world renowned team that draws out all the talents and expertise of its members and consistently out performs all others in the industry? Ever wonder why so many organizations fail to truly learn from past mistakes only to repeat the same ones at a later date? Are you a program/project manager or team member in a high-risk organization where the decisions made often carry the highest of consequences? Leadership, communication, team building, critical decision-making and continuous team improvement skills and behaviors are mere talking points without the attitudes, commitment and strategies necessary to make them the very fabric of a team. Developing Expert Teams with a Strong Safety Culture, will provide you with proven knowledge and strategies to take your team soaring to heights you may have not thought possible. A myriad of teams have applied these strategies and techniques within their organization team environments: military and commercial aviation, astronaut flight crews, Shuttle flight controllers, members of the Space Shuttle Program Mission Management Team, air traffic controllers, nuclear power control teams, surgical teams, and the fire service report having spectacular success. Many industry leaders are beginning to realize that although the circumstances and environments of these teams may differ greatly to their own, the core elements, governing principles and dynamics involved in managing and building a stellar safety conscious team remain identical.

  1. Virtuoso teams.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bill; Boynton, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Managing a traditional team seems pretty straightforward: Gather up whoever's available, give them time and space to do their jobs, and make sure they all play nicely together. But these teams produce results that are often as unremarkable as the teams themselves. When big change and high performance are required, a virtuoso team is far more likely to deliver outstanding and innovative results. Virtuoso teams are fundamentally different from the garden-variety work groups that most organizations form to pursue more modest goals. They comprise the top experts in their particular fields, are specially convened for ambitious projects, work with frenetic rhythm, and emanate a discernible energy. Not surprisingly, however, the superstars who make up these teams are renowned for being elitist, temperamental, egocentric, and difficult to work with. As a result, many managers fear that if they force such people to interact on a high-stakes project, the group just might implode. In this article, Bill Fischer and Andy Boynton put the inner workings of highly successful virtuoso teams on full display through three examples: the creative group behind West Side Story, the team of writers for Sid Caesar's 1950s-era television hit Your Show of Shows, and the high-powered technologists who averted an investor-relations crisis for Norsk Hydro, the Norwegian energy giant. Each of these teams accomplished enormous goals and changed their businesses, their customers, even their industries. And they did so by breaking all the conventional rules of collaboration--from the way they recruited the best members to the way they enforced their unusual processes, and from the high expectations they held to the exceptional results they produced. PMID:16028822

  2. Improving the Performance of Social Workers during Multi-Disciplinary Team Case Reviews of Delinquent Adolescents through Public Posting and Verbal Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Vincent J.

    This practicum was implemented to improve the rehabilitation planning skills of social workers in a juvenile correctional facility. The goal was to increase social workers' discussion of all relevant rehabilitation planning data during multi-disciplinary team meetings (Case Review Committee). A related objective was the overall improvement of…

  3. Motor Skill Assessment of Children: Is There an Association between Performance-Based, Child-Report, and Parent-Report Measures of Children's Motor Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Johanna; Brown, Ted; Chien, Chi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Client-centered practice requires therapists to actively seek the perspectives of children and families. Several assessment tools are available to facilitate this process. However, when evaluating motor skill performance, therapists typically concentrate on performance-based assessment. To improve understanding of the information provided by the…

  4. The effects of form training on foul-shooting performance in members of a women's college basketball team.

    PubMed

    Kladopoulos, C N; McComas, J J

    2001-01-01

    The effects of instruction and feedback in proper form on foul-shooting performance was evaluated in 3 players of a women's NCAA Division II college basketball team. Players showed an increase in percentage of shots made and in correct form compared to baseline shooting without instruction or feedback. All players reached criterion within seven training sessions. The results suggest that training proper form is an effective strategy for improving foul-shooting performance. PMID:11678527

  5. Attention and time constraints in perceptual-motor learning and performance: instruction, analogy, and skill level.

    PubMed

    Koedijker, Johan M; Poolton, Jamie M; Maxwell, Jonathan P; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Beek, Peter J; Masters, Rich S W

