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Technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and gallium scanning in acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

SciTech Connect

In 11 non-smoking AIDS patients suspected of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), the results of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol clearances, gallium scans, and arterial blood gases were compared with those of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Nine patients had PCP. All had increased clearances five times higher than the normal (5.6 +/- 2.3% X min-1 vs 1.1 +/- 0.34% X min-1, N = 10, P less than 0.001), suggesting an increased alveolar permeability. Gallium scans were abnormal in six patients but normal or slightly abnormal in the three others. Four of these nine patients had normal chest x-rays. In two of these the gallium scan was abnormal, but in the two others, only the increased Tc-99m DTPA clearances showed evidence of lung disease. Two patients had normal BAL, with normal clearances and gallium scans. Four out of the nine patients with PCP were studied after treatment. Three recovered and had normal clearance and gallium scans. One still had PCP with increased clearance but normal gallium scan. Gallium scanning and Tc-99m DTPA clearance are useful for detecting lung disease in AIDS patients with suspected PCP and for prompting BAL when chest x-rays and PaO/sub 2/ levels are normal. Due to its high sensitivity, a normal Tc-99m DTPA clearance could avoid BAL.

Picard, C.; Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Cinotti, L.; Mayaud, C.; Revuz, J.



Rapid clearance of inhaled aerosols of Technetium-99M DTPA in patients with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

Because infection with Pheumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) causes alteration of the type I epithelial cells as the primary event, the authors studied patients with PCP to determine if PCP causes rapid clearance of Tc-99m DTPA. Twenty normal non-smoking subjects and 7 non-smoking patients with histologically proven PCP were studied. Serial studies were obtained in three patients. Following a two-minute inhalation of 1.6 aerosol particles of Tc-99m DTPA in saline, the activity over three peripheral regions of interest (ROI) of each lung was monitored for the next 7 minutes. The rate of decline of activity over each ROI was expressed as per cent decline/min. In 7 patients with PCP, the average clearance was 7.5 +- 3.6% min., normal, 1.3 +- 0.6% min.(SD). Three patients studied from 5 to 38 days following therapy had improvement in the rate of clearance. This has been demonstrated to be persistent even after clinical recovery of the patient. The ability to quantitate injury to the pulmonary epithelium may directly reflect the ability of Pneumocystis carinii to invade the lung. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DTPA clearance may be a useful test to help diagnosis and monitor the activity of PCP infections.

Mason, G.R.; Duane, G.B.; Effros, R.M.; Mena, I.



Aluminemic disturbance of technetium-99m DTPA renal function measurement  

SciTech Connect

During follow-up study of a patient with surgically corrected unilateral renal ischemia, using computer image generated (/sup 99m/Tc)diethylenethiaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and (/sup 131/I)orthoiodohippurate estimated renal plasma flow (ERPF), we observed prominent gastric and intestinal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc. Profound alteration in the GFR results, but not the ERPF results, was also observed. Radiopharmaceutical breakdown was suspected and shown to be endogenous and due to hyperaluminemia at 28 ng/ml. These case findings add DTPA to the list of /sup 99m/Tc radiopharmaceuticals that have previously been reported to have altered biodistribution when hyperaluminemia is present. The case findings also reaffirm the benefits of obtaining images to corroborate the validity of quantitative data and demonstrate that quantitative radionuclide renal function data are not independent of renal chemical handling.

Specht, H.D.; Belsey, R.; Hanada, J.



Fractional Mean Transit Time in Transplanted Kidneys Studied by Technetium99m-DTPA: Comparison of Clinical and Biopsy Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the usefulness of fractionalmeantransittime (M1@fl in thedifferential diagnoals of postrenal transpiant @m plications, @rc-DTPAwas usedto evaluatedifferencesin MU betweenthe outerzone (corticalnephron)and middlezone @uxtamedulla,y nephron,calcycesand corticalnephron)of the kidney.It is well knownthat acute rejectionis characterizedby delayedcorticaltransittime,whereascorticalnephronfunctionis well maintained andjuxtamedullary functionis impairedafter renal ischemia. Methods: Technetium-99m-DTPA fractional MU was determined by deconvolution analysisof 89 reno gramsobtained within5 daysofthedateof kidneygraftbiopsy and evaluation. Results:Outerzone

Sonoo Mizuin; Ikuko Hayashi; Masaaki Takano; Ryuzo Ban; Takehiro Ohara; Yasuhito Sasaki; Akira Hasegawa


Estudo com radioaerossol de DTPA tecnecio-99m em pacientes portadores de pneumopatia por amiodarona. (Study with radio aerosol of DTPA technetium-99 m in individuals with pulmonary disease by amiodarone).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to evaluate the role of the clearance of 99 m Technetium chelated to diethylenetriamine-penta-acetate (99 m Tc-DTPA) in amiodarone induced pulmonary disease, 40 individuals were studied in four groups. After spirometry, where a volume-time curve ...

M. Terra Filho



Detection of urinary extravasation by delayed technetium-99m DTPA renal imaging  

SciTech Connect

Delayed imaging with Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy demonstrated urinary extravasation in a patient with acute anuria in whom early sequential imaging showed no abnormal extrarenal radionuclide accumulation.

Taki, J.; Tonami, N.; Aburano, T.; Hisada, K.



Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy.

Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.



Exercise increases the lung clearance of inhaled technetium-99m DTPA  

SciTech Connect

The regional lung clearance of a deposited aerosol of (/sup 99m/Tc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was successively computed at rest and at exercise in seven nonsmoking volunteers in upright posture. The subjects were seated on a bicycle with their backs against a gamma camera. At rest there was a gradient of clearance from the apex to the base of the lung, the apical clearance being significantly higher. At exercise this regional gradient was enhanced by a large and significant increase of the apical clearances (3.40 +/- 0.63% min-1 s.d. compared with 1.82 +/- 0.75% min-1 s.d. at rest, n = 7, p less than 0.01). By contrast the changes of the basal clearances were slight and unsignificant (1.46 +/- 0.71% min-1 s.d. compared with 1.40 +/- 0.82% min-1 s.d.). This increase of the apical lung clearance could be attributed primarily to the increase of apical blood flow induced by exercise and to the subsequent increase of the permeability surface area product.

Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Leveau, J.; Katz, A.; Cinotti, L.; Madelaine, G.; Galle, P.



Process for concentrating technetium-99M  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is expected to be of value for concentration of large volumes of technetium-99m pertechnetate. A daily distribution service of about 4 Ci\\/day Tc-99, at a reference time 18 hr after separation from the parent molybdenum-99, could be based on a conventional alumina adsorbent generator loaded with 150 Ci of Mo-99 and elute daily for a week. The Mo-99

J. B. Laidler; R. H. Abrahams



Marqueurs biomedicaux: Ligandes polydentes soufres complexants du technetium-99 m. (Biomedical tracers: technetium-99 m complexing sulfur polydentate ligands).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyclic and acyclic tetra sulfur ligands have been synthesized and some of them have been labelled with technetium-99m. These works have two different aims: 1- Development of methods permitting to obtain easily potential technetium complexing sulfur polyde...

A. Bendennoune



Technetium-99m APD compared with technetium-99m MDP as a bone scanning agent  

SciTech Connect

The authors have investigated the possibilities of technetium-99m-(-3-aminohydroxypropylidene)-1-1-bisphosphonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)APD) as a bone scanning agent in 14 normal subjects and 28 patients. Similar studies in the same normal subjects and patients were carried out with /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-bisphosphonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)MDP). The compounds were labeled with /sup 99m/Tc by means of an electrolytical method; the free pertechnetate content was always under 1%. The (/sup 99m/Tc)APD T1/2 of the third component of the disappearance plasma curve in six normal subjects was 152 +/- 46 min (mean +/- s.d.), while the 24-hr whole-body retention (WBR) was 17.6% +/- 4.6. The (99mTc)MDP value of the 24-hr WBR was 28.6% +/- 3.9. The bone/soft-tissue ratio (B/ST) was investigated in eight control subjects on the eleventh thoracic and the fourth lumbar vertebrae. The B/ST ratios were similar for both APD and MDP studies. In 28 patients with suspected bone metastasis or primary bone disease, bone scintigraphy was carried out; both compounds showed similar findings and the same number of positive results. In five of these patients, the lesion/normal bone ratio was determined with values of 4.6 +/- 2.0 in APD studies and 4.8 +/- 2.3 with MDP. APD was also used in 126 patients; no adverse reactions were observed. The APD dose used i.v. for bone scanning was 200-fold less than those employed by mouth per day, for the treatment of bone disease for long periods. In our experience, APD appears to be an adequate agent for bone scintigraphy.

Degrossi, O.J.; Oliveri, P.; Garcia del Rio, H.; Labriola, R.; Artagaveytia, D.; Degrossi, E.B.



Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m  


Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m is a linear electron accelerator-based technology for producing medical imaging radioisotopes from a separation process that heats, vaporizes and condenses the desired radioisotope. You can learn more about INL's education programs at




Technetium-99m mercaptoalbumin as a potential substitute or technetium-99m labelled red blood cells.  


Technetium-99m labelled red blood cells (99mTc-RBCs) are far superior to 99mTc-labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) for radionuclide ventriculography, but their labelling is more complex, time consuming and risk bearing (in vitro labelling) or suffers from interference by some medications (in vivo labelling). We have now modified HSA by the introduction of mercapto groups with the purpose of preparing stable and practical 99mTc-mercaptoalbumin with long retention in the vascular system, that could replace 99mTc-RBCs. HSA was incubated with N-succinimidyl S-acetylthioacetate (SATA) or N-succinimidyl 2,3-di(S-acetylthio) propionate (SATP) to introduce a chain containing one or two protected sulfhydryl groups on some of the lysine amino groups. After purification by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), the mercapto groups were deprotected by incubation at alkaline pH or by treatment with hydroxylamine. The reaction products were used with or without SEC purification for direct or exchange labelling experiments with 99mTc at neutral pH. SEC-HPLC was used to determine labelling yields and to isolate pure 99mTc-mercaptoalbumin. Stable 99mTc-mercaptoalbumin complexes could be formed in 90%-95% yield after coupling albumin with SATA or SATP in all molar ratios used followed by deacetylation in one of the mentioned conditions. The most favourable results were obtained after reaction of SATA or SATP with HSA in a 25:1 ratio and deprotection with NH2OH. The stability of the resulting 99mTc-mercaptoacetyl-albumin (99mTc-MA-HSA) and 99mTc-dimercaptopropionyl-albumin (99mTc-DMP-HSA) and their retention in vivo in plasma of mice and rabbits are clearly higher than that of conventional 99mTc-HSA preparations. 99mTc-DMP-HSA approaches the behaviour of 125I-HSA quite well in both animal species. A preliminary study with 99mTc-DMP-HSA in a volunteer showed a retention in the vascular compartment almost identical to that of 99mTc-RBCs and clearly higher than that of a common 99mTc-HSA preparation. The results indicate that these 99mTc-mercaptoalbumins and especially 99mTc-DMP-HSA are very promising as a practical alternative to 99mTc-RBCs. PMID:8339730

Verbeke, K A; Vanbilloen, H P; De Roo, M J; Verbruggen, A M




Microsoft Academic Search

At present Technetium-99m provides up to 90% isotopic products used in nuclear medicine (1). His generator Molybdenum-99 is mainly produced in fission reactors. Most of reactors used for this production are approaching the end of their exploitation (2). One suggests to use photonuclear reactions in 100Mo under influence of bremsstrahlung of powerful electron accelerator as an alternative method of 99m

V. L. Uvarov; N. P. Dikiy; A. N. Dovbnya; P. Medvedyeva; G. D. Pugachov; D. Tur



Electron Accelerator's Production of Technetium99m for Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m provides up to 90nuclear medicine at present. His generator Mo-99 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors. Most of reactors used for this production are approaching the end of their exploitation. One suggests to use photonuclear reactions in Mo-100 under influence of bremsstrahlung of powerful electron accelerator as an alternative method of Tc-99m production. Report contents both an analysis of

V. L. Uvarov; N. P. Dikiy; A. N. Dovbnya; Ye. P. Medvedyeva; G. D. Pugachov; Yu. D. Tur; L. P. Abramova; V. P. Staren'ky



Reduction-mediated technetium-99m labeling of monoclonal antibodies  

SciTech Connect

A simple and generally applicable method for labeling antibodies with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) is described. Following reduction of intrinsic disulphide bonds, the antibody is labeled with {sup 99m}Tc in the presence of a weak competing ligand methylene diphosphonate. High labeling efficiencies (greater than 97%), in a final labeling step taking only a few minutes, can be routinely obtained with high in-vitro stability over 24 hr. No effect upon antibody reactivity is seen.

Mather, S.J.; Ellison, D. (St. Bartholomews Hospital, London (England))



Technetium-99m NGA functional hepatic imaging: preliminary clinical experience  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin ( (Tc)NGA) is a radiolabeled ligand to hepatic binding protein, a receptor which resides at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. This receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical and its kinetic model provide a noninvasive method for the assessment of liver function. Eighteen patients were studied: seven with hepatoma, eight with liver metastases, four with cirrhosis, and one patient with acute fulminant non-A, non-B hepatitis. Technetium-99m NGA liver imaging provided anatomic information of diagnostic quality comparable to that obtained with other routine imaging modalities, including computed tomography, angiography, ultrasound, and (Tc)sulfur colloid scintigraphy. Kinetic modeling of dynamic (Tc)NGA data produced estimates of standardized hepatic blood flow, Q (hepatic blood flow divided by total blood volume), and hepatic binding protein concentration, (HBP). Significant rank correlation was obtained between (HBP) estimates and CTC scores. This correlation supports the hypothesis that (HBP) is a measure of functional hepatocyte mass. The combination of decreased Q and markedly reduced (HBP) may have prognostic significance; all three patients with this combination died of hepatic failure within 6 wk of imaging.

Stadalnik, R.C.; Vera, D.R.; Woodle, E.S.; Trudeau, W.L.; Porter, B.A.; Ward, R.E.; Krohn, K.A.; O'Grady, L.F.



Myocardial redistribution of technetium-99m-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (SESTAMIBI)  

SciTech Connect

To determine whether technetium-99m-hexakis-2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (SESTAMIBI) remains fixed in the myocardium following its initial uptake or undergoes time-related redistribution, anesthetized dogs underwent occlusion of the anterior descending coronary artery for 6 min, followed by 3-hr reperfusion. Technetium-99m-SESTAMIBI and thallium-201 (201Tl) were injected intravenously after 1 min occlusion and regional myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres. Tomographic imaging of Tc-SESTAMIBI revealed a perfusion defect with slight but definite filling in over 2 hr. Quantitative analysis indicated a significant rise in the nadir and decrease in the width of the defect in circumferential profile curves. After 3-hr of reperfusion, Tc-SESTAMIBI activity in the previously ischemic area was always greater than the activity of microspheres injected during coronary occlusion (mean normalized values, 0.32 versus 0.11, p less than 0.0001). Our results indicate that following transient ischemia and reperfusion, Tc-SESTAMIBI clearly undergoes myocardial redistribution, although more slowly and less completely than {sup 201}Tl.

Li, Q.S.; Solot, G.; Frank, T.L.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Becker, L.C. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA))



Simultaneous technetium-99m MIBI angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging  

SciTech Connect

Resting first-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRNA) was performed with the myocardial perfusion agent technetium-99m MIBI. In 27 patients, it was compared with technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid FPRNA. A significant correlation was present in left (r = 0.93, p less than 0.001) as well as right (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) ventricular ejection fraction measured with both radiopharmaceuticals. In 13 patients, MIBI derived segmental wall motion was compared with contrast ventriculography. A high correlation was present (p less than 0.001), and qualitative agreement was found in 38/52 segments. In 19 patients with myocardial infarction a significant correlation was present between MIBI segmental wall motion and perfusion scores (p less than 0.001). In ten patients with a history of myocardial infarction, 18 myocardial segments demonstrated diseased coronary vessels and impaired wall motion at contrast angiography. These segments were all identified by the MIBI wall motion and perfusion study. We conclude that MIBI is a promising agent for simultaneous evaluation of cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at rest.

Baillet, G.Y.; Mena, I.G.; Kuperus, J.H.; Robertson, J.M.; French, W.J.



Detection of esophageal ulcerations with technetium-99m albumin sucralfate  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m albumin-sucralfate ((/sup 99m/Tc)Su) can be used to demonstrate peptic ulcer disease in man and animals. We evaluated the usefulness of (/sup 99m/Tc)Su for detecting various grades of esophagitis. (/sup 99m/Tc)Su adhered to the distal esophagus for up to 3 hr in five of six patients with esophageal ulcers but adhered to only two of nine with lesser degrees of esophagitis. No adherence was seen in five patients without esophagitis. Thus, (/sup 99m/Tc)Su may not be useful for detecting any but the most severe grade of esophagitis. Based on these results, we speculate that the previously documented beneficial effects of sucralfate on mild to moderate esophagitis may be due to other mechanisms besides adherence to the ulcerated mucosa.

Goff, J.S.; Adcock, K.A.; Schmelter, R.



Technetium-99m antimony colloid for bone-marrow imaging  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m antimony colloid was prepared in our laboratory for bone-marrow imaging. Optimal production of colloid particles of size range 1 to 13 nm was achieved by the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone of mol. wt. 44,000. Electron microscopy was used to size the particles. Studies in rabbits showed exclusive concentration in the subendothelial dendritic phagocytes of the bone marrow. Pseudopods from these cells were found to traverse interendothelial junctions and concentrate colloid from the sinusoids. Imaging studies of bone marrow in rabbits showed the superiority of the Tc-99m antimony colloid over the much larger colloidal particle of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Tissue distribution studies in the rat confirmed that bone-marrow uptake of Tc-99m antimony colloid was greater than that of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, although blood clearance was much slower.

Martindale, A.A.; Papadimitriou, J.M.; Turner, J.H.



Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.



Use of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid as a marker for experimental venous thrombosis: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

The binding of technetium-99m sulfur colloid to in vivo thrombi was studied in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis. After thrombosis was induced by mechanical traumatization of a right femoral vein segment, technetium-99m sulfur colloid was injected into the peripheral veins of different experimental groups at intervals of 30 min and 1 to 7 days. Ratios of mean activity in traumatized right femoral vein segment to activity in control segments of left femoral vein (R/L ratios) ranged from 2.97 to 11.0 for all in situ venous thrombi studied. There was no relation between clot size and R/L ratios. The significant uptake ratios observed by us for venous thrombi up to 1 wk in age suggest that in vivo thrombus detection may be feasible by imaging with a gamma camera after technetium-99m sulfur colloid injection in a peripheral vein.

Bardfeld, P.A.; Rand, J.; Goldsmith, S.J.



Use of technetium-99m sulfur colloid as a marker for experimental venous thrombosis: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

The binding of technetium-99m sulfur colloid to in vivo thrombi was studied in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis. After thrombosis was induced by mechanical traumatization of a right femoral vein segment, technetium-99m sulfur colloid was injected into the peripheral veins of different experimental groups at intervals of 30 min and 1-7 days. Ratios of mean activity in traumatized right femoral vein segment to activity in control segments of left femoral vein (R/L ratios) ranged form 2.97-11.0 for all in situ venous thrombi studied. There was no relation between clot size and R/L ratios. The significant uptake ratios observed by us for venous thrombi up to 1 wk in age suggest that in vivo thrombus detection may be feasible by imaging with a gamma camera after technetium-99m sulfur colloid injection in a peripheral vein.

Bardfeld, P.A.; Rand, J.; Goldsmith, S.J.



Alveolar Integrity in Pulmonary Emphysema Using Technetium99m-DTPAand Technetium99m-HMPAORadioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

and HMPAO. The Al of EMPH patients were compared with the Al of 16 normal controls. Results: The results show that: (1) the slope of DTPA is larger than that of HMPAO in each of the portions of the left lung for any of the study groups; (2) statistical differences were found between the normal controls and EMPH patients in

Chia-Hung Kao; Rei-Chin Wang; Hui-Tzu Lin; Shu-Ling Yu; Shyh-Jen Wang; Chi-Der Chiang


Demonstration of reperfusion after thrombolysis with technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial imaging  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial perfusion imaging was employed in a patient undergoing thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction. Technetium-99m isonitrile does not demonstrate significant myocardial redistribution after intravenous injection. The imaging agent was administered in the emergency room, prior to the initiation of thrombolytic therapy. The initial area at risk for infarction was visualized on images obtained after the patient had been effectively treated. Imaging performed 5 days later, after repeat injection of (99mTc)isonitrile, showed a smaller myocardial perfusion defect indicating salvage of myocardium. Thus, this technique offers promise as a noninvasive means of assessing the area at risk, the success of reperfusion, and the presence of salvaged myocardium, early in the course of acute myocardial infarction.

Kayden, D.S.; Mattera, J.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Wackers, F.J.



Technetium99m HM-PAO-SPECT study of regional cerebral perfusion in early Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional cerebral perfusion was evaluated by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((\\/sup 99m\\/Tc)HM-PAO) in sixteen patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in early clinical phase and in 16 healthy elderly controls. In all patients transmission computed tomography (TCT) and\\/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show focal brain abnormalities. Relative to normal subjects, AD patients showed

Daniela Perani; V. Di Piero; G. Vallar; S. Cappa; C. Messa; G. Bottini; A. Berti; D. Passafiume; G. Scarlato; P. Gerundini



Guava extract ( Psidium guajava ) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used\\u000a as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling\\u000a of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this

P. R. C. Abreu; M. C. Almeida; R. M. Bernardo; L. C. Bernardo; L. C. Brito; E. A. C. Garcia; A. S. Fonseca; M. Bernardo-Filho



Technetium99m dextran: a promising new protein-losing enteropathy imaging agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate technetium-99m dextran (99mTc-Dx; molecular weight 81000) as a prospective protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) imaging agent. Twenty-two patients with diseases commonly associated with PLE and 12 healthy control subjects underwent intravenous99mTc-Dx scintigraphy. All of the 22 test patients showed significant radiotracer accumulation in the intestines within 3–4 h post injection. The focal, regional or

Aseem Bhatnagar; Ajay Kumar Singh; Deepak Lahoti; Thakuri Singh; Chandra M. Khanna



Technetium-99m MDP scintigraphy of rhabdomyolysis induced by exertional heat stroke: a case report.  


A case of rhabdomyolysis induced by exertional heat stroke in a police officer recruit is reported. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate scintigraphy demonstrated marked uptake of the injured skeletal muscle. This bone-scanning agent provided an excellent means of localizing and evaluating the muscle injury of rhabdomyolysis. Nuclear medicine physicians should be aware of the special conditions and causes in which bone scan may demonstrate striking findings. PMID:2083137

Mochizuki, T; Tauxe, W N; Perper, J A



Evaluation of technetium-99m phosphate imaging for predicting skin ulcer healing  

SciTech Connect

We have developed criteria for radionuclide angiography to assess skin ulcer perfusion as an indicator of healing capacity. Twenty-six studies were performed on 21 consecutive patients with nonhealing ulcers of the lower leg; 20 mCi of technetium-99m phosphate was injected intravenously with immediate sequential scintillation camera imaging of the ulcer and surrounding area at 2 second intervals, followed by blood pool and delayed static images. Two radiologists without clinical bias graded the perfusion to the ulcer on the images as normal, increased, or reduced with respect to the opposite limb. Patients were either followed as outpatients for more than 10 days, as inpatients for at least 10 days, or both to determine whether ulcers showed clinical evidence of wound healing with optimal outpatient and in-hospital care. Of the 17 patients whose ulcers healed, imaging with technetium-99m phosphate predicted the outcome in 16. In nine patients the ulcers did not heal. This was correctly predicted by technetium-99m phosphate in eight of the patients. Overall, the sensitivity was 94 percent and the specificity was 89 percent. This technique appears to be a simple, reliable way to predict the microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing.

Lawrence, P.F.; Syverud, J.B.; Disbro, M.A.; Alazraki, N.



Electrophoretic analysis of different technetium-99m (SnCl/sub 2/) methylene diphosphonate complexes  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m MDP was prepared from MDP kits from several different sources. The resulting (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP preparations were analyzed by electrophoresis. The results demonstrated the presence of at least four different /sup 99m/Tc complexes in these preparations. Modified kit preparations were analyzed to show the effects of concentration and pH on formation of the impurities. The electrophoresis results were correlated with scintillation camera imaging studies in rabbits and suggest that hydrolysis of MDP to phosphate and methylphosphate results in formation of /sup 99m/Tc complexes with poor biological behavior as bone scanning agents.

Najafi, A.; Hutchison, N.



Technical considerations in gastric ulcer localization using technetium-99m sucralfate  

SciTech Connect

After the completion and evaluation of 17 patients studies using technetium-99m-labeled sucralfate for the detection of ulcerated areas, the authors felt that the technical aspects of the studies should be evaluated. The factors for evaluation are: the time the patient is kept fasting; the time the patient is being imaged and rotated for various anatomic views; the technologist time and camera time that are involved in one study; and the cost factor of the testing procedure. Based on the findings of their small sample of patients, the sensitivity of the test is uncertain.

Garrett, S.G.; Wcislo, W.J.



Technetium-99m sestamibi in chronic coronary artery disease: The European experience  

SciTech Connect

Since the introduction of technetium-99m methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m sestamibi) in Europe, there has been a growing interest in its use. Several European multicenter trials have been conducted to evaluate this new agent in relation to the traditional perfusion marker thallium-201, and other studies are in progress to understand the use of this perfusion marker for the diagnosis of coronary disease, for use in conjunction with pharmacologic vasodilation, for use in the assessment of ventricular function and wall motion and for the assessment of interventions.

Sochor, H. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria))



Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.

Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.



Sensitivity of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy in diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis  

SciTech Connect

To determine the value of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of amyloid heart disease this procedure was prospectively performed in 20 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven primary amyloidosis. Eleven patients had echocardiographic abnormalities compatible with amyloid cardiomyopathy, 9 of whom had congestive heart failure. Diffuse myocardial pyrophosphate uptake was of equal or greater intensity than that of the ribs in 9 of the 11 patients with echocardiograms suggestive of amyloidosis, but in only 2 of the 9 with normal echocardiograms, despite abnormal electrocardiograms (p less than 0.01). Increased wall thickness measured by M-mode echocardiography correlated with myocardial pyrophosphate uptake (r . 0.68, p less than 0.01). None of 10 control patients with nonamyloid, nonischemic heart disease had a strongly positive myocardial pyrophosphate uptake. Thus, myocardial technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scanning is a sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis in patients with congestive heart failure of obscure origin. It does not appear to be of value for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with known primary amyloidosis without echocardiographic abnormalities.

Falk, R.H.; Lee, V.W.; Rubinow, A.; Hood, W.B. Jr.; Cohen, A.S.



Radioimmunoscintigraphy of ovarian tumours with technetium-99m labelled monoclonal antibody-170: first clinical experiences.  


The recently developed technetium-99m-labelled monoclonal antibody-170 (MAb-170) was designed for diagnostic use in patients suffering from gynaecological adenocarcinoma. Following in vitro studies which showed immunoreactivity of this antibody to more than 90% of human adenocarcinomas, the present investigation was initiated to verify its usefulness for radioimmunoscintigraphy of ovarian tumours. Most of the 30 patients participating in this study underwent immunoscintigraphy prior to first-look surgery. Biokinetic evaluation in two patients showed a plasma half-time of 18.9 h (mean value, n = 2, r = 0.98) and a biexponential total body curve with values of 7.7 h and 17 days (r = 0.98). The mean 24-h urinary excretion was 12% of the injected dose. Radioimmunoscintigraphy using the MAb-170 recognised 12 of 13 cases of adenocarcinoma of the ovaries, corresponding to an overall sensitivity of 92.3%. Specificity was 94.1% (16/17). The calculation of accuracy yielded a figure of 93.3% (28/30). Of 33 known lesions, 26 were visualised successfully; thus the locoregional sensitivity was 78.8%. Of 29 benign tumour sites, 28 showed no evidence of tracer accumulation, corresponding to a locoregional specificity of 96.6%. The smallest lesion visualised was an adenocarcinoma of the corpus uteri with a diameter of 1.5 cm. Technetium-99m labelled MAb-170 is a promising new radiopharmaceutical for immunoscintigraphy of ovarian adenocarcinoma. PMID:7498226

Alexander, C; Villena-Heinsen, C E; Trampert, L; Lung-Kurt, S; Oberhausen, E; Kirsch, C M; Schmidt, W



Technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning in evaluation of afferent loop syndrome  

SciTech Connect

A study of 118 patients, operated on with Billroth II gastrectomy for peptic disease and affected by postgastrectomy syndromes, was carried out. Fifty patients were investigated by means of technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning. In 18 patients, in whom an afferent loop syndrome was clinically suspected, hepatobiliary scanning demonstrated an altered afferent loop emptying in 8 and atonic distension of the gallbladder without afferent loop motility changes in 10. Among the patients in the first group, four were treated with a biliary diversion surgical procedure and in the second group, two patients underwent cholecystectomy. Our findings indicate that biliary vomiting, right upper abdominal pain pyrosis, and biliary diarrhea in Billroth II gastrectomized patients are not always pathognomonic symptoms of afferent loop syndrome. Technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning represents the only diagnostic means of afferent loop syndrome definition. A differential diagnosis of abnormal afferent loop emptying and gallbladder dyskinesia is necessary for the management planning of these patients, and furthermore, when a surgical treatment is required, biliary diversion with Roux-Y anastomosis or Braun's biliary diversion seems the treatment of choice for afferent loop syndrome, whereas cholecystectomy represents the best procedure for atonic distension of the gallbladder.

Sivelli, R.; Farinon, A.M.; Sianesi, M.; Percudani, M.; Ugolotti, G.; Calbiani, B.



Delayed skin rash following administration of technetium-99m diphosphonate: A case report  

SciTech Connect

The authors report a case of a 48-yr-old woman who developed a delayed skin rash following intravenous (i.v.) administration of technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-HDP). The rash was characterized by skin biopsy, and it was concluded that the reaction was due to the diphosphonate compound. The rash resolved spontaneously without treatment. With most {sup 99m}Tc-based agents, adverse reactions are considered rare and are usually allergic in nature, but the delayed nature of this reaction is more common with diphosphonate compounds than with other radiopharmaceuticals. If a repeat examination is required, alternative agents (such as {sup 99m}Tc-pyrosphosphate) or any other diagnostic modality (magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered. An intradermal skin test may be helpful to determine the safest alternative bone agent.

Hart, B.; Sorenson, J.F.; Eisenberg, B.; Glactz, G.; Owens, D.; Hladik, W.B. III.; Curry, M.C. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (USA))



Is technetium-99 m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy valuable in the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis  

SciTech Connect

Amyloidosis is a systemic disease frequently involving the myocardium and leading to functional disturbances of the heart. Amyloidosis can mimic other cardiac diseases. A conclusive clinical diagnosis of cardiac involvement can only be made by a combination of different diagnostic methods. In 7 patients with myocardial amyloidosis we used a combined first-pass and static scintigraphy with technetium-99 m-pyrophosphate. There was only insignificant myocardial uptake of the tracer. The first-pass studies however revealed reduced systolic function in 4/7 patients and impaired diastolic function in 6/7 patients. Therefore, although cardiac amyloid could not be demonstrated in the static scintigraphy due to amyloid fibril amount and composition, myocardial functional abnormalities were seen in the first-pass study.

Hartmann, A.; Frenkel, J.; Hopf, R.; Baum, R.P.; Hoer, G.S.; Schneider, M.; Kaltenbach, M. (Frankfurt Univ. Medical Center (West Germany))



Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis using hepatobiliary scan with technetium-99m PIPIDA  

SciTech Connect

Sixty patients were evaluated for acute abdominal pain using technetium-99m PIPIDA hepatobiliary imaging. The sensitivity of the test was 90.6 percent in all patients and the accuracy was 93.3 percent. In the evaluation of acutely ill patients with right upper quadrant pain, fever, nausea and vomiting, hepatobiliary imaging with PIPIDA is the preferred test for diagnosing acute cholecystitis. If the test is positive, disease of the gallbladder and probably acute cholecystitis are present. Early operation can proceed if desirable. If the test is negative and the bilirubin level is less than 5.0 mg/dl, acute cholecystitis is not present. In such cases conservative treatment is appropriate, and follow-up tests should be performed to evaluate the possibility of chronic cholecystitis. When the bilirubin level exceeds 5.0 mg/dl, the test is often indeterminate.

Bennett, M.T.; Sheldon, M.I.; dos Remedios, L.V.; Weber, P.M.



Kinetic analysis of technetium-99m d,1-HM-PAO decomposition in aqueous media  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m-d,1-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (/sup 99m/Tc)d,1-HM-PAO) is a neutral-lipophilic chelate formed from a kit in high yield by stannous reduction of Na/sup 99m/TcO/sup 4 -/. Of three methods used to analyze the purity of the /sup 99m/Tc complexes, a single strip method using ether as the developing solvent was the most rapid and simple to perform. The lipophilic chelate converts to /sup 99m/TcO/sup 4 -/ and other hydrophilic products with time and this limits the useful lifetime of the preparations. The rate of decomposition of (/sup 99m/Tc)d,1-HM-PAO increased in the presence of excess stannous ion and at pH greater than 9.

Hung, J.C.; Corlija, M.; Volkert, W.A.; Holmes, R.A.



Determination of left ventricular ejection fraction in technetium-99m-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile radionuclide angiocardiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abnormal left ventricular function is a diagnostic indication of cardiac disease. Left ventricular function is most commonly quantified by ejection fraction measurements. This paper presents a novel approach for the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (L VEF) using the recently introduced myocardial imaging agent, technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-sestamibi). The approach utilizes computer image processing techniques to determine L VEF in equilibrium 99mTc-sestamibi multiple gated radionuclide angiography (RNA). Equilibrium RNA is preferred to first-pass RNA techniques due to the higher signal-to-noise ratio of equilibrium RNA resulting from longer image acquisition times. Data from 23 patients, symptomatic of cardiac disease, indicate that L VEFs determined using this radionuclide technique correlate well with contrast x-ray single plane cineangiography (r equals 0.83, p < 0.0000003).

Davis, Malcolm H.; Rezaie, Bahman; Weiland, Frederick L.



Labeling of Tannic Acid with Technetium-99m for Diagnosis of Stomach Ulcer  

PubMed Central

Tannic acid is a polyphenolic compound that could be labeled with technetium-99m. To produce about 90% yield of??99mTc-tannic acid in acidic media (pH), the conditions required were 150??g tin chloride, 30?min reaction time, and 200??g of the substrate. 99mTc-tannic was stable for 6?h. Oral biodistribution of 99mTc-tannic showed that it concentrated in the stomach ulcer to reach about 50% of the total injected dose at 1 h after orall administration. This concentration of 99mTc-tannic in stomach ulcer may be sufficient to radio-image the presence of ulcer in the stomach.

Ibrahim, I. T.; El-Tawoosy, M.; Talaat, H. M.



Technetium-99m Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer (ECD) Cerebral Accumulation and Symptom and Sign Severity during Hypothyroidism  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to correlate hypothyroid-related symptomatology with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during hypothyroidism. METHODS Nine thyroidectomized patients underwent neuropsychological testing and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of their brains with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD), a lipophilic cerebral blood flow radiotracer, while hypothyroid, and again following thyroid hormone replacement. Neuropsychological test scores and TSH levels while hypothyroid were correlated with rCBF in hypothyroid-affected areas of the brain. RESULTS Correlations were found during hypothyroidism between the noted parameters and ECD radiotracer accumulation in the following respective regions, all of which demonstrated hypothyroid-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) aberrations: TSH and left middle occipital gyrus; psychomotor performance speed and left precentral gyrus; and depression and right middle frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right insula, and left thalamus. CONCLUSION Severity of psychomotor impairment and depression, and TSH level during hypothyroidism appeared to correlate with CBF to brain regions associated with motor activity, mood and vision, respectively; and previously shown to manifest significantly altered rCBF during hypothyroidism.

Beason-Held, Lori L.



Technetium-99m-Labeled Autologous Serum Albumin: A Personal-Exclusive Source of Serum Component  

PubMed Central

Technetium-99m human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical required in nuclear medicine studies. However, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection remains a major safety concern. Autopreparation of serum component acquired from patient provides a “personal-exclusive” source for radiolabeling. This paper is to evaluate the practicality of on-site elusion and subsequent radiolabeling efficacy for serum albumin. Results showed that the autologous elute contained more albumin fraction than serum without extraction procedure. Good radiochemical purity and stability were demonstrated after radiolabeling. Biodistribution study showed that labeled albumin accumulated immediately in the lung, liver, and kidney. It was cleared steadily and excreted in the urine. The biologic half-life was defined, and all samples passed the pyrogenicity and sterility tests. In conclusion, autoalbumin could be extracted and radiolabeled properly in a nuclear medicine setting. Moreover, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection associated with nonautologous, multisource 99mTc-HSA agents can be reduced.

Wang, Yuh-Feng; Chen, Yi-Chun; Li, Dian-Kun; Chuang, Mei-Hua



The use of diaminodithiol for labeling small molecules with technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

The authors have shown that the technetium-99m(Tc) chelate of diaminodithiol is stable in serum environments. Therefore they have synthesized a fatty acid and an estradiol derivative of this N/sub 2/S/sub 2/ system to investigate the properties of small molecules labeled with Tc by the bifunctional chelate approach. The estradiol derivative (5-(2-methylene-..beta..-estradiol)-3,3,10,10-tetramethyl-1,2-dithiol-5, 8-diazacyclodecane HCl, DADS-E) was prepared by alkylation of DADS while the fatty acid derivative (N-(11-dodecanoic acid)-N,N'-bis (2-methyl-2-mercaptopropyl)ethylenediamine HCl, DADT-FA) was prepared by alkylation of DADS followed by reduction. DADS-E was labeled in ethanol at elevated temperatures while DADT-FA was labeled at room temperature, both by stannous reduction. Paper chromatography showed both to be labeled and reversed-phase HPLC showed multiple peaks for both. Serum stability studies were performed by incubation at 37/sup 0/C with aliquots removed at 1 min. and 1 day for analysis by size-exclusion HPLC. Initially, little pertechnetate or binding to serum proteins was observed whereas at 1 day the majority of activity in both cases was protein bound with 20 and 38% pertechnetate appearing for DADS-E and DADT-FA respectively.

Liang, F.; Childs, R.L.; Virzi, F.; Doherty, P.W.; Hnatowich, D.J.



Effects of varying geometry on dose calibrator response: cobalt-57 and technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

A joint project between the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and Biomedical Products Department, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc. compared the indicated activity of (a) cobalt-57 samples in NBS 5-ml ampoules, plastic syringes, Du Pont 27-ml Vial E epoxy- and solution-filled containers, and (b) technetium-99m solutions in NBS 5-ml ampoules, elution vials, and syringes. The measurements were made in ionization chambers from two manufacturers, Capintec and Radcal. The main objective was to examine the use of radionuclides in NBS ampoules and Du Pont Vial E containers as suitable reference sources for ionization chambers used to assay radiopharmaceuticals in elution vials and syringes. The exercise illustrated that regardless of the brand of dose calibrator used, a calibration factor for each geometry should be determined to ensure the highest accuracy. The data show that as much as a 9% difference from the correct activity can be observed for these radionuclides, even when the ampoule reference source gives the appropriate reading.

Calhoun, J.M.; Golas, D.B.; Harris, S.G.



Technetium 99m pyrophosphate quantitation of skeletal muscle ischemia and reperfusion injury  

SciTech Connect

The study of ischemia and reperfusion injury in the extremity has been hampered by lack of an accurate method of measuring skeletal muscle injury. We used a bilateral isolated in vivo canine gracilis muscle model in 15 anesthetized dogs. The experimental muscles had 4, 6, or 8 hours of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion. The contralateral gracilis muscle served as a control. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP), an agent which localizes in injured muscle cells, was used to quantitate canine skeletal muscle damage. After 6 hours of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion, there was a significant increase of 215% of 99mTc-PYP uptake in the experimental vs the control muscle. Experimental muscle uptake was 8% greater than control after 4 hours and 405% more after 8 hours of ischemia and reperfusion. Segmental distribution of 99mTc-PYP uptake showed localization to be greatest in the middle of the muscle at the entry site of the gracilis artery. Electron microscopic evaluation also documented this area to have undergone the most severe injury. Distal portions of the muscle did not show increased damage. Our results show that 99mTc-PYP effectively quantitates skeletal muscle ischemia and reperfusion injury. The pattern of 99mTc-PYP uptake suggests that considerable injury is caused during reperfusion.

Blebea, J.; Kerr, J.C.; Franco, C.D.; Padberg, F.T. Jr.; Hobson, R.W. 2d.



Suppression by perchlorate of technetium-99m and iodine-123 secretion in milk of lactating goats  

SciTech Connect

Lactating goats were infused with either technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc) or iodine-123 (/sup 123/I) together with chlorine-36 (/sup 36/Cl) through an indwelling catheter previously placed in an external pudic mammary artery. The radioisotope infusions were repeated together with 100 mg of sodium perchlorate. There was a rapid transfer of /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 123/I into milk, reaching a peak concentration 30 min after a 15-min infusion. The fractional secretion of /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 123/I in milk was reduced by 70%-80% and 60%-66%, respectively, by perchlorate. The fractional secretion of /sup 36/Cl was not affected by perchlorate, and the shape of the /sup 36/Cl secretion curve differed from those of /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 123/I, which were similar. It is probable, therefore, that the latter nuclides were secreted by a transport route different from that of chloride. Available data describing the secretion of /sup 99m/Tc in human milk after pertechnetate administration was reviewed, and it was concluded that perchlorate pretreatment significantly reduced the secretion of /sup 99m/Tc in human breast milk.

Mountford, P.J.; Heap, R.B.; Hamon, M.; Fleet, I.R.; Coakley, A.J.



Technetium-99m HM-PAO single photon emission computed tomography imaging in transient global amnesia.  


Five right-handed patients with pure transient global amnesia were evaluated with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single photon emission computed tomography after the amnesic attack. Independent of the interval between the procedure and the amnesic episode, single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated a decreased cerebral blood flow in the left temporal lobe in one patient and in the left parietotemporal region in three patients, with a more marked reduction in the temporal lobe. The remaining three patients were normal. A control single photon emission computed tomographic study was carried out in one patient 3 months after the amnesic attack and showed a left-sided persistent temporal hypoperfusion. These findings suggest that in some patients, transient global amnesia can be due to a vascular mechanism requiring strong investigations for vascular risk factors and appropriate treatment. During a follow-up period of 12 to 32 months, none of the patients with regional hypoperfusion suffered cerebrovascular events, suggesting that single photon emission computed tomography has no predictive value for further stroke. PMID:1580818

Laloux, P; Brichant, C; Cauwe, F; Decoster, P



Planar imaging techniques used with technetium-99m sestamibi to evaluate chronic myocardial ischemia  

SciTech Connect

The results of published and some unpublished studies comparing planar imaging performed with 2 radionuclides, thallium-201 (T1-201) and technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi, are reviewed. The average sensitivity for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) in studies involving 594 patients was 85% (range 73 to 96%). The average sensitivity for individual vessels was 65% (range 60 to 70%). The average segmental concordance between T1-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi was 89%. End-diastolic gated perfusion images improved the concordance between Tc-99m sestamibi and angiography in 22 patients from 83.4 to 87%. Semiquantitative analysis increased the concordance between T1-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi from 89 to 91%. Ventricular function derived from gated Tc-99m sestamibi perfusion images showed a significant correlation with echocardiography (n = 62, r = 0.85); with angiography (n = 70, r = 0.91); and with equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (n = 18, r = 0.86). The ratio of lung to left ventricle uptake and the ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle uptake was assessed. Eight of 52 patients had an abnormally elevated lung index (greater than 42%) and these patients had the most severe CAD. Six of the 52 patients had an abnormally elevated right ventricular index (greater than 56%) and these patients had more severe CAD.

Maisey, M.N.; Mistry, R.; Sowton, E. (United Medical School, London (England))



Quantitative analysis of planar technetium-99m-sestamibi myocardial perfusion images using modified background subtraction  

SciTech Connect

Standard interpolative background subtraction, as used for thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl), may create artifacts when applied to planar technetium-99m-Sestamibi ({sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi) images, apparently because of the oversubtraction of relatively high extra-cardiac activity. A modified background subtraction algorithm was developed and compared to standard background subtraction in 16 patients who had both exercise-delayed {sup 201}Tl and exercise-rest {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi imaging. Furthermore, a new normal data base was generated. Normal {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi distribution was slightly different compared to {sup 201}Tl. Using standard background subtraction, mean defect reversibility was significantly underestimated by {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi compared to {sup 201}Tl (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus -1.8 +/- 8.4, p less than 0.05). Using the modified background subtraction, mean defect reversibility on {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images was comparable (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus 1.7 +/- 5.2, p = NS). We conclude, that for quantification of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images a new normal data base, as well as a modification of the interpolative background subtraction method should be employed to obtain quantitative results comparable to those with {sup 201}Tl.

Koster, K.; Wackers, F.J.; Mattera, J.A.; Fetterman, R.C. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))



Technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile-scintigraphy: preoperative and intraoperative guidance for primary hyperparathyroidism.  


As refinement of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile-scintigraphy (MIBI)-scintigraphy of parathyroid glands has continued since its initial use in 1989, the sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the technique have improved greatly, approaching 100% for larger, solitary adenomas. Preoperative use of sestamibi scintigraphy has become commonplace and allows surgeons the option of a minimally invasive, or focused approach for their patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Intraoperative use of the gamma probe based on sestamibi localization has not caught on due to lesser accuracy, cumbersome gamma probes, small doses of radiation exposure for patients and staff, and the greater accuracy and current confidence in intraoperative parathormone (PTH) monitoring. However, with the potential for smaller and more accurate gamma probes that truly assist in localizing abnormal parathyroid glands, the potential for cost reduction by shortening operative times, avoiding expensive PTH assays, and eliminating the need for pathologic analysis, gamma scintigraphy may yet become a viable option for many parathyroid surgeons. PMID:15517482

Farley, David R



Dose- and time-dependent effects of lipopolysaccharide on technetium-99-m-labeled diethylene-triamine pentaacetatic acid clearance, respiratory system mechanics and pulmonary inflammation.  


Intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in animals is a commonly used model of acute lung injury, characterized by increased alveolar-capillary membrane permeability causing protein-rich edema, inflammation, deterioration of lung mechanical function and impaired gas exchange. Technetium-99-m-labeled diethylene-triamine pentaacetatic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) scintigraphy is a non-invasive technique to assess lung epithelial permeability. We hypothesize that the longer the exposure and the higher the dose of LPS the greater the derangement of the various indices of lung injury. After 3, 6 and 24 h of 5 or 40 ?g LPS intratracheally administration, (99m)Tc-DTPA was instilled in the lung. Images were acquired for 90 min with a ?-camera and the radiotracer clearance was estimated. In another subgroup, the mechanical properties of the respiratory system were estimated with the forced oscillation technique and static pressure-volume curves, 4.5, 7.5 and 25.5 h post-LPS (iso-times with the end of (99m)Tc-DTPA scintigraphy). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and a lung injury score was estimated by histology. Lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured. (99m)Tc-DTPA clearance increased in all LPS challenged groups compared with control. DTPA clearance presented a U-shape time course at the lower dose, while LPS had a declining effect over time at the larger dose. At 7.5 and 25.5 h post-LPS, tissue elasticity was increased and static compliance decreased at both doses. Total protein in the BAL fluid increased at both doses only at 4.5 h Total lung injury score and MPO activity were elevated in all LPS-treated groups. There is differential time- and dose-dependency of the various indices of lung injury after intratracheally LPS instillation in rats. PMID:23576803

Kastis, George A; Toumpanakis, Dimitrios; Loverdos, Konstantinos; Anaplioti, Aikaterini; Samartzis, Alexandros; Argyriou, Pinelopi; Loudos, George; Karavana, Vassiliki; Tzouda, Vassiliki; Datseris, Ioannis; Rontogianni, Demetra; Roussos, Charalampos; Theocharis, Stamatios E; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros



Technetium-99m HM-PAO-labeled leukocytes in detection of inflammatory lesions: Comparison with gallium-67 citrate  

SciTech Connect

Forty-three patients with suspected benign, inflammatory, or infectious diseases were imaged with ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO-labeled leukocytes and ({sup 67}Ga)citrate. Technetium-99m leukocytes showed 22 true-positive, no false-positive, 19 true-negative, and two false-negative findings and ({sup 67}Ga)citrate 23, 7, 12 and 1, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values with {sup 99m}Tc leukocytes were 92%, 100%, and 95%, and with ({sup 67}Ga)citrate 96%, 63%, and 81%. Technetium-99m leukocyte scintigraphy has a promising future in comparison with ({sup 67}Ga)citrate because of the ready availability of ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO, the good image quality, more rapid results (within few hours), and the lower radiation exposure to the patient with {sup 99m}Tc leukocytes. The usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc leukocytes in chronic osteomyelitis needs further evaluation.

Vorne, M.; Soini, I.; Lantto, T.; Paakkinen, S. (Paeijaet-Haeme Central Hospital, Lahti (Finland))



Retention mechanism of technetium-99m-HM-PAO: intracellular reaction with glutathione  

SciTech Connect

Preparations of d,l- and meso-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) labeled with technetium-99m were added to rat brain homogenates diluted with phosphate buffer (1:10). The conversion of d,l-HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms took place with an initial rate constant of 0.12 min-1. Incubation of the brain homogenate with 2% diethyl maleate for 5 h decreased the homogenate's measured glutathione (GSH) concentration from 160 to 16 microM and decreased the conversion rate to 0.012 min-1. Buffered aqueous solutions of glutathione rapidly converted the HM-PAO tracers to hydrophilic forms having the same chromatographic characteristics as found in the brain homogenates. The rate constant for the conversion reaction of d,l-HM-PAO in GSH aqueous solution was 208 and 317 L/mol/min in two different assay systems and for meso-HM-PAO the values were 14.7 and 23.2 L/mol/min, respectively. Rat brain has a GSH concentration of about 2.3 mM and the conversion of the d,l-HM-PAO due to GSH alone should proceed with a rate constant of 0.48 to 0.73 min-1 and be correspondingly 14-fold slower for meso-HM-PAO. In human brain, the in vivo data of Lassen et al. show a conversion rate constant of 0.80 min-1. This correspondence of values supports the notion that GSH may be important for the in vivo conversion of 99mTc-labeled HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms and may be the mechanism of trapping in brain and other cells. A kinetic model for the trapping of d,l- and meso-HM-PAO in tissue is developed that is based on data of GSH concentration in various organs.

