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Sample records for technetium-99m dtpa aerosol

  1. Comparison of technetium-99m pyrophosphate and technetium-99m DTPA aerosols for SPECT ventilation lung imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Isitman, A.T.; Collier, B.D.; Palmer, D.W.; Trembath, L.; Krasnow, A.Z.; Rao, S.A.; Hellman, R.S.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Peck, D.C.; Dellis, C.J.

    1988-11-01

    Although (/sup 99m/Tc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is currently the most widely used radioaerosol, rapid alveolar clearance limits its usefulness for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ventilation lung imaging. Previous research has shown that (/sup 99m/Tc)phosphate compounds have high alveolar deposition and slow clearance and thus provide suitable aerosols for pulmonary ventilation studies. We have compared the pulmonary retention and blood levels of (/sup 99m/Tc)pyrophosphate (PYP) and (99mTc)DTPA in eight normal nonsmoking male volunteers. These two radioaerosols have comparable pulmonary deposition. Technetium-99m PYP, however, has a much slower pulmonary clearance which allows sufficient time (20 or more minutes) for SPECT data acquisition using a single-headed rotating gamma camera. While the radiation absorbed dose to the lungs for (/sup 99m/Tc)PYP (0.31 rad/mCi) is greater than for (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA (0.11 rad/mCi), it is at a clinically acceptable and safe level.

  2. Clinical experience with technetium-99m DTPA aerosol with perfusion scintigraphy in suspected pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, J.B.; Gardner, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of radioaerosol imaging, 156 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) were studied. In 25 patients, a preperfusion xenon-133 (Xe-133) study was compared with a postperfusion study using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. It was found that they were of equal value most of the time (56%), but that the aerosol study was more often helpful. Because of this, and the technical ease of using six standard views with radioaerosol, the series was completed using perfusion scintigraphy followed by radioaerosol images. In 19 patients the perfusion scintigraphy with Tc-99 macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) was normal or nearly normal and no aerosol study was required. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol images were satisfactory when the count rate was at least twice and preferably three times that of the previous perfusion study. There were 17 studies (11%) classified as intermediate. There were 26 patients classified as high probability for PE, and angiographic or autopsy correlation was available in 14. All of the 14 proved to have PE. In the 113 patients classified as low probability, there were ten with angiographic or autopsy correlation. In the ten, there was one patient with a small pulmonary embolus found at autopsy. Clinical follow-up for over two months confirmed the absence of PE in the remainder of this group. Aerosol studies have proven technically easier to perform and a satisfactory substitute for xenon imaging in suspected PE.

  3. Effect of ethanol on droplet size, efficiency of delivery, and clearance characteristics of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol.

    PubMed

    Sirr, S A; Juenemann, P J; Tom, H; Boudreau, R J; Chandler, R P; Loken, M K

    1985-06-01

    With recent technical advances in aerosol technology, the study of regional ventilation using [99mTc]DTPA aerosol has become increasingly popular. Using a cascade impactor, we have assessed droplet size distribution from a newly designed nebulizer. Delivery efficiency of [99mTc]DTPA aerosol to normal subjects was improved 70% with a 10% concentration of ethanol in the nebulizer. Using filter paper fixed to the delivery end of the aerosol device, and varying ethanol concentrations from 0-10%, an 87% increase of deposited radioactivity is measured. Use of higher concentration of ethanol to the nebulizer solution did not further improve delivery efficiency. The addition of ethanol did not alter clearance characteristics of [99mTc]DTPA from the lung nor did it affect droplet size distribution. PMID:3889235

  4. Effect of ethanol on droplet size, efficiency of delivery, and clearance characteristics of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Sirr, S.A.; Juenemann, P.J.; Tom, H.; Boudreau, R.J.; Chandler, R.P.; Loken, M.K.

    1985-06-01

    With recent technical advances in aerosol technology, the study of regional ventilation using (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol has become increasingly popular. Using a cascade impactor, the authors have assessed droplet size distribution from a newly designed nebulizer. Delivery efficiency of (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol to normal subjects was improved 70% with a 10% concentration of ethanol in the nebulizer. Using filter paper fixed to the delivery end of the aerosol device, and varying ethanol concentrations from 0-10%, an 87% increase of deposited radioactivity is measured. The addition of ethanol did not alter clearance characteristics of (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA from the lung nor did it affect droplet size distribution.

  5. Chemical breakdown of technetium-99m DTPA during nebulization

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, D.L.; Weber, D.A.; Oberdoerster, G.D.; Drago, S.R.; Utell, M.J.; Hyde, R.W.; Morrow, P.E.

    1987-03-01

    Aerosols of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA) used for measuring lung permeability and lung ventilation require a radioaerosol delivery system to produce an aerosol with reproducible size and radiochemical purity. To test how well nebulizers meet this requirement, radiochemical purity of aerosols produced with a jet and an ultrasonic nebulizer was evaluated. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) and geometric standard deviation (sigma g) of radioaerosols were 0.46 micron (sigma g = 1.6) for the jet nebulizer and 0.70 micron (sigma g = 1.7) for the ultrasonic nebulizer. Paper and liquid chromatographic assays were obtained on the (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol solute produced with each nebulizer. The results of these tests showed major differences in radiochemical purity. Aerosols produced in the jet nebulizer consistently showed greater than 90% of the radioactivity bound to the DTPA ligand whereas aerosols produced in the ultrasonic nebulizer showed less than 10% of the radioactivity bound to DTPA. The results support the need to test radiochemical purity of aerosols before using an aerosol nebulizer for pulmonary imaging and clearance studies.

  6. Radiation absorbed dose from technetium-99m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.; Zanelli, G.D.; Veall, N.

    1987-02-01

    The whole-body retention of intravenously administered (99mTc)DTPA was measured by urine analysis and whole-body counting in eight normal subjects. On average, the elimination of (99mTc)DTPA was faster in these subjects than in 11 patients under study for hypertension whose whole-body retention data were used in MIRD Dose Estimate Report No. 12. The average residence time for (99mTc)DTPA in total body, less bladder contents, was only 65% of the MIRD value. However, despite this difference, the dosimetry is similar in both cases largely owing to the influence of radioactivity in bladder contents. Approximately 2-3% of the administered radioactivity was retained in the body for a time that was long relative to the physical half-life of 99mTc, and probably reflects a small amount of protein binding of the DTPA preparation.

  7. Detection of urinary extravasation by delayed technetium-99m DTPA renal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, J.; Tonami, N.; Aburano, T.; Hisada, K.

    1986-08-01

    Delayed imaging with Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy demonstrated urinary extravasation in a patient with acute anuria in whom early sequential imaging showed no abnormal extrarenal radionuclide accumulation.

  8. Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.

    1986-11-01

    Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy.

  9. Scintigraphic monitoring of mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Zwas, S.T.; Katz, I.; Belfer, B.; Baum, G.L.; Aharonson, E.