    2011-06-01

    We sought to gain more insight into the effects of attention focus and time constraints on skill learning and performance in novices and experts by means of two complementary experiments using a table tennis paradigm. Experiment 1 showed that skill-focus conditions and slowed ball frequency disrupted the accuracy of experts, but dual-task conditions and speeded ball frequency did not. For novices, only speeded ball frequency disrupted accuracy. In Experiment 2, we extended these findings by instructing novices either explicitly or by analogy (implicit motor learning technique). Explicitly instructed novices were less accurate in skill-focused and dual-task conditions than in single-task conditions. Following analogy instruction novices were less accurate in the skill-focused condition, but maintained accuracy under dual-task conditions. Participants in both conditions retained accuracy when ball frequency was slowed, but lost accuracy when ball frequency was speeded, suggesting that not attention, but motor dexterity, was inadequate under high temporal constraints. PMID:20850990

  6. Medical students as EMTs: skill building, confidence and professional formation

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Thomas; Rennie, William; Fornari, Alice; Akbar, Salaahuddin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The first course of the medical curriculum at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, From the Person to the Professional: Challenges, Privileges and Responsibilities, provides an innovative early clinical immersion. The course content specific to the Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) curriculum was developed using the New York State Emergency Medical Technician curriculum. Students gain early legitimate clinical experience and practice clinical skills as team members in the pre-hospital environment. We hypothesized this novel curriculum would increase students’ confidence in their ability to perform patient care skills and enhance students’ comfort with team-building skills early in their training. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from first-year medical students (n=97) through a survey developed to assess students’ confidence in patient care and team-building skills. The survey was completed prior to medical school, during the final week of the course, and at the end of their first year. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare self-ratings on 12 patient care and 12 team-building skills before and after the course, and a theme analysis was conducted to examine open-ended responses. Results Following the course, student confidence in patient care skills showed a significant increase from baseline (p<0.05) for all identified skills. Student confidence in team-building skills showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in 4 of the 12 identified skills. By the end of the first year, 84% of the first-year students reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their patient care skills, while 72% reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their team-building skills. Conclusions The incorporation of EMT training early in a medical school curriculum provides students with meaningful clinical experiences that increase their self-reported level of confidence in the performance of patient care skills early in their medical education. PMID:25056855

  7. Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landon, Lauren Blackwell; Vessey, William B.; Barrett, Jamie D.

    2015-01-01

    A team is defined as: "two or more individuals who interact socially and adaptively, have shared or common goals, and hold meaningful task interdependences; it is hierarchically structured and has a limited life span; in it expertise and roles are distributed; and it is embedded within an organization/environmental context that influences and is influenced by ongoing processes and performance outcomes" (Salas, Stagl, Burke, & Goodwin, 2007, p. 189). From the NASA perspective, a team is commonly understood to be a collection of individuals that is assigned to support and achieve a particular mission. Thus, depending on context, this definition can encompass both the spaceflight crew and the individuals and teams in the larger multi-team system who are assigned to support that crew during a mission. The Team Risk outcomes of interest are predominantly performance related, with a secondary emphasis on long-term health; this is somewhat unique in the NASA HRP in that most Risk areas are medically related and primarily focused on long-term health consequences. In many operational environments (e.g., aviation), performance is assessed as the avoidance of errors. However, the research on performance errors is ambiguous. It implies that actions may be dichotomized into "correct" or "incorrect" responses, where incorrect responses or errors are always undesirable. Researchers have argued that this dichotomy is a harmful oversimplification, and it would be more productive to focus on the variability of human performance and how organizations can manage that variability (Hollnagel, Woods, & Leveson, 2006) (Category III1). Two problems occur when focusing on performance errors: 1) the errors are infrequent and, therefore, difficult to observe and record; and 2) the errors do not directly correspond to failure. Research reveals that humans are fairly adept at correcting or compensating for performance errors before such errors result in recognizable or recordable failures. Astronauts are notably adept high performers. Most failures are recorded only when multiple, small errors occur and humans are unable to recognize and correct or compensate for these errors in time to prevent a failure (Dismukes, Berman, Loukopoulos, 2007) (Category III). More commonly, observers record variability in levels of performance. Some teams commit no observable errors but fail to achieve performance objectives or perform only adequately, while other teams commit some errors but perform spectacularly. Successful performance, therefore, cannot be viewed as simply the absence of errors or the avoidance of failure Johnson Space Center (JSC) Joint Leadership Team, 2008). While failure is commonly attributed to making a major error, focusing solely on the elimination of error(s) does not significantly reduce the risk of failure. Failure may also occur when performance is simply insufficient or an effort is incapable of adjusting sufficiently to a contextual change (e.g., changing levels of autonomy).