Neirinckx, R.D.; Burke, J.F.; Harrison, R.C.; Forster, A.M.; Andersen, A.R.; Lassen, N.A.



The retention mechanism of technetium-99m-HM-PAO: intracellular reaction with glutathione.  


Preparations of d,l- and meso-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) labeled with technetium-99m were added to rat brain homogenates diluted with phosphate buffer (1:10). The conversion of d,l-HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms took place with an initial rate constant of 0.12 min-1. Incubation of the brain homogenate with 2% diethyl maleate for 5 h decreased the homogenate's measured glutathione (GSH) concentration from 160 to 16 microM and decreased the conversion rate to 0.012 min-1. Buffered aqueous solutions of glutathione rapidly converted the HM-PAO tracers to hydrophilic forms having the same chromatographic characteristics as found in the brain homogenates. The rate constant for the conversion reaction of d,l-HM-PAO in GSH aqueous solution was 208 and 317 L/mol/min in two different assay systems and for meso-HM-PAO the values were 14.7 and 23.2 L/mol/min, respectively. Rat brain has a GSH concentration of about 2.3 mM and the conversion of the d,l-HM-PAO due to GSH alone should proceed with a rate constant of 0.48 to 0.73 min-1 and be correspondingly 14-fold slower for meso-HM-PAO. In human brain, the in vivo data of Lassen et al. show a conversion rate constant of 0.80 min-1. This correspondence of values supports the notion that GSH may be important for the in vivo conversion of 99mTc-labeled HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms and may be the mechanism of trapping in brain and other cells. A kinetic model for the trapping of d,l- and meso-HM-PAO in tissue is developed that is based on data of GSH concentration in various organs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3192641

Neirinckx, R D; Burke, J F; Harrison, R C; Forster, A M; Andersen, A R; Lassen, N A



Myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi SPECT in the evaluation of coronary artery disease  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi is a new myocardial perfusion imaging agent that offers significant advantages over thallium-201 (Tl-201) for myocardial perfusion imaging. The results of the current clinical trials using acquisition and processing parameters similar to those for Tl-201 and a separate (2-day) injection protocol suggest that Tc-99m sestamibi and Tl-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provide similar information with respect to detection of myocardial perfusion defects, assessment of the pattern of defect reversibility, overall detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) and detection of disease in individual coronary arteries. Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT appears to be superior to Tc-99m sestamibi planar imaging because the former provides a higher defect contrast and is more accurate for detection of disease in individual coronary arteries. Research is currently under way addressing optimization of acquisition and processing of Tc-99m sestamibi studies and development of quantitative algorithms for detection and localization of CAD and sizing of transmural and nontransmural myocardial perfusion defects. It is expected that with the implementation of the final results of these new developments, further significant improvement in image quality will be attained, which in turn will further increase the confidence in image interpretation. Development of algorithms for analysis of end-diastolic myocardial images may allow better evaluation of small and nontransmural myocardial defects. Furthermore, gated studies may provide valuable information with respect to regional myocardial wall motion and wall thickening. With the implementation of algorithms for attenuation and scatter correction, the overall specificity of Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT should improve significantly. 32 references.

Maddahi, J.; Kiat, H.; Van Train, K.F.; Prigent, F.; Friedman, J.; Garcia, E.V.; Alazraki, N.; DePuey, E.G.; Nichols, K.; Berman, D.S. (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (USA))



Technical aspects of myocardial SPECT imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi  

SciTech Connect

Most reports to date using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi have used acquisition parameters that were optimized for thallium-201. To fully utilize the superior imaging characteristics of Tc-99m sestamibi, there is a need to optimize the technical aspects of SPECT imaging for this agent. Performance can be enhanced through the careful selection of optimal radiopharmaceutical doses, imaging sequences, acquisition parameters, reconstruction filters, perfusion quantification methods and multidimensional methods for visualizing perfusion distribution. The current report describes theoretical considerations, phantom studies and preliminary patient results that have led to optimized protocols, developed at Emory University and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, for same-day rest-stress studies, given existing instrumentation and recommended dose limits. The optimizations were designed to fit a low-dose-high-dose rest-stress same-day imaging protocol. A principal change in the acquisition parameters compared with previous Tc-99m sestamibi protocols is the use of a high-resolution collimator. The approach is being developed in both prone and supine positions. A new method for extracting a 3-dimensional myocardial count distribution has been developed that uses spherical coordinates to sample the apical region and cylindrical coordinates to sample the rest of the myocardium. New methods for visualizing the myocardial distribution in multiple dimensions are also described, with improved 2-dimensional, as well as 3- and 4-dimensional (3 dimensions plus time) displays. In the improved 2-dimensional display, distance-weighted and volume-weighted polar maps are used that appear to significantly improve the representation of defect location and defect extent, respectively.

Garcia, E.V.; Cooke, C.D.; Van Train, K.F.; Folks, R.; Peifer, J.; DePuey, E.G.; Maddahi, J.; Alazraki, N.; Galt, J.; Ezquerra, N. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))



Clinical experience with technetium-99m teboroxime, a neutral, lipophilic myocardial perfusion imaging agent  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) teboroxime is a new technetium-based myocardial perfusion imaging agent (investigational code = SQ30217 (Cardiotec, Squibb Diagnostics)). A member of a class of neutral, lipophilic, technetium-containing complexes known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime (BATO) complexes, this agent is chemically very different from the cationic tracer thallium-201 (Tl-201) and from the cationic technetium complex Tc-99m sestamibi (Cardiolite, Du Pont Imaging Agents). Tc-99m teboroxime has high myocardial extraction, rapid blood clearance, little lung uptake and rapid myocardial washout. A biexponential pattern of myocardial washout is demonstrated in animals and in man. Effective half-lives of the 2 washout components in man are 5.2 minutes and 3.8 hours and represent approximately 66 and 33% of the myocardial activity, respectively. The first half-life for the myocardium is approximately 11 minutes. As the agent washes out of the heart, hepatic uptake occurs, peaking at about 5 minutes after injection. The liver is the major organ of excretion and receives, along with the large bowel, the largest radiation dose. Rapid imaging protocols using standard cameras have achieved good myocardial counts from 3 planar views acquired over a 4- to 5-minute period or for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images acquired over a 10-minute period. An entire stress/rest procedure can be completed in 1 hour. Analysis of data from 155 patients from 4 centers using planar or SPECT imaging showed a sensitivity and specificity for blinded readings of 82 and 91%, respectively, when compared against overall clinical impression. 13 references.

Johnson, L.L.; Seldin, D.W. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))



Technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial imaging: Same-day rest-stress studies and dipyridamole  

SciTech Connect

Unlike thallium-201, technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi does not redistribute in the myocardium after injection. Thus, 2 separate injections, 1 at rest and the other at stress (or after dipyridamole), are required to differentiate ischemia from scar. From a physical viewpoint, a 24-hour interval between the 2 injections is preferable for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging. However, same-day studies are more convenient in clinical practice. Results of studies using different Tc-99m sestamibi injection protocols are presented with emphasis on the advantages of a rest-stress injection sequence with a low dose at rest (7 mCi) followed 2 hours later by a higher dose at stress (25 mCi). A prospective study was conducted in a patient population with proven CAD using same-day studies to compare a rest-stress (7 and 25 mCi, respectively) to a stress-rest (7 and 25 mCi) Tc-99m sestamibi injection sequence. There was an agreement in 87.3% of the analyzed segments between the 2 protocols. However, the largest discordance for type of defect applied to 7.4% of the segments judged ischemic in the rest-stress protocol, which were called scars on stress-rest. This study showed that a rest-stress sequence is preferable when using a same-day protocol with a short time interval (less than 2 hours) between the 2 Tc-99m sestamibi injections because the rest image performed initially represents a true rest study, which is not necessarily the case with the stress-rest sequence. Preliminary studies were performed to evaluate dipyridamole with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging in normal subjects and in patients with CAD. These studies showed that treadmill and dipyridamole Tc-99m sestamibi imaging are comparable and the results are similar to those obtained with thallium-201.

Taillefer, R. (Hotel-dieu de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))



Assessment of gastric motility using meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid  

SciTech Connect

During a 2 year period, 83 patients with gastric motility problems were evaluated using radionuclide imaging. The patients presented with epigastric distress, postprandial fullness, pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; signs and symptoms suggestive of either gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy, or both, demonstrated no mechanical obstruction. After oral administration of a 300 g meal labeled with 600 muCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid, a gastric emptying study consisting of serial images and data acquisition was performed. Of the patients studied, 52 had had peptic ulcer surgery, 17 were suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux, 8 were diabetic and suspected of having visceral enteropathy, and 6 had a history of irritable bowel syndrome. The normal mean gastric half emptying time was 77 +/- 16 minutes. Of the patients who had had gastric surgery, 90.4 percent had abnormal emptying: 69.2 percent had delayed gastric emptying and 21.2 percent had rapid gastric emptying time; 9.6 percent had normal emptying time. Of the gastroesophageal reflux group, all but two had normal gastric emptying time; 65 percent demonstrated gastroesophageal reflux within 15 minutes. Two of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome had prolonged emptying; the rest had normal emptying. All diabetic patients with gastroparesis had prolonged gastric emptying time, and all responded favorably to metoclopramide. Of the patients who previously had peptic ulcer surgery and had prolonged emptying time, 72 percent also responded favorably to metoclopramide. We conclude that radionuclide gastric imaging is a useful diagnostic test for the measurement of gastric emptying in patients with a variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders and may be helpful in assessing medical therapy and selecting those who may be candidates for surgery.

Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.



Synthesis, radiochemistry and biological evaluation of a new somatostatin analogue (SDZ 219–387) labelled with technetium-99m  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new derivative of octreotide SDZ 219-387 [PnAO-(D)Phe1-octreotide] was synthesized, which binds specifically and with high affinity to somatostatin receptors in vitro (pK= 9.79±0.16). This new somatostatin analogue chelates technetium-99m under mild labelling conditions in good yields. The resulting [99mTc]SDZ 219–387 was stable up to 6 h after labelling and could be isolated in a pure radiochemical and chemical form

Theodosia Maina; Barbara Stolz; Rainer Albert; Christian Bruns; Peter Koch; Helmut Mäcke



Quantification of myocardial injury produced by temporary coronary artery occlusion and reflow with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, technetium-99m-stannous pyrophosphate (\\/sup 99m\\/Tc-PPi) has been used to localize and estimate the size of myocardial infarcts in animals after permanent coronary artery occlusion. This study tested the hypothesis that \\/sup 99m\\/Tc-PPi accurately sizes myocardial infarctions produced by temporary coronary artery occlusion and reflow in dogs. Three groups of dogs were studied: group A underwent 3 hr of occlusion followed

D. E. Jansen; J. R. Corbett; L. M. Buja; C. Hansen; V. Ugolini; R. W. Parkey; J. T. Willerson



Autoradiography and density gradient separation of technetium-99m-Exametazime (HMPAO) labelled leucocytes reveals selectivity for eosinophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m-Exametazime (HMPAO) is widely used for radiolabelling leucocytes for localization of infection. The subcellular distribution of radionuclide in the labelled cells and the distribution of radioactivity among the leucocyte population are incompletely understood. Frozen section autoradiography was used to determine quantitatively the distribution of 99mTc in leucocytes labelled with 99mTc-Exametazime. Sections of rapidly frozen suspensions of labelled leucocytes in plasma

Matthew R. B. Puncher; Philip J. Blower



Assessment of inflammatory bowel disease activity by technetium 99m phagocyte scanning  

SciTech Connect

Autologous technetium 99m-labeled phagocyte scanning has been used to assess disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease in 51 consecutive patients. Strong correlations were found between the 24-h fecal excretion of isotope and the histologic score of mucosal biopsy specimens (rS = 0.84, p less than 0.001, where rS is Spearman's rank correlation coefficient), and between the 24-h fecal excretion of isotope and a clinical inflammatory bowel disease activity index based on the Crohn's disease activity index (rS = 0.87, p less than 0.001). To develop a clinically useful and objective measure of inflammatory bowel disease activity that did not require a 24-h stool collection, the intensity of bowel uptake on scanning was graded visually from 0 to 4, a ratio of count rates for the region of interest to the iliac crest reference region was calculated, and the rapidity of labeled phagocyte uptake into inflamed bowel was measured as the peak uptake time. Visual grading of disease activity on the scans was validated by comparing it with the ratio of count rates from inflamed bowel regions of interest and those from the iliac crest reference region. The ratio of count rates showed a significant correlation with the clinical disease activity index (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001). The visual scan grade also correlated well with the clinical activity index (r = 0.87, p less than 0.001). Count rates from hourly scans were also used to calculate the time of peak uptake of counts for a given region of interest. There was a strong negative correlation between this peak uptake time and the fecal excretion of isotope (rS = -0.81, p less than 0.001), a clinical activity index (r = -0.60, p less than 0.001), and the histologic score of the mucosal biopsy specimens (r = -0.84, p less than 0.001).

Pullman, W.E.; Sullivan, P.J.; Barratt, P.J.; Lising, J.; Booth, J.A.; Doe, W.F.



Sentinel node biopsy in melanoma using technetium-99m rhenium colloid: the London experience.  


Nodal metastases in patients with melanoma identify a reduction of survival by 50%; however, elective lymph node dissection (ELND) has not been shown clearly to improve survival. Morton's technique of sentinel node biopsy, using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative blue dye, addresses elegantly the controversy regarding ELND. Sentinel node biopsy has been shown to stage the patient accurately because metastases from melanoma follow an orderly progression from the sentinel node to the remainder of the basin. Fifty-six consecutive patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 1b or 2 melanoma seen at the London Health Sciences Center between July 1998 and January 2000 were enrolled prospectively to undergo sentinel node biopsy. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was conducted in the nuclear medicine department. A total of 10 to 15 MBq (0.27-0.41 mCi) of technetium 99m (99mTc) rhenium colloid or filtered sulfur colloid was injected intradermally around the biopsy scar. Images were obtained to localize all draining nodal basins. The location of the sentinel node was marked on the skin. The patient was taken to the operating room and anesthetized. Isosulfan blue dye was injected intradermally around the biopsy scar. A hand-held gamma probe was used intraoperatively as a guide to the first draining node. Blue-stained lymphatic channels aided in the dissection. Sentinel node localization was successful in 55 of 56 patients, for an overall success rate of 98%. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy identified a sentinel node in an unpredictable location in 32% of patients. On average, 2.3 sentinel nodes per patient were identified on the initial scan, and 2.2 sentinel nodes per patient were recovered at surgery. Both 99mTc rhenium and filtered sulfur colloid showed no substantial differences in tracer uptake and retention in the sentinel node. Twelve patients had a positive sentinel node on routine histology, and 11 patients subsequently underwent completion lymphadenectomy. The mean thickness of the primary melanoma in the 12 patients with positive sentinel nodes was 3.7 mm compared with a mean tumor thickness of 1.8 mm in the remaining 41 patients with negative biopsies (p = 0.0003). Two patients experienced recurrence in a regional basin after negative pathological evaluation of the sentinel node. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of both of these patients was positive. Two patients are alive with metastatic disease and 54 patients are alive without disease, with a mean follow-up of 1 year (range, 2-24 months). Complications occurred at a substantially higher rate (45%) after completion lymphadenectomy than after sentinel node biopsy alone (9%). Sentinel node biopsy is a feasible technique with a high success rate (98%), but it requires a multidisciplinary approach. This study validates the clinical usefulness of 99mTc rhenium colloid for lymphoscintigraphy. PMID:11092358

Temple, C L; Scilley, C G; Engel, C J; Shum, D T; Lohmann, R C; Mattar, A G; Zabel, P L



Work in progress. Gastrointestinal ulcerations: detection using a technetium-99m-labeled ulcer-avid agent  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m-labeled sucralfate, an ulcer-avid material, was shown in preliminary animal and human studies to be stable in vivo with good sensitivity. Eight experimentally produced discrete gastric ulcers in three rabbits were visualized using this material. Of seven human studies, four studies were true-positive and three were true-negative. It is suggested that Tc-99m-labeled sucralfate may prove to have significant clinical advantages for the evaluation of gastrointestinal ulcer disease and other diseases that are associated with loss of mucosal integrity. The method for labeling sucralfate with Tc-99m was developed by the authors.

Vasquez, T.E.; Bridges, R.L.; Braunstein, P.; Jansholt, A.L.; Meshkinpour, H.



First experience in healthy volunteers with technetium-99m l,l-ethylenedicysteine, a new renal imaging agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal studies have indicated that technetium-99m l,l-ethylenedicysteine (99mTc-l,l-EC) may be a promising tracer agent for renal function studies. We have performed a paired study with 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) and 99mTc-l,l-EC in six male volunteers. In both cases, iodine-131-labelled o-iodohippurate was co-injected as an internal biological standard. The analog images between 0 and 30 min p.i. were of identical diagnostic value for

Chris G. Van Nerom; Guy M. Bormans; Michel J. De Roo; Alfons M. Verbruggen



Preliminary studies of acetylcholinesterase activity in the rat brain using N-phenylferrocenecarboxamide labelled by the technetium-99m.  


There is currently great interest in developing radiolabeled substrates for acetylcholinesterase that would be useful in the in vivo imaging of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The reduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain has been measured in dementia disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies using (11)C and (18)F-labeled acetylcholine analogues. Our aim was to develop a new 99mTc-labeled acetylcholine analogue: N-phenylferrocenecarboxamide labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc-TPCC) to study acetylcholinesterase activity. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that the labelled compound was a substrate for acetylcholinesterase. The hydrolytic rate of this substrate was measured and the specificity was evaluated using the inhibitor BW 284 C51. In rat experiments, the 99mTc-TPCC showed desirable properties for studying the acetylcholinesterase in the rat brain: high hydrolytic rate and a moderate specificity of the substrate for acetylcholinesterase. PMID:23465564

Mejri, Najoua; Said, Nadia Malek; Guizani, Sihem; Essouissi, Imen; Saidi, Mouldi



Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells in the evaluation of hemangiomas of the liver in infants and children  

SciTech Connect

The vascular origin lesions of the liver (capillary hemangioma/infantile hemangioendothelioma) that present in infancy or early childhood often have a typical clinical picture of hepatomegaly and congestive heart failure. These lesions rarely present as asymptomatic hepatomegaly, simulating a primary hepatic malignancy. These lesions may also simulate a primary or secondary hepatic malignancy on cross-sectional imaging or angiography. Scintigraphic evaluations with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells offers an accurate method of identification of these lesions, and allows differentiation from other common primary or secondary hepatic masses in infancy or childhood. This scintigraphic method may also be used to follow these patients after medical, radiation, or embolization therapy. Experience with seven patients with these tumors is reported and compared with eight children with other primary or secondary liver tumors also evaluated by this method.

Miller, J.H.



Thallium-201 versus technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging in detection and evaluation of patients with acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Thallium-201 myocardial imaging is of value in the early detection and evaluation of patients with suspected acute infarction. Thallium imaging may have a special value in characterizing patients with cardiogenic shock and in detecting patients at risk for subsequent infarction or death or death or both, before hospital discharge. Approximately 95 percent of pateints with transmural or nontransmural myocardial infarction can be detected with technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging if the imaging is performed 24 to 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Pyrophosphate imaging may have an important role in the evaluation of patients during the early follow-up period after hospital discharge from an episode of acute infarction. The finding of a persistently positive pyrophosphate image suggests a poor prognosis and is associated with a relatively large incidence of subsequent myocardial infarction and death.

Pitt, B.; Thrall, J.H.



The value and throughput of rest Thallium-201/stress Technetium -99m sestamibi dual-isotope myocardial SPECT.  


Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is an established method in cardiology for the diagnosis and evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). Thallium-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging has been widely accepted as non-invasive diagnostic procedure for detection of CAD, risk stratification and myocardial viability assessment. But, standard Tl-201 redistribution and same day or 2-day rest/stress Tc-99m sestamibi protocols are time-consuming. Hence, the dual isotope rest thallium-201/stress technetium-99m sestamibi gated single-photon emission tomography protocol has gained increasing popularity for these applications. Combining the use of thallium-201 with technetium-99m agents permits optimal image resolution and simultaneous assessment of viability. Dual-isotope imaging may be separate or simultaneous acquisition set-up. The more rapid completion of these studies is appreciated as an advantage by patients, technologists, interpreting and referring physicians, nurses and hospital management. Simultaneous imaging has the potential advantages of precise pixel registration and artifacts, if present, are identical in both thallium and sestamibi, and require only one set of imaging. Also, there are some disadvantages of spillover of activity from the Tc-99m to the Tl-201 window. Fortunately, despite this problem it can be overcome. Separate acquisition dual isotope also has some disadvantages. Difference in defect resolution in attenuation and scatter between T-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi potentially results in interpretation problems. But, studies about cost-effectiveness of dual isotope imaging showed that some selective elimination of the rest studies may decrease the cost of the nuclear procedures and should be considered in the current care health system. PMID:15165953

Okudan, Berna; Smitherman, Thomas C



The skeleton in congenital, generalized lipodystrophy: evaluation using whole-body radiographic surveys, magnetic resonance imaging and technetium-99m bone scintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare genetic disease characterized by the absence of body fat from birth. Focal bone lesions have also been reported, but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. To characterize skeletal abnormalities further in 3 patients with CGL, we employed whole-body radiographic skeletal surveys, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, including gadolinium enhancement), and triple phase technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate

James L. Fleckenstein; A. Garg; F. J. Bonte; M. F. Vuitch; R. M. Peshock



The role of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate in myocardial imaging to recognize, localize and identify extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams to aid diagnostically in recognizing, localizing, and identifying extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients was evaluated. The present study is an extension of previous animal and patient evaluations that were recently performed utilizing this myocardial imaging agent.

Willerson, J. T.; Parkey, R. W.; Bonte, F. J.; Stokely, E. M.; Buja, E. M.



Early identification of amyloid heart disease by technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy: a study with familial amyloid polyneuropathy  

SciTech Connect

To determine whether technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scanning or two-dimensional echocardiography can detect amyloid heart disease in an earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy, 15 patients were examined. Although 10 of the 15 patients had no clinical evidence of congestive heart failure, as well as normal ventricular wall thickness and normal values for left ventricular systolic function, five (50%) of them showed mild or moderate myocardial uptake. On the other hand, none had characteristic highly refractile myocardial echoes on the two-dimensional echocardiographic images (p less than 0.01), and values for diastolic function were reduced in four of the five and normal in the remaining one. In 85 control subjects, diffuse positive pyrophosphate scans of the heart were found in four (5%) of them (three with dilated cardiomyopathy and one with sarcoidosis), and highly refractile granular sparkling echoes were observed in nine (11%) (five with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, three with aortic stenosis, and one with hypereosinophilic syndrome). We conclude that Tc-99m-PYP scanning is a more sensitive and specific method and may have the potential ability to detect amyloid heart disease in the earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy than two-dimensional echocardiography.

Hongo, M.; Hirayama, J.; Fujii, T.; Yamada, H.; Okubo, S.; Kusama, S.; Ikeda, S.



Evaluation of biological response modifiers in the enhancement of tumor uptake of technetium-99m labeled macromolecules. A preliminary report.  


Imaging tumors with radioactive monoclonal antibodies remains attractive but continues to be challenging. With the hypothesis that the use of biological response modifiers (BRMs) may augment the tumor uptake, technetium-99m(99mTc)-labeled tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nuclear histone specific TNT-1-F(ab')2 were evaluated in tumor bearing mice given a single dose of interferon (IFN). Ukrain or pokeweed mitogen as BRMs. As early as 1.5 h post injection (p.i.) of the radioactive macromolecules, the absolute tumor uptake (% administered dose/g) of each agent was enhanced (e.g., TNF, control = 1.8 +/- 0.4, Ukrain = 3.2 +/- 0.5, P = 0.006) and tumor to muscle ratios were elevated (e.g., TNF, control a 4.1 +/- 2.2, interferon 8.3 +/- 2.7, P = 0.01). The absolute tumor uptake remained practically unchanged at 4 h p.i. Generally with BRMs, the blood clearance was rapid and tumor/blood ratios and tumor/muscle ratios were higher than in the control group, increasing to greater than 200% for IFN as a BRM. The early enhancement in tumor uptake of macromolecules, leading to excellent delineation of tumors by scintigraphy is highly encouraging and warrants further studies to explore the full potential of BRMs. PMID:1500731

Thakur, M L; DeFulvio, J; Tong, J; John, E; McDevitt, M R; Damjanov, I



Synthesis and biodistribution of a new oxo-technetium-99m bis(aminothiol) complex as a potential melanoma tracer.  


[123I]-N-(2-Diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide (123I-BZA) has been the best scintigraphic agent described so far for malignant melanoma and ocular melanoma diagnosis. We replaced 123I by the more convenient radioisotope 99mTc and synthesized four bis(aminoethanethiol) derivatives. We describe the synthesis of a new oxo-technetium complex (TcO-Cf), prepared in very high yield (radiochemical yield > 95%), that exhibits an affinity for the pigmented tumor cells. This complex was evaluated in vivo in mice bearing C57Bl6 murine melanoma. After injection, a rapid decrease in the radioactivity levels was noted for all tissues and organs except for eyes (1.26 %ID/g at 1 h and 2.69 %ID/g at 24 h postinjection) and the tumor (1.19 %ID/g at 1 h and 0.80 %ID/g at 24 h postinjection), suggesting a specific in vivo binding of this complex to the pigmented cells. These results were compared with those already published for three other technetium-99m bis(aminothiol) complexes with benzamide derivatives. PMID:11297457

Auzeloux, P; Papon, J; Pasqualini, R; Madelmont, J C



Dynamic SPECT with technetium-99m HM-PAO in meningiomas--a comparison with iodine-123 IMP  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO) has recently been introduced as an alternative to N-isopropyl-p-/sup 123/I-iodoamphetamine ((/sup 123/I)IMP) for measurement of regional cerebral blood flow. This study compares dynamic SPECT studies using the two tracers in seven patients with meningiomas. Regions of interest were placed over the lesion and contralateral homologous presumed normal area. The counting-rate ratio for the lesion to the contralateral homologous area (L/N ratio) was then calculated in the first image. L/N ratios of ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were lower than those of ((/sup 123/I)IMP) SPECT, particularly in hypervascular meningiomas. Furthermore, time-activity curves showed that the washout of ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO) in the tumors was very slow or incomplete, preventing an accurate assessment of vascularity of meningiomas with ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO), as is generally possible with ((/sup 123/I)IMP).

Nakano, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Jinnouchi, S.; Hoshi, H.; Watanabe, K.



Comparison of technetium-99m-HM-PAO leukocytes with indium-111-oxine leukocytes for localizing intraabdominal sepsis  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m-HM-PAO (({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO) leukocyte and indium-111-oxine (111In-oxine) leukocyte scanning were carried out simultaneously in 41 patients at 4 hr and 24 hr after reinjection to determine whether the 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc scan could replace the 24-hr {sup 111}In scan for detecting intraabdominal sepsis. Abdominal infection was confirmed in 12 cases. The 4-hr {sup 99}Tc-leukocyte scan, the 4-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan, and the 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan yielded a sensitivity of 100%, 67%, and 100%, respectively, and a specificity of 62%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The 24-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scan also produced a sensitivity of 100%, but it was falsely positive in all 29 cases without infection due to physiologic bowel uptake. False-positive 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scans were also produced by physiologic bowel uptake in seven cases all of whom had true-negative 4-hr and 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans. Because of the high incidence of false-positive 4-hr ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO leukocyte scans, it was concluded that they could not replace 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans for detecting intraabdominal sepsis, and that serial {sup 99m}Tc leukocyte scans starting earlier than 4 hr after reinjection must be evaluated.

Mountford, P.J.; Kettle, A.G.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Coakley, A.J. (Kent and Canterbury Hospital (England))



Modulation of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein: Detection with technetium-99m-sestamibi in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) has been documented in nearly all forms of human cancers and increased levels of Pgp in some tumors correlate with poor response to treatment. Technetium-99m-sestamibi has recently been validated as a Pgp transport substrate. Pgp is also normally expressed along the biliary canalicular surface of hepatocytes and the luminal side of proximal tubule cells in the kidney, while not expressed in heart. Focused on these organs with known Pgp status, we present the findings on {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi showed normal, prompt clearance of the radiotracer from the liver and kidneys relative to the heart. After administration of the Pgp modulator, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi was selectively retained in the liver and kidneys. Hepatobiliary and renal clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi are Pgp-mediated, and inhibition of Pgp transport in these organs can be successfully imaged using {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in patients. Similar results might be expected with this and related radiopharmaceuticals for functional imaging of Pgp transport and modulation in tumors. 34 refs., 2 figs.

Luker, G.D.; Fracasso, P.M.; Dobkin, J.; Piwnica-Worms, D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)



Thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction: Assessment of efficacy by myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi has been used to evaluate the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy. Improved image quality due to the higher photon energy of Tc-99m and the increased allowable doses of this radiopharmaceutical along with its lack of redistribution makes Tc-99m sestamibi an acceptable imaging agent for such studies. This imaging agent was used for serial quantitative planar and tomographic imaging to assess the initial risk area of infarction, its change over time and the relation to infarct-related artery patency in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction. Twenty-three of 30 patients were treated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 4 hours after onset of acute chest pain. Seven patients were treated in the conventional manner and did not receive thrombolytic therapy. The initial area at risk varied greatly both in patients treated with rt-PA and in those who received conventional therapy. Patients with successful thrombolysis and patient infarct arteries had a significantly greater reduction of Tc-99m sestamibi defect size than patients who had persistent coronary occlusion. Serial imaging with Tc-99m sestamibi could find important application in future clinical research evaluating the efficacy of new thrombolytic agents. Direct measurements of the amount of hypoperfused myocardium before and after thrombolysis could provide rapid and unequivocal results using fewer patients and avoiding the use of mortality as an end point. This approach has not yet been widely tested in the clinical arena.

Wackers, F.J. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))



Experimental studies of the physiologic properties of technetium-99m agents: Myocardial transport of perfusion imaging agents  

SciTech Connect

The physiologic properties of new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial imaging agents (Tc-99m sestamibi, an isonitrile; and Tc-99m teboroxime, a boronic acid adduct of technetium dioxime) are discussed and compared to thallium-201 (Tl-201). Studies with isolated hearts, subcellular fractions and cell cultures indicate that Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 do not share common transport or sequestration mechanisms. Although peak Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial extraction over time is about half that of Tl-201 at equivalent coronary blood flows, the amount of Tc-99m sestamibi that remains in the heart is similar to that of Tl-201 because of its higher retention efficiency. The high retention efficiency for Tc-99m sestamibi also results in minimal redistribution. In contrast, Tc-99m teboroxime myocardial extraction is higher than that of Tl-201, but its retention is less efficient, resulting in relatively rapid washout characteristics which may quickly result in tracer redistribution. During reperfusion after a no-flow period, Tc-99m sestamibi extraction and retention increase, but for Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 these values tend to decrease. All tracers show adequate transport characteristics for perfusion imaging, and differences in transport and retention should lead to the development of new clinical protocols.27 references.

Meerdink, D.J.; Leppo, J.A. (Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (USA))



Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstom, M.A. (New England Medical Center, Boston, MA); Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.



Simultaneous technetium-99m/thallium-201 SPECT imaging with model-based compensation for cross-contaminating effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous acquisition of dual-isotope SPECT data offers a number of advantages over separately acquired data; however, simultaneous acquisition can result in cross-contamination between isotopes. In this work we propose and evaluate two frameworks for iterative model-based compensation of cross-contamination in dual-isotope SPECT. The methods were applied to cardiac imaging with technetium-99m-sestamibi and thallium-201, and they were compared with a subtraction-based compensation method using a cross-talk estimate obtained from an auxiliary energy window. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to carefully study aspects of bias and noise for the methods, and a torso phantom with cardiac insert was used to evaluate the performance of the methods for experimentally acquired data. The cross-talk compensation methods substantially improved lesion contrast and significantly reduced quantitative errors for simultaneously acquired data. Thallium image normalized mean square error (NMSE) was reduced from 0.522 without cross-talk compensation to as low as 0.052 with model-based cross-talk compensation. This is compared with a NMSE of 0.091 for the subtraction-based compensation method. The application of a preliminary model for cross-talk arising from lead fluorescence x-rays and collimator scatter gave promising results, and the future development of a more accurate model for collimator interactions would probably benefit simultaneous Tc/Tl imaging. Model-based compensation methods provide feasible cross-talk compensation in clinically acceptable times, and they may ultimately make simultaneous dual-isotope protocols an effective alternative for many imaging procedures.

Kadrmas, Dan J.; Frey, Eric C.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.



Value of radioimmunoscintigraphy with technetium-99m labelled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (BW431\\/26) in the detection of colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken as part of a Coordinated Research Programme initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate the usefulness of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) in the management of patients with colorectal cancer. Technetium-99m labelled BW431\\/26, a monoclonal antibody against carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), was used. The study included 73 patients (31 females and 42 males). Sixty-eight patients were suspected of

Makumkrong Poshyachinda; Tawatchai Chaiwatanarat; Nui Saesow; Suree Thitathan; Narin Voravud



Prediction of reversible perfusion defects by quantitative analysis of post-exercise electrocardiogram-gated acquisition of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile myocardial perfusion scintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the quantitative analysis of regional wall thickening with electrocardiographic-gated technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (SESTAMIBI) in predicting the reversibility of stress-induced perfusion defects. The assumption was that a preserved resting wall thickening in a segment with stress-induced perfusion defect would predict normal resting perfusion. Twenty-five patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent

Claudio Marcassa; Paolo Marzullo; Gianmario Sambuceti; Oberdan Parodi



Assessment of systolic wall thickening using technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile in patients with coronary artery disease: relation to thallium-201 scintigraphy with re-injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of resting planar ECG-gated technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) imaging were compared with those of thallium-201 (TI) reinjection after exercise-redistribution scintigraphy in 20 patients (19 men, 1 woman, mean age 53±10 years) with angiographically proven coronary artery disease. Eight normal subjects (seven men, one woman, mean age 50±8 years) constituted the control group. In these subjects, only resting99mTc-MIBI imaging was

Emanuele Nicolai; Alberto Cuocolo; Leonardo Pace; Simone Maurea; Antonio Nappi; Massimo Imbriaco; Carmine Morisco; Luigi Argenziano; Marco Salvatore



Preoperative determination of the surgical procedure for hepatectomy using technetium-99m-galactosyl human serum albumin ( 99mTc-GSA) liver scintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acidgalactosyl human serum albumin (Tc-GSA) is a new liver scintigraphy agent which binds to the asialoglycoprotein receptors. We evaluated the preoperative assessment for hepatectomy using Tc-GSA liver scintigraphy. Ninety patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were admitted for elective hepatectomy. Tc-GSA scintigraphy was conducted after the intravenous injection of Tc-GSA, and maximal removal rate of Tc-GSA (GSA-Rmax) was calculated using a

A Kwon; SK Ha-Kawa; S Uetsuji; T Inoue; Y Matsui; Y Kamiyama



Usefulness of measuring hepatic functional volume using Technetium99m galactosyl serum albumin scintigraphy in bile duct carcinoma: report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the usefulness of measuring functional liver volume in two patients undergoing hepatectomy. Case 1 involved a 47-year-old\\u000a man with hepatitis B virus infection. The indocyanine green test retention rate at 15 min (ICGR15) was 14%. Liver uptake ratio\\u000a (LHL15) by technetium-99 m galactosyl human serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) liver scintigraphy was 0.91. The patient displayed hilar bile duct carcinoma necessitating right

Atsushi Nanashima; Yorihisa Sumida; Takafumi Abo; Ichiro Sakamoto; Youji Ogawa; Terumitsu Sawai; Hiroaki Takeshita; Shigekazu Hidaka; Takeshi Nagayasu



Rest-injected thallium-201 redistribution and resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile uptake in coronary artery disease: relation to the severity of coronary artery stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare rest-injected thallium-201 (Tl) redistribution and resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) myocardial uptake in chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), 15 patients with angiographically proven CAD and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (ejection fraction 34%±9%) were studied. All patients underwent rest-redistribution Tl and resting 99mTc-MIBI cardiac imaging. Gated 99mTc-MIBI images were also acquired to assess regional LV wall motion (WM). Myocardial segments

Simone Maurea; Alberto Cuocolo; Leonardo Pace; Emanuele Nicolai; Antonio Nappi; Massimo Imbriaco; Carmine Morisco; Massimo Chiariello; Bruno Trimarco; Marco Salvatore



Influence of technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime injection time on single-photon emission tomography perfusion changes in epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   By digitally computing perfusion changes from ictal or postictal (peri-ictal) injections referenced to those acquired interictally,\\u000a an enhanced method for localizing the epileptogenic area is reported. Computer-based image processing methods for quantifying\\u000a regional percent change in the brain are applied to a group of 19 epilepsy patients after the injection of technetium-99m\\u000a hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) and after acquiring

I. G. Zubal; M. V. Spanaki; J. MacMullan; M. Corsi; J. P. Seibyl; S. S. Spencer



Technetium-99m-d, 1-HM-PAO: a new radiopharmaceutical for imaging regional brain perfusion using SPECT--a comparison with iodine-123 HIPDM  

SciTech Connect

A new radiopharmaceutical, technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (/sup 99m/Tc-d, 1-HM-PAO), has been reported to cross the blood-brain-barrier and to distribute in brain in proportion to regional blood flow. This study reports brain imaging obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-d,1 HM-PAO in 20 subjects; seven without evidence of cerebral disease and 13 with cerebrovascular disorders. In 16 patients comparative data were available with N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamine ((/sup 123/I)HIPDM). Technetium-99m-d, 1-HM-PAO is retained sufficiently long to allow single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with widely available rotating gamma camera systems. The kinetics demonstrated a rapid brain uptake and prolonged retention of activity in cerebral structures. Good tomographic images are obtained with much higher uptake in gray than in white matter. Blood flow maps are comparable to those achieved with (/sup 123/I)HIPDM and established strokes were clearly seen, with similar details as in HIPDM studies. Delayed studies showed that the distribution in the brain remained virtually unchanged. Technetium-99m-d, 1-HM-PAO imaging appears particularly promising in routine examination of patients with cerebrovascular disorders.

Leonard, J.P.; Nowotnik, D.P.; Neirinckx, R.D.



Retention of technetium-99m in infectious foci in rats after release from technetium-99m labelled human non-specific polyclonal immunoglobulin G: a dual-label study with hydrazinonicotinamido and iminothiolano immunoglobulin.  


In an effort to contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m labelled non-specific polyclonal human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) in inflammatory lesions we compared the tissue distribution of double-labelled 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinamido (HYNIC) hIgG-14C and 99mTc-iminothiolano hIgG-14C in groups of five Wistar rats with a Staphylococcus aureus infection of the left calf muscle between 2 h p.i. and 24 h p.i. The stability of the two double-labelled hIgG preparations was evaluated in vitro and in plasma in vivo by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. At 24 h after injection of 99mTc-HYNIC-hIgG-14C the abscess uptake of 99mTc (1.5% ID/g+/-0.2% ID/g) was significantly higher (P<0.01) than the 14C uptake (1.0% ID/g+/-0.1% ID/g). After injection of 99mTc-iminothiolano hIgG-14C no significant difference (P=0.08) was found between the abscess uptake of the two radionuclides at 24 h p.i. (99mTc: 0.8% ID/g+/-0.1% ID/g; 14C: 0.90% ID/g+/-0.09% ID/g). HPLC analysis of plasma samples revealed release of 99mTc from both double-labelled immunoglobulin preparations. This phenomenon was more pronounced for iminothiolano hIgG than for HYNIC hIgG (43% vs 18%). In most tissues other than abscesses significant differences were also found between the 99mTc and the corresponding 14C uptake. Our results demonstrate that the chemical form in which 99mTc is bound to hIgG severely influences its release from hIgG and its retention in infections. PMID:8854855

Claessens, R A; Koenders, E B; Oyen, W J; Corstens, F H



Personalized predictive lung dosimetry by technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT for yttrium-90 radioembolization  

PubMed Central

Background For yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization, the common practice of assuming a standard 1,000-g lung mass for predictive dosimetry is fundamentally incongruent with the modern philosophy of personalized medicine. We recently developed a technique of personalized predictive lung dosimetry using technetium-99m (99mTc) macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography with integrated CT (SPECT/CT) of the lung as part of our routine dosimetric protocol for 90Y radioembolization. Its rationales are the technical superiority of SPECT/CT over planar scintigraphy, ease and convenience of lung auto-segmentation CT densitovolumetry, and dosimetric advantage of patient-specific lung parenchyma masses. Methods This is a retrospective study of our pulmonary clinical outcomes and comparison of lung dosimetric accuracy and precision by 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT versus conventional planar methodology. 90Y resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres) were used for radioembolization. Diagnostic CT densitovolumetry was used as a reference for lung parenchyma mass. Pulmonary outcomes were based on follow-up diagnostic CT chest or X-ray. Results Thirty patients were analyzed. The mean lung parenchyma mass of our Southeast Asian cohort was 822?±?103 g standard deviation (95% confidence interval 785 to 859 g). Patient-specific lung parenchyma mass estimation by CT densitovolumetry on 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT is accurate (bias ?21.7 g) and moderately precise (95% limits of agreement ?194.6 to +151.2 g). Lung mean radiation absorbed doses calculated by 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT and planar methodology are both accurate (bias <0.5 Gy), but 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT offers better precision over planar methodology (95% limits of agreement ?1.76 to +2.40 Gy versus ?3.48 to +3.31 Gy, respectively). None developed radiomicrosphere pneumonitis when treated up to a lung mean radiation absorbed dose of 18 Gy at a median follow-up of 4.4 months. Conclusions Personalized predictive lung dosimetry by 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT is clinically feasible, safe, and more precise than conventional planar methodology for 90Y radioembolization radiation planning.



Scintigraphic assessment of bowel involvement and disease activity in Crohn's disease using technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine as leukocyte label  

SciTech Connect

Using a novel labeling technique with technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine, we studied 29 patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease. Technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine leukocyte scanning (99mTc scan) was prospectively compared with the results of independently performed radiologic, endoscopic, and histologic examinations, and with findings at surgery, to assess the clinical usefulness of this technique to localize inflammatory lesions. In addition, uptake of technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine in the bowel was graded by comparing it with the uptake in liver and bone marrow and correlating this with established parameters of disease activity. The viability of homologous labeled leukocytes was greater than 95%. Less than 5% of lymphocytes were found in the final preparation. It was found that 45% +/- 12% of the label was bound to granulocytes, and 98% of the unbound label was washed off before reinjection. The results of 99mTc scan revealed a good correlation with those of barium enema (r = 0.880, p less than 0.001), of endoscopy/surgery (r = 0.983, p less than 0.001), and of all combined reference methods (r = 0.981, p less than 0.001). Activity as determined by 99mTc scan was weakly correlated with the results of Crohn's disease activity index (r = 0.559, p less than 0.01), van Hees index (r = 0.606, p less than 0.01), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.456, p less than 0.05) in 24 patients with proven Crohn's disease. The correlation was improved when the 99mTc scan was compared with a combination of these activity parameters and C-reactive protein (r = 0.781, p less than 0.001). Extraintestinal manifestations (joints) and complications (cholecystitis) were also identified correctly by the 99mTc scan.

Schoelmerich, J.S.; Schmidt, E.; Schuemichen, C.B.; Billmann, P.; Schmidt, H.; Gerok, W.



Sites and Mechanisms of Localization of Technetium-99m Phosphorus Radiopharmaceuticals in Acute Myocardial Infarcts and other Tissues  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to elucidate the localization at the cellular level of technetium-99m phosphorus (99mTc-P) radiopharmaceuticals in acute myocardial infarcts and the mechanisms responsible for 99mTc-P uptake in acute myocardial infarcts and other tissues. In 20 dogs with proximal left anterior descending coronary arterial ligation for 1-3 days, elevated calcium levels were measured at all sites of increased 99mTc-P uptake (acute myocardial infarcts, necrotic thoracotomy muscle, lactating breast, and normal bone); however, a consistent linear relationship between 99mTc-P and calcium levels was not observed. A strong correlation (r = 0.95 and 0.99, n = 2 dogs) was demonstrated between levels of 3H-diphosphonate and 99mTc-P in infarcted myocardium. Autoradiographic studies with 3H-diphosphonate revealed extensive labeling in the infarct periphery which contained necrotic muscle cells with features of severe calcium overloading, including widespread hypercontraction as well as more selective formation of mitochondrial calcific deposits. Autoradiography also demonstrated labeling of a small population of damaged border zone muscle cells which exhibited prominent accumulation of lipid droplets and focal, early mitochondrial calcification. Cell fractionation studies revealed major localization of both 99mTc-P and calcium in the soluble supernate and membrane-debris fractions of infarcted myocardium and less than 2% of total 99mTc-P and calcium in the mitochondrial fractions; however, electron microscopic examination showed that mitochondria with calcific deposits were not preserved in the mitochondrial fractions. In vitro studies evaluating the role of serum protein binding on tissue uptake of 99mTc-P agents demonstrated that, in spite of significant complexing with serum proteins, serum 99mTc-P activity retained the ability to adsorp to calcium hydroxyapatite and amorphous calcium phosphate. In vivo studies showed that concentration of human serum albumin (labeled with iodine-131) in infarcted myocardium reached a maximum of only 3.8 times normal after a circulation time of 96 h, whereas 99mTc-P uptake was at least 10 times normal after a circulation time as short as 1 h. It is concluded that: (a) 99mTc-P uptake in acutely infarcted myocardium, and possibly other types of soft tissue damage, is limited to necrotic and severely injured cells; (b) concentration of 99mTc-P results from selective adsorption of 99mTc-P with various forms of tissue calcium stores, including amorphous calcium phosphate, crystalline hydroxyapatite, and calcium complexed with myofibrils and other macromolecules, possibly supplemented by calcium-independent complexing with organic macromolecules; and (c) lack of a linear relationship between 99mTc-P and tissue calcium levels mainly results from local differences in composition and physicochemical properties of tissue calcium stores and from local variations in levels of blood flow for delivery of 99mTc-P agents. Images

Buja, L. Maximilian; Tofe, Andrew J.; Kulkarni, Padmakar V.; Mukherjee, Amal; Parkey, Robert W.; Francis, Marion D.; Bonte, Frederick J.; Willerson, James T.



Sustained reduction of exercise perfusion defect extent and severity with isosorbide mononitrate (Im dur) as demonstrated by means of technetium 99m sestamibi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The impact of long-acting nitrates on the extent and severity of stress-induced myocardial ischemia is not well described,\\u000a especially after long-term treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty patients with chronic stable angina and reversible ischemia on an exercise stress myocardial perfusion single photon\\u000a emission computed tomography (ex-SPECT) were prospectively studied in a 6-week period. At baseline, rest thallium-201\\/exercise\\u000a stress technetium 99m sestamibi SPECT was

Howard C. Lewin; Rory Hachamovitch; Alan G. Harris; Cyndi Williams; Juli Schmidt; Michael Harris; Kenneth Van Train; Gerrard Siligan; Daniel S. Berman



Quantitative thallium-201 and technetium 99m sestamibi tomography at rest in detection of myocardial viability in patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study was designed to determine the most effective quantitative threshold for thallium-201 and technetium 99m sestamibi\\u000a uptake on tomographic imaging after rest injection for the detection of myocardial viability in patients with chronic myocardial\\u000a infarction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  Thallium and sestamibi cardiac tomography at rest was performed in 43 patients with chronic myocardial infarction and impaired\\u000a left ventricular (LV) function

Alberto Cuocolo; Wanda Acampa; Emanuele Nicolai; Leonardo Pace; Mario Petretta; Marco Salvatore



The role of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintigraphy in the planning of therapy and follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma after surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) scan in planning\\u000a post-surgical therapy and follow-up in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Four groups of DTC patients were\\u000a considered: Group 1 comprised 122 patients with high serum thyroglobulin (s-Tg) levels and negative high-dose iodine-131 scan\\u000a during follow-up who had previously undergone total

Domenico Rubello; Renzo Mazzarotto; Dario Casara



Assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile and thallium-201 rest redistribution in chronic coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare thallium-201 rest redistribution and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) for the assessment of myocardial viability within technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) perfusion defects in 27 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease. The following studies were performed: (1) stress99mTc-MIBI, (2) rest99mTc-MIBI, (3)201T1 rest-redistribution single-photon emission tomography, (4) [18F]FDG positron emission tomography. The left ventricle was devided into 11 segments on matched tomographic

C. Rossetti; C. Landoni; G. Lucignani; G. Huang; A. L. Bartorelli; M. D. Guazzi; A. Margonato; S. Chierchia; L. Galli; A. Savi; F. Fazio



Clinical utility of technetium-99m methoxisobutylisonitrile imaging in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison with thallium-201 and iodine-131 Na scintigraphy, and serum thyroglobulin quantitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) has been used to image thyroid carcinoma. A prospective study was performed to compare the efficacy of99mTc-MIBI to thallium-201 (201T1) scintigraphy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The clinical utility of all radionuclide imaging modalities, i.e.,99mTc-MIBI,201Tl, and iodine-131 Na (131I-Na), as well as serum thyroglobulin estimation, was evaluated. Thirty-four post-thyroidectomy patients (age range: 26–76 years) underwent

Simin Dadparvar; Anita Chevres; Mark Tulchinsky; Lalitha Krishna-Badrinath; Angabeen S. Khan; Walter J. Slizofski



Factors affecting uptake and retention of technetium-99m-diphosphonate and 99m-pertechnetate in osseous, connective and soft tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone scanning complex,99mTc?SnEHDP, consisting of the nuclide technetium-99m, stannous ion and ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate, administered intravenously\\u000a is retained in soft tissues in proportion to increasing calcium content of the tissues. Within bone tissue, the retention\\u000a is proportional to vascularity and to surface area of calcium phosphate in bones and not necessarily to calcium and phosphate\\u000a concentration. The nuclidic agent99mTcO\\u000a 4\\u000a ?

