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Purpose – Drawing on the political theory of leadership and the input-process-output model the purpose of this paper is to examine the link between leader political skill and teamperformance by focusing on the mediating role of team communication and the moderating role of team task interdependence. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors collected three waves of data from 80 teams across
Discusses roles, skills, and competencies that comprise a development team engaged in creating electronic performance support systems (EPSS). Explains intrinsic, extrinsic, and external EPSS, presents case studies for each type, and suggests effective team strategies that include team formation and team-client communication. (LRW)
This report of the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) Student Performance Results lists performance results on the TAAS and the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS), an exit examination, alphabetically by school district for each grade level tested (grades 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 for the TAAS and grades 11 and 12 for the initial…
"Ability to function in teams," "good team building skills," and "teamwork" are all now common phrases in the classifieds. It is increasingly important in society today, both in social and work environments, to be a good team player. But how do we actually develop those skills and evaluate whether our efforts have had a measurable impact so that we can adjust our approach for maximum benefit? This booklet presents a team assessment process developed to track and improve students team building skill as well as a complete description of its implementation. Preliminary research on team building skills development was performed with a group of community college students in the Electrical Technology Program. The results from the two year study indicate that active participation in the team assessment process is beneficial in developing team building and leadership skills in college students. All the materials necessary to implement the team assessment process for a classroom or workplace setting are provided in this booklet. Using these materials and methods can yield evidence of improved team building and leadership skills important in meeting accreditation standards or for use in evaluating corporate teamskills and leadership development.
A method for identifying and measuring teamskills, specifying team training objectives and the objective assessment of teamperformance is described. First, a theoretical model of teamperformance is outlined and then a version of Hierarchical Task Analysis specially adapted to analysing team tasks is described. The two are then combined into an event-related measurement scheme, which provides a set of objective criteria by which key teamskills can be assessed. The method is illustrated by an example from a basic Anti-Submarine Warfare training exercise which forms part of the Principal Warfare Officer's course at the Royal Naval School of Maritime Operations. The potential of the method is discussed, including the opportunities it may provide for the standardization of teamperformance assessment and in the use of new technology in the partial automation of shore-based and ship-board team training. PMID:10975174
This article reports on research investigating the factors which impact on the recruitment and support of high performing leadership teams, funded by the National College. The research involved a comprehensive literature review and case studies of nine English schools. The results show that four themes emerged in relation to high performingteams:…
The Skills Inventory for Teams (SIFT) was developed for early intervention practitioners from a variety of disciplines to help them evaluate their ability to work as part of an early intervention team in identifying and serving young children with disabilities. The Team Member section is designed to help individual team members identify the skills…
This study examined the relationship between the similarity and accuracy of team mental models and compared the extent to which each predicted teamperformance. The relationship between team ability composition and team mental models was also investigated. Eighty-three dyadic teams worked on a complex skill task in a 2-week training protocol. Results indicated that although similarity and accuracy of team
Bryan D. Edwards; Eric Anthony Day; Suzanne T. Bell
Software development requires the application of diverse skills from various sources. Often these are considered to be skills in development methodologies, application domains, and accomplishing general team tasks. Previous research, however, fails to establish a direct link between skills present in the development team and successful performance of the software development project. In an attempt to determine a more accurate
Teams' emotional skills can be more than the sum of their individual parts. Although theory emphasizes emotion as an interpersonal adapta- tion, emotion recognition skill has long been conceptualized as an indi- vidual-level intelligence. We introduce the construct of team emotion recognition accuracy (TERA) - the ability of members to recognize teammates' emotions - and present preliminary evidence for its
Hillary Anger Elfenbein; Jeffrey T. Polzer; Nalini Ambady
Above Real Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments on training of pilots performed by NASA engineers and others have indicated that real time training (RTT) reinforced with ARTT would offer an effective training strategy for such tasks which require significant effort at time and workload management. A study was conducted to find how ARTT and RTT complement each other for training of novice pilot-navigator teams to fly on a required route. In the experiment, each of the participating pilot-navigator teams was required to conduct simulator flights on a prescribed two-legged ground track while maintaining required air speed and altitude. At any instant in a flight, the distance between the actual spatial point location of the airplane and the required spatial point was used as a measure of deviation from the required route. A smaller deviation represented better performance. Over a segment of flight or over complete flight, an average value of the deviation represented consolidated performance. The deviations were computed from the information on latitude, longitude, and altitude. In the combined ARTT and RTT program, ARTT at intermediate training intervals was beneficial in improving the real time performance of the trainees. It was observed that the team interaction between pilot and navigator resulted in maintaining high motivation and active participation throughout the training program.
Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia J.; Crane, Peter; Guckenberger, Dutch; Bageon, Kellye
In this study, we examined the relationship between tactical skills and competitive standard of two youth soccer teams by comparing 18 players (age 18-20 years) from the Dutch and 19 players (age 18-23 years) from the Indonesian national youth team. All players completed the declarative and procedural knowledge scales of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sport (TACSIS). Multivariate analyses of variances and effect sizes were conducted to assess between- and within-team differences. There was a positive relationship between competitive standard and level of tactical skills: the higher-ranked (FIFA World Ranking 2005-2006; http://www.fifa.com) Dutch players outscored their Indonesian counterparts on the TACSIS subscales "knowing about ball actions" (F(1,36) = 10.58, P < 0.01), "knowing about others" (F(1,36) = 28.88, P < 0.01), and "positioning and deciding" (F(1,36) = 10.10, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed no relationship between tactical skills and playing time (P > 0.05) in the Dutch team, whereas in the Indonesian team one procedural knowledge factor ("positioning and deciding") did show a positive association (effect size = 0.99). In conclusion, tactical skills are fundamental to high-level soccer performance. Ample, expert-led training and match experience at a high competitive standard, starting at a young age, and high-quality talent development programmes are suggested as key ingredients for the development of good tactical skills. PMID:19437183
Kannekens, Rianne; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris
Examines project teams and performance-centered design and electronic performance support systems. Topics include performance improvement; technology development; skills; subject expertise; organizational communication; the role-skill paradox; task analysis; and interpersonal communication. (LRW)
This document contains two papers from a symposium on enhancing teamperformance. "The Impact of Organizational Sub-Cultures on Information Sharing: A Manufacturing Company's Dilemma" (Toni Powell) reports on a qualitative study that examined the subcultures of a company involved in significant change and noted the effects of conflicting values on…
Background: To develop pupils' team invasion games (TIG) performance within physical education (PE), practitioners have traditionally adopted teacher-centred, skill-focused approaches. Teaching Games for Understanding and the Tactical approach are alternative approaches to TIG teaching that aim to develop overall game performance, including…
The Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS), a criterion-referenced test, was mandated by the Texas legislature in 1984 to be instituted beginning with the school year 1985-86. This is the first report of TEAMS, which replaces the formerly used Texas Assessment of Basic Skills (TABS), by the Austin Independent School District…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the playing characteristics of teamperformance in international men's volleyball. The specific purposes were (a) to examine differences in playing characteristics (in particular, the set and spike) between the Attack Process and the Counterattack Process; (b) to examine changes in playing characteristics as a function of team success (as indicated by single-game outcomes and by final tournament standings); and (c) to determine the best predictor, or a set of predictors, of team success among the selected skill components. Seventy-two sample games from the Third Federation of International Volleyball Cup men's competition were recorded using a computerized recording system. Results showed that the significant differences between Team Standing and Game Outcome were due to better performances on those skills used in the Counterattack Process. Among the eight selected skills, the block and spike were the most important in determining team success. The methodology used in this study and the subsequent results provide valuable aids for the coach in the evaluation of teamperformance and ultimately in the preparation of training sessions in volleyball. PMID:1574656
This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting teamperformance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…
This paper provides an analysis of the effect of the skill/experience of the software development team on the quality of the final software product. A method for the assessment of software development teamskill and experience is proposed, and was derived from a workforce management tool currently in use by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Using data from 26 smallscale software development projects, the teamskill measures are correlated to 5 software product quality metrics from the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering Product Quality standard. in the analysis of the results, development teamskill is found to be a significant factor in the adequacy of the design and implementation. In addition, the results imply that inexperienced software developers are tasked with responsibilities ill-suited to their skill level, and thus have a significant adverse effect on the quality of the software product. Keywords: software quality, development skill, software metrics
Many capstone strategic management courses use computer-based simulations as core pedagogical tools. Simulations are touted as assisting students in developing much-valued skills in strategy formation, implementation, and team management in the pursuit of superior strategic performance. However, despite their rich nature, little is known regarding…
Ritchie, William J.; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Drew, Stephen A. W.; Marlin, Dan
This paper discusses how space safety is influenced by the ability of teams to work and communicate effectively together. A multi-national team of six authors provides different perspectives on human systems, from both research and operational points of view. When operations involve teams whose members cross organizational and cultural boundaries as they do in current space operations, it is especially critical and challenging to facilitate the most effective teamperformance. Three key factors that affect teamperformance and space safety are discussed: (1) communication as related to teamperformance; (2) the influence of organizations, teams and culture and (3) team training interventions. Relevant research and current practices are described for each of the three areas and a summary in the form of recommendations is provided.
Kanki, B. G.; Rogers, D. G.; Bessone, L.; Parke, B.; Sandal, G. M.; Whiteley, I.
This article offers advice to educators on developing learners' collaboration skills through problem solving. The author presents six categories of tasks, each of which addresses a set of teamwork skills (e.g. listening, sharing, reflecting) and includes several tasks which could serve as the vehicle. Links to the tasks, printable materials, and other resources are included.
Success of exploration missions will depend on skilledperformance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective teamperformance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective teamperformance. Teamwork skills essential for successful teamperformance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective teamperformance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.
Current reform in engineering education is part of a national trend emphasizing student learning as well as accountability in instruction. Assessing student performance to demonstrate accountability has become a necessity in academia. In newly adopted criterion proposed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), undergraduates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in outcomes considered essential for graduating engineers. The case study was designed as a formative evaluation of freshman engineering students to assess the perceived effectiveness of performanceskills in a design laboratory environment. The mixed methodology used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess students' performanceskills and congruency among the respondents, based on individual, team, and faculty perceptions of team effectiveness in three ABET areas: Communications Skills. Design Skills, and Teamwork. The findings of the research were used to address future use of the assessment tool and process. The results of the study found statistically significant differences in perceptions of Teamwork Skills (p < .05). When groups composed of students and professors were compared, professors were less likely to perceive student's teamingskills as effective. The study indicated the need to: (1) improve non-technical performanceskills, such as teamwork, among freshman engineering students; (2) incorporate feedback into the learning process; (3) strengthen the assessment process with a follow-up plan that specifically targets performanceskill deficiencies, and (4) integrate the assessment instrument and practice with ongoing curriculum development. The findings generated by this study provides engineering departments engaged in assessment activity, opportunity to reflect, refine, and develop their programs as it continues. It also extends research on ABET competencies of engineering students in an under-investigated topic of factors correlated with team processes, behavior, and student learning.
Success of exploration missions will depend on skilledperformance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex pro...
In this study we analyze the mediating role of team work engagement between team social resources (i.e., supportive team climate, coordination, teamwork), and teamperformance (i.e., in-role and extra-role performance) as predicted by the Job Demands-Resources Model. Aggregated data of 533 employees nested within 62 teams and 13 organizations were used, whereas teamperformance was assessed by supervisor ratings. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, team work engagement plays a mediating role between social resources perceived at the team level and teamperformance as assessed by the supervisor. PMID:22269372
Torrente, Pedro; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Schaufeli, Wilmar B
Trauma resuscitation is a complex situation, and most organisations have multi-professional trauma teams. Non-technical skills are challenged during trauma resuscitation, and they play an important role in the prevention of critical incidents. Simulation-based training of these is recommended. Our research question was: Does simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills have effect on reaction, learning, behaviour or patient outcome? The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library and found 13 studies eligible for analysis. We described and compared the educational interventions and the evaluations of effect according to the four Kirkpatrick levels: reaction, learning (knowledge, skills, attitudes), behaviour (in a clinical setting) and patient outcome. No studies were randomised, controlled and blinded, resulting in a moderate to high risk of bias. The multi-professional trauma teams had positive reactions to simulation-based training of non-technical skills. Knowledge and skills improved in all studies evaluating the effect on learning. Three studies found improvements in teamperformance (behaviour) in the clinical setting. One of these found difficulties in maintaining these skills. Two studies evaluated on patient outcome, of which none showed improvements in mortality, complication rate or duration of hospitalisation. A significant effect on learning was found after simulation-based training of the multi-professional trauma team in non-technical skills. Three studies demonstrated significantly increased clinical teamperformance. No effect on patient outcome was found. All studies had a moderate to high risk of bias. More comprehensive randomised studies are needed to evaluate the effect on patient outcome. PMID:24828210
Being able to work effectively in teams is an important learning objective for software engineering students. Although many programs today make team projects fundamental elements of their curricula, few actually teach teamwork and communication skills directly. Consequently, students may gain experience working in teams but may not learn the skills necessary to perform effectively in a team environment. In previous
PPerfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-located research partners and diverse funding sources, dynamic economic and political environments, and a changing workforce. Today's scientists must be prepared to not only perform work in the virtual team environment, but to work effectively and efficiently despite physical and cultural barriers. Research supports that students who have been exposed to virtual team experiences are desirable in the professional and academic arenas. Research supports establishing and maintaining established protocols for communication behavior prior to task discussion provides for successful team outcomes. Research conducted on graduate and undergraduate virtual teams' behaviors led to the development of successful pedagogic practices and assessment strategies.
Objective: People with diabetes are prone to develop lower-extremity ulcerations and infections, both of which serve as major risk factors for limb amputation. The development of lower-extremity complications of diabetes is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development of interdisciplinary teams to manage the myriad factors that complicate the treatment of high-risk patients, particularly in the perihospitalization period. Methods: This article presents 7 essential skills that necessarily allow the limb salvage team to appropriately manage the most common presenting comorbidities in patients with diabetes, including vasculopathy, infection, and deformity. Results: Seven essentials skills have been demonstrated to promote the greatest salvage outcomes, and these are the ability to (1) perform hemodynamic and anatomic vascular assessment with revascularization, as necessary; (2) perform neurologic workup; (3) perform site-appropriate culture technique; (4) perform wound assessment and staging/grading of infection and ischemia; (5) perform site-specific bedside and intraoperative incision and debridement; (6) initiate and modify culture-specific and patient-appropriate antibiotic therapy; and (7) perform appropriate postoperative monitoring to reduce risk of reulceration and infection. Conclusions: Utilization of these 7 essential skills as the core basis for interdisciplinary limb salvage team models will provide clinicians guidance when establishing such teams. Interdisciplinary teams have been demonstrated to improve quality and efficiency of patient care, thus improving overall outcomes and reducing amputation rates.
Fitzgerald, Ryan H.; Mills, Joseph L.; Joseph, Warren; Armstrong, David G.
This report presents information to participants in the Team Interaction Skills study conducted at Diablo Canyon Power Plant from September to November 1989. A study was conducted to develop and assess measures of team interaction skills of nuclear power plant control room crews in simulated emergency conditions. Data were collected at a boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWA) using three sets of rating scales; Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS), Behavioral Frequency rating scales, and Technical Performance rating scales. Diablo Canyon Power Plant agreed to serve as the PWR plant in the study. Obse!Vers consisting of contract license examiners, Diablo Canyon Power Plant training instructors, and project staff used the rating scales to provide assessments of team interaction skills and technical skills of control room crews during emerg-3ncy scenarios as part of license requalification training. Crew members were also asked to providH self-ratings of their performance to gather information regarding crew responses to the Team Interactions Skills rating scales.
Hauth, J. T.; Toquam, J. L.; Bramwell, A. T.; Fleming, T. E.
The purpose of the trauma team is to provide advanced simultaneous care from relevant specialists to the seriously injured trauma patient. When functioning well, the outcome of the trauma teamperformance should be greater than the sum of its parts. Trauma teams have been shown to reduce the time taken for resuscitation, as well as time to CT scan, to emergency department discharge and to the operating room. These benefits are demonstrated by improved survival rates, particularly for the most severely injured patients, both within and outside of dedicated trauma centres. In order to ensure the best possible performance of the team, the leadership skills of the trauma team leader are essential and their non-technical skills have been shown to be particularly important. Teamperformance can be enhanced through a process of audit and assessment of the workings of the team and the evidence currently available suggests that this is best facilitated through the process of video review of the trauma resuscitation. The use of human patient simulators to train and assess trauma teams is becoming more commonplace and this technique offers a safe environment for the future education of trauma team staff. Trauma teams are a key component of most programmes which set out to improve trauma care. This article reviews the background of trauma teams, the evidence for benefit and potential techniques of performance assessment. The review was written after a PubMed, Ovid, Athens, Cochrane and guideline literature review of English language articles on trauma teams and their performance and hand searching of references from the relevant searched articles. PMID:21144035
Background: High-risk organizations such as aviation rely on simulations for the training and assessment of technical and teamperformance. The aim of this study was to develop a simulated environment for surgical trainees using similar principles. Methods: A total of 27 surgical trainees carried out a simulated procedure in a Simulated Operating Theatre with a standardized OR team. Observation of OR events was carried out by an unobtrusive data collection system: clinical data recorder. Assessment of performance consisted of blinded rating of technical skills, a checklist of technical events, an assessment of communication, and a global rating of teamskills by a human factors expert and trained surgical research fellows. The participants underwent a debriefing session, and the face validity of the simulated environment was evaluated. Results: While technical skills rating discriminated between surgeons according to experience (P = 0.002), there were no differences in terms of the checklist and teamskills (P = 0.70). While all trainees were observed to gown/glove and handle sharps correctly, low scores were observed for some key features of communication with other team members. Low scores were obtained by the entire cohort for vigilance. Interobserver reliability was 0.90 and 0.89 for technical and teamskills ratings. Conclusions: The simulated operating theatre could serve as an environment for the development of surgical competence among surgical trainees. Objective, structured, and multimodal assessment of performance during simulated procedures could serve as a basis for focused feedback during training of technical and teamskills.
Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Adams, Sally; Pandey, Vikas; Darzi, Ara
Utilization of work teams is now wide spread in all types of organizations throughout the world. However, an understanding of the important factors common to high performanceteams is rare. The purpose of this content analysis is to explore the literature and propose findings related to high performanceteams. These include definition and types,…
The Texas Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) is a mandated criterion-referenced test administered to students in grades 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 in Texas public schools. This report by the Austin Independent School District (AISD) contains an executive summary of TEAMS results, an analysis of performance, and attachments. Among the major findings…
This article describes the role of the skillful leader and what practical solutions are needed to overcome hurdles. What distinguishes the skillfulteam leader from a less-effective leader is his or her approach to overcoming hurdles, and are rooted in the leader's values, mindset, intelligence, and skill. When faced with hurdles to team…
Colleges of business must meet assurance of learning requirements to gain or maintain AACSB accreditation under the new standards adopted April 8, 2013. Teamskills are among the most important skills desired by recruiters, yet employers and scholars perceive that teamskills are frequently deficient in college graduates. This article describes…
Loughry, Misty L.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Woehr, David J.
Biomedical engineering embodies the spirit of combining disciplines. The engineer's pragmatic approach to--and appetite for--solving problems is matched by a bounty of technical challenges generated in medical domains. From nanoscale diagnostics to the redesign of systems of health-care delivery, engineers have been connecting advances in basic and applied science with applications that have helped to improve medical care and outcomes. Increasingly, however, integrating these areas of knowledge and application is less individualistic and more of a team sport. Success increasingly relies on a direct focus on practicing and developing collaboration skills in interdisciplinary teams. Such an approach does not fit easily into individual-focused, discipline-based programs. Biomedical engineering has done its fair share of silo busting, but new approaches are needed to inspire interdisciplinary teams to form around challenges in particular areas. Health care offers a wide variety of complex challenges across an array of delivery settings that can call for new interdisciplinary approaches. This was recognized by the deans of the University of Southern California's (USC's) Medical and Engineering Schools when they began the planning process, leading to the creation of the Health, Technology, and Engineering (HTE@USC or HTE for short) program. “Health care and technology are changing rapidly, and future physicians and engineers need intellectual tools to stay ahead of this change,” says Carmen A. Puliafito, dean of the Keck School of Medicine. His goal is to train national leaders in the quest for devices and processes to improve health care. PMID:22850834
This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…
Background We previously developed and validated the Oxford NOTECHS rating system for evaluating the non-technical skills of an entire operating theatre team. Experience with the scale identified the need for greater discrimination between levels of performance within the normal range. We report here the development of a modified scale (Oxford NOTECHS II) to facilitate this. The new measure uses an eight-point instead of a four point scale to measure each dimension of non-technical skills, and begins with a default rating of 6 for each element. We evaluated this new scale in 297 operations at five NHS sites in four surgical specialities. Measures of theatre process reliability (glitch count) and compliance with the WHO surgical safety checklist were scored contemporaneously, and relationships with NOTECHS II scores explored. Results Mean team Oxford NOTECHS II scores was 73.39 (range 37–92). The means for surgical, anaesthetic and nursing sub-teams were 24.61 (IQR 23, 27); 24.22 (IQR 23, 26) and 24.55 (IQR 23, 26). Oxford NOTECHS II showed good inter-rater reliability between human factors and clinical observers in each of the four domains. Teams with high WHO compliance had higher mean Oxford NOTECHS II scores (74.5) than those with low compliance (71.1) (p?=?0.010). We observed only a weak correlation between Oxford NOTECHS II scores and glitch count; r?=??0.26 (95% CI ?0.36 to ?0.15). Oxford NOTECHS II scores did not vary significantly between 5 different hospital sites, but a significant difference was seen between specialities (p?=?0.001). Conclusions Oxford NOTECHS II provides good discrimination between teams while retaining reliability and correlation with other measures of teamwork performance, and is not confounded by technical performance. It is therefore suitable for combined use with a technical performance scale to provide a global description of operating theatre teamperformance.
This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for both teamwork (i.e., team charters) and taskwork (performance strategies) can pay dividends in terms of more effective teamperformance over time. Using random coefficients growth modeling techniques, they found that teams with high-quality performance strategies outperformed teams with poorer quality strategies. However, a significant interaction between quality of the charters of teams and their performance strategies was found, such that the highest sustained performances were exhibited by teams that were high on both features. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19186898
Background and aim Following high profile errors resulting in patient harm and attracting negative publicity, the healthcare sector has begun to focus on training non-technical teamworking skills as one way of reducing the rate of adverse events. Within the area of resuscitation, two tools have been developed recently aiming to assess these skills – TEAM and OSCAR. The aims of the study reported here were:1.To determine the inter-rater reliability of the tools in assessing performance within the context of resuscitation.2.To correlate scores of the same resuscitation teams episodes using both tools, thereby determining their concurrent validity within the context of resuscitation.3.To carry out a critique of both tools and establish how best each one may be utilised. Methods The study consisted of two phases – reliability assessment; and content comparison, and correlation. Assessments were made by two resuscitation experts, who watched 24 pre-recorded resuscitation simulations, and independently rated team behaviours using both tools. The tools were critically appraised, and correlation between overall score surrogates was assessed. Results Both OSCAR and TEAM achieved high levels of inter-rater reliability (in the form of adequate intra-class coefficients) and minor significant differences between Wilcoxon tests. Comparison of the scores from both tools demonstrated a high degree of correlation (and hence concurrent validity). Finally, critique of each tool highlighted differences in length and complexity. Conclusion Both OSCAR and TEAM can be used to assess resuscitation teams in a simulated environment, with the tools correlating well with one another. We envisage a role for both tools – with TEAM giving a quick, global assessment of the team, but OSCAR enabling more detailed breakdown of the assessment, facilitating feedback, and identifying areas of weakness for future training.
McKay, Anthony; Walker, Susanna T.; Brett, Stephen J.; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick
This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…
In the present study, we investigated how two team mental model properties (similarity vs. accuracy) and two forms of monitoring behavior (team vs. systems) interacted to predict teamperformance in anesthesia. In particular, we were interested in whether the relationship between monitoring behavior and teamperformance was moderated by team mental model properties. Thirty-one two-person teams consisting of anesthesia resident
Michael J. Burtscher; Michaela Kolbe; Johannes Wacker; Tanja Manser
Training of the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills that are crucial to safe and effective management by teams in emergency situations is an issue that is receiving increasing emphasis in many organisations, particularly in the nuclear power industry. As teams play a major role in emergency response organisations (ERO), effective functioning and interactions within, between and across teams is crucial,
Suggests that a positive relationship exists between encounter group experience and the soccer teamperformance--a conclusion worthy of consideration in further research in the fields of psychology and sociology of sports. (Author)
Previous research has shown the value of good team interaction skills to group performance, yet little progress has been made on in terms of how such skills can be measured. In this study rating scales developed previously (Montgomery, et al., 1990) were extensively revised and cast into a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) and a Behavioral Frequency format. Rating data were collected using 13 training instructors at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant, who rated three videotapes of simulator scenario performance during a day-long training session and later evaluated control room crews during requalification training. High levels of interrater agreement on both rating scales were found. However, the factor structure of the ratings was generally inconsistent with that hypothesized. Analysis of training ratings using Cronbach`s components of accuracy (Cronbach, 1955) indicated that BARS ratings generally exhibited less error than did the Behavioral Frequency ratings. The results are discussed in terms of both field and research implications.
Montgomery, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Toquam, J. [Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Gaddy, C. [General Physics Corp., Columbia, MD (United States)
The god of this paper is to iden@ the communication tactics that tiow management teams to successtiy coordinate without becoming overloaded, and to see whether successti coordination and fidom from overload independently Muence team pefiormance. We found that how much teams comnumicatti, what they communicated abou~ and the technologies they used to communicate prdlcted coordination and overload. Team coordination but
Susan R. Fussell; Robert E. Kraut; F. Javier Lerch; William L. Scherlis; Matthew M. McNally; Jonathan J. Cadiz
A timetable process helps students assess the feasibility of completion of research papers as well as develop a working outline. Students also develop performance appraisal criteria for peer evaluation. The procedure develops verbal-communicative, problem-solving, and team-building skills. (SK)
In the present study, we investigated how two team mental model properties (similarity vs. accuracy) and two forms of monitoring behavior (team vs. systems) interacted to predict teamperformance in anesthesia. In particular, we were interested in whether the relationship between monitoring behavior and teamperformance was moderated by team…
Burtscher, Michael J.; Kolbe, Michaela; Wacker, Johannes; Manser, Tanja
Employers want students who are able to work effectively as members of a team, and expect universities to develop this ability in their graduates. This paper proposes a framework for a collaborative writing assignment that specifically develops students' ability to work in teams. The framework has been tested using two iterations of an action…
The present study aimed at examining the effectiveness of a team-sports-based life-skills program taught as part of physical education lessons. One hundred sixty-five sixth and eighth graders were assigned either in an experimental or in a control group and received an abbreviated version of SUPER, a team-sports-based program. The program focused…
A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of ?-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements highlighted in this review needs to be conducted using team-sport athletes and using team-sport-relevant testing (e.g. single- and multiple-sprint performance). It should also be considered that there is no guarantee that dietary supplements that improve isolated performance (i.e. single-sprint or jump performance) will remain effective in the context of a team-sport match. Thus, more research is also required to investigate the effects of dietary supplements on simulated or actual team-sport performance. A second aim of this review was to investigate any health issues associated with the ingestion of the more commonly promoted dietary supplements. While most of the supplements described in the review appear safe when using the recommended dose, the effects of higher doses (as often taken by athletes) on indices of health remain unknown, and further research is warranted. Finally, anecdotal reports suggest that team-sport athletes often ingest more than one dietary supplement and very little is known about the potential adverse effects of ingesting multiple supplements. Supplements that have been demonstrated to be safe and efficacious when ingested on their own may have adverse effects when combined with other supplements. More research is required to investigate the effects of ingesting multiple supplements (both on performance and health). PMID:21058748
This research is based on the premises that teams can be designed to optimize its performance, and appropriate team coordination is a significant factor to team outcome performance. Contingency theory argues that the effectiveness of a team depends on the right fit of the team design factors to the particular job at hand. Therefore, organizations need computational tools capable of
This research is based on the premises that teams can be designed to optimize its performance, and appropriate team coordination is a significant factor to team outcome performance. Contingency theory argues that the effectiveness of a team depends on the right fit of the team design factors to the particular job at hand. Therefore, organizations need computational tools capable of
Background: Inclusive research teams typically describe their experiences and analyse the type of involvement of researchers with disability, but the process of building research teams and the need for research training still remain underexplored in the literature. Materials and Method: Four researchers with intellectual disabilities and four…
Strnadová, Iva; Cumming, Therese M.; Knox, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor
This study examined how manipulating the level of environmental complexity and the type of team training given to subject volunteers impacted important team process behaviors and performance outcomes. Complexity levels were manipulated by directly alterin...