    1987-02-01

    A simple method for in vivo monitoring mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance is described. Eighteen healthy subjects and 13 patients with various chronic lung diseases were studied by this method. The principle of using an aerosol administration system similar to the system used for routine ventilation lung studies is stressed. Proximal large airway deposition of the radioaerosol was obtained by using relatively large particles (average diameter 2 microM) of (99mTc)MAA aerosol. Monitoring was performed by visual inspection of the tracheo-bronchial cinescintigraphic ascendence of the accumulated radioactive boli and by assessing their rate of clearance via automated computer analysis of the time-activity curves, following the movement of each bolus. The normal mean +/- s.d. clearance rate thus obtained was 4.7 +/- 1.3 mm/min. This rate appears to be more precise as compared with the range of results obtained by other radioisotopic methods. Significantly faster rates, mean 8.2 +/- 1.4 mm/min (p less than 0.001) were obtained in bronchiectatic patients while slower rates (2.8 mm/min) were seen in a patient with ciliary dyskinesia.

  10. Localization of neurofibromas by scanning with technetium-99m diethylene triamine-pentacetic acid (Tc-99 DTPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-99m DTPA is commonly utilized to evaluate renal function. Reports of a uterine myoma and a soft tissue sarcoma accumulating this radiopharmaceutical have also appeared in the literature. The authors have observed the affinity for plexiform as well as well circumscribed soft tissue tumors of neurofibromatosis for Tc-99m DTPA. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, twenty-eight sites of abnormal soft tissue localization of the isotope were documented by clinical and radiographic (predominantly CT) correlation. The best visualization of the tumors occurred 1 to 3 hours post-injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Multiple images (150,000 to 500,000 counts) of areas suspected of having neurofibromatous involvement were obtained. Several unsuspected lesions were recognized. Similar images obtained in sixteen control patients showed no similar soft tissue localization. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-centimeter subcutaneous neurofibroma. The mechanism for selectivity of neurofibroma for Tc-99m DTPA does not appear to be related to hypervascularity or necrosis. Time activity curves of several lesions demonstrate gradual increase in their activity pointing to cellular uptake or stasis within the tumor as possible explanations. The significance of this observation relates to easy mapping of lesions with minimal radiation. Important implications of this discovery include sequential evaluation of tumor growth and detection of unsuspected lesions.

  11. Chromium-51-EDTA and technetium-99m-DTPA excretion for assessment of small bowel Crohn's disease

    SciTech Connect

    O'Morain, C.; Chervu, L.; Milstein, D.M.; Das, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    In the present study, 4 patients with radiologically documented Crohn's disease were given 100 ..mu..Ci of Cr-51-EDTA and 5 mCi of Tc-99m-DTPA together orally in 10ml of water, and urine was collected during the following 24 hr period. Sequential imaging of the stomach and the GI tract was done with a LFOV gamma camera at 10 min intervals until the activity cleared the small bowel. The images failed to show any localization of the activity in any disease process and no extraintestinal accumulation site was observed scintigraphically. Mean 24 hr urinary excretion for Tc-99m-DTPA was 4.8 +- 2.6% comparable to that of Cr-51-EDTA in these patients. This study suggests that a comparable oral dose of Tc-99m-DTPA could be substituted for Cr-51-EDTA as a far more readily available agent for documenting small bowel Crohn's disease by quantitative assessment of its urinary excretion.

  12. Lung ventilation studies with technetium-99m Pseudogas

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.M.; Sullivan, P.J.; Lomas, F.E.; Evans, V.A.; McLaren, C.J.; Arnot, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    Technetium-99m Pseudogas is an ultrafine near monodisperse aerosol of 0.12-microgram diam particle size. This report describes initial clinical experiences with 27 patients referred for investigation of suspected pulmonary embolism, and in whom Pseudogas ventilation images were compared with a high quality commercial aerosol. An additional group of ten patients with severe COPD was examined in a comparative trial of Pseudogas with 81mKr. Pseudogas was better than a conventional aerosol in reaching a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism using a simple blinded comparison with coded images. In addition, bronchial deposition was minimal unless COPD was severe. Moderately well patients had no difficulty inhaling the necessary activity in one or two breaths, and even severely ill and frail aged persons could accomplish the passive breathing maneuver in less than a minute. Clearance of Pseudogas was directly to the systemic circulation with a half-time of 10 min in normal subjects extending up to 100 min in patients with airways disease.

  13. Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Katherine M.

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8-18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 μA with an energy window of 18→10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron

  14. Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m is a linear electron accelerator-based technology for producing medical imaging radioisotopes from a separation process that heats, vaporizes and condenses the desired radioisotope. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m is a linear electron accelerator-based technology for producing medical imaging radioisotopes from a separation process that heats, vaporizes and condenses the desired radioisotope. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  16. Technetium-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody with preserved immunoreactivity and high in vivo stability

    SciTech Connect

    Arano, Y.; Yokoyama, A.; Furukawa, T.; Horiuchi, K.; Yahata, T.; Saji, H.; Sakahara, H.; Nakashima, T.; Koizumi, M.; Endo, K.

    1987-06-01

    Recent availability of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) and their radiolabeling through the use of the bifunctional chelating agents (BCA) have become an alternative procedure for in vivo radioimmunodetection. Using a newly synthesized BCA, a p-carboxyethylphenylglyoxal-di(N-methylthiosemicarbazone) (CE-DTS), the coupling and technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc) labeling of monoclonal IgG against hCG were carried out. In the system presented, factors affecting stability and immunoreactivity were examined. Immunoreactivity of the original IgG (56C) was preserved by conjugating one CE-DTS molecule per molecule of IgG (56C) using the phosphorylazide method, however, /sup 99m/Tc labeling pH affected the immunoreactivity and limited the /sup 99m/Tc labeling reaction between pH 4.5 and 6.2. A screening of labeling conditions, such as pH, reaction time, and reducing agent system were then carried out. Technetium-99m-labeled IgG (56C), (/sup 99m/Tc)CE-DTS-IgG (56C), showed good stability upon incubation with mice sera and comparable mice biodistribution to that of indium-111 (/sup 111/In) DTPA-IgG (56C). Thus, these results indicate the excellent potential of CE-DTS as a BCA for labeling MoAb with /sup 99m/Tc.

  17. Technetium-99m NGA functional hepatic imaging: preliminary clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Vera, D.R.; Woodle, E.S.; Trudeau, W.L.; Porter, B.A.; Ward, R.E.; Krohn, K.A.; O'Grady, L.F.

    1985-11-01

    Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin ( (Tc)NGA) is a radiolabeled ligand to hepatic binding protein, a receptor which resides at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. This receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical and its kinetic model provide a noninvasive method for the assessment of liver function. Eighteen patients were studied: seven with hepatoma, eight with liver metastases, four with cirrhosis, and one patient with acute fulminant non-A, non-B hepatitis. Technetium-99m NGA liver imaging provided anatomic information of diagnostic quality comparable to that obtained with other routine imaging modalities, including computed tomography, angiography, ultrasound, and (Tc)sulfur colloid scintigraphy. Kinetic modeling of dynamic (Tc)NGA data produced estimates of standardized hepatic blood flow, Q (hepatic blood flow divided by total blood volume), and hepatic binding protein concentration, (HBP). Significant rank correlation was obtained between (HBP) estimates and CTC scores. This correlation supports the hypothesis that (HBP) is a measure of functional hepatocyte mass. The combination of decreased Q and markedly reduced (HBP) may have prognostic significance; all three patients with this combination died of hepatic failure within 6 wk of imaging.