  8. Relationships between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players. Fifty-eight high-performance rugby league players underwent measurements for anthropometry (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and estimated maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. National Rugby League matches were coded for attacking (e.g. line breaks, try assists, etc.) and defensive (e.g. missed tackles, tackling efficiency, etc.) statistics commonly used to assess rugby league playing performance. The number of line break assists was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with greater playing experience (r = 0.36), dual-task draw and pass proficiency (r = 0.54), reactive agility (r = 0.29), and pattern recall (r = 0.32) and prediction (r = 0.28) ability, while faster speed over 40 m (r = -0.42) was associated (P < 0.05) with a higher number of tries scored. Greater age and playing experience, better lower body muscular power, and faster 10 m and 40 m speed were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the number of tackle attempts (positive), tackles completed (positive), and proportion of missed tackles (negative). These findings demonstrate that well-developed physical and skill qualities are associated with effective playing performance in National Rugby League players. PMID:22092276

  9. Collective-efficacy as a mediator of the relationship of leaders' personality traits and team performance: A cross-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoshan; Zhou, Mingjie; Zhao, Na; Zhang, Shanshan; Zhang, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between a leader's personality and his team's performance has been established in organisational research, but the underlying process and mechanism responsible for this effect have not been fully explored. Both the traditional multiple linear regression and the multilevel structural equation model approaches were used in this study to test a proposed mediating model of subordinates' perception of collective efficacy between leader personality and team performance. The results show that the team leader's extraversion and conscientiousness personality traits were related positively to both the team-average (individual) perception of collective efficacy and team performance, and the collective efficacy mediated the relationship of the leader's personality traits and team performance. This study also discusses how Chinese cultural elements play a role in such a mediating model. PMID:25124191

  10. Dawn Orbit Determination Team: Trajectory and Gravity Prediction Performance During Vesta Science Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Brian; Abrahamson, Matt; Ardito, Alessandro; Han, Dongsuk; Haw, Robert; Mastrodemos, Nicholas; Nandi, Sumita; Park, Ryan; Rush, Brian; Vaughan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Dawn spacecraft was launched on September 27th, 2007. Its mission is to consecutively rendezvous with and observe the two largest bodies in the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres. It has already completed over a year's worth of direct observations of Vesta (spanning from early 2011 through late 2012) and is currently on a cruise trajectory to Ceres, where it will begin scientific observations in mid-2015. Achieving this data collection required careful planning and execution from all spacecraft teams. Dawn's Orbit Determination (OD) team was tasked with accurately predicting the trajectory of the Dawn spacecraft during the Vesta science phases, and also determining the parameters of Vesta to support future science orbit design. The future orbits included the upcoming science phase orbits as well as the transfer orbits between science phases. In all, five science phases were executed at Vesta, and this paper will describe some of the OD team contributions to the planning and execution of those phases.

  11. Skills core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Laura

    Constantly changing technology and increasing competition mean that private companies are aggressively seeking new employees with high levels of technological literacy, good judgment, and communication and team-building skills. Industry also needs workers educated in science, math, engineering, and technology. But which of these skills are most important? Researchers at Indian River Community College at Fort Pierce, Fla., will attempt to answer that question with an NSF grant of nearly $1 million.