To date, efforts to understand virtual teaming have been largely anecdotal and atheoretical. Therefore, drawing from the extant research in the groups domain, we attempt to ground the definition of a virtual team in well-established group-level constructs, and design a simulation study to investigate the impact of different virtual team characteristics on teamperformance. Essentially, we argue that the virtual
Web-based collaboration and virtual environments supported by various Web 2.0 concepts enable the application of numerous monitoring, mining and analysis tools to study human interactions and team formation processes. The composition of an effective team requires a balance between adequate skill fulfillment and sufficient team connectivity. The underlying interaction structure reflects social behavior and relations of individuals and determines to a large degree how well people can be expected to collaborate. In this paper we address an extended team formation problem that does not only require direct interactions to determine team connectivity but additionally uses implicit recommendations of collaboration partners to support even sparsely connected networks. We provide two heuristics based on Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing for discovering efficient team configurations that yield the best trade-off between skill coverage and team connectivity. Our self-adjusting mechanism aims to discover the best combination of direct interactions and recommendations when deriving connectivity. We evaluate our approach based on multiple configurations of a simulated collaboration network that features close resemblance to real world expert networks. We demonstrate that our algorithm successfully identifies efficient team configurations even when removing up to 40% of experts from various social network configurations.
A multilevel model of leadership, empowerment, and performance was tested using a sample of 62 teams, 445 individual members, 62 team leaders, and 31 external managers from 31 stores of a Fortune 500 company. Leader-member exchange and leadership climate related differently to individual and team empowerment and interacted to influence individual empowerment. Also, several relationships were supported in more but not in less interdependent teams. Specifically, leader-member exchange related to individual performance partially through individual empowerment; leadership climate related to teamperformance partially through team empowerment; team empowerment moderated the relationship between individual empowerment and performance; and individual performance was positively related to teamperformance. Contributions to team leadership theory, research, and practices are discussed. PMID:17371082
The current study explored the effect of transformational leadership of knowledge work team leaders on team members' individual performance, which included both in-role behavior and organizational citizenship behavior(OCB), and teamperformance. Survey data was collected from a sample of 54 knowledge work teams in high-tech organizations in four cities of China. The results of hierarchical regression showed that relationship-oriented transformational
There has been a lot of research recently on risk-adjusted performance measures as investors have grown more sophisticated and have peered behind absolute performance measures. An ideal performance measure should adjust for risk, but also provide some indication of the skill of a manager, provide some indication on how portfolios should be constructed and ideally take into account the full
The paper presents the capacities of the performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) method. Its practicability and efficiency are illustrated by retrospective human reliability analyse of the famous nuclear and maritime accidents. A quantitative assessment of operators' performance on the base of thermo-hydraulic (T/H) calculations and full-scope simulator data for set of NPP design basic accidents with WWER is demonstrated. The last data are obtained on the 'WWER-1000' full-scope simulator of Kozloduy NPP during the regular practical training of the operators' teams. An outlook on the "evaluation system of main control room (MCR) operators' reliability" project, based on simulator data of operators' training is given. PMID:15231353
The implementation of virtual teams is briskly increasing, particularly among transnational organizations that find global virtual teams a natural way to address their needs for global reach. While proximal and virtual teams share many attributes, including similar performance measures, they differ in characteristics in the nature of the work.…
This research attempts to develop a human factors understanding of red team assessment strategies in computer and information security. Red teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of security systems. The purpose of this research is to identify and define the various dimensions of red team effectiveness with the aim
Creighton, Harris and Coleman (2005) suggest that educational leadership instructors introduce aspiring administrators to a sound knowledge base. Currently, engaging in teams is recommended for high performance and problem-solving. Bolton (1999) recommends that instructors coach teams so teamingskills are improved. But, oftentimes, there are team…
Teams are becoming an increasingly popular way to improve performance and quality in the work place. Little research, however, has addressed the question of how to predict high performance from individuals who are placed on teams. Sociometry can provide an alternative to previous methods by measuring preferred pairings among team members across a number of tasks or settings. The choices
Purpose – The paper seeks to address four key Top Management Team (TMT) demographic characteristics in their relationship with firm performance: age, functional background, educational field, and team tenure. The study extends research on the TMT by explicitly introducing teamperformance as a new context measured in the form of International Risk Management Factor, in addition to demographic characteristic effects.
William C. Auden; Joshua D. Shackman; Marina H. Onken
Information sharing is a central process through which team members collectively utilize their available informational resources. The authors used meta-analysis to synthesize extant research on team information sharing. Meta-analytic results from 72 independent studies (total groups = 4,795; total N = 17,279) demonstrate the importance of information sharing to teamperformance, cohesion, decision satisfaction, and knowledge integration. Although moderators were identified, information sharing positively predicted teamperformance across all levels of moderators. The information sharing-teamperformance relationship was moderated by the representation of information sharing (as uniqueness or openness), performance criteria, task type, and discussion structure by uniqueness (a 3-way interaction). Three factors affecting team information processing were found to enhance team information sharing: task demonstrability, discussion structure, and cooperation. Three factors representing decreasing degrees of member redundancy were found to detract from team information sharing: information distribution, informational interdependence, and member heterogeneity. PMID:19271807
School-based learning depends on teachers' capacity to engage with each other around central issues of teaching and learning. While such collaboration is readily welcomed by some educators, others remain wedded to an "independent contractor" concept of teaching. Supporting teachers to view themselves as team members and to perform effectively as a…
This paper describes efforts at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to measure (1) remote handling skill and (2) teleoperator performance. These experimental activities are part of a joint collaboration between the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan in the field of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Reprocessing Technology. A
J. V. Draper; C. A. Wrisberg; L. M. Blair; S. L. Schrock; E. Omori
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of adult attention deficit on team members, the relationships between team members, the task performance dynamics within teams and team member performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 304 management students working in self managing project teams completed measures of adult attention deficit, difficulty with necessary tasks, general independence,
We manipulated two variables predicted by models of teamperformance to affect team processes and performance: team organization and task load. In one team organization the team leader served as a manager only, without responsibility for prosecuting hosti...
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2?h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.
Team handball is an Olympic sport played professionally in many European countries. Nevertheless, a scientific knowledge regarding women's elite team handball demands is limited. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 33) on physical characteristics, physiological attributes, physical attributes, throwing velocity, and on-court performances of women's team handball players. Such empirical and practical information is essential to design and implement successful short-term and long-term training programs for women's team handball players. Our review revealed that (a) players that have a higher skill level are taller and have a higher fat-free mass; (b) players who are more aerobically resistant are at an advantage in international level women team handball; (c) strength and power exercises should be emphasized in conditioning programs, because they are associated with both sprint performance and throwing velocity; (d) speed drills should also be implemented in conditioning programs but after a decrease in physical training volume; (e) a time-motion analysis is an effective method of quantifying the demands of team handball and provides a conceptual framework for the specific physical preparation of players. According to our results, there are only few studies on on-court performance and time-motion analysis for women's team handball players, especially concerning acceleration profiles. More studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of different training programs of women's team handball players' physiological and physical attributes. PMID:23439330
Manchado, Carmen; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan; Vila, Helena; Ferragut, Carmen; Platen, Petra
The study of negative relationships in teams has primarily focused on the impact of negative relationships on individual team member attitudes and performance in teams. The mechanisms and contingencies that can buffer against the damaging effects of negative relationships on teamperformance have received limited attention. Building on social interdependence theory and the multilevel model of team motivation, we examine in a sample of 73 work teams the team-level attributes that foster the promotive social interaction that can neutralize the adverse effect of negative relationships on team cohesion and, consequently, on teamperformance. The results indicate that high levels of team-member exchange as well as high task-interdependence attenuate how team cohesion and teamperformance suffer from negative relationships. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:24661274
de Jong, Jeroen P; Cur?eu, Petru L; Leenders, Roger Th A J
Business managers, crossfunctional team members, and boundary spanners in organizations often face situations that require the application of dialogue skill, a process of inquiry to create shared meaning or shared understanding among parties. Previous research has suggested that dialogue skill can be developed through use of specifically designed on-line, collaborative activities. In this article, we describe the qualitative investigation of
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine whether technical skill provides incremental value over managerial skill in managerial performance for first-tier managers, and explore potential mediators of this relationship. Hypotheses: technical skill incrementally predicts managerial performance; referent and expert power mediate this relationship; and inspirational appeals and rational persuasion mediate the relationship between power and managerial performance.
Teamperformance is increasingly recognised as an essential foundation of good surgical care and a determinant of good surgical outcome. To understand teamperformance and to develop team training, reliable and valid measures of teamperformance are necessary. Currently there is no firm consensus on how to measure teamwork, partly because of a lack of empirical data to validate measures. The input–process–output model provides a framework for surgical team studies. Objective observational measures are needed in surgery as a basis for interdisciplinary team assessment and training. The "observational teamwork assessment for surgery" (OTAS) tool assesses two facets of the surgical process. Observer 1 monitors specific tasks carried out by team members, under the categories patient, environment, equipment, provisions, and communications. Observer 2 uses a behavioural observation scale to rate behaviour for the three surgical phases (pre-operative, operative, and post-operative) with components of teamwork: cooperation, leadership, coordination, awareness, and communication. Illustrative data from an initial series of 50 cases is presented here. The OTAS tool enables two independent observers, a surgeon and psychologist, to record detailed information both on what the theatre team does and how they do it, and has the potential to identify constraints on performance that might relate to surgical outcome.
ARNASON, A., S. B. SIGURDSSON, A. GUDMUNDSSON, I. HOLME, L. ENGEBRETSEN, and R. BAHR. Physical Fitness, Injuries, and TeamPerformance in Soccer. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 278 -285, 2004. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between physical fitness and team success in soccer, and to test for differences in physical fitness between different player positions. Methods:
ARNI ARNASON; STEFAN B. SIGURDSSON; ARNI GUDMUNDSSON; INGAR HOLME; LARS ENGEBRETSEN; ROALD BAHR
Two aspects of team communication, speech acts and communication problems, and their relation to teamperformance in a team air combat simulator were studied. The purpose was to enhance the understanding of how teamperformance is related to team communication. Ten Swedish fighter pilots and four fighter controllers of varying experience participated. Data were collected during fighter simulator training involving four pilots and one fighter controller in each of two teams. Speech acts were collapsed over seven categories and communication problems over five categories. Communication was studied from two perspectives: critical situation outcome and mission outcome. Some problems were closely related to particular speech acts. Speech act frequency, especially meta-communications and tactics, was highest when winning. However, the timing of tactics in critical situations needs further research. Communication problem frequency was highest for runs which ended equally. The most common problem was simultaneous speech, possibly because of the simulator radio system. The number of speech acts was related to enhanced performance but in a complex manner. Thus in order to work efficiently team members need to communicate, but to communicate sufficiently and at appropriate times. This work has applications for fighter pilot and controller team training and the development of communication standards. PMID:17008254
We investigated the relationship between team empowerment and virtual teamperformance and the moderating role of the extent of face-to-face interaction using 35 sales and service virtual teams in a high-technology organization. Team empowerment was positively related to two independent assessments of virtual teamperformance— process improvement and customer satisfaction. Further, the number of face-to-face meetings moderated the relationship between
Bradley L. Kirkman; BENSON ROSEN; PAUL E. TESLUK; CRISTINA B. GIBSON
The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact teamperformance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…
The purpose of this paper is to present and evaluate a tool designed to assess the performance of military teams participating in complex military training exercises and to investigate the effectiveness of simulator training and live training from the mat...
We examined the influences of different facets of psychological collectivism (Preference, Reliance, Concern, Norm Acceptance, and Goal Priority) on team functioning at 3 different performance depictions: initial teamperformance, end-state teamperformance, and teamperformance change over time. We also tested the extent to which team-member exchange moderated the relationships between facets of psychological collectivism and performance change over time.
Erich C. Dierdorff; Suzanne T. Bell; James A. Belohlav
Teaming is a method of grouping students so they share the same set of teachers for their core subject areas--science, math, language arts, social studies, and sometimes physical education and health. Most often, teams are created when an entire grade is broken into groups who share the same set of teachers. Small schools that do not have enough students to form teams can create a grade-level team or multigrade-level teams. The core subject teachers usually share a common planning period and, in many situations, also share a team planning period. Teaming is most often used in middle grades education because its positive outcomes are particularly appropriate to the developmental needs of young adolescents.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to establish how teams view the relative importance of team learning behaviors in comparison with other predictors of teamperformance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was administered to 30 team members, 19 team leaders, and 21 supervisors of 22 teams from eight Dutch organizations, Respondents were asked to indicate which criteria they applied
Chantal M. J. H. Savelsbergh; Beatrice I. J. M. van der Heijden; Rob F. Poell
Background Teamwork is a fundamental aspect of many human activities, from business to art and from sports to science. Recent research suggest that team work is of crucial importance to cutting-edge scientific research, but little is known about how teamwork leads to greater creativity. Indeed, for many team activities, it is not even clear how to assign credit to individual team members. Remarkably, at least in the context of sports, there is usually a broad consensus on who are the top performers and on what qualifies as an outstanding performance. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to determine how individual features can be quantified, and as a test bed for other team-based human activities, we analyze the performance of players in the European Cup 2008 soccer tournament. We develop a network approach that provides a powerful quantification of the contributions of individual players and of overall teamperformance. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that generalizations of our approach could be useful in other contexts where quantification of the contributions of individual team members is important.
Duch, Jordi; Waitzman, Joshua S.; Amaral, Luis A. Nunes
It is critical to prepare nurses for future practice to work in teams by engaging students in interprofessional education (IPE) that fosters positive attitudes toward teamwork. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of computer-supported IPE on students’ attitudes and perceptions toward health care teamwork and teamperformance. A hybrid approach to IPE was used to provide students with an educational experience that combined the benefits of traditional face-to-face communication methodology with a computer-mediated platform that focused on reflection and team building. A statistically significant difference was found in students’ perceptions of teamperformance after engaging in computer-supported IPE. No statistically significant difference in students’ pretest–posttest composite attitude toward teamwork scores was noted; however, there was a positive trend toward improved scores. PMID:24822261
Team has become one of the most important strategic resources in the organization. However, the overall effect of team is often difficult to achieve in the practical application of team in China's enterprises. According to the investigation of high technology innovation teams and the relative literature reviews, the team climate is an important influencing factor for achieving the overall effect
We examined the influences of different facets of psychological collectivism (Preference, Reliance, Concern, Norm Acceptance, and Goal Priority) on team functioning at 3 different performance depictions: initial teamperformance, end-state teamperformance, and teamperformance change over time. We also tested the extent to which team-member…
Dierdorff, Erich C.; Bell, Suzanne T.; Belohlav, James A.
This study examines how organizational procedural justice affects teamperformance through team-level knowledge creation practices and the extent to which these practices mediate the association between organizational procedural justice and teamperformance. The target samples were drawn from six organizations in Korea. A total of 348 cases were…
We surveyed students enrolled in Introductory Psychology courses about their text marking preferences and analyzed the marking in their textbooks. Low-skill readers report more reliance on highlighting strategies and actually mark their texts more than better readers. In addition, low-skilled readers prefer to buy used, previously marked texts…
Beginning with the 1985-86 school year, the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) tests have been based on the objectives provided in this publication for teachers and test development specialists. For grade 7, mathematics objectives include the ability to: (1) convert decimals or percents to equivalents; (2) add and subtract…
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Educational Assessment.
The aim of the present study was to examine the sensitivity of the Soccer Defending Skill Scale (SDSS) using multiple-group analysis and a structured mean model. The data were 469 defending performances in the finals of the FIFA World Cup Korea\\/Japan 2002, which were measured as distances, angles between attackers and defenders, and the number of players using 6-point interval
Despite the growing body of research on creativity in team contexts, very few attempts have been made to explore the team-level antecedents and the mediating processes of team creative performance on the basis of a theoretical framework. To address this gap, drawing on Paulus and Dzindolet's (2008) group creativity model, this study proposed…
The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived fro...
In the present study, we examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a semi-structured protocol with a prospective sample, national coaches (n = 6), sport scientists (n = 3), and players (n = 4) were interviewed directly following international tournaments about the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. Qualitative content analysis revealed the following factors as major positive influences on performance:
Reintroduction of animals to the wild to establish free-ranging viable populations is a valuable conservation tool, but ecological skills alone are not enough to ensure a successful reintroduction; also needed to do the work are effectively designed and managed programs. This article suggests general guidelines for organizing and managing reintroduction programs, reviews some basic organizational issues, and considers ways to develop high-performanceteams The need to integrate reintroduction programs into their larger interorganizational context is discussed. The reintroduction program's structure must be appropriate for its function and should be properly staffed, led, and buffered from its political environment It should process information well, learn rapidly from its own mistakes, and be creative A high-performanceteam devotes most of its energies to solving external rather than internal problems
Explains 5-S, the acronym for five Japanese words: seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu and shitsuke which, when translated, mean organisation, neatness, cleanliness, standardisation and discipline respectively. They have been referred to as the five keys to a total quality environment. This article introduces the 5-S principles and shows how they can be applied to enhance teamperformance by drawing management and
Children with better-developed motor skills may find it easier to be active and engage in more physical activity (PA) than those with less-developed motor skills. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between motor skillperformance and PA in preschool children. Participants were 80 three- and 118 four-year-old children. The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study
Harriet G. Williams; Karin A. Pfeiffer; Jennifer R. O'Neill; Marsha Dowda; Kerry L. McIver; William H. Brown; Russell R. Pate
This study explored the influence of age in understanding mental skills utilization in the context of performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who ranged in age and in skill level, included 1150 male and 170 female amateur golfers competing in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Championship in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Measures targeted general mental skills used in competitions, golf-specific skills, and competitive trait anxiety. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to explore the potential moderating role that chronological age may play in influencing the impact of psychological skills and anxiety on competitive tournament performance across the adult life span. Findings suggested no significant age-moderating effects and instead pointed to the importance of developing golf-specific psychological skills to enhance or maintain performance, irrespective of age. Although automaticity (performance feels "automatic") predicted performance for all golfers, commitment to the game and confidence in one's putting did so only for the men. These findings reinforce the age-irrelevant role of such skills in fostering the experience of peak performance in a competitive sport context and underscore the importance of interventions targeting older players to help maintain or facilitate the use of psychological skills in helping them manage their games. PMID:23525546
\\u000a Studying and analysing the collaborative behaviour of online learning teams and how this behaviour is related and affects\\u000a task performance is a complex process. This paper presents an integrated approach that analyzes the participatory attitudes\\u000a of group members in collaborative learning activities (group functioning) in relation to the individual and group learning\\u000a outcomes (task performance). To that end, we first
Thanasis Daradoumis; Fatos Xhafa; Joan Manuel Marquès
The Schneider Skills Enhancement Program is a workplace literacy partnership between the medical manufacturing firm Schneider, Inc., and the Adult Academic Program of the Robbinsdale Area Schools in Minnesota. A literacy audit of 39 Schneider employees established a need for instruction in literacy, numeracy, and English as a Second Language (ESL)…
Initial assessment and treatment of critically injured patients is time sensitive, creating a high-stress environment for trauma team members and patients. Effective leadership, communication, and clinical acumen are essential team dynamics for best patient outcomes. Innovative multidisciplinary TeamSTEPPS(®) simulation-based training is an effective model for teams in high-risk health care settings. Use of this simulation model has led to improved trauma teamperformance and patient outcomes while incorporating new physician and nursing personnel into a time-sensitive, high-stress environment. PMID:24199639
Harvey, Ellen M; Wright, Andrea; Taylor, Dallas; Bath, Jennifer; Collier, Bryan
This study sought to unify the team composition literature by using meta-analytic techniques to estimate the relationships between specified deep-level team composition variables (i.e., personality factors, values, abilities) and teamperformance. The strength of the team composition variable and teamperformance relationships was moderated by the study setting (lab or field) and the operationalization of the team composition variable. In
This paper discusses efforts to unify the assessment of first-year engineering design project teams with the project management skills and techniques employed by the teams. Assessment of the performance of individual design project team members is always a difficult task- especially in large classes such as Introduction to Mechanical Engineering. Project management is also a difficult challenge for both the
The Delta Cooperative Model (DCM) is a dynamic and innovative teamwork design created to develop fundamentals in research skills. High school students in the DCM belong to the Upward Bound Science and Math (UBSM) program at the Inter American University, Ponce Campus. After workshops on using the scientific method, students were organized into groups of three students with similar research interests. Each student had to take on a role within the group as either a researcher, data analyst, or research editor. Initially, each research team developed hypothesis-driven ideas on their proposed project. In intrateam research meetings, they emphasized team-specific tasks. Next, interteam meetings were held to present ideas and receive critical input. Finally, oral and poster research presentations were conducted at the UBSM science fair. Several team research projects covered topics in medical, environmental, and general microbiology. The three major assessment areas for the workshop and DCM included: (i) student's perception of the workshops' effectiveness in developing skills, content, and values; (ii) research team self- and group participation evaluation, and (iii) oral and poster presentation during the science fair. More than 91% of the students considered the workshops effective in the presentation of scientific method fundamentals. The combination of the workshop and the DCM increased student's knowledge by 55% from pre- to posttests. Two rubrics were designed to assess the oral presentation and poster set-up. The poster and oral presentation scores averaged 83% and 75% respectively. Finally, we present a team assessment instrument that allows the self- and group evaluation of each research team. While the DCM has educational plasticity and versatility, here we document how the this model has been successfully incorporated in training and engaging students in scientific research in microbiology. PMID:23653564
Rios-Velazquez, Carlos; Robles-Suarez, Reynaldo; Gonzalez-Negron, Alberto J; Baez-Santos, Ivan
The Delta Cooperative Model (DCM) is a dynamic and innovative teamwork design created to develop fundamentals in research skills. High school students in the DCM belong to the Upward Bound Science and Math (UBSM) program at the Inter American University, Ponce Campus. After workshops on using the scientific method, students were organized into groups of three students with similar research interests. Each student had to take on a role within the group as either a researcher, data analyst, or research editor. Initially, each research team developed hypothesis-driven ideas on their proposed project. In intrateam research meetings, they emphasized team-specific tasks. Next, interteam meetings were held to present ideas and receive critical input. Finally, oral and poster research presentations were conducted at the UBSM science fair. Several team research projects covered topics in medical, environmental, and general microbiology. The three major assessment areas for the workshop and DCM included: (i) student’s perception of the workshops’ effectiveness in developing skills, content, and values; (ii) research team self- and group participation evaluation, and (iii) oral and poster presentation during the science fair. More than 91% of the students considered the workshops effective in the presentation of scientific method fundamentals. The combination of the workshop and the DCM increased student’s knowledge by 55% from pre- to posttests. Two rubrics were designed to assess the oral presentation and poster set-up. The poster and oral presentation scores averaged 83% and 75% respectively. Finally, we present a team assessment instrument that allows the self- and group evaluation of each research team. While the DCM has educational plasticity and versatility, here we document how the this model has been successfully incorporated in training and engaging students in scientific research in microbiology.
RIOS-VELAZQUEZ, CARLOS; ROBLES-SUAREZ, REYNALDO; GONZALEZ-NEGRON, ALBERTO J.; BAEZ-SANTOS, IVAN
The interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach is critical in the care of elderly adults. Performance-based tools to assess IDT skills have not been well validated. A novel assessment tool, the standardized patient (SP) and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting (SIDTM), consisting of two stations, was developed. First, trainees evaluate a SP hospitalized after a fall. Second, trainees play the role of the physician in a standardized IDT meeting with a standardized registered nurse (SRN) and standardized medical social worker (SMSW) for discharge planning. The SP-SIDTM was administered to 52 fourth-year medical students (MS4s) and six geriatric medicine fellows (GMFs) in 2011/12. The SP, SRN, and SMSW scored trainee performance on dichotomous checklists of clinical tasks and Likert scales of communication skills, which were compared according to level of training using t-tests. Trainees rated the SP-SIDTM experience as moderately difficult, length of time about right, and believability moderate to high. Reliability was high for both cases (Cronbach ? = 0.73-0.87). Interobserver correlation between SRN and SMSW checklist scores (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.82, P < .001) and total scores (r = 0.69, P < .001) were high. The overall score on the SP-SIDTM case was significantly higher for GMF (75) than for MS4 (65, P = .002). These observations support the validity of this novel assessment tool. PMID:24383978
Team Building creates a working atmosphere where characteristics are developed that enable the team to be effective. Construction projects that have successful safety programs have many of the same characteristics of effective teams. This thesis analyzes ...
In three field studies, we explore the impact of providing employees and teammates with prosocial bonuses, a novel type of bonus spent on others rather than on oneself. In Experiment 1, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of donations to charity lead to happier and more satisfied employees at an Australian bank. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of expenditures on teammates lead to better performance in both sports teams in Canada and pharmaceutical sales teams in Belgium. These results suggest that a minor adjustment to employee bonuses – shifting the focus from the self to others – can produce measurable benefits for employees and organizations.
Anik, Lalin; Aknin, Lara B.; Norton, Michael I.; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Quoidbach, Jordi
Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and teamperformance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.
The primary purpose of this study was to extend theory and research regarding the emergence of mental models and transactive memory in teams. Utilizing Kozlowski, Gully, Nason, and Smith's (1999) model of team compilation, we examined the effect of role identification behaviors and posited that such behaviors represent the initial building blocks of team cognition during the role compilation phase of team development. We then hypothesized that team mental models and transactive memory would convey the effects of these behaviors onto teamperformance in the team compilation phase of development. Results from 60 teams working on a command-and-control simulation supported our hypotheses. PMID:20085416
Pearsall, Matthew J; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Bell, Bradford S
Teamwork and coordination of expertise among team members with different backgrounds are increasingly recognized as important for team effectiveness. Recently, researchers have examined how team members rely on transactive memory system (TMS; D. M. Wegner, 1987) to share their distributed knowledge and expertise. To establish the ecological validity and generality of TMS research findings, this study sampled 104 work teams
Zhi-Xue Zhang; Paul S. Hempel; Yu-Lan Han; Dean Tjosvold
As part of a broader study on Indigenous illegal drug use, the authors undertook skills training to increase cross-cultural mutual understanding of the often different approaches and methodologies between research and practice, as well as Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal understandings of these approaches. The study and the skills transfer training…
As globalisation continues concurrent with mergers and acquisitions, transnational organisations are increasingly turning to the use of virtual teams in which members collaborate through technology-mediated interaction. Although collocated teams and virtual teams share many common characteristics including performance measures, the nature of the environments differ along several dimensions. In particular, members of virtual teams cooperate on global projects while resident
Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction [Hogan, R. (1991). Personality and personality assessment. In M. D. Dunnette, L. Hough, (Eds.), "Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology" (2nd ed., pp. 873-919). Chicago: Rand McNally; Hogan, R., & Shelton, D. (1998). A socioanalytic perspective on job performance.…
Blickle, Gerhard; Meurs, James A.; Zettler, Ingo; Solga, Jutta; Noethen, Daniela; Kramer, Jochen; Ferris, Gerald R.