  18. Simultaneous technetium-99m MIBI angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baillet, G.Y.; Mena, I.G.; Kuperus, J.H.; Robertson, J.M.; French, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Resting first-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRNA) was performed with the myocardial perfusion agent technetium-99m MIBI. In 27 patients, it was compared with technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid FPRNA. A significant correlation was present in left (r = 0.93, p less than 0.001) as well as right (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) ventricular ejection fraction measured with both radiopharmaceuticals. In 13 patients, MIBI derived segmental wall motion was compared with contrast ventriculography. A high correlation was present (p less than 0.001), and qualitative agreement was found in 38/52 segments. In 19 patients with myocardial infarction a significant correlation was present between MIBI segmental wall motion and perfusion scores (p less than 0.001). In ten patients with a history of myocardial infarction, 18 myocardial segments demonstrated diseased coronary vessels and impaired wall motion at contrast angiography. These segments were all identified by the MIBI wall motion and perfusion study. We conclude that MIBI is a promising agent for simultaneous evaluation of cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at rest.

  19. Detection of esophageal ulcerations with technetium-99m albumin sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.S.; Adcock, K.A.; Schmelter, R.

    1986-07-01

    Technetium-99m albumin-sucralfate ((/sup 99m/Tc)Su) can be used to demonstrate peptic ulcer disease in man and animals. We evaluated the usefulness of (/sup 99m/Tc)Su for detecting various grades of esophagitis. (/sup 99m/Tc)Su adhered to the distal esophagus for up to 3 hr in five of six patients with esophageal ulcers but adhered to only two of nine with lesser degrees of esophagitis. No adherence was seen in five patients without esophagitis. Thus, (/sup 99m/Tc)Su may not be useful for detecting any but the most severe grade of esophagitis. Based on these results, we speculate that the previously documented beneficial effects of sucralfate on mild to moderate esophagitis may be due to other mechanisms besides adherence to the ulcerated mucosa.

  20. Technetium-99m antimony colloid for bone-marrow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Martindale, A.A.; Papadimitriou, J.M.; Turner, J.H.

    1980-11-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was prepared in our laboratory for bone-marrow imaging. Optimal production of colloid particles of size range 1 to 13 nm was achieved by the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone of mol. wt. 44,000. Electron microscopy was used to size the particles. Studies in rabbits showed exclusive concentration in the subendothelial dendritic phagocytes of the bone marrow. Pseudopods from these cells were found to traverse interendothelial junctions and concentrate colloid from the sinusoids. Imaging studies of bone marrow in rabbits showed the superiority of the Tc-99m antimony colloid over the much larger colloidal particle of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Tissue distribution studies in the rat confirmed that bone-marrow uptake of Tc-99m antimony colloid was greater than that of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, although blood clearance was much slower.

  1. Imaging considerations for a technetium-99m myocardial perfusion agent

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Lister-James, J.; Campbell, S.; Holman, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging with /sup 201/Tl chloride suffers from a number of physical, geometric, and dosimetric constraints that could be diminished if an agent labeled with /sup 99m/Tc were available. The cationic complex /sup 99m/Tc hexakis-(t-butylisonitrile)technetium(I) ((/sup 99m/Tc)TBI) has been shown to concentrate in the myocardial tissue of both animals and humans, with preliminary clinical studies demonstrating a number of technical attributes not possible with /sup 201/Tl. Technetium-99m-TBI is a promising myocardial imaging agent that may permit high quality planar, gated, and tomographic imaging of both myocardial ischemia and infarction with reduced imaging times and improved resolution.

  2. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-02-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

  3. Regional respiratory clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA: posture and smoking effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dusser, D.J.; Minty, B.D.; Collignon, M.A.; Hinge, D.; Barritault, L.G.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-06-01

    We studied 10 healthy nonsmokers and 8 healthy smokers, in both the upright and supine position, to investigate whether regional differences in respiratory clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) existed and to assess the influence of posture and smoking on the regional RC-DTPA. RC-DTPA was assessed by the lung clearance rates (%/min) of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (0.8 micron MMD; 2.4 GSD), using data corrected for recirculating radioactivity, in the upper (zone 1), middle (zone 2), and lower (zone 3) posterior lung fields. In nonsmokers, RC-DTPA in zone 1 was faster than in zone 2 or 3 in both the upright (P less than 0.001) and supine positions (P less than 0.0). No effect was produced by changes in posture on the regional RC-DTPA. In smokers, RC-DTPA was increased in all zones compared with the nonsmokers (P = 0.004), with a further increase in RC-DTP in zone 1 in the upright posture compared with the other regions (P less than 0.001). We conclude that in nonsmokers regional RC-DTPA is faster in zone 1 than in other zones, and this is not related to recirculation of radioactivity; posture does not modify the regional RC-DTPA of nonsmokers; smoking increases RC-DTPA in all zones and more in zone 1 in the upright posture.

  4. Fractionated elution using the TEKCIS technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Jonathan; De Mil, Rémy; Peyronnet, Damien; Hecquard, Claudine; Agostini, Denis; Lemonnier, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The TEKCIS technetium-99m (Tc) generator was designed to allow dry column shipment and automatized conception. A high Tc radioactive concentration is required in a subset of radiopharmacy procedures. Fractionated elution can be a useful tool to meet this requirement, especially when current elution is close to the generator expiration date. The aim of our study was to assess TEKCIS generator elution kinetics and to determine the optimal fractionated elution time to fit with procedures requiring the highest Tc radioactive concentration in clinical use. After duplicate elution at several predetermined elution times, the volume and activity of each eluate were measured. Two optimal time points were selected to perform fractionated elution and repeatability (n=34 and 33) assessed on TEKCIS generators calibrated at 6 or 8 GBq. The complete eluate volume (5 ml) was collected after 60 s of elution. A logarithmic equation was established between eluate volume (v, ml) from elapsed elution time (t, s): v=1.8335ln(t)-2.5965. Using the reciprocal equation, elution times required to obtain some commonly eluted volumes were calculated. Fractionated elutions during 15 and 20 s were selected and an average elution volume from 2.74 to 3.27 ml was collected, with an average elution yield of approximately 90 and 100%, respectively. Our work provides a simple and reliable methodology for the use of fractionated elution with the new TEKCIS generator. PMID:26945284

  5. Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin: preparation and preclinical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, D.R.; Stadalnik, R.C.; Krohn, K.A.

    1985-10-01

    Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin ((Tc) NGA), a labeled analog ligand to the hepatocyte-specific receptor, hepatic binding protein (HBP), was prepared and tested for labeling yield, stability, biodistribution, toxicity, and dosimetry. The ligand was synthesized by the covalent coupling of a carbohydrate bifunctional reagent, 2-imino-2-ethyloxymethyl-1-thiogalactose, to human serum albumin. Testing in mice and rabbits revealed the product to be nontoxic and apyrogenic. Biodistribution studies in rabbits demonstrated the liver as the single focus of tracer uptake. Dosimetry was based on kinetic studies in three baboons. Absorbed doses to liver, small intestine, urinary bladder wall, and uterus were 0.089, 0.28, 0.56, and 0.88 rad/mCi, respectively. Total body, lens of the eye, red marrow, ovaries, and testes were less than 0.06 rad/mCi. High liver specificity imparted by receptor binding combined with high labeling yield, stability, acceptable dosimetry, and safety provide (Tc)NGA with the attributes required for routine clinical assessment of hepatocyte function.