  12. Toy Story: Illustrating Gender Differences in a Motor Skills Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Mendoza, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    To challenge students' stereotypes about gendered performance on motor skills tasks, we developed a classroom active learning demonstration. Four 3-person, same-gender teams received either a Barbie(r) doll or a Transformer(r), and team members dressed the Barbie or manipulated the Transformer from a tank to a robot as quickly as possible, with…

  13. Toy Story: Illustrating Gender Differences in a Motor Skills Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Mendoza, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    To challenge students' stereotypes about gendered performance on motor skills tasks, we developed a classroom active learning demonstration. Four 3-person, same-gender teams received either a Barbie(r) doll or a Transformer(r), and team members dressed the Barbie or manipulated the Transformer from a tank to a robot as quickly as possible, with…

  14. The Scientific Impact of Nations: Journal Placement and Citation Performance - Team Science Toolkit

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content at the National Institutes of Health www.cancer.gov Home About Team Science About the Toolkit Discover Contribute Connect News & Events About Us Links URL Download Pub Med DOI Scopus The Scientific Impact of Nations: Journal

  15. Using Agile Project Management to Enhance the Performance of Instructional Design Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, David S.; Cifuentes, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Instructional design models describe in detail methodologies for designing effective instruction. Several widely adopted models include suggestions for managing instructional design projects. However, these suggestions focus on how to manage the instructional design steps rather than the instructional design and development team process. The…

  16. Using Agile Project Management to Enhance the Performance of Instructional Design Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, David S.; Cifuentes, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Instructional design models describe in detail methodologies for designing effective instruction. Several widely adopted models include suggestions for managing instructional design projects. However, these suggestions focus on how to manage the instructional design steps rather than the instructional design and development team process. The…

  17. The Link between Self-Managed Work Teams and Learning Organisations Using Performance Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Joe; Waddell, Di

    2004-01-01

    Both the learning organization literature and the self-managed work team literature have alluded to the potential links between teamwork and learning. However, as yet the link between these two concepts remains undeveloped. This study uses a survey of a random sample of 200 Australian organizations to empirically examine the relationships between…

  18. Distributed Leadership in Action: Leading High-Performing Leadership Teams in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Heroic models of leadership based on the role of the principal have been supplemented by an emerging recognition of the value of "distributed leadership". The work of effective senior leadership teams (SLTs) is an important manifestation of distributed leadership, but there has been only limited research addressing the relationship between this…

  19. Performer: An Instrument for Multidisciplinary Courseware Teams to Share Knowledge and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aalst, Jan-Willem; van der Mast, Charles

    2003-01-01

    One of the traditional problems in courseware development that is recognized as hard to solve, is the communication and co-operation between various disciplines in project teams that are working on a courseware product [Alber (1996) "Multimedia: a management perspective." California: Wadsworth; Boyle (1997) "Design for multimedia learning." UK:…

  20. Understanding the assembly of interdisciplinary teams and its impact on performance

    PubMed Central

    Lungeanu, Alina; Huang, Yun; Contractor, Noshir S.

    2013-01-01

    Interdisciplinary teams are assembled in scientific research and are aimed at solving complex problems. Given their increasing importance, it is not surprising that considerable attention has been focused on processes of collaboration in interdisciplinary teams. Despite such efforts, we know less about the factors affecting the assembly of such teams in the first place. In this paper, we investigate the structure and the success of interdisciplinary scientific research teams. We examine the assembly factors using a sample of 1,103 grant proposals submitted to two National Science Foundation interdisciplinary initiatives during a 3-year period, including both awarded and non-awarded proposals. The results indicate that individuals’ likelihood of collaboration on a proposal is higher among those with longer tenure, lower institutional tier, lower H-index, and with higher levels of prior co-authorship and citation relationships. However, successful proposals have a little bit different relational patterns: individuals’ likelihood of collaboration is higher among those with lower institutional tier, lower H-index, (female) gender, higher levels of prior co-authorship, but with lower levels of prior citation relationships. PMID:24470806

  1. Evaluating the Impact and Determinants of Student Team Performance: Using LMS and CATME Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braender, Lynn M.; Naples, Michele I.