Background This mixed methods study was designed to explore the acceptability and impact of feedback of teamperformance data to primary care interdisciplinary teams. Methods Seven interdisciplinary teams were offered a one-hour, facilitated performance feedback session presenting data from a comprehensive, previously-conducted evaluation, selecting highlights such as performance on chronic disease management, access, patient satisfaction and team function. Results Several recurrent themes emerged from participants' surveys and two rounds of interviews within three months of the feedback session. Teamperformance measurement and feedback was welcomed across teams and disciplines. This feedback could build the team, the culture, and the capacity for quality improvement. However, existing performance indicators do not equally reflect the role of different disciplines within an interdisciplinary team. Finally, the effect of teamperformance feedback on intentions to improve performance was hindered by a poor understanding of how the team could use the data. Conclusions The findings further our understanding of how performance feedback may engage interdisciplinary team members in improving the quality of primary care and the unique challenges specific to these settings. There is a need to develop a shared sense of responsibility and agenda for quality improvement. Therefore, more efforts to develop flexible and interactive performance-reporting structures (that better reflect contributions from all team members) in which teams could specify the information and audience may assist in promoting quality improvement.
This study investigates the distribution of information sources within a team's environment. Specifically, this study hypothesizes that providing task specific information to individual team members will improve coordination and decision-making, and there...
This article explores the effects of team voice and worker representative voice, as well as their interaction, on labor productivity. We examine team voice in terms of team influence on key work-related issues and representative voice via the degree of worker representatives’ influence on multiple collective voice issues. We thus build on the European tradition of examining both direct and
This publication looks at the ways in which one who is part of a team can help improve the team's performance. The successes and failures of a fictional team are used to illustrate real-life teamskills. Examples are drawn from a number of imaginary scenarios--for example, looking for a cache of diamonds in the Brazilian jungle, straightening ties…
1 Effects of amitriptyline 50 mg, desipramine 100 mg, and zimelidine 200 mg alone and in combination with ethanol 0.8 g/kg were investigated in healthy, male volunteers. 2 Amitriptyline increased body sway and impaired tracking as well as information processing. It had an additive deleterious pharmacodynamic interaction with ethanol. 3 Desipramine and zimelidine were free of adverse effects on performance and did not have significant interactions with ethanol. 4 The dose of ethanol used in the present study did not inhibit biotransformation of the antidepressants.
Linnoila, M.; Johnson, Jeannette; Dubyoski, Kristine; Buchsbaum, M. S.; Schneinin, Mika; Kilts, C.
Integrating research on polychronicity, team diversity, and team cognition, we hypothesized that shared temporal cognition (overlapping knowledge) and temporal transactive memory systems (differentiated knowledge) would moderate the effects of polychronicity diversity on teamperformance. Results from 71 teams in an Indian organization revealed opposing moderating effects in that shared temporal cognition attenuated, but temporal transactive memory systems amplified, the negative effects of polychronicity diversity on teamperformance. Shared temporal cognition also exerted a strong, positive effect on teamperformance. Study results provide support for the continued examination of polychronicity diversity and temporal team cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24490966
The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree collective efficacy judgments based on summative teamperformance capabilities exhibited different levels of prediction for three additive intervals of teamperformance in women's ice hockey. Collective efficacy beliefs of 12 teams were assessed prior to Friday's game and Saturday's game for at least 7 weekends. Questionnaires were completed within
Nicholas D. Myers; Craig A. Paiement; Deborah L. Feltz
This study explored coaches' and athletes' perceptions of coaching staff cohesion (CSC) and their relationships with team cohesion and performance. Eighteen NCAA Division I, II, and III teams participated. Coaches completed the Coaching Staff Cohesion Scale (CSCS; Martin, 2002). Athletes completed a modified CSCS, the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, 1985), and an item of perceived teamperformance. Significant differences
Rebecca A. Zakrajsek; Christiaan G. Abildsoa; Jennifer R. Hurst; Jack C. Watson
Inter-rater agreement in a peer performance evaluation system was analyzed using a sample of 44 individuals who rated focal persons in seven teams. Objective information concerning individual performance on multiple choice tests, as well as information gleaned from individual contributions to team testing and team graded exercises, resulted in high inter-rater reliabilities (assessed via ICCs) and strong criterion related validity
When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on teamperformance. Does this social capital affect teamperformance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model…
Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A.
This paper compares the processes of Face-To-Face (FTF) teams and Online Learning Teams (OLTs) and proposes methods to improve the performance of OLTs. An empirical study reviewed the performance of fifteen FTF teams and OLTs and their communication patterns were coded by the TEMPO system developed by Futoran et al. (1989) in order to develop a…
This report describes a program of research investigating collaborative memory processes. The program's aim was to understand how collaboration among members of AWACS weapons director teams could influence their performance. Predictions for team memo...
This paper focuses on the concept of trust as an important ingredient of effective global virtual teamperformance. Definitions of trust and virtual teams are presented. The concept of trust is developed from its unilateral application (trust, absence of ...
An experiment is described in which the effects of three different methods for crosstraining on teamperformance and communication within teams are examined. The methods for crosstraining differ in information contents about the tasks, activities and info...
In today's global work environment, inclusive and clear communication has become increasingly important. Educators have the responsibility to equip computer science and software engineering undergraduates with communication skills that can help them, as budding professionals, to manage these global challenges. Participants of this workshop will learn about a spectrum of work approaches and communication styles; they will learn to use
Reports on a longitudinal study of high school instrumentalists that examined the development of four distinct types of musical performance (playing by ear, playing from memory, sight reading, and improvising) over three years. Reveals a significant improvement in these skills while also demonstrating changes in aural and creative activities. (CMK)
This study experimentally examined the cohesion-performance relationship. Undergraduate male volunteers were randomly assigned to 3-man basketball teams and teams were randomly assigned to receive either a cohesion-producing or a cohesion-reducing manipulation before competing. Level of cohesion and individual as well as teamperformance variables were assessed prior to and after each game. The manipulation successfully created teams higher and lower
Frederick G. Grieve; James P. Whelan; Andrew W. Meyers
Using a two-study approach, we examined a methodology for objectively depicting teamperformance and form in a professional rugby union side. Study 1 developed standardized indicators to examine a team's performance in a single match relative to their previous matches over a domestic season via a performance report and form chart. This resulted in standardized performance indicators that provided instant and coherent feedback on the team's performance relative to previous standards. Study 2 then utilized this methodology to compare a match between two professional sides, played the following season, to assess the extent to which the performance by one team affected that of the other. Comparison of the two teams' performances, for the match they played against each other, identified a drop in relative performance (against previous standards) for both teams on the same performance indicators. This appeared to be due to the match being a close, hard-fought contest particularly in the tackle and around the gain-line. The findings of the two studies suggest an accurate and viable methodology for depicting teamperformance that is superior to the global measures previously adopted. Presenting teams' current standardized performances (i.e. form) on a single visual scale also has utility for coaches within an applied setting. Future research should further investigate the effect of one team's performance on another through both individual and team outcomes. PMID:18409100
Jones, Nicholas M P; James, Nic; Mellalieu, Stephen D
This practical guidebook is designed for managers and leaders who have responsibility for the creation and success of teams. First, a team is described as a workgroup whose members are dependent upon one another for the completion of a given task, and whose members possess different but complementary skill sets. A team manages its own work within…
Based on a detailed job analysis, job-related personality dimensions and communication skills were used as predictors of hospice nurse performance. In particular, it was predicted that communication\\/social competence and certain dimensions of empathy (empathic concern, perspective-taking) would be positively related to hospice nurse performance, and that another type of empathy, personal distress, and trait dogmatism would be negatively associated with
Behaviors of individuals in teams both contribute to and are molded by team dynamics. How they do so has been the subject of much research. A method of portraying individuals' behaviors in teams, the Team Diagramming Method (TDM) is presented. Behaviors are rated by other team members on three important dimensions: positivity/negativity, dominant/submissive, and task-orientedness/expressiveness. A study of 5-person teams engaging in a 3-day moon simulation task demonstrated that measures of these perceived behaviors as well as the variances of these behaviors correlated with cohesion measures and performance. The method shows strengths and weaknesses of particular teams and, by comparison with high-performingteams, suggests interventions based on individual as well as team behaviors. The primary goal of this study was to determine the extent to which these team level variables, derived from all team members' rated behaviors, were associated with previous methods of measuring cohesion and with performance. A secondary goal was to determine the stability of TDM measures over time by comparing team level variables based on ratings early and later in the team s work together.
This workbook is designed for leaders and members of work teams in educational and social-service systems. It presents in a systematic fashion a set of tested facilitation tools that will allow teams to work more efficiently and harmoniously, enabling them to achieve their goals, to deal directly with both personal and work-related issues that…
Education policymakers have shown increased interest in incentive programs for teachers based on the outcomes of their students. This article examines a program in which bonuses were awarded to teams of middle school teachers based on their collective contribution to student test score gains. The study employs a randomized controlled trial to…
Springer, Matthew G.; Pane, John F.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Burns, Susan Freeman; Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian
The primary purpose of the study was to investigate team-based e-Learning content development projects from the perspective of the shared mental model (SMM) theory. The researcher conducted a study of 79 e-Learning content development teams in Korea to examine the relationship between taskwork and teamwork SMMs and the performance of the teams.…
A case study of a Fortune 500 company was used to develop an integrated model of high-performance work organizations. Components are systems thinking, team interaction, team principles, and results. The model requires an ongoing training plan, change agents or champions, and recognition of teams' productive potential and fragile nature. (SK)
The ancillary (non-sounding) body movements made by expert musicians during performance have been shown to indicate expressive, emotional, and structural features of the music to observers, even if the sound of the performance is absent. If such ancillary body movements are a component of skilled musical performance, then it should follow that acquiring the temporal control of such movements is a feature of musical skill acquisition. This proposition is tested using measures derived from a theory of temporal guidance of movement, "General Tau Theory" (Lee in Ecol Psychol 10:221-250, 1998; Lee et al. in Exp Brain Res 139:151-159, 2001), to compare movements made during performances of intermediate-level clarinetists before and after learning a new piece of music. Results indicate that the temporal control of ancillary body movements made by participants was stronger in performances after the music had been learned and was closer to the measures of temporal control found for an expert musician's movements. These findings provide evidence that the temporal control of musicians' ancillary body movements develops with musical learning. These results have implications for other skillful behaviors and nonverbal communication. PMID:23392474
The blend of skills, attributes, and relationships among team members influences their mutual performance. This project addressed the team composition requirements for tasks that vary in uncertainty, risk, and time pressure. Military leaders were asked to...
This qualitative focus group study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training for police officers. Thematic analysis of transcripts of focus group discussions revealed that officers report increased knowledge of mental illnesses (which manifests as an improved ability to recognize and respond, reduced stereotyping/stigmatization, greater empathy toward consumers and their caregivers, more patience when dealing with consumers, and fewer arrests/more redirection toward treatment), as well as practical application of learned skills (evidenced by an ability to put individuals with mental illnesses at ease, reduced unpredictability of the crisis situation, and reduced risk of injury). Results highlight the potential for collaboration between law enforcement (and other public safety/criminal justice professions) and the mental health professions in the expanding CIT collaborative model. PMID:18465226
Hanafi, Sonya; Bahora, Masuma; Demir, Berivan N; Compton, Michael T
Using a two-study approach, we examined a methodology for objectively depicting teamperformance and form in a professional rugby union side. Study 1 developed standardized indicators to examine a team's performance in a single match relative to their previous matches over a domestic season via a performance report and form chart. This resulted in standardized performance indicators that provided instant
Nicholas M. P. Jones; Nic James; Stephen D. Mellalieu
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution, during the 90-min Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test, on soccer skillperformance. Seventeen male soccer players ingested either a 6.4% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or placebo solution equivalent to 8 ml · kg body mass before exercise and 3 ml · kg body mass after every 15 min of exercise, in a double-blind randomized cross-over
When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on teamperformance. Does this social capital affect teamperformance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model according to which the leader's charisma facilitates the occupation of a central position in the informal advice network. From this central position, the leader positively influences teamperformance. Second, we examined the centrality-to-charisma model according to which charisma is attributed to those leaders who are socially active in terms of giving and receiving advice. Attributed charisma facilitates increased teamperformance. We tested these 2 models in 2 different studies. In the first study, based on time-separated, multisource data emanating from members of 56 work teams, we found support for the centrality-to-charisma model. Formal leaders who were central within team advice networks were seen as charismatic by subordinates, and this charisma was associated with high teamperformance. To clarify how leader network centrality affected the emergence of charismatic leadership, we designed Study 2 in which, for 79 student teams, we measured leader networking activity and leader charisma at 2 different points in time and related these variables to teamperformance measured at a third point in time. On the basis of this temporally separated data set, we again found support for the centrality-to-charisma model. PMID:21895351
Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A
Skilled piano performance requires considerable movement control to accomplish the high levels of timing and force precision common among professional musicians, who acquire piano technique over decades of practice. Finger movement efficiency in particular is an important factor when pianists perform at very fast tempi. We document the finger movement kinematics of highly skilled pianists as they performed a five-finger melody at very fast tempi. A three-dimensional motion-capture system tracked the movements of finger joints, the hand, and the forearm of twelve pianists who performed on a digital piano at successively faster tempi (7–16 tones/s) until they decided to stop. Joint angle trajectories computed for all adjacent finger phalanges, the hand, and the forearm (wrist angle) indicated that the metacarpophalangeal joint contributed most to the vertical fingertip motion while the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints moved slightly opposite to the movement goal (finger extension). An efficiency measure of the combined finger joint angles corresponded to the temporal accuracy and precision of the pianists’ performances: Pianists with more efficient keystroke movements showed higher precision in timing and force measures. Keystroke efficiency and individual joint contributions remained stable across tempo conditions. Individual differences among pianists supported the view that keystroke efficiency is required for successful fast performance.
This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…
Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
Discusses issues related to training and performance improvement, including practice required for skill learning; knowledge versus skills; core skills; competence; learning to learn; team orientation; enabling business results; interpersonal and conceptual skills; timing; focusing on priorities; organizational learning and management…
Given the problems associated with the traditional lecture method, the constraints associated with large classes, and the effectiveness of active learning, continued development and testing of efficient student-centered learning approaches are needed. This study explores the effectiveness of team-based learning (TBL) in a large-enrollment…
The authors examined the relationship between team satisfaction and students' performance in group projects in two universities, one from the United States and one from Qatar. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between team satisfaction and group performance only for the American students. Demographic factors…
Zeitun, Rami M.; Abdulqader, Khalid Shams; Alshare, Khaled A.
The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term teamperformance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…
This study investigates how a personality trait and expertise affect virtual teams interaction, and how that interaction leads to different levels of performance (e.g., solution quality, solution acceptance, cohesion). Teams have been shown to exhibit constructive, aggressive\\/defensive, or passive\\/defensive interaction styles that affect communication and thus teamperformance by facilitating or hindering the exchange of information among group members. These
Pierre A. Balthazard; Richard E. Potter; John Warren
Purpose Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) theory posits that effective leaders form dyadic relationships with followers that differ in\\u000a quality, and that differentiation positively affects teamperformance. The purpose of this study was to test the notion that\\u000a leader differentiation positively impacts teamperformance, and to investigate whether such effects differ at different points\\u000a in the team’s lifecycle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design\\/methodology\\/approach Longitudinal data from three studies
Loren J. NaidooCharles; Charles A. Scherbaum; Harold W. Goldstein; George B. Graen
Little is known about how team goal setting contributes to the products of the team building process-team cohesion and teamperformance. This article outlines (a) the nature and extent of group goal setting that occurs within and outside of sport, (b) why team goal setting can enhance team cohesion and teamperformance, (c) the findings of research into the team
As colleges and schools of pharmacy develop core courses related to patient safety, course-level outcomes will need to include both knowledge and performance measures. Three key performance outcomes for patient safety coursework, measured at the course level, are the ability to perform root cause analyses and healthcare failure mode effects analyses, and the ability to generate effective safety communications using structured formats such as the Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation (SBAR) situational briefing model. Each of these skills is widely used in patient safety work and competence in their use is essential for a pharmacist's ability to contribute as a member of a patient safety team.
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ?12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition. PMID:24506819
Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime
Home advantage in team sports has an important role in determining the outcome of a game. The aim of the present study was to identify the soccer game- related statistics that best discriminate home and visiting teams according to the team quality. The sample included all 380 games of the Spanish professional men's league. The independent variables were game location (home or away) and the team quality. Teams were classified into four groups according to their final ranking at the end of the league. The game-related statistics registered were divided into three groups: (i) variables related to goals scored; (ii) variables related to offense and (iii) variables related to defense. A univariate (t-test and Mann-Whitney U) and multivariate (discriminant analysis) analysis of data was done. Results showed that home teams have significantly higher means for goal scored, total shots, shots on goal, attacking moves, box moves, crosses, offsides committed, assists, passes made, successful passes, dribbles made, successful dribbles, ball possession, and gains of possession, while visiting teams presented higher means for losses of possession and yellow cards. In addition, the findings of the current study confirm that game location and team quality are important in determining technical and tactical performances in matches. Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage. Future research should consider the influence of other confounding variables such as weather conditions, game status and team form. Key pointsHome teams have significantly higher figures for attack indicators probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects.The teams' game-related statistics profile varied according to game location and team quality.Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage. PMID:24150619
Examined how peer tutors' skill levels affected novice learners' swimming achievement motivation and performance. Data on French high school seniors indicated that skilled tutors yielded the best skills for boys, whereas skilled and intermediate tutors yielded the best skills for girls. Skilled tutors led to higher self-efficacy for improvement…
d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Gernigon, Christophe; Huet, Marie-Laure; Cadopi, Marielle; Winnykamen, Fayda
The current investigation examined sport fans' impressions of an athlete described as a potential member of their team or a potential member of a rival team. In Study 1, we predicted that individuals would exhibit an ingroup favoritism effect by reporting more positive evaluations of the player's performance when he was described as a…
Wann, Daniel L.; Koch, Katrina; Knoth, Tasha; Fox, David; Aljubaily, Hesham; Lantz, Christopher D.
Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status…
A study performed at the OECD Halden Reactor Project compared the effects of interface design and staffing levels on various aspects of teamperformance. Teams of nuclear power plant operators participated in challenging simulator scenarios, working in either a simulated conventional plant, with a hard-control interface, or in a simulated advanced plant, with a computerized interface. Two-team staffing levels, normal and minimum, were evaluated in each plant condition. All teams participated in the same five study conditions, lasting 1-3 h each. Several measures assessed teamperformance: situation awareness, workload, rated team interactions, rated overall performance and objective performance. The findings revealed that combinations of interface design and staffing levels supported different aspects of performance. Larger crews consistently performed better than smaller crews in the conventional plant. In the advanced plant, both crew types performed equally well; however, smaller crews had better situation awareness than larger crews. In general, performance was better for crews using the advanced plant interface, but workload was higher. Workload also was consistently higher in the smaller crews than in the larger crews, regardless of interface type. Links between the performance measures were also noted. PMID:10975181
Context: Sports nutrition experts recommend that team-sport athletes participating in intermittent high-intensity exercise for ?1 hr consume 1-4 g carbohydrate/kg 1-4 hr before, 30-60 g carbohydrate/hr during, and 1-1.2 g carbohydrate/kg/hr and 20-25 g protein as soon as possible after exercise. The study objective was to compare observed vs. recommended macronutrient intake of competitive athletes under free-living conditions. Methods: The dietary intake of 29 skill/team-sport athletes (14-19 y; 22 male, 7 female) was observed at a sports training facility by trained registered dietitians for one 24-hr period. Dietitians accompanied subjects to the cafeteria and field/court to record their food and fluid intake during meals and practices/competitions. Other dietary intake within the 24-hr period (e.g., snacks during class) was accounted for by having the subject take a picture of the food/fluid and completing a log. Results: For male and female athletes, respectively, the mean ± SD (and percent of athletes meeting recommended) macronutrient intake around exercise was 1.4 ± 0.6 (73%) and 1.4 ± 1.0 (57%) g carbohydrate/kg in the 4 hr before exercise, 21.1 ± 17.2 (18%) and 18.6 ± 13.2 (29%) g carbohydrate/hrr during exercise, 1.4 ± 1.1 (68%) and 0.9 ± 1.0 (43%) g carbohydrate/kg and 45.2 ± 36.9 (73%) and 18.0 ± 21.2 (43%) g protein in the 1 hr after exercise. Conclusion: The male athletes' carbohydrate and protein intake more closely approximated recommendations overall than that of the female athletes. The most common shortfall was carbohydrate intake during exercise, as only 18% of male and 29% of female athletes consumed 30-60 g carbohydrate/hr during practice/competition. PMID:24808251
Baker, Lindsay B; Heaton, Lisa E; Nuccio, Ryan P; Stein, Kimberly W
Background Deployment of highly effective artemisinin-based combination therapy for treating uncomplicated malaria calls for better targeting of malaria treatment to improve case management and minimize drug pressure for selecting resistant parasites. The Integrated Management of Malaria curriculum was developed to train multi-disciplinary teams of clinical, laboratory and health information assistants. Methods Evaluation of training was conducted in nine health facilities that were Uganda Malaria Surveillance Programme (UMSP) sites. From December 2006 to June 2007, 194 health professionals attended a six-day course. One-hundred and one of 118 (86%) clinicians were observed during patient encounters by expert clinicians at baseline and during three follow-up visits approximately six weeks, 12 weeks and one year after the course. Experts used a standardized tool for children less than five years of age and similar tool for patients five or more years of age. Seventeen of 30 laboratory professionals (57%) were assessed for preparation of malaria blood smears and ability to interpret smear results of 30 quality control slides. Results Percentage of patients at baseline and first follow-up, respectively, with proper history-taking was 21% and 43%, thorough physical examination 18% and 56%, correct diagnosis 51% and 98%, treatment in compliance with national policy 42% and 86%, and appropriate patient education 17% and 83%. In estimates that adjusted for individual effects and a matched sample, relative risks were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.20,2.88) for history-taking, 2.66 (95%CI: 1.60,4.41) for physical examination, 1.77 (95%CI: 1.41,2.23) for diagnosis, 1.96 (95%CI: 1.46,2.63) for treatment, and 4.47 (95%CI: 2.68,7.46) for patient education. Results were similar for subsequent follow-up and in sub-samples stratified by patient age. Quality of malaria blood smear preparation improved from 21.6% at baseline to 67.3% at first follow-up (p < 0.008); sensitivity of interpretation of quality control slides increased from 48.6% to 70.6% (p < 0.199) and specificity increased from 72.1% to 77.2% (p < 0.736). Results were similar for subsequent follow-up, with the exception of a significant increase in specificity (94.2%, p < 0.036) at one year. Conclusion A multi-disciplinary team training resulted in statistically significant improvements in clinical and laboratory skills. As a joint programme, the effects cannot be distinguished from UMSP activities, but lend support to long-term, on-going capacity-building and surveillance interventions.
Measures of human mental development suggest that behavioral skills displayed during early life can predict an individual's subsequent cognitive performance. Support for this draws from longitudinal studies that reveal compelling within-subject correlations during childhood. If this idea applies across the life span, then correlations in performance should persist into adulthood. Here, we address this prediction in juvenile and adult gerbils by evaluating within-subject measures of auditory learning and perception. Animals were trained and tested as juveniles on either an amplitude modulation (AM) or a frequency modulation (FM) detection task. Measures of learning and perception obtained from juveniles were then compared to similar measures obtained when each subject was tested in adulthood on either the same task or the untrained task. For animals trained and tested on the AM detection task as juveniles and adults, there was no correlation between juvenile and adult learning metrics, or perceptual sensitivity. For animals trained and tested on FM detection as juveniles, we observed a significant relationship to their adult performance. Juveniles that performed the best on FM detection were the poorest at AM detection, and the best at FM detection, when tested as adults. Thus, across-age correlations for sensory and cognitive measures, obtained during development and in adulthood, depend heavily on the specific type of developmental experience and the outcome measure. PMID:24512063
numbers of patients are seen. Care may also be provided by a health care team that con- sists of a physician and one additional health team member, such as a pulmonary clinical nurse specialist or a respiratory therapist. Thus, the specific responsibilities of each team member may vary, depending on the needs of the individual, the availability of members of
When safety, security, or other logistical concerns prevent direct objective assessment of teamperformance, other evaluation techniques become necessary. In this paper, the effect of a Department of Energy-mandated reader worker program on teamperformance at a particular DOE facility was evaluated using unstructured observations, informal discussions with technicians, and human reliability analysis. The reader worker program is intended to enhance nuclear explosive safety by improving the reliability of teamperformance. The three methods used for the evaluation combine to provide a strong indication that teamperformance is in fact enhanced by a properly implemented reader worker procedure. Because direct quantitative data on dependent variables particular to the task of interest is not available, however, there has been some skepticism regarding the results by staff at the facility.
Compared younger and older golfers equivalent at molar level of performance (shots taken per round of golf) through componential analysis to identify age differences in psychomotor skills. Differences suggest age-related impairment in some component skills are compensated for by greater reliance on skills that either improve or remain stable with…
The brain regions functionally engaged in motor sequence performance are well-established, but the structural characteristics of these regions and the fiber pathways involved have been less well studied. In addition, relatively few studies have combined multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and behavioral performance measures in the same sample. Therefore, the current study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), probabilistic tractography, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to determine the structural correlates of skilled motor performance. Further, we compared these findings with fMRI results in the same sample. We correlated final performance and rate of improvement measures on a temporal motor sequence task (TMST) with skeletonized fractional anisotropy (FA) and whole brain gray matter (GM) volume. Final synchronization performance was negatively correlated with FA in white matter (WM) underlying bilateral sensorimotor cortex—an effect that was mediated by a positive correlation with radial diffusivity. Multi-fiber tractography indicated that this region contained crossing fibers from the corticospinal tract (CST) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). The identified SLF pathway linked parietal and auditory cortical regions that have been shown to be functionally engaged in this task. Thus, we hypothesize that enhanced synchronization performance on this task may be related to greater fiber integrity of the SLF. Rate of improvement on synchronization was positively correlated with GM volume in cerebellar lobules HVI and V—regions that showed training-related decreases in activity in the same sample. Taken together, our results link individual differences in brain structure and function to motor sequence performance on the same task. Further, our study illustrates the utility of using multiple MR measures and analysis techniques to specify the interpretation of structural findings.
Steele, Christopher J.; Scholz, Jan; Douaud, Gwenaelle; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Penhune, Virginia B.
The effect of haptic interfaces on motor skill training has been widely studied. However, relatively little is known about whether haptic training can promote long-term motor skill acquisition. In this paper, we report two experimental studies that investigated the effectiveness of visuohaptic (visual + haptic) interfaces in helping people develop short-term and long-term motor skills. Our first study compared training
Xing-Dong Yang; Walter F. Bischof; Pierre Boulanger
The report describes a program of research addressing decision making in hierarchical teams with distributed expertise. A theory of such decision making is presented along with empirical research related to the theory. Then a team simulation exercise was ...