  6. A neutral technetium-99m complex for myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Narra, R.K.; Nunn, A.D.; Kuczynski, B.L.; Feld, T.; Wedeking, P.; Eckelman, W.C. )

    1989-11-01

    Technetium-99m-CDO-MeB (Bis(1,2-cyclohexanedione-dioximato(1-)- O)-(1,2-cyclohexanedione dioximato(2-)-O)methyl-borato(2-)- N,N',N'',N''',N'''',N''''')-chlorotechnetium belongs to a family of compounds generally known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime complexes (BATOs). It has an intrinsic affinity for the myocardium, with negligible lung activity and rapid blood clearance. The uptake of 3.44% ID in rat heart at 1 min postinjection for ({sup 99m}Tc)CDO-MeB versus 3.03% for {sup 201}TI indicates high extraction of ({sup 99m}Tc)CDO-MeB by the myocardium. In dogs an ischemic defect is clearly seen in SPECT images obtained 10 min after injection of ({sup 99m}Tc)CDO-MeB. Tissue distribution data in rats show that ({sup 99m}Tc)CDO-MeB is excreted primarily in the feces and to a lesser extent in the urine. Approximately 80% of the activity is excreted within 24 hr after injection.

  7. Technetium-99m production issues in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Green, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine developed when it was realised that a radioisotopic substitution of Iodine-131 for the stable Iodine-127 would follow the same metabolic pathway in the body enabling the thyroid to be imaged and the thyroid uptake measured. The Iodine could be complexed with pharmaceutical substrates to enable other organs to be imaged, but its use was limited and high gamma energy and beta emission restricted the activity of each radiopharmaceutical used, leading to long acquisition times and degraded images. As a pure gamma emitter of 140 keV and with a 6-h half-life, Technetium-99m is a better radionuclide and images a wider range of bodily organs. However, its short half-life also requires it to be eluted from its mother radionuclide, Mo-99, in a generator, delivered weekly from radiopharmaceutical companies who obtain the Mo-99 in liquid form from high-flux research reactors. All went well till around 2007, when the NRU Reactor in Canada was closed and all other reactors went down for various periods for unrelated problems, leading to widespread Mo-99 shortages. Although the reactors have since recovered, they are 48 to 57 years old, and it seems that few governments have made any future provision such as building replacement reactors. PMID:22557795

  8. Sustained Availability of Technetium-99m - Possible Paths Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, M R A; Dash, A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2013-01-01

    The availability of technetium-99m (99mTc) for single-photon imaging in diagnostic nuclear medicine is crucial, and current availability is based on the molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/99mTc generator fabricated from fission-based molybdenum (F 99Mo) produced by use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. The use of HEU targets is being phased out because of risks related to nuclear material proliferation, so alternative strategies for production of both 99Mo and 99mTc are being evaluated intensely. There are evidently no plans for replacement of the limited number of reactors that have primarily provided most of the 99Mo. The uninterrupted, dependable availability of 99mTc is a crucial issue. For these reasons, new options being pursued include both reactor- and accelerator-based strategies to sustain the continued availability of 99mTc without the use of HEU. In this paper the scientific and economic issues for transitioning from HEU to non-HEU are also discussed. In addition, the comparative advantages, disadvantages, technical challenges, present status, future prospects, security concerns, economic viability, and regulatory obstacles are reviewed. In addition, the international actions in progress towards evolving possible alternative strategies to produce 99Mo and/or 99mTc are analyzed. The breadth of technologies and new strategies under development to provide 99Mo and 99mTc reflects both the broad interest in and the importance of the pivotal role of 99mTc in diagnostic nuclear medicine.

  9. Joint scintigraphy using technetium-99m pyrophosphate in experimental hemarthrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Salimi, Z.; Vas, W.; Restrepo, G.

    1986-02-01

    To determine the validity of a method for induction of experimental hemarthrosis in dogs and for the nuclear imaging of hemarthrosis, serial technetium-99m pyrophosphate ((/sup 99m/Tc)PYP) flow and blood-pool scans were performed monthly in eight dogs who received bi-weekly injections of autologous blood into their femoro-tibial joints (also called stifle joint). In four control dogs, one joint was injected with saline while the other joint received only a sham injection. In addition, two dogs received intra-articular injections of autologous blood into their right stifle joint and saline into their left stifle joint. These dogs were studied with /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/ joint scintigraphy at monthly intervals. The dogs were periodically taken out of the study and explored surgically. Pathologic examination of synovial tissue was performed. Serial radiographs were also obtained and correlated with the scan and surgical findings. There was a striking abnormal increase in blood-pool activity of (/sup 99m/Tc)PYP in the treated stifle joints, commencing at the first examination after 1 mo of blood injections and continuing for the length of the study. All radiographs showed only minimal joint space widening and some soft-tissue swelling. On pathologic examination, both grossly and microscopically, there was profuse pannus formation, with intense inflammatory infiltrate replacing much of the subsynovial fat. The scintigraphic findings correlated well with these pathologic findings. This study not only validates this method for simulating hemophilic hemarthrosis but also suggests that (/sup 99m/Tc)PYP joint scintigraphy is a simple, and noninvasive method for monitoring the early changes in hemophilic arthropathy and is superior to pertechnetate imaging for this disease process.

  10. Macrocyclic complexes of technetium-99m for use as diagnostic radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Troutner, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.

    1986-10-07

    This patent describes the use of the class of lipophilic macrocyclic complexes of technetium-99m (Tc-99m) as diagnostic radionuclides. The complexes are formed by complexing in aqueous solution technetium-99m pertechnetate (TcO/sub 4/--99m) under reducing conditions with an alkylene amine oxime containing from 2 to 4 carbons in the alkylene group. The complexes have a zero charge, containing an O-H-O ring closure bond, and are sufficiently stable for parenteral administration.

  11. Thallium-201 and technetium-99m-pyrophosphate: myocardial imaging in the coronary care unit

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The editor and contributors have developed a textbook that explains the use of thallium 201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate for the detection of acute myocardial infarct. Their integrated approach emphasizes the complementary nature of both imaging modalities. One aim of this book is to discuss the technical characteristics of the two myocardial imaging methods. The text has fourteen chapters. Instrumentation, mechanisms of accumulation of thallium 201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate, acute myocardial infarct, unstable angina pectoris, atypical chest pain, and the interrelationship of the techniques are among the topics discussed. (JMT)

  12. Placental localization in abdominal pregnancy using technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.; Payan, J.M.; Jones, J.S.; Buse, M.G. )

    1990-06-01

    In a patient with third trimester abdominal pregnancy with fetal demise, technetium-99m-labeled erythrocytes ({sup 99m}Tc-RBCs) localized the placenta preoperatively, after nonvisualization by ultrasonography and arteriography. Extrauterine placental localization by blood-pool imaging may be useful when ultrasound fails.