Marion D. Francis; Candice L. Slough; Andrew J. Tofe; Edward B. Silberstein



Single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m hexamethyl propylenamino oxime in the clinical assessment of cerebral ischemia. A preliminary evaluation.  


94 subjects, 64 with cerebral ischemia of varying severity and outcome, and 30 controls were studied with technetium-99m hexamethyl propylenamino oxime single photon emission computed tomography in order to evaluate the suitability of this technique in the assessment of cerebral ischemia. Decreased uptake corresponding to the side of clinical symptomatology and/or to CT lesion was found in 93% of the patients with complete stroke and in 28% of the patients with transient ischemic attack. This procedure can be a useful tool in the routine examination of ischemic patients, although the mechanism underlying brain uptake is far from being completely understood and the possible quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow is worthy of further assessment. PMID:3262061

Bartolini, A; Gasparetto, B; Bacigalupo, F; Ruffinengo, U; Amore, R; Loeb, C



The effect of antipsychotic medication on relative cerebral blood perfusion in schizophrenia: assessment with technetium-99m hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime single photon emission computed tomography.  


Functional neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia have often been confounded by various factors including medication status. To explore the effects of antipsychotic medications on relative regional cerebral perfusion, we scanned a group of 33 persons with schizophrenia twice, while receiving a stable dose of antipsychotic and after being off antipsychotics for 3 weeks, using technetium-99m hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime single photon emission computed tomography (Tc-99m HMPAO-SPECT. We found that antipsychotic significantly increased the mean relative cerebral perfusion in the left basal ganglia. Additionally, patients receiving thiothixene (n = 9) had a significantly greater increase in relative cerebral perfusion in the basal ganglia than patients receiving haloperidol (n = 12). These findings indicate that antipsychotics lead to regional increases in cerebral perfusion and that antipsychotic status must be controlled for in functional neuroimaging studies. Functional neuroimaging techniques such as SPECT may be useful in furthering our understanding of the mechanism of antipsychotics. PMID:9046987

Miller, D D; Rezai, K; Alliger, R; Andreasen, N C



Extramedullary Pulmonary Hematopoiesis Causing Pulmonary Hypertension and Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation Detected by Technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid Bone Marrow Scan and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/CT  

PubMed Central

Extramedullary pulmonary hematopoiesis is a rare entity with a limited number of case reports in the available literature only. We report the case of a 66-year-old man with known primary myelofibrosis, in whom a Technetium-99m sulfur colloid bone marrow scan with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT revealed a pulmonary hematopoiesis as the cause of pulmonary hypertension and severe tricuspid regurgitation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid SPECT/CT imaging in this rare condition.

Clarke, Michael John; Kannivelu, Anbalagan; Chinchure, Dinesh; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian



Extramedullary Pulmonary Hematopoiesis Causing Pulmonary Hypertension and Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation Detected by Technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid Bone Marrow Scan and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/CT.  


Extramedullary pulmonary hematopoiesis is a rare entity with a limited number of case reports in the available literature only. We report the case of a 66-year-old man with known primary myelofibrosis, in whom a Technetium-99m sulfur colloid bone marrow scan with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT revealed a pulmonary hematopoiesis as the cause of pulmonary hypertension and severe tricuspid regurgitation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid SPECT/CT imaging in this rare condition. PMID:24843243

Ali, Syed Zama; Clarke, Michael John; Kannivelu, Anbalagan; Chinchure, Dinesh; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian



Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy with technetium 99m antimony sulfide colloid to identify lymphatic drainage of cutaneous melanoma at ambiguous sites in the head and neck and trunk.  


Frequently the primary lesion of high-risk cutaneous melanoma (level III, greater than or equal to 1.5mm; greater than or equal to 1.0 mm with ulceration) is in an ambiguous lymphatic drainage site on the trunk, pelvic and shoulder girdles, and head and neck area. Lymphoscintigrams were performed by a circumferential intradermal injection of the biopsy site using technetium 99m (99mTc) antimony sulfide colloid in a total dose of 0.2 to 0.6 mCi in a volume of 0.1 to 0.5 ml. Imaging was done with a large-field gamma camera with high-resolution parallel hole collimator. Technetium 99m antimony sulfide colloid is an ideal agent for lymphoscintigrams because of small particle size (3-30 micron), which permits early migration into the interstitial space and lymphatics and rapid pickup by lymph nodes. Although it is a gamma emmitter with high activity, it has a short half-life and does not induce tissue necrosis. It does not localize the site of lymph node metastases, but indicates only the drainage pattern. Images were obtained at 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes, respectively, and then three times every hour. Surgery was usually performed 24 hours later. The majority of patients had lesions with ambiguous drainage sites: head and neck (4 of 5 patients) and trunk (9 of 13 patients). The drainage by scan was to unpredictive sites in 72%, and resulted in a change of treatment planning by location and extent of ablation with node dissection in 9 of 18 patients. Ambiguous dissection sites included: (1) question of preauricular dissection with parotidectomy versus posterior auricular and cervical dissection for selected scalp lesions; (2) low-neck with or without axillary dissection for upper chest and shoulder lesions; and (3) axillary versus groin dissections for midflank lesions at zone of ambiguity between axilla and groin. It was concluded that preoperative 99mTc antimony sulfide lymphoscintigraphy is a highly useful planning technique in determining the appropriate lymphatic drainage basin for dissection in selected melanoma patients. PMID:3971311

Wanebo, H J; Harpole, D; Teates, C D



Evaluation of inferior mesenteric vein blood flow circulation with per-rectal administration of thallium-201 and technetium-99m pertechnetate  

SciTech Connect

We administered both per-rectal thallium-201 (201Tl) and technetium-99m pertechnetate (99mTc) to patients with liver diseases in order to understand the abnormalities of inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) blood flow circulation. As 201Tl heart-to-liver uptake ratio (H:L), reflecting the degree of portal-systemic shuntings (PSS), increased, the visualization of IMV in general became poor on 99mTc scintigrams. 201Tl H:L in the group with no visualization of IMV on 99mTc scintigrams was significantly higher than in the group with clear visualization of IMV (p less than 0.001). However, there were patients who showed IMV visualization among those with high 201Tl H:L. In these patients, it was considered that IMV blood flowed in the normograde direction, escaping mainly through PSS at the upper part of the portal system, and resulting in elevated H:L. In the patients without IMV visualization, IMV blood flowed in the retrograde direction, escaping mainly through collaterals at the lower part of IMV. Inferior vena cava (IVC) was visualized on 99mTc scintigrams in some patients without IMV visualization, indicating the presence of collaterals from the distal part of IMV to IVC. Per-rectal studies using these two radiotracers can afford us useful informations on the abnormalities of IMV blood flow hemodynamics in patients with liver diseases.

Tonami, N.; Nakajima, K.; Yokoyama, K.; Kinuya, S.; Oskaie, S.D.; Matsunari, I.; Taki, J.; Seto, M.; Michigishi, T.; Aburano, T. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))



Prediction of reversible perfusion defects by quantitative analysis of post-exercise electrocardiogram-gated acquisition of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.  


The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the quantitative analysis of regional wall thickening with electrocardiographic-gated technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (SESTAMIBI) in predicting the reversibility of stress-induced perfusion defects. The assumption was that a preserved resting wall thickening in a segment with stress-induced perfusion defect would predict normal resting perfusion. Twenty-five patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent planar stress-rest SESTAMIBI scintigraphy. The wall thickening was quantitatively evaluated as percentage increase in counts from diastole to systole; a ratio defined as the wall thickening index (WTI) between patient and normal profile (mean - 2 SD) below 1 was considered abnormal. Improvement of the perfusion pattern at rest was observed in 76% (54/71) of segments with a stress-induced perfusion defect; 90% of these segments had a (WTI) greater than 0.8. Five segments (9%) showed fixed perfusion defects despite a WTI value greater than 0.8. In conclusion, quantitative analysis of regional wall thickening by electrocardiographic-gated SESTAMIBI identifies segments with reversible perfusion defects; this may overcome the need for studies at rest and may direct the detection of hypoperfused but viable myocardium. PMID:1396875

Marcassa, C; Marzullo, P; Sambuceti, G; Parodi, O



Regional cerebral blood flow imaging: A quantitative comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT with C15O2 PET  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to compare technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). As investigation of dementia is likely to be one of the main uses of routine rCBF imaging, 18 demented patients were imaged with both techniques. The PET data were compared quantitatively with three versions of the SPECT data. These were, first, data normalized to the SPECT cerebellar uptake, second, data linearly corrected using the PET cerebellar value and, finally, data Lassen corrected for washout from the high flow areas. Both the linearly-corrected (r = 0.81) and the Lassen-corrected (r = 0.79) HMPAO SPECT data showed good correlation with the PET rCBF data. The relationship between the normalized HMPAO SPECT data and the PET data was nonlinear. It is not yet possible to obtain rCBF values in absolute units from HMPAO SPECT without knowledge of the true rCBF in one reference region for each patient.

Gemmell, H.G.; Evans, N.T.; Besson, J.A.; Roeda, D.; Davidson, J.; Dodd, M.G.; Sharp, P.F.; Smith, F.W.; Crawford, J.R.; Newton, R.H. (Aberdeen Bio-Medical Imaging Cyclotron Centre, Aberdeen (Scotland))



Native renal function after combined liver-kidney transplant for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome: initial report on the use of postoperative Technetium-99 m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine scans.  


Type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is characterized by rapid deterioration of renal function. We sought to assess native kidney function after combined kidney-liver transplant (CLKTx) performed for type 1 HRS. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional, single-center study. All patients with Type 1 HRS who received a CLKTx at the University of California, San Francisco from 1997 to 2007 were screened for enrollment. Patients with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ?30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were eligible. Twenty-three patients were identified and consented to receive a Technetium-99 m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) nuclear scan to measure the native kidney contribution to overall renal function. Only 4 of the 23 subjects (17.4%) demonstrated native renal function that consisted of a contribution ?50% of total renal function. Several factors and comorbidities such as age, gender, race, duration of HRS, need for and duration of renal replacement therapy, need for pressors, urine sodium, proteinuria, and use of octreotide/midodrine were analyzed and not found to be significant in predicting native renal function. The assessment of post-transplant native renal function following CLKTx may allow for improved accuracy in identifying the patients in need of CLKTx, and thus allow for greater optimization of dual-organ allocation strategies in patients with concomitant liver and renal failure. PMID:23384317

Vagefi, Parsia A; Qian, Jesse J; Carlson, David M; Aparici, Carina Mari; Hirose, Ryutaro; Vincenti, Flavio; Wojciechowski, David



Regional brain perfusion in 12 cats measured with technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).  


With the use of perfusion tracers, in vivo examination of the regional cerebral blood flow in cats can be performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Reliable perfusion data of normal, healthy cats are necessary for future clinical studies or other research use. Therefore, this dataset of the regional perfusion pattern of the normal feline brain was created. Twelve cats were used in this study. Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer ((99m)Tc-ECD) was injected intravenously and the acquisition, using a triple head gamma camera equipped with three multi-pinhole collimators (pinhole SPECT), was started 40 mins after tracer administration under general anaesthesia. Nineteen regions of interest were defined using 7T magnetic resonance images of the feline brain and a topographical atlas. Regional counts were normalised to the counts of two reference regions: the total brain and the cerebellum. The highest tracer uptake was noticed in the subcortical structures, and the lowest in the frontal cortex and the cerebellum. Also left-right asymmetry in the temporal cortex and a rostrocaudal gradient of 5% were observed. PMID:23064995

Waelbers, Tim; Peremans, Kathelijne; Vermeire, Simon; Dobbeleir, André; Boer, Vo; de Leeuw, Hendrik; Vente, Maarten A D; Piron, Koen; Hesta, Myriam; Polis, Ingeborgh



Anacardium occidentale bark lectin: purification, immobilization as an affinity model and influence in the uptake of technetium-99M by rat adipocytes.  


Lectins, proteins that recognize carbohydrates, have been immobilized on inert supports and used in the screening or purification of glycoproteins. Anacardium occidentale bark infusion has been used as a hypoglycemic agent in Brazil. The toxicity of natural products may be evaluated determining their capability to alter the biodistribution of technetium-99M ((99m)Tc). This work reports the isolation and characterization of a lectin from A. occidentale bark (AnocBL), its evaluation as an affinity support for glycoprotein isolation and lectin effect on the uptake of (99m)Tc by rat adipocytes. AnocBL was isolated from 80 % ammonium sulphate supernatant by affinity chromatography on fetuin-agarose. SDS-PAGE showed a single protein band of 47 kDa. The monossacharide L-arabinose and the glycoproteins fetuin, asialofetuin, ovomucoid, casein, thyroglobulin, peroxidase, fetal bovine serum and IgG inhibited the activity. The lectin activity was stable until 70 °C and at a pH range of 3.0-7.5. AnocBL-Sepharose column bound fetuin indicating that the lectin matrix may be used to obtain glycoconjugates of biotechnological interest. In vitro assay revealed that glucose and insulin increase (99m)Tc uptake by rat adipocytes. AnocBL decreases (99m)Tc uptake, and this effect was not detected in the presence of glucose. Fetuin inhibited AnocBL effect in all insulin concentrations. PMID:22798188

Maciel, Maria Inês Sucupira; de Mendonça Cavalcanti, Maria do Socorro; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; de Almeida Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso



Evaluation of the in vitro effect of a Lantana camara extract on the labeling of blood constituents of rats with technetium-99m.  


Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have been used in nuclear medicine procedures and drugs are capable to interfere on this labeling. Lantana camara (lantana) has medicinal properties and it has been used in folk medicine. The aim is to verify the effect of a lantana extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc. Blood of rats was incubated with extract, stannous chloride and 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) were separated. The % of radioactivity (%ATI) in these samples was calculated. Samples of labeled BC were washed and the %ATI maintained (%ATI-M) in the BC was determined. The results showed that lantana extract decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the IF-P from 70.24 +/- 2.59 to 11.95 +/- 3.07. This effect was not observed in the BC and IF-BC. The BC-%ATI-M was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in all concentrations tested when the BC was washed. This fact was not observed in the control. Substances present on the extract should have redoxi action decreasing the concentration of the stannous ion and this condition could justify the effect on the IF-P. The results about the BC-%ATI-M should indicate a possible effect on the transport of ions through the erythrocyte membrane. PMID:18390001

Maiworm, A I; Santos-Filho, S D; Presta, G A; Giani, T S; Paoli, S; Bernardo-Filho, M



Comparative study of regional cerebral blood flow images by SPECT using xenon-133, iodine-123 IMP, and technetium-99m HM-PAO  

SciTech Connect

Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using /sup 133/Xe, N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I)iodoamphetamine ((/sup 123/I)IMP) and (/sup 99m/Tc) hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO) in 24 patients with cerebrovascular diseases. The greatest advantage of /sup 133/Xe SPECT was to be able to provide absolute rCBF values without arterial sampling. However, its image quality was very poor. Iodine-123 IMP SPECT provided rCBF images of higher quality and it had good correlation to /sup 133/Xe SPECT. Iodine-123 IMP SPECT provided the best images to detect mild ischemic lesions. It could detect obstructive or stenotic changes of large cerebral arteries very well except for a moderate stenosis of internal carotid artery. Technetium-99m HM-PAO SPECT also provided very good rCBF images and it had good correlation to /sup 133/Xe SPECT. However, the count-density ratios for the ischemic lesions to the contralateral presumed normal areas of (/sup 99m/Tc) HM-PAO SPECT were significantly higher than those of (/sup 123/I)IMP SPECT.

Nakano, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Jinnouchi, S.; Hoshi, H.; Watanabe, K.



Detection and assessment of unstable angina using myocardial perfusion imaging: Comparison between technetium-99m sestamibi SPECT and 12-lead electrocardiogram  

SciTech Connect

Forty-five studies using technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed on patients hospitalized for spontaneous chest pain suggestive of myocardial ischemia. The studies were done after an injection during an episode of chest pain and a repeated injection when the patients were free of pain. All patients were hospitalized with a presumed diagnosis of unstable angina, and none had evidence of a previous myocardial infarction. The presence of a perfusion defect observed with Tc-99m sestamibi injected during chest pain had a 96% sensitivity and a 79% specificity for the detection of significant coronary artery disease (stenosis greater than or equal to 50%) on subsequent angiography. When the criterion of a larger perfusion defect during pain compared to absence of pain was used, the sensitivity was 81% and the specificity was 84%. In contrast, transient electrocardiographic ischemic changes during pain had a sensitivity of 35% and a specificity of 68%; electrocardiographic changes during or outside episodes of chest pain had a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 63% for the diagnosis. Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT represents a reliable noninvasive diagnostic tool that could aid in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia in patients with spontaneous chest pain and provide additional information to that provided by the electrocardiogram.

Gregoire, J.; Theroux, P. (Montreal Heart Institute, Quebec (Canada))



Aptamers directly radiolabeled with technetium-99m as a potential agent capable of identifying carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in tumor cells T84.  


Aptamers are small oligonucleotides that are selected to bind with high affinity and specificity to a target molecule. Aptamers are emerging as a new class of molecules for radiopharmaceutical development. In this study a new method to radiolabel aptamers with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) was developed. Two aptamers (Apt3 and Apt3-amine) selected against the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were used. Labeling was done by the direct method and the developed complex was subjected to quality control tests. Radiochemical purity and stability were monitored by Thin Layer Chromatography. Binding and specificity assays were carried out in the T84 cell line (CEA+) to evaluate tumor affinity and specificity after radiolabeling. Aptamers were successfully labeled with (99m)Tc in high radiochemical yields, showing in vitro stability in presence of plasma and cystein. In binding assays the radiolabeled aptamer Apt3-amine showed the highest affinity to T84 cells. When evaluated with HeLa cells (CEA-), lower uptake was observed, suggesting high specificity for this aptamer. These results suggest that the Apt3-amine aptamer directly labeled with (99m)Tc could be considered a promising agent capable of identifying the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) present in tumor cells. PMID:24675379

Correa, Cristiane Rodrigues; de Barros, André Luís Branco; Ferreira, Carolina de Aguiar; de Goes, Alfredo Miranda; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro



Technetium-99m hexamethyl propylenamine oxime lung clearance in the estimation of pulmonary hypertension in congenital heart disease: A preliminary comparative study with cardiac catheterization and pathology.  


Thirty-six patients ranging in age from 7 months to 15 years and weighing from 5300 g to 49 kg (24 undergoing corrective surgery and 12 cases with reversed shunt and no operation) underwent technetium 99m hexamethyl propylenamine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) lung clearance study and the results were compared with catheterization and pathology. Patients were allocated into three groups with respect to pathological grading (Heath-Edwards' classification) and the results were correlated on the basis of pathology. In group I (grades I and II), Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.86 with pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and Tc-99m HMPAO lung clearance (t1/2). Pearson correlation coefficients were 0. 863 and 0.88 in the second (grade III) and third group (with reversed shunt and no operation). There were statistically significant differences among the groups with respect to PAP, PVR, or t1/2. The results of radionuclide study (t1/2) were very well correlated within the groups with respect to hemodynamic parameters (PAP and PVR). Tc-99m HMPAO has potential as a highly sensitive indicator for detecting early and minimal microvascular lung injuries, and it may reflect accurate lung clearance and retention enabling an estimation of the state of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:10368452

Yener, A; Gunaydin, S; Olgunturk, R; Tunaoglu, S; Ozdogan, M E



p-Tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion: preparation, characterization and comparative evaluation of its decontamination efficacy against Technetium-99m, Iodine-131 and Thallium-201.  


This study aimed to develop p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene o/w nanoemulsion for decontamination of radioisotopes from skin. Formulation was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), multi-photon confocal microscopy techniques and in vitro dissolution studies. In vivo evaluation of nano-emulsion was done using nuclear medicine technique. Stability studies and dermal toxicity studies were also carried out. Comparative decontamination efficacy (DE) studies were performed on synthetic human tissue equivalent material and Sprague Dawley rat against three commonly used medical radioisotopes, i.e., Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), Iodine-131 ((131)I) and Thallium-201 ((201)Tl). Decontamination was performed using cotton swabs soaked in nanoemulsion at different time intervals of contaminants exposure. Whole body imaging and static counts were recorded using gamma camera before and after each decontamination attempt data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). DE of the nanoemulsion loaded with p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene was observed to be 88±5%, 90±3% and 89±3% for (99m)Tc, (131)I and (201)Tl respectively. Dermal toxicity studies revealed no significant differences between treated and control animals. Skin histopathology slides with and without API (Active pharmaceutical ingredients) also found to be comparable. p-Tertbutylcalix[4]arene loaded nanoemulsion shows great promise for skin decontamination against broad ranges of radiological contaminants besides being stable and safe. PMID:24632037

Rana, Sudha; Sharma, Navneet; Ojha, Himanshu; Shivkumar, Hosakote Gurumalappa; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar



Indium-111-leukocyte/technetium-99m-MDP bone and magnetic resonance imaging: Difficulty of diagnosing osteomyelitis in patients with neuropathic osteoarthropathy  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen patients (16 sites) with clinical and/or radiographic evidence of neuropathic osteoarthropathy (Charcot joints) were evaluated with combined indium-111-leukocyte ({sup 111}In-WBC) and technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP) bone imaging for suspected osteomyelitis. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in seven patients. Using a positive bone culture as the criterion for the presence of osteomyelitis, there were four true-positive studies, six true-negative sites, and one false-negative {sup 111}In-WBC study. Five of 16 sites (31%) had false-positive {sup 111}In-WBC uptake at noninfected sites. There were four true-positive and three false-positive MR studies. All false-positives showed at least moderately abnormal findings by both techniques at sites of rapidly progressing osteoarthropathy of recent onset. In this preliminary study, both techniques appear to be sensitive for detection of osteomyelitis, and a negative study makes osteomyelitis unlikely. However, the findings of {sup 111}In-WBC/{sup 99m}Tc-MDP and MR images at sites of rapidly progressing, noninfected neuropathic osteoarthropathy may be indistinguishable from those of osteomyelitis.

Seabold, J.E.; Flickinger, F.W.; Kao, S.C.; Gleason, T.J.; Kahn, D.; Nepola, J.V.; Marsh, J.L. (Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City (USA))



Assessment of osteosarcoma response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy: comparative usefulness of dynamic gadolinium-enhanced spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging and technetium-99m skeletal angioscintigraphy.  


The aim of this work was to study and compare the usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced spin-echo MR imaging with high temporal resolution hydroxymethylene diphosphonate technetium-99 m skeletal angioscintigraphy in predicting the osteosarcoma histological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Twelve patients with resectable osteosarcoma were prospectively monitored with dynamic MR imaging and skeletal scintigraphy before start of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, after two cycles of therapy and before surgery. Neoplasm signal intensity and activity intensity were plotted against time, and slopes were calculated for percentage increase over baseline values in the first minute. Stability and increase in slope values during or after chemotherapy were defined as a "radiological non-response". Changes in slopes were compared with the "histological response" (Huvos grading). At midpoint of the chemotherapy, these two imaging modalities failed in predicting final histological response. After the completion of the chemotherapy, these imaging modalities allowed the prediction of histological response with the same accuracy (91 %). In this series, dynamic MR imaging and technetium skeletal scintigraphy provide similar results regarding the prediction of final histological response during neoadjuvant chemotherapy; these results cannot be used to modify the therapeutic protocol at midpoint of chemotherapy; these imaging tools predict accurately the histological response at the end of chemotherapy. These latter results may permit anticipation of the adjuvant chemotherapy strategy during decalcification procedures in resected osteosarcoma and thus to monitor chemotherapy in non-surgical osteosarcoma. PMID:10369989

Ongolo-Zogo, P; Thiesse, P; Sau, J; Desuzinges, C; Blay, J Y; Bonmartin, A; Bochu, M; Philip, T



Hydrated clearance of gadolinium-DTPA as a measurement of glomerular filtration rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrated clearance of gadolinium-DTPA as a measurement of glomerular filtration rate. Technetium (99mTc)-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) hydrated clearance studies are accurate for determining GFR but require special facilities for handling and measuring samples. We investigated the potential of a non-radioactive paramagnetic analog, Gadolinium (Gd)-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), an approved NMR contrast agent, as a glomerular filtration marker. Instead

Peter L Choyke; Howard A Austin; Joseph A Frank; Mary E Girton; Richard L Diggs; Andrew J Dwyer; LaGrieta Miller; Robert Nussenblatt; Henry McFarland; Theodore Simon



Reduced uptake of the proliferation-seeking radiotracer technetium-99m-labelled pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid in a 47-year-old woman with severe breast epithelial hyperplasia taking ibuprofen: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent studies have reported a risk reduction in the progression of benign breast disease to breast carcinoma through COX-2 pathways. Case presentation We present a case of severe epithelial hyperplasia in a 47-year-old woman with increased breast density submitted to scintimammography by the proliferation-imaging tracer Technetium-99m-labelled pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid, before and after an oral ibuprofen treatment for 4 weeks. The radiotracer uptake after ibuprofen intake was significantly reduced, both visually and by semi-quantitative analysis, based on a calculation of lesion-to-background ratios. Conclusion In proliferating breast lesions, scintigraphically displayed reduction in Technetium-99m-labelled pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake may indicate inhibition by ibuprofen in the pathway of malignant epithelial cell transformation.



Technetium-99m generator system  


A {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating {sup 99m}Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of {sup 99m}Tc includes the general steps of: (a) providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; (b) eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute {sup 99m}Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted {sup 99m}Tc on the ion-exchange column; and (c) eluting the concentrated {sup 99m}Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent. 1 fig.

Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Collins, E.D.



Technetium-99m generator system  


A .sup.99 Mo/.sup.99m Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating .sup.99m Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of .sup.99m Tc includes the general steps of: a. providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; b. eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute .sup.99m Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted .sup.99m Tc on the ion-exchange column; and c. eluting the concentrated .sup.99m Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent.

Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Collins, Emory D. (Knoxville, TN)



Assessment of systolic wall thickening using technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile in patients with coronary artery disease: relation to thallium-201 scintigraphy with re-injection.  


The results of resting planar ECG-gated technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) imaging were compared with those of thallium-201 (Tl) re-injection after exercise-redistribution scintigraphy in 20 patients (19 men, 1 woman, mean age 53 +/- 10 years) with angiographically proven coronary artery disease. Eight normal subjects (seven men, one woman, mean age 50 +/- 8 years) constituted the control group. In these subjects, only resting 99mTc-MIBI imaging was performed. The standardized percent count increase from end-diastole to end-systole was calculated as an index of wall thickening in 13 segments for each study. Regional wall thickening index (WTI) and 99mTc-MIBI uptake were significantly different (P < 0.05) among segments classified as normal, reversible defects, irreversible defects with increased tracer uptake after re-injection (Re+) or irreversible defects with unchanged tracer uptake after re-injection (Re-) on Tl imaging. Furthermore, WTI and 99mTc-MIBI uptake were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Re- segments with moderate reduction of Tl uptake (> or = 50% of peak activity) than in Re- segments with severe reduction of Tl uptake (< 50% of peak activity). A significant relationship between WTI and the results of Tl scintigraphy was observed (rho = 0.71, P < 0.0001). The percentage of Re- segments with severe reduction of WTI was significantly higher compared to Re+ segments (64% vs 3%, P < 0.01). Furthermore, compared with moderate Re- segments, a significantly higher percentage of severe Re- segments showed a severe reduction of WTI (86% vs 48%, P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7588938

Nicolai, E; Cuocolo, A; Pace, L; Maurea, S; Nappi, A; Imbriaco, M; Morisco, C; Argenziano, L; Salvatore, M



Effect of a chayotte (Sechium edule) extract on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m: in vitro and in vivo studies.  


Sechium edule (chayotte) is used as food or as medication in popular medicine. The labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m (99mTc) has been altered by drugs (synthetic and natural). Some authors have reported biological effects concerning the chayotte. We have evaluated the influence of chayotte extracts (macerated and infusion) on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. In vitro study, blood was incubated with the extracts, (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100% v/v). In in vivo study, the animals were treated with the extracts (100% v/v), as drinking water (15 and 60 days) and samples of blood were withdrawn. The blood samples were incubated with stannous chloride and with 99mTc. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) separated. There was a (p < 0.05) decrease in the radioactivity in BC, IF-BC and IF-P with the infusion (100%) and a slight decrease in the uptake of 99mTc by BC and a strong decrease in the fixation in IF-P with the macerated when the extracts were administrated in vivo (15 days). In 60 days, there was a decrease in BC (98.77 to 53.53%), in IF-BC (90.36 to 21.20%) and in IF-P (77.20 to 11.01%). In vitro study no alterations on the labeling of blood elements were found, however, we have found alterations on the fixation of 99mTc in the in vivo study, probably, due to the metabolization of chayotte capable to induce the generation of active metabolites. PMID:12619970

Feliciano, Gláucio Diré; Lima, Elaine Alves Correia; Pereira, Mario José dos Santos; de Oliveira, Márcia Betânia Nunes; Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; de Mattos, Deise Mara Machado; Levi Jales, Roberto; Bernardo-Filho, Mario



Comparison of left ventricular function and infarct size in patients with and without persistently positive technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams after myocardial infarction: analysis of 357 patients  

SciTech Connect

One hundred nine patients with persistently positive technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PPi) myocardial scintigrams 6 months after acute myocardial infarction (MI) (Group A) and 185 patients without such persistently positive scintigrams (Group B) were compared with regard to enzymatically determined infarct size, early and late measurements of left ventricular (LV) function determined by radionuclide ventriculography, and preceding clinical course during the 6 months after MI. The CK-MB-determined infarct size index in Group A (17.4 +/- 10.6 g-Eq/m2) did not differ significantly from that in Group B (16.0 +/- 14.6 g-Eq/m2). Similarly, myocardial infarct areas in the 2 groups, determined by planimetry of acute Tc-99m-PPi scintigrams in those patients with well-localized 3+ or 4+ anterior pyrophosphate uptake, were not significantly different (35.7 +/- 13.4 vs 34.4 +/- 13.1 cm2, respectively). However, patients in Group A had significantly lower LV ejection fractions than those in Group B, both within 18 hours of the onset of MI (0.42 +/- 0.14 vs 0.49 +/- 0.14, p less than 0.01) and at 3 months after MI, both at rest (0.42 +/- 0.14 vs 0.51 +/- 0.14, p less than 0.01) and at maximal symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise (0.44 +/- 0.17 vs 0.51 +/- 0.17, p less than 0.01). Peak exercise levels achieved in the 2 groups were not significantly different. Furthermore, patients in Group A demonstrated a greater incidence of congestive heart failure during the initial hospital admission (41 vs 24%; p less than 0.01) and a greater requirement for digoxin (p less than 0.05) and furosemide (p less than 0.01) after discharge.

Croft, C.H.; Rude, R.E.; Lewis, S.E.; Parkey, R.W.; Poole, W.K.; Parker, C.; Fox, N.; Roberts, R.; Strauss, H.W.; Thomas, L.J.



Technetium-99m-labeled white blood cells: a new method to define the local and systemic role of leukocytes in acute experimental pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: We developed a new method to quantitate leukocyte accumulation in tissues and used it to examine the time course and severity of acute experimental pancreatitis. BACKGROUND: Leukocyte activation and infiltration are believed to be critical steps in the progression from mild to severe pancreatitis and responsible for many of its systemic complications. METHODS: Pancreatitis of graded severity was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with a combination of caerulein and controlled intraductal infusion. Technetium-99m (99mTc)-labeled leukocytes were quantified in pancreas, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney and compared with myeloperoxidase activity. The severity of pancreatitis was ascertained by wet/dry weight ratio, plasma amylase, and trypsinogen activation peptide in the pancreas. The time course of leukocyte accumulation was determined over 24 hours. RESULTS: Pancreatic leukocyte infiltration correlated well with tissue myeloperoxidase concentrations. In mild pancreatitis, leukocytes accumulated only in the pancreas. Moderate and severe pancreatitis were characterized by much greater leukocyte infiltration in the pancreas than in mild disease (p < 0.01), and increased 99mTc radioactivity was detectable in the lung as early as 3 hours. 99mTc radioactivity correlated directly with the three levels of pancreatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Mild pancreatitis is characterized by low-level leukocyte activation and accumulation in the pancreas without recruitment of other organs; marked leukocyte accumulation was found in the pancreas and in the lung in more severe grades of pancreatitis. These findings provide a basis for the pathophysiologic production of cytokines and oxygen free radicals, which potentiate organ injury in severe pancreatitis. This study validates a new tool to study local and systemic effects of leukocytes in pancreatitis as well as new therapeutic hypotheses.

Werner, J; Dragotakes, S C; Fernandez-del Castillo, C; Rivera, J A; Ou, J; Rattner, D W; Fischman, A J; Warshaw, A L



A novel clinical indicator using cardiac technetium-99m sestamibi kinetics for evaluating cardiotoxicity in cancer patients treated with multiagent chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background: Multiagent chemotherapy (MCT) has mitochondrial targets. Since technetium-99m-sestamibi (MIBI) is a marker of mitochondrial metabolism, cardiac MIBI uptake and MIBI washout rate (%WR) may detect MCT-induced cardiotoxicity. Methods: In 16 cancer patients on MCT for 10 months and in 14 non-cancer controls, cardiac MIBI uptake between early (30 min) and delayed (3 hours) post-injection planar images was measured as counts per pixel (cpp). The MIBI cardiac %WR was also measured. Results: When MCT patients and controls were compared, early and cardiac delayed MIBI uptake were greater in MCT patients (45 ± 12 cpp vs. 30 ± 4 cpp; p <0.04) and (30 ± 8 cpp vs. 25 ± 2 cpp; p < 0.02), but % WR did not change (12 ± 4% vs. 13 ± 3%; p = ns). However, in the MCT patients, the MIBI cardiac %WR was more rapid because it was obtained at the same time as in the control patients but from a greater amount of MIBI cardiac uptake. On 36-months follow-up, only MCT patients died of cardiac death. Overall survival risk parameters, only delayed cardiac MIBI uptake (Odds ratio = 1.7, p<0.001) and early cardiac MIBI uptake (Odds ratio = 1.2, p<0.02) were found to be significantly associated with cardiac mortality. Conclusions: In experimental studies, anticancer drugs elicit mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization with passive cardiac MIBI uptake. In MCT patients, the increased cardiac MIBI uptake and rapid %WR compared with controls may reflect mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, pre-clinical cardiotoxicity and thus poor prognosis.

Carboni, Gian Piero



Comparison of SPECT using technetium-99m agents and thallium-201 and PET for the assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the applications of tomographic imaging with current and new tracers in assessing myocardial perfusion and viability. Multiple studies with thallium-201 (TI-201) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) have demonstrated high sensitivity, high rates of normalcy and high reproducibility. In assessing viability, fixed defects are frequently detected in viable zones in 4-hour studies with TI-201 imaging. Redistribution imaging performed 18 to 72 hours after injection or reinjection of TI-201 before 4-hour redistribution imaging has been shown to improve accuracy of viability assessment. TI-201 SPECT studies are limited by the suboptimal physical properties of TI-201, which result in variable image quality. The 2 new technetium-99m (Tc-99m) - labeled myocardial perfusion tracers offer the ability to inject much higher amounts of radioactivity, making it possible to assess ventricular function as well as myocardial perfusion from the same injection of radiotracer. Tc-99m sestamibi has very slow myocardial clearance, which allows for prolonged imaging time and results in image quality superior to that obtained with TI-201 and Tc-99m teboroxime. The combination of minimal redistribution of Tc-99m sestamibi and high count rates makes gated SPECT imaging feasible, and also permits assessment of patients with acute ischemic syndromes by uncoupling the time of injection from the time of imaging. The combination of high image quality and first-pass exercise capabilities may lead to a choice of this agent over TI-201 for assessment of chronic CAD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Van Train, K.F.; Friedman, J.; Garcia, E.V.; Maddahi, J. (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles CA (USA))



Usefulness of technetium-99m-MIBI and thallium-201 in tomographic imaging combined with high-dose dipyridamole and handgrip exercise for detecting coronary artery disease  

SciTech Connect

Forty-two patients with known stable coronary artery disease, referred for coronary angiography, were examined with technetium-99m-hexakis-2-methoxy-2-methylpropyl-isonitrile (MIBI) tomography combined with a high-dose dipyridamole infusion (0.7 mg/kg) and handgrip stress. MIBI tomography was unable to show coronary artery disease only in 2 patients, thus yielding a sensitivity figure of 95%. MIBI tomography correctly identified 27 (82%) of 33 stenotic lesions (greater than or equal to 50% diameter stenosis) of the left anterior descending artery, 17 (61%) of 28 of those of the left circumflex artery, and 28 (90%) of 31 of those of the right coronary artery. The overall vessel sensitivity was 78%. The computed lumen diameter stenoses were more advanced in cases detected than in those not detected with MIBI tomography: 87 {plus minus} 14 vs 76 {plus minus} 14% (p less than 0.01). The 50 to 69% stenoses did not show any tendency to produce less positive findings than those with greater than or equal to 70% stenoses. In the subgroup of 21 patients who also presented for thallium scintigraphy, the overall diseased vessel identification rate was 76% for thallium tomography and 83% for MIBI tomography (p = not significant). Minor noncardiac side effects related to the dipyridamole-handgrip test occurred only in 5% of 63 study sessions. A high-dose dipyridamole combined with isometric exercise is a safe stress method, and when used during scintigraphy, MIBI tomography is at least as efficient a tool as thallium tomography in detecting diseased vessel territories in patients in coronary artery disease.

Kettunen, R.; Huikuri, H.V.; Heikkilae, J.T.; Takkunen, J.T. (Department of Internal Medicine, Oulu University Central Hospital (Finland))



Technetium-99m nitrido dithiocarbamate complex with lateral ester groups: A potential agent for cerebral perfusion. Direct labeling and kinetic results in baboons  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that technetium-99m-nitrido (TcN) complexes of ester derivatives of dithiocarbamate cross the brain-blood barrier and one term of this class, namely the complex formed with sarcosine methyl ester dithiocarbamate (TcN-PR13) is retained in the brain of Cynomolgus monkeys. However these compounds were obtained through an in situ esterification of preformed TcN dicarboxylic derivative. We have been able to synthesize one term of this class of ligands, the sarcosine methylester dithiocarbamate, by reacting sarcosine with thionyl chloride in methanol to give the sarcosine methyl ester, which was reacted with carbon disulfide and NaOH in methanol to give the sodium salt of the dithiocarbamate derivative which was isolated as an oil. The corresponding TcN complex was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 96% by a kit method. The complex was injected in baboons and its radioactive distribution compared to that obtained with Tc-HMPAO. Blood and plasma kinetics were calculated from arterial sampling whereas tissue kinetics (brain, lungs) were obtained by ROI`s analysis. The values of the half-life in the blood were comparable for the two tracers, although the absolute activity was about 20% lower for TcN-PR13. The brain uptake of TcN-PR13 was 10% lower than that observed for Tc-HMPAO, and remained stable during 2 hours. TcN-PR13 displayed lower lung uptake and faster clearance from this organ than Tc-HMPAO. Brain/Lung ratios were 1.11 and 1.65 at 30 and 60 min for TcN-PR13 compared to 0.93 and 0.99 at the same time for Tc-HMPAO.

Bottlaender, M.; Bourguignon, M.; Maziere, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot CEA Orsay, Yvette (France)] [and others



The Relationship Between Technetium-99m-Methoxyisobutyl Isonitrile Parathyroid Scintigraphy and Hormonal and Biochemical Markers in Suspicion of Primary Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Objective: Technetium-99m-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI) has been widely used to evaluate hyperfunctioning autonomous parathyroid glands in patients with elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and/or calcium (Ca) level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy and hormonal and biochemical markers in suspicion of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Material and Methods: Dual-phase Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy and total serum iPTH, Ca, phosphorus (P) and albumin measurements were performed in 60 patients (52 females, 8 males; mean age, 59.38±12.51 years; range, 34 to 86 years) with suspicion of PHPT. Results: The iPTH median level was 160.3 pg/mL (47.8 to 782.6). Thirty-five of the patients had surgical resection of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands. Of the 35 patients, parathyroid gland pathology was detected in 30 patients using scintigraphic examination. Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy was negative in 30 patients. The iPTH, Ca and P levels were significantly different between in the Tc-99m MIBI positive group and the negative group, respectively: For iPTH, 202.1 (47.8-782.6) pg/mL versus 111.6 (80.1-373) pg/mL; p<0.001. For Ca, 11.7±1.15 mg/dL versus 10.3±1.05 mg/dL; p<0.001 and for P levels, 2.46±0.62 mg/dL versus 3.40±0.70 mg/dL; p<0.001). There was no significant difference in serum albumin levels between the MIBI positive and MIBI negative groups (4.25±0.27 g/dL versus 4.25±0.41 g/dL; p>0.05). Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy showed good correlation with iPTH level and histopathological diagnosis. Sensitivity and specificity was found 83.3% and 76.7%, respectively at the level of iPTH>147.7pg/mL. Conclusion: Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy is most likely to produce identification and localization of a parathyroid adenoma when both iPTH and Ca are elevated as well as decreased P levels. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Silov, Guler; Ozdal, Aysegul; Erdogan, Zeynep; Turhal, Ozgul; Karaman, Hatice



Assessment of myocardial area at risk by technetium-99m sestamibi during coronary artery occlusion: comparison between three tomographic methods of quantification.  


The aim of this study was to directly compare three currently used quantitative methods of analysis of technetium-99m sestamibi images in patients with selective balloon-induced transmural ischaemia. The area at risk (AR) was assessed in 19 patients undergoing single-vessel percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty by injecting the 99mTc-sestamibi at the time of coronary artery occlusion during balloon inflation. After imaging, the patients were classified according to localization of the perfusion defect as having anteroseptal (group I, 11 patients) or posterolateral defects (group II, eight patients). The planimetric technique based on polar maps, proposed by Verani et al. (J Am Coll Cardiol, 1988) (method A), the method described by Tamaki et al. (Circulation, 1982) (method B) and the technique validated by O Connor et al. (Eur J Nucl Med, 1990) (method C) were tested. Three threshold values of 45%, 50% and 60% of the maximum left ventricular count were used to define the limits of the perfusion defect. The mean values of the AR calculated by the three techniques with the original cut-off level (method A=16.5%+/-12.9; method B=10.4%+/-7.6%; method C=29.6%+/-15.7%) were statistically different (one-way analysis of variance: P<0.001; paired t test: method A vs B, P=0.003; method B vs C and method A vs C, P<0.0001). There was no significant difference between the mean values of the AR estimated by the three methods using the same cut-off levels. The use of 60% of the maximum left ventricular count provided the best correlation between the techniques (method A vs B, r=0.95; method B vs C, r=0.92; method A vs C, r=0.95). Nevertheless, a difference >10% between the values of AR assessed by the three methods was found in four subjects. There was no significant difference between the three methods in the evaluation of AR in the subjects of group I and group II. Reproducibility was good for all methods. It is concluded that the three methods of analysis of the AR by 99mTc-sestamibi SPET imaging showed comparable performance and good reproducibility using the same cut-off level. The location of perfusion defect does not affect the comparability of the three techniques. We suggest the use of a cut-off level of 60% for all three methods in the assessment of the AR by 99mTc-sestamibi SPET imaging. PMID:8586099

Ceriani, L; Verna, E; Giovanella, L; Bianchi, L; Roncari, G; Tarolo, G L



Assessment of whole body MRI and sestamibi technetium-99m bone marrow scan in prediction of multiple myeloma disease progression and outcome: a prospective comparative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aims primarily to determine whether whole body MRI (WB-MRI) and Sestamibi Technetium-99m-bone marrow (MIBI) scans in the same patients produce the same estimate of disease load and location, and secondly, to study possible association between the bone disease detected by these scans and the effect on disease outcome and survival. Bone disease occurs in about 90% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. There are no data comparing the new diagnostic modalities with WB-MRI and MIBI in MM. Design A prospective comparative study between WB-MRI and MIBI scans in assessing bone disease and outcome of MM. Participants and methods Sixty-two consecutive patients with confirmed MM underwent simultaneous WB-MRI (both axial T1 and turbo spin echo short tau inversion recovery (STIR)) and MIBI scans at a single institution from January 2010 to January 2011, and their survival status was determined in January 2012. The median age was 62?years (range 37–88) with a male-to-female ratio of 33?:?29. Results In vertebrae and long bones, MRI scan detected more disease compared with MIBI scan (p<0.001) but there was less difference in the skull (p=0.09). In the ribcage, the MIBI scan detected more lytic lesions of the ribs compared with MRI scan (p<0.001). Thirteen of the 62 patients died during the 24-month follow-up. Increased disease detected in all bones by both scans was associated with increased mortality risk (MIBI p=0.001; MRI-STIR p=0.044; but not MRI-T1 p=0.44). In all combined bone groups, the mean MIBI scan results provided a better prediction of mortality than MRI scan over the follow-up period (MRI-T1 vs MIBI p=0.019; MRI-STIR vs MIBI p=0.047). Conclusions Although WB-MRI detected more MM bone disease, MIBI scan predicted overall disease outcome and mortality better than MRI scan. Further studies to define optimum use of these imaging techniques are warranted. Trial registration number The study was registered prospectively in the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at under No: ACTRN12609000761268.

Khalafallah, Alhossain A; Snarski, Andrew; Heng, Robert; Hughes, Ryan; Renu, Shamsunnaher; Arm, Jameen; Dutchke, Richard; Robertson, Iain K; To, Luen B



Binding and diffusion characteristics of 14C EDTA and 99mTc DTPA in respiratory tract mucus glycoprotein from patients with chronic bronchitis.  

PubMed Central

Measurement of pulmonary clearance of an inhaled aerosol of technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (DTPA) by external detection methods has been used widely as an index of permeability across alveolar epithelium and bronchial mucosa. To determine the applicability of the tracer to measurement of permeability in the airways the diffusion and binding characteristics of 99mTc DTPA and the chemically related ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid labelled with carbon-14 (14C EDTA) was studied in purified respiratory tract mucus glycoprotein from patients with chronic bronchitis. The diffusion coefficients for 99mTc DTPA and 14C EDTA through mucus gels were significantly lower than those for tritiated water. Both molecules bound to the mucus gels with high affinity at two independent low capacity sites. Appreciable amounts of 99mTc DTPA or 14C EDTA are therefore unlikely to cross mucus layers of physiological thickness over periods of four or five hours. This suggests that when pulmonary clearance is determined by the 99mTc DTPA method the tracer retained in mucus lined airways will provide background activity. This study supports the assumption that pulmonary clearance measurements are mainly measuring alveolar epithelial permeability and should not be used to study bronchial epithelial permeability.

Cheema, M S; Groth, S; Marriott, C



Functional imaging in schizencephaly using [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO-SPECT).  


We analyzed interictal [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FGD-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO-SPECT) in a 23-year-old female with schizencephaly. She had epilepsy and mild left hemiparesis, but was otherwise developmentally normal. We found the glucose metabolism and perfusion of the wall of the schizencephalic cleft to be identical to those of normal cerebral cortex. The wall of the transcerebral clefts, which were observed to be lined by abnormally organized gray matter as a result of a migration disorder, demonstrated gray matter metabolic activity and perfusion. FDG-PET and HMPAO-SPECT were thus found to be a useful complement to magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating schizencephaly. PMID:10547006

Morioka, T; Nishio, S; Sasaki, M; Yoshida, T; Kuwabara, Y; Nagamatsu, T; Fukui, M



Use of technetium-99m isonitrile (RP-30A) in assessing left ventricular perfusion and function at rest and during exercise in coronary artery disease, and comparison with coronary arteriography and exercise thallium-201 SPECT imaging  

SciTech Connect

This study compared the results of stress and rest single-photon emission computed tomography imaging of myocardial perfusion using technetium-99m isonitrile (RP-30A) with the results of stress and redistribution tomographic thallium imaging and the results of coronary arteriography in 39 patients, 11 without and 28 with coronary artery disease (CAD). Each patient underwent 2 exercise studies at identical workload, heart rate and double product. In a subset of 13 patients, concomitant evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function using first-pass radionuclide angiography with a multi-crystal camera also was performed with bolus injections of isonitrile. Isonitrile had similar sensitivity (82 vs 82%, difference not significant), a slightly--but not significantly--higher specificity (100 vs 82%) and similar predictive accuracy (87 vs 82%) to thallium-201. The tracer uptake was assessed in 20 segments/study. There was concordance between the isonitrile and thallium-201 images in 723 of the 780 segments (93%) (kappa = 0.83 +/- 0.02). In general, the isonitrile images were considered of better quality than the thallium-201 images. All 10 patients with CAD who underwent concomitant first-pass radionuclide angiography had either perfusion abnormalities or an abnormal ejection fraction response to exercise. Thus, technetium-99m isonitrile provides a reliable method of assessment of CAD with a sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy comparable to that of exercise thallium-201 imaging. Additional advantages include better image quality and the ability to obtain concomitant assessment of LV function with the use of first-pass radionuclide angiography.

Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Kong, B.; Lyons, E.; Marsch, S. (Philadelphia Heart Institute, PA (USA))



Comparison between exercise and trans-oesophageal atrial pacing in patients with coronary artery disease: technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile simultaneous evaluation of ventricular function and myocardial perfusion.  