The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented. The model facilitates the identification of the psychological demands of a specific sport, which in turn enables distinguishing which psychological skills are required. This allows an expert to choose psychological techniques to improve the athlete's psychological skill. Considerations based on our model and the limited HIS-related literature available revealed self-skills, personal development and life skills, arousal-regulation skills, volitional skills, motivational skills and recovery skills as the most important skills to address in order to enhance performance. Development of harmonious passion, in-practice integration of volitional strategies, use of associative attentional techniques, pain management techniques, use of the mindfulness-acceptance approach and the facilitative interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations are regarded as suitable to meet the psychological demands of HIS. They are recommended for systematic application by athletes and coaches. PMID:20840565
Scholars have invoked subgroups in a number of theories related to teams, yet certain tensions in the literature remain unresolved. In this article, we address 2 of these tensions, both relating to how subgroups are configured in work teams: (a) whether teamsperform better with a greater number of subgroups and (b) whether teamsperform better when they have imbalanced subgroups (majorities and minorities are present) or balanced subgroups (subgroups are of equal size). We predict that the impact of the number and balance of subgroups depends on the type of subgroup-whether subgroups are formed according to social identity (i.e., identity-based subgroups) or information processing (i.e., knowledge-based subgroups). We first propose that teams are more adversely affected by 2 identity-based subgroups than by any other number, yet the uniquely negative impact of a 2-subgroup configuration is not apparent for knowledge-based subgroups. Instead, a larger number of knowledge-based subgroups is beneficial for performance, such that 2 subgroups is worse for performance when compared with 3 or more subgroups but better for performance when compared with no subgroups or 1 subgroup. Second, we argue that teamsperform better when identity-based subgroups are imbalanced yet knowledge-based subgroups are balanced. We also suggest that there are interactive effects between the number and balance of subgroups-however, the nature of this interaction depends on the type of subgroup. To test these predictions, we developed and validated an algorithm that measures the configurational properties of subgroups in organizational work teams. Results of a field study of 326 work teams from a multinational organization support our predictions. PMID:23915429
In Australia, as in the UK, much of the skills debate in research education has reflected a deficit model, whereby candidates are deemed to be in need of supplementary training. In response to the demands of employers and governments, most universities have added employability skills to postgraduate curricula, while simultaneously boosting their…
The ability to visualize objects and situations in one's mind and to manipulate those images is a cognitive skill vital to many career fields, especially those requiring work with graphical images. Evidence suggests that well-developed spatial skills are critical to success in Engineering, Structural Chemistry, Computer Science, Mathematics, Physics, Medicine, Dentistry, and many other fields. Spatial abilities have been widely
Sheryl A. SORBY; Paul CHARLESWORTH; Thomas DRUMMER
How we learn and refine motor skills in the most effective manner and how we prevent performance breakdown in pressurised or demanding circumstances are among the most important questions within the sport psychology and skill acquisition literature. The quiet eye (QE) has emerged as a characteristic of highly skilled perceptual and motor performance in visually guided motor tasks. Defined as the final fixation that occurs prior to a critical movement, over 70 articles have been published in the last 15 years probing the role that the QE plays in underpinning skilledperformance. The aim of this review is to integrate research findings from studies examining the QE as a measure of visuomotor control in the specific domain of targeting skills; motor skills requiring an object to be propelled to a distant target. Previous reviews have focused primarily on the differences in QE between highly skilledperformers and their less skilled counterparts. The current review aims to discuss contemporary findings relating to 1. The benefits of QE training for the acquisition and refinement of targeting skills; 2. The effects of anxiety upon the QE and subsequent targeting skillperformance and 3. The benefits of QE training in supporting resilient performance under elevated anxiety. Finally, potential processes through which QE training proffers this advantage, including improved attentional control, response programming and external focus, will be discussed and directions for future research proposed. PMID:24444212
The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of performance in successive matches for international soccer teams from Europe which qualified for the quarter final stage of EURO 2012 in Poland and Ukraine. The eight teams that reached the quarter final stage and beyond were the sample teams for this time series analysis. The autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions were used to analyze the consistency of play and its association with the result of match in sixteen performance indicators of each team. The results of autocorrelation function showed that based on the number of consistent performance indicators, Spain and Italy demonstrated more consistency in successive matches in relation to other teams. This appears intuitive given that Spain played Italy in the final. However, it is arguable that other teams played at a higher performance levels at various parts of the competition, as opposed to performing consistently throughout the tournament. The results of the cross-correlation analysis showed that in relation to goal-related indicators, these had higher associations with the match results of Spain and France. In relation to the offensive-related indicators, France, England, Portugal, Greece, Czech Republic and Spain showed a positive correlation with the match result. In relation to the defensive-related indicators, France, England, Greece and Portugal showed a positive correlation with match results. In conclusion, in an international soccer tournament, the successful teams displayed a greater degree of performance consistency across all indicators in comparison to their competitors who occasionally would show higher levels of performance in individual games, yet not consistently across the overall tournament. The authors therefore conclude that performance consistency is more significant in international tournament soccer, versus occasionally excelling in some metrics and indicators in particular games.
Shafizadeh, Mohsen; Taylor, Marc; Penas, Carlos Lago
The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how peer-based rational control, which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with the more commonly studied normative control force of group cohesion to explain both individual and collective performance in teams. On the basis of data from 587 factory workers in 45 self-managing teams at 3 organizations, peer-based rational control corresponded with higher performance for both individuals and collective teams. Results further demonstrated that the rational and normative mechanism of peer-based control interacted to explain performance at both the individual and team levels. Increased peer-based rational control corresponded with higher individual and collective performance in teams with low cohesion, but the positive effects on performance were attenuated in cohesive teams. PMID:21895352
Stewart, Greg L; Courtright, Stephen H; Barrick, Murray R
Human factors or non-technical skills are now commonplace in the medical literature, having taken the lead from the airline and nuclear industries and more recently Formula One motor racing. They have been suggested as playing a vital role in the success of the trauma teams in recent conflicts. This article outlines the background to human factors, referring to early papers and reports and also outlines high profile cases that highlight their importance. We then describe the importance of human factors in the deployed setting and some of the lessons that have been learnt from current conflicts. PMID:24389744
Background:Teamwork and communication have been identified as root causes of sentinel events involving infant death and injury during delivery. However, despite the emphasis on team training as a way to improve maternal and fetal safety outcomes, valid and reliable markers of obstetrical teamperformance are not available to assess curricular efficacy.Objectives:The objective of this study was to develop and assess
Background High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%), advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) (91.1%), basic life support (BLS) (90.0%), interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4%) and blood gas (88.7%). Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later) and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%), sterile technique (67.2%), BLS (68.9%), ACLS (65.9%) and phlebotomy (63.5%). Discussion Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the first year of residency training or later. Conclusions Gathering data from residency program directors provides support for developing new assessment tools in high-stakes licensing examinations.
Langenau, Erik E.; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Roberts, William L.; DeChamplain, Andre F.; Boulet, John R.
This study surveyed current practice amongst 91 Indian and Australian staff working within multidisciplinary mental health teams, looking at leadership skills, conflict resolution and therapeutic abilities. Length of training was asso ciated with management skills, though these skills were more developed by psychiatric nurses and occupational therapists working in community settings. Hospital settings involved less consensual decision-making than community teams.
This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…
Recent studies have demonstrated that the direction of attentional focus exerts a substantial influence on motor performance. We argue that in well-learned skills, this variable might be confounded with athletes' familiarity with focus conditions. We studied the effect of familiarity and the direction of attentional focus on performance in two experiments using 2 (familiarity)×2 (direction) within-subject designs. A significant main effect of familiarity-that is, better performance under familiar compared with unfamiliar focus conditions-confirmed the influence of familiarity on motor performance. Results are consistent with existing concepts, but lead to different consequences when applied to sport and exercise. PMID:23830490
Since the capability to work in teams, both national and international, has become a key requirement on computer science graduates, we have been exploring ways in which to support students in enhancing this capability during their studies. In this paper we share our approach, 'philosophy', and learning from the preceding years regarding the development of team competence as part of
Investigates the relationship between total scores on the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the time taken to complete it. Finds that slower test takers obtained significantly higher scores. Discusses implications of these findings for college instruction. (SG)
Progression of a team’sperformance is a key issue in competitive sport, but there appears to have been no published research on team progression for periods longer than a season. In this study we report the game-score progression of three teams of a youth talent-development academy over five seasons using a novel analytic approach based on generalised mixed modelling. The teams consisted of players born in 1991, 1992 and 1993; they played totals of 115, 107 and 122 games in Asia and Europe between 2005 and 2010 against teams differing in age by up to 3 years. Game scores predicted by the mixed model were assumed to have an over-dispersed Poisson distribution. The fixed effects in the model estimated an annual linear pro-gression for Aspire and for the other teams (grouped as a single opponent) with adjustment for home-ground advantage and for a linear effect of age difference between competing teams. A random effect allowed for different mean scores for Aspire and opposition teams. All effects were estimated as factors via log-transformation and presented as percent differences in scores. Inferences were based on the span of 90% confidence intervals in relation to thresholds for small factor effects of x/÷1.10 (+10%/-9%). Most effects were clear only when data for the three teams were combined. Older teams showed a small 27% increase in goals scored per year of age difference (90% confidence interval 13 to 42%). Aspire experienced a small home-ground advantage of 16% (-5 to 41%), whereas opposition teams experienced 31% (7 to 60%) on their own ground. After adjustment for these effects, the Aspire teams scored on average 1.5 goals per match, with little change in the five years of their existence, whereas their opponents’ scores fell from 1.4 in their first year to 1.0 in their last. The difference in progression was trivial over one year (7%, -4 to 20%), small over two years (15%, -8 to 44%), but unclear over >2 years. In conclusion, the generalized mixed model has marginal utility for estimating progression of soccer scores, owing to the uncertainty arising from low game scores. The estimates are likely to be more precise and useful in sports with higher game scores. Key pointsA generalized linear mixed model is the approach for tracking game scores, key performance indicators or other measures of performance based on counts in sports where changes within and/or between games/seasons have to be considered.Game scores in soccer could be useful to track performance progression of teams, but hundreds of games are needed.Fewer games will be needed for tracking performance represented by counts with high scores, such as game scores in rugby or key performance indicators based on frequent events or player actions in any team sport.
Malcata, Rita M.; Hopkins, Will G; Richardson, Scott
Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.
Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.
Measures of rifle marksmanship skill and performance were developed using a prototype instrumented laser-based training system. Measures of performance were derived from laser strikes on a video-projected target. Measures of rifle marksmanship skill--breath control, trigger control, and muzzle wobble--were developed from shooters' breathing and…
Espinosa, Paul D.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Parks, Daniel; Baker, Eva L.
The purpose of study was to descriptively evaluate the performance of fundamental gross motor skills in children enrolled in Head Start. Participants of this study were 138 children (73 females and 65 males), ages five years old. Children's fundamental gross motor skills were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) (Ulrich, 1985). The levels of performance in children
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT Â§ 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...
Proficiency-based curricula using laparoscopic simulators are effective but may be difficult to implement as individual rates of skill acquisition vary widely. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between baseline performance and the amount of training necessary to reach proficiency. We analyzed performance data from our laparoscopic skills curriculum database for surgery residents who trained between 2002
J. R. Korndorffer; R. Sierra; W. C. Brunner; C. L. Touchard; J. B. Dunne; D. J. Scott
The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of a fitness infusion instructional strategy (FI) on children's activity levels and skillperformance scores. This strategy included aerobic activity within the skill practice tasks and game play. In other words, students performed short bouts of activity between the practice and…
We examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a conceptually grounded questionnaire developed from the themes identified by Pain and Harwood (2007), 82 players and 23 national coaches and support staff were surveyed directly following international tournaments regarding the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. The survey enabled data to be captured regarding both the
The member selection problem is an important aspect of the formation of cross-functional teams (CFTs). Selecting suitable members from a set of candidates will facilitate the successful task accomplishment. In the existing studies of member selection, the individual performance concerning a single candidate is mostly used, whereas the collaborative performance associating with a pair of candidates is overlooked. In this
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and supporting agencies conducted a developmental test and evaluation (DTE) to determine if quality control aids (QCAs) could be developed that would provide effective surrogates to actual explosives used for training and testing K-9 explosives detection teams. Non-detonable surrogates are required to alleviate logistics and contamination issues with explosives used sa training aids. Comparative K-9 team detection performance for explosives used as training aids and QCAs configurations of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCA configuration of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCAs. The configurations were a paper patch impregnated with a solution of the explosive, a cloth pouch filed with small amounts of solid explosive, and the non-hazardous explosive for security training and testing material. The DTE was conducted at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, where the K-9 teams undergo initial training. Six FAA certified operational teams participated. All explosives and QCAs were presented to the K-9 teams using a 10 scent box protocol. The results show that K-9 team as are more sensitive to explosives than the candidate QCAs. More importantly, it was discovered that the explosives at Lackland AFB are cross-contaminated, meaning that explosives possessed volatile artifacts from other explosives. There are two potential hypotheses explaining why the dogs did not detect the QCAs. First, the cross-contamination of Lackland training explosives may mean that K-9 teams are only trained to detect the explosives with the most volatile chemical signatures. Alternatively, the QCA configurations may have been below the trained detection threshold of the K-9s. It is recommended that K-9 teams train on uncontaminated odors from properly designed QCAs to ensure that dogs respond to the appropriate explosive components, and not some other constituent or contaminant.
Hallowell, Susan F.; Fischer, Douglas S.; Brasher, Jeffrey D.; Malone, Robert L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Rae, Cathy
The objective of this study was to assess, using the Group Environment Questionnaire, whether team cohesion in university-level field hockey was a cause for, or an effect of, successful performance. A quasi-experimental longitudinal design with cross-lagged correlational analysis was adopted and measures of cohesion and performance were taken midway and later in the season. The results of the synchronous correlations showed a positive relationship (with good stationarity) between team cohesion and performance outcome. Although non-significant cross-lagged differentials indicated a circular relationship, the magnitudes of both the cross-lagged correlations and the partial correlations, together with multiple-regression analyses, revealed that the stronger flow was from cohesion to performance. The socially oriented aspects of cohesion, in particular, had significant associations with performance. The results imply that cohesion-performance relationships should be examined within a circular model, in which cohesion and performance are interdependent. PMID:7799471
The current study investigated the relative influence of vertical versus shared leadership within new venture top management teams on the performance of startups using two different samples. Vertical leadership stems from an appointed or formal leader of a team (e.g., the CEO), whereas shared leadership is a form of distributed leadership stemming from within a team. Transformational, transactional, empowering, and
Michael D. Ensley; Keith M. Hmieleski; Craig L. Pearce
A study of 16 cardiac surgery teams looked at how the teams adapted to new ways of working. The challenge of team management is to implement new processes as quickly as possible. Steps for creating a learning team include selecting a mix of skills and expertise, framing the challenge, and creating an environment of psychological safety. (JOW)
Asserts that teamwork is fundamental to continuous corporate improvement. Discusses the characteristics and benefits of team management on an organization-wide basis and examines the steps that can be taken by a company to support team management throughout the organization. Reviews the literature and case examples in order to articulate the following aspects of team management: the best teamskills, the
Samuel M. Natale; Anthony F. Libertella; Barbara Edwards
Senior medical students (n=23), family practitioners (n=16), general practitioners (n=41), and family practice educators (n=7) analyzed 12 sets of radiographs. Mean score across all groups was 73%, with no significant differences among groups. Experiential training did not appear to improve diagnostic skill. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)
Margolis, Stephen A.; Nilsson, Karl Anders; Reed, Richard L.
A program was conducted by the Food and Beverage Workers Union in Washington, D.C., to provide workplace literacy classes for food service workers in the city's government agencies, universities, and museums. A curriculum for workplace literacy skills was developed, sites were selected, and students were recruited. From a target audience of…
The issue of training high performanceskills is of increasing concern. These skills include tasks such as driving a car, playing the piano, and flying an aircraft. Traditionally, the training of high performanceskills has been accomplished through the use of expensive, high-fidelity, 3-D simulators, and/or on-the-job training using the actual equipment. Such an approach to training is quite expensive. The design, implementation, and deployment of an intelligent tutoring system developed for the purpose of studying the effectiveness of skill acquisition using lower-cost, lower-physical-fidelity, 2-D simulation. Preliminary experimental results are quite encouraging, indicating that intelligent tutoring systems are a cost-effective means of training high performanceskills.
Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy; Regian, J. Wesley
This document presents and discusses the national skill standards for advanced high-performance manufacturing that were developed during a project that was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Education. The introduction explains the need for national skill standards. Discussed in the next three sections are the following: benefits of national…
National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing, Washington, DC.
In this study, the information and strategic Internet skills of Dutch secondary students were measured in a performance test. Participating students were asked to complete assignments on the Internet. The findings reveal that the levels of both information and strategic Internet skills have much room for improvement. Of the variables that…
Previous studies of Huntington's disease (HD) have reported motor control deficits for selected fine and gross motor skills. However, no studies have metrically assessed postural control in this clinical group when performing motor skills involved in daily living. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare postural control of individuals with confirmed Huntington's disease and non-gene
Robert Panzera; Danielle Salomonczyk; Eva Pirogovosky; Roger Simmons; Jody Goldstein; Jody Corey-Bloom; Paul E. Gilbert
The present study was designed to examine both concurrent and predictive associations between scores on a measure of executive function (EF) skills, the Contingency Naming Test (CNT), during the early school-age years. A secondary aim of the study was to examine the association between EF skills and mathematics performance. We administered tests of mathematics ability, and the CNT, to 178
This study investigated the influences of instruction performed through activity schedules on engaging-in the schedule skill and fulfilling the activity skills of pre-school children with autism; along with investigating the influence of schedule observation and instruction on children's engagement in activities. Participants were three male…
Introduction The quality of integrated stroke care depends on smooth team functioning but professionals may not always work well together. Professionals’ perspectives on the factors that influence stroke team functioning remain largely unexamined. Understanding their experiences is critical to indentifying measures to improve team functioning. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that contributed to the success of interprofessional stroke teams as perceived by team members. Methods We distributed questionnaires to professionals within 34 integrated stroke care teams at various health care facilities in 9 Dutch regions. 558 respondents (response rate: 39%) completed the questionnaire. To account for the hierarchical structure of the study design we fitted a hierarchical random-effects model. The hierarchical structure comprised 558 stroke team members (level 1) nested in 34 teams (level 2). Results Analyses showed that personal development, social well-being, interprofessional education, communication, and role understanding significantly contributed to stroke team functioning. Team-level constructs affecting interprofessional stroke team functioning were communication and role understanding. No significant relationships were found with individual-level personal autonomy and team-level cohesion. Discussion and conclusion Our findings suggest that interventions to improve team members’ social well-being, communication, and role understanding will improve teams’ performance. To further advance interprofessional team functioning, healthcare organizations should pay attention to developing professionals’ interpersonal skills and interprofessional education.
While only a few studies have analysed training methods used on working dogs, a recent survey in 303 Belgian military handlers revealed the use of harsh training methods on military working dogs (MWD). The present work aims at analysing the training methods used on Belgian MWD and the behaviour of handlers to objectify the performances of the dog handlers teams
A. Haverbeke; B. Laporte; E. Depiereux; J.-M. Giffroy; C. Diederich
This article reports on the findings from a study into high-performing leadership teams in English primary schools. The schools, in the sample, received "outstanding" Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) grades overall, and for leadership and management, in their most recent school inspection. The evidence suggests that developing…
Implementation integrity is a potentially critical issue for problem-solving teams (PST) and most response-to-intervention models. The current study hypothesized that providing performance feedback, which has consistently been shown to increase implementation integrity, to PSTs would enhance the procedural integrity of the process. The PSTs for…
Burns, Matthew K.; Peters, Rebecca; Noell, George H.
Claims about the positive influence of emotional intelligence (EI) on work teamperformance are very numerous, both in commercial and scientific literature. However, despite the huge interest that media and business consultants put in EI and its fast-growing use in organizations, there is very little empirical evidence to support these claims. In this study, we investigated the relationships between EI,
The first objective of this study was to establish the relation between intellectual ability and metacognitive skillfulness as predictors of learning performance in young students (aged 12 years). Furthermore, the generality vs. domain-specificity of metacognitive skillfulness was investigated. Thirty-two first-year secondary-school students…
In the continuing quest for business growth, many CEOs are turning to their CIOs and IT organizations because technology is absolutely essential to two compelling sources of growth: innovation and enterprise integration. The speed of innovation often depends on the ability to coordinate across organizational boundaries. Innovations cannot reach a sufficient level of scale and impact unless they are integrated into the larger operations of the corporation. And yet, say recently retired Harvard Business School dean Cash, Oxford dean Earl, and nGenera director of research Morison, the two endeavors remain "unnatural acts": For too many large businesses are better at stifling innovation than at capitalizing on it, better at optimizing local operations than at integrating them for the good of the enterprise and its customers. To make both pursuits seem more natural, the authors recommend creating two dedicated, IT-powered teams: a distributed innovation group (DIG) and an enterprise integration group (EIG). The DIG serves as the center of expertise for innovation techniques, considers new uses for technology already being developed inside the company, looks for new developments outside the company, and provides experts for internal innovation initiatives. The EIG selects the most promising from among competing integration projects, provides resources to give them a strong start, and then folds them into the operating model of the enterprise. Without such agencies, the authors maintain, innovation and integration won't spread far enough or fast enough throughout a large organization to keep pace with the smaller, younger, more technology-based competitors to which innovation and integration come much more naturally. PMID:19009723
The paper covers the combat performances, knowledges, and skills critical to the Infantry rifle squad leader in planning and directing his squad's actions when assigned security missions as part of a rifle platoon conducting or participating in tactical m...
BackgroundAttempts at assessing surgical proficiency have generally used laboratory simulation to evaluate skill. The aim of this study was to compare technical ability as measured on a bench simulation with actual operative performance.
Vivek Datta; Simon Bann; Jonathan Beard; Mirren Mandalia; Ara Darzi
This qualitative focus group study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training\\u000a for police officers. Thematic analysis of transcripts of focus group discussions revealed that officers report increased knowledge\\u000a of mental illnesses (which manifests as an improved ability to recognize and respond, reduced stereotyping\\/stigmatization,\\u000a greater empathy toward consumers and their caregivers, more patience when dealing
Sonya Hanafi; Masuma Bahora; Berivan N. Demir; Michael T. Compton
Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach teamskills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…
The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC) during STS-42, IML-1 mission.
This effort is part of a project designed to identify mathematical requirements relevant to Navy electronics training. The relationship between mathematics ability and electronics performance in the Navy's Basic Electricity and Electronics (BE/E), Class '...
The authors revisited the demographic diversity variable and teamperformance relationship using meta-analysis and took a significant departure from previous meta-analyses by focusing on specific demographic variables (e.g., functional background, organizational tenure) rather than broad categories (e.g., highly job related, less job related). They integrated different conceptualizations of diversity (i.e., separation, variety, disparity) into the development of their rationale and
Suzanne T. Bell; Anton J. Villado; Marc A. Lukasik; Larisa Belau; Andrea L. Briggs
When developing new products, most firms use cross-functional teams, but research on the effect of functional diversity on\\u000a new product performance returns heterogeneous results. We propose a measure of competence diversity that is more comprehensive\\u000a than the common functional diversity proxy. Empirical findings, based on a survey of 142 product and sales managers, support\\u000a the improved predictive validity of our
Christophe Haon; David Gotteland; Marianela Fornerino
Business school courses often require team projects, both for pedagogical reasons as well as to prepare students for the kinds of team-based activities that are common in organizations these days. However, social loafing is a common problem in teams, and peer evaluations by team members are sometimes used in such team settings to assess…
Davison, H. Kristl; Mishra, Vipanchi; Bing, Mark N.; Frink, Dwight D.
Team-based learning (TBL) was implemented into a first-year course (Principles in Animal Behaviour, Welfare and Ethics) for BSc Veterinary Bioscience (VB) and Animal Science (AS) students. TBL is now used widely in teaching medical students, but has had more limited uptake in veterinary education. This study reports its use over 2 years with cohorts of 126 and 138 students in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Average individual marks for multiple-choice question (MCQ) tests in the Readiness Assurance component of TBL were higher for the teams than for individuals for each session, explicitly demonstrating the advantages of teamwork. Students reported that they felt actively involved and that TBL helped them both with their learning and in developing other important skills, such as teamwork and communication. Qualitative analysis of written feedback from the students revealed positive themes of discussion, application, revelation, socializing, engagement, clarification, and retention/revision. In 2011 negative comments included the need to shorten the TBL sessions, but in 2012 tightening of the timelines meant that this was no longer a major concern. Requests to provide better introductory and background materials and ambiguity in questions in the TBL activities were what students least liked about the TBL. However, most comments were positive rather than negative in nature, and many students preferred the TBL to lectures. With requirements for curricula to teach professional skills, such as communication and teamwork, and the positive results from TBL's implementation, it is hoped that this study will encourage others to trial the use of TBL in veterinary education. PMID:24077314
Hazel, Susan J; Heberle, Nicole; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Adams, Karen
Small-sided games are commonly used in training and teaching contexts of football. However, few studies have focused on the tactical implications of this type of drills. The aim of this study is to identify how tactical collective behaviour varies with age in different small-sided game formats. We investigated the in-game field position in three different age groups of youth football players [under-9 (n=10; age = 8.5 ± 0.53), under-11 (n=10; age = 10.4 ± 0.52) and under-13 (n=10; age = 12.7 ± 0.48)], participating in two different small-sided game conditions (GK + 3 × 3 + GK and GK + 4 × 4 + GK). A team variable was created based on the players' length per width ratio (lpwratio), and a match variable was calculated as the distance between the centroid of the two teams. Results show that team variable values were influenced by the age of the players, as younger teams tend to present a higher value of lpwratio in their dispersion on the pitch. The variability of this variable also showed a decrease for teams with older players, suggesting a more consistent application of the width (stretching and creating space) and concentration (compressing into a confined area) principles of play and reflecting a higher level of collective tactical behaviour. Match variable showed a larger centroid distance for the older age groups in comparison with the younger players in the GK + 3 × 3 + GK, while all age groups demonstrated similar large centroid distances in the GK + 4 × 4 + GK game format. These results suggest that length and width ratio and centroid distance are useful measures of tactical performance in small-sided games in youth football. PMID:24444244
Folgado, Hugo; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Frencken, Wouter; Sampaio, Jaime
The purpose of this research was to examine the mediating roles of job autonomy and the quality of the leader-member relationship to explain the impact of organizational support on teamperformance. A total of 228 cases collected from Korean business organizations were used for data analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression, Type 1 SS-based…
The aim of this study was to provide an empirical basis for teaching gross motor skills in children with visual impairments. For this purpose, gross motor skillperformance of 23, 6-12 year old, boys and girls who are blind (ICD-10 H54.0) and 28 sighted controls with comparable age and gender characteristics was compared on six locomotor and six object control tasks using the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition. Results indicate that children who are blind perform significantly (p<.05) worse in all assessed locomotor and object control skills, whereby running, leaping, kicking and catching are the most affected skills, and corresponding differences are related to most running, leaping, kicking and catching component. Practical implications are provided. PMID:23891733
This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills was evaluated. Spatial skill independently predicted a significant amount of the variability in concurrent mathematical performance. Finally, the relation between spatial assembly skill and socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and parent-reported spatial language was examined. While children's performance did not differ by gender, lower SES children were already lagging behind higher SES children in block assembly. Furthermore, lower SES parents reported using significantly fewer spatial words with their children. PMID:24112041
Verdine, Brian N; Golinkoff, Roberta M; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S; Filipowicz, Andrew T; Chang, Alicia
A study was designed to predict student performance in the introductory accounting course, specifically the performance of nontraditional students. A predictive instrument to measure mathematical abilities was employed; outcomes were compared to individuals' final course grade. Results indicate that a brief math skills test can predict performance…
The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of
Kieron P. Oconnor; Marc E. Lavoie; Emmanuel Stip; François Borgeat; Anick Laverdure
Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the performer's ability to visually discriminate parts of an object when there is relative motion between the target and the performer. According to research findings, this visual attribute may play a key role in motor-task performance. Researchers have found a significant relationship between DVA and…
The purpose of this study was to measure the comprehension of basic mathematical skills of students enrolled in statistics classes at a large regional university, and to determine if the scores earned on a basic math skills test are useful in forecasting student performance in these statistics classes, and to determine if students' basic math…
Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally representative sample of children and adolescent ages 3–18 years.