  13. Extracranial metastatic glioblastoma: Appearance on thallium-201-chloride/technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT images

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, P.A.; Schwartz, R.B.; Alexander, E. III; Loeffler, J.S.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Nagel, J.S.; Holman, B.L. )

    1991-02-01

    Sequential thallium-201-chloride and technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained in a patient with extracranial metastatic glioblastoma multiforme. Thallium-201 uptake was high (three times the scalp background) in all pathologically confirmed extracranial metastases and moderate (1.6 times scalp background) intracranially, where most biopsy specimens showed gliosis with scattered atypical astrocytes. Technetium-99m-HMPAO uptake was decreased intracranially in the right frontal and parietal lobes which had been irradiated. It was also decreased in one well-encapsulated scalp lesion and high in another scalp mass with less defined borders. Possible mechanisms of tumor uptake of these agents are reviewed.

  14. Demonstration of reperfusion after thrombolysis with technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kayden, D.S.; Mattera, J.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Wackers, F.J.

    1988-11-01

    Technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial perfusion imaging was employed in a patient undergoing thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction. Technetium-99m isonitrile does not demonstrate significant myocardial redistribution after intravenous injection. The imaging agent was administered in the emergency room, prior to the initiation of thrombolytic therapy. The initial area at risk for infarction was visualized on images obtained after the patient had been effectively treated. Imaging performed 5 days later, after repeat injection of (99mTc)isonitrile, showed a smaller myocardial perfusion defect indicating salvage of myocardium. Thus, this technique offers promise as a noninvasive means of assessing the area at risk, the success of reperfusion, and the presence of salvaged myocardium, early in the course of acute myocardial infarction.

  15. Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scintigraphy in patients with calcification within the cardiac silhouette.

    PubMed Central

    Wald, R W; Sternberg, L; Huckell, V F; Staniloff, H M; Feiglin, D H; Morch, J E

    1978-01-01

    Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scintiscanning was performed in 22 patients with radiographically detected calcification within the cardiac silhouette. All but one of these scintigrams showed a localised area of increased activity similar to that ordinarily seen in acute myocardial infarction. Scintiscans in 3 patients after removal of the calcified aortic valve reverted to negative. It was concluded that this technique for acute infarct detection may yield false positive results in the presence of cardiac calcification. Images PMID:207292

  16. Development new radiopharmaceutical based on 5-thio-d- glucose labeled technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasyuk, E. S.; Skuridin, V. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Rogov, A. S.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sadkin, V. L.; Larionova, L. A.; Varlamova, N. V.; Zelchan, R.

    2016-06-01

    The article considers the obtaining and possibility of using 5-thio-D-glucose labeled technetium-99m for the diagnosis of malignant tumors by single photon emission computed tomography. The analysis of the level of international developments of radiopharmaceuticals based on derivatives of glucose has been carried out. Also the article provides information on of using experimental batches of lyophilisate on the basis of 5-thio-D-glucose for preliminary biomedical testing on the mice.

  17. Comparison of technetium-99m IgG with technetium-99m red blood cells labeling in cardiac blood-pool scintigraphy: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Asli, Isa Neshandar; Semnani, Shahriar; Jallalat, Sara; Ansari, Mojtaba; Amini, Abdullatif; Barekat, Maryam; Assadi, Majid

    2011-01-01

    This first clinical prospective study was conducted to use of technetium-99m immunoglobulin G ((99m)Tc-IgG) as compared with autologous (99m)Tc-red blood cells (RBC) in gated blood pool ventriculography. We studied 12 patients who referred to us for a possible diagnosis of liver hemangioma or infection. Six patients underwent gated planar blood pool (GPBP) acquisition using (99m)Tc-RBC and 6 GPBP acquisition using (99m)Tc-IgG. The use of (99m)Tc-IgG in cardiac blood pool studies provided comparable images to (99m)Tc-RBC. In conclusion, (99m)Tc-IgG, which is readily available and needs only a single injection, may be an attractive alternative to (99m)Tc-RBC for the estimation of various cardiac function parameters like left ventricular function. PMID:21512662

  18. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1986-10-01

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.

  19. Serendipity in Technetium-99m dimethyl iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy. [Visualization of nonbiliary incidental abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Sugarman, L.A.; Frank, M.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1980-05-01

    Technetium-99m dimethyl iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy has contributed significantly to the diagnosis of acute and chronic biliary tract disorders. Yet attention should also be focused on the other structres visualized during the blood pool, hepatocyte, renal excretory, and intestinal phases of the study. Nonbiliary pathology was detected in 42 of 294 patients (14.3%) studied for suspected acute cholecystitis. The serendipitous detection of previously unsuspected abnormalities assisted in directing further work-up away from suspected biliary disease and towards the real source of the patient's acute problem in 28 cases (9.5%).

  20. Technetium-99m-HIDA visualization of an obstructed gallbladder via an accessory hepatic duct

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, D.E.; Donald, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) and paraisopropyliminodiacetic acid (PIPIDA) scintigraphy after sonographic evaluation of the gallbladder have been advocated recently for the diagnosis of acute obstructive cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Several authors have stated or inferred that gallbladder visualization with /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA excludes acute cholecystitis and cystic duct obstruction. We describe a patient with surgically proven cystic duct obstruction whose gallbladder visualized on a /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA scan via an accessory hepatic duct which directly entered the gallbladder.

  1. Acute acalculous cholecystitis: sensitivity in detection using technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Swayne, L.C.

    1986-07-01

    Forty-one proved cases of acute acalculous cholecystitis imaged with technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy were retrospectively analyzed. After the exclusion of one indeterminate scan (showing poor initial hepatic uptake and excretion), the study yielded a 92.5% (37 of 40) sensitivity for the detection of cystic or common bile duct obstruction. Each of the three patients with false-negative scintigrams had other abnormal scintigraphic findings suggestive of biliary tract disease. Of the 20 patients (48.8%) with focal or diffuse gangrenous cholecystitis or perforation, seven (35%) exhibited either free peritoneal spill or increased pericholecystic activity to indicate the presence of advanced disease.

  2. Technetium-99m sestamibi in chronic coronary artery disease: The European experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sochor, H. )

    1990-10-16

    Since the introduction of technetium-99m methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m sestamibi) in Europe, there has been a growing interest in its use. Several European multicenter trials have been conducted to evaluate this new agent in relation to the traditional perfusion marker thallium-201, and other studies are in progress to understand the use of this perfusion marker for the diagnosis of coronary disease, for use in conjunction with pharmacologic vasodilation, for use in the assessment of ventricular function and wall motion and for the assessment of interventions.