In this study we compared the results of exercise and trans-oesophageal atrial pacing (TAP) technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-SESTAMIBI) cardiac imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function and myocardial perfusion in patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease. Ten patients (8 men and 2 women, mean age 59 +/- 6 years) were submitted to 3 separate injections of 99mTc-SESTAMIBI, one under control conditions, one after exercise and one after TAP. LV ejection fraction, as measured by electrocardiogram (ECG) gated first pass, decreased from 49 +/- 5% under control conditions to 42 +/- 6% during exercise (P less than 0.05 versus control) and to 43 +/- 8% during TAP (P less than 0.05 versus control and insignificant change versus exercise). Segmental myocardial perfusion analysis was performed on a total of 150 myocardial segments. On both exercise and TAP 99mTc-SESTAMIBI studies, 103 segments (69% of the total) were normal, 32 (21%) had reversible, and 15 (10%) irreversible, perfusion defects. Relative regional tracer uptake was not statistically different between exercise and TAP in normal regions (91.1 +/- 9.1% versus 90.7 +/- 8.5%, respectively), in regions with reversible (61.9 +/- 12% versus 62.4 +/- 10.4%, respectively) and irreversible perfusion defects (55.8 +/- 7.8% versus 58.8 +/- 9.5%, respectively). Our results demonstrated that 99mTc-SESTAMIBI TAP cardiac imaging shows similar results to 99mTc-SESTAMIBI exercise myocardial scintigraphy in the assessment of LV function and myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:1532937

Cuocolo, A; Santomauro, M; Pace, L; Celentano, L; Nappi, A; Nicolai, E; Chiariello, M; Salvatore, M



Effect of an extract of cauliflower (leaf) on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m and on the survival of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to the treatment with stannous chloride.  


The labeling of red blood cells (RBC) with technetium-99m (99mTc) depends on a reducing agent and stannous chloride (SnCl(2)) and is widely utilized. This labeling may also be altered by drugs, and SnCl(2) reduces the survival of Escherichia coli cultures. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) is used in folk medicine and we evaluated its influence on (i) the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc, and (ii) on the survival of an E. coli strain. Blood was withdrawn from rats that drank the extract of cauliflower (15 days). Blood was incubated with SnCl(2) and with 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate, centrifuged and plasma (P) and RBC were isolated. Samples of P and RBC were also precipitated, centrifuged and soluble and insoluble fractions isolated. E. coli culture was treated with SnCl(2) in the presence of cauliflower. The extract of cauliflower did not alter the fixation of 99mTc on blood fractions; however, it abolished the lethal effect of SnCl(2) on the E. coli culture. We suggest that the substances present in the extract of cauliflower probably, would have redox property with different mechanisms of action. The oxidant action of the substances of the extract would not be strong enough to oxidise the stannous ions altering the 99mTc-labeling. However, the referred substances could oxidise these ions sufficiently to protect the E. coli culture against the lethal effect of the stannous ion. PMID:12065213

Lima, E A C; Diré, G; Mattos, D M M; Freitas, R S; Gomes, M L; de Oliveira, M B N; Faria, M V C; Jales, R L; Bernardo-Filho, M



Comparing whole body 18F-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methylene diophosphate bone scan to detect bone metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.  


Despite advances in morphological imaging, some patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are found to have non-resectable disease at surgery or die of recurrence within a year of surgery. At present, metastatic bone involvement is usually assessed using conventional technetium-99m methylene diophosphate (Tc-99m MDP) whole body bone scan (bone scan), which has a high sensitivity but a poor specificity. We have attempted to evaluate the usefulness of whole body positron emission tomography with 18F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET) for the detection of malignant bone metastases of NSCLC, and to compare FDG-PET results with Bone Scan findings. Forty-eight patients with biopsy-proven NSCLC and suspected to have stage IV disease underwent whole body bone scan and FDG-PET to detect bone metastases. The final diagnoses of bone metastases were established by operative, histopathological findings or clinical follow-up longer than 1 year by additional radiographs or following FDG-PET/Tc-99m MDP bone scan findings showing progressively and extensively widespread bone lesions. A total of 138 bone lesions found on either FDG-PET or Tc-99m MDP bone scan were evaluated. Among the 106 metastatic and 32 benign bone lesions, FDG-PET and Tc-99m MDP bone scan could accurately diagnose 99 and 98, as well as 30 and 2 metastatic and benign bone lesions, respectively. Diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy of FDG-PET and Tc-99m MDP bone scan were 93.4% and 92.5%, as well as 93.5% and 72.5%, respectively. In conclusion, our data suggest that FDG-PET with the same sensitivity and a better accuracy than those of Tc-99m MDP bone scan to detect metastatic bone lesions in patients with biopsy-proven NSCLC and suspected to have stage IV disease. PMID:12382027

Hsia, T C; Shen, Y Y; Yen, R F; Kao, C H; Changlai, S P



Clinical value of technetium-99m-labeled octreotide scintigraphy in local recurrent or metastatic medullary thyroid cancers: a comparison of lesions with 18F-FDG-PET and MIBI images  

PubMed Central

Aim Various studies have been conducted for determining the most optimal method for the early diagnosis of local recurrent or distant metastatic thyroid cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labeled octreotide derivatives in the detection of recurrence or distant metastases in medullary thyroid cancer patients and to compare the lesions with those detected using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-PET and Tc-99m MIBI studies in the same patient group. Patients and methods Sixteen medullary thyroid cancer patients [two male and 14 female; mean age 52.0±14.1 years (range 13–72 years)] were included in this study. All patients underwent a whole-body scan 1 and 4 h after injection with octreotide derivatives and single photon emission computed tomography images were taken of the sites suspicious for metastasis. The lesions seen in Tc-99m HYNIC octreotide studies were compared with those seen in 18F-FDG-PET and Tc-99m MIBI studies. Results Among the Tc-99m-labeled octreotide scintigraphy studies, nine were evaluated as true positive (56.2%) and one was evaluated as false positive (6.2%); six were false negative (37.5%). In 16 patients, the total number of lesions seen on octreotide scintigraphy was 21. Thirteen of the 16 patients underwent 18F-FDG-PET imaging. Of the 13 patients studied, 10 showed true-positive (76.9%) and three showed false-negative (23.1%) results. The total number of lesions seen on 18F-FDG-PET was 23. The Tc-99m MIBI study yielded positive results in seven of 16 patients (43.7%) and negative results in nine patients (56.3%). The total number of lesions on Tc-99m MIBI was 12. Conclusion The Tc-99m-labeled somatostatin receptor scintigraphy analogs HYNIC-tyrosine octreotide and HYNIC-TATE are useful imaging alternatives in somatostatin receptor-expressing thyroid cancers. Radiolabeling using these analogs is easy and they are readily available for routine use.

Kabasakal, Levent; Ocak, Meltem; Maecke, Helmut; Uslu, Lebriz; Halac, Metin; Asa, Sertac; Sager, Gunes; Onsel, Cetin; Kanmaz, Bedii



Feasibility of aerosol drug delivery to sleeping infants: a prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Delivery of inhaled medications to infants is usually very demanding and is often associated with crying and mask rejection. It has been suggested that aerosol administration during sleep may be an attractive alternative. Previous studies in sleeping children were disappointing as most of the children awoke and rejected the treatment. The SootherMask (SM) is a new, gentle and innovative approach for delivering inhaled medication to infants and toddlers. The present pilot study describes the feasibility of administering inhaled medications during sleep using the SM. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Out patients. Participants 13 sleeping infants with recurrent wheezing who regularly used pacifiers and were <12?months old. Intervention Participants inhaled technetium99mDTPA-labelled normal saline aerosol delivered via a Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) (Boehringer-Ingelheim, Germany) and SM + InspiraChamber (IC; InspiRx Inc, New Jersey, USA). Outcomes The two major outcomes were the acceptability of the treatment and the lung deposition (per cent of emitted dose). Results All infants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria successfully received the SM treatment during sleep without difficulty. Mean lung deposition (±SD) averaged 1.6±0.5% in the right lung. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the combination of Respimat, IC and SM was able to administer aerosol therapy to all the sleeping infants who were regular pacifier users with good lung deposition. Administration of aerosols during sleep is advantageous since all the sleeping children accepted the mask and ensuing aerosol therapy under these conditions, in contrast to previous studies in which there was frequent mask rejection using currently available devices. Clinical Trial Registry NCT01120938.

Amirav, Israel; Newhouse, Michael T; Luder, Anthony; Halamish, Asaf; Omar, Hamza; Gorenberg, Miguel



Influence of early (F+0) intravenous furosemide injection on the split renal function using 99mTc-DTPA renography.  


In busy nuclear medicine departments, the F+0 protocol for diuretic renography is routinely used to shorten the acquisition time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the F+0 protocol on the split renal function (SRF) during a dynamic renal scan using technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) compared with that using the standard technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-DMSA). A total of 102 patients referred for a dynamic renal scan for varied etiologies were divided into two groups: the F+0 group, comprising 53 patients who were injected with furosemide just before Tc-DTPA injection, and the F+10 group, comprising 49 patients who were injected with the diuretic at the 10th minute after radiotracer injection. All patients were also subjected to a static cortical Tc-DMSA scan with geometric quantification of SRF. A highly significant statistical difference (P<0.001) was obtained on comparing the mean value of the difference in SRF calculated using DTPA and DMSA between the F+0 and F+10 groups, being 5.0±2.6 and 1.5±0.6%, respectively. All 49 patients in the F+10 group had a difference in split function of 5% or less, whereas 17/53 patients representing 32.1% of the F+0 group had a difference in SRF of greater than 5%. Early (F+0) furosemide injection before administration of Tc-DTPA has a significant influence on the estimation of SRF of the diseased kidney (either obstructed or functionally impaired) when compared with furosemide injection after standard Tc-DMSA administration. Care should be taken during interpretation of the scan findings when accurate split function is required. PMID:23376860

Kandeel, Ahmed A; Elhossainy, Salwa A; Elsayed, Nahla D



Axillary lymph node uptake of technetium-99m-MDP  

SciTech Connect

We sought to determine the frequency and significance of axillary lymph node visualization on bone scans performed with diphosphonates. Consecutive {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP) bone scans (2435) were inspected for axillary soft-tissue uptake. In positive cases, the results of physical examination, correlative imaging studies and serial bone scans were recorded, as was the site of venipuncture. Forty-eight studies (2%) showed axillary uptake ipsilateral to the injection site. Extravasation of tracer, documented by focal activity near the injection site, was present in every case. There was no association with axillary adenopathy, mass, induration of radiographically visible calcification. On some images, foci adjacent to the axilla were superimposed on the rib, scapula, or humerus. The bone-to-background ratio was frequently reduced; repeat imaging after 1-2 hr usually improved osseous detail. Ipsilateral axillary lymph node visualization due to extravasation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP is frequently associated with additional foci superimposed on osseous structures simulating pathology. Delayed skeletal uptake is common in such cases and necessitates a greater time interval between injection and imaging. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Ongseng, F.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Finestone, H. [Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)



Technetium-99m biliary imaging in pediatric surgical problems  

SciTech Connect

The results of scintigraphic imaging of the hepatobiliary system with 99mTc-PIPIDA (IDA derivative p-isopropylacetanilidoiminodiacetic acid) in forty children are reported. 99mTc-PIPIDA imaging is a noninvasive, rapid, safe examination that provides both functional and anatomical information about the hepatobiliary system. Although interpretation is limited by elevated direct serum bilirubin, this agent allows diagnostic information to be obtained with direct serum bilirubin levels up to 8 mg/dl.

Sty, J.R.; Glicklich, M.; Babbitt, D.P.; Starshak, R.J.



Colonic varices demonstrated by technetium-99m red cell scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Colonic varices is a rare condition, generally associated with portal hypertension, which normally presents as acute, severe, gastrointestinal blood loss. A case is presented in which the varicosities were observed serendipitously in a patient with a pancreatic tumor, in whom the bleeding was not variceal but due to two small unrelated gastric hemangiomas. The literature is reviewed and scintigraphic features described.

Brill, D.R.



Evaluation of whiplash injuries by technetium 99m isotope scanning.  

PubMed Central

Despite the frequency with which whiplash injuries present to accident and emergency (A&E) departments, there lacks an objective investigation to define the severity of the initial injury or the morbidity that may ensue. Following reports on the effectiveness of isotope bone scanning for soft tissue and ligament injuries a study was undertaken of isotope scanning of whiplash injuries. The objectives of the study were to isolate the anatomic site of the injury and to quantify the severity of the injury with relation to the concentration of isotope uptake and subsequent morbidity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Barton, D; Allen, M; Finlay, D; Belton, I



Zirconium Molybdate Gel as a Generator for Technetium-99M.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new sup(99m)Tc generator based on zirconium molybdate gel is described. Essentially the gel is a cation ion exchanger which permits the elution of the pertechnetate ion. The high molybdenum content of this gel, its stability under self-irradiation, and ...

J. V. Evans M. E. Shying



Technetium 99m scan in acute scrotal lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrotal scintigraphy is nearly 100 per cent accurate in identifying testicular torsion and can distinguish that condition, which requires an operation, from torsion of testicular appendages, which often can be treated nonoperatively. The technique is 90 per cent accurate in distinguishing epididymo-orchitis, epididymitis, and testicular abscess and is valuable in the follow-up of testicular torsion or inflammation. It can screen

Majid Eshghi; Lawrence Silver; Arthur D. Smith



Stimulated salivary clearance of technetium-99m pertechnetate  

SciTech Connect

A method to determine stimulated salivary clearance of pertechnetate is presented. It is easy to perform and separates normal patients (range 15.0 to 40.3 ml/min) from patients with known salivary disorders (range 1.2 to 10.6 ml/min).

Blue, P.W.; Jackson, J.H.



Adverse allergic reaction to Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate  

SciTech Connect

Adverse allergic reactions to radiopharmaceuticals are rare but have been documented in the literature. This report presents data consistent with a definite adverse reaction to the radiopharmaceutical (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP.

Spicer, J.A.; Preston, D.F.; Stephens, R.L.



Technetium-99m MDP vs technetium-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate. A clinical comparison in various pathologic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The performance of Tc-99m MDP vs Tc-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) was evaluated in 20 patients with various skeletal bone diseases. Each patient was investigated twice, with an interval of three days between studies and using the same protocol, hence each case served as its own control. The results were: In a subjective interpretation by five independent and experienced investigators, the difference between agents was small, yet in favor of MDP. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the pooled results in 74.4% of all cases shows a higher bone lesion to normal bone ratio (BL/NB), and in 79.3% of all cases, a better bone lesion to soft tissue ratio (BL/ST) with Tc-99m MDP. When considering pathology types separately, the BL/NB ratio of Tc-99m MDP was 17.7% higher than the one of Tc-99m DPD in metastases, 9.5% higher in rheumatoid arthritis, 2.8% higher in metabolic diseases, and 24% higher in bone fractures. Student's paired t test on the pooled BL/NB ratios shows a difference of 15.5% for Tc-99m MDP, significant at P = 0.00155. The overall results of our study favor Tc-99m MDP.

Godart, G.; Durez, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Abramovici, J.; Robience, Y.



Synthesis of a novel antiestrogen radioligand (99mTc-TOR-DTPA).  


This study was aimed at developing a hydrophilic radioligand as an antiestrogen drug derivative to be used for imaging breast tumors. Toremifene [TOR; 4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-1-(4-(2-(N,N-di-methylamino)ethoxy)phenyl)-1-butene, as citrate salt] was selected as the starting material to be derived, since it has been used extensively as an antiestrogen drug for treatment and prevention of human breast cancer. An antiestrogen drug derivative, TOR attached to diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), was synthesized by two experimental treatments, including a purification and a reaction step. We described the synthesis of this TOR derivative, (3Z)-4-{4-[2-(dimethylamino) ethoxy] phenyl}-3,4-diphenylbut-3-en-1-ylN,N-bis[2-(2,6-dioxomorpholin-4-yl)ethyl]glycinate (TOR-DTPA), in detail. Mass spectroscopy confirmed the expected structures. TOR-DTPA was labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), using stannous chloride (SnCl(2)) as the reducing agent. Biodistribution studies were performed on female Albino Wistar rats. Quality controls, radiochemical yield, and stability studies were done utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography, radioelectrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography, and thin-layer radiochromatography methods. The synthesized compound was found to be hydrophilic and anionic, with high stability for the duration of the testing period in vitro. The results indicated that the radiolabeled compound has estrogen-receptor specificity, especially for the breast tissue. It is highly possible that this compound could be used for imaging breast tumors as a novel technetium-labeled hydrophilic estrogen derivative radioligand. PMID:20025551

Yurt, Ayfer; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut B; Unak, Perihan; Yolcular, Seniha; Acar, Cigdem; Enginar, Huseyin



Comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO and technetium-99m-ECD cerebral SPECT images in Alzheimer`s disease  

SciTech Connect

SPECT has shown increasing promise as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer`s disease (AD). Recently, a new SPECT brain perfusion agent, {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) has emerged with purported advantages in image quality over the established tracer, {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in discriminating patients with AD form control subjects. 51 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Dyck, C.H. van; Lin, C.H.; Smith, E.O. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others



Diffuse lung uptake of technetium-99m tin colloid in heat stroke. Case report  

SciTech Connect

Diffuse lung uptake of Tc-99m tin colloid during liver scanning was found in a patient with heat stroke. Slightly increased splenic uptake was present, but bone marrow uptake was not. A repeat liver scan seven days after the initial scan showed no lung uptake.

Tonami, N.; Taki, J.; Hisada, K.; Katsuki, K.



Bis(dithiocarbamato) nitrido technetium-99m radidpharmaceuticals: A class of neutral myocardial imaging agents  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis and biodistribution in various animal models (rat, dog, pig and monkey) of {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals containing the Tc=N multiple bond are reported. The complexes are represented by the general formula {sup 99m}TcN(L){sub 2}, where L is the monoanionic form of a dithiocarbamate ligand of the type [R{sup 1}R{sup 2}-N-C(=S)S]{sup {minus}}, and R{sup 1} and R{sup 2} are variable, lateral groups. The preparations were carried out, both as a liquid and freeze-dried formulation, through a simple procedure involving the initial reaction of [{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}]{sup {minus}} with S-methyl N-methyl dithiocarbazate [H{sub 2}NN(CH{sub 3})C(=S)SCH{sub 3}], in the presence of tertiary phosphines or Sn{sup 2+} ion as reductants, followed by the addition of the sodium salt of the ligand (NaL) to afford the final product. The chemical identity of the resulting complexes was determined by comparing their chromatographic properties with those of the corresponding {sup 99}Tc analogs characterized by spectroscopic and x-ray crystallographic methods. The complexes are neutral and possess a distorted, square pyramidal geometry. No decomposition of the complexes, in physiological solution, was observed over a period of 6 hr. Imaging and biodistribution studies demonstrated that these radiopharmaceuticals localize selectively in the myocardium of rats, dogs and primates, but that they failed to visualize the pig heart. The kinetics of heart uptake and clearance were studied in rats and dogs, and found to be strongly influenced by variation of the lateral R{sup 1} and R{sup 2} groups. The high quality of myocardial images obtained in dogs and monkeys demonstrates that the derivative {sup 99m}TcN[E-t(EtO)NCS{sub 2}]{sub 2} [{sup 22m}N(NOEt)] exhibits the most favorable distribution properties for further studies in humans. 20 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Pasqualini, R.; Duatti, A.; Bellande, E. [Universita di Bologna (Italy)] [and others



Evaluation in dogs and humans of three potential technetium-99m myocardial perfusion agents  

SciTech Connect

The biodistribution of the three cationic /sup 99m/Tc complexes (/sup 99m/Tc(TMP)6)+, (/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3)+, and (/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6)+--where TMP represents trimethylphosphite, POM-POM represents 1,2-bis(dimethyoxyphosphino)ethane, and TBIN represents t-butylisonitrile--have been evaluated in humans and dogs. Each agent was studied in three normal volunteers at rest, while (/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3)+ and (/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6)+ were each studied in one normal volunteer at exercise. Even though all three agents yield good myocardial images in dogs, none appear suitable for clinical use as myocardial perfusion imaging radiopharmaceuticals. In humans, (/sup 99m/Tc(TMP)6)+ and (/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3)+ clear very slowly from the blood and provide myocardial images only several hours after injection. (/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6)+ clears rapidly from the blood, but accumulation in the lung obscures the myocardial image for the first hour after injection; at later times, activity in the liver and spleen masks the apical wall. These results correlate with the blood-binding properties of the three complexes. (/sup 99m/Tc(TMP)6)+ and (/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3)+ bind tightly to the plasma of human blood, but not to the plasma of dog blood; (/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6)+ does not bind tightly to the plasma of either dog or human blood. Among the Tc(I) complexes studied to date in humans, (/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6)+ appears to be unique in biodistribution pattern, blood-binding properties, and the fact that exercise improves the ultimate myocardial image. All the Tc(I) complexes appear to undergo myocardial accumulation by a mechanism different from that utilized by Tc(III) complexes. Animal studies alone are not adequate to evaluate the potential utility of /sup 99m/Tc cationic complexes for myocardial perfusion studies.

Gerundini, P.; Savi, A.; Gilardi, M.C.; Margonato, A.; Vicedomini, G.; Zecca, L.; Hirth, W.; Libson, K.; Bhatia, J.C.; Fazio, F.



Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA) liver imaging: Application in liver transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Tc-NGA is a new liver imaging agent which binds to hepatic binding protein (HBP), a hepatocyte-specific membrane receptor. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of Tc-NGA imaging in liver transplantation. The molar Tc-NGA dose was standardized according to patient weight (0.7 nmole/kg). After a 30 minute dynamic imaging study (5 mCi, IV), kinetic analysis of time activity data (heart, liver), provided values for receptor concentration, (HBP), and hepatic blood flow, Q. Eleven Tc-NGA imaging studies were performed in transplant candidates and 22 studies were performed in seven transplant recipients. Preservation damage was manifested by diffuse patchiness in tracer distribution which resolved during the following two weeks. Histologically proven, localized hepatic infarcts were demonstrated in three recipients. Lobar infarction was demonstrated in one recipient. Hepatic regeneration was later demonstrated in this patient after hepatic lobectomy. Hepatic blood flow was markedly decreased in the early postoperative period, but improved with time. Increased (HBP) was demonstrated with regeneration. Markedly decreased (HBP) and Q were obtained in several candidates who died awaiting transplantation. These studies indicate that TC-NGA liver imaging provides a valuable new means for: (1) evaluation of preservation damage, (2) early demonstration of hepatic infarction, (3) evaluation of hepatic rejection, and (4) selection of patients for hepatic transplantation.

Woodle, E.S.; Ward, R.E.; Vera, D.R.; Stadalnik, R.C.



Technetium-99m MDP imaging of acute radiation-induced inflammation  

SciTech Connect

Tc-99m MDP three-phase bone imaging demonstrated the acute hyperemic inflammatory soft tissue phase of radiation injury to the hand in a patient receiving radiation therapy to bone lesions of multiple myeloma.

Ferris, J.V.; Ziessman, H.A.



Cold hematoma visualized by technetium-99m labeled red blood cells  

SciTech Connect

A 64-yr-old male was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain associated with vomiting. Upon examination, the patients Hgb was 7.8 with a WBC count of 13.3 band cells of 7 and a recticulocyte count of 3.4, no evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient's prior history revealed involvement in an automobile accident approx. 10 days prior to this admission. At that time, he suffered multiple contusions and abrasions with a fracture to his left clavicle. Apparently there were no episodes of abdominal pain or vomiting prior to the onset of illness perceived on the day of admission. A liver/spleen scan was done. Four millicuries of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid were intravenously injected using a bolus injection technique while obtaining multiple dynamic images. The flow study was unremarkable, demonstrating no abnormalities to the great vessels and good perfusion to both organs. Static images of the liver and spleen revealed a straightening or flatness to the lateral border of the spleen with a small diminished area of tracer sulfur colloid localization at the posterolateral aspect of that organ. This finding raised the suspicion that a small subcapsular hematoma had developed at the mid-posterolateral aspect of the spleen. Twenty-four hours after hospital admission, 4 units of packed RBCs were transfused into the patient. Although there was at this time still no evidence of abnormal bleeding, it was felt that because of the strong symptomatic correlation for internal bleeding, a radionuclide bleeding site study should be ordered and immediately performed.

Beanblossom, M.



Technetium-99m BIDA biliary scintigraphy in the evaluation of the jaundiced patient  

SciTech Connect

Biliary scintigraphy using 99mTc p-butyl acetanilidiminodiacetic acid (BIDA) was performed as part of the diagnostic evaluation on 96 patients with jaundice (serum bilirubin greater than 2 mg/dl) to assess its value in this group of patients. The results of scintigraphy revealed no obstruction to the flow of the scintigraphic agent into the duodenum in 54 patients, delayed appearance of the agent (normal upper limit 60 min) in the duodenum indicating partial obstruction in 22 patients, and complete obstruction of the duct demonstrated by absence of agent in the duodenum in 20 patients. The findings were correlated with the final diagnosis and the overall results show accuracy of 92.7%, sensitivity of 97.3%, and specificity of 89.8%. Biliary scintigraphy was thus found to be useful in differentiating nonobstructive, partially obstructive, and completely obstructive causes of jaundice.

Lee, A.W.; Ram, M.D.; Shih, W.J.; Murphy, K.



Gallbladder visualization during technetium-99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy for gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Localization of radionuclide activity in the gallbladder was seen on delayed views following injection of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells for gastrointestinal bleeding in five patients. The mechanism for this unusual finding probably relates to labeling of heme, the biochemical precursor of bilirubin. All patients had had prior transfusions. All but one had severe renal impairment, probably an important predisposing factor.

Brill, D.R.



Images of liposarcoma using technetium-99m bleomycin and technetium (V)-99m DMSA  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of Tc-99m bleomycin (BLM) and Tc(V)-99m DMSA are compared with that of Ga-67 citrate, which is currently the most widely used agent. In four patients with lipomatous tumors, the clinical significance of tumor imaging with each of these three agents is discussed and compared. Results indicate that both Tc-99m BLM and Tc(V)-99m DMSA are superior in detecting the extension or localization of liposarcomas.

Ohta, H.; Shane, F.I.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.; Horiuchi, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Ishii, M.



Pattern of brain blood perfusion in tinnitus patients using technetium-99m SPECT imaging  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Tinnitus is associated with an increased activity in central auditory system as demonstrated by neuroimaging studies. Brain perfusion scanning using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was done to understand the pattern of brain blood perfusion of tinnitus subjects and find the areas which are mostly abnormal in these patients. Materials and Methods: A number of 122 patients with tinnitus were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. They underwent SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain, and the images were fused to find the regions with abnormal perfusion. Results: SPECT scan results were abnormal in 101 patients (83%). Most patients had bilateral abnormal perfusion (N = 65, 53.3%), and most subjects had abnormality in middle-temporal gyrus (N = 83, 68%) and temporoparietal cortex (N = 46, 37.7%). Patients with multifocal involvement had the least mean age than other 2 groups (patients with no abnormality and unifocal abnormality) (P value = 0.045). Conclusions: Brain blood perfusion pattern differs in patient with tinnitus than others. These patients have brain perfusion abnormality, mostly in auditory gyrus (middle temporal) and associative cortex (temporoparietal cortex). Multifocal abnormalities might be due to more cognitive and emotional brain centers involvement due to tinnitus or more stress and anxiety of tinnitus in the young patients.

Mahmoudian, Saeid; Farhadi, Mohammad; Gholami, Saeid; Saddadi, Fariba; Karimian, Ali Reza; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Ghoreyshi, Esmaeel; Ahmadizadeh, Majid; Lenarz, Thomas



Synthesis and evaluation of two technetium-99m-labeled peptidic 2-nitroimidazoles for imaging hypoxia.  


The presence of hypoxic cells in solid tumors is a marker for therapy-resistant, aggressive disease. The noninvasive detection of hypoxic cells in tumors by radiolabeled 2-nitroimidazoles is a diagnostic technique under current evaluation. Two peptidic agents, dimethylglycyl-L-seryl-L-cysteinyl-lysyl{N(epsilon)-[1-(2-nitro-1H -im idazolyl)acetamido]}glycine (RP435) and dimethylglycyl-tert-butylglycyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine-[2-(2-ni tro-1H-im idazolyl)ethyl]amide (RP535) have been synthesized. Both agents contain an N(3)S class chelator for (99m)Tc and Re and a 2-nitroimidazole group which can be enzymatically reduced and selectively trapped in cells under hypoxic conditions. Two isomers of (99m)TcO-RP435, which are assumed to be syn and anti conformations, were observed on HPLC analysis. The interconversion of the two isomers in aqueous solution was investigated. In contrast, RP535 chelated (99m)Tc to form a single isomer and no conversion to its counterpart has been observed on HPLC analysis. The tert-butyl group on the chelator may inhibit the formation and interconversion of the syn and anti isomers of (99m)TcO-RP535. Both tracers showed a significant degree of hypoxia-specific accumulation in an in vitro assay, with (99m)TcO-RP535 showing higher selectivity for hypoxic cells than (99m)TcO-RP435. These results suggest that (99m)TcO-RP535 represents a lead compound worthy of further investigation as an agent for imaging hypoxia in tumors. PMID:10502359

Su, Z F; Zhang, X; Ballinger, J R; Rauth, A M; Pollak, A; Thornback, J R



Technetium99m dimercaptosuccinic acid and ifosfamide tubular dysfunction in children with cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) renal scintigraphy was used to asses ifosfamide-induced changes in renal function in 11 children who received chemotherapy for various malignancies. Serial measurements of absolute 99mTc-DMSA renal uptake, calculated on conjugated views, were performed during and after chemotherapy. Data of 37 studies obtained before and at different cumulative dose levels of ifosfamide were analysed in relation to

Jacob K. Anninga; Renato A. Valdés Olmos; Jan de Kraker; Harm van Tinteren; Cornelis A. Hoefnagel; Eric A. van Royen



Selective Intracoronary Injection of Technetium 99M-Labelled Microspheres (Outcome of 83 Examinations).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coronarography supplies little information on the functional repercussions of a coronary stenosis and the state of the downstream arteriole bed. To overcome these inadequacies and to clarify the indications of aorta-coronary bridging, human albumin partic...

P. Delebarre



Technetium99m colloidal bismuth subcitrate: A novel method for the evaluation of peptic ulcer disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic agent colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) selectively binds to peptic ulcers. The authors have developed a method for labeling this agent with Tc-99m. Chromatographic quality control studies of the agent on silica gel coated strips (ITLC-SG) showed that more than 97% of Tc-99m was bound to CBS. During in-vitro stability testing, the radio-label was stable for a minimum of

T. E. Vasquez; K. P. Lyons; M. Raiszadeh; M. Fardi; P. Snider



Assessment of Myocardial Viability in Chronic Coronary Artery Disease Using Technetium99m Sestamibi SPECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The value of 99mTc-sestamibi (2-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile [MIBI]) as a viability tracer was investigated in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.Background. Initial studies claim that rest MIBI single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) studies can be used to assess myocardial viability.Methods. Thirty patients with a severely stenosed left anterior descending coronary artery and wall motion abnormalities were prospectively included. The

Alex F Maes; Willem Flameng; Johan L Nuyts; Frans van de Werf; Jannie J Ausma; Paul Sergeant; Luc A Mortelmans



Technetium-99m-ubiquicidin scintigraphy in the detection of infective endocarditis.  


We present a case of infective endocarditis (IE) diagnosed by the increased (99m)Tc-UBI specific uptake in the tricuspid valve region. In conclusion, our case data may indicate a first pass-like distribution with strong avidity of the tracer to infective endocarditis, facilitating image interpretation. PMID:24563884

Taghizadeh Asl, Mina; Mandegar, Mohammad-Hossein; Assadi, Majid



Technetium-99m HM-PAO stereoisomers: differences in interaction with glutathione  

SciTech Connect

(/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO exists as two stereoisomers, d,1 and meso, only one of which is retained in the brain. It has been suggested recently that the biodistribution of (99mTc)d,1-HM-PAO can be explained by its interaction with glutathione (GSH) in the tissues. We studied the interactions of the d,1 and meso isomers with GSH in vitro by measuring the partitioning of activity between ethyl acetate and aqueous GSH solutions at various concentrations. Partitioning of both isomers demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship with GSH concentration, but the d,1 isomer showed eightfold greater reactivity than the meso isomer. In a separate experiment, the d,1 isomer showed a sevenfold greater interaction rate with GSH than the meso isomer. These results suggest that the stereoisomers of (/sup 99m/TC)HM-PAO show differences in their interaction rate with GSH which may explain their different retention in the brain.

Ballinger, J.R.; Reid, R.H.; Gulenchyn, K.Y.



Imaging of glutathione localization in brain with technetium-99M meso-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown decreasing [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake in accordance with glutathione (GSH) content in diethyl, maleate (DEM) treated mice brain. In order to elucidate the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO in brain and to visualize the regional localization of GSH in the brain with [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO, the relationship between the tissue GSH content and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO was studied in rats and rabbits. Increasing pre-load of DEM (550 mg/kg body weight), an agent to reduce GSH content by glutathione transferase, led to a decrease in GSH (control 1.972{plus_minus}0.017 vs DEM 1.138{plus_minus}0.106 mM) and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO to half of the control in the rat brain (control 0.281{plus_minus}0.024 vs DEM 0.153 {plus_minus} 0.009 % dose/g). On the other hand, the DEM did not decrease GSH or the uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO in the rabbit brain, in which glutathione transferase activity is very low. These results were also demonstrated by images with pin-hole collimated gamma camera. The uptake of [Tc-99m] meso showed variations in the regional distribution, but the d,l-isomer was uniform. [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake was well correlated with GSH content in mice brain regions (r=0.800, p<0.02), whereas [Tc-99m]d,l-HM-PAO was not (r=0.017, p>0.5). Both [Tc-99m] mesa HM-PAO uptake and GSH content were especially high at cerebellum (Uptake: 2.598{plus_minus}0.256 % dose/g. GSH: 2.372{plus_minus}0.107 mM) as compared to other areas (Uptake;cerebral cortex 1.797{plus_minus}0.100 brain stem 1.607 {plus_minus}0.112 % dose/g. GSH: cerebral cortex 1.635{plus_minus}0.142 brain stem 1.478{plus_minus}0.141 mM).

Sasaki, T.; Toyama, H.; Oda, K. [Tokyo Metrolpolitan Inst. of Gerontology (Japan)] [and others



Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory dis- turbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with techne- tium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim


Failure to visualize acutely injured kidneys with technetium-99m DMSA does not preclude recoverable function  

SciTech Connect

A 35-yr-old patient developed severe acute tubular necrosis requiring hemodialysis. A (99mTc)dimercaptosuccinic acid scan of the kidneys showed no renal uptake at 4 or 24 hr, but the patient subsequently recovered normal renal function as judged by a normal serum creatinine. Based on this case report and a review of the literature, one cannot assume irreversible loss of function in patients with acute renal failure, based on the absence of radiopharmaceutical uptake by the kidneys.

Taylor, A. Jr.; Akiya, F.; Gregory, M.C.



Technetium-99m pertechnetate and gallium-67 imaging in salivary gland disease  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-two patients with salivary gland tumors or sialadenitis were studied with Tc-99m pertechnetate and Ga-67 imaging and, in some instances, sialography. The diagnostic algorithm presented allows the correct categorization of the salivary gland pathology in the vast majority of patients. The patients were studied serially with Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 and in certain situations sialography (or CT-sialography). Use of the algorithm can distinguish benign salivary tumors from malignant tumors and malignant tumors from inflammatory disease. The limitations and pitfalls of interpretation are discussed.

Higashi, T.; Shindo, J.; Everhart, F.R.; Mori, Y.; Kasai, H.; Kogure, S.; Wakao, H. (Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka (Japan))



Detection of an ileal cavernous hemangioma by technetium-99m red blood cell imaging  

SciTech Connect

Patients with arteriovenous malformations of the bowel may have multiple symptoms secondary to chronic blood loss. A case of ileal cavernous hemangioma detected by Tc-99m labeled red blood cell imaging in the absence of active gastrointestinal bleeding is presented.

Holloway, H.; Johnson, J.; Sandler, M.



Calf muscle arteriovenous malformations detected by technetium-99m erythrocyte venography  

SciTech Connect

Two cases of calf muscle arteriovenous malformation in young women, presenting clinically as deep venous thrombosis, were initially detected by Tc-99m erythrocyte venography and later confirmed by arteriography. The role of this technique in the investigation of venous thrombosis is discussed, emphasizing the importance of the lateral calf view.

O'Donnell, C.; Andrews, J.



Absorbed Radiation Dose to Humans from Technetium99m-Teboroxime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue distribution data obtained in nine normal volunteers were used to estimate the radiation dose to humans after intravenous administration of 99nq'c-teboroxime (Cardiotec). Organ uptake as percent of injected dose was measured using quantitative SPECT. Non-linear regression analysis was performed on the organ time-activity data using SYSTAT ~ software. Cumulative activities in these organs were deter- mined by calculating the

Rama K. Narra; Tom Feld; Adrian D. Nunn


Distribution of technetium-99m-labeled multilamellar liposomes in patients with Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled multilamellar liposomes composed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) at a molar ratio of 7:3, administered intravenously, was studied in ten patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD). Whole-body imaging techniques were used, and for each organ an uptake index was calculated as the percent photographic density (PD) relative to the PD of the liver. Results were compared to those in a group of six patients with other malignancies. Patients with HD had a significantly higher uptake by bone marrow and lungs than patients with other malignancies. Among patients with HD, the uptake by bone marrow and lungs were higher in those with constitutional symptoms and with liver involvement. These results suggest that patients with HD have a different pattern of distribution of multilamellar liposomes which may be related to a combination of nonspecific stimulation of the reticuloendothelial system and tumor uptake. It does not appear that liposomal /sup 99m/Tc is capable of adequately imaging HD for clinical diagnosis.

Perez-Soler, R.; Lopez-Berestein, G.; Kasi, L.P.; Cabanillas, F.; Jahns, M.; Glenn, H.; Hersh, E.M.; Haynie, T.



Technetium-99m complex of N-(2-pyridylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid as a new renal radiopharmaceutical.  


A tetradentate chelating agent constituting of an iminodiacetic acid group and a nitrogen atom of pyridine, N-(2-pyridylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (PMIDA), was coordinated with 99mTc and evaluated as a renal functional agent. The complex of PMIDA with 99mTc was prepared by using a stannous chloride solution as a reducing agent. The chelating efficiency was analyzed by thin layer chromatography and electrophoresis. Chelation with 99mTc resulted in a single radiochemical product. Biological studies were performed in mice and rats. 99mTc-PMIDA was removed from the circulation solely by the kidneys. Clearance of 99mTc-PMIDA from the blood and the kidneys was as rapid as that of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The rate of blood clearance was unaffected by the administration of probenecid (a test for tubular secretion by the weak-acid mechanism), so that the glomerular filtration rate could be estimated by measuring its clearance from the blood. The results in animals with myohemoglobinuric acute renal failure suggested that 99mTc-PMIDA might be a useful renal function radiopharmaceutical. PMID:10355959

Karube, Y; Iwamoto, K; Takata, J



Technetium99m complex of N -(2-pyridylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid as a new renal radiopharmaceutical  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tetradentate chelating agent constituting of an iminodiacetic acid group and a nitrogen atom of pyridine,N-(2-pyridylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (PMIDA), was coordinated with99mTc and evaluated as a renal functional agent. The complex of PMIDA with99mTc was prepared by using a stannous chloride solution as a reducing agent. The chelating efficiency was analyzed by thin layer\\u000a chromatography and electrophoresis. Chelation with99mTc resulted in

Yoshiharu Karube; Koji Iwamoto; Jiro Takata



Scintigraphy with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile in multiple myeloma patients: correlation with the International Staging System.  


(99m)Tc-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) scintigraphy has been suggested in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. According to the International Staging System (ISS), serum b2-microglobulin (Sbeta(2)M) and serum albumin (SA) are dominant predictive factors and different cut-off values of these factors can separate patients into various stages of the disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between ISS staging, by Sbeta(2)M and SA, and the (99m)Tc-MIBI scan findings. Twenty-five MM patients have been studied. Eighteen patients were at stage I, three at stage II and four at stage III of MM. (99m)Tc-MIBI scans were obtained and scored according to intensity (I) and extent (E) of the radiotracer uptake. A summed score (S) for the (99m)Tc-MIBI scan was calculated for each patient. A statistically significant negative correlation between E, I and S uptake scores versus the SA levels (P=0.004, 0.049 and 0.018 respectively), as well as a statistically significant positive correlation between E and S scores and the Sbeta(2)M levels (P=0.012 and 0.032) were detected. A statistically significant difference between the E and S uptake scores among the MM patients examined for every stage separately was also found (P=0.007 and 0.024 respectively). The gradual increase of the E and S scores across the three stages of MM was also significant (P=0.003 and 0.021 respectively), despite the relatively small number of patients in stages II and III. In seven patients who died at the end of the follow-up period all three scores were significantly increased as compared to the scores of the patients who remained alive at that time. In conclusion, this study provides additional evidence that (99m)Tc-MIBI scan not only reflects myeloma disease activity in bone marrow but it is also well correlated with the Sbeta(2)M and SA levels according to ISS. PMID:17160159

Koutsikos, John; Grigoraki, Vasiliki; Athanasoulis, Theodoros; Velidaki, Antigoni; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Zomas, Athanasios; Anagnostopoulos, Nikos; Georgiou, Evangelos; Dimopoulos, Meletios Athanasios; Zerva, Cherry



Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.



Kinetic sensitivity of a receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical: Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin  

SciTech Connect

Kinetic sensitivity is the ability of a physiochemical parameter to alter the time-activity curve of a radiotracer. The kinetic sensitivity of liver and blood time-activity data resulting from a single bolus injection of ({sup 99m}Tc)galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (( Tc)NGA) into healthy pigs was examined. Three parameters, hepatic plasma flow scaled as flow per plasma volume, ligand-receptor affinity, and total receptor concentration, were tested using (Tc)NGA injections of various molar doses and affinities. Simultaneous measurements of plasma volume (iodine-125 human serum albumin dilution), and hepatic plasma flow (indocyanine green extraction) were performed during 12 (Tc)NGA studies. Paired data sets demonstrated differences (P(chi v2) less than 0.01) in liver and blood time-activity curves in response to changes in each of the tested parameters. We conclude that the (Tc)NGA radiopharmacokinetic system is therefore sensitive to hepatic plasma flow, ligand-receptor affinity, and receptor concentration. In vivo demonstration of kinetic sensitivity permits delineation of the physiologic parameters that determine the biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical. This delineation is a prerequisite to a valid analytic assessment of receptor biochemistry via kinetic modeling.

Vera, D.R.; Woodle, E.S.; Stadalnik, R.C. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))



Intraperitoneal injection of technetium-99m sulfur colloid in visualization of a peritoneo-vaginalis connection  

SciTech Connect

Ten minutes after an intraperitoneal infusion of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, a gamma camera was used to obtain anterior abdominal views. This visualized a peritoneo-scrotal communication in an 80-yr-old patient. He had developed extensive edema of the genitals and lower limbs after about 6 wk of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. At operation the communication was confirmed and closed. A repeat test verified the success of operation.

Ducassou, D.; Vuillemin, L.; Wone, C.; Ragnaud, J.M.; Brendel, A.J.



Technetium-99m labeling of red blood cells: in vitro evaluation of a new approach  

SciTech Connect

By titration of two different stannous kits for 99mTc labeling of red blood cells (RBC) we found concentrations of 1-2 micrograms tin per ml of blood to give the highest labeling yield. Using a new kit containing 2 micrograms of tin and 0.1% hypochlorite (NaOCl) as an oxidizing agent we labeled RBC with 99mTc avoiding centrifugation of cells. To evaluate this new procedure we assessed the dependency of tin incubation time, and addition of 4.4% EDTA as a chelating agent on labeling efficiency. We also measured the dependency of EDTA on the stability of the label. Optimal conditions for labeling of 1 ml of whole blood using the new stannous kit were: 5-10 min of tin incubation, 0.2 ml of 0.1% hypochlorite, and 15 min of 99mTc incubation. This procedure resulted in a labeling efficiency of at least 96%. The overall effect of EDTA was not an increased labeling efficiency, and EDTA increased the stability of the label with only a few percent. The promising results of this new labeling approach encourage to further laboratory investigations and eventual clinical evaluation of the procedure.

Kelbaek, H.



Renal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate following therapeutic radiation for vertebral metastases  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide bone scans in two patients with breast cancer and concurrent chemotherapy treatment revealed increased band-like uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)methylene diphosphonate along the medial upper renal cortex corresponding to the portions of the kidneys included within the radiation field. The latency of onset of abnormal uptake was 5 to 9 mo following completion of radiation in one patient, peaked near 13 to 14 mo for both patients, and returned to baseline after 20 to 27 mo. Transient serum creatinine level elevations were also detected. These findings suggest that transient subclinical renal impairment may occur and be detected on bone scans following inadvertent inclusion of renal cortex in radiation fields.

Titelbaum, D.S.; Fowble, B.F.; Powe, J.E.; Martinez, F.J.



Technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate uptake in the fetal skeleton at 30 weeks gestation  

SciTech Connect

Retention of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the fetal skeleton and placenta at 30 and 32 wk gestation was observed during bone scan examination of the maternal skeleton for staging of malignant tumors. The implications and significance of these observations are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

McKenzie, A.F.; Budd, R.S.; Yang, C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others



Spinal meningeal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in meningeal seeding by malignant lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Definite diagnosis of meningeal seeding by systemic cancer relies on the presence of malignant cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the absence of such cells in the CSF, only two other tests strongly suggest the diagnosis - a CT scan and a myelogram. This paper reports a case in which the diagnosis was strongly suggested by an unusual uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate by the leptomeninges during a skeletal scan and later established by the presence of malignant cells in the CSF. The radionuclide scan may be an additional diagnostic test in some cases with meningeal seeding by systemic cancer.

Siegal, T.; Or, R.; Matzner, Y.; Samuels, L.D.



Abnormal uptake of Technetium-99 m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate in the liver.  


Diffuse liver uptake on bone scintigraphy is a rare occurrence with only a few reports in the literature. A case of diffusely increased uptake in a patient with acute hepatitis is presented. PMID:12581061

Roman, Marcin R; Larcos, George; Angelides, Socrates; Devadas, Michael



[Technetium 99-m sestamibi bone scan in musculo-skeletal neoplasms].  


It is often difficult to assess accurately the nature of a skeletal lesion. Problems include differentiating a malignant from a benign bone tumor, as well as determining the cause of a pathologic fracture. Such fractures may occur through osteoporotic bone as well as through neoplasm-affected bone. Thus, development of an imaging modality capable of distinguishing between such lesions is of importance. During 1996, we ran a prospective study in which results of Tc-99m-methyl-diphosphate (MDP) bone scans were compared with those of sestamibi (MIBI) bone scans and with subsequent biopsy and clinical course. The results of the bone scans were assessed by 2 independent "blinded" observers, and the ratios of counts in lesions to those in normal tissue (L/N ratios) were calculated. In cases of malignant (7) and benign (8) tumors, intensity of uptake in MDP scans were not predictive of degree of aggressiveness. On the other hand, MIBI bone scans demonstrated significant difference in intensity of uptake between benign and malignant bone tumors (L/N ratios 2.05 vs 2.75). In 5 of 8 benign lesions the L/N ratio was 1. In the others, increased uptake was minimal. In 2 patients changes in uptake in MIBI bone scan following chemotherapy appeared to be related to the degree of tumor necrosis achieved. While the MIBI bone scan cannot replace tissue biopsy as a definitive diagnostic modality in bone neoplasms, it does appear to allow better preoperative assessment and prognosis. PMID:9451886

Robinson, D; Pinkas, L; Mindlin, L; Halperin, N; Horn, T



Absorption of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) from the respiratory tracts of beagle dogs  

SciTech Connect

Absorption of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) from the nasopharyngeal (NP), tracheobronchial (TB) and pulmonary (P) regions of beagle dogs was determined because of the current interest in aerosolized DTPA as a method for the removal of radionuclides deposited in the respiratory tract. Radiolabeled DTPA was instilled into the NP, TB and P regions of dogs and its subsequent translocation was followed for 48 hours. Results revealed that l6, 48 and 90% of the instilled DTPA was absorbed into the circulatory system from the NP, TB and P regions, respectively. A comparison was also made between NP absorption of aerosolized as opposed to instilled DTPA. Nasopharyngeal absorption (23%) of aerosolized DTPA was slightly higher than that of instilled DTPA. Further, DTPA deposited in the respiratory tract remained in the body longer than intravenously injected DTPA. These findings indicate that a substantial quantity of DTPA is absorbed from all regions of the respiratory tract and that DTPA need not be deposited within the deep lung to produce systemic absorption of DTPA for the removal of internally deposited radioactive isotopes.

Dudley, R.E.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Cuddihy, R.G.; McClellan, R.O.



Distribution and clearance of radioactive aerosol on the nasal mucosa.  