Frank M. Gresham; Stephen N. Elliott; Ryan J. Kettler
Studies relationships among sex difference, performance expectation, and actual performance in video game competition between female and male subjects. Finds that self-confidence of females is not lower than that of males after competing against a good opponent, indicating that performance expectancies may be more related to skill level than to…
Relative to other team games, the contribution of individual team members to the overall teamperformance is more easily quantifiable in cricket. Viewing players as securities and the team as a portfolio, cricket thus lends itself better to the use of analytical methods usually employed in the analysis of securities and portfolios. This paper demonstrates the use of stochastic dominance rules, normally used in investment management, to analyze the One Day International (ODI) batting performance of Indian cricketers. The data used span the years 1989 to 2005. In dealing with cricketing data the existence of 'not out' scores poses a problem while processing the data. In this paper, using a Bayesian approach, the 'not-out' scores are first replaced with a conditional average. The conditional average that is used represents an estimate of the score that the player would have gone on to score, if the 'not out' innings had been completed. The data thus treated are then used in the stochastic dominance analysis. To use stochastic dominance rules we need to characterize the 'utility' of a batsman. The first derivative of the utility function, with respect to runs scored, of an ODI batsman can safely be assumed to be positive (more runs scored are preferred to less). However, the second derivative needs not be negative (no diminishing marginal utility for runs scored). This means that we cannot clearly specify whether the value attached to an additional run scored is lesser at higher levels of scores. Because of this, only first-order stochastic dominance is used to analyze the performance of the players under consideration. While this has its limitation (specifically, we cannot arrive at a complete utility value for each batsman), the approach does well in describing player performance. Moreover, the results have intuitive appeal. Key PointsThe problem of dealing with 'not out' scores in cricket is tackled using a Bayesian approach.Stochastic dominance rules are used to characterize the utility of a batsman.Since the marginal utility of runs scored is not diminishing in nature, only first order stochastic dominance rules are used.The results, demonstrated using data for the Indian cricket team are intuitively appealing.The limitation of the approach is that it cannot arrive at a complete utility value for the batsman. PMID:24357944
The main goal of this investigation was to study how student rank in class, student gender and skill sequence affect high school students' performance on the lab skills involved in a laboratory-based inquiry task in physics. The focus of the investigation was the effect of skill sequence as determined by the particular task. The skills considered were: Hypothesis, Procedure, Planning, Data, Graph, Calculations and Conclusion. Three physics lab tasks based on the simple pendulum concept were administered to 282 Regents physics high school students. The reliability of the designed tasks was high. Student performance was evaluated on individual student written responses and a scoring rubric. The tasks had high discrimination power and were of moderate difficulty (65%). It was found that, student performance was weak on Conclusion (42%), Hypothesis (48%), and Procedure (51%), where the numbers in parentheses represent the mean as a percentage of the maximum possible score. Student performance was strong on Calculations (91%), Data (82%), Graph (74%) and Plan (68%). Out of all seven skills, Procedure had the strongest correlation (.73) with the overall task performance. Correlation analysis revealed some strong relationships among the seven skills which were grouped in two distinct clusters: Hypothesis, Procedure and Plan belong to one, and Data, Graph, Calculations, and Conclusion belong to the other. This distinction may indicate different mental processes at play within each skill cluster. The effect of student rank was not statistically significant according to the MANOVA results due to the large variation of rank levels among the participating schools. The effect of gender was significant on the entire test because of performance differences on Calculations and Graph, where male students performed better than female students. Skill sequence had a significant effect on the skills of Procedure, Plan, Data and Conclusion. Students are rather weak in proposing a sensible, detailed procedure for the inquiry task which involves the "novel" concept. However they perform better on Procedure and Plan, if the "novel" task is not preceded by another, which explicitly offers step-by-step procedure instructions. It was concluded that the format of detailed, structured instructions often adopted by many commercial and school-developed lab books and conventional lab practices, fails to prepare students to propose a successful, detailed procedure when faced with a slightly "novel", lab-based inquiry task. Student performance on Data collection was higher in the tasks that involved the more familiar experimental arrangement than in the tasks using the slightly "novel" equipment. Student performance on Conclusion was better in tasks where they had to collect the Data themselves than in tasks, where all relevant Data information was given to them.
To test the extent to which learners performing a simple keyboard passage would be affected by directing their focus of attention to different aspects of their movements, 16 music majors performed a brief keyboard passage under each of four focus conditions arranged in a counterbalanced design--a total of 64 experimental sessions. As they…
Duke, Robert A.; Cash, Carla Davis; Allen, Sarah E.
There are still weaknesses in the practical skills of newly graduated nurses. There is also an escalating pressure on existing clinical placements due to increasing student numbers and structural changes in health services. Innovative educational practices and the use of tools that might support learning are sparsely researched in the field of clinical education for nursing students. This paper reports on an action research study that promoted and investigated use of The Model of Practical SkillPerformance as a learning tool during nursing students' clinical placement. Clinical supervisors and two cohorts of nursing students placed in a hospital setting shared their experiences on the use of the model in six focus group interviews. Data was also generated through the supervisors' reflective logs. The model was viewed as highly applicable in the planning of learning situations as well as during practice, performance and formative assessment of practical skills learning. It provided a common language about practical skills and enhanced the participants' understanding of professionalism in practical nursing skill. In conclusion, the model helped to highlight the complexity in mastering practical skills, afforded help in sequencing a learning process that supported the novice, and contributed to a more nuanced feedback by supervisors. PMID:23021010
Nielsen, Carsten; Sommer, Irene; Larsen, Karin; Bjørk, Ida Torunn
Two methods for approaching the problems of body segment contributions to motor performance are joint immobilization with restraint and resultant muscle torque pattern. Although the second approach is preferred, researchers face major challenges when using it. (CJ)
Randomly assigned first-year chemical engineering students to a treatment group using R.E.S.U.L.T.S. [copyright] study skills software and a comparison group. Examined pre-university and first-term academic performance, student goals, use of time, self assessments, and feedback. Although improvements in post-treatment performance were observed,…
Our study investigated the role of attention skills in the academic performance of 20 boys with developmental delays (DDs) and 20 boys without delays. Children's attention abilities were estimated from their performance on a novel assessment of sustained attention, as well as teacher reports of attention in the classroom. Children with DDs had slower reaction times, lower hit rates, higher
Beverly J. Wilson; Meredith N. Will; Julie Schoenfield-McNeill; Rachel Montague
Team science is a collaborative effort to address a scientific challenge that leverages the strengths and expertise of professionals trained in different fields. Although traditional single-investigator driven approaches are ideal for many scientific endeavors, coordinated teams of investigators with diverse skills and knowledge may be especially helpful for studies of complex social problems with multiple causes.
Mental practice (MP) has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP). Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of MP to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed.
Bernardi, Nicolo F.; De Buglio, Matteo; Trimarchi, Pietro D.; Chielli, Alfonso; Bricolo, Emanuela
Companies all across the economic spectrum are making use of teams. They go by a variety of names and can be found at all levels. In fact, you are likely to find the group at the very top of an organization professing to be a team. But even in the best of companies, a so-called top team seldom functions as a real team. Real teams must follow a well-defined discipline to achieve their performance potential. And performance is the key issue--not the fostering of "team values" such as empowerment, sensitivity, or involvement. In recent years, the focus on performance was lost in many companies. Even today, CEOs and senior executives often see few gains in performance from their attempts to become more teamlike. Nevertheless, a team effort at the top can be essential to capturing the highest performance results possible--when the conditions are right. Good leadership requires differentiating between team and nonteam opportunities, and then acting accordingly. Three litmus tests must be passed for a team at the top to be effective. First, the team must shape collective work-products--these are tangible performance results that the group can achieve working together that surpass what the team members could have achieved working on their own. Second, the leadership role must shift, depending on the task at hand. And third, the team's members must be mutually accountable for the group's results. When these criteria can be met, senior executives should come together to achieve real teamperformance. When the criteria cannot be met, they should rely on the individual leadership skills that they have honed over the years. PMID:10174799
The present study evaluated the physical demands imposed on female elite team handball players in relation to playing position. Female elite team handball field players were examined during match-play over a 5-year period using video based computerized locomotion analysis of tournament matches. In addition, physiological measurements during match-play and in separate physical tests were carried out. A total distance of 4?002±551?m (group means±SD) was covered per match with a total effective playing time of 50:42±5:50?min:s, while full-time players covered 4?693±333?m. On average, each player (n=83) performed 663.8±99.7 activity changes per match, and the mean speed was 5.31±0.33?km?·?h(-1). High-intensity running constituted 0.8±0.5% of total effective playing time per match corresponding to 2.5±1.8% of the total distance covered. The amount of high-intensity running was reduced (p<0.05) 21.9% in the second half (44.9±16.8?m) compared to the first (57.5±21.3?m). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2-max) was 3.49±0.37?l O2?·?min(-1) corresponding to 49.6±4.8?ml O2?·?min(-1)?·?kg(-1). Mean relative workload during match-play was 79.4±6.4% of VO2-max. Mean total running distance in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) was 1?436±222?m, which was greater in wing players (1?516±172?m, p<0.05) than pivots (1?360±118?m) and backcourt players (1?352±148?m). In conclusion, modern female elite team handball is a physically demanding intermittent team sport, where players are exposed to high relative workloads with substantial estimated aerobic energy expenditure interspersed by short periods of dominant anaerobic energy production as reflected by the limited amount of high-intensity running. Indications of fatigue and a resulting decline in physical performance were identified, since the amount of high-intensity running and the relative workload levels decreased in the second half. Positional differences were observed, with wing players covering a greater total distance than backcourt players, performing more high-intensity running and demonstrating a better intermittent recovery capacity (Yo-Yo test outcome) compared to both backcourt players and pivots. PMID:24264766
Younger golfers (mean age 33.6 years) and older golfers (mean age 62.3 years) who were equivalent at a molar level of performance (shots taken per round of golf) were compared through componential analysis in order to identify age differences in psychomotor skills. Consistent with an age-related decline in physical strength, older golfers drove the ball a shorter distance from the tee than younger golfers. They also adopted a more conservative approach to shotmaking when playing golf and reported experiencing fewer negative emotions and cognitions in relation to performance. Such differences suggest that age-related impairment in some component skills are, at least in the case of some individuals, compensated for by greater reliance on skills that either improve or remain stable with age. Directions for further study of compensatory adjustment are noted. PMID:8530190
The aim of this study was to verify the relationship of strength and power with performance on an international level karate team during official kumite simulations. Fourteen male black belt karate athletes were submitted to anthropometric data collection and then performed the following tests on two different days: vertical jump test, bench press and squat maximum dynamic strength (1RM) tests. We also tested power production for both exercises at 30 and 60%1RM and performed a kumite match simulation. Blood samples were obtained at rest and immediately after the kumite matches to measure blood lactate concentration. Karate players were separated by performance (winners vs. defeated) on the kumite matches. We found no significant differences between winners and defeated for strength, vertical jump height, anthropometric data and blood lactate concentration. Interestingly, winners were more powerful in the bench press and squat exercises at 30% 1RM. Maximum strength was correlated with absolute (30% 1RM r = 0.92; 60% 1RM r = 0.63) and relative power (30% 1RM r = 0.74; 60% 1RM r = 0.11, p > 0.05) for the bench press exercise. We concluded that international level karate players’ kumite match performance are influenced by higher levels of upper and lower limbs power production. Key Points Muscle power at low workloads seems to be a reasonable predictor of karate performance. There are differences in neuromuscular characteristics between winners and defeated karate players among an international level karate team. Karate players rely more on muscle power, rather than on muscle strength.
The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured activities are of the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.
The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was…
Houwen, S.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Hartman, E.
This report addresses the development of a structure for the modeling and analysis of control room teams to represent team related human errors of commission and omission in nuclear power plant accident scenarios. The structure includes the identification...
The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to teamperformance. We evaluated student and teamperformance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics background and an experimentally oriented biology student. The team mentors typically ranked the students' performance very good to excellent over a range of attributes that included creativity and ability to conduct independent research. However, the research teams experienced problems meeting prespecified deadlines due to poor time and project management skills. Because time and project management skills can be readily taught and moreover typically reflect good research practices, simple modifications should be made to undergraduate curricula so that the promise of initiatives, such as MATH-BIO 2010, can be implemented. PMID:20810964
Milton, John G; Radunskaya, Ami E; Lee, Arthur H; de Pillis, Lisette G; Bartlett, Diana F
The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to teamperformance. We evaluated student and teamperformance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics background and an experimentally oriented biology student. The team mentors typically ranked the students' performance very good to excellent over a range of attributes that included creativity and ability to conduct independent research. However, the research teams experienced problems meeting prespecified deadlines due to poor time and project management skills. Because time and project management skills can be readily taught and moreover typically reflect good research practices, simple modifications should be made to undergraduate curricula so that the promise of initiatives, such as MATH-BIO 2010, can be implemented.
Radunskaya, Ami E.; Lee, Arthur H.; de Pillis, Lisette G.; Bartlett, Diana F.
Searleman and Porac (2001) studied lateral preference patterns among successfully switched left-hand writers, left-hand writers with no switch pressure history, and left-hand writers who did not switch when pressured. They concluded that left-handers who successfully shift to right-hand writing are following an inherent right-sided lateralisation pattern that they already possess. Searleman and Porac suggested that the neural mechanisms that control lateralisation in the successfully switched individuals are systematically different from those of other groups of left-handers. I examined patterns of skilled and less-skilled hand preference and skilled hand performance in a sample of 394 adults (ages 18-94 years). The sample contained successfully switched left-hand writers, left-handers pressured to shift who remained left-hand writers, left-handers who did not experience shift pressures, and right-handers. Both skilled hand preference and skilled hand performance were shifted towards the right side in successfully switched left-hand writers. This group also displayed mixed patterns of hand preference and skilled hand performance in that they were not as right-sided as "natural" right-handers nor were they as left-sided as the two left-hand writing groups, which did not differ from each other. The experience of being pressured to switch to right-hand writing was not sufficient to shift lateralisation patterns; the pressures must be experienced in the context of an underlying neural control mechanism that is amenable to change as a result of these external influences. PMID:18720207
Discusses international business and workplace learning and performance (WLP), and describes a long-term strategic alliance between Motorola University China, Penn State University, Beijing University, and Nankai University. Highlights include a needs assessment of multinational corporations in China; transferring the soft-skills technology of WLP…
This guide presents a description of the standards and related skills school leaders must master and apply. Since every school leader needs a well-defined philosophy to make decisions, the guide emphasizes philosophical, performance, and ethical dimensions of school leadership. The book's 10 chapters address such issues as visionary leadership,…
Hoyle, John R.; English, Fenwick W.; Steffy, Betty E.
The present study was designed to assess object identification (“what”) and location (“where”) skills among girls with fragile X or Turner syndrome and girls with neither disorder. Participants completed standardized subtests of visual perception and tasks of visuospatial “what” and “where” memory. Girls with fragile X had average performance on most object identification tasks, yet 53% failed to accurately recreate
Michèle M. M. Mazzocco; Neha Singh Bhatia; Katarzyna Lesniak-Karpiak
This study examined the relationship between skillperformance and selected physical fitness variables of hand ball players of Osmania University, Hyderabad, India. 30 handball players aged 18-11 years were randomly selected from players undergoing rigorous training camp for the All India Inter-University tournament. Defensive ability, passing ability and dribbling ability were assessed by defence movement test, passing test and control
The aim of this study is to examine the effects of group practice which is performed using psychodrama techniques on adolescents' conflict resolution skills. The subjects, for this study, were selected among the high school students who have high aggression levels and low problem solving levels attending Haci Zekiye Arslan High School, in Nigde.…
Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 x…
Pritchard, Tony; Hawkins, Andrew; Wiegand, Robert; Metzler, Jonathan N.
The study examined the benefits of providing kindergarten teachers with feedback about students' performance on early literacy progress-monitoring probes. Students were administered the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)" in fall, winter, and spring; classroom environment was evaluated using the "Early Language and…
The skills, knowledges, and performances required of the Infantry rifle squad leader to deny the enemy access to military information, to detect and counter enemy attempts to penetrate security, and to deceive the enemy as to our true intentions and plans...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of classroom performance assessment on the EFL students' basic and inferential reading skills. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was employed in the study. The subjects of the study consisted of 64 first-year secondary school students in Menouf Secondary School for Boys at Menoufya…
Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…
Non-destructive testing is essential in many fields of manufacturing and research in order to perform reliable examination of potentially damaged materials and parts without destroying the inherent structure of the materials. Thus, the Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Team at NASA Glenn Research Center partakes in various projects to improve materials testing equipment as well as analyze materials, material defects, and material deficiencies. Due to the array of projects within the NDE Team at this time, five research aims were supplemental to some current projects. A literature survey of "DE and testing methodologies as related to rocks was performed. Also, Mars Expedition Rover technology was assessed to understand the requirements for instrumentation in harsh space environments (e.g. temperature). Potential instrumentation and technologies were also considered and documented. The literature survey provided background and potential sources for a proposal to acquire funding for ultrasonic instrumentation on board a future Mars expedition. The laboratory uses a Santec Systems AcousticScope AS200 acoustography system. Labview code was written within the current program in order to improve the current performance of the acoustography system. A sample of Reinforced Carbon/Carbon (RCC) material from the leading edge of the space shuttle underwent various non-destructive tests (guided wave scanning, thermography, computed tomography, real time x-ray, etc.) in order to characterize its structure and examine possible defects. Guided wave scan data of a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel was reanalyzed utilizing image correlations and signal processing variables. Additional guided wave scans and thermography were also performed on the CMC panel. These reevaluated data and images will be used in future presentations and publications. An additional axis for the guided wave scanner was designed, constructed, and implemented. This additional axis allowed incremental spacing of the previously fixed transducers for ultrasonic velocity measurements.
One of the important challenges for leadership in project teams is the ability to manage the knowledge, communication and coordination related activities of team. In cross-team collaboration, different boundaries contribute to the situated nature of knowledge and hamper the flow of knowledge and prevent shared understanding with those on the other…
A measure of collective efficacy was developed and administered to undergraduates working in project teams in engineering courses. Findings in each of two samples revealed that the measure contained a single factor and was related to ratings of team cohesion and personal efficacy. Collective efficacy was also found to relate to indicators of team…
This paper uses a robust (order-m) Data Envelopment Analysis approach to evaluate the efficiency of Tour de France cycling teams for the period 2007- 2011. Since there are multiple ways in which this event can be successful for a cycling team, we take it that managers face strategic input decisions regarding team and rider characteristics. Specifically, we distinguish between ranking
An evaluation of skills and abilities that could conflict with each other during multi-task performance of driving and mobile telephone usage was performed using Fleishman's taxonomy of human performance with data collected using the job assessment softwa...
Objectives: Our study determined whether depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance affect an individual's ability to perform laparoscopic skills. Methods: The study cohort comprised 104 third-year medical students from LSU School of Medicine who completed a questionnaire including information on handedness and were tested for eye dominance and depth perception by using standardized methods. Training sessions involved an initial recorded performance, a 20-minute practice session, followed by a final recorded performance. Recorded sessions were randomized and rated by using a visual analog scale (maximal possible score = 16) based on overall performance (OPS) and depth perception (DPS). A general linear model was used to correlate depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance with assessment scores for OPS and DPS. Results: Students with depth perception defects scored significantly lower on their initial performance than did those with normal depth perception (OPS, 4.80 vs. 7.16, P=0.0008; DPS, 5.25 vs. 6.93, P=0.0195). After training, the depth perception defect group continued to have lower scores compared with the normal depth perception group. However, the 2 groups showed similar increases in pre- to posttraining performance scores (OPS, 3.84 vs. 3.18, P=0.0732). Hand-eye dominance did not significantly affect scores. Conclusions: Depth perception defects appear to compromise an individual's ability to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Individuals with defects can improve their skills by a proportion comparable to that of people with uncompromised depth perception. Differences in hand-eye dominance do not correlate with performance differences in basic laparoscopic skills. Although further research is necessary, the findings indicate that training can be tailored for individuals with depth perception defects to improve laparoscopic performance.
Suleman, Rabiya; Yang, Tong; Paige, John; Chauvin, Sheila; Alleyn, Jaime; Brewer, Martha; Johnson, Stephen I.
Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000?p?0.049) or B3 groups (0.000?p?0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills. PMID:25014271
The purpose of this study was to determine whether frontal midline theta activity (Fm?), an indicator of top-down sustained attention, can be used to distinguish an individual's best and worst golf putting performances during the pre-putt period. Eighteen golfers were recruited and asked to perform 100 putts in a self-paced simulated putting task. We then compared the Fm? power of each individual's 15 best and worst putts. The results indicated that theta power in the frontal brain region significantly increased in both best and worst putts, compared with other midline regions. Moreover, the Fm? power significantly decreased for the best putts compared with the worst putts. These findings suggest that Fm? is a manifestation of sustained attention during a skilledperformance and that optimal attentional engagement, as characterized by a lower Fm? power, is beneficial for successful skilledperformance rather than a higher Fm? power reflecting excessive attentional control. PMID:24197715
Computer-mediated collaboration is becoming an increasingly prevalent form of work ((22)). At the same time, organizations are relying more and more on culturally diverse teams to staff knowledge-intensive projects (e.g., software development, customer service, corporate training,). We conducted a laboratory study examining the role of collaborative technologies and culture on 2-person team members' attributions of causes for their collaborative performance.
ABSTRACT Computer-mediated,collaboration,is,becoming,an increasingly prevalent form of work (). At the same time, organizations are relying more and more on culturally diverse teams to staff knowledge-intensive projects (e.g., software development, customer service, corporate training,). We conducted a laboratory study examining the role of collaborative technologies and culture on 2-person team members’ attributions of causes for their collaborative performance. Pairs of American,
The introduction of trauma teams has improved patient outcome independently. The aim of establishing a trauma team is to ensure the early mobilization and involvement of more experienced medical staff and thereby to improve patient outcome. The team approach allows for distribution of the several tasks in assessment and resuscitation of the patient in a 'horizontal approach', which may lead to a reduction in time from injury to critical interventions and thus have a direct bearing on the patient's ultimate outcome. A trauma team leader or supervisor, who coordinates the resuscitation and ensures adherence to guidelines, should lead the trauma team. There is a major national and international variety in trauma team composition, however crucial are a surgeon, an Emergency Medicine physician or both and anaesthetist. Advanced Trauma Life Support training, simulation-based training, and video review have all improved patient outcome and trauma teamperformance. Developments in the radiology, such as the use of computed tomography scanning in the emergency room and the endovascular treatment of bleeding foci, have changed treatment algorithms in selected patients. These developments and new insights in shock management may have a future impact on patient management and trauma team composition. PMID:24980423
Tiel Groenestege-Kreb, D; van Maarseveen, O; Leenen, L
The medical profession needs to learn teamskills and review its managerial functions in anticipation of increasing involvement with other health professionals in a team setting. Educatinal techniques for acquiring these skills are already available or are being developed for other organizations. Review of the traditional medical hierarchy and its legal implications, architecture of health institutions, medical records systems, and the selection of medical students are other areas for specific attention. PMID:1207585
Relationships of empowerment and span of control with 2 safety measures (unsafe behaviors and accidents) were investigated among 24 workgroups comprising 531 employees of a large chemical company in 3 U.S. states. The company recently implemented a reengineering process. Data were from an anonymous survey (unsafe behaviors), company records (accidents, span of control), and trained expert raters (empowerment). Span of control (positively) and level of empowerment (negatively) correlated with both measures of poor safety performance, but only empowerment predicted unique variance in safety criteria. Together, these structural measures predicted one third of the variance in safety measures. Structural variables such as span of control and team empowerment have been largely overlooked in past safety research but can be important. PMID:11605822
This study examined the effects of felt accountability, political skill, and job tension on job performance ratings. Specifically, we hypothesized that felt accountability would lead to higher (lower) job performance ratings when coupled with high (low) levels of political skill, and that these relationships would be mediated by job tension. Data…
Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Ferris, Gerald R.; Gavin, Mark B.; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Hall, Angela T.; Frink, Dwight D.
Client-centered practice requires therapists to actively seek the perspectives of children and families. Several assessment tools are available to facilitate this process. However, when evaluating motor skillperformance, therapists typically concentrate on performance-based assessment. To improve understanding of the information provided by the…
The effect of visual skills, such as binocularity, on saccadic eye movement test performance is currently unknown. Therefore, the relationship between performance on commonly used clinical saccadic eye movement tests and visual skill was studied in a masked investigation of 181 kindergartners and first graders (mean age 6.25 years) from a middle class, suburban, elementary school near Cleveland, Ohio. The New York State Optometric Association King-Devick saccade test (NYSOA K-D) and the Developmental Eye Movement test (DEM) were employed because they are two commonly used clinical saccadic eye movement tests. A Modified Clinical Technique (MCT) vision screening and Randot stereoacuity test were performed to evaluate other visual skills. Analysis revealed that for the whole study population, total errors on the NYSOA K-D were significantly related to referral on the MCT screening (p = 0.015) and stereoacuity worse than 100 sec arc (p = 0.011). A trend toward significance was also found between DEM ratio and stereoacuity worse than 50 sec arc for the whole study population. However, in the children who passed the MCT, stereoacuity was not found to be significantly related to performance on NYSOA K-D or DEM. Thus, our findings indicate that visual difficulties may affect performance on the NYSOA K-D in this population. PMID:9586754
Twelve patients with Parkinson's disease learned two novel skills in which they had to track a target by moving a joystick. In task 1 they had to learn to anticipate the movements of a semi predictable target. In task 2 they had to learn a novel control system in which the movements of the joystick were mirror reversed in relation to the computer screen. On each task they performed two sessions of three minutes continuous practice separated by a 10 minute rest. In both tasks the patients performed much worse than the controls, but showed clear evidence of learning, particularly after the ten minute rest. Detailed examination of their performance suggested that the skill was becoming automatic, releasing attention for aspects of the task that could not be learned. The major difference from the controls appeared during the first minute of each practice session when the controls showed a marked improvement in performance while the patients did not. We suggest that this rapid but temporary improvement in performance reflects the acquisition of a motor "set" whereby existing motor programs or skills are modified to suit the task currently in hand. We concluded that patients with Parkinson's disease have difficulty in maintaining such sets.
Sprinting is a fundamental activity in many team sports such as soccer, rugby, football, field hockey, and basketball. Specifically, the ability to rapidly increase sprint running velocity over short distances, which is often referrcd to as sprint acceleration ability, is of major importance to team-sport athletes since sprint efforts during team-sport matches are typically of short duration (e.g., 10-20 m,
Purpose: The paper aims to follow social exchange theory and group social capital theory, to predict positive relationships between (informal) mentoring and various support resources for two types of performance (i.e. perceptions of individual and teamperformance). Design/methodology/approach: The associations of individual-level mentoring and…
This study collected validity evidence on the utility of critical thinking skills and critical thinking disposition in predicting initial clinical performance. The predictive value of critical thinking skills scores and disposition scores was examined to determine their unique contribution beyond that provided by traditional predictors: grade point average, age, and number of college hours. The study involved three phases: establishing content validity of three outcome measures; assessing students' baseline critical thinking skills and disposition using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI); and assessing students' initial clinical competence, clinical reasoning, and clinical knowledge. All baccalaureate-level dental hygiene programs in the United States affiliated with a dental school (N=22) were invited to participate; of those, seven volunteered. A convenience sample of 207 first-year dental hygiene students was obtained. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that CCTST scores explained a statistically significant (p<.05) proportion of variance in students' initial clinical reasoning scores, acquired knowledge scores, and faculty ratings, above and beyond that explained by other predictor variables. CCTDI scores were not significant predictors of any outcome measure. It was concluded that CCTST is a good predictor of initial student outcomes and may have utility for student selection and retention. PMID:14650499
Williams, Karen B; Glasnapp, Douglas R; Tilliss, Terri S I; Osborn, Joy; Wilkins, Kris; Mitchell, Shannon; Kershbaum, Wendy; Schmidt, Colleen
Pre-game performance expectations, emotions, and post-game performance ratings were measured among members of an amateur Softball team. The results showed that pre-game performance expectations and reported happiness were at high levels and did not differ between won or lost games or between skilled and lesser skilled players. Reported depression was found to rise significantly among skilled players prior to lost
Robert J. Biersner; William B. McHugh; Linda K. Bennett
Would you like to lead a world renowned team that draws out all the talents and expertise of its members and consistently out performs all others in the industry? Ever wonder why so many organizations fail to truly learn from past mistakes only to repeat the same ones at a later date? Are you a program/project manager or team member in a high-risk organization where the decisions made often carry the highest of consequences? Leadership, communication, team building, critical decision-making and continuous team improvement skills and behaviors are mere talking points without the attitudes, commitment and strategies necessary to make them the very fabric of a team. Developing Expert Teams with a Strong Safety Culture, will provide you with proven knowledge and strategies to take your team soaring to heights you may have not thought possible. A myriad of teams have applied these strategies and techniques within their organization team environments: military and commercial aviation, astronaut flight crews, Shuttle flight controllers, members of the Space Shuttle Program Mission Management Team, air traffic controllers, nuclear power control teams, surgical teams, and the fire service report having spectacular success. Many industry leaders are beginning to realize that although the circumstances and environments of these teams may differ greatly to their own, the core elements, governing principles and dynamics involved in managing and building a stellar safety conscious team remain identical.