  3. Characterization of technetium-99m-L,L-ECD for brain perfusion imaging, Part 1: Pharmacology of technetium-99m ECD in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Walovitch, R.C.; Hill, T.C.; Garrity, S.T.; Cheesman, E.H.; Burgess, B.A.; O'Leary, D.H.; Watson, A.D.; Ganey, M.V.; Morgan, R.A.; Williams, S.J. )

    1989-11-01

    Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (({sup 99m}Tc)ECD) is a neutral, lipophilic complex which rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier. Brain retention and tissue metabolism of ({sup 99m}Tc)ECD is dependent upon the stereochemical configuration of the complex. While both L,L and D,D enantiomers are extracted by the brain, only the L,L but not the D,D form, is metabolized and retained in the monkey brain (4.7% injected dose initially, T 1/2 greater than 24 hr). Dynamic single photon emission computed tomography imaging studies in one monkey indicates {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD to be distributed in a pattern consistent with regional cerebral blood flow for up to 16 hr postinjection. Dual-labeled {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD and ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine autoradiography studies performed 1 hr after administration show cortical gray to white matter ratios of both isotopes to be equivalent (approximately 4-5:1). These data suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD will be useful for the scintigraphic assessment of cerebral perfusion in humans.

  4. Technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning in evaluation of afferent loop syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Sivelli, R.; Farinon, A.M.; Sianesi, M.; Percudani, M.; Ugolotti, G.; Calbiani, B.

    1984-08-01

    A study of 118 patients, operated on with Billroth II gastrectomy for peptic disease and affected by postgastrectomy syndromes, was carried out. Fifty patients were investigated by means of technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning. In 18 patients, in whom an afferent loop syndrome was clinically suspected, hepatobiliary scanning demonstrated an altered afferent loop emptying in 8 and atonic distension of the gallbladder without afferent loop motility changes in 10. Among the patients in the first group, four were treated with a biliary diversion surgical procedure and in the second group, two patients underwent cholecystectomy. Our findings indicate that biliary vomiting, right upper abdominal pain pyrosis, and biliary diarrhea in Billroth II gastrectomized patients are not always pathognomonic symptoms of afferent loop syndrome. Technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning represents the only diagnostic means of afferent loop syndrome definition. A differential diagnosis of abnormal afferent loop emptying and gallbladder dyskinesia is necessary for the management planning of these patients, and furthermore, when a surgical treatment is required, biliary diversion with Roux-Y anastomosis or Braun's biliary diversion seems the treatment of choice for afferent loop syndrome, whereas cholecystectomy represents the best procedure for atonic distension of the gallbladder.

  5. Localization and stability of technetium-99m-Sn-pyrophosphate in rat neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelter, R.F.; Loo, C.Y.

    1988-08-01

    Technetium-99m has been suggested as an alternative radiolabel for white cells, and while its physical characteristics are nearly ideal, its stability and site of localization in this procedure are unclear. We examined these parameters by radiolabeling 10(8) neutrophils from rat peritoneum with 74 to 370 MBq technetium-99m-Sn-pyrophosphate. We found that the percentage of initial activity bound to neutrophils was quite variable, possibly because the radiolabel associated with several subfractions: 19.8 +/- 11.5% (mean +/- s.d.) with nuclei and plasma membranes, 25.6 +/- 3.9% with mitochondria, 26.6 +/- 9.8% with microsomes, and 29.2 +/- 6.9% with cytosol. Approximately 80-90% of the radioactivity associated with neutrophils was not bound to protein and only about one-half of the activity localized to cell membranes was removable over 4 hr by pepsin digestion. We concluded that the variable labeling efficiency was due to the radiolabel's rather loose association with several cellular subfractions rather than specific binding to a unique substrate.

  6. Sensitivity of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy in diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, R.H.; Lee, V.W.; Rubinow, A.; Hood, W.B. Jr.; Cohen, A.S.

    1983-03-01

    To determine the value of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of amyloid heart disease this procedure was prospectively performed in 20 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven primary amyloidosis. Eleven patients had echocardiographic abnormalities compatible with amyloid cardiomyopathy, 9 of whom had congestive heart failure. Diffuse myocardial pyrophosphate uptake was of equal or greater intensity than that of the ribs in 9 of the 11 patients with echocardiograms suggestive of amyloidosis, but in only 2 of the 9 with normal echocardiograms, despite abnormal electrocardiograms (p less than 0.01). Increased wall thickness measured by M-mode echocardiography correlated with myocardial pyrophosphate uptake (r . 0.68, p less than 0.01). None of 10 control patients with nonamyloid, nonischemic heart disease had a strongly positive myocardial pyrophosphate uptake. Thus, myocardial technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scanning is a sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis in patients with congestive heart failure of obscure origin. It does not appear to be of value for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with known primary amyloidosis without echocardiographic abnormalities.

  7. Evaluation of hypertensive patients by means of captopril enhanced renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Dondi, M.; Franchi, R.; Levorato, M.; Zuccala, A.; Gaggi, R.; Mirelli, M.; Stella, A.; Marchetta, F.; Losinno, F.; Monetti, N.

    1989-05-01

    One-hundred five hypertensive patients underwent conventional renal scintigraphy followed 2 or 3 days later by Captopril-enhanced renal scintigraphy, performed 1 hr after premedication with 50 mg of Captopril per os. All patients were then submitted to renal arteriography, performed within 15-30 days. Fifty-five patients had no renal artery stenosis, 29 had unilateral disease, and 21 bilateral. Overall, 34/37 patients were diagnosed by the provocative test as having at least one renal artery affected by a stenosis greater than 50%. Of those with no stenosis (n = 55) or stenosis less than 50% (n = 13) only two cases were falsely positive. Thus sensitivity was 92% and specificity 97%. For single kidney identification with stenosis greater than 50%, sensitivity of renal scintigraphy after Captopril administration was 94% and specificity 98%. Captopril enhanced renal scintigraphy is thus suggested as the first test to be performed in hypertensive patients referred for renal scintigraphic studies. Only those cases with equivocal results require a baseline study for better assessment.

  8. Distribution of technetium-99m PEG-liposomes during oligofructose-induced laminitis development in horses.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Claire; Pollitt, Christopher C; Metselaar, Josbert M; Laverman, Peter; van Bloois, Louis; van den Hoven, Jolanda M; Storm, Gert; van Eps, Andrew W

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are phospholipid nanoparticles used for targeted drug delivery. This study aimed to determine whether intravenous liposomes accumulate in lamellar tissue during laminitis development in horses so as to assess their potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery. Polyethylene-glycol (PEG) coated liposomes were prepared according to the film hydration method and labelled using (99m)Tc-hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime. Six horses received 10 g/kg oligofructose via nasogastric tube to induce laminitis, and four control horses received water via nasogastric tube. All horses received 300 µmol (99m)Tc-PEG-liposomes (5.5 GBq) plus 5.5 µmol/kg PEG-liposomes by slow intravenous infusion. Scintigraphic imaging was performed at 0, 6 and 12 h post-infusion. Technetium-99m liposome uptake was measured in regions of interest over the hoof, fetlock and metacarpus. At the study end-point horses were euthanased, tissue samples collected and tissue liposome levels were calculated as the percentage of the injected dose of (99m)Tc-liposomes per kilogram of tissue. Data were analysed non-parametrically. All horses receiving oligofructose developed clinical and histological signs of laminitis. Technetium-99m liposome uptake in the hoof increased with time in laminitis horses (P = 0.04), but decreased with time in control horses (P = 0.01). Technetium-99m liposome levels in lamellar tissue from laminitis horses were 3.2-fold higher than controls (P = 0.02) and were also higher in laminitis vs. control skin, muscle, jejunum, colon, and kidney (P < 0.05). Liposomes accumulated in lamellar tissue during oligofructose-induced laminitis development and demonstrated potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery in acute laminitis. This study provides further evidence that lamellar inflammation occurs during laminitis development. Liposome accumulation also occurred in the skin, muscle, jejunum, colon and kidneys, suggesting systemic inflammation in this