The distribution and clearance of aerosolized radioactive technetium 99m pertechnate in physiologic buffered saline was analyzed in four human adult asymptomatic volunteers following delivery into one nostril in the same manner as for nasal challenge testing (i.e., 0.1 ml via a 251 DeVilbiss atomizer powered by a compressor delivering 0.10 +/- 0.01 gm/spray). For comparison, squeeze bottles and spray bottles from commercial sources, a 114 and a 127 DeVilbiss atomizer, and a pipette were employed. Lateral imagery via minicomputer processing was used to determine both distribution and clearance of the radiotracer. The counts after 1 minute were lower following pipette delivery than with the other devices. None yielded discernable , wide-spread distribution of aerosol throughout the nasal cavity. Following delivery from the 251 atomizer, mean clearance at 17 minutes was 60.0%. Similar clearance rates were obtained with the other spraying methods except for lower values with the squeeze bottle. Analysis of six hour clearance studies by linear regression showed a relatively rapid initial phase, which is probably due largely to mucociliary clearance, and a prolonged late phase related to the very slow disappearance of residual material located far anteriorly in the nose. Achieving good initial retention and rapid clearance of material deposited anteriorly in the nose are desirable attributes of devices employed for administering materials intranasally. PMID:6328631

McLean, J A; Bacon, J R; Mathews, K P; Thrall, J H; Banas, J M; Hedden, J; Bayne, N K



Imaging the Postdeposition Dispersion of an Inhaled Surfactant Aerosol  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Aerodynamic forces provide the primary means of distributing aerosol medications within the lungs. Partial airway obstructions can limit both air flow and aerosol penetration into diseased zones. We hypothesize that low surface tension additives may help to disperse aerosol medications after deposition in the airways, improving dose uniformity and drug delivery to underventilated regions. To test this, we performed a pilot scintigraphy study of surfactant and saline deposition and postdeposition dispersion. Methods Because inhaled antibiotics for cystic fibrosis provide an example of where self-dispersing medications may be useful, we administered calfactant and saline aerosols with added Technetium 99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC; 100?nm filtered) on different days in randomized order to eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects (average FEV1%, p=85±12%). Nebulized delivery was matched (similar aerosol sizes and volume delivery rates, fixed breathing patterns). Tc-SC distribution in the lungs was imaged continuously for 30?min after delivery. Results Both aerosols were well tolerated. Aerosol distribution was mostly peripheral (58/42%) and initially similar for saline and surfactant. Changes in whole lung counts after 30?min were also similar. Peripheral lung activity decreased more rapidly on average with calfactant though the difference versus saline was not statistically significant. Central to peripheral count ratio decreased with saline and increased with calfactant and c/p changes approached significance (?0.05±0.16 vs. 0.10±0.10; p=0.07 Wilcoxon). Conclusions Our results lack statistical significance, but suggest that inhaled calfactant increased peripheral clearance, due to either surfactant-based dispersion or mucociliary effects. Further studies are needed to define the potential for low surface tension carriers to improve drug delivery.

Thomas, Kristina M.; Garoff, Stephen; Tilton, Robert D.; Przybycien, Todd M.; Pilewski, Joseph M.



[Evaluation of systolic parietal thickening of the left ventricle using technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile. Relationship with coronary anatomy].  


Forty-three patients (40 men and 3 women, mean age 54 +/- 9 years) with coronary artery disease underwent 99mTc methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (sestamibi) myocardial scintigraphy and coronary arteriography. Sestamibi uptake and wall thickening index (WTI) were quantitatively evaluated in each myocardial segment. Segments were divided into group 1 (normal coronary arteries, no. = 94), group 2 (coronary artery stenosis 50-99%, no. = 79), and group 3 (coronary artery stenosis 100%, no. = 42). Group 3 segments were subdivided into group 3A (with collaterals, no. = 18) and group 3B (without collaterals, no. = 24) segments. Both sestamibi uptake and WTI were significantly lower (p < 0.01) in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2. However, only WTI was significantly reduced (p < 0.01) in group 3B vs group 3A. Diagnostic capabilities (i.e. identification of segments supplied by stenosed coronary arteries) of sestamibi uptake, WTI, and a combination of both variables with a discriminant function were compared by analysis of receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) areas. The diagnostic capabilities of sestamibi uptake (ROC area = 0.65 +/- 0.04) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of WTI (ROC area = 0.81 +/- 0.03) and discriminant function (ROC area = 0.83 +/- 0.03). In conclusion, our data suggest that combined analysis of myocardial perfusion and regional ventricular function may increase the diagnostic accuracy of sestamibi myocardial scintigraphy in identifying myocardial segments supplied by stenosed coronary arteries. PMID:8066231

Nicolai, E; Cuocolo, A; Pace, L; Maurea, S; Nappi, A; Imbriaco, M; Cardei, S; Morisco, C; Argenziano, L; Salvatore, M



Kit-labeled technetium-99m red blood cells (Tc99mRBC's) for clinical cardiac chamber imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied 223 consecutive patients by R-wave synchronized cardiac imaging using Tc-99m-RBC's labeled by the Brookhaven kit method. Preparation of the Tc-99m-RBC's is simple and can be accomplished in less than 20 min per patient. The average percent RBC labeling was 96.89%. Only 5 of 223 patients (2.2%) had yields less than 95%. Fifty patients were randomly selected from

Steven M. Larson; Glen W. Hamilton; Powell Richards; James L. Ritchie



Tracer kinetic modeling approaches for the quantification of hepatic function with technetium-99m DISIDA and scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Serial scintigraphic images following injection of ({sup 99m}Tc)iminodiacetic acid compounds such as ({sup 99m}Tc)diisopropyl-iminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) provide qualitative information about liver function. We have investigated approaches for quantitatively describing liver function in terms of the kinetics of DISIDA extraction and excretion by the liver. Several compartmental model configurations were evaluated. A three-compartment model (blood, hepatic parenchyma, intrahepatic bile) was found to fit the data best and was used in conjunction with dynamic image data to obtain estimates of rate constants for liver extraction and excretion of DISIDA, and mean residence time (MRT) of DISIDA in the liver. A noncompartmental approach based on a parametric deconvolution technique was also used to estimate the noncompartmental mean residence time (MRTnc). To assess limitations of the noncompartmental approach, computer simulations were performed using the three-compartment model to generate time-activity curves followed by analysis of these curves by the noncompartmental method. The effect of plasma total bilirubin level on DISIDA uptake and MRT was also investigated. These techniques are readily adaptable to standard nuclear medicine computing facilities, and could be used in the clinical setting to numerically describe serial DISIDA studies (especially in liver transplant patients) efficiently and noninvasively.

Gambhir, S.S.; Hawkins, R.A.; Huang, S.C.; Hall, T.R.; Busuttil, R.W.; Phelps, M.E. (Univ. of California, Los Angles (USA))



Effects of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m  

Microsoft Academic Search

99m Tc foi realizada. Plasma (P) e células sangüíneas (CS) foram separadas permitindo o isolamento das frações solúvel (SF-P\\/SF-CS) e insolúvel (IF-P\\/IF-CS) por precipitação e centrifugação. A radioatividade nos constituintes sangüíneos (P, CS, IF-P, SF-P, IF-CS e SF-CS) foi determinada e a porcentagem de radioatividade (%ATI), calculada. O extrato de tomate usado, nas maiores concentrações (2,00 e 4,00g\\/mL), reduziu signifi

Severo de Paoli; Aline P. M. Dias; Priscila V. S. Z. Capriles; Tadeu E. M. M. Costa; Adenilson S. Fonseca; Mario Bernardo-Filho



Technetium-99m ECD: a new brain imaging agent: in vivo kinetics and biodistribution studies in normal human subjects  

SciTech Connect

Lipophilic neutral /sup 99m/Tc complexes of diaminedithiol (DADT) ligands cross the brain-blood barrier. A new derivative of DADT family, /sup 99m/Tc ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) showed high brain uptake in nonhuman primates. We report here the in vivo kinetics and biodistribution results in 16 normal human subjects. Dynamic images of brain obtained for 10 min following an i.v. administration of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD showed that the maximum /sup 99m/Tc brain activity reached within 1 min and remained near that level for the next 10 min. The blood clearance of the tracer was very rapid and the activity remaining in blood after 5 min was less than 10%. Within 2 hr 50% of /sup 99m/Tc activity was excreted in urine. Anterior and posterior total-body images were obtained at 5, 30, 60 min, 2, 4, 24, and 48 hr using a moving table at 20 cm/min. Percent injected dose was calculated for different organs and tissues. The brain uptake was 6.5 +/- 1.9% at 5 min postinjection and remained relatively constant over several hours. Two-compartment analysis of brain time-activity curve showed that 40% of brain activity washed out faster (T 1/2 = 1.3 hr) while the remaining 60% had a slower clearance rate (T 1/2 = 42.3 hr). Some of the tracer was excreted through the hepatobiliary system. Lung uptake and retention of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD was negligible. Radiation dosimetry is favorable for the administration of up to 20-40 mCi of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD. These results show that (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD is rapidly extracted and retained by the brain providing favorable conditions for single photon emission computed tomography imaging.

Vallabhajosula, S.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Picard, M.; Stritzke, P.; Mena, I.; Hellman, R.S.; Tikofsky, R.S.; Stabin, M.G.; Morgan, R.A.; Goldsmith, S.J.



Tracer kinetic modeling approaches for the quantification of hepatic function with technetium-99m DISIDA and scintigraphy.  


Serial scintigraphic images following injection of [99mTc]iminodiacetic acid compounds such as [99mTc]diisopropyl-iminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) provide qualitative information about liver function. We have investigated approaches for quantitatively describing liver function in terms of the kinetics of DISIDA extraction and excretion by the liver. Several compartmental model configurations were evaluated. A three-compartment model (blood, hepatic parenchyma, intrahepatic bile) was found to fit the data best and was used in conjunction with dynamic image data to obtain estimates of rate constants for liver extraction and excretion of DISIDA, and mean residence time (MRT) of DISIDA in the liver. A noncompartmental approach based on a parametric deconvolution technique was also used to estimate the noncompartmental mean residence time (MRTnc). To assess limitations of the noncompartmental approach, computer simulations were performed using the three-compartment model to generate time-activity curves followed by analysis of these curves by the noncompartmental method. The effect of plasma total bilirubin level on DISIDA uptake and MRT was also investigated. These techniques are readily adaptable to standard nuclear medicine computing facilities, and could be used in the clinical setting to numerically describe serial DISIDA studies (especially in liver transplant patients) efficiently and noninvasively. PMID:2769404

Gambhir, S S; Hawkins, R A; Huang, S C; Hall, T R; Busuttil, R W; Phelps, M E



Hot spot(s) of the lung in technetium-99m albumin colloid liver-spleen scintigraphy: case report  

SciTech Connect

The authors replaced /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid for /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid as a radiopharmaceutical for liver-spleen imaging and found two instances of hot spot(s) in the lung. The preparation procedure of albumin colloid is easier and more convenient as compared to that of sulfur colloid. Whereas replacement of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid by /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid is inevitable, it should be emphasized that one should avoid blood withdrawal in the syringe containing albumin colloid to prevent formation of clot(s) during the venous puncture for /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid.

Shih, W.J.; Brandenburg, S.; Coupal, J.J.; Sullivan, J.D.; Beeler, J.A.; Magoun, S.; Ryo, U.Y.



Radioimmunoimaging of experimental thrombi in dogs using technetium-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody fragments reactive with human platelets  

SciTech Connect

Monoclonal antibody 50H.19, which reacts with human platelets, was converted to fragments, pretinned, and made into kits for subsequent radiolabeling with /sup 99m/Tc. The antibody, which cross-reacts with dog platelets, was used to evaluate in vitro binding to blood clots and in vivo in experimental thrombi in dogs. After radiolabeling, 97.4 +/- 6.4% of the /sup 99m/Tc was antibody-associated. The preparations retained immunoreactivity, as determined by: binding studies using whole blood and determining the ratio of cell-to-plasma radioactivity (ratios of 57.6-61.2) and binding of the antibody to clots (clot/serum ratios were 57.2-74.6%). Approximately 50% of the radioactivity was cleared from the blood in 3-6 min and 18-24% was excreted in urine within 3 hr. Experimental thrombi in dogs could be visualized consistently within 2-3 hr postinjection in peripheral veins and arteries, pulmonary arteries, and the right ventricle. In addition, damage to blood vessel intima without visible thrombi could also be detected. This method has the following advantages: short and simple pre-imaging preparation, and rapid visualization of thrombi with no need for blood-pool subtraction or delayed imaging.

Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Zamora, P.O.; Yamamoto, K.; Sacker, D.F.; Brill, A.B.; Newell, K.D.; Rhodes, B.A.



Normal and Ischemic Myocardial Transport Kinetics for Bis(N-ethoxy, N-ethyl Dithiocarbamato) Ditrido Technetium-99m (NOET).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently a new Tc-99m labeled compound bis(N-ethoxy, N-ethyl dithiocarbamato) nitrido Tc-99m, or NOET, has been designed to evaluate regional myocardial blood flow and cellular viability. Previous studies of NOET indicate that it has the potential for use...

T. A. Harms



Thallium-201/technetium-99m-RP-30A disparity in the course of myocardial infarction after attempted reperfusion  

SciTech Connect

Recent reports have established that /sup 201/Tl may be taken up in areas of recent myocardial infarction after myocardial blood flow is re-established. In addition, there is accelerated /sup 201/Tl washout from these regions producing a pattern of reverse redistribution. We present a case in which these phenomena may have contributed to a disparity of findings between a /sup 201/Tl stress imaging study and a repeat stress imaging study performed with a (/sup 99m/Tc) isonitrile (/sup 99m/Tc-RP-30A).

Tatum, J.L.; Rehr, R.B.; DiSciascio, G.; Romhilt, D.W.; Fratkin, M.J.



Technetium-99m HM-PAO stereoisomers as potential agents for imaging regional cerebral blood flow: human volunteer studies  

SciTech Connect

A total of nine normal volunteer subjects were studied with three forms of (99mTc) hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HM-PAO), a potential cerebral blood flow imaging agent. One, the d,l isomer, showed 4.1% uptake in the brain which remained constant over 8 hr. There was good differentiation between uptake in gray and white matter on tomographic slices. We propose that this agent may allow regional cerebral blood flow imaging to be performed on a routine basis.

Sharp, P.F.; Smith, F.W.; Gemmell, H.G.; Lyall, D.; Evans, N.T.; Gvozdanovic, D.; Davidson, J.; Tyrrell, D.A.; Pickett, R.D.; Neirinckx, R.D.



Assessment of antioxidative ability in brain: Imaging of glutathione localization with technetium-99M meso-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime  

SciTech Connect

An oxidative stress is postulated to be important in tissue injury after ischemia and reperfusion, inflammation, aging and various disease. Glutathione (GSH), one of the major antioxidants in the brain, is presumed to be responsible for the metabolism and retention of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO. In order to visualize the regional localization of GSH in the brain, the relationship between the concentrations of tissue GSH and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO and [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO was studied in mice. Increasing load of diethyl maleate (DEM), a reducing agent of GSH and several other thiols, before [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO injection, led to a dose dependent decrease of GSH and [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO. At the highest dose of loaded DEM, the uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO in the brain was decreased to 20-30% of the control. In contrast, pretreatment with DEM did little affect the [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO uptake. To elucidate the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO in brain, we studied the in vitro interactions of [Tc-99m] meso-HMPAO and [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO with GSH, ascorbate and cysteine by measuring octanol-extractable radioactivity, which is remaining intact [Tc-99m] HM-PAO, as a function of incubation period. The disappearance raw of [Tc-99m] meso-HMPAO and [TC-99m] d,l-HM-PAO were 0.18 and 0.96%/min, respectively. Either meso or d,l-isomer did not interact with ascorbate or cysteine. This result suggested that the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] meso- and d,l-isomers in brain was related to their specific interaction with GSH, and did not related to non-specific interaction with various thiols or other reducing agents. This extremely high reaction rate of [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO with GSH could explain the capability of a small amount of GSH to trap [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO in maximum DEM loading. These results indicated that [Tc-99m] meso-HMPAO would be suitable to image the concentration of GSH in the brain, as opposed d,l-isomer that images blood flow.

Sasaki, T.; Toyama, H.; Oda, K. [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others



In vivo kinetics of canine leukocytes labeled with technetium-99m HM-PAO and indium-111 tropolonate  

SciTech Connect

Two weeks after the introduction of osteomyelitis in three dogs, autologous leukocytes were dual-labeled with both (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO and (/sup 111/In)tropolonate, and reinjected. Blood sampling and imaging were then performed. Two weeks later, the same dogs received simultaneous injections of singly-labeled (/sup 99m/Tc)WBC and (/sup 111/In)WBC for comparison. For both studies, blood samples were drawn over 6 hr to determine the respective blood clearance half-time (TB) and % recovery (%R0) of cell-bound radioactivity. There were no significant differences in the average TB results of the /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 111/In groups, either within or between the dual- and singly-labeled studies. The %R0 of singly-labeled (/sup 99m/Tc)WBC was about half that of the other groups (p less than 0.01); however, this difference was attributed to the dissimilar radiochemical purity of the (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO reagents. Region of interest analysis of the 6 and 24 hr images revealed no significant differences between either cell label in the relative or absolute in vivo uptake at known sites of osteomyelitis, noninfected surgery, and normal bone marrow.

Mock, B.H.; Schauwecker, D.S.; English, D.; Young, K.A.; Wellman, H.N.



Filling out phenomenon with technetium-99m HM-PAO brain SPECT at the site of mild cerebral ischemia  

SciTech Connect

Although the distribution of (/sup 99m/Tc)hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) in the brain is said to be in a flow-related manner without temporal change, we present cases with leakage of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO (filling out phenomenon) in the delayed image of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and clarify its clinical significance. The filling out phenomenon was observed in seven out of 21 cases of cerebrovascular disease and four cases of arteriovenous malformation. The leakage of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO was also confirmed by visual and semiquantitative analysis. In the pharmacokinetics of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO in the blood, the percent dose of plasma fraction at 4 hr was reduced to 54% of activity at 30 min. The percent dose of brain blood could be predicted as 3.36%/1 at 30 min and 2.35%/1 at 4 hr after correction with the hematocrit of the brain. The filling out phenomenon of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO was attributed to a significant reduction of blood activity of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO in the plasma. Since the initial image might mask reduced rCBF with an increase of rCBV, the late image would have an advantage in accurately evaluating rCBF from the clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc) HM-PAO bound to the plasma. Therefore, the filling out phenomenon of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO in late images of brain SPECT could show the area of mild cerebral ischemia accompanying cerebral vascular reserve.

Hayashida, K.; Nishimura, T.; Imakita, S.; Uehara, T.



Evaluation of extremity pain in children using technetium-99m MDP bone scan: A general hospital experience  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three-phase bone scan in detection of significant pathology i.e., osteomyelitis (OM), septic joint, cellulitis, etc., in children with symptoms of extremity pain. A total of 100 consecutive patients (age 9 days - 16 yrs, 63 boys and 37 girls) were studied. The authors reviewed their scans, x-rays and hospital records. The final diagnoses were based on the findings of needle aspiration, surgical drainage, biopsy, culture, and on the therapeutic response. In 87%, sufficiently long clinical follow-up was available to confirm the final diagnoses. In the remaining 13%, the symptoms resolved quickly and follow-up was not felt necessary. The scan was essential in pinpointing the lesions in pts with referred or nonlocalizing extremity pain. The +ve and -ve predictive values of the scan and OM were 89% and 96% respectively. One spiral fracture was misinterpreted as diffuse OM. One ''Subacute epiphyseal OM'' was not detected. In two cases, cellulitis and septic joint obscured underlying OM. Prior antibotic therapy resulted in one equivocal scan. Although less sensitive (29%) in early OM, radiographs play an important complimentary role. Bone scans detected underlying pathology for extremity pain in 61% of all pts studied.

Park, H.M.; Rothschild, P.A.; Kernek, C.B.



Assessment of skin ulcer healing capability by technetium-99m phosphate angiogram and blood-pool images  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of radionuclide angiography and blood-pool imaging using (/sup 99m/Tc)-phosphate to assess skin ulcer perfusion as an indicator of healing capacity was determined in 50 studies performed on 45 patients with nonhealing ulcers of the lower extremities. Two nuclear medicine physicians without clinical bias, graded the perfusion of the ulcer on the images as normal, increased or reduced with respect to the opposite limb. Patients were followed closely with aggressive local wound care for at least 14 days. Of the 31 ulcers which healed, the radionuclide study correctly predicted 30; of the 19 ulcers which did not heal, 14 were correctly predicted. Eight patients had osteomyelitis; four of those healed and four did not. The radionuclide study predicted healing in seven. This technique is a simple, reliable way to predict the microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing. Specificity is diminished in the presence of osteomyelitis.

Alazraki, N.; Dries, D.; Lawrence, P.; Morton, K.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.



Uptake mechanism of technetium-99m-d, 1-HMPAO in cell cultures of the dissociated postnatal rat cerebellum.  


The accumulation and retention mechanisms of 99mTc-d, 1-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-d, 1-HMPAO) were investigated in cultures of the dissociated rat cerebellum. Our experiments indicate a linear dependency of the uptake on incubation time and on the concentration of the radioligand. Upon chloroform extraction and distribution between the lipophilic and the hydrophilic phases, we located 69.1% of the retained radioactivity in the hydrophilic phase, 24.1% in a bound state and 6.8% in the lipophilic phase. The water-soluble, unbound radioactive contents of the cultures were identified as 99mTcO4- by HPLC analysis. Treatment of cultures with diethyl maleate (DEM) inhibited the accumulation of radioactivity along with a reduction of the GSH contents of the cultures. However, even in the absence of GSH, significant amounts of radioactivity were accumulated. DEM reduced the radioactive contents of cultures predominantly by diminishing the aqueous phase of the chloroform-extracted material. By contrast, the metabolic state, manipulated by treating the cultures with oligomycin B or 2,4-dinitrophenol, had no significant effect on the accumulation of radioactivity. Our experiments suggest two major mechanisms for the retention of radioactivity following the exposure of neuronal tissue to 99mTc-d, 1-HMPAO: Conversion of the lipophilic complex to the hydrophilic product, 99mTcO4-, and binding to non-diffusible cell components. PMID:1730973

Suess, E; Huck, S; Reither, H; Hörtnagl, H; Angelberger, P



Glutathione-mediated metabolism of technetium-99m SNS/S mixed ligand complexes: a proposed mechanism of brain retention.  


Two series of [99mTc](SNS/S) mixed ligand complexes each carrying the N-diethylaminoethyl or the N-ethyl-substituted bis(2-mercaptoethyl)amine ligand (SNS) are produced at tracer level using tin chloride as reductant and glucoheptonate as transfer ligand. The identity of [99mTc](SNS/S) complexes is established by high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) comparison with authentic rhenium samples. The para substituent R on the phenylthiolate coligand (S) ranges from electron-donating (-NH2) to electron-withdrawing (-NO2) groups, to study complex stability against nucleophiles as a result of N- and R-substitution. The relative resistance of [99mTc](SNS/S) complexes against nucleophilic attack of glutathione (GSH), a native nucleophilic thiol of 2 mM intracerebral concentration, is investigated in vitro by HPLC. The reaction of [99mTc](SNS/S) complexes with GSH is reversible and advances via substitution of the monothiolate ligand by GS- and concomitant formation of the hydrophilic [99mTc](SNS/GS) daughter compound. The N-diethylaminoethyl complexes are found to be more reactive against GSH as compared to the N-ethyl ones. Complex reactivity as a result of R-substitution follows the sequence -NO2 > -H > -NH2. These in vitro findings correlate well with in vivo distribution data in mice. Thus, brain retention parallels complex susceptibility to GSH attack. Furthermore, isolation of the hydrophilic [99mTc](SNS/GS) metabolite from biological fluids and brain homogenates provides additional evidence that the brain retention mechanism of [99mTc](SNS/S) complexes is GSH-mediated. PMID:10090789

Nock, B A; Maina, T; Yannoukakos, D; Pirmettis, I C; Papadopoulos, M S; Chiotellis, E



Effect of plasmapheresis on the liver uptake of ApoB-lipoproteins labeled with technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

To study liver low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor activity before and after plasmapheresis, ({sup 99m}Tc) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was used. Autologous VLDL was labeled, sterilized by filtration, and administered intravenously to patients under a gamma camera. The uptake of lipoproteins in the liver was measured by scintiscanning. Liver activity curves were generated for each patient. The liver activity in patients with the heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and in patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis (SA) without hereditary deficit of LDL receptors was reduced as compared to healthy people. Plasmapheresis enhanced the liver uptake of the {sup 99m}Tc-labeled lipoproteins in atherosclerotic patients. Thus, labeled metabolites could presumably be of use in assessing the effect of plasmapheresis on liver function.

Anisimova, O.Ju.; Konovalov, G.A.; Agapov, I.I.; Fuki, I.V.; Sergienko, V.B.; Repin, V.S.; Kukharchuk, V.V. (USSR Cardiology Research Center, Moscow (USSR))



Use of technetium-99m-HM-PAO in the assessment of patients with dementia and other neuropsychiatric conditions  

SciTech Connect

One hundred fourteen patients suffering from neuropsychiatric conditions have been studied using 99mTc-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Ninety-one patients had a firm clinical diagnosis while 23 were examined without knowledge of the clinical diagnosis. Of the 91 patients, 51 were suffering from dementia, 25 multi-infarct type and 26 Alzheimer's disease. In 19 of the Alzheimer's patients, a characteristic pattern of decreased perfusion in the parieto-occipital regions was demonstrated while those with multi-infarct type showed varying degrees of irregular uptake in the cerebral cortex. These appearances are similar to those shown with positron emission tomography (PET) and we believe that HM-PAO will provide a widely available method for identifying patients with Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-nine patients were suffering from diseases involving the basal ganglia. Fifteen patients with Parkinson's disease showed no significant abnormality in basal ganglia uptake, while 7 or 8 patients with Huntington's disease who had full examinations showed decreased uptake in the caudate nuclei. Similarly, four of six patients with other basal ganglia diseases showed impaired uptake by basal ganglia, and it is concluded that HM-PAO may be useful for the diagnosis and management of this type of patient. Twenty-three patients received HM-PAO imaging as part of their diagnostic work-up; in 19 of them, detailed follow-up was obtained, which indicated that in 7 cases the result of the HM-PAO scan altered the clinical diagnosis and in 9 cases resulted in a change in management. In the remaining 13 cases, the study was found to be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

Smith, F.W.; Besson, J.A.; Gemmell, H.G.; Sharp, P.F.



Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m. Progress report, 26 September 1988-25 August 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of l...

M. K. Dewanjee



Few-View Tomographic Reconstruction of Technetium-99m-Sestamibi Distribution for the Detection and Differentation of Breast Lesions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The broad objective of the research is to develop and evaluate methods for the reconstruction of dedicated breast single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scintimammography images from a relatively small number of projection views. We have pursu...

P. J. LaRiviere C. Chen



Few-View Tomographic Reconstruction of Technetium-99m- sestamibi Distribution for the Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Lesions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scintimammography (SMM) is a nuclear medicine test with the potential to provide relatively low-cost, minimally invasive differentiation of breast abnormalities detected by physical examination or mammography. While the most widely used clinical protocol ...

P. J. LaRiviere



Few-View Tomographic Reconstruction of Technetium-99m-Sestamibi Distribution for the Detection and Differentiation of Breast Lesions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scintimammography (SMM) is a nuclear medicine test with the potential to provide relatively low-cost, minimally invasive differentiation of breast abnormalities detected by physical examination or mammography. While the most widely used clinical protocol ...

P. La Riviere C. Chen



Comparison of personnel radiation dosimetry from myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: Technetium-99m-sestamibi versus thallium-201  

SciTech Connect

The whole-body and hand radiation doses to our technical staff were retrospectively compared for three distinct 4-mo periods when either 201TI or 99mTc-sestamibi were exclusively used for stress myocardial perfusion imaging. During the initial 4-mo period when 99mTc-sestamibi replaced 201TI, the mean whole-body film badge readings increased from 100 to 450 microSv/mo (p < 0.001) for nuclear medicine technologists (n = 10) and from 240 to 560 microSv/mo (p < 0.05) for radiopharmacy technologists (n = 2). Mean TLD readings to the hands also increased, although the differences were not statistically significant for the nuclear medicine technologists. Noninvasive cardiology staff were monitored with film badges and the mean whole-body film badge reading, when 99mTc-sestamibi was the imaging agent, was 360 microSv per month. Radiation reduction methods that decreased radiation exposure to staff were utilized. The most effective included the use of a lead face shield and lead lined storage container in the noninvasive imaging area, handling spills by shielding instead of decontamination and methods to reduce time spent in close proximity to the patient.

Culver, C.M.; Dworkin, H.J. (William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States))



Platelet accumulation in carotid atherosclerotic lesions: semiquantitative analysis with Indium-111 platelets and Technetium-99m human serum albumin  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate platelet accumulation in carotid atherosclerotic lesions semiquantitatively, a dual-tracer technique was applied, using In-111 platelets and Tc-99m human serum albumin. With this approach the authors investigated the ratio of radioactivity in In-111 platelets deposited on the vascular wall to those circulating in the blood pool, platelet accumulation index (PAI). This study included 12 normal subjects and 25 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Angiographic abnormalities were observed at 34 of 50 carotid bifucations in the CVD patients. The mean PAI value was significantly higher at the carotid bifurcations with angiographic abnormality than at the normal ones. Furthermore, elevations of mean PAI were prominent at the lesions with severe stenosis or ulceration.

Isaka, Y.; Kimura, K.; Yoneda, S.; Kusunoki, M.; Etani, H.; Uyama, O.; Tsuda, Y.; Abe, H.



Synthesis and Evaluation of Technetium-99m- and Rhenium-Labeled Inhibitors of the Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)  

PubMed Central

The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is increasingly recognized as a viable target for imaging and therapy of cancer. We prepared seven 99mTc/Re-labeled compounds by attaching known Tc/Re chelating agents to an amino-functionalized PSMA inhibitor (lys-NHCONH-glu) with or without a variable length linker moiety. Ki values ranged from 0.17 to 199 nM. Ex vivo biodistribution and in vivo imaging demonstrated the degree of specific binding to engineered PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumors. PC3-PIP cells are derived from PC3 that have been transduced with the gene for PSMA. Despite demonstrating nearly the lowest PSMA inhibitory potency of this series, [99mTc(CO)3(L1)]+ (L1 = (2-pyridylmethyl)2N(CH2)4CH(CO2H)-NHCO-(CH2)6CO-NH-lys-NHCONH-glu) showed the highest, most selective PIP tumor uptake, at 7.9 ± 4.0% injected dose per gram of tissue at 30 min postinjection. Radioactivity cleared from nontarget tissues to produce a PIP to flu (PSMA-PC3) ratio of 44:1 at 120 min postinjection. PSMA can accommodate the steric requirements of 99mTc/Re complexes within PSMA inhibitors, the best results achieved with a linker moiety between the ? amine of the urea lysine and the chelator.

Banerjee, Sangeeta R.; Foss, Catherine A.; Castanares, Mark; Mease, Ronnie C.; Byun, Youngjoo; Fox, James J.; Hilton, John; Lupold, Shawn E.; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Pomper, Martin G.



Technetium99m labeled Somatostatin analogues and their role in the Management of Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 them Tc-99m HYNIC-Tyr -octreotide (Tc-99m HYNIC- TOC), has been for the first time granted marketing authorization and made available for the wide use (Tc-99m Tektrotyd, POLATOM, Poland). The other analogue, Tc- 3 99m HYNIC-Tyr -octreotate (Tc-99m HYNIC-TATE), which chemically differs from Tc-99m HYNIC-TOC only with terminal amino acid in the peptide sequence (threonine replaces threoniol) in vitro presented higher

Renata Mikolajczak


Visualization of the left hepatic lobe during radioisotopic venography/lung imaging with technetium-99m MAA.  


An unusual case of uptake of radioisotope by the liver during radioisotope venography/lung imaging with Tc-99m MAA is presented. Abnormalities in venous circulation of the lower extremities and abdomen, perfusion of the lung, and structure of the liver were detected, and correlated with other studies performed on a single patient. The mechanisms of uptake of Tc-99m MAA by the liver are discussed, with special attention paid to the mechanism believed to be present in this case. PMID:3956041

Bartold, K; Fancher, M; Abghari, R



Labelling of bleomycin with cobalt-57, indium-111, technetium-99m, mercury-197, lead-203, and copper-67.  


The radiochemical purity of the cobalt-57 complex of bleomycin could be enhanced by adjusting the pH of the final product to a value between 5 and 6. This radiopharmaceutical appeared to have better tumor visualizing properties compared to the not neutralized preparation. The clinical use of the cobalt-57 bleomycin complex is however limited by the long physical half-life of the label, causing a risk of radioactive contamination. It appeared to be possible to label bleomycin with radioactive cations (111In3+, 99mTc4+, 197Hg2+ and 67Cu2+) having suitable gamma ray energies and short half-lifes. These bleomycin complexes showed a high radio-chemical purity judged by their behaviour on thin layer chromatography, paper chromatography, and electrophoresis, but their application as tumor visualizing radiopharmaceutical turned out to be disappointing compared with cobalt-57 bleomycin. PMID:58409

van de Poll, M A; Versluis, A; Rasker, J J; Jurjens, H; Woldring, M G



A simplified kit for instant preparation of technetium-99m human immunoglobulin-G for imaging inflammatory foci.  


A kit consisting of reduced human immunoglobulins G (hIgG), methylene diphosphonate, stannous chloride and ascorbic acid has been developed to instantly produce technetium-labelled hIgG of greater than 97% purity and suitable for inflammation foci scintigraphy in patients. The shelf life of the kit when stored at 4-7 degrees C was at least 3 months. 99mTc-hIgG prepared from the kit, when incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h in physiological saline and human serum was found to degrade by only 7.8 and 4.3%, respectively, thereby indicating high stability of the labelled product. Competitive RIA data did not exhibit loss of immunoreactivity of the hIgG due to its reduction. Blood clearance of the radiopharmaceutical in rabbits exhibited a monophasic exponential pattern. Biodistribution in mice showed uptake by liver (4.93%), kidneys (3.07%) and intestines (2.12%) at 4 h which was reduced to 1.99, 2.18 and 1.93%, respectively at 24 h. Radiolabelled hIgG prepared from the kit was found to be quite satisfactory for inflammation scintigraphy in human patients. PMID:9234294

Singh, A K; Mishra, P; Kashyap, R; Chauhan, U P



Zinc-oxide-eugenol alters labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and shape of red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of blood incubated with OZE, stannous chloride, and 99\\u000a mTc were isolated and fractions were separated. Radioactivity of the blood constituents decreased significantly (p < 0.05) due to the OZE. Morphological alterations were also found. Although rats were utilized in these experiments, precaution\\u000a is recommended in the interpretation of nuclear-medicine examinations in patients that have been treated with OZE in dentistry

Severo de Paoli; Tania Santos Giani; Giuseppe Antonio Presta; Carlos Guilherme Correa; Adalgisa Ieda Maiworm; Sebastião David Santos-Filho; Mario Bernardo-Filho



Vesicoureteral reflux in a nonfunctioning kidney detected by 99mTc-DTPA study.  


Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a well-recognized condition in the pediatric population, but is less well described in the adult population, and its prevalence decreases with increasing age. We describe the case of a 53-year-old male with nonfunctional kidney in which accumulation of radioactivity was observed in the ureter and renal pelvis owing to VUR, which was detected by technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid dynamic renal scintigraphy. PMID:24178153

Orsal, Ebru; Seven, Bedri; Subasi, Irmak Durur; Ayan, Arif Kursad; Akkan, Zeynep



The half maximum time of (99m)Tc-DTPA renography measured in healthy kidney donors, compared to (131)I-OIH.  


Technetium-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) has been widely used after (131)I-ortho-hippurate ((131)I-OIH) for renography and to test renal function. Only a few reports refer to normal values range of (99m)Tc-DTPA renography half maximum time (HMT). We have measured the normal value range of (99m)Tc-DTPA renography HMT in our department, of 433 healthy kidney donors from 2007 to 2010, and compared these results with those of (131)I-OIH renography. There were 326 men and 107 women, 18y-69y (median age 29y), subjects were measured before the donation of their kidneys operation and their biochemical, ultrasound and renal function tests were normal. All subjects drunk at least 1 litre of tap water before renography. The (99m)Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy was performed in the posterior view by injecting intravenously as a bolus 185-296MBq. Dynamic imaging was performed immediately after the injection, using a high-resolution low-energy general purpose collimator and a large field of view dual-detector gamma-camera (Hawkeye; General Electric Medical Systems, USA). Matrix was 64?64, the phase acquisition time of blood perfusion was 1s/frame and 30 frames were collected. Dynamic acquisition was 30s/frame and 39 frames were collected. Total acquisition time was 20min. We defined as background two regions of interest around the kidneys and the aorta, for radioactive decay correction. We also compared (99m)Tc-DTPA renography HMT values with the HMT values of (131)I-OIH, between the two kidneys, and between men and women. The findings were evaluated by using frequency distribution analysis, paired Sample Student's t-test and one sample t test, with a level of significance P<0.05. We used the SPSS 10.0 statistical software. Since values beyond a high boundary were regarded as unusual, we used the P(95), i.e. " 95% of HMT reference ranges value" to determine the medical reference range of values, as the HMT normal limit. This reference value is used especially when the data shows a skewed distribution. For the HMT (P(95) value), the normal reference values found between mean values of the left and the right kidney were: 10.76±4.14min and 10.89±4.55min, respectively and P=0.416, two tailed. For the left kidney HMT, there was no significant difference between men: 10.90±4.31min and women: 10.33±3.57min, (t=1.235, v=432, P=0.2186, two tailed), and similar findings were found between men's right kidney HMT: 11.02±4.89min and women's right kidney HMT: 10.49±3.32min, (t=1.253, v=266.59, P=0.211, two tailed). By comparing the mean value of (99m)Tc-DTPA renography HMT measured (10.76min, 10.89min) with the mean value of (131)I renography HMT that we found in the literature as referring to both left and right kidneys (4min). We found a significant difference (P=0.000, two tailed). Renography may be used to diagnose urinary tract obstruction, estimate the split renal function and is useful. PMID:22087462

Cheng, Bing; Ding, Xianmin; Du, Xiaoguang; Xie, Xinli; Han, Xinmin; Liu, Baoping



Respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the relationships between the respiratory epithelial clearance of micronic aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) and pulmonary function, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE), and lymphocytic alveolitis in patients with sarcoidosis, RC-DTPA was measured in 49 nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 38 normal nonsmokers. Pulmonary involvement was evaluated on chest roentgenograms (type O = normal, type I = hilar adenopathies, type II = hilar adenopathies associated with parenchymal shadows, type III = parenchymal shadows without adenopathy) and by pulmonary function tests. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme was determined, and a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for alveolar lymphocyte differential counting (Ly%). RC-DTPA was increased (greater than or equal to 1.96%/min) in 12 of 31 patients with type II or III involvement but was normal in all 18 patients with type O or I involvement (p = 0.002). Patients with increased RC-DTPA had low FVC, TLC, FEV1, and resting Pao2 (p less than 0.05); resting and exercise AaPo2 were increased (p less than 0.05), but RC-DTPA correlated negatively with FEV1 (p less than 0.01), Pao2 at rest (p less than 0.005), and DLCO (p less than 0.05) and positively with resting and exercise AaPO2 (p less than 0.01). In patients with increased RC-DTPA (42 +/- 17%), Ly% did not differ from Ly% in patients with normal RC-DTPA (34 +/- 16%). SACE was increased in patients with increased RC-DTPA (56 +/- 26 U/ml versus 38 +/- 16 U/ml; p = 0.007) and correlated positively with RC-DTPA (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Dusser, D.J.; Collignon, M.A.; Stanislas-Leguern, G.; Barritault, L.G.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J.



Factors determining pulmonary deposition of aerosolized pentamidine in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection  

SciTech Connect

Although aerosolized pentamidine (AP) has recently been approved for prophylaxis and is undergoing clinical trials for treatment of pneumocystis, pneumonia (PCP), factors important in the deposition of AP have not been described. Using radioaerosol techniques, deposition was measured in 22 patients receiving AP for prophylaxis or treatment of PCP. In all patients total and regional deposition of pentamidine, breathing pattern, pulmonary function (PFT), regional ventilation, and type of nebulizer were analyzed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 24 h after inhalation to assess the relationship between pentamidine levels in BAL fluid and measured aerosol deposition. The nebulizers tested were the Marquest Respirgard II and the Cadema AeroTech II, both previously characterized in our laboratory. The aerosol particles consist of water droplets containing dissolved pentamidine and technetium 99m bound to albumin. Analysis of particles sampled during inhalation via cascade impaction confirmed a close relationship between radioactivity in the droplets and the concentration of pentamidine as measured by HPLC (r = 0.971, p less than 0.0001; n = 18). Deposition was measured by capturing inhaled and exhaled particles on absolute filters and measuring radioactivity. This technique allows the determination of the deposition fraction (DF, the fraction of the amount inhaled that is deposited), which provides information on factors strictly related to the patient. To confirm the filter measurements, pentamidine deposition was also measured by gamma camera. The camera measurement was possible because each patient's thoracic attenuation of radioactivity was determined by a quantitative perfusion scan. Regional lung volume and ventilation were determined by xenon 133 equilibrium scan and washout.

Smaldone, G.C.; Fuhrer, J.; Steigbigel, R.T.; McPeck, M. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA))



Delivery and distribution of aerosolized cyclosporine in lung allograft recipients.  


The aim of the present study was to identify factors determining the delivery to and distribution of aerosolized cyclosporine A (CSA) in the lungs of patients with severe pulmonary allograft rejection. Five such patients inhaled a previously characterized radioaerosol consisting of 4 to 6 cc of CSA (50 mg/ml) in ethanol mixed with technetium-99m (99mTc) bound to human serum albumin, generated by an AeroTech II nebulizer. The total dose of CSA depositing in the lungs was determined with a previously described inspiratory/expiratory mass-balance filter technique. Regional distribution of drug within the lungs was measured using a gamma camera. In addition, the following physiologic parameters were measured: regional volume and ventilation using xenon-133 (133Xe) equilibrium and 133Xe washout, respectively, and regional perfusion using intravenous 99mTc macroaggregates. The relationships between these parameters and regional drug deposition were assessed using linear regression analysis. The lung dose ranged from 20 to 53 mg (0.097 to 0.175 mg CSA deposited per milligram placed in nebulizer). In recipients of single-lung allografts, preferential drug deposition occurred either in the allograft (two patients) or in the native lung (one patient). Marked nonuniformities in regional distribution were also apparent in two double-lung allograft recipients. There was a weak but statistically significant correlation between regional drug deposition and regional ventilation, as measured by 133Xe washout (r = -0.542, p = 0.014), suggesting that although regional ventilation is important, it is not the only factor determining regional deposition in these patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7842214

O'Riordan, T G; Iacono, A; Keenan, R J; Duncan, S R; Burckart, G J; Griffith, B P; Smaldone, G C



In vitro evaluation of the effect of metered-dose inhaler administration technique on aerosolized drug delivery.  


The administration of aerosolized metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) to mechanically ventilated patients is labor intensive due to the large number of activations required and the currently recommended 30- to 60-second "wait and shake" between each puff. No studies have been published that assess the relationship between this delay between puffs and drug delivery. To address this issue, we conducted an in vitro, randomized, single-blind study using fenoterol MDI containing technetium-99m pertechnetate. Four modes of MDI administration were tested in triplicate by random sequence. Eight activations of the MDI were performed for each mode according to the following procedures: rapid succession (5 sec apart); 30-second intervals and shaking MDI between two rapid activations; 30-second intervals and shaking between each activation; and 60-second intervals and shaking between each activation. Two closed in vitro systems were designed to collect and measure the radiolabeled aerosol. In the first system, the MDI was activated into a plastic collection container; with the second system, the MDI was administered through an aerosol holding chamber with attached circuit filter positioned on the inspiratory line of the ventilator circuit. Sixty-second intervals between each activation were not tested with the second system. Radioactivity was measured before and after each mode of testing. No difference was found between the various modes of administration other than a 14% decrease in the amount of radioactivity released with the 60-second waiting period between puffs, compared with their rapid succession when using the plastic collection container system. Our results support the hypothesis that the delay after each activation of a MDI may not be necessary. PMID:8391686

Shalansky, K F; Htan, E Y; Lyster, D M; Mouat, B; Tweeddale, M G



Bifunctional DTPA-type ligand  

SciTech Connect

The subject matter of the invention relates to bifunctional cyclohexyl DTPA ligands and methods of using these compounds. Specifically, such ligands are useful for radiolabeling proteins with radioactive metals, and can consequently be utilized with respect to radioimmunoimaging and/or radioimmunotherapy.

Gansow, O.A.; Brechbiel, M.W.



Mode of Breathing--Tidal or Slow and Deep--through the I-neb Adaptive Aerosol Delivery (AAD) System Affects Lung Deposition of 99mTc-DTPA  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background The I-neb AAD System was designed to deliver aerosol with two different breathing pattern algorithms: the Tidal Breathing Mode (TBM) and the Target Inhalation Mode (TIM). For the purpose of the study, the TBM breathing pattern algorithm was set to guide the subjects to inhalation during tidal breathing with aerosol pulsed during 50–80% of the time spent on inhalation, whereas the TIM breathing pattern was set to guide the subject to a slow and deep inhalation of up to ?9?sec with aerosol pulsed for up to 7?sec, leaving 2?sec for particle deposition in the lungs. In TIM, the inspiratory flow was guided to ?20?L/min through a built-in resistance in the mouthpiece. Methods We have, in a randomized, open-label, crossover study of 12 healthy subjects evaluated lung deposition following administration of a radiolabeled aerosol from the I-neb AAD System with the TBM and TIM breathing patterns. Results The results showed that mean lung deposition was significantly higher when using the I-neb AAD System with the TIM breathing pattern (73.3%) than with the TBM breathing pattern (62.8%). The mean exhaled fractions were low (<1%) for both breathing patterns. The nebulization time was significantly shorter with the TIM breathing pattern (3.0?min) than with the TBM breathing pattern (4.7?min). Conclusions The results of the present study showed that lung deposition with the slow and deep inhalation achieved through the I-neb AAD System in TIM was superior to the lung deposition achieved during tidal breathing in TBM. With the combination of high lung deposition, almost no loss of aerosol during exhalation, and short nebulization time the I-neb AAD System with the TIM breathing pattern should be of special value to patients who require multiple daily dosing of aerosolized medication, are using drugs that should not be wasted into the room air, or would benefit from a more efficient delivery system.

Prince, Ivan; Coughlin, Steven; Warren, Simon; Taylor, Glyn



Influence of posture and positive end-tidal expiratory pressure (PEEP) on clearance of Tc99m-DTPA from the lungs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clearance of Tc99m-DTPA aerosols from the lung has been used to detect and quantitate alterations in the permeability of the pulmonary epithelium. Clearance of the radionuclide is accelerated by both chronic and acute injuries to the lung and by smoking. Several laboratories have reported that Tc99m-DTPA clearance from upper lobes exceeded that from lower lobes in upright subjects. To

G. R. Mason; J. Maublant; K. Sietsema; R. M. Effros; I. Mena



Comparison of defect size between thallium-201 and technetium-99m tetrofosmin myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defect size on exercise-rest technetium (Tc)-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging was compared with that on exercise-reinjection thallium-201 imaging in 20 patients with 1 -vessel coronary artery disease, in each patient, exercise-reinjection thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and exercise-rest Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT imaging were performed. For visual analysis of the obtained SPECT images, the left ventricular myocardium was divided into

Ichiro Matsunari; Susumu Fujino; Junichi Taki; Junji Senma; Takahiko Aoyama; Takanobu Wakasugi; Jun-ichi Hirai; Takashi Saga; Norihisa Tonami; Kinichi Hisada



A novel method for the non-chromatographic purification of technetium-99m-labeled monoclonal antibodies: a study with B72.3 monoclonal antibody.  


A cleaning resin has been developed for the non-chromatographic purification of 99mTc-labeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The resin used is a modified form of thiopropylsepharose 6B resin, in which its sulfhydryl groups have been tinylated with stannous chloride. The method requires only simple stirring of the radiolabeling reaction mixture with this tinylated resin and subsequent separation of it from the resin by filtration to obtain a 99mTc-labeled MAb of radiopharmaceutical purity. The method provides an alternative to chromatographic purification of the radiolabeled MAb (i.e. gel filtration or anion exchange chromatography) which has been used in other 99mTc-MAb preparations. For comparison studies, we labeled the B72.3 MAb with NeoRx's diamide dimercaptide chelate radiolabeling kit, split the reaction mixture into two equal portions and then purified one portion with anion exchange chromatography (NeoRx's chosen method) while the other portion was purified with our cleaning resin. Comparison of HPLC chromatograms, percent 99mTc-bound to MAb, biodistribution and scintigraphic results show that our cleaning resin methodology provides a 99mTc-labeled MAb of essentially equal purity and utility as does the established, chromatographic one. PMID:9234280

Rosenzweig, H S; Ranadive, G N; Seskey, T; Epperly, M W; Bloomer, W D



Computer-assisted superimposition of magnetic resonance and high-resolution technetium-99m-HMPAO and thallium-201 SPECT images of the brain  

SciTech Connect

A method for registering three-dimensional CT, MR, and PET data sets that require no special patient immobilization or other precise positioning measures was adapted to high-resolution SPECT and MRI and was applied in 14 subjects (five normal volunteers, four patients with dementia (Alzheimer's disease), two patients with recurrent glioblastoma, and three patients with focal lesions (stroke, arachnoid cyst and head trauma)). T2-weighted axial magnetic resonance images and transaxial 99mTc-HMPAO and 201Tl images acquired with an annular gamma camera were merged using an objective registration (translation, rotation and rescaling) program. In the normal subjects and patients with dementia and focal lesions, focal areas of high uptake corresponded to gray matter structures. Focal lesions observed on MRI corresponded to perfusion defects on SPECT. In the patients who had undergone surgical resection of glioblastoma followed by interstitial brachytherapy, increased 201Tl corresponding to recurrent tumor could be localized from the superimposed images. The method was evaluated by measuring the residuals in all subjects and translational errors due to superimposition of deep structures in the 12 subjects with normal thalamic anatomy and 99mTc-HMPAO uptake. This method for superimposing magnetic resonance and high-resolution SPECT images of the brain is a useful technique for correlating regional function with brain anatomy.

Holman, B.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Johnson, K.A.; Carvalho, P.A.; Schwartz, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Chen, G.T. (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))



Technetium99m-HMPAO SPECT in the Evaluation of Patients with a Remote History of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comparison with X-Ray Computed Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

re- mote history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were studied with SPECT using ~Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HMPAO) and x-ray computed tomography (CT). Overall, 42 patients (80%) showed regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) deficits by HMPAO SPECT, whereas 29 patients (55%) showed morphological abnormalities by CT. Out of 20 pa- tients with minor head injury, 12 patients (60%) showed rCBF deficits and 5

Bruce G. Gray; Masanori Ichise; Dae-Gyun Chung; Joel C. Kirsh; William Franks


Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate by fractured and osteoporotic bone after a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/. [Rats  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/ on uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP by fractured and osteoporotic bone, respectively, was compared with D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by normal bone in rats. At 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively, after femoral fracture, basal uptake was significantly increased at the fracture site by 336.8, 276.1, and 183.5%, respectively, over the contralateral control site. D/sub 3/-treated rats had lower uptakes than untreated controls at all three fracture sites and at 12 of 15 normal bone sites but analysis of variance showed the uptake differences were not significant. Cortisone-induced osteoporosis caused a significant decrease in basal uptake. The decrease occurred in all nine bone areas studied. D/sub 3/ caused a significant increase in uptake by these osteoporotic bones, but a significant decrease in uptake by the same bones in normal controls. Thus, D/sub 3/ had an effect on uptake by the bone lesion, osteoporosis, that differed from D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by fracture or normal bone.

Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.; Zielezny, M.



Synthesis and biological evaluation of technetium-99m labeled galactose derivatives as potential asialoglycoprotein receptor probes in a hepatic fibrosis mouse model.  


Two galactose derivatives, a monovalent (99m)Tc-MAMA-MGal galactoside and a divalent (99m)Tc-MAMA-DGal galactoside, were synthesized and radiolabeled in high radiochemical purity (>98%). Dynamic microSPECT imaging and biodistribution study of two traces in normal and liver fibrosis mice showed that the (99m)Tc-MAMA-DGal revealed higher specific binding to asialoglycoprotein receptors in liver and then rapidly excreted via both hepatobiliary system and renal clearance. The results suggest that (99m)Tc-MAMA-DGal may be used as SPECT probes for noninvasive evaluation of asialoglycoprotein receptor-related liver dysfunction. PMID:24119556

Chang, Wen-Yi; Kao, Hao-Wen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Chen, Jenn-Tzong; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Chen, Chuan-Lin



Technetium-99m-Labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-Conjugated Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Hybrid Peptides for Human Melanoma Imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine whether 99mTc-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) hybrid peptide targeting both melanocortin-1 (MC1) and ?v?3 integrin receptors was superior in melanoma targeting to 99mTc-labeled ?-MSH or RGD peptide targeting only the MC1 or ?v?3 integrin receptor. Methods RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH, RAD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Lys- (Arg11)CCMSHscramble were designed to target both MC1 and ?v?3 integrin receptors, MC1 receptor only and ?v?3 integrin receptor only, respectively. The MC1 or ?v?3 integrin receptor binding affinities of three peptides were determined in M21 human melanoma cells. The melanoma targeting properties of 99mTc-labeled RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH, RAD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSHscramble were determined in M21 human melanoma-xenografted nude mice. Meanwhile, the melanoma uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH was blocked with various non-radiolabeled peptides in M21 melanoma xenografts. Results RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH displayed 2.0 and 403 nM binding affinities to both MC1 and ?v?3 integrin receptors, whereas RAD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH or RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSHscramble lost their ?v?3 integrin receptor binding affinity by greater than 248-fold or MC1 receptor binding affinity by more than 100-fold, respectively. The melanoma uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH was 2.49 and 2.24 times (p<0.05) the melanoma uptakes of 99mTc-RAD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH and 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSHscramble at 2 h post-injection, respectively. Either RGD or (Arg11)CCMSH peptide co-injection could block 42% and 57% of the tumor uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH, whereas the co-injection of RGD+ (Arg11)CCMSH peptide mixture could block 66% of the tumor uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH. Conclusions Targeting both MC1 and ?v?3 integrin receptors enhanced the melanoma uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH in M21 human melanoma xenografts. Flank M21 human melanoma tumors were clearly visualized by SPECT/CT imaging using 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH as an imaging probe, highlighting its potential use as a dual-receptor-targeting imaging probe for human melanoma detection.

Yang, Jianquan; Guo, Haixun; Miao, Yubin



Dipyridamole technetium-99m-2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile tomoscintigraphic imaging for identifying diseased coronary vessels: Comparison with thallium-201 stress-rest study  

SciTech Connect

A same-day double injection protocol employing 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) was assessed in 30 patients. SPECT was performed 1 hr after a first injection (250 MBq) of 99mTc-MIBI, given after 0.56 mg/kg dipyridamole (DPD) infusion. Patients were then reinjected at rest (750 MBq) and were reimaged 1 hr later. Within 1 wk, all patients underwent a complete stress-rest SPECT thallium study. Of the 330 myocardial segments evaluated, 25 were judged ischemic by both techniques, while persistent defects were demonstrated in 50 and in 47 with 99mTc-MIBI and 201TI, respectively. Six regions were considered for diseased vessels identification. Sensitivity and specificity for CAD were 100% and 75%, respectively, for both 201TI and 99mTc-MIBI. Sensitivity for identification of diseased vessels by 201TI was 68% for LAD, 89% for RCA, and 80% for LCX as opposed to 75%, 89% and 80%, respectively, by 99mTc-MIBI. Specificity was 93% in both cases for LAD, 73% and 63% for RCA, and 53% and 46% for LCX.

Tartagni, F.; Dondi, M.; Limonetti, P.; Franchi, R.; Maiello, L.; Monetti, N.; Magnani, B. (Universita' di Bologna (Italy))



Novel polar single amino acid chelates for technetium-99m tricarbonyl-based radiopharmaceuticals with enhanced renal clearance: application to octreotide.  


Single amino acid chelate (SAAC) systems for the incorporation of the M(CO)(3) moiety (M = Tc/Re) have been successfully incorporated into novel synthetic strategies for radiopharmaceuticals and evaluated in a variety of biological applications. However, the lipophilicity of the first generation Tc(CO)(3)-dipyridyl complexes has resulted in substantial hepatobiliary uptake when either examined as lysine derivatives or integrated into biologically active small molecules and peptides. Here we designed, synthesized, and evaluated novel SAAC systems that have been chemically modified to promote overall Tc(CO)(3)L(3) complex hydrophilicity with the intent of enhancing renal clearance. A series of lysine derived SAAC systems containing functionalized polar imidazole rings and/or carboxylic acids were synthesized via reductive alkylation of the epsilon amino group of lysine. The SAAC systems were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc, purified, and evaluated for radiochemical stability, lipophilicity, and tissue distribution in rats. The log P values of the (99m)Tc complexes were determined experimentally and ranged from -0.91 to -2.33. The resulting complexes were stable (>90%) for at least 24 h. Tissue distribution in normal rats of the lead (99m)Tc complexes demonstrated decreased liver (<1 %ID/g) and gastrointestinal clearance (<1.5%ID/g) and increased kidney clearance (>15 %ID/g) at 2 h after injection compared to the dipyridyl lysine complex (DpK). One of the new SAAC ligands, [(99m)Tc]bis-carboxymethylimidazole lysine, was conjugated to the N-terminus of Tyr-3 octreotide and evaluated for localization in nude mice bearing AR42J xenografts to examine tissue distribution, tumor uptake and retention, clearance, and route of excretion for comparison to (111)In-DOTA-Tyr-3-octreotide and (99m)Tc-DpK-Tyr-3-octreotide. (99m)Tc-bis-(carboxymethylimidazole)-lysine-Tyr-3-octreotide exhibited significantly less liver uptake and gastrointestinal clearance compared to (99m)Tc-DpK-Tyr-3-octreotide while maintaining tumor uptake in the same mouse model. These novel chelators demonstrate that lipophilicity can be controlled and organ distribution significantly altered, opening up broad application of these novel SAAC systems for radiopharmaceutical design. PMID:20402463

Maresca, Kevin P; Marquis, John C; Hillier, Shawn M; Lu, Genliang; Femia, Frank J; Zimmerman, Craig N; Eckelman, William C; Joyal, John L; Babich, John W



Comparison of SPECT using technetium-99m agents and thallium-201 and PET for the assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the applications of tomographic imaging with current and new tracers in assessing myocardial perfusion and viability. Multiple studies with thallium-201 (TI-201) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) have demonstrated high sensitivity, high rates of normalcy and high reproducibility. In assessing viability, fixed defects are frequently detected in viable

Daniel S. Berman; Hosen Kiat; Kenneth F. Van Train; John Friedman; Ernest V. Garcia; Jamshid Maddahi



Radiotracers for low density lipoprotein biodistribution studies in vivo: technetium-99m low density lipoprotein versus radioiodinated low density lipoprotein preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to characterize the in vivo behavior of (99mTc) low density lipoprotein (LDL), biodistribution studies were performed in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits. In normal rabbits, 24 hr after the injection of (99mTc)LDL, 99mTc activity accumulated mainly in adrenal glands, spleen, liver, and kidney. In HC rabbits, however, there was a marked reduction of 99mTc activity in these

Shankar Vallabhajosula; Michael Paidi; Juan Jose Badimon; Ngoc-Anh Le; Stanley J. Goldsmith; Valentin Fuster; Henry N. Ginsberg



Use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPET for the study of cerebral blood flow reactivity after acetazolamide infusion in patients with Behçet's disease.  


The purpose of this study was to characterise the nature of the baseline perfusion defects found in patients with Behçet's disease using hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography in conjunction with acetazolamide test (Acz SPET). Eleven patients underwent both baseline and Acz SPET. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the areas with decreased perfusion (D-ROI) and, in the same section, on areas with normal perfusion (N-ROI). The ROIs were then repositioned on the corresponding section on Acz SPET. The mean ROI counts were then transformed into a perfusion index value (PIV) with reference to the global brain counts. In total we found 24 D-ROIs (17 in the cortical and 7 in subcortical grey matter). The influence of Acz infusion was selectively registered in the D-ROIs, where PIVs changed from 1.23+/-0.17 (baseline SPET) to 1.63+/-0.23 (Acz SPET) (P<0.001). No significant difference was seen in the N-ROIs (1.46+/-0.21 and 1.40+/-0.17, respectively, on baseline SPET and Acz SPET). Our results demonstrate that Acz infusion increases the regional cerebral blood flow within baseline grey matter perfusion defects. This finding suggests that baseline perfusion abnormalities could reflect a disconnection rather than local vasculitic involvement. PMID:10901457

Pupi, A; Sestini, S; De Cristofaro, M T; Emmi, L; Marchione, T; Salvati, G; Gobbi, F L; Massacesi, L; Meldolesi, U



Evaluation of cerebral collateral circulation by technetium-99m HM-PAO brain SPECT during Matas test: report of three cases  

SciTech Connect

Three cases with cerebral ischemic symptoms and an intracranial aneurysm are presented. Using (/sup 99m/Tc)hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) single photon emission computed tomography imaging before and during the Matas test, a quantitative measurement method was developed for evaluating brain collateral circulation. The evaluation correlated well with findings of contrast carotid angiography. This noninvasive method seems to be useful for selection of patients for appropriate surgical treatment.

Matsuda, H.; Higashi, S.; Asli, I.N.; Eftekhari, M.; Esmaili, J.; Seki, H.; Tsuji, S.; Oba, H.; Imai, K.; Terada, H.



Comparison of hypoxia and ouabain effects on the myocardial uptake kinetics of technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile and thallium-201  

SciTech Connect

Effects of hypoxia and ouabain on transcapillary exchange of (99mTc)hexakis (2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) (SESTAMIBI, also known as MIBI or HEXAMIBI) and 201TI were investigated with indicator-dilution studies using isolated rabbit hearts. Peak myocardial extraction (Emax), permeability-surface area products (PScap), and net myocardial extraction (Enet) were compared among serial injections during constant coronary flows. Overall, measures of transcapillary transport (Emax and PScap) for SESTAMIBI were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than those simultaneously determined for thallium, but estimates of tissue retention (Enet) for SESTAMIBI and thallium were not statistically distinguishable. Hypoxia had no significant effect on mean (+/- s.d.) Emax for SESTAMIBI (0.31 +/- 0.13) or thallium (0.59 +/- 0.11), nor on mean PScap or Enet values. Ouabain (1.5 X 10(-7) M and 1.5 X 10(-6) M) had no effect on SESTAMIBI or thallium Emax (respectively, 0.29 +/- 0.08 and 0.60 +/- 0.05) or on PScap for SESTAMIBI. Thallium PScap was depressed with higher ouabain dose (control, 1.22 +/- 0.40; high ouabain, 1.06 +/- 0.41 ml/min/g; p less than 0.01). Ouabain also caused a significant and progressive increase in average SESTAMIBI Enet (control, 0.23 +/- 0.10 to high ouabain, 0.33 +/- 0.12; p less than 0.05), but depressed thallium Enet (control, 0.38 +/- 0.14 to high ouabain, 0.32 +/- 0.18; p less than 0.01). These results suggest myocardial metabolic and/or functional status have minor influence on transcapillary transport of SESTAMIBI and thallium, but significantly affects cellular retention.

Meerdink, D.J.; Leppo, J.A. (Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (USA))



Poor accumulation of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in sarcoidosis and other diffuse infiltrative lung diseases as compared with gallium-67 citrate  

SciTech Connect

Forty-two patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases were imaged with Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m glucoheptonate (GH). Twenty patients had sarcoidosis, six had fibrosis, six had tuberculosis, nine had lung infiltration, and one had pleural empyema. The main difference between Ga-67 and Tc-99m GH was the much greater uptake of Ga-67 in sarcoidosis than that of Tc-99m GH. Fifteen patients with sarcoidosis had positive Ga-67 scans but only six had positive Tc-99m GH scans. The results in other diffuse infiltrative lung diseases were almost equal with Ga-67 and Tc-99m GH. Although Tc-99m GH is less expensive and simpler to use, it is not an adequate substitute for Ga-67 in diffuse infiltrative lung diseases.

Vorne, M.; Sahlstroem, K.A.; Alanko, K.



Highly efficient technetium-99m labeling procedure based on the conjugation of N-[N-(3-diphenylphosphinopropionyl)glycyl]cysteine ligand with poly(ethylene glycol).  


The PN(2)S N-(N-(3-diphenylphosphinopropionyl)glycyl)cysteine ligand was conjugated to methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-amino (mPEG-NH(2)) 5 and 20 kDa to yield PN(2)S(Trt)-PEG(5000) 1 and PN(2)S(Trt)-PEG(20000) 2, and then detritylated to PN(2)S-PEG(5000) 4 and PN(2)S-PEG(20000) 5. When an acidic solution of (99m)TcO(4)(-) is added to 4 or 5 in solid form, a quantitative yield in a single labeled species, (99m)Tc-labeled PN(2)S-PEG(5000) 9 and (99m)Tc-labeled PN(2)S-PEG(20000) 10, respectively, is obtained. The reaction occurs in less than 15 min at room temperature for 4 and 35 degrees C for 5. This labeling procedure avoids the use of an external reducing agent, and it is based on the amphiphilic properties of PN(2)S-PEGs. Once in water, 4 and 5 self-assemble in micelles, which catalyze the metal reduction by means of an electron pair transfer from the phosphorus to technetium. The [(99m)TcO](3+) species is then coordinated, and at micelle level, both the (P)ON(2)S and the PN(2)S coordinations are possible, as demonstrated by reacting (99m)Tc-gluconate and ReOCl(3)(PPh(3))(2) with 4 and 5 and with the oxidized analogous (P)ON(2)S-PEG(5000) 6. Compounds 9 and 10 exhibited a high stability both in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in mice also indicated that PN(2)S linking and (99m)Tc labeling do not modify PEG behavior in water and in vivo since the polymer dictates the fate of the conjugate. PMID:15366958

Visentin, Roberta; Pasut, Gianfranco; Veronese, Francesco Maria; Mazzi, Ulderico



The application of technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labeled white blood cells for the diagnosis of right dorsal ulcerative colitis in two horses.  


The application of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled white blood cells to support the diagnosis of right dorsal ulcerative colitis was studied in two horses with a history and clinical signs consistent with phenylbutazone toxicity. These images were compared to a reference horse unaffected by right dorsal ulcerative colitis. Blood was collected aseptically in heparinized syringes from the patients for in vitro white blood cell (WBC) radiolabeling. The buffy coat was separated out and radiolabeled with 99mTc-HMPAO. The radiolabeled blood was re-injected i.v. and four images of the right and left side of the patient's abdomen were acquired at 4 hours and 20 hours post-injection. Results of the nuclear study revealed no abnormal findings in the abdomen at the four-hour post-injection images in any horse. Images obtained 20 hours post-injection revealed a linear uptake of radiolabeled WBCs in the right cranioventral abdomen in the region of the right dorsal colon in both horses with right dorsal ulcerative colitis. The reference horse had no radiopharmaceutical uptake in this region. This nuclear imaging study was a rapid, non-invasive method to identify right dorsal colon inflammation. These findings not only supported the diagnosis of right dorsal ulcerative colitis, but also facilitated appropriate medical management of each horse. PMID:10955501

East, L M; Trumble, T N; Steyn, P F; Savage, C J; Dickinson, C E; Traub-Dargatz, J L



Myocardial distribution of indium-111-antimyosin Fab in acute inferior and right ventricular infarction: comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

In a postmortem study of a 69-yr-old female patient who had suffered 2 yr previously a non-Q-wave anterior infarction and who had sustained just seven days earlier a left inferior and right ventricular infarction, the distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab was compared to the results of {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination. Indium-111-antimyosin Fab imaging could not be performed because of cardiogenic shock. However, postmortem gamma scintillation counting revealed increased activities of antimyosin Fab in the inferoapical and right ventricular infarcted regions in which {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate positive imagings were observed; in contrast, a histologically confirmed old subendocardial anterior infarction had no definite activity. Thus, the myocardial distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab corresponded well to the results of {sup 99}mTc scintigrams and histologic examinations in a human heart, suggesting that this technique could be useful in vivo for detecting several-day-old myocardial infarction of the right ventricle as well as the left ventricle. Tissue from the 2-yr-old infarction was not identified by this technique.

Nakata, T.; Sakakibara, T.; Noto, T.; Shoji, T.; Tsuda, T.; Kubota, M.; Hattori, A.; Iimura, O. (Sapporo Medical College, (Japan))



Technetium99m-DMSA Renal Cortical Scintigraphy to Detect Experimental Acute Pyelonephritis in Piglets: Comparison of Planar (Pinhole) and SPECT Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to directly compare the sensitivity and specificity of SPECT and pinhole imaging for the detection of acute pyelonephritis using histology as the standard of reference. Methods: Bilateralvesicoureteralreflux of infected urine was in duced in 16 piglets (32 kidneys) by unroofing the intravesical ureter and subsequently instilling a broth culture of £coli into the bladder.

Massoud Majd; H. Gil Rushton; Roma Chandra; Mary P. Andrich; Chris P. Tardif; Fariborz Rashti


Assessment of Technetium-99m Labeled Macroaggregated Albumin Rhinoscintigraphy for the Measurement of Nasal Mucociliary Transport Rate: Intratest, Interobserver, and Intraobserver Reproducibility  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The measurement of mucociliary transport velocity by rhinoscintigraphy with Tc-99m-macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) is reliable measure of mucociliary clearance. The aim of this study is to assess the intratest, interobserver, and intraobserver reproducibility of nasal mucociliary transport rate (NMTR) measurement. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two subjects were evaluated to determine intratest reproducibility and a group of 35 subjects was examined to determine inter- and intraobserver reproducibility. Rhinoscintigraphy with 99mTc-MAA was used to measure NMTR in all study subjects. Paired NMTR measurements were compared using a range of statistical methodologies. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and repeatability coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were applied to assess the degree of intratest, interobserver, and intraobserver variation. Results. Statistical analysis of test and retest experiments demonstrated the statistical equivalence of intratest NMTR measurements, interobserver NMTR measurements, and intraobserver NMTR measurements. The intratest ICC, interobserver ICC, and intraobserver ICC were 0.96, 0.83, and 0.91, respectively, indicating that intratest and intraobserver reproducibility are excellent and interobserver reproducibility is good. Conclusions. Rhinoscintigraphy using 99mTc-MAA results in highly reproducible measurement of NMTR. The use of radionuclide imaging in measuring NMTR results in excellent intratest and intraobserver reproducibility and good interobserver reliability.

Dostbil, Zeki; Dag, Yusuf; Cetinkaya, Ozlem; Akdag, Mehmet; Tasdemir, Bekir



Factors determining pulmonary deposition of aerosolized pentamidine in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.  


Although aerosolized pentamidine (AP) has recently been approved for prophylaxis and is undergoing clinical trials for treatment of pneumocystis, pneumonia (PCP), factors important in the deposition of AP have not been described. Using radioaerosol techniques, deposition was measured in 22 patients receiving AP for prophylaxis or treatment of PCP. In all patients total and regional deposition of pentamidine, breathing pattern, pulmonary function (PFT), regional ventilation, and type of nebulizer were analyzed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 24 h after inhalation to assess the relationship between pentamidine levels in BAL fluid and measured aerosol deposition. The nebulizers tested were the Marquest Respirgard II and the Cadema AeroTech II, both previously characterized in our laboratory. The aerosol particles consist of water droplets containing dissolved pentamidine and technetium 99m bound to albumin. Analysis of particles sampled during inhalation via cascade impaction confirmed a close relationship between radioactivity in the droplets and the concentration of pentamidine as measured by HPLC (r = 0.971, p less than 0.0001; n = 18). Deposition was measured by capturing inhaled and exhaled particles on absolute filters and measuring radioactivity. This technique allows the determination of the deposition fraction (DF, the fraction of the amount inhaled that is deposited), which provides information on factors strictly related to the patient. To confirm the filter measurements, pentamidine deposition was also measured by gamma camera. The camera measurement was possible because each patient's thoracic attenuation of radioactivity was determined by a quantitative perfusion scan (mg pentamidine deposited via both techniques, r = 0.949, p less than 0.0001; n = 26). Regional lung volume and ventilation were determined by xenon 133 equilibrium scan and washout. Pentamidine deposition varied markedly between patients, but BAL levels of pentamidine significantly correlated with measured deposition (r = 0.819, p less than 0.01; n = 9). DF averaged 0.621 +/- 0.027 (SEM) and did not correlate with any measured lung parameter, including breathing pattern and PFT. Regional deposition did not correlate with regional ventilation. The major factor influencing pentamidine deposition was aerosol delivery (mg deposited versus mg inhaled; r = 0.963, p less than 0.0001; n = 26). The nebulizer was an important determinant of aerosol delivery, with the AeroTech delivering between 2.5 and 5 times more drug than the Respirgard. These observations are important in assessing treatment failure and cost of therapy. PMID:2008984

Smaldone, G C; Fuhrer, J; Steigbigel, R T; McPeck, M



Effects of intravenous and aerosolized arachidonic acid on alveolar epithelial permeability in rabbits.  


To determine whether arachidonic acid (AA) alters alveolar epithelial permeability, we studied the effect of both continuous intravenous and aerosolized AA on clearance of [99m]Tc-DTPA from lung to blood in rabbits. Although intravenous AA increased prostacyclin production and aerosolized AA decreased systemic blood pressure, neither continuous intravenous nor aerosolized AA augmented alveolar epithelial permeability. PMID:1905059

Stevenson, J L; Quan, S F; Witten, M L; Hall, J N; Roseberry, H R; McNeill, G C; Lemen, R J



Comparison of the biodistribution of manganese-54 DTPA and gadolinium-153 DTPA in dogs  

SciTech Connect

The biodistribution of (/sup 54/Mn)DTPA and (/sup 153/Gd)DTPA dimeglumine were investigated and compared following i.v. administration to fasting anesthetized dogs. Unlike most previously reported metal ion-DTPA complexes, (/sup 54/Mn)DTPA showed high uptakes in several organs including the liver, bile, pancreas, bowel, and kidney. This uptake was independent of the pH of the injected solution. Accumulation in these organs suggests a potential role for (Mn)DTPA as a paramagnetic contrast agent for NMR imaging. With the exception of the kidneys, (/sup 153/Gd)DTPA showed no evidence of tissue specific uptake over the course of 4 hr, consistent with it being an extracellular ion that is cleared by glomerular filtration.

Boudreau, R.J.; Burbidge, S.; Sirr, S.; Loken, M.K.



The relaxivity of Gd-EOB-DTPA and Gd-DTPA in liver and kidney of the Wistar rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NMR relaxivities of Gd-EOB-DTPA and Gd-DTPA were determined in the kidney and liver of intact male Wistar rats immediately following sacrifice and in vitro in solutions and gels, at 1.5 T using a clinical MR scanner. T1 and T2 values of tissue samples were derived from spin-echo image sequences. Tissue gadolinium concentrations were determined by radioassay of Gd153. Gd-EOB-DTPA

B. Shuter; P. S. Tofts; S.-C. Wang; J. M. Pope



Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MR imaging in tuberous sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten patients with clinical tuberous sclerosis were examined with CT and MR imaging, before and after IV contrast in order to determine the role of Gd-DTPA. Gd-DTPA enhancement occured in eleven subependymal nodules which did not enhance on CT after IV contrast. As illustrated by previous CT and pathologic observations and related to the histologic similarity of the subependymal nodules

N. Martin; C. Debussche; T. Broucker; D. Mompoint; C. Marsault; H. Nahum



Analysis and Environmental Fate of EDTA and DTPA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, analytical techniques for the determination of two metal complexing agents, EDTA and DTPA, in aquatic environments were investigated with the main emphasis on the pulp and paper mill waste waters and the receiving natural waters. These com...

M. Sillanpaeae



Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging in intracranial tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-six patients with intracranial tuberculosis (Tb) (10 with acute meningitis, 5 with chronic meningitis, 5 with meningitic sequelae and 6 with localized tuberculoma(s) were examined with MR before and after Gd-DTPA enhancement (0.1 mmol\\/kg), using 2.0T superconducting unit, and the images were retrospectively analyzed and compared with CT scans. Without Gd-DTPA enhancement, the MR images were generally insensitive to detection

K.-H. Chang; M.-H. Han; J.-K. Roh; I.-O. Kim; M.-C. Han; K.-S. Choi; C.-W. Kim



Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of lung radiation fibrosis  

SciTech Connect

Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) enhancement of radiation-induced apical pulmonary fibrosis was observed in two patients previously treated for breast cancer. In one case the fibrosis was biopsied twice, with no change in its CT appearance over 3 years. Gadolinium-DTPA may enhance benign apical fibrosis after radiation therapy and should not, in and of itself, be used as evidence of recurrent malignancy.

Werthmuller, W.C.; Schiebler, M.L.; Whaley, R.A.; Mauro, M.A.; McCartney, W.H. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))



Incremental diagnostic value of dobutamine stress echocardiography and dobutamine scintigraphy (technetium 99m-labeled sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography) for assessment of presence and extent of coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The incremental diagnostic value of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and 99mTc-labeled sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography for the evaluation of the presence and extent of coronary\\u000a artery disease (CAD) was assessed with ordered logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic curves.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  Forty-five consecutive patients (33 men and 12 women; 53±6.8 years) underwent exercise electrocardiography and simultaneous\\u000a DSE and sestamibi single-photon

Vitantonio Di Bello; Calogero Riccardo Bellina; Enrico Gori; Nicola Molea; Luigi Talarico; Giuseppe Boni; Enrico Magagnini; Federica Matteucci; Davide Giorgi; Elena Lazzeri; Alessio Bertini; Maria Francesca Romano; Romano Bianchi; Costantino Giusti



Contribuicao ao estudo da marcacao de eritrocitos com cromo-51 e tecnecio-99m. (Contribution to the study of the red blood cells labelled with chromium-51 and technetium-99 m).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the bindings of Cr-51 and Tc-99 m were both in the (beta) chain of hemoglobin molecule, the results obtained after previous incubations of the RBC with chromium and technetium, and the determinations of the efficiency of the labeling of RBC showe...

M. S. Canine



Quantification of renal haemodynamics with radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive quantification of renal function with radionuclides is an important role of nuclear medicine. With modern commercial preparations of technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be measured accurately either from the rate of disappearance of the tracer from plasma or from its rate of uptake into the kidneys. Determination of the latter with the gamma

A. M. Peters



Scintigraphic detection of post-pneumonectomy bronchopleural fistulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A total of 20 ventilation studies [16 with xenon-133 and four with technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)]\\u000a were performed in 11 patients with suspected post-pneumonectomy bronchopleural fistulae. The findings on the ventilation scan\\u000a were correlated with bronchoscopy, taken as the gold standard for purposes of comparison. The sensitivity and specificity\\u000a for 133Xe scans were 83% and 100% respectively, while

Shanker Raja; Thomas W. Rice; Donald R. Neumann; Gopal B. Saha; Shashi Khandekar; William J. MacIntyre; Raymundo T. Go



Clearance of aerosolized 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentacetate before and after smoke inhalation  

SciTech Connect

The pulmonary clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentacetate (DTPA) was studied in mongrel dogs immediately after exposure to wood smoke to see if a sensitive, objective way of assessing the degree of pulmonary injury might be found. Animals were studied in four groups as follows: control, following five minutes, two minutes, and 15 seconds of smoke exposure. Chest roentgenograms and /sup 133/Xe scans were taken before and after smoke exposure. The DTPA clearance was more sensitive in detecting injury than either of these imaging techniques. The DTPA clearance rates increased in a dose responsive way following smoke inhalation: 2.4 percent and 12.1 percent excreted per minute for control animals and those exposed to five minutes of smoke, respectively. Seven patients in a clinical trial of DTPA following smoke exposure are described; their DTPA clearance rates were all normal, although five were active cigarette smokers. Despite encouraging results in animal experiments, DTPA clearance studies may be of little practical value in the clinical setting of acute inhalation injury.

Clark, W.R.; Grossman, Z.D.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.; Warner, F.



Gadolinium-DTPA as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred patients with CT-proven intracranial disease have been studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after intravenous injection with Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA), in order to assess the role and clinical efficacy of Gd-DTPA. T2-weighted spin echo sequences, although sensitive to the detection of intracranial disease, in general fail to differentiate macroscopic tumour from oedema. Following Gd-DTPA, T1-weighted spin echo

J. P. Stack; N. M. Antoun; J. P. R. Jenkins; R. Metcalfe; I. Isherwood



Exercise increases the lung clearance of inhaled Tc-99m DTPA  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that blood flow have little effect on the lung clearance of Tc-99m DTPA which depends on the alveolar distension. However an increase of pulmonary blood flow, induces a recruitment of new vascular areas which can enhance this clearance. To assess this hypothesis the pulmonary apical and basal clearances of a sumicronic aerosol of Tc-99m DTPA were studied at rest and at exercise in seven non smoking volunteers in upright posture. As a matter of fact exercising upright is known to increase primarily the apical blood flow. After inhalation the subjects were seated on a bicycle their back against a gamma camera which was linked to a computer. The lung radioactivity was registered successively during a resting and an exercising period. At rest there was a gradient of clearance from the apex to the base of the lung, the apical clearance being significantly higher. At exercise (50 Watts, 60 c. min /sup -1/, 7 min.) this regional gradient was enhanced by a large and significant increase of the apical clearances (0.0340 min /sup -1/ +-0.0063 SD versus 0.00183 min /sup -1/ +- 0.074 SD at rest, n = 7, p < 0.01). By contrast the changes of the basal clearances were slight and unsignificant (0.0146 min /sup -1/ +- 0.0062 SD versus 0.0140 min /sup -1/ +- 0.0082 SD). Since exercise induces little distension of the apical alveoli but drastically enhances the apical blood flow, the observed increase of the apical lung clearance could be primarily attributed to the recruitment of new capillaries induced by exercise in the apices. This led to an increase of the surface area permeability product.

Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Cinotti, L.; Galle, P.



Ustur whole body case 0269: demonstrating effectiveness of i.v. CA-DTPA for Pu.  


This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol 'mist'. Chelation treatment with intravenously (i.v.) Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2.5 y with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation) and continuing for 37 y. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 y after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive data set has been applied to derive 'chelation-enhanced' transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially, all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modelling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as effective as promptly administered Ca-EDTA. PMID:18227077

James, A C; Sasser, L B; Stuit, D B; Glover, S E; Carbaugh, E H




SciTech Connect

This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol ‘mist.’ Chelation treatment with i.v. Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2½ years with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation), and continuing for 37 years. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 years after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive dataset has been applied to derive ‘chelation-enhanced’ transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys, and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modeling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as effective as promptly administered Ca-EDTA.

James, Anthony C.; Sasser , Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Carbaugh, Eugene H.



Uptake of 153Sm-DTPA-bis-biotin and 99mTc-DTPA-bis-biotin in rat as-30D-hepatoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labeled biotin has been used mainly for pretargeted therapy, an approach for increasing the amount of radioactivity delivered to a cancer cell. The aim of this investigation was to prepare 153Sm-DTPA-bis-biotin and 99mTc-DTPA-bis-biotin in order to study their in vitro and in vivo uptake in rat AS-30D hepatoma cells found in ascites and in implanted tumor. DTPA-bis-biotin (pH 8) was

Luis Correa-González; Consuelo Arteaga de Murphy; Guillermina Ferro-Flores; Martha Pedraza-López; Eduardo Murphy-Stack; Dolores Mino-León; Graciela Pérez-Villaseñor; Yaneth Díaz-Torres; Rodrigo Muñóz-Olvera



Progressive supranuclear palsy and In111-DTPA cisternography.  

PubMed Central

Three cases of progressive supranuclear palsy are reported in which In111-DTPA cisternography showed slow diffusion, ventricular reflux and failure of isotope clearance. The clinical diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy was confirmed histologically in two of these patients. The possible causes of the cisternographic changes and their relationship to the changes of CSF dynamics in progressive supranuclear palsy are discussed. Images

Brusa, A; Claudiani, F; Meneghini, S; Mombelloni, P; Piccardo, A



Effectiveness and Toxicity of Several DTPA Broadening Agents for Biological ESR Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of a standard ESR broadening agent, potassium trioxalatochromiate (CrOx), for use with the spin-label tempone, was compared to that of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) containing an ion (Gd, Cr, Mn, Fe) with a large magnetic moment. Signal attenuation, line broadening, toxicity, and cell membrane permeability were compared. As a broadening agent, CrOx was most effective, followed by Fe-DTPA. CrOx proved mildly toxic while Gd-DTPA and Fe-DTPA were virtually nontoxic. The human red blood cell membrane was tested for permeability to Fe- and Gd-DTPA and found to be impermeable to both. In situations where toxicity to cells is critical, the DTPA chelates, particularly Fe-DTPA, may prove an acceptable substitute for CrOx.

Zaplatin, A. N.; Baker, Kent A.; Kleinhans, F. W.


Aerosol Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention pertains to devices for the production of dry aerosol and the treatment of rodent burrows with it. Existing aerosol generators include a fan with an air duct, a muffled engine a guiding pipe, and a control mechanism. In the proposed generato...

B. M. Kasatkin N. V. Kasatkina



Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of negatively charged ¹¹¹In-DTPA-octreotide derivatives.  


Our previous studies indicated that (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((111)In-DTPA)-octreotide derivatives with an additional negative charge by replacing N-terminal d-phenylalanine (d-Phe) with an acidic amino acid such as l-aspartic acid (Asp) or its derivative exhibited low renal radioactivity levels when compared with (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide. On the basis of the findings, we designed, synthesized and evaluated two Asp-modified (111)In-DTPA-conjugated octreotide derivatives, (111)In-DTPA-Asp(1)-octreotide and (111)In-DTPA-Asp(0)-D-Phe(1)-octreotide. While (111)In-DTPA-Asp(1)-octreotide showed negligible AR42J cell uptake, (111)In-DTPA-Asp(0)-D-Phe(1)-octreotide exhibited AR42J cell uptake similar to that of (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide. When administered to AR42J tumor-bearing mice, (111)In-DTPA-Asp(0)-D-Phe(1)-octreotide exhibited renal radioactivity levels significantly lower than did (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide at 1 and 3 h post-injection. No significant differences were observed in tumor accumulation between (111)In-DTPA-Asp(0)-D-Phe(1)-octreotide and (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide after 1 and 3h injection. The findings in this study suggested that an interposition of an Asp at an appropriate position in (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide would constitute a useful strategy to develop (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide derivatives of low renal radioactivity levels while preserving tumor accumulation. PMID:24457092

Oshima, Nobuhiro; Akizawa, Hiromichi; Zhao, Songji; Zhao, Yan; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Kitamura, Yoji; Arano, Yasushi; Kuge, Yuji; Ohkura, Kazue



Tropospheric Aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m, PM2.5=0.3 ?g m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m, PM10=1.1 ?g m-3; estimated coefficient of light scattering by particulate matter, ?ep, at 570 nm=12 Mm-1). (b) High aerosol concentration (PM2.5=43.9 ?g m-3; PM10=83.4 ?g m-3; estimated ?ep at 570 nm=245 Mm-1) (reproduced by permission of National Park Service, 2002). Although comprising only a small fraction of the mass of Earth's atmosphere, aerosol particles are highly important constituents of the atmosphere. Special interest has focused on aerosols in the troposphere, the lowest part of the atmosphere, extending from the land or ocean surface typically to ˜8 km at high latitudes, ˜12 km in mid-latitudes, and ˜16 km at low latitudes. That interest arises in large part because of the importance of aerosol particles in geophysical processes, human health impairment through inhalation, environmental effects through deposition, visibility degradation, and influences on atmospheric radiation and climate.Anthropogenic aerosols are thought to exert a substantial influence on Earth's climate, and the need to quantify this influence has sparked much of the current interest in and research on tropospheric aerosols. The principal mechanisms by which aerosols influence the Earth radiation budget are scattering and absorbing solar radiation (the so-called "direct effects") and modifying clouds and precipitation, thereby affecting both radiation and hydrology (the so-called "indirect effects"). Light scattering by aerosols increases the brightness of the planet, producing a cooling influence. Light-absorbing aerosols such as black carbon exert a warming influence. Aerosols increase the reflectivity of clouds, another cooling influence. These radiative influences are quantified as forcings, where a forcing is a perturbation to the energy balance of the atmosphere-Earth system, expressed in units of watts per square meter, W m-2. A warming influence is denoted a positive forcing, and a cooling influence, negative. The radiative direct and indirect forcings by anthropogenic aerosols are thought to be of comparable magnitude to the posi

Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.



Influence of posture and positive end-tidal expiratory pressure (PEEP) on clearance of Tc99m-DTPA from the lungs  

SciTech Connect

The clearance of Tc99m-DTPA aerosols from the lung has been used to detect and quantitate alterations in the permeability of the pulmonary epithelium. Clearance of the radionuclide is accelerated by both chronic and acute injuries to the lung and by smoking. Several laboratories have reported that Tc99m-DTPA clearance from upper lobes exceeded that from lower lobes in upright subjects. To investigate this phenomenon further the authors studied subjects with simultaneous anterior and posterior cameras in upright and supine positions. In the upright position, clearance from both the anterior and posterior upper regions of interest (ROI's) exceeded the lower regions (-1.64 +- .42 S.D. vs. -0.75 +- .41, anterior, p < .05, n=6), -1.04 +- .23 vs. -0.50 +- .36, posterior. All units = %/min. This difference was not observed in the supine subjects. Clearance from the anterior chest exceeded that from the posterior chest in the supine subjects (-1.28 +- .45 vs. -0.05 +- 1.08) and a small increase in radio-activity was observed in at least one ROI of 5 of 6 subjects from the posterior camera. An increase in activity is likely to be secondary to labeling of blood pool, which would have greatest affect where pulmonary blood volume is largest. Computer processing of the entire lung without observer bias in ROI placement showed similar effects of posture over non-peripheral ROI's. Five subjects breathed on PEEP to cause airspace distention, causing clearance to double. Both dependency and airspace distention appear to influence clearance of aerosolized DTPA, the latter may occur by stretching of epithelial pores.

Mason, G.R.; Maublant, J.; Sietsema, K.; Effros, R.M.; Mena, I.



Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

The clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was studied in 14 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance during HD was 37.8% +/- 10.1 of creatinine clearance. Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance in PD was 65.1% +/- 10.3 of creatinine clearance. Tc-99m DTPA, with a larger molecular weight than that of creatinine, is cleared relatively better during PD than during HD. Thus Tc-99m DTPA may be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of different dialytic treatments for substances of similar molecular weight. In addition, our study shows that clearance of DTPA both in HD and PD is sufficiently high to allow the removal of this chelating agent in patients with renal failure.

Wainer, E.; Boner, G.; Lubin, E.; Rosenfeld, J.B.



Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral infarction: Time course of Gd-DTPA enhancement and CT comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five patients (7 females and 28 males) with cerebral infarction and suspicion of cerebral infarction of 4 h to 27 months duration were studied 45 times with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using Bd-DTPA. Spin echo (SE) images were obtained before and after the administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 or 0.15 mmol\\/kg) and compared with the enhanced CT. MR imaging using Gd-DTPA

S. Imakita; T. Nishimura; N. Yamada; H. Naito; M. Takamiya; Y. Yamada; J. Minamikawa; H. Kikuchi; M. Nakamura; T. Sawada; J. Choki; T. Yamaguchi



Biodistribution of Ru97-labeled DTPA, DMSA and transferrin. [Diagnostic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruthenium-97 is being produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The favorable physical properties of Ru-97 and chemical reactivity of ruthenium offer a potential for using this isotope to label compounds useful for delayed scanning. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and Transferrin (TF) were labeled with Ru-97-chloride. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA, injected intravenously, showed similar organ distribution, kinetics,

P. Som; Z. H. Oster; R. G. Fairchild; H. L. Atkins; A. B. Brill; M. C. Gil; S. C. Srivastava; G. E. Meinken; A. G. Goldman; P. Richards



Enhancement of relaxivity rates of Gd-DTPA complexes by intercalation into layered double hydroxide nanoparticles.  


In this paper we report the preparation and characterization of [Gd(dtpa)](2-) intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterials. [Gd(dtpa)](2-) (gadolinium(III) diethylene triamine pentaacetate) was transferred into LDH by anionic exchange. The intercalation of [Gd(dtpa)](2-) into LDH was confirmed by X-ray diffraction for the new phase with the interlayer spacing of 3.5-4.0 nm and by FTIR for the characteristic vibration peaks of [Gd(dtpa)](2-). The morphology of the nanoparticles was influenced by the extent of [Gd(dtpa)](2-) loading, in which the poly-dispersity quality decreased as the [Gd(dtpa)](2-) loading was increased. Compared with the morphology of the original Mg(2)Al-Cl-LDH nanoparticles (hexagonal plate-like sheets of 50-200 nm), the modified LDH-Gd(dtpa) nanoparticles are bar-like with a width of 30-60 nm and a length of 50-150 nm. LDH-Gd(dtpa) was expected to have an increased water proton magnetic resonance relaxivity due to the intercalation of [Gd(dtpa)](2-) into the LDH interlayer that led to slower molecular anisotropic tumbling compared with free [Gd(dtpa)](2-) in solution. Indeed, LDH-nanoparticle suspension containing approximately 1.6 mM [Gd(dtpa)](2-) exhibits a longitudinal proton relaxivity r(1) of approximately 16 mM(-1) s(-1) and a transverse proton relaxivity r(2) of approximately 50 mM(-1) s(-1) at room temperature and a magnetic field of 190 MHz, which represents an enhancement four times (r(1)) and 12 times (r(2)) that of free [Gd(dtpa)](2-) in solution under the same reaction conditions. We have thus tailored LDH-nanoparticles into a novel contrast agent with strong relaxivity, promising for great potential applications in magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:17186555

Xu, Zhi Ping; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Bartlett, Perry F; Lu, Gao Qing



Iron availability in peat substrates as assessed by water, calcium chloride, ammonium acetate, DTPA and calcium chloride\\/DTPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to find out which extractant for a peat substrate gave the best prediction of iron (Fe) uptake by the plant. Iron was added in four levels (including zero) to peat in the form of either EDTA or sulphate, at two pH levels. Iron from the peat was extracted by water, 0.01M CaCl2,0.5M NH4OAc, 0.002M DTPA and

C. de Kreij; C. W. van Elderen; H. Bajar



Effect of molecular charges on renal uptake of 111In-DTPA-conjugated peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of molecular charges on renal accumulation of 111In-DTPA-labeled low molecular weight (LMW) peptides was investigated using 111In-DTPA-octreotide derivatives as models to design radiolabeled peptides that are taken up less by renal cells. The N-terminal d-phenylalanine (Phe) of 111In-DTPA-d-Phe1-octreotide was replaced with l-aspartic acid (Asp), l-lysine (Lys), l-methionine (Met) or l-Phe. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis indicated that both 111In-DTPA-l-Phe1-octreotide and

Hiromichi Akizawa; Yasushi Arano; Masaki Mifune; Akimasa Iwado; Yutaka Saito; Takahiro Mukai; Tomoya Uehara; Masahiro Ono; Yasushi Fujioka; Kazuma Ogawa; Yoshiaki Kiso; Hideo Saji



Radioimmunodetection of medullary thyroid cancer using a bispecific anti-CEA/anti-indium-DTPA antibody and an indium-111-labeled DTPA dimer.  


Two-step radioimmunotargeting using a bispecific anti-CEA/anti-in-DTPA monoclonal antibody and an 111In-labeled DTPA dimer (diDTPA-TL) was evaluated nine times in eight patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Immunoscintigraphy was performed 5 and 24 hr after injection of 111In-diDTPA-TL. For five patients, radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) was performed using a hand-held gamma probe (sodium iodine), and a biodistribution study was performed 48 hr (four times) and 24 hr (one time) after injection of 111In-diDTPA-TL. Mean tumor uptake (%ID/kg in tumor) was 39 (range 2.75-139). In these five patients, immunoscintigraphy visualized all known tumors and detected unknown foci (US and CT were negative) in the neck (once) and neck and liver (once). Immunoscintigraphy, performed four times in search of a recurrence, detected unknown localizations in the mediastinum and neck (twice) and was negative twice. There were no false-positives. In three of five patients who had surgery, RIGS localized tumor foci not detected by the surgeon. RIGS failed to detect two small lesions (10 x 10 mm) corresponding to sites of fibrosis and microscopic cancer infiltration. Bispecific anti-CEA/anti-In-DTPA mediated targeting of 111In-diDTPA-TL provided elevated tumor uptake and tumor-to-normal tissue ratios. Radioimmunodetection of small MTC lesions is thus possible even when morphological imaging techniques prove negative. PMID:8326383

Peltier, P; Curtet, C; Chatal, J F; Le Doussal, J M; Daniel, G; Aillet, G; Gruaz-Guyon, A; Barbet, J; Delaage, M



A new approach to quantification of DTPA incorporation into monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) labeled by the cyclic anhydride DTPA method  

SciTech Connect

A method for determining the ratio of DTPA molecules attached per molecule of Ab was developed and used to examine the immunoreactivity of different Abs as a function of the amount of incorporated DTPA. The bicyclic anhydride of DTPA(2-C-14)acetic acid (BADTPA-C-14) was synthesized by reacting DTPA(2-C-14)acetic acid (1mCi/mmo1) and acetic anhydride. BADTPA-C-14 then was reacted with a MoAb to a melanoma associated antigen (MA) and to a MoAb to human HLA class II antigen (HLA) at 2mg/m1 of MoAb concentration, at MoAb to BADTPA-C-14 ratios (mmo1/mmo1) of l:1, 1:10, 1:00, l:200. The conjugate was dialyzed exhaustively against HEPES at pH 7.0. The MoAb concentration was measured at 280mm of uv; the DTPA/MoAb ratio was calculated based on the specific activity of BADTPA-C-14, and the immunoreactivity was assessed by direct cell-binding to melanoma, the HLA antigen and control (lymphoma) cells. Percent binding to the lymphoid cell line was less than 3%. The authors' results demonstrated a method for directly determining the number of DTPA molecules attached to a MOAb, and demonstrated variations in immunoreactivity as the number of DTPA groups per MoAb is altered.

Wang, T.S.T.; Ng, A.K.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Alsedairy, S.; Alderson, P.O.



99m Tc-DTPA dynamic SPECT and CT volumetry for measuring split renal function in live kidney donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Split renal function (SRF) estimated from the posterior view of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid planar scintigraphy (DTPA\\/P) is not sufficiently accurate even after correction for\\u000a kidney depth by computed tomography (CT). To obtain more accurate SRF using 99mTc-DTPA, dynamic SPECT method was carried out for the initial 5 min after bolus injection of 99mTc-DTPA (DTPA\\/SPECT). Also SRF was evaluated from the renal volume

Chihoko Miyazaki; Hiroshi Harada; Noriyuki Shuke; Atsutaka Okizaki; Masayoshi Miura; Tetsuo Hirano



Tissue distribution and magnetic resonance spin lattice relaxation effects of gadolinium-DTPA  

SciTech Connect

Gadolinium-DTPA complex (Gd-DTPA) is a potential clinical magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent that enhances images primarily by decreasing spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) in tissues in which it localizes. This study was designed to determine the immediate tissue distribution of intravenously administered Gd-DTPA in selected organs of interest as a function of administered dose and tissue GD-DTPA concentrations. An intravenous bolus of Gd-DTPA with a tracer quantity of Gd-153 was administered to three groups of rabbits. The order of tissue relaxation rate response to a given dose was kidney > serum > lung > heart > liver > spleen. The authors conclude that because of its extracellular distribution and linear relaxation rate versus concentration relationship, Gd-DPTA enhancement in MR images may be a good marker of relative organ perfusion.

Strich, G.; Hagan, P.L.; Gerber, K.H.; Slutsky, R.A.



Hemodynamic effects of rapid and slow infusions of manganese chloride and gadolinium-DTPA in dogs  

SciTech Connect

The acute hemodynamic effects of two paramagnetic contrast materials, manganese chloride and gadolinium-DTPA, were examined in dogs using ultrasonic dimension gauge crystals. Slow infusions (more than 15 minutes) of MnCl/sub 2/ or Gd-DTPA via an infusion pump had no significant hemodynamic effects. When given in just over 1 minute, Gd-DTPA produced elevated left ventricular (LV) end diastolic pressure and minor dilation of the ventricle and slowed diastolic filling. MnCl/sub 2/, given rapidly, reduced systemic vascular resistance, resulting in hypotension. With both agents, these side effects waned after 5-10 minutes. It is concluded that both Gd-DTPA and MnCl/sub 2/ can be given safely in 0.1-mm/kg doses when administered as a slow, continuous infusion. Slow, intravenous infusion of Gd-DTPA or MnCl/sub 2/ is likely to be tolerated well by even severely ill individuals.

Slutsky, R.A.; Peterson, T.; Strich, G.; Brown, J.J.