Demographic studies indicate a remarkable aging trend in North America. An accurate profile of the decline in physical and cognitive capabilities over time is essential to our understanding of the aging process. This study examined the maintenance of skilledperformance across the careers of 96 professional golfers. Data were collected on scoring average, driving distance, driving accuracy, greens in regulation, putts per round, and number of competitive rounds played using online data archives. Analyses indicate that performance in this activity can be maintained to a greater extent than in activities relying on biologically constrained abilities. Although the generalizability of these results to "normal" aging populations is not known, they suggest that acquired skills can be maintained to a large extent in the face of advancing age. PMID:17724396
Baker, Joseph; Deakin, Janice; Horton, Sean; Pearce, G William
Food insecurity has been associated with diverse developmental consequences for U.S. children primarily from cross-sectional studies. We used longitudinal data to investigate how food insecurity over time related to changes in reading and mathematics test performance, weight and BMI, and social skills in children. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, a prospective sample of 21,000 nation- ally
Diana F. Jyoti; Edward A. Frongillo; Sonya J. Jones
Childhood hearing impairment is a common chronic condition that may have a major impact on acquisition of speech, social and physical development. Numerous literature states that injury to the vestibular organs may result in accompanying balance and motor development disorders. But still postural control and motor assessments are not a routine procedure in hearing impaired children. Hence, we aim to provide an overview on motor skillperformance and balance in hearing impaired children.
Mental imagination is the essential part of the most EEG-based communication systems. Thus, the quality of mental rehearsal, the degree of imagined effort, and mind controllability should have a major effect on the performance of electro-encephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI). It is now well established that mental practice using motor imagery improves motor skills. The effects of mental practice
In 2006, representatives of the New Jersey Department of Education, the New Jersey School Boards Association, and the New Jersey Association of School Administrators, conceived a joint venture aimed at assisting board of education teams, including their superintendents, to function better as cohesive teams and foster improved academic achievement…
Managing a traditional team seems pretty straightforward: Gather up whoever's available, give them time and space to do their jobs, and make sure they all play nicely together. But these teams produce results that are often as unremarkable as the teams themselves. When big change and high performance are required, a virtuoso team is far more likely to deliver outstanding and innovative results. Virtuoso teams are fundamentally different from the garden-variety work groups that most organizations form to pursue more modest goals. They comprise the top experts in their particular fields, are specially convened for ambitious projects, work with frenetic rhythm, and emanate a discernible energy. Not surprisingly, however, the superstars who make up these teams are renowned for being elitist, temperamental, egocentric, and difficult to work with. As a result, many managers fear that if they force such people to interact on a high-stakes project, the group just might implode. In this article, Bill Fischer and Andy Boynton put the inner workings of highly successful virtuoso teams on full display through three examples: the creative group behind West Side Story, the team of writers for Sid Caesar's 1950s-era television hit Your Show of Shows, and the high-powered technologists who averted an investor-relations crisis for Norsk Hydro, the Norwegian energy giant. Each of these teams accomplished enormous goals and changed their businesses, their customers, even their industries. And they did so by breaking all the conventional rules of collaboration--from the way they recruited the best members to the way they enforced their unusual processes, and from the high expectations they held to the exceptional results they produced. PMID:16028822
Data were collected from a total of 110 WIN (Work Incentive Programs) Employability Development Teams to obtain information regarding the staffing composition of WIN teams, the extent to which distribution of job effort among team members emphasizes duty area specialization by job position title, the style of functioning in making client-oriented…
Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic performance…
Sirotic, A.C., and A.J. Coutts. Physiological and per- formance test correlates of prolonged, high-intensity, intermit- tent running performance in moderately trained women team sport athletes. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21(1):138-144. 2007.—A large number of team sports require athletes to repeatedly pro- duce maximal or near maximal sprint efforts of short duration interspersed with longer recovery periods of submaximal inten- sity.
In order to leverage individual and organizational learning and to remain competitive in current turbulent markets it is important for employees, managers, planners and leaders to perform at high levels over time. Employee competence and skills are extremely important matters in view of the general shortage of talent and the mobility of employees with talent. Two factors emerged to have the greatest impact on the competitiveness of complex service systems: improving managerial and employee's knowledge attainment for skills, and improving the training and development of the workforce. This paper introduces the knowledge-based user-centered service design approach for sustainable skill and performance improvement in education, design and modeling of the next generation of complex service systems. The rest of the paper cover topics in human factors and sustainable business process modeling for the service industry, and illustrates the user-centered service system development cycle with the integration of systems engineering concepts in service systems. A roadmap for designing service systems of the future is discussed. The framework introduced in this paper is based on key user-centered design principles and systems engineering applications to support service competitiveness. PMID:22317322
Background Sleep facilitates off-line consolidation of memories, as shown for learning of motor skills in the absence of concomitant distractors. We often perform complex tasks focusing our attention mostly on one single part of them. However, we are equally able to skillfullyperform other concurrent tasks. One may even improve performance on disregarded parts of complex tasks, which were learned implicitly. In the present study we investigated the role of sleep in the off-line consolidation of procedural skills when attention is diverted from the procedural task because of interference from a concurrent task. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a dual-task paradigm containing (i) procedural serial reaction time task (SRTT), which was labeled as subordinate and unimportant and (ii) declarative word-pair association task (WPAT), performed concomitantly. The WPAT served as a masked distractor to SRTT and was strongly reinforced by the instructions. One experimental and three control groups were tested. The experimental group was re-tested after two nights of sleep (sleep group, SG). The first control group had sleep deprivation on the first post-learning night (nighttime-awake group, NA), the second control group was tested in the morning and then re-tested after 12-hours (daytime-awake group, DA); the third one had the same assignments as DA but with a subsequent, instead of a concomitant, WPAT (daytime-awake-subsequent-WPAT group, DAs). We found SRTT performance gains in SG but not in NA and DA groups. Furthermore, SG reached similar learning gains in SRTT as the DAs group, which gained in SRTT performance because of post-training interference from the declarative task. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that sleep allows off-line consolidation, which is resistant to deteriorating effects of a reinforced distractor on the implicit procedural learning and allowing for gains which are consistent with those produced when inhibited declarative memories of SRTT do not compete with procedural ones.
Background Existing literature on the acquisition of surgical skills suggests that women generally perform worse than men. This literature\\u000a is limited by looking at an arbitrary number of trials and not adjusting for potential confounders. The objective of this\\u000a study was to evaluate the impact of gender on the learning curve for a fundamental laparoscopic task.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Thirty-two medical students performed the
Nicoleta O. Kolozsvari; Amin Andalib; Pepa Kaneva; Jiguo Cao; Melina C. Vassiliou; Gerald M. Fried; Liane S. Feldman
Medical schools employ a variety of preadmission measures to select students most likely to succeed in the program. The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and the undergraduate college grade point average (uGPA) are two academic measures typically used to select students in medical school. The assumption that presently used preadmission measures can predict clinical skillperformance on a medical licensure examination was evaluated within a validity argument framework (Kane 1992). A hierarchical generalized linear model tested relationships between the log-odds of failing a high-stakes medical licensure performance examination and matriculant academic and non-academic preadmission measures, controlling for student-and school-variables. Data includes 3,189 matriculants from 22 osteopathic medical schools tested in 2009-2010. Unconditional unit-specific model expected average log-odds of failing the examination across medical schools is -3.05 (se = 0.11) or 5%. Student-level estimated coefficients for MCAT Verbal Reasoning scores (0.03), Physical Sciences scores (0.05), Biological Sciences scores (0.04), uGPA(science) (0.07), and uGPA(non-science) (0.26) lacked association with the log-odds of failing the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE, controlling for all other predictors in the model. Evidence from this study shows that present preadmission measures of academic ability are not related to later clinical skillperformance. Given that clinical skillperformance is an important part of medical practice, selection measures should be developed to identify students who will be successful in communication and be able to demonstrate the ability to systematically collect a medical history, perform a physical examination, and synthesize this information to diagnose and manage patient conditions. PMID:21874593
Roberts, William L; Pugliano, Gina; Langenau, Erik; Boulet, John R
The present study was designed to examine both concurrent and predictive associations between scores on a measure of executive function (EF) skills, the Contingency Naming Test (CNT), during the early school-age years. A secondary aim of the study was to examine the association between EF skills and mathematics performance. We administered tests of mathematics ability, and the CNT, to 178 children at ages 6 to 7, 8 to 9, and 10 to 11 years. From the CNT we obtained measures of response fluency/efficiency, working memory, and inhibition. The results demonstrate main effects of age on all CNT measures of EF, as anticipated, and inconsistent main effects of gender or mathematics learning disability status. Rates of improvement in EF varied as a function of the working memory demands present during a given task. There were differences in concurrent and predictive correlations for different CNT performance measures. EF scores obtained during the first assessment were as strongly associated with each other as they were with EF scores obtained four years later, suggesting a moderately stable source of individual differences on cognitive performance. EF scores at age 6 to 7 years were associated with concurrent and later mathematics scores, and most of these correlations were stronger than the significant associations found between response fluency on a baseline task (with no working memory demand) and mathematics performance. These findings have implications for the stability of EF skills during the school-age years, and the role of EF in early and later elementary school mathematics performance. PMID:17364562
Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports.
Client-centered practice requires therapists to actively seek the perspectives of children and families. Several assessment tools are available to facilitate this process. However, when evaluating motor skillperformance, therapists typically concentrate on performance-based assessment. To improve understanding of the information provided by the different approaches, the study investigated correlations between performance-based, child-report, and parent-report measures of children's motor skillperformance. A sample of convenience of 38 children 8-12 years of age with no history of motor or intellectual impairments and their parents was recruited from Victoria, Australia. Scores for the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (performance-based, administered by a therapist), Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (child report), and Movement Assessment Battery for Children Checklist (parent report) were analyzed using Spearman's rho correlation. Several significant moderate-to-large correlations were found between scores for parent-report and scores for performance-based assessments, while few significant correlations were found between scores for child report and scores for the other two measures. The results suggest that children offer a unique perspective which should be integrated with other sources of information to gain a more holistic perspective of their motor skillperformance. PMID:22085322
"Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…
Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams is examined in an UAV (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle) simulation. Five 3-person teams with experience working together in a command-and-control setting were compared to 10 inexperienced teams. Each team participated in five 40-min missions of a simulation in which interdependent team members control a UAV to take reconnaissance photos. Experienced teams exceeded performance of inexperienced teams, suggesting transfer of previous command-and-control experience. Compared to inexperienced teams, experienced teams had fewer errors on process-related training knowledge, superior team process ratings, and communications containing fewer coordination-related utterances. These findings support the view that team cognition emerges through the interactions of team members, that interactions distinguish high-performingteams from average teams, and that these interactions transfer across different tasks. PMID:17924800
The military, along with private industry, is relying more on small teams of specialized individuals who work together to achieve a common goal. Examples of these teams include emergency medical teams, aircrews, decision- making teams, industrial project ...
The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilledperformance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaHCO3 (0.3 g. kg-1) or NaCl (0.209 g. kg-1) before the trial. An additional supplementation of 0.1 g. kg-1 NaHCO3 or 0.07 g. kg-1 NaCl was ingested after the third game in the simulated match. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22 ± 0.54; post: 2.17 ± 1.46 mM) and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23 ± 0.41; post: 3.21 ± 1.89 mM) trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.32; post: 7.37 ± 0.14) but was significantly increased in the bicarbonate trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.26; post: 7.45 ± 0.63), indicating a more alkaline environment. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency scores were declined significantly after the simulated match in the placebo trial, while they were maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The match-induced declines in the consistency scores were significantly larger in the placebo trial than those in the bicarbonate trial. This study suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent the decline in skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. PMID:20977701
The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilledperformance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaHCO3 (0.3 g. kg-1) or NaCl (0.209 g. kg-1) before the trial. An additional supplementation of 0.1 g. kg-1 NaHCO3 or 0.07 g. kg-1 NaCl was ingested after the third game in the simulated match. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22 ± 0.54; post: 2.17 ± 1.46 mM) and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23 ± 0.41; post: 3.21 ± 1.89 mM) trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.32; post: 7.37 ± 0.14) but was significantly increased in the bicarbonate trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.26; post: 7.45 ± 0.63), indicating a more alkaline environment. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency scores were declined significantly after the simulated match in the placebo trial, while they were maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The match-induced declines in the consistency scores were significantly larger in the placebo trial than those in the bicarbonate trial. This study suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent the decline in skilled tennis performance after a simulated match.
The paper covers the knowledges, skills, and performances required of the Infantry rifle squad leader to detect, locate, and identify targets suitable for engagement with mortar and artillery fires. (Author)
The paper deals with the knowledges, skills, and performances required of the Infantry rifle squad leader to enable him to ensure the proper maintenance of clothing and equipment issued to his men, including special cold weather and tropical equipment, an...
The paper covers the critical combat performances, knowledges, and skills required of the Infantry rifle squad leader when using and supervising the use of the M16 rifle as an automatic or semiautomatic weapon to include zeroing, firing positions, deliver...
Research was conducted for clarifying linkages among individual differences in social skill/intelligence constructs, contextual differences in social contingencies (i.e., accountability mechanisms), and performance outcomes. Research suggests that social ...
In team-handball, skilled athletes are able to adapt to different game situations that may lead to differences in movement variability. Whether movement variability affects the performance of a team-handball throw and is affected by different skill levels or throwing techniques has not yet been demonstrated. Consequently, the aims of the study were to determine differences in performance and movement variability for several throwing techniques in different phases of the throwing movement, and of different skill levels. Twenty-four team-handball players of different skill levels (n=8) performed 30 throws using various throwing techniques. Upper body kinematics was measured via an 8 camera Vicon motion capture system and movement variability was calculated. Results indicated an increase in movement variability in the distal joint movements during the acceleration phase. In addition, there was a decrease in movement variability in highly skilled and skilled players in the standing throw with run-up, which indicated an increase in the ball release speed, which was highest when using this throwing technique. We assert that team-handball players had the ability to compensate an increase in movement variability in the acceleration phase to throw accurately, and skilled players were able to control the movement, although movement variability decreased in the standing throw with run-up. PMID:21835479
Wagner, Herbert; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Klous, Miriam; von Duvillard, Serge P; Müller, Erich
Little direct evidence has emerged regarding the influence of switching between tasks on the performance of skills studied in the motor domain. The present study reported the results of two experiments that examined the effects of task switching on a simple object projection task, which presumably emphasized processes related to response planning and execution. The experimental task required participants to gently tap a knob to make it travel along two parallel rods until it reached a specified target distance. In both experiments, participants in the repeated conditions performed a single target distance while participants in the switched conditions alternated between two target distances. Results indicated that switching between targets degraded accuracy for the two short targets (30cm, Exp. 1; 20cm, Exp. 2). Results were consistent with the preservation of parameter values [Rosenbaum, D. A., Weber, R. J., Hazelett, W. M., & Hindorff, V. (1986). The parameter remapping effect in human performance. Evidence form tongue twisters and finger fumblers. Journal of Memory and Language, 25, 710-725; Sherwood, D. E. (2007). Separate movement planning and spatial assimilation effects in sequential bimanual aiming movements. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 105, 501-513] and suggested an additional role for persisting activation in accounting for spatial assimilation and magnitude effects. PMID:18842312
Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Brueckner, Sebastian; Barros, Joao Augusto de Camargo
Instructed 55 male and 75 female undergraduates to evaluate the performance of either a male or female stimulus person who was heard to perform in an above-average manner on either a male- or female-related task. Analysis of the attributions made to luck vs skill in explaining the performance of the stimulus person showed that as predicted, performance by a male
Patient portals, which allow patients to access their health record via the Internet, are becoming increasingly widespread and are expected to be used by diverse consumer populations. In addition to technology skills, numeracy skills are also likely to be critical to performing health management tasks, as much of the data contained in the portal are numeric. This study examined how factors such as Internet experience, numeracy, and education impacted the performance of common tasks using a simulated patient portal among a sample of older adults. In addition, information was gathered on the ability of older adults to estimate their numeracy skills. Results indicated that numeracy and Internet experience had a significant impact on their ability to perform the tasks and that older adults tended to overestimate their numeracy skills. Results from this study can help to identify interventions that may enhance the usability of patient portals for older adults. PMID:24781964
Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students. Methods Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics) were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately. Results There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects. Conclusion In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students’ psychomotor performance.
Afify, Ahmed R; Zawawi, Khalid H; Othman, Hisham I; Al-Dharrab, Ayman A
Background: Intraoperative surgical crisis management is learned in an unstructured manner. In aviation, simulation training allows aircrews to coordinate and standardize recovery strategies. Our aim was to develop a surgical crisis simulation and evaluate its feasibility, realism, and validity of the measures used to assess performance. Methods: Surgical trainees were exposed to a bleeding crisis in a simulated operating theater. Assessment of performance consisted of a trainee’s technical ability to control the bleeding and of their team/human factors skills. This assessment was performed in a blinded manner by 2 surgeons and one human factors expert. Other measures consisted of time measures such as time to diagnose the bleeding (TD), inform team members (TT), achieve control (TC), and close the laceration (TL). Blood loss was used as a surrogate outcome measures. Results: There were considerable variations within both senior (n = 10) and junior (n = 10) trainees for technical and teamskills. However, while the senior trainees scored higher than the juniors for technical skills (P = 0.001), there were no differences in human factors skills. There were also significant differences between the 2 groups for TD (P = 0.01), TC (P = 0.001), and TL (0.001). The blood loss was higher in the junior group. Conclusions: We have described the development of a novel simulated setting for the training of crisis management skills and the variability in performance both in between and within the 2 groups.
Stroke is a devastating event which can result in permanent disability. Due to the lack of treatments available for use after stroke, compounds which work to limit cell loss, reduce behavioral deficits, and enhance recovery of function are needed. The isoflavone daidzein has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective when fed to rats beginning prior to stroke. Herein, we tested whether subcutaneous delivery of daidzein beginning at the time of stroke reduced injury and/or enhanced functional recovery over 14 days after stroke. Baseline performance on the skilled ladder rung walking task was recorded immediately before stroke (Day 0). Rats then underwent a unilateral permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and received a subcutaneous minipump containing either daidzein dissolved in vehicle or vehicle alone. Performance on the skilled ladder rung walking task was recorded again on Day +3, Day +7, and Day +14 post-stroke. Rats were then euthanized and brains were collected for lesion volume analysis. The numbers of slight and deep forelimb slips on the task were recorded for 3 trials for each rat per day. Rats treated with daidzein exhibited fewer deep slips over the course of the experiment than rats which received only vehicle (p<0.05). No difference was detected in total forelimb slips or slight slips (p>0.05). Lesion volume was not different between groups (p>0.05). No differences were found in weight between groups during the study (p>0.05). PMID:23994543
Stout, Jessica M; Knapp, Austen N; Banz, William J; Wallace, Douglas G; Cheatwood, Joseph L
Reflecting the importance of optimizing culture for elite teams, Fletcher and Arnold (2011) recently suggested the need for expertise in culture change. Acknowledging the dearth of literature on the specific process, however, the potential effectiveness of practitioners in this area is unknown. The present paper examines the activity's precise demands and the validity of understanding in sport psychology and organizational
Both the learning organization literature and the self-managed work team literature have alluded to the potential links between teamwork and learning. However, as yet the link between these two concepts remains undeveloped. This study uses a survey of a random sample of 200 Australian organizations to empirically examine the relationships between…
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and supporting agencies conducted a developmental test and evaluation (DTE) to determine if quality control aids (QCAs) could be developed that would provide effective surrogates to actual explosives used for training and testing K-9 explosives detection teams. Non-detonable surrogates are required to alleviate logistics and contamination issues with explosives used sa training aids. Comparative K-9
Susan F. Hallowell; Douglas S. Fischer; Jeffrey D. Brasher; Robert L. Malone; Garold L. Gresham; Cathy Rae
Instructional design models describe in detail methodologies for designing effective instruction. Several widely adopted models include suggestions for managing instructional design projects. However, these suggestions focus on how to manage the instructional design steps rather than the instructional design and development team process. The…
This study addresses changes in student perceptions when team leaders are incentivized. Although the benefits of groupwork have been thoroughly studied and documented, minimizing dysfunctional teamwork may prove difficult because of leadership incentives, social loafing, and organizational justice implications. Using an innovative pedagogical…
Ferrante, Claudia J.; Green, Steve G.; Forster, William R.
One of the traditional problems in courseware development that is recognized as hard to solve, is the communication and co-operation between various disciplines in project teams that are working on a courseware product [Alber (1996) "Multimedia: a management perspective." California: Wadsworth; Boyle (1997) "Design for multimedia learning." UK:…
In previous research it has been shown that link-based web page metrics can be used to predict experts' assessment of quality. We are interested in a related question: do expert rankings of real-world entities correlate with search engine (SE) rankings of corresponding web resources? To answer this question we compared rankings of college football teams in the US with rankings
The aims of this study were to establish the temporal-spatial relationship between muscle activity and the smash stroke of skilled badminton players and to assess performance accuracy using the ellipse of constant distance. We recorded the surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of selected superficial muscles of the stroking arm and shoulder--flexor carpi ulnalis, extensor carpi radialis, triceps brachii (lateral head), biceps brachii and trapezius (upper)--during the badminton smash. In the first part of the study, we examined the characteristics of muscle function and performance accuracy of skilled and unskilled individuals during the badminton smash. Five well-trained badminton players and five students with no experience of badminton were asked to smash a shuttle as hard as they could towards a vertical square target 4 m away, repeating the stroke 30 times. In general, the skilled players showed a more constant time from peak electromyographic amplitude to impact. Immediately after impact, the electromyographic activity of the triceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis of the skilled players decreased; in the unskilled participants, however, it continued until well after impact. The area of the ellipse of constant distance and the off-target distance, which were used as indices of performance accuracy, were smaller for the skilled than for the unskilled participants. In the second part of the study, one skilled and one unskilled participant performed 100 trials a day for 6 days. The time from peak electromyographic amplitude to impact in the extensor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnalis was more variable in the unskilled than in the skilled participant even after 6 days of practice, but the proximal muscles of the unskilled participant had a similar pattern of activity to that of the skilled player. Thus, controlling the distal muscles appears to be important for achieving accurate performance of the smash in badminton. PMID:11144867
This study examined the psychometric properties of performance measures for three novel, interactive virtual reality vignette exercises developed to assess social competency skills of at-risk adolescents. Performance data were collected from 117 African-American male 15-17 year olds. Data for 18 performance measures were obtained, based on…
Formal teaching in clinical pharmacology was never part of the curriculum at the American University of Beirut Faculty of Medicine. Based on feedback from students and on recommendations of academic bodies, we have introduced, since June 2008, twice-monthly "rational prescribing" sessions during the required internal medicine rotation in year 4 of medical school. All sessions were designed according to the innovative Team-based Learning format and concluded by having the students practice prescription writing and personal formulary development based on the World Health Organization criteria. Our 18-month experience showed that students were very satisfied with the course and the teaching approach, and that their performance on prescription writing and formulary development had improved. Although further studies are needed to explore the impact of team-based learning on additional performance measures, we recommend it as an effective alternative for teaching clinical pharmacology in medical schools. PMID:20671296
INTRODUCTION\\u000aConsiderable depletion of intramuscular glycogen stores occurs during soccer games which affects the distance covered by players during the second-half of a match-play (Saltin, 1973). Although it appears that players skills deteriorate with fatigue, it is difficult to quantitatively investigate the skillperformance during a soccer game. Additionally, the effects of muscle glycogen depletion and a carbohydrate enriched diet
Students with learning disabilities (LD; defined by compromised academic performance) often have higher levels of anxiety, school-related stress, and less optimal social skills compared with their typically developing peers. Previous health research indicates that meditation and relaxation training may be effective in reducing anxiety and promoting social skills. This pilot study used a pre—post no-control design to examine feasibility of,
James Beauchemin; Tiffany L. Hutchins; Fiona Patterson
After analyseing the related researches during the last 45 years, we found that because of the inconsistent conclusions and there is little testing research for each view, and researchers didn't indentify an exact sample from the mixed head-coach change model, there is no research conclusion adopted in practice and there is no experiement research. Match results can't represent teamperformance,
Research in shared mental models has immeasurably aided our understanding of effective teamwork and taskwork. However, little research has focused on the role that leaders play, if any, in influencing, developing and\\/or fostering shared mental models and thereby improving teamperformance. We developed an agent-based computational model based on McComb's theory of three-phase mental model development, where agents repeatedly share
Shelley D. Dionne; Hiroki Sayama; Chanyu Hao; Benjamin James Bush
Introduction: Resuscitation and life support skills training comprises a significant proportion of continuing education programming for health professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes of certified resuscitation providers toward the retention of resuscitation skills, regular skills updating, and methods…
Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990.
Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.
The authors contribute to growing evidence that team charters contribute positively to performance by empirically testing their effects on key team process outcomes. Using a sample of business students in a team-based task requiring significant cooperative and coordinative behavior, the authors compare emergent team norms under a variety of team…
Aaron, Joshua R.; McDowell, William C.; Herdman, Andrew O.
Objective: To determine if high fidelity simulation based team training can improve clinical teamperformance when added to an existing didactic teamwork curriculum.Setting: Level 1 trauma center and academic emergency medicine training program.Participants: Emergency department (ED) staff including nurses, technicians, emergency medicine residents, and attending physicians.Intervention: : ED staff who had recently received didactic training in the Emergency Team Coordination
M J Shapiro; J C Morey; S D Small; V Langford; C J Kaylor; L Jagminas; S Suner; M L Salisbury; R Simon; G D Jay
Background Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1) to systematically develop a training course aimed at improving the communication skills of physicians during work disability assessment interviews with disability claimants, and 2) to plan an evaluation of the training course. Methods A physician-tailored communication skills training course was developed, according to the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Data were collected from questionnaire studies among physicians and claimants, a focus group study among physicians, a systematic review of the literature, and meetings with various experts. Determinants and performance objectives were formulated. A concept version of the training course was discussed with several experts before the final training course programme was established. The evaluation plan was developed by consulting experts, social insurance physicians, researchers, and policy-makers, and discussing with them the options for evaluation. Results A two-day post-graduate communication skills training course was developed, aimed at improving professional communication during work disability assessment interviews. Special focus was on active teaching strategies, such as practising the skills in role-play. An adoption and implementation plan was formulated, in which the infrastructure of the educational department of the institute that employs the physicians was utilised. Improvement in the skills and knowledge of the physicians who will participate in the training course will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. Conclusions The feasibility and practical relevance of the communication skills training course that was developed seem promising. Such a course may be relevant for physicians in many countries who perform work disability assessments. The development of the first training course of this type represents an important advancement in this field.
It has been reported recently that while general sequence learning across ages conforms to the typical inverted-U shape pattern, with best performance in early adulthood, surprisingly, the basic ability of picking up in an implicit manner triplets that occur with high vs. low probability in the sequence is best before 12 years of age and it significantly weakens afterwards. Based on these findings, it has been hypothesized that the cognitively controlled processes coming online at around 12 are useful for more targeted explicit learning at the cost of becoming relatively less sensitive to raw probabilities of events. To test this hypothesis, we collected data in a sequence learning task using probabilistic sequences in five age groups from 11 to 39 years of age (N = 288), replicating the original implicit learning paradigm in an explicit task setting where subjects were guided to find repeating sequences. We found that in contrast to the implicit results, performance with the high- vs. low-probability triplets was at the same level in all age groups when subjects sought patterns in the sequence explicitly. Importantly, measurements of explicit knowledge about the identity of the sequences revealed a significant increase in ability to explicitly access the true sequences exactly around the age where the earlier study found the significant drop in ability to learn implicitly raw probabilities. These findings support the conjecture that the gradually increasing involvement of more complex internal models optimizes our skill learning abilities by compensating for the performance loss due to down-weighting the raw probabilities of the sensory input, while expanding our ability to acquire more sophisticated skills. PMID:24155717
It has been reported recently that while general sequence learning across ages conforms to the typical inverted-U shape pattern, with best performance in early adulthood, surprisingly, the basic ability of picking up in an implicit manner triplets that occur with high vs. low probability in the sequence is best before 12 years of age and it significantly weakens afterwards. Based on these findings, it has been hypothesized that the cognitively controlled processes coming online at around 12 are useful for more targeted explicit learning at the cost of becoming relatively less sensitive to raw probabilities of events. To test this hypothesis, we collected data in a sequence learning task using probabilistic sequences in five age groups from 11 to 39 years of age (N = 288), replicating the original implicit learning paradigm in an explicit task setting where subjects were guided to find repeating sequences. We found that in contrast to the implicit results, performance with the high- vs. low-probability triplets was at the same level in all age groups when subjects sought patterns in the sequence explicitly. Importantly, measurements of explicit knowledge about the identity of the sequences revealed a significant increase in ability to explicitly access the true sequences exactly around the age where the earlier study found the significant drop in ability to learn implicitly raw probabilities. These findings support the conjecture that the gradually increasing involvement of more complex internal models optimizes our skill learning abilities by compensating for the performance loss due to down-weighting the raw probabilities of the sensory input, while expanding our ability to acquire more sophisticated skills.