  9. Labeling of Tannic Acid with Technetium-99m for Diagnosis of Stomach Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I. T.; El-Tawoosy, M.; Talaat, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Tannic acid is a polyphenolic compound that could be labeled with technetium-99m. To produce about 90% yield of  99mTc-tannic acid in acidic media (pH), the conditions required were 150 μg tin chloride, 30 min reaction time, and 200 μg of the substrate. 99mTc-tannic was stable for 6 h. Oral biodistribution of 99mTc-tannic showed that it concentrated in the stomach ulcer to reach about 50% of the total injected dose at 1 h after orall administration. This concentration of 99mTc-tannic in stomach ulcer may be sufficient to radio-image the presence of ulcer in the stomach. PMID:22389852

  10. The role of technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy in acute acalculous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Berkowitz, D.; Fox, M.S.; Gliedman, M.L.; Rosenblatt, R.; Sugarman, L.A.; Freeman, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy was performed in 15 patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Fourteen of the 15 patients with acute disease had positive findings, indicating the presence of cystic duct or common duct obstruction. One case in which the gallbladder was visualized failed to respond to sincalide stimulation; this was classified as a suggestive finding of disease. The diagnostic accuracy of /sup 99m/Tc-IDA cholescintigraphy was far superior to the other imaging studies used (8 sonograms, 1 intravenous cholangiogram, 3 oral cholecystograms, 1 percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram). The /sup 99m/Tc-IDA study is recommended as the imaging procedure of choice for examining patients with suspected acute acalculous cholecystitis.

  11. Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis using hepatobiliary scan with technetium-99m PIPIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.T.; Sheldon, M.I.; dos Remedios, L.V.; Weber, P.M.

    1981-09-01

    Sixty patients were evaluated for acute abdominal pain using technetium-99m PIPIDA hepatobiliary imaging. The sensitivity of the test was 90.6 percent in all patients and the accuracy was 93.3 percent. In the evaluation of acutely ill patients with right upper quadrant pain, fever, nausea and vomiting, hepatobiliary imaging with PIPIDA is the preferred test for diagnosing acute cholecystitis. If the test is positive, disease of the gallbladder and probably acute cholecystitis are present. Early operation can proceed if desirable. If the test is negative and the bilirubin level is less than 5.0 mg/dl, acute cholecystitis is not present. In such cases conservative treatment is appropriate, and follow-up tests should be performed to evaluate the possibility of chronic cholecystitis. When the bilirubin level exceeds 5.0 mg/dl, the test is often indeterminate.

  12. The role of technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy in acute acalculous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Berkowitz, D.; Fox, M.S.; Gliedman, M.L.; Rosenblatt, R.; Sugarman, L.A.; Freeman, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    Technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy was performed in 15 patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Fourteen of the 15 patients with acute disease had positive findings, indicating the presence of cystic duct or common duct obstruction. One case in which the gallbladder was visualized failed to respond to sincalide stimulation; this was classified as a suggestive finding of disease. The diagnostic accuracy of /sup 99//sup m/Tc-IDA cholescintigraphy was far superior to the other imaging studies used (8 sonograms, 1 intravenous cholangiogram, 3 oral cholecystograms, 1 percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram). The /sup 99//sup m/Tc-IDA study is recommended as the imaging procedure of choice for examining patients with suspected acute acalculous cholecystitis.

  13. A partial defect in technetium-99m pyrophosphate image suggesting cardiac rupture following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, M; Hiroe, M; Sugimoto, K; Miyahara, Y; Ishii, Z; Taniguchi, K; Marumo, F

    1992-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old woman with acute myocardial infarction who died of cardiac rupture on the 2nd hospital day. Dual isotope single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using thallium-201 chloride and technetium-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) performed on the 2nd hospital day showed a large perfusion defect in the anteroseptal wall on 201Tl image and a increased accumulation on 99mTc-PYP image in the anterior area consistent with a partial defect. Autopsy performed 1 h after death revealed a tear in the left ventricular anterior wall consistent with the defect on the 99mTc-PYP image. We propose that the finding of a partial defect in 99mTc-PYP is an interesting finding which may be associated with cardiac rupture following acute myocardial infarction. PMID:1533369

  14. Vicarious liver visualization in solitary functioning kidney with technetium-99m ethylenedicysteine renal scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Phulsunga, Rohit Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of 3-year-old boy who was incidentally diagnosed to have single left kidney on ultrasonography. Dynamic technetium-99m ethylenedicysteine renal scintigraphy was acquired for assessing the existing kidney function showed the tracer localization in bilateral renal fossae during the entire study. The single-photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography study revealed activity in the right renal fossa to be in the enlarged right lobe of the liver, which was mimicking as impaired functioning right kidney in planar images. The hybrid imaging helped in accurate delineation of tracer uptake by confirming it to be the false appearance of the right kidney in planar imaging. This case report also highlights the possible mechanism of renal tracer uptake in the liver parenchyma. PMID:26170576

  15. Future of low specific activity molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, A

    2012-10-01

    In last few years, the shortage of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) was felt in the developed and developing countries hospitals, where diagnostic nuclear medicine is practiced. To overcome the shortage of 99Mo various routes of its production by accelerators and reactors generating low and high specific activity products have been planned. High specific activity 99Mo obtained by fission of uranium-235 (235U) has completely dominated in the manufacturing of technetium-99m (99mTc) generators in last 3-4 decades, but due to proliferation and dirty bomb, issues non fission routes of 99Mo production are emphasized. Future of low specific activity 99Mo is discussed. PMID:22642420

  16. Effect of reperfusion and hyperemia on the myocardial distribution of technetium-99m t-butylisonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, C.A.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Kloner, R.A.

    1986-07-01

    Technetium-99m t-butylisonitrile ((/sup 99m/Tc)TBI) is a promising new radiotracer for myocardial imaging. Its myocardial uptake is sufficiently high in humans to permit planar, tomographic, and gated images of excellent technical quality. We studied the behavior of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI in the dog at rest and under conditions of hyperemia and reperfusion in order to determine the relationship between (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI myocardial concentration and blood flow. After permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, the correlation between the relative myocardial concentration of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI and regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) measured with radiolabeled microspheres was excellent. In a dog model of transient hyperemia, the concentration of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI was directly related to blood flow but underestimated the degree of hyperemia. Technetium-99m TBI redistributed into transiently ischemic myocardium. The myocardial concentrations of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI and thallium-201(/sup 201/TI) in transiently ischemic myocardium were similar at 10 and 30 min following reperfusion and were significantly higher than blood flow prior to reperfusion. When (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI was injected into the left anterior descending artery, the washout was slow, falling to 78% of initial activity at 120 min after injection. In conclusion, (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI reflects regional myocardial blood flow accurately in ischemic and normal resting myocardium and underestimates blood flow at high flows. The rate of myocardial redistribution after reperfusion is similar for (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI and /sup 201/TI.