    2013-01-01

    Practitioners find it difficult to allocate grades to individual students based on their contributions to the team project. They often use classroom observation of teamwork and student peer evaluations to differentiate an individual's grade from the group's grade, which can be subjective and imprecise. We used objective data from student…

  2. Performer: An Instrument for Multidisciplinary Courseware Teams to Share Knowledge and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aalst, Jan-Willem; van der Mast, Charles

    2003-01-01

    One of the traditional problems in courseware development that is recognized as hard to solve, is the communication and co-operation between various disciplines in project teams that are working on a courseware product [Alber (1996) "Multimedia: a management perspective." California: Wadsworth; Boyle (1997) "Design for multimedia learning." UK:…

  3. Evaluating the Impact and Determinants of Student Team Performance: Using LMS and CATME Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braender, Lynn M.; Naples, Michele I.

    2013-01-01

    Practitioners find it difficult to allocate grades to individual students based on their contributions to the team project. They often use classroom observation of teamwork and student peer evaluations to differentiate an individual's grade from the group's grade, which can be subjective and imprecise. We used objective data from student…

  4. Multidisciplinary mental health teams.

    PubMed

    Slade, M; Rosen, A; Shankar, R

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed current practice amongst 91 Indian and Australian staff working within multidisciplinary mental health teams, looking at leadership skills, conflict resolution and therapeutic abilities. Length of training was associated with management skills, though these skill were more developed by psychiatric nurses and occupational therapists working in community settings. Hospital settings involved less consensual decision-making than community teams. Psychiatric nurses spent most time in clinical work, and occupational therapists were rated as less skilled in the therapeutic activities assessed than any other profession. Psychiatrists and clinical psychologists undertook most research. The activities assessed in this study could be undertaken by a team comprising psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses and social workers, with clinical psychologists employed where possible, especially for research or service evaluation. PMID:8847199

  5. Polyphasic Temporal Behavior of Finger-Tapping Performance: A Measure of Motor Skills and Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Leyla; Kiziltan, Erhan; Gundogan, Nimet Unay

    2016-01-01

    Successive voluntary motor movement involves a number of physiological mechanisms and may reflect motor skill development and neuromuscular fatigue. In this study, the temporal behavior of finger tapping was investigated in relation to motor skills and fatigue by using a long-term computer-based test. The finger-tapping performances of 29 healthy male volunteers were analyzed using linear and nonlinear regression models established for inter-tapping interval. The results suggest that finger-tapping performance exhibits a polyphasic nature, and has several characteristic time points, which may be directly related to muscle dynamics and energy consumption. In conclusion, we believe that future studies evaluating the polyphasic nature of the maximal voluntary movement will lead to the definition of objective scales that can be used in the follow up of some neuromuscular diseases, as well as, the determination of motor skills, individual ability, and peripheral fatigue through the use of a low cost, easy-to-use computer-based finger-tapping test. PMID:25988674

  6. Electro-encephalogram based brain-computer interface: improved performance by mental practice and concentration skills.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Babak; Erfanian, Abbas

    2006-11-01

    Mental imagination is the essential part of the most EEG-based communication systems. Thus, the quality of mental rehearsal, the degree of imagined effort, and mind controllability should have a major effect on the performance of electro-encephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI). It is now well established that mental practice using motor imagery improves motor skills. The effects of mental practice on motor skill learning are the result of practice on central motor programming. According to this view, it seems logical that mental practice should modify the neuronal activity in the primary sensorimotor areas and consequently change the performance of EEG-based BCI. For developing a practical BCI system, recognizing the resting state with eyes opened and the imagined voluntary movement is important. For this purpose, the mind should be able to focus on a single goal for a period of time, without deviation to another context. In this work, we are going to examine the role of mental practice and concentration skills on the EEG control during imaginative hand movements. The results show that the mental practice and concentration can generally improve the classification accuracy of the EEG patterns. It is found that mental training has a significant effect on the classification accuracy over the primary motor cortex and frontal area. PMID:17028907