Non-invasive electrophysiological and imaging techniques have recently made investigation of the intact behaving human brain possible. One of the most intriguing new research areas that have developed through these new technical advances is an improved understanding of the plastic adaptive changes in neuronal circuitries underlying improved performance in relation to skill training. Expansion of the cortical representation or modulation of corticomotor excitability of specific muscles engaged in task performance is required for the aquisition of the skill. These changes at cortical level appear to be paralleled by changes in transmission in spinal neuronal circuitries, which regulate the contribution of sensory feedback mechanisms to the execution of the task. Such adaptive changes also appear to be essential for the consolidation of a memory of performance of motor tasks and thus for the lasting ability of performing highly skilled movements such as those required for Olympic sports.
Ten females performed 90 min of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) on two occasions separated by 7 days. Water [3 mL/kg body mass (BM)] was provided every 15 min during exercise (FL); no fluid was given in the other trial (NF). Participants performed the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT) before and every 15 min during the LIST. Core temperature (T(c) ) was measured throughout using ingestible temperature sensors. Heart rate (HR), blood lactate ([La(-) ]) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected at regular intervals during exercise. Participants experienced greater BM loss in NF (2.2 ± 0.4%) than FL (1.0 ± 0.4%; P<0.001). Sprint performance deteriorated by 2.7% during exercise (P<0.001) but there was no difference between trials (P=0.294). No significant differences in LSPT performance were detected between trials (P=0.31). T(c) was higher during exercise in NF and was 38.6 ± 0.3 °C (NF) and 38.3 ± 0.3 °C (FL; P<0.01) after 90 min. HR (P<0.001), [La(-) ] (P<0.01) and RPE (P=0.009) were higher during exercise in NF. Ingesting water during a 90-min match simulation reduces the mild dehydration seen in female soccer players when no fluid is consumed. However, there was no effect of fluid ingestion on soccer passing skill or sprint performance. PMID:20136761
This discussion paper describes a new and comprehensive model for diagnosing the causes of individual medical performance problems: SKIPE (skills, knowledge, internal, past and external factors). This builds on a previous paper describing a unifying theory of clinical practice, the RDM-p model, which captures the primary skill sets required for effective medical performance (relationship, diagnostics and management), and the professionalism that needs to underpin them. The SKIPE model is currently being used, in conjunction with the RDM-p model, for the in-depth assessment and management of doctors whose performance is a cause for concern. PMID:24119517
In this research we integrate resource allocation and social exchange perspectives to build and test theory focusing on the moderating role of time management skill in the nonmonotonic relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and task performance. Results from matching survey data collected from 212 employees and 41 supervisors and from task performance metrics collected several months later indicate that the curvilinear association between OCB and task performance is significantly moderated by employees' time management skill. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23379912
This study examined the effects of practice schedule manipulations implemented in an instructional setting on the performance and learning of low- and high-skilled students. College undergraduates (N = 83) enrolled in 5 tennis classes completed a pretest on the forehand and backhand ground strokes, practiced these skills under a blocked or alternating schedule, and then completed a posttest. Results indicated that practice schedule effects on learning were influenced by student ability. Low-skilled students assigned to the blocked schedule had higher posttest scores than those assigned to the alternating schedule, whereas no significant differences were found for high-skilled students. These findings are discussed in relation to previous applied and laboratory-based findings and as a means for manipulating practice difficulty in teaching physical education. PMID:8735994
There is an ongoing argument on "whether past performance of climate models has any guarantee of future skill" [Reifen and Toumi, 2009; Macadm et al. 2010; Weigel et al. 2010; Pennell and Reichler, 2011]. To contribute to this debate we start with our recently developed analytical approach that partitions the variance between space and time [Sun et al. 2010]. We show that the same framework can be used to answer the question by incorporating the covariance. This approach allows the multiple representations that are needed for handling a climate model ensemble. The covariance partitioning scheme can accommodate variations at various space and time scales. We show that the argument arose originally because of improper handling of intra- versus inter-annual variations. Reference: Sun, F., M. L. Roderick, G. D. Farquhar, W. H. Lim, Y. Zhang, N. Bennett, and S. H. Roxburgh (2010), Partitioning the variance between space and time, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L12704, doi:10.1029/2010GL043323.
Leadership skills of senior residents, trauma fellows, and a nurse practitioner were assessed during simulation training for the initial management of blunt trauma. This was a pilot, observational study, that in addition to skill development and assessment also sought to determine the need for a dedicated leadership training course for surgical residents. The study evaluated the leadership skills and adherence to Advance Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines of the team leaders during simulation training. The team leaders' performances on criteria regarding prearrival planning, critical actions based on ATLS, injury identification, patient management, and communication were evaluated for each of five blunt-trauma scenarios. Although there was a statistically significant increase in leadership skills for performing ATLS critical actions, P < 0.05, there were 10 adverse events. A structured simulation program dedicated to developing skills for team leadership willbe a worthwhile endeavor at our institution. PMID:22611722
Schott, Eric; Brautigam, Robert T; Smola, Jacqueline; Burns, Karyl J
The purpose of this study was to see if specific tests of fitness and movement quality could predict injury resilience and performance in a team of basketball players over 2 years (2 playing seasons). It was hypothesized that, in a basketball population, movement and fitness scores would predict performance scores and that movement and fitness scores would predict injury resilience. A basketball team from a major American university (N = 14) served as the test population in this longitudinal trial. Variables linked to fitness, movement ability, speed, strength, and agility were measured together with some National Basketball Association (NBA) combine tests. Dependent variables of performance indicators (such as games and minutes played, points scored, assists, rebounds, steal, and blocks) and injury reports were tracked for the subsequent 2 years. Results showed that better performance was linked with having a stiffer torso, more mobile hips, weaker left grip strength, and a longer standing long jump, to name a few. Of the 3 NBA combine tests administered here, only a faster lane agility time had significant links with performance. Some movement qualities and torso endurance were not linked. No patterns with injury emerged. These observations have implications for preseason testing and subsequent training programs in an attempt to reduce future injury and enhance playing performance. PMID:22505125
McGill, Stuart M; Andersen, Jordan T; Horne, Arthur D
The aim was to study long-term effects on motor skills and school performance of increased physical education (PE). All pupils born 1990-1992 from one school were included in a longitudinal study over nine years. An intervention group (n = 129) achieved daily PE (5 × 45 min/week) and if needed one extra lesson of adapted motor training. The control group (n = 91) had PE two lessons/week. Motor skills were evaluated by the Motor Skills Development as Ground for Learning observation checklist and school achievements by marks in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school. In school year 9 there were motor skills deficits in 7% of pupils in the intervention group compared to 47% in the control group (P < 0.001), 96% of the pupils in the intervention group compared to 89% in the control group (P < 0.05) qualified for upper secondary school. The sum of evaluated marks was higher among boys in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The sum of marks was also higher in pupils with no motor skills deficit than among pupils with motor skills deficits (P < 0.01), as was the proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school (97% vs 81%, P < 0.001). Daily PE and adapted motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school. PMID:22487170
Food insecurity has been associated with diverse developmental consequences for U.S. children primarily from cross-sectional studies. We used longitudinal data to investigate how food insecurity over time related to changes in reading and mathematics test performance, weight and BMI, and social skills in children. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, a prospective sample of approximately 21,000 nationally representative children entering kindergarten in 1998 and followed through 3rd grade. Food insecurity was measured by parent interview using a modification of the USDA module in which households were classified as food insecure if they reported > or =1 affirmative response in the past year. Households were grouped into 4 categories based on the temporal occurrence of food insecurity in kindergarten and 3rd grade. Children's academic performance, height, and weight were assessed directly. Children's social skills were reported by teachers. Analyses examined the effects of modified food insecurity on changes in child outcomes using lagged, dynamic, and difference (i.e., fixed-effects) models and controlling for child and household contextual variables. In lagged models, food insecurity was predictive of poor developmental trajectories in children before controlling for other variables. Food insecurity thus serves as an important marker for identifying children who fare worse in terms of subsequent development. In all models with controls, food insecurity was associated with outcomes, and associations differed by gender. This study provides the strongest empirical evidence to date that food insecurity is linked to specific developmental consequences for children, and that these consequences may be both nutritional and nonnutritional. PMID:16317128
Jyoti, Diana F; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J
Background Inexperienced interns are responsible for most iatrogenic complications after urethral catheterization (UC). Although training on simulators is common, little is known about the transfer of learned skills to real clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of UC simulated skills training on performance on real patients and to examine whether watching a video of the procedure immediately before assessment enhanced clinical performance. Methods This was an experimental study of the effect of a UC simulation-based skills course on medical students’ short-term (after one week) and long-term (after six weeks) performance. The additional effect of video instruction before performance testing on real patients was studied in a randomized trial. Sixty-four students participated in the study, which was preceded by a pilot study investigating the validity aspects of a UC assessment form. Results The pilot study demonstrated sufficient inter-rater reliability, intra-class correlation coefficient 0.86, and a significant ability to discriminate between trainee performances when using the assessment form, p= 0.001. In the main study, more than 90% of students demonstrated an acceptable performance or better when tested on real patients. There was no significant difference in the total score between the one-week and the six-week groups when tested on real patients and no significant difference between the video and the control groups. Conclusions Medical students demonstrated good transfer of UC skills learned in the skills lab to real clinical situations up to six weeks after training. Simulated UC training should be the standard for all medical school curricula to reduce avoidable complications. However, this study did not demonstrate that an instructional video, as a supplement to simulated skills training, improved clinical UC performance. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN:ISRCTN90745002
Intelligence researchers traditionally focus their attention on the individual level and overlook the role of intelligence at the interindividual level. This research investigated the interplay of the effects of intelligence at the individual and interindividual levels by manipulating the intelligence-based composition of dyadic training teams.…
Intelligence researchers traditionally focus their attention on the individual level and overlook the role of intelligence at the interindividual level. This research investigated the interplay of the effects of intelligence at the individual and interindividual levels by manipulating the intelligence-based composition of dyadic training teams. Using a sample of 176 young adult males and a complex computer-based criterion task, homogeneous
Eric Anthony Day; Winfred Arthur; Suzanne T. Bell; Bryan D. Edwards; Winston Bennett; Jorge L. Mendoza; Travis C. Tubré
Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and teamperformance as well as an insight into how teamsperform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.
Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.
Using data from an existing pre-algebra computer-based tutor, we analyzed the covariance of item-types with the goal of describing a more effective way to assign skill labels to item-types. Analyzing covariance is important because it allows us to place the skills in a related network in which we can identify the role each skill plays in learning…
Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.; Cen, Hao; Wu, Lili; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
Objective To describe the epidemiological data of the clinical instability events in patients attended to by the rapid response team and to identify prognostic factors. Methods This was a longitudinal study, performed from January to July 2010, with an adult inpatient population in a hospital environment. The data collected regarding the code yellow service included the criteria of the clinical instability, the drug and non-drug therapies administered and the activities and procedures performed. The outcomes evaluated were the need for intensive care unit admission and the hospital mortality rates. A level of p=0.05 was considered to be significant. Results A total of 150 code yellow events that occurred in 104 patients were evaluated. The most common causes were related to acute respiratory insufficiency with hypoxia or a change in the respiratory rate and a concern of the team about the patient's clinical condition. It was necessary to request a transfer to the intensive care unit in 80 of the 150 cases (53.3%). It was necessary to perform 42 procedures. The most frequent procedures were orotracheal intubation and the insertion of a central venous catheter. The patients who were in critical condition and had to wait for an intensive care unit bed had a higher risk of death compared to the other patients (hazard ratio: 3.12; 95% CI: 1.80-5.40; p<0.001). Conclusions There are patients in critical condition that require expert intensive care in the regular ward unit hospital beds. The events that most frequently led to the code yellow activation were related to hemodynamic and respiratory support. The interventions performed indicate the need for a physician on the team. The situation of pent-up demand is associated with a higher mortality rate.
Taguti, Priscila da Silva; Dotti, Adriana Zanoni; de Araujo, Karinne Peres; de Pariz, Paula Silva; Dias, Gustavo Ferreira; Kauss, Ivanil Aparecida Moro; Grion, Cintia Magalhaes Carvalho; Cardoso, Lucienne Tibery Queiroz
Background Assessment of arm-hand use is very important in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who encounter arm-hand problems. To determine validity and reliability of new instruments to assess actual performance, a set of standardized test situations including activities of daily living (ADL) is required. This study gives information with which such a set for upper extremity skill research may be fine-tuned, relative to a specific research question. Aim of this study is to a) identify upper extremity related ADL children with CP want to improve on, b) determine the 10 most preferred goals of children with CP, and c) identify movement components of all goals identified. Method The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to identify upper extremity-related ADL preferences (goals) of 53 children with CP encountering arm-hand problems (mean age 9 ± 4.5 year). Goals were ranked based on importance attributed to each goal and the number of times a goal was mentioned, resulting in a gross list with goals. Additionally, two studies were performed, i.e. study A to determine the 10 most preferred goals for 3 age groups (2.5-5 years; 6-11 years, 12-19 years), based on the total preference score, and study B to identify movement components, like reaching and grasping, of all goals identified for both the leading and the assisting arm-hand. Results Seventy-two goals were identified. The 10 most preferred goals differed with age, changing from dressing and leisure-related goals in the youngest children to goals regarding personal care and eating for children aged 6-11 years. The oldest children preferred goals regarding eating, personal care and computer use. The movement components ‘positioning’, ‘reach’, ‘grasp’, and ‘hold’ were present in most tasks. ‘Manipulating’ was more important for the leading arm-hand, whereas ‘fixating’ was more important for the assisting arm-hand. Conclusion This study gave insight into the preferences regarding ADL children with CP would like to improve on, and the movement components characterizing these activities. This information can be used to create a set of standardized test situations, which can be used to assess the validity and reliability of new measurement instruments to gauge actual arm-hand skilledperformance.
The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group). The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy) in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (? = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01) of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01) in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01), counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01), dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05) in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05), fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05), 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05) in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific laboratory test was significant only in the 14-year-old age group (r = 0.76, p < 0.01). To conclude, on-the-ball skillperformance in soccer-specific laboratory test improved with age and it seemed that soccer-specific perceptual skills became more and general perceptual motor skills less important with age in soccer-specific laboratory test. Key pointsPhysical fitness characteristics and general perceptual motor skills predicted performance time of the open skill soccer-specific laboratory test in the group of 10-14 year-old regional soccer players.Before puberty the players were able to compensate weaker soccer-specific skills with better general physical performance abilities.Soccer-specific skills became more important with age and at the age of 14 the players were not able to compensate soccer-specific skills with general physical performance abilities.Beside basic ball-handling skills it also important to recognize the importance of soccer-specific perceptual skills (anticipation and reaction) as a part of successful soccer performance. PMID:24149780
The US EPA studied the exposures of 175 residents of Riverside, CA to inhalable particles (<10 micrometers diameter) in the early fall of 1990. Participants were probabilistically selected to represent most of the Riverside nonsmoking population over the age of 10. They wore a newly-designed personal monitor (4 Lpm pump and filter) for two consecutive 12-hour periods (day and night) to determine their exposure to PM-10. Exposure to nicotine was also determined by a citric acid treated filter. Indoor and outdoor samples were collected concurrently at each home. Air exchange rates were determined for each household for the day and night periods. The response rate of the population was about 50%, roughly comparable to previous TEAM Studies. The personal and fixed particle monitors showed excellent precision of about 4% RSD.
Wallace, L.; Pellizzari, E.; Spengler, J.; Jenkins, P.; Sheldon, L.
It was proposed that student mathematics gain scores on the Georgia Criteria Referenced Competency Test (CRCT], motivation ant1 teacher expectation might be explained by teacher perceptions of the selected independent variables: Instructional I leadership, professional development, teacher methodology, achievement lesson planning, teacher instructional delivery and teacher college preparation. The correlation design did not include a control group. Thirty-seven of the
Background Simulation as a pedagogical approach has been used in health professional education to address the need to safely develop effective clinical skills prior to undertaking clinical practice. However, evidence for the use of simulation in midwifery is largely anecdotal, and research evaluating the effectiveness of different levels of simulation fidelity are lacking. Woman centred care is a core premise of the midwifery profession and describes the behaviours of an individual midwife who demonstrates safe and effective care of the individual woman. Woman centred care occurs when the midwife modifies the care to ensure the needs of each individual woman are respected and addressed. However, a review of the literature demonstrates an absence of a valid and reliable tool to measure the development of woman centred care behaviours. This study aims to determine which level of fidelity in simulated learning experiences provides the most effective learning outcomes in the development of woman centred clinical assessment behaviors and skills in student midwives. Methods/Design Three-arm, randomised, intervention trial. In this research we plan to: a) trial three levels of simulation fidelity - low, medium and progressive, on student midwives performing the procedure of vaginal examination; b) measure clinical assessment skills using the Global Rating Scale (GRS) and Integrated Procedural Performance Instrument (IPPI); and c) pilot the newly developed Woman Centred Care Scale (WCCS) to measure clinical behaviors related to Woman-Centredness. Discussion This project aims to enhance knowledge in relation to the appropriate levels of fidelity in simulation that yield the best educational outcomes for the development of woman centred clinical assessment in student midwives. The outcomes of this project may contribute to improved woman centred clinical assessment for student midwives, and more broadly influence decision making regarding education resource allocation for maternity simulation.
Numerous studies have demonstrated that using verbal instructions to direct a performers' attention externally significantly enhances motor skillperformance. Limited research has also demonstrated that increasing the distance of an external focus relative to the body magnifies the effect of an external focus of attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of increasing the distance of an external focus of attention on standing long jump performance in a highly trained population. Using a counterbalanced, within-participant design, current collegiate male athletes (n = 38, age = 20.7 years, SD = 2.2 years) performed 2 standing long jumps following 4 different sets of verbal instructions. Subjects completed all 8 trials in 1 testing session, which lasted approximately 20 minutes. One set of instructions was designed to focus attention internally toward the movements of the body (INT), a second set of instructions focused attention externally near the body (EXN), another set of instructions directed attention externally to a target farther from the body (EXF), and the last set of instructions served as a control condition (CON) and encouraged the athlete to use his "normal" focus while jumping. Results indicated that the EXN and EXF conditions elicited jump distances that were significantly greater than the INT and CON conditions. In addition, the participants jumped significantly farther in the EXF condition than the EXN condition. These findings suggest that increasing the distance of an external focus of attention relative to the body, immediately improved standing long jump performance in a highly trained population. PMID:23222082
Porter, Jared M; Anton, Philip M; Wikoff, Nicole M; Ostrowski, Justin B
Education reform efforts, including the current adoption of Common Core State Standards, have increased attention to teaching critical thinking skills to all students. This study investigated the critical thinking skills of fourth-grade students from a school district in Texas, including 45 identified gifted students and 163 general education…
This study was based on the belief that young people with learning disabilities have difficulties acquiring sufficient employment because of lack of certain job-related social skills, including attendance. Deficits in social skills inherent to employment situations contribute to problems of job stability and interfere with the individual's ability to adequately function on the job. Thus, for adolescents with disabilities who
Students with strong executive function skills hold the keys to school and social success--from attention and impulse control to time management and organization. Now K-12 teachers have a practical, highly readable guide to enhancing these critical skills for "all" students, with and without learning disabilities. Through the author's memorable…
Improve students' writing skills and boost their assessment scores while adding arts education, creativity, and fun to your writing curriculum. With this vibrant resource, improving writing skills goes hand-in-hand with improving test scores. Students learn how to use acting and visualization as prewriting activities to help them connect writing…
This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills…
Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia
The present study was designed to assess object identification ("what") and location ("where") skills among girls with fragile X or Turner syndrome and girls with neither disorder. Participants completed standardized subtests of visual perception and tasks of visuospatial "what" and "where" memory. Girls with fragile X had average performance on most object identification tasks, yet 53% failed to accurately recreate the gestalt of a design during the "where" memory task. Fewer than 7% of girls in the Turner or comparison group made this error. Girls with Turner syndrome had lower scores and longer response times on object perception tasks and had poorer recall of location for internal features of the design on the "where" memory task, relative to girls in the comparison or fragile X group. When limiting analyses to IQ-matched samples, correlations between math and visual perception tasks emerged, but only for girls with fragile X. These results reflect important differences between two cognitive phenotypes and have implications for the role of visuospatial processing in early math performance. PMID:16754531
Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Singh Bhatia, Neha; Lesniak-Karpiak, Katarzyna
This thesis examined the effects of excessive TTB(Team Training Branch) initial technical training waiting time on Missile Maintenance Technician (41131) morale and proficiency. In performing this research, the Minuteman Missile maintenance environment wa...
Purpose – The article aims to report on research into managerial practices at the workplace level in Britain and Italy in the automobile and aerospace industries. These are examined with regard to their impact on employees' perceptions of skill, training and their relationship to participation. Are advocates of high performance work (HPW) accurate in arguing that it can satisfy aspirations
Paul Stewart; Andy Danford; Mike Richardson; Valeria Pulignano
A specialized word attack skills program was designed to increase the reading ability of a target group of seven first grade students. These youngsters, placed in an average ability classroom, were performing below county standards. The program utilized learning centers, computers, and visual-auditory activities as motivational techniques.…
Political skill is a relatively newly articulated construct. Despite its novelty, it has been investigated in a variety of contexts, showing promise not only as a descriptor of several organizational phenomena, but also as a predictor of job performance. Given this status, it seems appropriate to review the empirical literature to this point for…
Bing, Mark N.; Davison, H. Kristl; Minor, Inneka; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Frink, Dwight D.
The purpose of this paper is to share a performance assessment task and rubric designed to assess secondary school mathematics preservice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and skills. The assessment task and rubric were developed in collaboration with five education faculty, four arts and sciences faculty, and four high school teachers over…
This report examines the "Performance Indicators in Primary Schools" (PIPS) test as a reliable and cohesive instrument to assess early literacy and numeracy skills among Indigenous children. The process includes the examination of the reliability of the PIPS test using the Cronbach Alpha and the Split-half method with Pearson's r correlation…
Management provides formal coordination in an organization for achieving pre-determined goals. The educational manager particulary performs his duties by using different planning and management techniques. These techniques are equally important for the manager of other sectors. The present study was focused on the impact of managerial skills…
Chuadhry, Muhammad Asif; Shah, Syed Manzoor Hussain
A study was conducted to determine correlates of study skills and academic performance of high and low achievers among secretarial studies student teachers at a Nigerian university. Results with 21 high and 21 low achievers demonstrate personality and study habits differences among the groups. (SLD)
Numerous studies have indicated a link between the presence of polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive and affective disorders. However, only a few have studied these effects longitudinally along with structural changes in the brain. This study was carried out to investigate whether valine-to-methionine substitution at position 66 (val66met) of pro-BDNF could be linked to alterations in the rate of decline in skilled task performance and structural changes in hippocampal volume. Participants consisted of 144 healthy Caucasian pilots (aged 40–69 years) who completed a minimum of 3 consecutive annual visits. Standardized flight simulator score (SFSS) was measured as a reliable and quantifiable indicator for skilled task performance. In addition, a subset of these individuals was assessed for hippocampal volume alterations using magnetic resonance imaging. We found that val66met substitution in BDNF correlated longitudinally with the rate of decline in SFSS. Structurally, age-dependent hippocampal volume changes were also significantly altered by this substitution. Our study suggests that val66met polymorphism in BDNF can be linked to the rate of decline in skilled task performance. Furthermore, this polymorphism could be used as a predictor of the effects of age on the structure of the hippocampus in healthy individuals. Such results have implications for understanding possible disabilities in older adults performingskilled tasks who are at a higher risk for cognitive and affective disorders.
Sanchez, M Millan; Das, D; Taylor, J L; Noda, A; Yesavage, J A; Salehi, A
The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…
This study investigated the use of performance-confidence relationships to signal the presence of alternative conceptions and inadequate problem-solving skills in mechanics. A group of 33 students entering physics at a South African university participated in the project. The test instrument consisted of 20 items derived from existing standardised…
Reports results of a study exploring the effects of preservice secondary teacher anxiety and modeling on acquisition of a science teaching skill and concomitant student performance, using randomly assigned microteaching sessions as treatment and control groups. Discusses results and aptitude-treatment interactions. (CS)
This study examines the impact of an assessment training module on student assessment skills and task performance in a technology-facilitated peer assessment. Seventy-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants completed an assessment training exercise, prior to engaging in peer-assessment activities. During the…
Instructors wanting to engage students in the classroom seek methods to augment the delivery of factual information and help students move from being passive recipients to active participants in their own learning. One such method that has gained interest is team-based learning. This method encourages students to be prepared before class and has students work in teams while in the classroom. Key benefits to this pedagogy are student engagement, improved communication skills, and enhanced critical-thinking abilities. In most cases, student satisfaction and academic performance are also noted. This paper reviews the fundamentals of team-based learning in pharmacy education and its implementation in the classroom. Literature reports from medical, nursing, and pharmacy programs are also discussed.
A growing number of older adults coupled with a limited number of physicians trained in geriatrics presents a major challenge to ensuring quality medical care for this population. Innovations to incorporate geriatrics education into internal medicine residency programs are needed. To meet this need, in 2009, faculty at the Medical University of South Carolina developed Aging Q(3)-Quality Education, Quality Care, and Quality of Life. This multicomponent initiative recognizes the need for improved geriatrics educational tools and faculty development as well as systems changes to improve the knowledge and clinical performance of residents. To achieve these goals, faculty employ multiple intervention strategies, including lectures, rounds, academic detailing, visual cues, and electronic medical record prompts and decision support. The authors present examples from specific projects, based on care areas including vision screening, fall prevention, and caring for patients with dementia, all of which are based on the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders quality indicators. The authors describe the principles driving the design, implementation, and evaluation of the Aging Q(3) program. They present data from multiple sources that illustrate the effectiveness of the interventions to meet the knowledge, skill level, and behavior goals. The authors also address major challenges, including the maintenance of the teaching and modeling interventions over time within the context of demanding primary care and inpatient settings. This organized, evidence-based approach to quality improvement in resident education, as well as faculty leadership development, holds promise for successfully incorporating geriatrics education into internal medicine residencies. PMID:22450181
Moran, William P; Zapka, Jane; Iverson, Patty J; Zhao, Yumin; Wiley, M Kathleen; Pride, Pamela; Davis, Kimberly S
Objectives To determine whether cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) is an effective psychosocial intervention to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and whether defeatist performance attitudes are associated with change in functioning in CBSST. Design An 18-month, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting Outpatient clinic at a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants Veteran and non-veteran consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=79) age 45–78. Interventions CBSST was a 36-session, weekly group therapy that combined cognitive behavior therapy with social skills training and problem solving training to improve functioning. The comparison intervention, goal-focused supportive contact (GFSC), was supportive group therapy focused on achieving functioning goals. Measurements Blind raters assessed functioning (primary outcome: Independent Living Skills Survey) CBSST skill mastery, positive and negative symptoms, depression, anxiety, defeatist attitudes, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results Functioning trajectories over time were significantly more positive in CBSST than in GFSC, especially for participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes. Greater improvement in defeatist attitudes was also associated with better functioning in CBSST, but not GFSC. Both treatments showed comparable significant improvements in amotivation, depression, anxiety, positive self-esteem and life satisfaction. Conclusions CBSST is an effective treatment to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and both CBSST and other supportive goal-focused interventions can reduce symptom distress, increase motivation and self esteem, and improve life satisfaction. Participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes may benefit most from cognitive behavioral interventions that target functioning.