Characteristics of gadolinium-DTPA complex: a potential NMR contrast agent  

SciTech Connect

Chelation of the rare-earth element gadolinium (Gd) with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) results in a strongly paramagnetic, stable complex that is well tolerated in animals. The strongly paramagnetic gadolinium complex reduces hydrogen-proton relaxation times even in low concentrations (less than 0.01 mmol/L). The pharmacokinetic behavior of intravenously delivered Gd-DTPA is similar to the well known iodinated contrast agents used in urography and angiography; excretion is predominately through the kidneys with greater than 90% recovery in 24 hr. The intravenous LD/sub 50/ of the meglumine salt of Gd-DTPA is 10 mmol/kg for the rat; in vivo there is no evidence of dissociation of the gadolinium ion from the DTPA ligand. The combination of strong proton relaxation, in-vivo stability, rapid urinary excretion, and high tolerance favors the further development and the potential clinical application of gadolinium-DTPA as a contrast enhancer in magnetic resonance imaging.

Weinmann, H.J.; Brasch, R.C.; Press, W.R.; Wesbey, G.E.



Characteristics of gadolinium-DTPA complex: a potential NMR contrast agent.  


Chelation of the rare-earth element gadolinium (Gd) with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) results in a strongly paramagnetic, stable complex that is well tolerated in animals. The strongly paramagnetic gadolinium complex reduces hydrogen-proton relaxation times even in low concentrations (less than 0.01 mmol/L). The pharmacokinetic behavior of intravenously delivered Gd-DTPA is similar to the well known iodinated contrast agents used in urography and angiography; excretion is predominantly through the kidneys with greater than 90% recovery in 24 hr. The intravenous LD50 of the meglumine salt of Gd-DTPA is 10 mmol/kg for the rat; in vivo there is no evidence of dissociation of the gadolinium ion from the DTPA ligand. The combination of strong proton relaxation, in-vivo stability, rapid urinary excretion, and high tolerance favors the further development and the potential clinical application of gadolinium-DTPA as a contrast enhancer in magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:6607655

Weinmann, H J; Brasch, R C; Press, W R; Wesbey, G E



Pharmacokinetic analysis of blood distribution of intravenously administered sup 153 Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- and sup 99m Tc(DTPA) in rats  

SciTech Connect

Rat plasma distribution data obtained following IV administration of {sup 99m}Tc(DTPA) alone or after co-administration of {sup 99m}Tc(DTPA) and {sup 153}Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- at 0.001, 0.1, and 1.0 mmol Gd/kg were evaluated using compartmental modeling techniques. A three-compartment open model was found to fit the data significantly better (P less than 0.01) than a two- or four-compartment open model. This model incorporates and links the plasma and urine data and includes a delay to account for the transit time through the kidneys/ureters. The two nonplasma compartments of the model were assumed to be related to rapidly and slowly equilibrating tissues. Tc(DTPA) and Gd(DTPA)2- had nearly identical pharmacokinetic profiles in plasma and the rate constants were essentially the same. No significant dose dependent pharmacokinetic differences were found for the range of Gd(DTPA)2- doses tested. Simulations of the proposed three-compartment model were used to generate concentration-time curves for each of the three compartments.

Wedeking, P.; Eaton, S.; Covell, D.G.; Nair, S.; Tweedle, M.F.; Eckelman, W.C. (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, NJ (USA))



A pharmacokinetic approach to the evaluation of aerosol solutes for lung permeability studies  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and clearance of inhaled radioactive aerosols prepared from five Tc-99m labelled derivatives of HIDA, Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m 04- were evaluated in Beagle dogs. The investigation was designed to develop new aerosol solutes and to obtain information on molecular transport across the alveolar capillary membrane by evaluating molecular structure versus biological activity relationships. Aerosols with an aerodynamic mean diameter of .48 microns (sigmag=1.50), produced in a jet nebulizer, were administered to anesthetized dogs through an endotrachial tube. Aerosols were evaluated twice in each of five dogs for three HIDA derivatives, pertechnetate, and DTPA. Two other HIDA derivatives were evaluated twice in one animal. Sixty min. quantitative gamma camera studies were obtained. ROI processing and functional mapping of images showed distribution and clearance of identically sized aerosols to have a strong dependance on chemical properties. Dimethyl HIDA, trimethylbromo HIDA, and DISIDA with capacity factors (k') of -0.24, 0.63, and 0.65 respectively gave mean lung clearance t1/2 times of 76.6, 206.7, and 97.3 min. 4-bromo HIDA and 3,5-dichloro HIDA were administered to one animal; t1/2 times were 80.0 and 330 min. Two hydro-philic compounds, Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m 04-, were examined; t1/2 times were 49.6 min. and 21.2 min. respectively. A trend is seen where t1/2 values increase with lipophilicity; this suggests that structure activity relationships could be built on lipophilicity. These studies support the contention that molecular transport in the lung is an intercellular mechanism.

Waldman, D.L.; Weber, D.A.



Selenium Aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the atmospheric concentrations and size distributions of particulate selenium (Se), aerosols were collected by air filtration and impactor sampling at the Kap Arkona coastal weather station on the Island of Rugen.Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was used to determine Se and numerous other elements as well.The dependence of the Se concentration on the wind direction and the results

Baltic Sea


Effect of gadolinium-DTPA on the magnetic relaxation times of normal and infarcted myocardium. [Dogs  

SciTech Connect

Acute myocardial infarctions were produced in 11 dogs by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Twenty-four hours after ligation Gd-DTPA was injected intravenously, followed by cardiectomy either 90 seconds (3 dogs) or 5 minutes (5 dogs) later. The remaining 3 dogs had cardiectomy without injection of Gd-DTPA at 24 hours after coronary occlusion. The 3 dogs that did not receive Gd-DTPA had longer T1 and T2 relaxation times in infarcted myocardium than in normal myocardium. The T1 and T2 relaxation times of normal myocardium at 90 seconds postinjection of Gd-DTPA were significantly shorter than those of the normal myocardium of animals that did not receive Gd-DTPA. At five minutes postinjection, significantly greater T1 shortening was exhibited in the infarcted myocardium compared with adjacent normal myocardium in the dogs injected with Gd-DTPA. Thus, Gd-DTPA has differential and time-varying effects on relaxation times of normal and infarcted myocardium.

Wesbey, G.E.; Higgins, C.B.; McNamara, M.T.; Engelstad, B.L.; Lipton, M.J.; Sievers, R.; Ehman, R.L.; Lovin, J.; Brasch, R.C.



Comparison of gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and bromide in a dual-tracer field experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a test site consisting of a storage pond and connected artificial aquifer, the long-time behaviour of gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was compared with the classic tracer bromide (Br-) in a 70-day dual-tracer experiment. The mixed tracer solution was injected into the oligotrophic pond, which is separated from the aquifer by an infiltration bank. The water drained from the aquifer was returned to the pond together with additional fresh groundwater, causing reduced concentrations of Gd-DTPA and Br- in the system. Transmetallation of Gd-DTPA by rare earth elements and yttrium was negligible but Cu2+ and Ni2+ might have played a role. Adsorption and/or biodegradation of Gd-DTPA were negligible. The decline of Gd-DTPA/Br ratios by 18% in the pond over 68 days was caused by reversible sorption of Br- in the aquifer, which caused variation of Br- background. Thus, Br- behaves less conservatively than Gd-DTPA in the aquifer. Comparison of both proves the suitability of Gd-chelates as tracers in hydrological studies. The advantage of Gd-DTPA as a tracer is that natural Gd3+ in water can continuously be monitored by analysing the suite of naturally occurring rare-earth elements. Thus, stable organic Gd-chelates are determinable with high precision at very low concentrations.

Dulski, Peter; Möller, Peter; Pekdeger, Asaf



Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia



Modification of the NH4 HCO3?DTPA soil test to omit carbon black  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently Soltanpour and Schwabdeveloped an NH4HCO3 ?DTPA (AB?DTPA) soil test to simultaneously extract NO3, P, K, Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu. In this test carbon black was used to clear the extract for the chromotropic acid method of nitrate determination. However, use of carbon black was inconvenient due to its staining and sometimes contaminative properties. The purpose of the study

P. N. Soltanpour; S. Workman



Magnetic resonance imaging of human cerebral infarction: Enhancement with Gd-DTPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five patients (1 female and 4 males) with cerebral infarction of 4 h to 27 months duration were studied 9 times with magnetic resonance (MR) using Gd-DTPA. Spin-echo (SE) MR images (MRI) were obtained before and after the administration of Gd-DTPA, and correlative CT scans were performed on the same day. In 2 cases, 4 h and 27 months after

S. Imakita; T. Nishimura; H. Naito; N. Yamada; K. Yamamoto; M. Takamiya; Y. Yamada; Y. Sakashita; J. Minamikawa; H. Kikuchi; T. Terada



T1 and T2 measurements of meningiomas and neuromas before and after Gd-DTPA  

SciTech Connect

Seven patients with meningiomas and five patients with neuromas were examined with spin-echo sequences on a 0.35-T imaging system. Signal enhancement and relaxation rate increments with gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) were evaluated, as well as relaxation rate contributions, indicators of Gd-DTPA accessibility to the tissue water. The average signal enhancement rate with Gd-DTPA was higher in neuromas than in meningiomas, 148% and 84%, respectively, but this difference was poorly appreciated on enhanced images because of similar average postcontrast T1 values in both tumors. However, the average T1 relaxation increment was almost twofold higher in neuromas than in meningiomas, 318% and 162%, respectively, mainly deriving from longer intrinsic T1 values in neuromas. Also, there was a 25% increase in the average T2 relaxation rate in neuromas after Gd-DTPA together with a higher T2 contribution by Gd-DTPA, while such effects were hardly discernible in meningiomas, suggestive of greater accessibility of Gd-DTPA to the tissue water in neuromas. By electron microscopy, endothelial fenestration and open gap junctions are commonly found in capillaries of both tumors, functioning as the routes into the extracellular space where the major contrast effect of Gd-DTPA can be expected. However, the open gap junctions are short and straight in neuromas, while they are tortuous and sinusoid in meningiomas. This may provide greater access for contrast material into relatively larger extracellular spaces in neuromas and may cause a greater T1 relaxation rate increment with Gd-DTPA.

Watabe, T.; Azuma, T.



Synthesis and evaluation of Gd-DTPA-labeled arabinogalactans as potential MRI contrast agents.  


Arabinogalactan derivatives conjugated with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) by ethylenediamine (Gd-DTPA-CMAG-A2) or hexylamine (Gd-DTPA-CMAG-A6) have been synthesized and characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Relaxivity studies showed that arabinogalactan-bound complexes possessed higher relaxation effectiveness compared with the clinically used Gd-DTPA, and the influence of the spacer arm lengths on the T1 relaxivities was studied. Their stability was investigated by competition study with Ca2+, EDTA, and DTPA. MR imaging of Wistar rats showed remarkable enhancement in rat liver and kidney after i.v. injection of Gd-DTPA-CMAG-A2 (0.079+/-0.002 mmol/kg Gd3+): The mean percentage enhancement of the liver parenchyma and kidney was 38.7+/-6.4% and 69.4+/-4.4% at 10-30 min. Our preliminary in vivo and in vitro study indicates that the arabinogalactan-bound complexes are potential liver-specific contrast agents for MRI. PMID:18258223

Li, Weisheng; Li, Zhongfeng; Jing, Fengying; Deng, Yuefeng; Wei, Lai; Liao, Peiqiu; Yang, Xiangguang; Li, Xiaojing; Pei, Fengkui; Wang, Xuxia; Lei, Hao



Acute myocardial ischemia: magnetic resonance contrast enhancement with gadolinium-DTPA. [Dogs  

SciTech Connect

Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) was used to improve the diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance (MR) in detecting early ischemia, before the onset of infarction. Following one minute of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, 9 dogs were intraveneously injected with either 0.5 mM/kg of Gd-DTPA (6 dogs) or normal saline (3 dogs). There was no visible difference in intensity or alterations in magnetic relaxation times between normal and ischemic myocardium in the control (saline-injected) animals. The Gd-DTPA-injected dogs had a well-defined segment of high intensity representing the ischemic myocardium in the anterior wall of the left ventricle. Both T1 and T2 were significantly shortened in the normal myocardium of the Gd-DTPA animals, but relatively greater T2 relaxation rate enhancement resulted in reduced intensity of normal myocardium, thus increasing contrast with ischemic myocardium. It is concluded that Gd-DTPA has the potential to expand the sensitivity and diagnostic utility of MR in the study of occlusive coronary artery disease.

McNamara, M.T.; Higgins, C.B.; Ehman, R.L.; Revel, D.; Sievers, R.; Brasch, R.C.



Distribution and elimination characteristics of 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 -octreotide and 111 In-DTPA-L-Phe 1 -octreotide in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The present study compares distribution and elimination characteristics of111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide and111In-DTPA-L-Phe1 octreotide in rats and evaluated the effect of the replacement of the terminal L-phenylalanine by D-phenylalanine on pharmacokinetic\\u000a profiles of the radiolabelled peptides. Both agents exhibited rapid radioactivity clearance from the blood and most organs\\u000a and tissues with no systematic and significant differences in activity accumulation. The long-term retention and

Alice Laznickova; M. LAZNICEKI; F. Trejtnar; L. Melicharova; Kazuko Horuichi Suzuki; Hiromichi Akizawa; Yasushi Arano; Akira Yokoyama



Lung deposition and pharmacokinetics of nebulized cyclosporine in lung transplant patients.  


Abstract Background: Inhaled cyclosporine (CsA) is being investigated as a prophylaxis for lung transplant rejection. Lung deposition and systemic exposure of nebulized CsA in lung transplant patients was evaluated as part of the Phase 3 cyclosporine inhalation solution (CIS) trial (CYCLIST). Methods: Ten patients received 300?mg of CIS (62.5?mg/mL CsA in propylene glycol) admixed with 148?MBq of Tc-DTPA (technetium-99m bound to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) administered using a Sidestream(®) disposable jet nebulizer. Deposition was assessed using a dual-headed gamma camera. Blood samples were collected over a 24-hr time period after aerosol dosing and analyzed for CsA levels. A pharmacokinetic analysis of the resulting blood concentration versus time profiles was performed. Results: The average total deposited dose was 53.7±12.7?mg. Average pulmonary dose was 31.8±16.3?mg, and stomach dose averaged 15.5±11.1?mg. Device performance was consistent, with breathing maneuvers influencing dose variation. Predose coaching with five of 10 patients reduced stomach deposition (22.6±11.2 vs. 8.3±5.2?mg; p=0.03). Blood concentrations declined quickly from a maximum of 372±140?ng/mL to 15.3±9.7?ng/mL at 24?hr post dose. Levels of AUC(0-24) [area under the concentration vs. time curve from 0 to 24?hr] averaged 1,493±746?ng hr/mL. On a three times per week dose regimen, this represents <5% of the weekly systemic exposure of twice per day oral administration. Conclusions: Substantial doses of CsA can be delivered to the lungs of lung transplant patients by inhaled aerosol. Systemic levels are small relative to typical oral CsA administration. PMID:23668548

Corcoran, T E; Niven, R; Verret, W; Dilly, S; Johnson, B A



Aerosol gels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)



Induction of sister chromatid exchange in the presence of gadolinium-DTPA and its reduction by dimethyl sulfoxide  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigate the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) after the addition of gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA to venous blood samples. Venous blood was obtained from nonsmokers. Samples were incubated with Gd-DTPA alone or in combination with mitomycin C, cytarabine, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and then evaluated for SCEs. The frequency of SCE increased with the concentration of Gd-DTPA and as each chemotherapeutic agent was added. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies were lower when the blood was treated with a combination of Gd-DTPA and DMSO compared with Gd-DTPA alone. The increase in frequency of SCE seen after the addition of Gd-DTPA was decreased by the addition of DMSO, indicating the production of hydroxyl radicals. The effect likely is dissociation-related. 14 refs., 6 tabs.

Yamazaki, Etsuo; Fukuda, Hozumi; Shibuya, Hitoshi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Yokohama (Japan)] [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Yokohama (Japan); Matsubara, Sho [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan)] [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan)



Sulfonylurea receptor as a target for molecular imaging of pancreas beta cells with 99mTc-DTPA-glipizide  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was aimed to assess pancreas beta cell activity using 99mTc-diethyleneaminepentaacetic acid-glipizide (DTPA-GLP), a sulfonylurea receptor agent. The effect of DTPA-GLP on the blood glucose level in rats was also evaluated. Methods DTPA dianhydride was conjugated with GLP in the presence of sodium amide, yielding 60%. Biodistribution and planar images were obtained at 30–120 min after injection of 99mTc-DTPA-GLP (1 mg/rat, 0.74 and 11.1 MBq per rat, respectively) in normal female Fischer 344 rats. The control group was given 99mTc-DTPA. To demonstrate pancreas beta cell uptake of 99mTc-DTPA-GLP via a receptor-mediated process, a group of rats was pretreated with streptozotocin (a beta cell toxin, 55 mg/kg, i.v.) and the images were acquired at immediately—65 min on day 5 post-treatment. The effect on the glucose levels after a single administration (ip) of DTPA-GLP was compared to glipizide (GLP) for up to 6 h. Results The structure of DTPA-GLP was confirmed by NMR, mass spectrometry and HPLC. Radiochemical purity assessed by ITLC was >96%. 99mTc-DTPA-GLP showed increased pancreas-to-muscle ratios, whereas 99mTc-DTPA showed decreased ratios at various time points. Pancreas could be visualized with 99mTc-DTPA-GLP in normal rat, however, 99mTc-DTPA has poor uptake suggesting the specificity of 99mTc-DTPA-GLP. Pancreas beta cell uptake could be blocked by pre-treatment with streptozotocin. DTPA-GLP showed an equal or better response in lowering the glucose levels compared to the existing GLP drug. Conclusions It is feasible to use 99mTc-DTPA-GLP to assess pancreas beta cell receptor recognition. 99mTc-DTPA-GLP may be helpful in evaluating patients with diabetes, pancreatitis and pancreatic tumors.

Oh, Chang-Sok; Kohanim, Saady; Kong, Fan-Lin; Song, Ho-Chun; Huynh, Nathan; Mendez, Richard; Chanda, Mithu; Kim, E. Edmund



Evaluating the toxicity of novel Zn-DTPA tablet formulation in dogs and rats.  


The purpose of this research work is to evaluate toxicity of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid zinc trisodium salt (Zn-DTPA) tablets, a novel oral solid dosage form containing permeation enhancers in beagle dogs and Sprague Dawley rats. (Zn-DTPA) in tablet dosage form was administered once daily for 7 days to beagle dogs at low (840?mg/dog/day), mid (2520?mg/dog/day), or high (7560?mg/dog/day). On day 8, all treated and control groups were necropsied. The novel Zn-DTPA tablet formulation showed rapid absorption with the T(max) at 1?h. Plasma concentrations as high as 270??g/mL were observed after 7 days of administration. Exposure to DTPA, based on area under the curve (AUC(last)) and maximum concentration (C(max)), was dose dependent but not dose proportional. No biologically relevant changes in hematology or clinical chemistry that were related to DTPA exposure were observed, and there were no changes in body weight in treated dogs compared with controls. Zn-DTPA was well tolerated, with minor toxicological effects of emesis and diarrhea, following oral tablet administration for 7 consecutive days. Based on the endpoints evaluated in this study, the maximum tolerated dose is considered to be greater than 7560?mg/dog/day (2535??mol/kg/day, 1325?mg/kg/day), and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) is considered to be approximately 1325?mg/kg/day per oral when given to male and female beagle dogs. For rats, the NOAEL was estimated to be greater than 1000?mg/kg/day when administered by oral gavage of the crushed Zn-DTPA tablets as suspension once daily (qd) to male and female Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:24648048

Shankar, Gita N; Potharaju, Suresh; Green, Carol E



Aerosol mobility size spectrometer  


A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)




EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes progress in measuring the optical properties of aerosols and in relating aerosol characteristics to visibility reduction made in the author's laboratory during the period 1965-1971. An instrument, the integrating nephelometer, which measures the scattering ...


Acid Aerosols Issue Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been...




EPA Science Inventory

The report described by this Project Summary presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also review...


Biodistribution and scintigraphy of [111In]DTPA-adriamycin in mammary tumor-bearing rats.  


The aim of this study was to develop an 111In-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-adriamycin (DTPA-ADR) conjugate to image breast cancer. DTPA-ADR was synthesized by reacting adriamycin with DTPA anhydride in the presence of carbonyldiimidazole. After dialysis (MW cut off was 500), the product was freeze-dried (yield 40-50%). An in vitro cell culture study was performed using cells from the 13,762 Fischer rat mammary tumor line. Drug concentrations tested were 0.1-100 microM. Biodistribution studies were conducted at 0.5, 2, 24 and 48 h in mammary tumor-bearing rats (n = 3/time interval, 10 microCi/rat, i.v.) with 13,762 cells (10(5) cells/rat, s.c.). Planar imaging and autoradiograms were obtained at the same intervals. In vitro cell culture assays showed an IC50 of 0.1 +/- 0.01 microM for ADR and 7.2 +/- 0.29 microM for DTPA-ADR, respectively. In biodistribution studies, tumor/blood uptake ratios of [111In]DTPA-ADR at 0.5, 2, 24 and 48 h were 0.55 +/- 0.17, 0.94 +/- 0.17, 3.06 +/- 0.53 and 3.66 +/- 0.35, respectively, whereas those for [111In]DTPA (control) were 1.19 +/- 0.69, 0.84 +/- 0.07, 0.56 +/- 0.10 and 0.60 +/- 0.03, respectively. The tumor uptake value (%ID/g) of [111In]DTPA-ADR at 0.5 h was 0.20 +/- 0.06. Planar images and autoradiograms showed good visability of tumors. Biodistribution, autoradiography and radionuclide imaging of [111In]DTPA-ADR in breast tumor-bearing rats showed that tumor-to-blood ratios increased steadily between 30 min and 48 h. These results indicate that DTPA-ADR, a new cancer imaging agent, might be useful in the diagnosis of breast cancer and may predict a therapeutic effect prior to treatment. PMID:10194551

Higuchi, T; Yang, D J; Ilgan, S; Tansey, L W; Zareneyrizi, F; Inoue, T; Endo, K; Kim, E E; Podoloff, D A



Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to sup 99m Tc-DTPA  

SciTech Connect

Respiratory epithelial clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of {sup 113m}In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy.

Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J. (Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France))



Synthesis and evaluation of novel polysaccharide-Gd-DTPA compounds as contrast agent for MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macromolecular conjugates of two kinds of natural polysaccharides, that from Panax quinquefolium linn (PQPS) and Ganoderma applanatum pat (GAPS), with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) have been synthesized and characterized by means of FTIR, elementary analysis and ICP-AES. Their stability was investigated by competition study with Ca 2+, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and DTPA. Polysaccharide-bound complexes exhibit T1 relaxivities of 1.5-1.7 times that of Gd-DTPA in D 2O at 25°C and 9.4 T. MR imaging of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats showed remarkable enhancement in rat liver and kidney after i.v. injection of these two complexes: liver parenchyma 60.9±5.6%, 57.8±7.4% at 65-85 min; kidney 144.9±14.5%, 199.9±25.4% at 10-30 min for PQPS-Gd-DTPA, GAPS-Gd-DTPA at gadolinium dose of 0.083 and 0.082 mmol/kg, respectively. Our preliminary in vivo and in vitro study indicates that the two kinds of polysaccharide-bound complexes are potential tissue-specific contrast agents for MRI.

Sun, Guoying; Feng, Jianghua; Jing, Fengying; Pei, Fengkui; Liu, Maili



Solid aerosol generator  


An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.



Solid aerosol generator  


An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

Prescott, Donald S. (Shelley, ID) [Shelley, ID; Schober, Robert K. (Midwest City, OK) [Midwest City, OK; Beller, John (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID



Improved solid aerosol generator  


An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.



The Degradation and Clearance of Poly(N-hydroxypropyl-L-glutamine)-DTPA-Gd as a Blood Pool MRI Contrast Agent  

PubMed Central

Although polymeric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents have significantly improved relaxivity and prolonged circulation time in vivo compared with current imaging agents, the potential for long-term toxicity prevents their translation into the clinic. The aim of this study was to develop a new biodegradable, nonionic polymeric blood pool MRI contrast agent with efficient clearance from the body. We synthesized PHPG-DTPA, which possesses two potentially degradable sites in vivo: protein amide bonds of the polymer backbone susceptible to enzymatic degradation and hydrolytically labile ester bonds in the side chains. After chelation with Gd3+, PHPG-DTPA-Gd displayed an R1 relaxivity of 15.72 mM?1 · sec ?1 (3.7 times higher than that of MagnevistT). In vitro, DTPA was completely released from PHPG polymer within 48 h when incubated in mouse plasma. In vivo, PHPG-DTPA-Gd was cleared via renal route as shown by micro-single photon computed tomography of mice after intravenous injection of 111In-labeled PHPG-DTPA-Gd. MRI of nude rats bearing C6 glioblastoma showed significant enhancement of the tumor periphery after intravenous injection of PHPG-DTPA-Gd. Furthermore, mouse brain angiography was clearly delineated up to 2 h after injection of PHPG-DTPA-Gd. PHPG-DTPA-Gd’s biodegradability, efficient clearance, and significantly increased relaxivity make it a promising polymeric blood pool MRI contrast agent.

Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Rui; Melancon, Marites P.; Wong, Kelvin; You, Jian; Huang, Qian; Bankson, James; Liang, Dong; Li, Chun



The degradation and clearance of Poly(N-hydroxypropyl-L-glutamine)-DTPA-Gd as a blood pool MRI contrast agent.  


Although polymeric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents have significantly improved relaxivity and prolonged circulation time in vivo compared with current imaging agents, the potential for long-term toxicity prevents their translation into the clinic. The aim of this study was to develop a new biodegradable, nonionic polymeric blood pool MRI contrast agent with efficient clearance from the body. We synthesized PHPG-DTPA, which possesses two potentially degradable sites in vivo: protein amide bonds of the polymer backbone susceptible to enzymatic degradation and hydrolytically labile ester bonds in the side chains. After chelation with Gd(3+), PHPG-DTPA-Gd displayed an R(1) relaxivity of 15.72 mm(-1)?sec(-1) (3.7 times higher than that of Magnevist(T)). In vitro, DTPA was completely released from PHPG polymer within 48 h when incubated in mouse plasma. In vivo, PHPG-DTPA-Gd was cleared via renal route as shown by micro-single photon emission computed tomography of mice after intravenous injection of (111)In-labeled PHPG-DTPA-Gd. MRI of nude rats bearing C6 glioblastoma showed significant enhancement of the tumor periphery after intravenous injection of PHPG-DTPA-Gd. Furthermore, mouse brain angiography was clearly delineated up to 2 h after injection of PHPG-DTPA-Gd. PHPG-DTPA-Gd's biodegradability, efficient clearance, and significantly increased relaxivity make it a promising polymeric blood pool MRI contrast agent. PMID:22541356

Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Rui; Melancon, Marites P; Wong, Kelvin; You, Jian; Huang, Qian; Bankson, James; Liang, Dong; Li, Chun



Alveolar epithelial permeability in baboons: histamine and capsaicin.  

PubMed Central

1. We investigated if changes in alveolar epithelial permeability could be initiated by various doses of the irritant capsaicin through stimulation of pulmonary afferent nerves either directly, or indirectly through the release of an intermediate cell mediator, and whether mediation of permeability involved histamine H1 and/or H2 receptors. 2. Alveolar epithelial permeability was indicated by the clearance of peripherally deposited 99mTc-DTPA (technetium-99m-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate) aerosol in baboons. Aerosol challenge experiments were performed twice with histamine (32 mg/ml), once each with capsaicin (10(-6), 10(-5), 10(-4) and 10(-3) M), and once each with histamine (32 mg/ml) preceded by H1 (terfenadine) and H2 (ranitidine) antagonists alone and combined. 3. Mean half-time for 99mTc-DTPA clearance was 66 +/- 4 min. After histamine, it decreased to 41 +/- 5 min (P < 0.05), and after capsaicin it was 70 +/- 5 min (combined doses). Pretreatment with the H1 and H2 antagonists, either separately or in combination, did not consistently inhibit increases in 99mTc-DTPA permeability. 4. Capsaicin caused tachypnoea only at 10(-3) M (P < 0.05). Inhibition of histamine-induced tachypnoea required both antagonists (P < 0.05) suggesting the existence of a population of peripheral sensory neurons possessing H1 and H2 receptors. Changes in permeability were unrelated to the changes in respiratory frequency. Thus, neither the mechanisms that stimulate respiratory frequency, nor the respiratory frequency per se, were responsible for increased alveolar epithelial permeability. 5. Capsaicin did not change epithelial permeability at doses that cause capsaicin-sensitive C fibre stimulation as delineated by increases in respiratory frequency. Nor does C fibre stimulation, induced by mediators released from pulmonary cells activated by low doses of capsaicin, increase epithelial permeability. These data suggest that in the primate, histamine increases epithelial permeability to small solutes by a mechanism independent of the activation of capsaicin-sensitive C fibres and capsaicin-initiated release of cell mediators. 6. These findings do not support a role for C fibre activation in regulating epithelial permeability of small solutes.

Yeates, D B; Hameister, W M



Aerosol penetration ratio: a new index of ventilation  

SciTech Connect

Superimposition of nuclear medicine scintigrams and standard radiographs provides a unique opportunity for merging functional information intrinsic to nuclear medicine images with the high resolution anatomic detail of radiographs. A newly developed image processing system allows the merging of two separate films of greatly varying sizes to form a single composite image. Subsequent quantitative analysis of the composite image may be performed. Using the superimposition technique, (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol ventilation scans (4.5 X 4.5 cm) were superimposed upon chest radiographs (35.6 X 43.2 cm) in 17 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Subsequent quantification of the area of nuclear scan ventilation and the radiographic lung area was then performed. A new quantitative radiologic index of ventilation, the aerosol penetration ratio (APR), was defined. Linear correlation of aerosol penetration ratio with residual volume (RV) as percent of total lung capacity (TLC) measured by body plethysmography was good. We conclude that the APR has validity as a physiologic parameter which localized regional excessive residual volume and correlates well with RV/TLC, the gold standard pulmonary function index of obstructive airway disease.

Sirr, S.A.; Elliott, G.R.; Regelmann, W.E.; Juenemann, P.J.; Morin, R.L.; Boudreau, R.J.; Warwick, W.J.; Loken, M.K.



Particle size influences aerosol deposition in guinea pigs during bronchoconstriction  

SciTech Connect

The role of two factors determining the deposition of aerosols in the respiratory tract was investigated: the particle size and the nature of the airflow in the airways. An aerosol of Tc99 m-DTPA was generated, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of either 3 (Bird nebulizer) or 0.5 (Jouan nebulizer). The vehicle was either saline (S) or histamine (H) at a concentration which was previously shown to induce a 50% decrease of specific airway conductance. Spontaneously breathing guinea pigs were exposed during 2 minutes to the aerosol, then killed and the radioactivity in the pharynx, the trachea, the large bronchi and the remaining parenchyma was measured. Results are evaluated as the percentage of total radioactivity in the respiratory tract (mean +/- SEM). Analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference in the pattern of deposition for large particles (3 during bronchoconstriction: the more proximal deposition can be ascribed to inertial impaction. Particle size should be clearly defined during histamine challenge in experimental animals.

Praud, J.P.; Macquin-Mavier, I.; Wirquin, V.; Meignan, M.; Harf, A.



Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is illustrated how climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols depends on aerosol properties. The climate forcing is a function of aerosols size distribution, but the size dependence can be described well by a single parameter: the area-weighted mean radius, r(eff). If r(eff) is greater than about 2 microns, the global average greenhouse effect of the aerosols exceeds the albedo effect, causing a surface heating. The aerosol climate forcing is less sensitive to other characteristics of the size distribution, the aerosol composition, and the altitude of the aerosols. Thus stratospheric aerosol forcing can be defined accurately from measurements of aerosol extinction over a broad wavelength range.

Lacis, Andrew; Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko



Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We illustrate how climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols depends on aerosol properties. The climate forcing is a function of aerosol size distribution, but the size dependence can be described well by a single parameter: the area-weighted mean radius, reff.If reff is greater than about 2 ?m, the global average greenhouse effect of the aerosols exceeds the albedo effect, causing a surface heating. The aerosol climate forcing is less sensitive to other characteristics of the size distribution, the aerosol composition, and the altitude of the aerosols. Thus stratospheric aerosol forcing can be defined accurately from measurements of aerosol, extinction over a broad wavelength range.

Lacis, Andrew; Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko



Lung inflammation in coal miners assessed by uptake of 67Ga-citrate and clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate aerosol  

SciTech Connect

The authors compared the diffuse lung uptake of 67Ga-citrate, an index of inflammatory lung activity, with the lung clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) aerosol, an index of pulmonary epithelial permeability, in a group of 19 West Virginia coal miners whose pulmonary status was compatible with coal worker's pneumoconiosis. 99mTc-DTPA clearance alone and 67Ga-citrate uptake alone were measured in nine and five additional subjects, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine if increased 99mTc-DTPA lung clearance was caused by inflammation at the lung epithelial surfaces. Subjects inhaled approximately 150 microCi (approximately 5.6 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, and quantitative gamma camera images of the lungs were acquired at 1-min increments for 25 min. Regions of interest (ROI) were selected to include (1) both lungs; (2) each individual lung; and (3) the upper, middle, and lower thirds of each lung. 99mTc-DTPA clearance was determined from the slopes of the respective time-activity plots for the different ROI. Each subject was intravenously administered 50 miCroCk (1.9 MBq)/kg 67Ga-citrate 48 to 72 h before imaging the body between neck and pelvis. The extent of 67Ga-citrate lung uptake was expressed as the gallium index (GI). Mean radioaerosol clearance half-time (T1/2) for the six nonsmoking coal miners (60.6 +/- 16.0 min) was significantly shorter (p less than 0.001) than for the nonsmoking control group (123.8 +/- 28.7 min). T1/2 for the 12 smoking miners (18.4 +/- 10.2 min) was shorter than for the smoking control group (33.1 +/- 17.8 min), but the difference did not attain statistical significance.

Susskind, H.; Rom, W.N. (Clinical Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States))



99mTc-Sn DTPA angioscintigraphy in detection of a pheochromocytoma.  


The authors present one case of pheochromocytoma which was visualized during renal angioscintigraphy using 99mTc-Sn DTPA. An area of increased radioactivity above the left kidney suggested a well-vascularized mass supporting the clinical suspicion of a pheochromocytoma on the left, which was proved by abdominal angiography. During the operation the pheochromocytoma was removed. PMID:7398674

Jakubowski, W; Feltynowski, T; Graban, W



Cisternography and CT scanning with 111In-DTPA in evaluation of posterior fossa arachnoid cysts.  


A patient with a large, long-standing posterior fossa arachnoid cyst was evaluated. Computed tomography was used to demonstrate the cyst. 1111In-DTPA cisternography demonstrated the communication of the cyst with the subarachnoid space, stasis of the 111In in the cystic space, and incomplete ascent of cerebrospinal fluid over the cerebral hemispheres. PMID:477145

Lusins, J; Nakagawa, H; Sorek, M; Goldsmith, S



Amide functional group contribution to the stability of gadolinium(III) complexes: DTPA derivatives  

SciTech Connect

The Gd{sup 3+} complexes of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and several closely related ligands are in use, or being developed, as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The bis(amide) derivatives of DTPA are, like the parent DTPA ligand, octadenate complexing agents of gadolinium, replacing two carboxylate coordinating groups with coordinating amide oxygens. Remarkably, this maintains a significant portion of the stability of the gadolinium complex and an increase in the relative selectivity for Gd{sup 3+} vs Ca{sup 2+}. The magnitude of the contribution of the amide functional groups to this stability is investigated. A diethylenetriaminetricarboxylic acid bis(amide) derivative in which the two terminal amide groups are replaced by methyl groups (bis(methyl)-diethylenetriaminetriacetic acid, DTTA-BM) is found to have a metal ion affinity at pH 7.4 that is 6.75 log units smaller than the effective stability of the bis-amide DTPA derivatives, corresponding to an average contribution of 3.38 log units to the stability of the complex from each amide functional group. The effective stability of the DTTA-BM Ca{sup 2+} complex relative to the bis(amide) ligands does not change as much. Hence, the amide functional groups contribute significant stability for gadolinium complexation but little or no enhancement of calcium complexation, explaining the relative selectivity of bis(amide) ligands as gadolinium(III) complexing agents.

Paul-Roth, C.; Raymond, K.N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)



Contrast-enhanced NMR imaging: animal studies using gadolinium-DTPA complex  

SciTech Connect

Gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA complex was assessed as a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) contrast-enhancing agent by experimentally imaging normal and diseased animals. After intravenous injection, Gd-DTPA, a strongly paramagnetic complex by virtue of unpaired electrons, was rapidly excreted into the urine of rats, producing an easily observable contrast enhancement on NMR images in kidney parenchyma and urine. Sterile soft-tissue abscesses demonstrated an obvious rim pattern of enhancement. A focus of radiation-induced brain damage in a canine model was only faintly detectable on spin-echo NMR images before contrast administration; after 0.5 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA administration, the lesion intensity increased from 3867 to 5590. In comparison, the normal brain with an intact blood-brain barrier remained unchanged in NMR characterization. Gd-DTPA is a promising new NMR contrast enhancer for the clinical assessment of renal function, of inflammatory lesions, and of focal disruption of the blood-brain barrier.

Brasch, R.C.; Weinmann, H.J.; Wesbey, G.E.



Study of the 111In-DTPA complex by the electromigration method.  


The electrophoretic behavior of the 111In-DTPA radiopharmaceutical has been investigated. The stability constant, diffusion coefficient and effective charge of the complex as well as the temperature dependence of the electrophoretic mobility were determined. No-carrier-added 111In with high specific activity was used in the electrophoretic experiments in ultramicroconcentrations (10(-9)M). PMID:12485655

Ivanov, P I; Bontchev, G D; Bozhikov, G A; Filossofov, D V; Maslov, O D; Milanov, M V; Dmitriev, S N



Radiative Effects of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included pollution haze layer from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core.

Valero, Francisco P. J.



Thermoluminescent aerosol analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for detecting and measuring trace amounts of aerosols when reacted with ozone in a gaseous environment was examined. A sample aerosol was exposed to a fixed ozone concentration for a fixed period of time, and a fluorescer was added to the exposed sample. The sample was heated in a 30 C/minute linear temperature profile to 200 C. The trace peak was measured and recorded as a function of the test aerosol and the recorded thermoluminescence trace peak of the fluorescer is specific to the aerosol being tested.

Rogowski, R. S.; Long, E. R., Jr. (inventors)



Detection of pleural effusions and increased lung water by Tc-99m DTPA imaging  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to report a systematic observation of uptake or retention of Tc-99m DTPA in pleural effusions and other abnormal states of increased lung water. 24 patients who underwent renal imaging with 10 mCi Tc-99m DTPA were included. Imaging was performed with a large field of view camera for 0-03 minutes after injection and delayed images acquired 2-4 hours later. The images encompassed the mid and lower thorax as well as kidneys. 15 patients showed, at 0-5 minutes, cold areas at lung bases that later showed relatively increased activity at 2-4 hours (hot on delayed images). 14 of these 15 patients showed pleural effusions on chest x-ray. Small bilateral effusions were more clearly demonstrated by scan than by x-ray in 8 of 15 patients. One patient with pneumonia showed an immediate hot area in the infected lobe, and two with pulmonary edema and congestive failure showed diffuse lung retention of Tc-99m on delayed images. Among 9 patients who did not demonstrate abnormal cold or hot areas in their lungs on DTPA images, none had clinical or x-ray evidence of pleural effusion, pneumonia, or congestive failure (100% negative predictive value). Differences in rate constants for diffusion into vs. out of pleural fluid provide a plausible explanation for the observed retention of tracer in effusions, as seen on delayed images. This study indicates that imaging with Tc-99m DTPA provides information of diagnostic value in the detection of pleural effusions. Futhermore, the data suggests that DTPA imaging may also be useful as a simple, cost-effective method to detect other conditions in which regional lung water is abnormally increased.

Glass, E.C.; Karelitz, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.



Calcium affinity of coordinated diphosphonate ligands. Single-crystal structure of ((en)/sub 2/Co(O/sub 2/P(OH)CH/sub 2/P(OH)O/sub 2/))ClO/sub 4/. H/sub 2/O. Implications for the chemistry of technetium-99m-diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents  

SciTech Connect

A series of (diphosphonato)bis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) complexes, where the diphosphonate ligand has the formula HO/sub 3/P-CR(R')-PO/sub 3/H/sup 2 -/, has been prepared. Members of the series include the following R/R' combinations:H/H, H/CH/sub 3/, CH/sub 3//CH/sub 3/, H/OH, CH/sub 3//OH, phenyl/OH, tert-butyl/OH, H/NH/sub 2/, CH/sub 3//NH/sub 2/, H/N(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/, H/Cl, and Cl/Cl. The complexes have been characterized in all cases by visible-UV, IR, /sup 1/H NMR, and /sup 31/P NMR spectra, in several cases by elemental analyses, and for the prototype title complex (R/R' = H/H) by single-crystal X-ray structural analysis refined to a conventional R factor of 0.034. Equilibrium constants governing the one-to-one association with calcium(II) in dilute aqueous solution (pH 10, NH/sub 4/OH/NH/sub 4/Cl buffer, = 0.1 M (KCl), 25/sup 0/C) have been determined potentiometrically for all diphosphonate complexes as well as for the analogous pyrophosphato and oxalato complexes. Values of the equilibrium constants for the H/OH, H/H, and CH/sub 3//OH complexes are 2.4 x 10/sup 6/, 1.8 x 10/sup 4/, and 1.1 x 10/sup 4/ M/sup -1/, respectively, showing (a) that coordinated diphosphonate ligands have considerable affinity for calcium(II) and (b) that when R' = OH the calcium affinity is enhanced, presumably via coordination of this OH group to calcium and formation of a bidentate-tridentate bridge from cobalt to calcium. This ordering of affinities exactly parallels the ordering of skeletal uptake of these three diphosphonate ligands when labeled with /sup 99//sup m/Tc, implying that binding of Tc-diphosphonate complexes to calcium at the surface of bone is an important step in the mechanism of in vivo action of /sup 99//sup m/Tc-diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents.

Jurisson, S.S. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH); Benedict, J.J.; Elder, R.C.; Whittle, R.; Deutsch, E.



Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

SciTech Connect

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of volcanic aerosol is over 30% faster than one would obtain without this correction. At background, the aerosol size distribution is found to remain remarkably constant between the tropopause and an altitude of approx.25 km, with a sudden transition to a distribution dominated by smaller particles above this altitude. The observations, in some respects, compare favorably with equilibrium one-dimensional stratospheric aerosol models and thus to some extent support the concept of relatively inert tropospheric sulfurous gases, such as carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide, as the main background stratospheric aerosol sulfur source. Models which incorporate sulfur chemistry are apparently not able to predict the observed variation of particle size with altitude. The 2-year background period is not long enough in itself to establish long-term trends. The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in May 1980 has considerably disrupted the background stratospheric aerosol which will probably not recover for several years. A comparison of the 1978--79 observations with Junge's original measurements made some 20 years earlier, also during a period void of volcanic perturbations, does not preclude a long-term increase in the background stratospheric aerosol level.

Hofmann, D.J.; Rosen, J.M.



Ganges valley aerosol experiment.  

SciTech Connect

In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K. (Environmental Science Division); (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India)



Global Aerosol Observations  

... across the deserts of Mali, Niger and Chad, while in southern Africa, this is the least hazy time of year. During June through ... and November thick aerosol cover is limited to portions of southern Africa and the Congo, but moderately high aerosol optical thickness ...




EPA Science Inventory

An intensive field study of ambient aerosols was conducted in Houston between September 14 and October 14, 1978. Measurements at 12 sites were made using (1) two relocatable monitoring systems instrumented for aerosol and gaseous pollutants, (2) a network of high volume samplers ...


Portable Aerosol Contaminant Extractor  


A compact, portable, aerosol contaminant extractor having ionization and collection sections through which ambient air may be drawn at a nominal rate so that aerosol particles ionized in the ionization section may be collected on charged plate in the collection section, the charged plate being readily removed for analyses of the particles collected thereon.

Carlson, Duane C. (N. Augusta, SC) [N. Augusta, SC; DeGange, John J. (Aiken, SC) [Aiken, SC; Cable-Dunlap, Paula (Waynesville, NC) [Waynesville, NC



Aerosols and solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief description is presented of the involvement of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in atmospheric research, including aerosol characterization and modeling. The use of both rigorous and simple models for radiation transport is described. Modeled broadband solar irradiance data are shown to illustrate the important influence that aerosols have on the enrgy available to solar systems and the

R. E. Bird; R. L. Hulstrom



Tropical Atlantic Aerosols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use real satellite data to determine 1) where the greatest concentrations of aerosols are located during the course of a year in the tropical Atlantic region and 2) their source of origin. This is an inquiry-style lesson where students pull real aerosol data and attempt to identify trends among data sets.

Roettger, Rex; Collection, Nasa -.



EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project was to design, construct, calibrate, and field test a mobile ambient particulate matter sampler (Wide Range Aerosol Classifier) to collect size-classified samples of large aerosol particles. The sampler design was based on a similar stationary sampling...



EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been made to focus on the eva...


Estimating blood and brain concentrations and blood-to-brain influx by magnetic resonance imaging with step-down infusion of GdDTPA in focal transient cerebral ischemia and confirmation by quantitative autoradiography with Gd[14C]DTPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intravenous step-down infusion procedure that maintained a constant gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) blood concentration and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to localize and quantify the blood–brain barrier (BBB) opening in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia (n=7). Blood-to-brain influx rate constant (Ki) values of Gd-DTPA from such regions were estimated using MRI–Patlak plots and compared with the Ki

Robert A Knight; Kishor Karki; James R Ewing; George W Divine; Joseph D Fenstermacher; Clifford S Patlak; Tavarekere N Nagaraja



Radiative Effects of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

Valero, Francisco P. J.



Climatic Effects of Atmospheric Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown quantitatively how radiative climatic forcing by aerosols depends on the physical properties of the aerosols. The special case of atmospheric aerosols produced by volcanic explosions is considered, and evidence is presented which indicates that even the simple climate models available today may be able to capture some of the basic effects of aerosols on global climate. Possible

James E. Hansen; Andrew A. Lacis; Pauthon Lee; Wei-Chyung Wang



Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We illustrate how climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols depends on aerosol properties. The climate forcing is a function of aerosol size distribution, but the size dependence can be described well by a single parameter: the area-weighted mean radius, reff. If reff is greater than about 2mum, the global average greenhouse effect of the aerosols exceeds the albedo effect, causing a

Andrew Lacis; James Hansen; Makiko Sato



A climatology of stratospheric aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol is created by combining nearly a decade (1979-1981 and 1984-1990) of contemporaneous observations from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE I and II) and Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) instruments. One goal of this work is to provide a representative distribution of the aerosol layer for use in radiative and chemical modeling. A

Matthew H. Hitchman; Megan McKay; Charles R. Trepte



Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We illustrate how climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols depends on aerosol properties. The climate forcing is a function of aerosol size distribution, but the size dependence can be described well by a single parameter: the area-weighted mean radius, reff.If reff is greater than about 2 ?m, the global average greenhouse effect of the aerosols exceeds the albedo effect, causing a

Andrew Lacis; James Hansen; Makiko Sato



Topical Drug Delivery in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients before and after Sinus Surgery Using Pulsating Aerosols  

PubMed Central

Objectives Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common chronic disease of the upper airways and has considerable impact on quality of life. Topical delivery of drugs to the paranasal sinuses is challenging, therefore the rate of surgery is high. This study investigates the delivery efficiency of a pulsating aerosol in comparison to a nasal pump spray to the sinuses and the nose in healthy volunteers and in CRS patients before and after sinus surgery. Methods 99mTc-DTPA pulsating aerosols were applied in eleven CRSsNP patients without nasal polyps before and after sinus surgery. In addition, pulsating aerosols were studied in comparison to nasal pump sprays in eleven healthy volunteers. Total nasal and frontal, maxillary and sphenoidal sinus aerosol deposition and lung penetration were assessed by anterior and lateral planar gamma camera imaging. Results In healthy volunteers nasal pump sprays resulted in 100% nasal, non-significant sinus and lung deposition, while pulsating aerosols resulted 61.3+/-8.6% nasal deposition and 38.7% exit the other nostril. 9.7+/-2.0 % of the nasal dose penetrated into maxillary and sphenoidal sinuses. In CRS patients, total nasal deposition was 56.7+/-13.3% and 46.7+/-12.7% before and after sinus surgery, respectively (p<0.01). Accordingly, maxillary and sphenoidal sinus deposition was 4.8+/-2.2% and 8.2+/-3.8% of the nasal dose (p<0.01). Neither in healthy volunteers nor in CRS patients there was significant dose in the frontal sinuses. Conclusion In contrast to nasal pump sprays, pulsating aerosols can deliver significant doses into posterior nasal spaces and paranasal sinuses, providing alternative therapy options before and after sinus surgery. Patients with chronic lung diseases based on clearance dysfunction may also benefit from pulsating aerosols, since these diseases also manifest in the upper airways.

Moller, Winfried; Schuschnig, Uwe; Celik, Gulnaz; Munzing, Wolfgang; Bartenstein, Peter; Haussinger, Karl; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Knoch, Martin



Preclinical evaluation of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the 111In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X (111In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the 111In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the 111In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer.

Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl AK; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders



Enhancement characteristics of liver metastases, hepatocellular carcinomas, and hemangiomas with Gd-EOB-DTPA: preliminary results with dynamic MR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Our objective was to study Gd-EOB-DTPA for the characterization of focal liver lesions by means of dynamic MR imaging. A\\u000a double-blind and randomized dose-ranging phase-2 clinical trial was performed in 31 patients (liver metastases n = 23, hepatocellular carcinoma n = 4, and hemangioma n = 4) at a field strength of 1.0 Tesla. Gd-EOB-DTPA (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany)

P. Reimer; E. J. Rummeny; H. E. Daldrup; T. Hesse; T. Balzer; B. Tombach; P. E. Peters



Influence of phosphorus sources and rates on soil pH, extractable phosphorus, and DTPA-extractable micronutrients  

SciTech Connect

Two soils (McLain sicl-fine, mixed, thermic, Pachic Argiustoll and Quinlan cl-loamy, mixed, thermic, shallow Typic Ustocrept) that differed in micronutrient content and chemical characteristics were collected from western Oklahoma. Soils were passed through a 2-mm screen and placed in plastic Petri dishes, and five P levels (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg ha/sup -1/) were applied using monocalcium phosphate (MCP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and ammonium polyphosphate (APP); the soils were then mixed uniformly. Soils were moistened to approximately 0.33 MPa and incubated for 2 mo at room temperature. Application of P decreased soil pH in both soils, and MAP and APP had a greater effect than MCP, which was attributed to the nitrification of the added ammonium. Bray and Kurtz no. 1 P increased with P application in both soils. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu in McLain soil. However, high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn in McLain soil. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Mn in the Quinlan soil; however; high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn and -Cu in Quinlan soil.

Al-Showk, A.M.; Westerman, R.L.; Weeks, D.L.



Combining diffusion-weighted MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI improves the detection of colorectal liver metastases  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and a combination of both techniques for the detection of colorectal hepatic metastases. Methods 72 patients with suspected colorectal liver metastases underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI and DW-MRI. Images were retrospectively reviewed with unenhanced T1 and T2 weighted images as Gd-EOB-DTPA image set, DW-MRI image set and combined image set by two independent radiologists. Each lesion detected was scored for size, location and likelihood of metastasis, and compared with surgery and follow-up imaging. Diagnostic accuracy was compared using receiver operating characteristics and interobserver agreement by kappa statistics. Results 417 lesions (310 metastases, 107 benign) were found in 72 patients. For both readers, diagnostic accuracy using the combined image set was higher [area under the curve (Az) = 0.96, 0.97] than Gd-EOB-DTPA image set (Az = 0.86, 0.89) or DW-MRI image set (Az = 0.93, 0.92). Using combined image set improved identification of liver metastases compared with Gd-EOB-DTPA image set (p<0.001) or DW-MRI image set (p<0.001). There was very good interobserver agreement for lesion classification (? = 0.81–0.88). Conclusions Combining DW-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 weighted MRI significantly improved the detection of colorectal liver metastases.

Koh, D-M; Collins, D J; Wallace, T; Chau, I; Riddell, A M



External monitoring of kidney transplant function using Tc-99m(Sn)DTPA  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of an external counting technique to provide daily monitoring of kidney transplant function by measuring the renal clearance of Tc-99m(SN)DTPA. During the first few weeks following transplant, 15 patients had their renal clearance of Tc-99m DTPA measured daily over periods of 5 to 24 h. Clearance rates were compared with daily plasma creatinine levels, and the effects of diurnal variation, drug treatment, and physical activity noted. The resuls show tht any significant fall in clearance rate of chelate, indicating a rejection episode, preceded a rise in plasma creatinine levels by at least 24 hr. It is considered that this noninvasive, low-dose, easy-to-perform technique is of considerable value in extended daily monitoring of renal function and is superior to standard daily or twice-weekly renography for the early detection of transplant rejection.

Sampson, W.F.D.; Macleod, M.A.; Warren, D.



Atmospheric aerosol measurement problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present knowledge of the atmospheric aerosols is summarized briefly with respect to geographical distribution, time variations, optical properties, chemical nature, and natural and artificial sources. The measurement techniques for determining aerosol properties are summarized with the limitations and results from each. The problems resulting from variations in refractive index, shape, composition, volatile constituents, relative humidity and time from collection until measurement are described. Needed measurements on atmospheric aerosols are outlined with some of the latest methods for obtaining them, including the needs and goals of some world-wide programs.

Harris, F. S., Jr.



Chemical reactions with aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical reactions of aerosol droplets with vapors are discussed. Examples are given in which liquid aerosols of 1-octadecene of narrow size distribution are converted to 1,2-dibromooctadecane with bromine vapor. It was shown that the chemical reaction in the droplet controls the kinetics of this process. The application of chemical reactions with aerosols to the formation of pure, uniform spherical particles of metal oxides is also described. Droplets of metal alkoxides rapidly react with water vapor to yield well-defined powders. The technique was used to prepare titanium dioxide, aluminum oxide, and particles consisting of both metal oxides. This procedure allows generation of powders of predetermined size and composition.

Matijevi?, Egon


Clinical assessment of myocardial viability using MRI during a constant infusion of Gd-DTPA.  


This study assessed the accuracy and feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during a constant infusion of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) for the determination of myocardial viability in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Nine patients were studied within 10 days of AMI. Rest-redistribution 201Thallium (201Tl) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was used as a gold standard for viability. Using MRI, regional perfusion was assessed using dynamic imaging during a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA and viability was assessed during a continuous infusion. Finally, cine MR images were acquired at baseline, during low-dose dobutamine infusion and after recovery. To assess viability, the left ventricle was divided into 16 segments and signal intensity in corresponding MRI and redistribution SPECT segments were compared. Wall thickening index (WTI) was determined at each step during the dobutamine study. The results revealed that in five patients, reduced perfusion in infarcted regions was observed qualitatively during dynamic first pass imaging. There was a significant inverse correlation between 201Tl uptake and MRI signal intensity, i.e. infarcted tissue (low 201Tl uptake) had increased MR signal intensity. Segments were separated into normal (201Tl uptake > 90%) and infarcted (< 601%). lnfarcted MRI segments had greater signal intensity than normal segments (179 +/- 50 vs. 102 +/- 14%; P < 0.0001). WTI in normal segments increased by 18 +/- 8.5% (P < 0.0001) from baseline to 10 microg/kg per min of dobutamine while infarcted tissue WTI decreased 2.8 +/- 7.2% (P = 0.17). Thus regions of myocardium that were infarcted as defined by reduced 201Tl uptake and absent contractile reserve showed greatly increased MRI signal intensity during a constant infusion of Gd-DTPA. The use of MRI during a constant infusion of Gd-DTPA is accurate and feasible for the determination of myocardial necrosis in a clinical setting. PMID:11154951

Pereira, R S; Wisenberg, G; Prato, F S; Yvorchuk, K



Mn-54 DTPA distribution in dogs: Evaluation as a potential NMR contrast agent  

SciTech Connect

Several paramagnetic ions are currently being evaluated as potential contrast agents for NMR imaging. To date the most successful of these appears to be Gd-DTPA. The authors recently undertook an investigation into the kinetics of biodistribution of Mn-DTPA to determine if this agent showed any tissue specific uptake, and if so, to optimize the time for imaging. In order to obviate the need for repetitive quantitative NMR imaging they have substituted tracer amounts of Mn-54 for the stable ion. Following intravenous injection into three mongrel dogs, samples of blood, bowel, liver, and pancreas were obtained at 3, 15, 30 and 60 minutes and 2, 4 and 6 hours post-injection. Radioactivity, and thus tissue concentration, was then determined in a gamma counter. Urine was also collected throughout the study. At six hours 58.4 +- 7.1% of the injected dose had been excreted in the urine. Peak liver accumulation occurred within 30 minutes (0.503 +- 0.144% injected dose/gm x kg body weight). The pancreas also showed a relatively high accumulation of tracer (0.247 +- 0.039%/gram x kg body weight) by four hours. The pancreas to liver ratios were highest at six hours (.73). The blood concentration fell very rapidly with little tracer remaining in the blood at one hour. The results of these experiments indicate that a significant portion of the injected material was concentrated by liver and pancreas. Unlike MnCl/sub 2/, most of the Mn-DTPA is excreted in the urine. This excretion is expected to reduce the toxicity of the injected material. These results are being used to establish the optimal protocols for NMR imaging with Mn-DTPA.

Boudreau, R.J.; Frick, M.P.; Levy, R.M.; Sirr, S.A.; Lund, G.; Loken, M.K.



Gd-DTPA-Enhanced MR Imaging of the Brain in Patients with Meningitis: Comparison with CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plain and Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images of the brain were obtained in 18 consecutive patients with meningitis (eight with tuberculous, five with bacterial, three with viral, and two with fungal infections); the MR images were compared with CT scans. MR images were obtained on a 2.O-T superconducting unit with both Ti- and T2-weighted pulse sequences before injectionand with a TI-weighted sequence

Kee Hyun Chang; Moon Hee Han; Jae Kyu Roh; Man Chung Han; Chu-Wan Kim


Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Gd-DTPA Enhancement in dynamic three-dimensional MRI of breast lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that dynamic MRI covering both breasts can provide sensitivity for tumor detection as well as specificity and sensitivity for differentiation of tumor malignancy. Three-dimensional gradient echo scans were used covering both breasts. Before Gd-DTPA bolus injection, two scans were obtained with different flip angles, and after injection, a dynamic series followed. Thirty-two

Boer den Jacques A; Ruud K. K. M. Hoenderop; Jouke Smink; Gerard Dornseiffen; Paul W. A. A. Koch; Jan H. Mulder; Cornelis H. Slump; Edo D. P. Volker; Vos de Rob A. I



MRI visualization of proteoglycan depletion in articular cartilage via intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intravenous administration of gadolinium diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) on MR images was studied in vitro, using pathologic osteochondral specimens removed during surgery for total endoprosthesis, and in vivo, on a group of volunteers. In ex vivo specimens, lesions of different shape having lower T1 were detected which corresponded to areas with depleted proteoglycans found histologically. In vivo experiments

Siegfried Trattnig; Vladim??r Mly?arik; Martin Breitenseher; Monika Huber; Alexander Zembsch; Thomas Rand; Herwig Imhof



Quality control of 99m Tc-DTPA-octreotide by reverse high performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

DTPA-Octreotide(Pentetreotide), a somatostatin analogue which can bind specifically and with high affinity to somatostatin\\u000a receptor in vitro and vivo, labeled with99mTc by tin reduction in acetate buffer, has been characterized by Reverse-phase High performance Liquid Chromatography. The\\u000a effect of different solvents, mobile phase pH, linear gradient and the injected volume on the separation efficiency was evaluated.\\u000a The results show that

Z. Cheng; Q. F. Lin; X. H. Jin; F. Wang; H. S. Bai; D. M. Chen; H. Q. Fan; J. Du



Giant Urinary Bladder Stone: Incidental Finding in 99mTc-DTPA Renography.  


A 27-year-old woman presented with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections in infancy and urinary incontinence secondary to lipomyelomeningocele. At the age of 7, she underwent bladder augmentation enterocystoplasty, requiring intermittent catheterization without urinary tract infections until present. A Tc-DTPA renography was performed to evaluate renal function, in which an abnormal tracer distribution was seen in urinary bladder, and furthermore, a retrograde cystography shows a giant bladder stone. PMID:24686214

Villasboas-Rosciolesi, Diego; Cárdenas-Perilla, Rodrigo; García-Burillo, Amparo; Castell-Conesa, Joan



Natural aerosol-climate feedbacks suppressed by anthropogenic aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

natural environment is an important source of atmospheric aerosol such as dust, sea spray, and wildfire smoke. Climate controls many of these natural aerosol sources, which, in turn, can alter climate through changing the properties of clouds and the Earth's radiative balance. However, the Earth's atmosphere is now heavily modified by anthropogenic pollution aerosol, but how this pollution may alter these natural aerosol-climate feedbacks has not been previously explored. Here we use a global aerosol microphysics model to analyze how anthropogenic aerosol alters one link within these feedbacks, namely, the sensitivity of cloud albedo to changes in natural aerosol. We demonstrate that anthropogenic aerosol in the Northern Hemisphere has halved the hemispheric mean cloud albedo radiative effect that occurs due to changes in natural aerosol emissions. Such a suppression has not occurred in the more pristine Southern Hemisphere.

Spracklen, D. V.; Rap, A.



Acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion: MR imaging with albumin-Gd-DTPA  

SciTech Connect

The utility of a macromolecular, intravascular contrast agent, albumin-gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), for the differentiation of acutely ischemic and reperfused myocardium on magnetic resonance (MR) images was investigated. Regional, reversible myocardial ischemia was produced in rats and confirmed. After reperfusion, flow to the compromised myocardial segment returned to baseline. Normal myocardium could not be differentiated from ischemic myocardium on nonenhanced MR images (n = 12). After 5 minutes of myocardial ischemia and after administration of albumin-Gd-DTPA, the ischemic zone involving the free wall of the left ventricle was characterized by the absence of significant enhancement. Normal myocardium appeared homogeneously enhanced (by 145%). This pattern persisted for up to 1 hour of myocardial ischemia. In six rats that underwent myocardial reperfusion after 5 minutes of ischemia, the normal and reperfused myocardium became isointense. Radiotracer studies with albumin-Gd-153-DTPA confirmed the decreased distribution of contrast agent to the ischemic myocardium, possibly due to decreased blood pool or a blocked primary delivery system in the ischemic myocardium.

Schmiedl, U.; Sievers, R.E.; Brasch, R.C.; Wolfe, C.L.; Chew, W.M.; Ogan, M.D.; Engeseth, H.; Lipton, M.J.; Moseley, M.E.



Tracking World Aerosol Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Worldwide patterns and sources of aerosols are analyzed and evaluated for potential hazards to aircraft safety. Using aerosol index maps created from data gathered by the TOMS instrument, student groups will analyze and compare aerosol data from either eight consecutive or eight random days. Each group will graph the data, rank the hazard level of their study area and analyze the patterns and probable causes of those aerosols. Directions and materials are included for classes with computer access and for those without computer access. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. Note that this is the last of three investigations found in the Grades 5-8 Module 1 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the three investigations in Module 1, while related, can be done independently.


Aerosol lenses propagation model.  


We propose a model based on the properties of cascading lenses modulation transfer function (MTF) to reproduce the irradiance of a screen illuminated through a dense aerosol cloud. In this model, the aerosol cloud is broken into multiple thin layers considered as individual lenses. The screen irradiance generated by these individual layers is equivalent to the point-spread function (PSF) of each aerosol lens. Taking the Fourier transform of the PSF as a MTF, we cascade the lenses MTF to find the cloud MTF. The screen irradiance is found with the Fourier transform of this MTF. We show the derivation of the model and we compare the results with the Undique Monte Carlo simulator for four aerosols at three optical depths. The model is in agreement with the Monte Carlo for all the cases tested. PMID:21886230

Tremblay, Grégoire; Roy, Gilles



Monodisperse aerosol generator  


An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

Ortiz, Lawrence W. (Los Alamos, NM); Soderholm, Sidney C. (Pittsford, NY)



In vitro and in vivo assessment of plutonium speciation and decorporation in blood and target retention tissues after a systemic contamination followed by an early treatment with DTPA.  


This study identifies the main sources of systemic plutonium decorporated in the rat after DTPA i.v. at the dose recommended for humans (30 mumol kg(-1)). For this purpose, standard biokinetic approaches are combined to plasma ultrafiltration for separation of plutonium complexes according to their molecular weight. In vitro studies show that at the recommended DTPA dose, less than 5% of the plasma plutonium of contaminated rats can be displaced from high-molecular-weight ligands. After i.v. administration of Pu-DTPA, early ultrafiltrability of plutonium in plasma decreases with total DTPA dose, which is associated with an increase in plutonium bone retention. This demonstrates the instability of Pu-DTPA complexes, injected in vivo, below the minimal Ca-DTPA dose of 30 mumol kg(-1). Plutonium biokinetics is compared in rats contaminated by plutonium-citrate i.v. and treated or not with DTPA after 1 h. No significant decrease in plasma plutonium is observed for the first hour after treatment, and the fraction of low-molecular-weight plutonium in plasma is nearly constant [5.4% compared with 90% in Pu-DTPA i.v. (30 mumol kg(-1)) and 0.7% in controls]. Thus plutonium decorporation by DTPA is a slow process that mainly involves retention compartments other than the blood. Plutonium-ligand complexes formed during plutonium deposition in the retention organs appear to be the main source of decorporated plutonium. PMID:18666819

Sérandour, A L; Grémy, O; Fréchou, M; Renault, D; Poncy, J L; Fritsch, P



Isomerism and solution dynamics of (90)Y-labeled DTPA--biomolecule conjugates.  


This report describes the synthesis of two DTPA-conjugated cyclic peptides, cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys)DTPA (SQ169) and [cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys)](2)DTPA (SQ170), and a chromatographic study of their (90)Y complexes (RP762 and RP763, respectively). The goal is to study the solution structure and the possible isomerism of (90)Y-labeled DTPA-biomolecule conjugates at the tracer level (approximately 10(-10) M). RP762 was prepared in high radiochemical purity (RCP > 95%) by reacting 2 microg of SQ169 with 20 mCi of (90)YCl(3) (corresponding to a SQ169:Y ratio of approximately 4:1) in the 0.5 M ammonium acetate buffer (pH 8.0) at room temperature. RP763 was prepared in a similar fashion using SQ170. In both cases, the (90)Y-chelation was instantaneous. By a reversed-phase HPLC method, it was found that RP762 exists in solution as a mixture of two detectable isomers (most likely cis and trans isomers), which interconvert at room temperature. The interconversion of different isomeric forms of RP762 involves a rapid exchange of "wrapping isomers" via the "wagging" of the diethylenetriamine backbone, "shuffling" of the two NO(2) donor sets, and inversion at the ternimal amine-nitrogen atom. The inversion at a terminal nitrogen atom requires simultaneous dissociation of the NO(2) donor set. For RP763, the interconversion of different isomers is much faster than that for RP762 due to the weak bonding of two carbonyl-oxygen donors. Therefore, RP763 shows only one broad radiometric peak in its HPLC chromatogram. The rapid interconversion of different isomers is intramolecular via a partial dissociative mechanism. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the lack of kinetic inertness of (90)Y- and (111)In-labeled DTPA-biomolecule conjugates. Thus, the design of new BFCs should be focused on those which form lanthanide complexes with high thermodynamic stability and more importantly kinetic inertness. PMID:11170370

Liu, S; Cheung, E; Rajopadhye, M; Williams, N E; Overoye, K L; Edwards, D S



MISR Level 2 Aerosol and Land Versioning  

... exponent, aerosol single-scattering albedo, aerosol particle size and shape fractional amounts F11_0021 (aerosol), ... / Surface cloud screening algorithm. Analysis of the effect of these changes, in the aerosol and land surface retrievals, indicates ...



Characterizing the Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organic aerosol is an important fraction of the fine particulate matter present in the atmosphere. This organic aerosol comes from a variety of sources; primary organic aerosol emitted directly from combustion process, and secondary aerosol formed in the ...

M. Lunden D. Black N. Brown



RACORO aerosol data processing  

SciTech Connect

The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

Elisabeth Andrews



Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of reperfused myocardium: identification of the myocardial bed at risk.  


Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging can be useful in the identification of reperfused myocardium. However, the effects of dose and the time of administration and the relation of the extent of the region of enhancement to the myocardial bed at risk have not been evaluated. In this study, dogs were given Gd-DTPA (0.1 mM/kg body weight [n = 21] or 0.34 mM/kg [n = 7]) or saline solution (n = 5) after various periods of occlusion and reperfusion. Twenty-five dogs were killed after 1 or 2 h of reperfusion and the excised hearts were imaged. Images were analyzed for presence, intensity and extent of a region of increased signal. All images in dogs given Gd-DTPA had easily identifiable regions of increased signal in the distribution of the reperfused myocardial bed. Analysis of the extent of these regions in spin-echo images of excised hearts when Gd-DTPA was administered after 5 min of reperfusion demonstrated a correlation coefficient of 0.72 with the bed at risk as determined postmortem with a dye perfusion technique. These images consistently overestimated the infarct size. Signal intensity of the reperfused myocardium increased to a maximum of 1.67 times control (p less than 0.05) in spin-lattice relaxation time (T1)-weighted sequences as the dose of Gd-DTPA increased. This was due to a higher concentration of Gd-DTPA in the reperfused myocardium with resultant shortening of the T1 relaxation time. When Gd-DTPA was given after 90 min of reperfusion, NMR images did not identify the bed at risk.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3417979

Schaefer, S; Malloy, C R; Katz, J; Parkey, R W; Buja, L M; Willerson, J T; Peshock, R M



Acceleration of natural-abundance solid-state MAS NMR measurements on bone by paramagnetic relaxation from gadolinium-DTPA.  


Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA=Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the (1)H T1 values were calculated from data collected by (1)H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the (1)H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the (13)C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from (13)C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using (1)H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans. PMID:24881032

Mroue, Kamal H; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H; Morris, Michael D; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy



Acceleration of natural-abundance solid-state MAS NMR measurements on bone by paramagnetic relaxation from gadolinium-DTPA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA = Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the 1H T1 values were calculated from data collected by 1H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the 1H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10 mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the 13C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from 13C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using 1H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans.

Mroue, Kamal H.; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy



Personnel protection during aerosol ventilation studies using radioactive technetium (Tc99m)  


Two commercially available nebulizing devices used for ventilation studies were evaluated. The nebulizers use radioactive Technetium-99m (Tc99m), a potential source of room air contamination. Ambient air concentrations of Tc99m were monitored, as were the exposures of department personnel not performing ventilation studies. Room surfaces and air vents were examined to determine the extent of contamination in the examination room. Personnel were evaluated for contamination on clothing, hair, and airways when hospital lab coats and latex gloves were the only protective apparel used. Though the maximum permissible concentration of 4 x 10(-5) microCi/c3 was not exceeded, preliminary results indicated levels as high as 11,000 disintegrations/min in the nasal passages of personnel. These findings clearly demonstrate the need for more effective personal protective devices. Personnel contamination resulted primarily from the patient, due to an inability to maintain a proper oral seal on the nebulizer mouthpiece. Conventional hospital surgical masks were ineffective in reducing internal deposition to tolerable levels. By comparison, levels were reduced by 19% (p > 0.10) through use of methods such as simple body substance isolation techniques and high-efficiency disposable respirators. Levels approaching 50 disintegrations/min or less were obtainable (p < 0.001), and overall levels of Tc99m were reduced by 78%. PMID:7825514

Huff, R D; Horwitz, P; Klash, S J



Early chelation therapy for injected Pu-238 and Am-241 in the rat: comparison of 3,4,3-LIHOPO, DFO-HOPO, DTPA-DX, DTPA and DFOA.  


Chelating agents were tested for removal of simultaneously injected Pu-238 and Am-241 from the rat. The effectiveness of early single chelate injections of Pu-238 retention in tissues decreased in the order 3,4,3-LIHOPO > DFO-HOPO > DTPA > DTPA-DX, and for Am-241 in the order 3,4,3-LIHOPO > DTPA-DX > DTPA > DFO-HOPO. DTPA-DX showed a special ability to remove Am-241 from the liver. Injected 3,4,3-LIHOPO decreased the contents of Pu-238 in bone and liver to 9 and 3%, respectively, of those in untreated controls. Corresponding values for Am-241 in bone and liver were 30 and 6%, respectively, which indicates that 3,4,3-LIHOPO (unlike DFO-HOPO) is not a plutonium-specific chelator. The effectiveness of prompt single oral treatment with 3,4,3-LIHOPO and DFO-HOPO in reducing retention of actinides was comparable with that of those chelators injected with 1 h delay and at one-third of the oral dose. When 3,4,3-LIHOPO was administered by continuous infusion, a superior effect was achieved with total chelate amounts only slightly exceeding that given as single injection. The retention of PU-238 and Am-241 in bones was reduced to < 5 and 10% of controls, respectively; the contents in the liver were < 2% of controls. PMID:8100266

Volf, V; Burgada, R; Raymond, K N; Durbin, P W




EPA Science Inventory

A general mathematical model describing the motion of particles in aerosol centrifuges has been developed. t has been validated by comparisons of theoretically predicted calibration sites with experimental data from tests sizing aerosols in instruments of three different spiral d...


Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): formulation design and optimization studies.  


The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and ?-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and ?-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone. PMID:24047113

Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael



Effects of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent Gd-DTPA on Plant Growth and Root Imaging in Rice  

PubMed Central

Although paramagnetic contrast agents have a wide range of applications in medical studies involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), these agents are seldom used to enhance MRI images of plant root systems. To extend the application of MRI contrast agents to plant research and to develop related techniques to study root systems, we examined the applicability of the MRI contrast agent Gd-DTPA to the imaging of rice roots. Specifically, we examined the biological effects of various concentrations of Gd-DTPA on rice growth and MRI images. Analysis of electrical conductivity and plant height demonstrated that 5 mmol Gd-DTPA had little impact on rice in the short-term. The results of signal intensity and spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) analysis suggested that 5 mmol Gd-DTPA was the appropriate concentration for enhancing MRI signals. In addition, examination of the long-term effects of Gd-DTPA on plant height showed that levels of this compound up to 5 mmol had little impact on rice growth and (to some extent) increased the biomass of rice.

Liu, Binmei; Wang, Qi; Ni, Xiaoyu; Dong, Yaling; Zhong, Kai; Wu, Yuejin



Self-assembly of SiO2/Gd-DTPA-polyethylenimine nanocomposites as magnetic resonance imaging probes.  


Controlled self-assembly of organic/inorganic magnetic hybrid materials have important applications in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, a widely used polycation polyethylenimine was conjugated with gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA) as a gadolinium bearing polyelectrolyte (Gd-DTPA-PEI). Next, multilayers of Gd-DTPA-PEI were coated on silica nanoparticles through layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly with polyanions as monitored by dynamic light scattering, zeta-potential, and scanning electron microscopy. The thickness of the multilayer film was estimated from quartz crystal microbalance based on counting frequency change of each adsorbed layer. The magnetic relaxation of SiO2/(Gd-DTPA-PEl/polyanion), core-shell nanocomposite was tested at 1.5 T magnetic field in a clinical MRI scanner, and a 3-fold increase in T1 relaxivity to 15.1 Gd mM(-1)s(-1) was noticed comparing to Gd-DTPA small molecules. Dextran sulfate was coated as the outermost layer on the nanocomposite for better biocompatibility as verified by in vitro cytotoxicity studies. This formulation provides good signal intensity enhancement of mouse liver in vivo with only 1/25 dose of clinical standard at 30 and 60 minutes after intravenous injection. This sensitive imaging probe with unique core-shell structures may find broad applications in cellular and molecular imaging. PMID:20352889

Luo, Kui; Tian, Jing; Liu, Gang; Sun, Jiayu; Xia, Chunchao; Tang, Hehan; Lin, Ling; Miao, Tianxin; Zhao, Xuna; Gao, Fabao; Gong, Qiyong; Song, Bin; Shuai, Xintao; Ai, Hua; Gu, Zhongwei



Development of Aerosol Charge Analyzer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique was developed for measuring electrical mobility distribution of an aerosol and average effective size at each mobility level. An aerosol is passed through a purifier and a narrow mobility channel. The purifier removes charged particles from al...

C. E. Lapple D. E. Blake G. L. Pressman




EPA Science Inventory

One form of commercial application of microorganisms, including genetically engineered microorganisms is as an aerosol. To study the effect of aerosol-induced stress on bacterial survival, nonrecombinant spontaneous antibiotic-resistant mutants of four organisms, Enterobacter clo...


Aerosol Immobilized-enzyme Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trypsin immobilized on ceramic monoliths was studied using two different substrates, BAEE and TAME, in continuous liquid phase and aerosol phase experiments. A new model was proposed to describe the transport and reaction behavior of the aerosol system. A...

T. K. Poon



Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short-wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting

R. J. Charlson; S. E. Schwartz; J. M. Hales; R. D. Cess; J. A. Coakley Jr.; J. E. Hansen; D. J. Hofmann



( sup 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe sup 1 )-octreotide, a potential radiopharmaceutical for imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors: Synthesis, radiolabeling and in vitro validation  

SciTech Connect

As starting material for a potentially convenient radiopharmaceutical, a diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated derivative of octreotide (SMS 201-995) was prepared. This peptide, (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide (SDZ 215-811) binds more than 95% of added {sup 111}In in an easy, single-step labeling procedure without necessity of further purification. The specific somatostatin-like biologic effect of these analogues was proven by the inhibition of growth hormone secretion by cultured rat pituitary cells in a dose-dependent fashion by octreotide, (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide and non-radioactive ({sup 115}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide. The binding of ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide to rat brain cortex membranes proved to be displaced similarly by natural somatosatin as well as by octreotide, suggesting specific binding of ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide to somatostatin receptors. The binding of the indium-labeled compound showed a somewhat lower affinity when compared with the iodinated (Tyr{sup 3})-octreotide, but indium-labeled (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide still binds with nanomolar affinity. In conjunction with in vivo studies, these results suggest that ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide is a promising radiopharmaceutical for scintigraphic imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors.

Bakker, W.H.; Albert, R.; Bruns, C.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Hofland, L.J.; Marbach, P.; Pless, J.; Pralet, D.; Stolz, B.; Koper, J.W.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands) Sandoz Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland))



Indian aerosols: present status.  


This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

Mitra, A P; Sharma, C



[Magnetic resonance tomographic studies of paragangliomas of the glomus caroticum and glomus jugulare using Gd-DTPA].  


The value of magnetic resonance tomography in the diagnosis of paragangliomas in the head and neck has been studied and compared with CT and angiography. Magnetic resonance tomography on its own equals the accuracy of CT, but the use of Gd-DTPA improves diagnostic accuracy. In 19 patients with a glomus jugulare tumour, MR tomography with Gd-DTPA accurately diagnosed all tumours larger than 5 mm. In seven patients with a carotid body tumour, it was possible to arrive at an exact differential diagnosis. Sensitivity was better than that of CT or of sonography. Where there is clinical suspicion of a glomus tumour, magnetic resonance tomography with Gd-DTPA should be the first investigation; if there is a positive finding, angiography should be carried out to demonstrate the circle of Willis. PMID:2829304

Vogl, T; Bauer, M; Schedel, H; Brüning, R; Mees, K; Lissner, J



111In-BnDTPA-F3: an Auger electron-emitting radiotherapeutic agent that targets nucleolin  

PubMed Central

Introduction The F3 peptide (KDEPQRRSARLSAKPAPPKPEPKPKKAPAKK), a fragment of the human high mobility group protein 2, binds nucleolin. Nucleolin is expressed in the nuclei of normal cells but is also expressed on the membrane of some cancer cells. The goal was to investigate the use of 111In-labeled F3 peptide for Auger electron-targeted radiotherapy. Methods F3 was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for confocal microscopy and conjugated to p-SCN-benzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (BnDTPA) for labeling with 111In to form 111In-BnDTPA-F3. MDA-MB-231-H2N (231-H2N) human breast cancer cells were exposed to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 and used in cell fractionation, ?H2AX immunostaining (a marker of DNA double-strand breaks), and clonogenic assays. In vivo, biodistribution studies of 111In-BnDTPA-F3 were performed in 231-H2N xenograft-bearing mice. In tumor growth delay studies, 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (3 ?g, 6 MBq/?g) was administered intravenously to 231-H2N xenograft-bearing mice once weekly for 3 weeks. Results Membrane-binding of FITC-F3 was observed in 231-H2N cells, and there was co-localization of FITC-F3 with nucleolin in the nuclei. After exposure of 231-H2N cells to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 for 2 h, 1.7% of 111In added to the medium was membrane-bound. Of the bound 111In, 15% was internalized, and of this, 37% was localized in the nucleus. Exposure of 231-H2N cells to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (1 ?M, 6 MBq/?g) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in ?H2AX foci and in a significant reduction of clonogenic survival compared to untreated cells or cells exposed to unlabeled BnDTPA-F3 (46 ± 4.1%, 100 ± 1.8%, and 132 ± 7.7%, respectively). In vivo, tumor uptake of 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (3 ?g, 6 MBq/?g) at 3-h post-injection was 1% of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g), and muscle uptake was 0.5%ID/g. In tumor growth delay studies, tumor growth rate was reduced 19-fold compared to untreated or unlabeled BnDTPA-F3-treated mice (p = 0.023). Conclusion 111In-BnDTPA-F3 is internalized into 231-H2N cells and translocates to the nucleus. 111In-BnDTPA-F3 has a potent cytotoxic effect in vitro and an anti-tumor effect in mice bearing 231-H2N xenografts despite modest total tumor accumulation.



MR Imaging of Carcinosarcoma of the Liver using Gd-EOB-DTPA.  


We present a case of a 69-year-old man with primary hepatic carcinosarcoma who underwent computed tomography that revealed a hypervascular hepatic tumor with local dense calcification. Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense lesions in the hepatobiliary phase that indicated hepatocellular carcinoma with bile production. The patient underwent right lobectomy, and the presence of a sarcoma component within the tumor on histopathology confirmed liver carcinosarcoma that included hepatocellular carcinoma. In cases with atypical images that resemble this case, the hyperintensity of a lesion in the hepatobiliary phase aids differential diagnosis. PMID:24769633

Yasutake, Tsuyoshi; Kiryu, Shigeru; Akai, Hiroyuki; Watadani, Takeyuki; Akahane, Masaaki; Tomizawa, Nobuo; Gonoi, Wataru; Ikemura, Masako; Takahashi, Masamichi; Matsuoka, Yujiro; Ohtomo, Kuni



Global Aerosol Climatology Project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with uncertainties in the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-based retrieval of optical depth for heavy smoke aerosol plumes generated from forest fires that occurred in Canada due to a lack of knowledge on their optical properties (single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter). Typical values of the optical properties for smoke aerosols derived from such field experiments as Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B); Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE-A); Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas (BASE-A); and Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) were first assumed for retrieving smoke optical depths. It is found that the maximum top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance values calculated by models with these aerosol parameters are less than observations whose values are considerably higher. A successful retrieval would require an aerosol model that either has a substantially smaller asymmetry parameter (g < 0.4 versus g > 0.5), or higher single-scattering albedo ( 0.9 versus < 0.9), or both (e.g., g = 0.39 and = 0.91 versus g = 0.57 and = 0.87) than the existing models. Several potential causes were examined including small smoke particle size, low black carbon content, humidity effect, calibration errors, inaccurate surface albedo, mixture of cloud and aerosol layers, etc. A more sound smoke aerosol model is proposed that has a lower content of black carbon (mass ratio = 0.015) and smaller size (mean radius = 0.02 m for dry smoke particles), together with consideration of the effect of relative humidity. Ground-based observations of smoke suggest that for < 2.5 there is an increasing trend in and a decreasing trend in g with increases in , which is consistent with the results of satellite retrievals. Using these relationships as constraints, more plausible values of can be obtained for heavy smoke aerosol. The possibility of smoke-cloud mixtures is also considered, which can also lead to high TOA reflectances. However, without measurements, the hypothesis can be neither accepted nor negated. The study demonstrates that without independent assessments of the optical properties, large uncertainties would be incurred in the retrieved values of optical depth for heavy smoke aerosol plumes.

Mishchenko, Michael; Penner, Joyce; Anderson, Donald



Highly stable aerosol generator  


An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.



Optical discharge in aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical fundamentals of the optical breakdown of aerosols are examined, and a theory is developed for the seed ionization processes in inert and reacting aerosols. The properties of optical discharges of various kinds generated at isolated particles are investigated, as are the characteristics of the collective breakdown mechanism. The probabilistic criteria of the breakdown and the linear transmission dynamics of an ionized atmosphere are discussed. Some results of laboratory and full-scale experiments concerned with the optical, electrodynamic, and acoustic characteristics of an extended laser spark are presented.

Kopytin, Iurii D.; Sorokin, Iurii M.; Skripkin, Aleksandr M.; Belov, N. N.; Bukatyi, V. I.


Permeability of ferret trachea in vitro to {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA and [{sup 14}C]antipyrine  

SciTech Connect

Platelet-activating factor (PAF) and vasoactive drugs were tested on permeability of ferret trachea in vitro by measuring fluxes of {sup 99m}{Tc}-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ({sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA; hydrophilic) and [{sup 14}C]antipyrine ([{sup 14}C]AP; lipophilic) across the tracheal wall. Tracheae were bathed on both sides with Krebs-Henseleit buffer, with luminal buffer containing either {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA or [{sup 14}C]AP. Luminal and abluminal radioactivities, potential difference, and tracheal smooth muscle tone were measured. Baseline {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA and [{sup 14}C]AP permeability coefficients were - 4.7 {+-} 0.6 (SE) x 10{sup {minus}7} and -2.2 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup {minus}5} cm/s, respectively. PAF (10 {mu}M) increased permeability to {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA to -35.3 {+-} 7.6 x 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s (P < 0.05), but permeability to [{sup 14}C]AP did not change, suggesting that paracellular but not transcellular transport was affected. Abluminal and luminal applications of methacholine (MCh, 20 {mu}M), phenylephrine (PE, 100 {mu}M), and albuterol (Alb, 100 {mu}M) caused no change in permeability to {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA before or after exposure to luminal PAF, but abluminal histamine (Hist, 10 {mu}M) significantly increased permeability. Abluminal Hist decreased permeability to [{sup 14}C]AP before and after exposure to PAF. MCh, PE, and Hist increased smooth muscle tone; Alb and PAF had no effect. Thus, only PAF and Hist altered permeability to {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA, and MCh, PE, and Hist changed smooth muscle tone. Tracheal permeability changes were greater for the hydrophilic than for the lipophilic agent. 37 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Hanafi, Z.; Webber, S.E.; Widdicombe, J.G. [St. George`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)



Evaluation of Gd-DTPA-labeled dextran as an intravascular MR contrast agent: imaging characteristics in normal rat tissues.  


Dextran covalently linked to moieties of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), for use as a macromolecular, intravascular blood pool marker for contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was characterized by means of physicochemical and relaxivity measurements and MR imaging in healthy rats. Dextran labeled with 15 Gd-DTPA moities (molecular weight of approximately 75,000 d) had a T1 relaxivity at 0.25 T and 37 degrees C of 157.1 mmol-1.sec-1 per molecule and 10.5 mmol-1.sec-1 per gadolinium atom, more than twice that of unbound Gd-DTPA. Osmolality was 300-350 mOsm/kg at a gadolinium concentration of 0.01 mmol/L. Tissue enhancement was essentially linearly related to injected dose in the gadolinium dose range of 0.01-0.05 mmol/kg of body weight. Approximate typical enhancement values over baseline for normal tissues at 10 minutes after a gadolinium dose of 0.05 mmol/kg were as follows: cardiac muscle, adrenal gland, and liver, 40%-50%; lungs, 160%-200%; renal cortex, 130%; renal medulla, 240%; spleen, 75%; muscle, 15%; and brain, 5%-10%. Projection-subtraction images showed that dextran-(Gd-DTPA)15 remained intravascular for at least 1 hour after injection. The prolonged and easily appreciated levels of tissue enhancement with dextran-(Gd-DTPA)15, at a gadolinium dose less than that routinely used in Gd-DTPA, indicate further evaluation of this macromolecular marker. PMID:1691513

Wang, S C; Wikström, M G; White, D L; Klaveness, J; Holtz, E; Rongved, P; Moseley, M E; Brasch, R C



MRI-based estimation of liver function: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 relaxometry of 3T vs. the MELD score  

PubMed Central

Gd-EOB-DTPA is a hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agent. Due to its hepatocyte-specific uptake and paramagnetic properties, functioning areas of the liver exhibit shortening of the T1 relaxation time. We report the potential use of T1 relaxometry of the liver with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating the liver function as expressed by the MELD score. 3 T MRI relaxometry was performed before and 20?min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. A strong correlation between changes in the T1 relaxometry and the extent of liver disease, expressed by the MELD score, was documented. Reduced liver function correlates with decreased Gd-EOB-DTPA accumulation in the hepatocytes during the hepatobiliary phase. MRI-based T1 relaxometry with Gd-EOB-DTPA may be a useful method for assessing overall and segmental liver function.

Haimerl, Michael; Verloh, Niklas; Fellner, Claudia; Zeman, Florian; Teufel, Andreas; Feigl, Stefan Fichtner-; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp



Geometrical Optics of Dense Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Assembling a free-standing, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rare ed than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed fi eld, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the nite particle density reduces the eff ective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing. __________________________________________________

Hay, Michael J.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.



PET imaging of HER1-expressing xenografts in mice with 86 Y-CHX-A?-DTPA-cetuximab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Cetuximab is a recombinant, human\\/mouse chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR\\/HER1). Cetuximab is approved for the treatment\\u000a of patients with HER1-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer. Limitations in currently reported radiolabeled cetuximab for\\u000a PET applications prompted the development of 86Y-CHX-A?-DTPA-cetuximab as an alternative for imaging HER1-expressing cancer. 86Y-CHX-A?-DTPA-cetuximab can also serve as a surrogate marker

Tapan K. Nayak; Celeste A. S. Regino; Karen J. Wong; Diane E. Milenic; Kayhan Garmestani; Kwamena E. Baidoo; Lawrence P. Szajek; Martin W. Brechbiel



Mesospheric aerosol sampling spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. The Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer (MASS) instrument has been launched on two sounding rockets in August, 2007 from Andoya, Norway to detect charged sub-visible aerosol particles in the polar mesosphere. The MASS instrument is designed to collect charged aerosols, cluster ions, and electrons on four pairs of graphite electrodes, three of which are biased with increasing voltage. The design of the MASS instrument was complicated by the short mean free path in the mesosphere. The opening to MASS was deliberately built to increase the mean free path and to reduce the shock wave within the instrument. The design procedure began with aerodynamics simulations of the flow through the instrument using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) in 3-D. The electric fields within the instrument were calculated using a Laplace solver in 3-D. With the aerodynamic and electric field simulations completed, an algorithm was created to find the trajectories of charged aerosols including collisions within MASS. Using this algorithm the collection efficiencies for each electrode was calculated as a function of the charge to mass ratio of the incoming particle. The simulation results have been confirmed experimentally using an Argon RF ion beam. The data from the August launches have been analyzed and the initial results show the MASS instrument operated as expected. Additional studies are underway to determine if there were effects from payload charging or spurious charge generation within the instrument. This project is supported by NASA.

Knappmiller, Scott; Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kohnert, Rick


Thermophoresis of Aerosol Spheroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical study is presented for the thermophoretic motion of a freely suspended aerosol spheroid in a uniform prescribed temperature gradient that is oriented arbitrarily with respect to its axis of revolution. The Knudsen number is assumed to be small so that the fluid flow is described by a continuum model with a thermal slip at the particle surface. In

Huan J. Keh; Chang L. Ou



Aerosol medication inhalation system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus for use in conjunction with a metered dose inhaler which includes a novel valve system to aid in the delivery of aerosolized medicament to a subject. The apparatus also includes a novel rotational flow generator to aid in the useable delivery of said medication and avoid its loss either in the apparatus or by non-useful delivery to said subject.



[Imaging of pediatric brain tumors using somatostatin analogue 111Ih-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide].  


Malignant solid tumors and leukemias are the second most common causes of death in childhood. The most frequent pediatric solid tumors are brain tumors. Brain tumors, especially medulloblastoma should be treated by surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy has only moderate effect. Pediatric brain tumors, especially medulloblastomas, express somatostatin receptors. The aim of this study was the investigation of the expression of somatostatin receptors in pediatric brain tumors for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose. Fifty-six scintigraphic imagings (111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide) made in 45 children treated with brain tumor at the Unit of Oncology of the 2nd Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University. The diagnosis was medulloblastoma in 21 cases (46.7%). MRI scans have been performed parallel with the Octreoscan images. Octreoscan images were positive in 27 of 56 (48.2%) cases. The 27 positive Octreoscan images consisted of 16 medulloblastomas, 4 ependymomas, 4 astrocytomas and 3 glioblastomas. In 37 (66.1%) cases the results of Octreoscans were the same as those of the MRI scans. However, in 19 scans (33.9%) the outcome was different. Octreoscan imaging is not suitable for differential diagnosis in pediatric brain tumors, including medulloblastomas. Isotopes specifically binding to the somatostatin receptors (111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide) can be applied in medulloblastomas for diagnosis and follow-up treatment. In Octreoscan-positive tumors the Octreoscan images establish the opportunity to somatostatin analogue and/or specifically targeted radiation therapies. PMID:17922063

Dabasi, Gabriella; Hauser, Péter; Kertész, Gabriella P; Balázs, György; Karádi, Zoltán; Constantin, Tamás; Bognár, László; Klekner, Almos; Schuler, Dezsô; Garami, Miklós



Gd3+-DTPA-DG: novel nanosized dual anticancer and molecular imaging agent  

PubMed Central

Background: Difficulties in the use, preparation, and cost of radioactively-labeled glycosylated compounds led to this research and development study of a new gadolinium-labeled glucose compound that does not have a radioactive half-life or difficulties in its synthesis and utilization. Methods: Based on the structure of the 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose molecule (18FDG), a new compound consisting of D-glucose (1.1 nm) conjugated to a well-known chelator, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA), was synthesized, labeled with Gd3+, and examined in vitro and in vivo. Results: This novel compound not only demonstrated excellent and less costly imaging capability, but also showed anticancer effects on treated cells. Our results demonstrated that the new Gd3+-DTPA-DG compound (GDD, with GDD conjugate aggregation of about 8 nm at 0.02 mg/mL concentration) significantly decreased HT1080 and HT29 tumor cell numbers. Application of GDD to cancer cells also increased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, but did not alter blood glucose levels. Interestingly, no toxicological findings were seen in normal human kidney cells. Conclusion: Dual application of GDD for both imaging and treatment of tumor cells could be remarkably advantageous in both the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

Amanlou, Massoud; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Ebrahimi, Seyed Esmaeil Sadat; Alavi, Abass; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Shanehsaz, Saeed; Ghorbani, Masoud; Mehravi, Bita; Shafiee Alavidjeh, Mohammad; Jabbari-Arabzadeh, Ali; Abbasi, Mehdi



Safety and efficacy parameters in patients treated with TiN-117m DTPA  

SciTech Connect

We determined factors related to the administered dose versus efficacy and hematological toxicity in patients treated with Sn-117m DTPA for palliation of metastatic bone pain. We collected data in 47 patients (50 administrations) given Sn-117m DTPA in a dose escalation trial (5, 10, 12.5, 16, and 20 mCi/70/kg) for alleviation of pain from bone metastases derived from a variety of primary cancers. We correlated administered activity per unit body weight and calculated marrow dose, with both percent and absolute decrease in WBC and platelet counts, percent pain response, and onset of pain relief. We also correlated pain response with the extent of disease, using degree of uptake of tracer in bone and the bone index. At 5-20 mCi/70 kg dose levels, Sn-117m appears to have less hematological toxicity than other bone pain palliation agents (p<0.05). Overall pain relief (75%) was not correlated with administered activity and is similar to the other agents. There was a good correlation (p<0.05) between low and high levels of administered dose with response onset.

Atkins, H.L.; Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others



External monitoring of kidney transplant function using Tc-99m(Sn)DTPA  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of an external counting technique to provide daily monitoring of kidney transplant function by measuring the renal clearance of Tc-99m(Sn)DTPA. During the first few weeks following transplant, 15 patients had their renal clearance of Tc-99m DTPA measured daily over periods of 5-24 hr. Clearance rates were compared with daily plasma creatinine levels, and the effects of diurnal variation, drug treatment, and physical activity noted. The results show that any significant fall in clearance rate of chelate, indicating a rejection episode, preceded a rise in plasma creatinine levels by at least 24 hr. One episode of transplant failure presented as a sudden deterioration in clearance rate of chelate; in the others the change was more gradual but was still apparent within hours. It is considered that this noninvasive, low-dose, easy-to-perform technique is of considerable value in extended daily monitoring of renal function and is superior to standard daily or twice-weekly renography for the early detection of transplant rejection.

Sampson, W.F.; Macleod, M.A.; Warren, D.



Advanced Aerosol Lidar Ratio Determination Algorithms Using Aerosol Covariance Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an algorithm to determine the extinction to backscatter (lidar) ratio (Sa), an important parameter used in the determination of the aerosol extinction and subsequently the optical depth from lidar backscatter measurements. This scheme applies to Sa determination at 532 nm and 1064 nm for a space-based two-wavelength lidar such as CALIOP on the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO) satellite. The algorithm applies the Mahalanobis distance to CALIOP measurements of backscatter and depolarization and initial estimates of Sa at both wavelengths to identify the most likely aerosol model from a family of a priori probability distributions of lidar ratio, backscatter and depolarization determined from previously generated classification of High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) aerosol measurements. The HSRL record includes aerosol type specific distributions of Sa at 532 nm. We use auxiliary measurements of pairs of 532 nm and 1064 nm Sa for Urban, Smoke, Marine, and Dust aerosols from AERONET and field measurements, the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) and Shoreline Environmental Aerosol Study (SEAS), to develop piecewise covariance matrices using the HSRL distributions of these four aerosol types. Covariance matrices including lidar ratio at both wavelengths can also be obtained through the Enhanced Constrained Ratio Aerosol Method (E-CRAM) applied to HSRL data. We explore the application of the aerosol model matching method to CALIOP data and compare the results with HSRL 532 nm Sa distributions for coincident flights.

Hostetler, C. A.; Omar, A. H.; Burton, S. P.; Vaughan, M.; Rogers, R.; Ferrare, R. A.; Reagan, J. A.; McPherson, C.



Aerosol cloud generation experiments  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides results from an experimental study performed to evaluate the use of homogeneous and granulated explosive mixture concepts for creating spherical aerosol clouds. In the explosive mixture concept, a small mass of explosive is added to a larger mass of fine inert particulate, and the blend is hand-tamped into a confining cylindrical or spherical structure thereby creating a bed of explosive mixture. The mixture proportions are selected such that the mixture is able to sustain a reaction, be it a detonation or deflagration, throughout the bed. This approach generates gas for aerosol dispersal throughout the bed rather than from the center of the bed (as from a center-driven concept device). As such, a uniformly dispersed aerosol, rather than a thin shell of aerosol, would be expected to be dispersed. The two mixture concepts considered in this work differed only in the assembly and blending of the inert and explosive. Of interest in this work was the evaluation of the explosive mixture concepts relative to providing uniform spherical clouds of fine oxide aerosols of characteristic dimension less than 10 um. Programmatic constraints dicta