  7. Innovation in user-centered skills and performance improvement for sustainable complex service systems.

    PubMed

    Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    In order to leverage individual and organizational learning and to remain competitive in current turbulent markets it is important for employees, managers, planners and leaders to perform at high levels over time. Employee competence and skills are extremely important matters in view of the general shortage of talent and the mobility of employees with talent. Two factors emerged to have the greatest impact on the competitiveness of complex service systems: improving managerial and employee's knowledge attainment for skills, and improving the training and development of the workforce. This paper introduces the knowledge-based user-centered service design approach for sustainable skill and performance improvement in education, design and modeling of the next generation of complex service systems. The rest of the paper cover topics in human factors and sustainable business process modeling for the service industry, and illustrates the user-centered service system development cycle with the integration of systems engineering concepts in service systems. A roadmap for designing service systems of the future is discussed. The framework introduced in this paper is based on key user-centered design principles and systems engineering applications to support service competitiveness. PMID:22317322

  8. Predictive influence of phonological processing, morphological/syntactic skill, and naming speed on spelling performance.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Monique; Cohen, Henri

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the predictive influence of phonological awareness, morphological/syntactic skill, and naming speed on spelling. The retrospective study correlated spelling performance in a group of 199 French-speaking children at the end of grade 2 with earlier capacities for phonemic manipulation, morphological/syntactic correction, and naming speed, assessed at the end of grade 1. The results are consistent with an integrative model that challenges the unitary phonological disorder hypothesis and confirmed that in French, as in other languages, naming speed is an independent predictor of reading performance. PMID:15177816

  9. Associations between Low-Income Children's Fine Motor Skills in Preschool and Academic Performance in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic performance…

  10. Parenting Skills: A Trainer's Manual. A Performance Based Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. Monograph 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidin, Richard R.

    This manual, developed as part of the performance-based Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program, is a trainer's manual for teaching parenting skills. Each module or set of modules presents effective skills for managing and changing behaviors of adults and children. Several profession strategies and theoretical orientations…

  11. Just how important is a good season start? Overall team performance and financial budget of elite soccer clubs.

    PubMed

    Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Sampaio, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was (i) to identify how important is a good season start on elite soccer teams' performance and (ii) to examine whether this impact is related to the clubs' financial budget. The match performances and annual budgets of all teams were collected from the English FA Premier League, French Ligue 1, Spanish La Liga, Italian Serie A and German Bundesliga for three consecutive seasons (2010-2011 to 2012-2013). A k-means cluster analysis classified the clubs according to their budget as High Range Budget Clubs, Upper-Mid Range Budget Clubs, Lower-Mid Range Budget Clubs and Low Range Budget Clubs. Data were examined through linear regression models. Overall, the results suggested that the better the team performance at the beginning of the season, the better the ranking at the end of the season. However, the impact of the effect depended on the clubs' annual budget, with lower budgets being associated with a greater importance of having a good season start (P < 0.01). Moreover, there were differences in trends across the different leagues. These variables can be used to develop accurate models to estimate final rankings. Conversely, Lower-Mid and Lower Range Budget Clubs can benefit from fine-tuning preseason planning in order to accelerate the acquisition of optimal performances. PMID:25443809

  12. Cyberinfrastructure and Scientific Collaboration: Application of a Virtual Team Performance Framework with Potential Relevance to Education. WCER Working Paper No. 2010-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, Sara; Thorn, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify and describe some of the dimensions of scientific collaborations using high throughput computing (HTC) through the lens of a virtual team performance framework. A secondary purpose was to assess the viability of using a virtual team performance framework to study scientific collaborations using…