Granholm, Eric; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C.; McQuaid, John R.; Jeste, Dilip V.
The UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment - Brief version (UPSA-B) describes the functions of patients without negative influences of environmental factors such as unemployment or shortage in housing. The aim of the present study is to further explore the psychometric properties of the UPSA-B as well as to ensure that the Swedish version can be used in clinical practice and for research purposes. Participants were 211 patients, 135 men and 76 women, diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorder. Results indicate that the UPSA-B is a reliable instrument with good psychometric properties regarding validity and reliability. The instrument also had a capacity to reveal differences between various patient groups, both diagnostic groups and groups based on remission status. The conclusion drawn is that the UPSA-B is a valuable instrument that could be used in future cross-national studies to describe the level of functioning for patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses. PMID:22377575
A proposed measure of the perceptual organization of ongoing behavior was applied to the problem of operationalizing observer skills. Twelve experimental studies were completed. Evidence was obtained verifying that the proposed measure taps a low-level pe...
Social skills training procedures that can be used in a group format are described. These procedures are contained in the Social Skills Intervention Guide (Elliott & Gresham, 1991) which is a systematic approach to teaching social skills to children between the ages of 6 and 16 years. A system for classifying social skills deficits based on acquisition performance deficits and
This study examined how external evaluators' assessments of a management team and its leader are impacted by congruence between the leader's gender and the gender typing of the industry in which the team works. We experimentally tested our theory using industries that are either male typed or gender neutral, with teams led by male and female…
Cabrera, Susan F.; Sauer, Stephen J.; Thomas-Hunt, Melissa C.
This article describes a project that simulates the interplay between management and development project teams in a business environment. Each student team was assigned a management role supervising one project and a development role implementing another project. Results indicate that teams that communicate regularly and interact socially outside…
This study compared the skillsperformance of 60 children, ages 3 to 5, with speech and language delays on the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS) with that of national norms on the PDMS. It found that the children with speech and language delays performed the PDMS gross motor skills significantly lower than the norm at each age level. The…
Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training program for low-income, unemployed adults. Participants worked on typing and keypad programs for 7 months. Participants randomly assigned to Group A (n?=?23) earned hourly and productivity pay on the typing program (productivity pay), but earned only equalized hourly pay on the keypad program (hourly pay). Group B (n?=?19) participants had the opposite contingencies. Participants worked more on, advanced further on, and preferred their productivity pay program. These results show that monetary incentives can increase performance in a job-skills training program, and indicate that payment in adult education programs should be delivered contingent on performance in the training program instead of simply on attendance. PMID:24114155
Team building activities are an excellent way to challenge students and teach them the critical communication and problem solving skills that encourage trust, empathy, and ability to work together. They create an atmosphere that enhances the ability to meet fitness and skill goals because students, regardless of skill level, will possess increased…
The current experiment is the fifth in a series of studies that investigate the effects of fatigue and social environment on task performance. The following topics were studied: (a) Which tasks are most vulnerable to fatigue. (b) To what extent can the pr...
Chapter 5 of a volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews the literature to define and explain management teams and to describe several successful management team arrangements. The author begins by noting that team management has recently enjoyed a resurgence as a response to collective negotiations, but beyond this function can have value…
The authors examine the application of interpersonal human factors training on operating room (OR) personnel. Mortality studies of OR deaths and critical incident studies of anesthesia are examined to determine the role of human error in OR incidents. Theoretical models of system vulnerability to accidents are presented with emphasis on a systems approach to OR performance. Input, process, and outcome factors are discussed in detail.
Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.
This paper uses data from the 1998 Technical Graduates Employers Survey, combined with post-survey financial data, to examine the effects of high-level skill shortages on firm-level performance in the UK. We focus specifically on enterprise difficulties in recruiting engineers and scientists with skills related to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). In contrast to most other surveys of skill shortages, these
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of individual training loads considered as permanent in selected heart-rate (HR) zones on aerobic fitness and performance in elite professional soccer players. Eighteen professional soccer players were observed during the prechampionship training period (8 weeks). Speeds and HR at 2 and 4 mmol · L blood-lactate concentrations (S2, S4, respectively), VO2max, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 performance (Yo-Yo IR1) were assessed pretraining and posttraining. Training intensities were categorized using 3 HR zones: low intensity (
HR 4 mmol · L). Training-session HRs (n = 900) showed a polarized distribution with 73.6 ± 3.7 (2,945 ± 148 minutes), 19.1 ± 3.5 (763 ± 141 minutes), and 7.3 ± 2.9% (292 ± 116 minutes) of the total training time spent at low, moderate, and high intensities, respectively (p < 0.001). The S2 and S4 significantly improved posttraining (+10 and 7%, respectively, p < 0.001). The VO2max and Yo-Yo IR1 values were 6 and 19.5% higher posttraining, respectively (p < 0.01). Training performed at high intensity was significantly related to relative improvement in S2 (r = 0.78, p = 0.002), S4 (r = 0.60, p = 0.03), VO2max (r = 0.65, p = 0.02), and Yo-Yo IR1 (r = 0.66, p = 0.01). The results of this study provided further evidence for HR longitudinal validity and effectiveness of the high-intensity training (i.e., >90% HRmax) in men's professional soccer. In this regard, the time spent at high intensity should be in the range of 7-8% of the total training time during preseason. PMID:23442266
Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chaouachi, Anis; Manzi, Vincenzo
Objective The combination of mammography and/or ultrasound remains the mainstay in current breast cancer diagnosis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the reliability of standard breast imaging and individual radiologist performance and to explore ways that this can be improved. Methods A total of 16 603 separate assessment episodes were undertaken on 13 958 patients referred to a specialist symptomatic breast clinic over a 6 year period. Each mammogram and ultrasound was reported prospectively using a five-point reporting scale and compared with final outcome. Results Mammographic sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating curve (ROC) area were 66.6%, 99.7% and 0.83, respectively. The sensitivity of mammography improved dramatically from 47.6 to 86.7% with increasing age. Overall ultrasound sensitivity, specificity and ROC area was 82.0%, 99.3% and 0.91, respectively. The sensitivity of ultrasound also improved dramatically with increasing age from 66.7 to 97.1%. Breast density also had a profound effect on imaging performance, with mammographic sensitivity falling from 90.1 to 45.9% and ultrasound sensitivity reducing from 95.2 to 72.0% with increasing breast density. Conclusion The sensitivity ranges widely between radiologists (53.1–74.1% for mammography and 67.1–87.0% for ultrasound). Reporting sensitivity was strongly correlated with radiologist experience. Those radiologists with less experience (and lower sensitivity) were relatively more likely to report a cancer as indeterminate/uncertain. To improve radiology reporting performance, the sensitivity of cancer reporting should be closely monitored; there should be regular feedback from needle biopsy results and discussion of reporting classification with colleagues.
Britton, P; Warwick, J; Wallis, M G; O'Keeffe, S; Taylor, K; Sinnatamby, R; Barter, S; Gaskarth, M; Duffy, S W; Wishart, G C
Teaching strategies to improve critical-thinking skills and knowledge construction in associate degree (AD) nursing education are most effective when they actively engage the student. Faculty in an Illinois nursing program developed a schedule that correlated classroom content with clinical experiences for the predominant medical–surgical units. While planned didactic\\/clinical correlation yielded mixed results as a strategy to improve academic performance, providing
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of intermittent high-intensity shuttle running and fluid ingestion on the performance of a soccer skill. Nine semi-professional soccer players volunteered to participate in the study. Their mean (±sx) age, body mass and maximal oxygen uptake were 20.2 ± 0.4 years, 73.2 ± 1.8 kg and 59.1 ± 1.3 ml·kg ·min
S. J. McGregor; C. W. Nicholas; H. K. A. Lakomy; C. Williams
In this paper, we will describe an experiment in helping students begin to self-assess their learning processes through a simple homework activity tied to examinations. This exercise was developed to provide students with an opportunity to work on their meta-learning skills, where they reflect upon learning instead of simply focusing on contents and carrying out assignments. Since awareness is considered
Second-semester college freshmen (n=354) on academic probation participating in a one-credit study skills course had statistically significant improvements in grade point average, academic hours attempted, and academic hours earned during the same semester. Differences persisted after one and two years, and retention data also favored the…
Sex differences have been previously found in cognitive and affective predictors of math achievement, including spatial skills and math attitudes. It is important to determine whether there are sex differences not only in the predictors themselves, but also in the nature of their relation to math achievement. The present paper examined spatial…
The Skills Enhancement Literacy Project of Hawaii (SELPH) was a demonstration workplace literacy partnership between the College of Education, University of Hawaii-Manoa and the ITT Sheraton Hotels. Four Sheraton Hotels in Waikiki participated in the project. The program was planned, staff and volunteers were recruited, and marketing strategies…
The purpose of this project was to construct a valid and reliable noncurriculum specific measure of integrated science process skills intended for use with middle school students. The major efforts in test development were focused on the refinements and modifications of the set of objectives and test items assessed by the existing Middle Grades…
The effectiveness of coach turnover on teamperformance is widely discussed in the literature due to the indirect impact of a team’sperformance on a club’s revenues. This study examines the effect of coach turnover within a competition season by focusing on the change in team quality and the change in home team advantage under the new coach. The change
This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and teamperformance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve teamwork. This is followed by discussion of the potential influence of national culture on teamwork and crew resource management. We then examine the influence of other individual and team differences, such as personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload. We provide a heuristic model that depicts the influence of national culture and individual differences on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the model for future research.
Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.
In recent years, the health care field has recognized the importance of handoff communications, as these crucial events may have serious implications for patient safety if not completed properly. To perform these handoffs correctly, patient information and responsibility must be exchanged accurately and thoroughly between health care providers despite any distractions, interruptions, and/or cultural issues that may exist. To overcome any such obstacles, institutions have experimented with various approaches over the years to determine the best method to ensure the highest probability of effective exchanges. This article describes major barriers that exist to efficient handoff communications and proposes an online, hybrid simulation course as a primary solution to many of the interpersonal obstacles. This highly accessible course uses the dynamic approach of teaching handoff communication with pretests/posttests, videos, a PowerPoint presentation, and interactive exercises. This course emphasizes the importance of teamwork and the SBAR standardization method and has been well received by residents, fellows, and employees of a large health system. PMID:24595260
The goal of the project examined here was to establish performance standards for Navy aerographer's mate (AG) enlisted sailors at three skill levels. We used an online expert judgment task and consensus workshop methodology to gather information from subject matter experts on minimal proficiency requirements for each task within each skill level.…
Hedge, Jerry W.; Borman, Walter C.; Kubisiak, U. Christean; Bourne, Mark J.
To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the beef farmer is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…
To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the chemical applicator is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential…
To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the commercial vegetable producer is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are…
The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how "peer-based rational control", which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with…
Stewart, Greg L.; Courtright, Stephen H.; Barrick, Murray R.
Globalization has led to a widespread increase in the practice of ‘offshore outsourcing’ of projects in the construction industry. This phenomenon has led to the development of a new form of organization—the ‘global virtual team’. Where much is explored in the extant literature on the ingredients affecting virtual team functioning, relatively little research has been done on the interaction of
Precourse tests of computational skills in algebra and trigonometry and of formal operational reasoning have been correlated with performance in the algebra-based introductory physics course for 80 students. The correlation coefficient for mathematics and physics was 0.345 (p < 0.001) and for formal operational reasoning and physics was 0.435 (p < 0.001). However, a multiple regression analysis of the combined effect of mathematics and formal operational reasoning on the total physics grade yielded a multiple R of 0.518, R2=0.268. This study found that the combination of precourse measures of mathematics computational skills and abstract reasoning explained over 25% of the variance in the final physics grade distribution.
This paper reports on the development and implementation of a self-talk (ST) strategy designed to improve the volleying skill of collegiate tennis players (N = 5). A two-word ST strategy was developed, implemented, and evaluated using a single-case, multiple-baseline design. Dependent measures were movement patterns and outcome scores. After intervention, four players displayed immediate, positive changes with no overlapping datapoints
From a basis in social exchange theory, the authors investigated whether, and how, negative feedback-seeking behavior and a team empowerment climate affect the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and member performance. Results showed that subordinates' negative feedback-seeking behavior mediated the relationship between LMX and both objective and subjective in-role performance. In addition, the level of a team's empowerment climate was positively related to subordinates' own sense of empowerment, which in turn negatively moderated the effects of LMX on negative feedback-seeking behavior. PMID:17227161
The predictors and correlates of positive functioning among community prevention teams have been examined in a number of research studies; however, the role of personality has been neglected. In this study, we examined whether team member and leader personality dimensions assessed at the time of team formation predicted local prevention team functioning 2.5-3.5 years later. Participants were 159 prevention team members in 14 communities participating in the PROSPER study of prevention program dissemination. Three aspects of personality, aggregated at the team level, were examined as predictors: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. A series of multivariate regression analyses were performed that accounted for the interdependency of five categories of team functioning. Results showed that average team member Openness was negatively, and Conscientiousness was positively linked to team functioning. The findings have implications for decisions about the level and nature of technical assistance support provided to community prevention teams. PMID:18829112
This paper looks into the effects of team building progress on ultimate teamperformance. This project used an engineering undergraduate senior design class operating in an Integrated Product Team (IPT) environment to observe the presence of established teaming theory characteristics in order to study their validity. Behavioral observations were taken during regular team meetings and matched to prevalent teaming theories.
Pamela Knight; Chris Wilson; Nathan Wincey; Dawn Utley
Science education reform, driven by a rapidly advancing technological society, demands the attention of both elementary and middle school curriculum-developers. Science education training in current standards (National Research Council [NRC] Standards 1996) emphasize inquiry, which is reported to be a basic tenet of the theory known as constructivism (NAASP, 1996; Cohen, 1988; Conley, 1993; Friedman, 1999; Newman, Marks, & Gamoran, 1996; Smerdon & Burkam 1999; Sizer 1992; Talbert & McLaughlin 1993; Tobin & Gallagher, 1987; Yager, 1991, 2000). Pedagogy focusing on the tenets of constructivist theory, at the intermediate level, can address current science standards. Many science educators believe participation in science fairs helps students develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge that will help them to be comfortable and successful in the scientific and technological society (Czerniak, 1996). Competing in science fairs is one vehicle which allows students to apply science to societal issues, solve problems and model those things scientists do. Moreover, constructing a science fair project is suggested as being an excellent means to foster the development of concepts necessary in promoting scientific literacy (Czerniak, 1996). Research further suggests that through science fairs or other inquiry activities, students construct their knowledge with fewer misconceptions as they explore and discover the nature of science (NRC 1996). Tohn 's study (as cited in Bellipanni, 1994) stated that science fairs are a major campaign to increase student skills and to allow students a chance to have fun with science. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to assess science problem solving skills of students instructed using constructivist pedagogy, and (2) to explore the effects of constructivist pedagogy's influence(s) on science fair participation/placement. Students' attitudes resulting from these experiences were examined as well.
To analyze how schools place students into special education, 66 case discussions were transcribed and assessment team members interviewed. Ways in which team participants weigh statements were examined through a taxonomy of their perceptions of learning disabilities and a match of the meeting discussions to subsequent placement decisions in light…
This study utilizes Bandura's theory of self-efficacy as a framework to examine the development of tinkering skills white working on a freshman engineering design team. The four sources of self-efficacy were analyzed in the context of tinkering within the design team. The research question, 'Does tinkering self-efficacy change for female students during the Freshman Engineering Design class while working on mixed sex teams?', was addressed using quantitative data collection and field observations. Approximately 41 students enrolled in a freshman engineering design class at a public university in the southwest participated by providing self-reports about their tinkering involvement during each design project. In addition, three mixed-sex student teams were observed while working to complete the course design projects. An observation protocol based on Bandura's sources of self efficacy, was used to document tinkering interactions within the three observed teams. The results revealed that Bandura's sources of self-efficacy influenced tinkering involvement. The self-efficacy source, performance accomplishment measured through prior tinkering experience, was the most influential on tinkering involvement. Unlike Bandura's ranking of influence, verbal persuasion was shown to correlate with more tinkering behaviors than the observation of others. The number of females on a team had no impact on tinkering involvement. Tinkering involvement did not change as students progressed from one project to another. However, the competitive nature of the design project appeared to have a negative impact on tinkering involvement and the division of tasks within the team. In addition, a difference was found in the female students' perception of their tinkering involvement and observation of their tinkering involvement. The findings suggest that effective implementation of teamwork including teamwork preparation, more emphasis on the design process and the elimination of competition between teams are necessary to create a more equitable learning environment.
Both academics and practitioners have suggested that virtual teams (VTs) allow organizations to address the challenges of increasingly complex and dynamic environments. VTs often encounter unexpected coordination and management problems. The purpose of th...
ObjectivesTo describe the biochemical disease-free survival observed in the first cohort men treated by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians with no previous experience in low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDRPB).
Kevin P. McMullen; Allan F. deGuzman; David L. McCullough; W. Robert Lee
As organizations implement novel health promotion programs across multiple sites, they face great challenges related to knowledge management. Staff social networks may be a useful medium for transferring program-related knowledge in multi-site implementation efforts. To study this potential, we focused on the role of extra-team connections (ties between staff members based in different site teams) as potential channels for knowledge sharing. Data come from a cross-sectional study of after-school child-care staff implementing a health promotion program at 20 urban sites of the Young Men's Christian Association of Greater Boston. We conducted a sociometric social network analysis and attempted a census of 91 program staff members. We surveyed 80 individuals, and included 73 coordinators and general staff, who lead and support implementation, respectively, in this study. A multiple linear regression model demonstrated a positive relationship between extra-team connections (beta = 3.41, P < 0.0001) and skill receipt, a measure of knowledge transfer. We also found that intra-team connections (within-team ties between staff members) were also positively related to skill receipt. Connections between teams appear to support knowledge transfer in this network, but likely require greater active facilitation, perhaps via organizational changes. Further research on extra-team connections and knowledge transfer in low-resource, high turnover environments is needed. PMID:19528313
Ramanadhan, Shoba; Wiecha, Jean L; Emmons, Karen M; Gortmaker, Steven L; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for metalworking programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any…
The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…
This paper reports on the cross-disciplinary research that resulted in a decision-support tool, Team Machine (TM), which was designed to create maximally diverse student teams. TM was used at a large United States university between 2004 and 2012, and resulted in significant improvement in the performance of student teams, superior overall balance…
Multiple studies examining the relationship between physician gender and performance on examinations have found consistent significant gender differences, but relatively little information is available related to any gender effect on interviewing and written communication skills. The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) examination is a multi-station examination where examinees (physicians in training) interact with, and are rated by, standardized patients (SPs) portraying cases in an ambulatory setting. Data from a recent complete year (2009) were analyzed via a series of hierarchical linear models to examine the impact of examinee gender on performance on the data gathering (DG) and patient note (PN) components of this examination. Results from both components show that not only do women have higher scores on average, but women continue to perform significantly better than men when other examinee and case variables are taken into account. Generally, the effect sizes are moderate, reflecting an approximately 2% score advantage by encounter. The advantage for female examinees increased for encounters that did not require a physical examination (for the DG component only) and for encounters that involved a Women's Health issue (for both components). The gender of the SP did not have an impact on the examinee gender effect for DG, indicating a desirable lack of interaction between examinee and SP gender. The implications of the findings, especially with respect to the validity of the use of the examination outcomes, are discussed. PMID:22041870
Swygert, Kimberly A; Cuddy, Monica M; van Zanten, Marta; Haist, Steven A; Jobe, Ann C
IntroductionThe report, To Err is Human, indicated that a large number of deaths are caused by medical error. A central tenet of this report was that patient safety was not only a function of sophisticated healthcare technology and treatments, but also the degree to which healthcare professionals could perform effectively as teams. Research suggests that teamwork comprises four core skills:
David P Baker; Andrea M Amodeo; Kelley J Krokos; Anthony Slonim; Heidi Herrera
This poster will showcase research conducted by Dr. Victoria L. Bacon and Ms. Kimberly Ghiorse, Sport Psychology research team, associated with an externally funded research grant, The Holistic Athlete: A Cross-disciplinary Collaboration. Pre-Season Nutrition, Sports Psychology, and Physical Performance Preparation. Dr. Bacon and Ms. Ghiorse developed mental skills strategies for the Holistic Athlete research project. The Social and Athletic Readjustment
We investigate the integration of argumentation in a physics course for future elementary teachers. Students were divided into two groups â construct and evaluate â to solve conceptual physics problems using corresponding forms of written argumentation. After training in small teams, each group received tasks that required transfer of skills to new problems requiring a different form of argumentation i.e. students trained to construct arguments were now required to evaluate arguments and vice versa. The process was repeated after three weeks during which more training was provided. Results indicate no significant improvement of argumentation on team training tasks over this period, but a statistically significant improvement on individual transfer tasks. Thus, three weeks of training did not improve studentsâ performance on the team tasks, but it prepared them to transfer these skills to individual argumentation tasks.
Using a field sample of 101 virtual teams, this research empirically evaluates the impact of traditional hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership on teamperformance. Building on Bell and Kozlowski's (2002) work, we expected structural supports and shared team leadership to be more, and hierarchical leadership to be less, strongly related to teamperformance when teams were more virtual in nature. As predicted, results from moderation analyses indicated that the extent to which teams were more virtual attenuated relations between hierarchical leadership and teamperformance but strengthened relations for structural supports and teamperformance. However, shared team leadership was significantly related to teamperformance regardless of the degree of virtuality. Results are discussed in terms of needed research extensions for understanding leadership processes in virtual teams and practical implications for leading virtual teams. PMID:23205494
Hand preferences were recorded for 35 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they manipulated a joystick in response to 2 computerized tasks. These preferences were then used to contrast 8 left- and 10 right-handed subjects on performance measures of hand skill. Individual hand preferences were found, but no significant population asymmetry was observed across the sample. However, the performance data reveal substantial benefits of right-handedness for joystick manipulation, as this group of monkeys mastered the 2 psychomotor tasks significantly faster than did their left-handed counterparts. The data support earlier reports of a right-hand advantage for joystick manipulation and also support the importance of distinguishing between hand preference and manual performance in research on functional asymmetries.
Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Berke, Leslie; Williams, Mary
The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.
Performance-based assessments of everyday living skills have been shown to be highly correlated with cognitive functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as well as being predictive of deficits in real-world outcomes such as independent living and employment. In this study, we expand our assessments of impairments in everyday living skills to China, evaluating people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression, and comparing their performance to that of healthy controls. Samples of people with schizophrenia (N=272), bipolar disorder (n=61), major depression (n=50), and healthy controls (n=284) were examined with the Chinese version of the UCSD performance-based assessment, brief version (UPSA-B). Performance was compared across the groups and the association between age, gender, educational attainment, marital status, and UPSA-B scores was evaluated. When the performance on the UPSA was compared across the groups, with education as a covariate, significant effects of both diagnosis (F=86.3, p<.001) and education were found (F=228.3, p<.001). Sex and age did not contribute significantly when age and education were considered. Post-hoc comparisons revealed that total UPSA-B scores were lowest in the schizophrenia patients, followed by the patients with major depression. Patients with bipolar disorder did not differ from the healthy comparison subjects on overall performance. Scores for all groups were lower than previously reported in western samples (e.g., HC mean = 64). While diagnostic differences in UPSA-B scores are similar to those previously seen in western samples, the education effect is considerably more substantial. These data suggest that in developing countries educational attainment may be strongly associated with levels of adaptive outcomes and the utilization and interpretation of functional capacity measures be adjusted accordingly.
McIntosh, Belinda J; Zhang, Xiang Yang; Kosten, Thomas; Tan, Shu Ping; Xiu, Mei Hong; Harvey, Philip D
Reports research on cooperative learning strategies used in a college computer skills lab course and compares learning performance and retention of students taught via cooperative teams or traditional individual learning. Results show that both performance and retention were significantly improved with the use of cooperative learning. (Author/JMV)
NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by pairs of suited human astronauts. These Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) are severely restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower. An expanded multi-agent EVA team combining the information-gathering and problem-solving skills of humans with the survivability and physical capabilities of robots is proposed and illustrated by example. Such teams are useful for large-scale, complex missions requiring dispersed manipulation, locomotion and sensing capabilities. To study collaboration modalities within a multi-agent EVA team, a 1-g test is conducted with humans and robots working together in various supporting roles.
Rehnmark, Fredrik; Currie, Nancy; Ambrose, Robert O.; Culbert, Christopher
The objective of this study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of a performance-based measure of functional capacity, the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA), for the prediction of independent living status in patients with chronic schizophrenia-related conditions. A sample of 434 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was administered the UPSA and assessed for independent living status. Participants were classified as "independent" if they were living alone in an apartment, house, or single-resident occupancy (e.g., hotel room) and non-independent if they resided in a care facility (e.g., Board-and-Care home, Skilled Nursing Facility). Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated with the UPSA and Mattis' Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) scores as predictor variables and residential independence as the state variable. Of the 434 participants, 99 (23%) were living independently at the time of assessment. The discriminant validity of the UPSA was adequate (ROC area under the curve=0.74; 95% CI: 0.68-0.79), with greatest dichotomization for the UPSA at a cutoff score of 75 (68% accuracy, 69% sensitivity, 66% specificity), or 80 (68% accuracy, 59% sensitivity, 76% specificity). The UPSA was also a significantly better predictor of living status than was the DRS, based on ROC (z=2.43, p=.015). The UPSA is a brief measure of functional capacity that predicts the ability of patients with schizophrenia to reside independently in the community. PMID:17303168
Mausbach, Brent T; Bowie, Christopher R; Harvey, Philip D; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Goldman, Sherrill R; Jeste, Dilip V; Patterson, Thomas L
In a study designed to explore the effects of teacher anxiety and modeling on acquisition of a science teaching skill and concomitant student performance, 69 preservice secondary teachers and 295 eighth grade students were randomly assigned to microteaching sessions. Prior to microteaching, teachers were given an anxiety test, then randomly assigned to one of three treatments; a transcript model, a protocol model, or a control condition. Subsequently both teacher and student performance was assessed using written and behavioral measures. Analysis of variance indicated that subjects in the two modeling treatments significantly exceeded performance of control group subjects on all measures of the dependent variable, with the protocol model being generally superior to the transcript model. The differential effects of the modeling treatments were further reflected in student performance. Regression analysis of aptitude-treatment interactions indicated that teacher anxiety scores interacted significantly with instructional treatments, with high anxiety teachers performing best in the protocol modeling treatment. Again, this interaction was reflected in student performance, where students taught by highly anxious teachers performed significantly better when their teachers had received the protocol model. These results were discussed in terms of teacher concerns and a memory model of the effects of anxiety on performance.
The traditional team tournament model needs too rigorous assumptions which cannot reflect the different features of organizational structure and management style. The new model introduces team discretion into the traditional model and proposes expected utility function of team efficiency. Next, non-linear programming method is adopted to analyze the relationship among team discretion, team pay dispersion and team efficiency. The results
The sports sciences have long been involved in investigations of team process and performance; nonetheless, there is a surprising paucity of cross?disciplinary interaction between researchers in team cognition and sports psychology. The overarching purpose of this invited special issue is to redress this problem by providing an outlet for leading researchers in the field of team cognition to discuss their
Background The PELICAN Multidisciplinary Team Total Mesorectal Excision (MDT-TME) Development Programme aimed to improve clinical outcomes for rectal cancer by educating colorectal cancer teams in precision surgery and related aspects of multidisciplinary care. The Programme reached almost all colorectal cancer teams across England. We took the opportunity to assess the impact of participating in this novel team-based Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members. Methods The impact of participating in the programme on team members' self-reported job stress, job satisfaction and teamperformance was assessed in a pre-post course study. 333/568 (59%) team members, from the 75 multidisciplinary teams who attended the final year of the Programme, completed questionnaires pre-course, and 6-8 weeks post-course. Results Across all team members, the main sources of job satisfaction related to working in multidisciplinary teams; whilst feeling overloaded was the main source of job stress. Surgeons and clinical nurse specialists reported higher levels of job satisfaction than team members who do not provide direct patient care, whilst MDT coordinators reported the low