  13. Adapting the McMaster-Ottawa scale and developing behavioral anchors for assessing performance in an interprofessional Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Désirée; May, Win; Richter-Lagha, Regina; Forest, Christopher; Banzali, Yvonne; Lohenry, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Current scales for interprofessional team performance do not provide adequate behavioral anchors for performance evaluation. The Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter (TOSCE) provides an opportunity to adapt and develop an existing scale for this purpose. We aimed to test the feasibility of using a retooled scale to rate performance in a standardized patient encounter and to assess faculty ability to accurately rate both individual students and teams. Methods The 9-point McMaster-Ottawa Scale developed for a TOSCE was converted to a 3-point scale with behavioral anchors. Students from four professions were trained a priori to perform in teams of four at three different levels as individuals and teams. Blinded faculty raters were trained to use the scale to evaluate individual and team performances. G-theory was used to analyze ability of faculty to accurately rate individual students and teams using the retooled scale. Results Sixteen faculty, in groups of four, rated four student teams, each participating in the same TOSCE station. Faculty expressed comfort rating up to four students in a team within a 35-min timeframe. Accuracy of faculty raters varied (38–81% individuals, 50–100% teams), with errors in the direction of over-rating individual, but not team performance. There was no consistent pattern of error for raters. Conclusion The TOSCE can be administered as an evaluation method for interprofessional teams. However, faculty demonstrate a ‘leniency error’ in rating students, even with prior training using behavioral anchors. To improve consistency, we recommend two trained faculty raters per station. PMID:26004993

  14. Effect of alternative video displays on postures, perceived effort, and performance during microsurgery skill tasks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Denny; Green, Cooper; Kasten, Steven J; Sackllah, Michael E; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    Physical work demands and posture constraint from operating microscopes may adversely affect microsurgeon health and performance. Alternative video displays were developed to reduce posture constraints. Their effects on postures, perceived efforts, and performance were compared with the microscope. Sixteen participants performed microsurgery skill tasks using both stereo and non-stereoscopic microscopes and video displays. Results showed that neck angles were 9-13° more neutral and shoulder flexion were 9-10° more elevated on the video display than the microscope. Time observed in neck extension was higher (30% vs. 17%) and neck movements were 3x more frequent on the video display than microscopes. Ratings of perceived efforts did not differ among displays, but usability ratings were better on the microscope than the video display. Performance times on the video displays were 66-110% slower than microscopes. Although postures improved, further research is needed to improve task performance on video displays. PMID:26585502

  15. Business and Industry Project-Based Capstone Courses: A Reflection on the Performance of Student Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maleki, Reza A.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two articles in which the author shares experiences gained from the development and delivery of a business/industry project-based capstone course. The course integrates research, proposal development and design experience based on knowledge and skills acquired in earlier coursework. It also incorporates standards and…

  16. Sensory processing and motor skill performance in elementary school children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting

    2013-02-01

    Research to examine both sensory processing and motor skill performance in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. This study assessed whether children with ASD would show sensory and motor delays compared to typically developing children and examined the relationship between sensory processing and motor performance. 32 children diagnosed with ASD were assessed using the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) and the Movement ABC-2 (MABC-2). The SSP measures children's sensory processing in daily life and the MABC-2 measures children's fine and gross motor skill performance. Overall, the samples' scores on the SSP indicated atypical sensory processing and scores on the MABC-2 showed poorer fine and gross motor performance as compared to age-matched norms. Furthermore, the samples' scores for sensory processing were positively correlated with their motor performance. The results suggest that fine and gross motor difficulties of children with ASD may be related to their delayed sensory processing to visual, auditory, tactile, and movement stimuli, and that this hypothesis needs to be tested in future research. PMID:23829146

  17. Squad management, injury and match performance in a professional soccer team over a championship-winning season.

    PubMed

    Carling, Christopher; Le Gall, Franck; McCall, Alan; Nédélec, Mathieu; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Squad management, injury and physical, tactical and technical match performance were investigated in a professional soccer team across five consecutive league seasons (2008-2013, 190 league games) with specific focus on a championship-winning season (2010/11). For each player, match participation and time-loss injuries were recorded, the latter prospectively diagnosed by the team's physician. Defending and attacking tactical and technical performance indicators investigated included ball possession and possession in opponents' half, passes, forward passes, completed passes and forward passes, crosses and completed crosses, goal attempts and goal attempts on target, successful final third entries, free-kicks and 50/50 duels won/lost. Physical performance measures included total distance and distance covered at high-speeds (?19.1 km/h). Results showed that during the 2010/11 season, squad utilisation was lowest potentially owing to the observed lower match injury occurrence and working days lost to injury thereby increasing player availability. In 2010/11, the team won both its highest number of points and conceded its lowest number of goals especially over the second half of this season. The team also won its highest number of games directly via a goal from a substitute and scored and conceded a goal first on the highest and lowest number of occasions, respectively. While multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) detected a significant difference in some attacking and defensive performance indicators across the five seasons, these were generally not distinguishing factors in 2010/11. Similarly, univariate ANOVAs showed a significant difference in running distances covered across seasons, but the trend was for less activity in 2010/11. PMID:25216043

  18. Analysis of the resilience of team performance during a nuclear emergency response exercise.

    PubMed

    Gomes, José Orlando; Borges, Marcos R S; Huber, Gilbert J; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R

    2014-05-01

    The current work presents results from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of a nuclear disaster simulation. Audio-visual records were collected from an emergency room team composed of individuals from 26 different agencies as they responded to multiple scenarios in a simulated nuclear disaster. This simulation was part of a national emergency response training activity for a nuclear power plant located in a developing country. The objectives of this paper are to describe sources of resilience and brittleness in these activities, identify cues of potential improvements for future emergency simulations, and leveraging the resilience of the emergency response system in case of a real disaster. Multiple CTA techniques were used to gain a better understanding of the cognitive dimensions of the activity and to identify team coordination and crisis management patterns that emerged from the simulation exercises. PMID:24239564

  19. An Anomaly Correlation Skill Score for the Evaluation of the Performance of Hyperspectral Infrared Sounders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan; Barnet, Chris; Maddy, Eric; Blackwell, William

    2009-01-01

    With the availability of very accurate forecasts, the metric of accuracy alone for the evaluation of the performance of a retrieval system can produce misleading results. A useful characterization of the quality of a retrieval system and its potential to contribute to an improved weather forecast is its skill, which we define as the ability to make retrievals of geophysical parameters which are closer to the truth than the six hour forecast, when the truth differs significantly from the forecast. We illustrate retrieval skill using one day of AMSU and AIRS data with three different retrieval algorithms, which result in retrievals for more than 90% of the potential retrievals under clear and cloudy conditions. Two of the three algorithms have better than 1 K rms "RAOB quality" accuracy on the troposphere, but only one has skill between 900 and 100 mb. AIRS was launched on the EOS Aqua spacecraft in May 2002 into a 705 km polar sun-synchronous orbit with accurately maintained 1:30 PM ascending node. Essentially uninterrupted data are freely available since September 2002.

  20. Performance of gymnastics skill benefits from an external focus of attention.

    PubMed

    Abdollahipour, Reza; Wulf, Gabriele; Psotta, Rudolf; Palomo Nieto, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to fill a gap in the literature on attentional focus and sports performance. Specifically, in contrast to most previous studies in which an external focus was directed at an implement, we used a gymnastics skill that did not involve the use of an implement. Furthermore, while most studies used only outcome measures of performance, we also assessed movement quality. Twelve-year-old gymnasts performed a maximum vertical jump with a 180-degree turn while airborne, with their hands crossing in front of their chest during the turn under three different focus conditions. Under the external focus condition, participants were asked to focus on the direction in which a tape marker, which was attached to their chest, was pointing after the turn. Under the internal focus condition, they were asked to focus on the direction in which their hands were pointing after the turn. Under the control condition, no focus instructions were given. The external focus condition resulted in both superior movement form and greater jump height than did the other two conditions, which produced comparable results. The present findings show that, similar to other tasks, the performance of form-based skills can be enhanced relatively easily by appropriate external focus instructions. PMID:25774536