  17. Assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction from technetium-99m-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile multiple-gated radionuclide angiocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.H.; Rezaie, B. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Weiland, F.L. . Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1993-06-01

    Abnormal left ventricular function is a diagnostic indication of cardiac disease. Left ventricular function is commonly quantified by ejection fraction measurements. A novel approach for the determination of left ventricular ejection fraction from technetium-99m-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile multiple-gated radionuclide angiocardiography is presented. Data from 23 patients, symptomatic of cardiac disease, indicate that ejection fractions determined using the radionuclide technique correlate well with contrast X-ray single-plane cineangiography. Data from 14 of the patients indicate favorable correlation with technetium-99m-pertechnetate gated blood pool radionuclide angiocardiography.

  18. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime leucocyte scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of cerebral abscesses.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, F; Sara, R; Milella, M; Ruffini, L; Sterzi, R; Causarano, I R; Sberna, M

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain abscess is often difficult, as the clinical symptoms are not specific. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are highly sensitive, but different cerebral lesions, especially neoplasms, can have the same ring-like contrast enhancement. Brain abscess is a severe illness requiring rapid diagnosis to choose the most appropriate therapy. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy is commonly used to detect an inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to present the results obtained with leucocyte scintigraphy in 65 patients with intracranial mass lesions and clinical findings compatible to or suggestive of brain abscess. The final diagnosis, based on surgery, clinical findings and stereotatic puncture, was brain abscess in 17 patients, primary brain neoplasm in 22, brain metastasis in 16, lymphoma in 2, cysticercosis in 2, hematoma in 2 and cerebral infarction in 4. 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy was positive in all abscess cases. The scan was negative in the rest of the patients examined, with the exception of one lesion, which was finally diagnosed as a tumour (1 false-positive). All patients who did not have false-negative scans were treated with steroids. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of leucocyte scintigraphy was 100%, 97.8% and 98.4%, respectively. In conclusion, in our experience, leucocyte scintigraphy is a valuable aid in the differential diagnosis between abscess and neoplasm. PMID:10654146

  19. Regional brain perfusion in 10 normal dogs measured using Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer spect.

    PubMed

    Peremans, K; De Bondt, P; Audenaert, K; Van Laere, K; Gielen, I; Koole, M; Versijpt, J; Van Bree, H; Verschooten, F; Dierckx, R

    2001-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain using perfusion tracers allows estimation of regional brain perfusion. This allows in vivo examination of brain function in the setting of neuropsychologic and pathophysiologic changes. However functional imaging data on brain perfusion in dogs are limited. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the scintigraphic regional perfusion pattern of the normal canine brain. Ten healthy shepherd type dogs were injected with 925 MBq Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate (ECD) 20 minutes before the examination. Acquisition was performed using a triple head gamma camera equipped with fanbeam collimators. Uniform attenuation correction and triple energy window correction were applied. Computed tomographic images were obtained from the same dogs, reoriented along the orbito-meatal axis and SPECT perfusion data were coregistered to the CT-volume data. Based on morphological and suggested brain divisions, regions-of-interest (ROIs) were defined for the bilateral frontocerebral, temporocerebral, parietocerebral, occipitocerebral, cerebellar, thalamic, and striatal area. Regional count density was normalized on total counts. All dogs had the highest uptake in the thalamic/striatal area compared to a rather homogeneous cerebral uptake. No significant left/right count differences were found, but a rostro-caudal gradient (+12-13%) was present. In this group, age and gender did not influence the perfusion pattern. PMID:11768526

  20. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract. PMID:16691636

  1. A neutral lipophilic technetium-99m complex for regional cerebral blood flow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Narra, R.K.; Nunn, A.D.; Kuczynski, B.L.; DiRocco, R.J.; Feld, T.; Silva, D.A.; Eckelman, W.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Technetium-99m-DMG-2MP (Chloro(bis(2,3-butanedionedioxime(1-)-0)(2,3- butanedionedioximato (2-)-N,N{prime},N{double prime},N{prime}{double prime},N{double prime}{double prime},N{prime}{double prime}{double prime}) (2-methylpropyl borato (2-))technetium)), also known as SQ 32097 is a member of a family of neutral lipophilic compounds generally known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime complexes (BATOs). After i.v. administration, the concentration of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in various regions of the brain appears to be proportional to blood flow. In rats, 1.1% ID was in the brain at 5 min postinjection when the blood contained less than 3% ID. Over 24 hr excretion was 59% in the feces and 23% in the urine. The activity in monkey brain at 5 min was 2.8% ID and it cleared with a t1/2 of 86 min. Autoradiographs of monkey brain sections showed excellent regional detail with a gray/white ratio of 3.6 at 10 min. The distribution of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in the monkey brain corresponds to the known cytoarchitectural pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism. The properties of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP make it a potentially useful agent for cerebral perfusion imaging in man.

  2. Estimation of Residual Peritoneal Volume Using Technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Katopodis, Konstantinos P; Fotopoulos, Andrew D; Balafa, Olga C; Tsiouris, Spyridon Th; Triandou, Eleni G; Al-Bokharhli, Jichad B; Kitsos, Athanasios C; Dounousi, Evagelia C; Siamopoulos, Konstantinos C

    2015-01-01

    Residual peritoneal volume (RPV) may contribute in the development of ultrafiltration failure in patients with normal transcapillary ultrafiltration. The aim of this study was to estimate the RPV using intraperitoneal technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid (Tc). Twenty patients on peritoneal dialysis were studied. RPV was estimated by: 1) intraperitoneal instillation of Tc (RPV-Tc) and 2) classic Twardowski calculations using endogenous solutes, such as urea (RPV-u), creatinine (RPV-cr), and albumin (RPV-alb). Each method's reproducibility was assessed in a subgroup of patients in two consecutive measurements 48 h apart. Both methods displayed reproducibility (r = 0.93, p = 0.001 for RPVTc and r = 0.90, p = 0.001 for RPV-alb) between days 1 and 2, respectively. We found a statistically significant difference between RPV-Tc and RPV-cr measurements (347.3 ± 116.7 vs. 450.0 ± 67.8 ml; p =0.001) and RPV-u (515.5 ± 49.4 ml; p < 0.001), but not with RPV-alb (400.1 ± 88.2 ml; p = 0.308). A good correlation was observed only between RPV-Tc and RPV-alb (p < 0.001). The Tc method can estimate the RPV as efficiently as the high molecular weight endogenous solute measurement method. It can also provide an imaging estimate of the intraperitoneal distribution of RPV. PMID:25806615

  3. Evaluation of Technetium-99m glucoheptonate single photon emission computed tomography for brain tumor grading

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Syed Shafiq; Junaid, Syed; Ahmed, Syed Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study is designed to appraise the diagnostic value of technetium-99m glucoheptonate (Tc-99m GHA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in brain tumor grading. Subjects and Methods: The study was performed on 30 patients referred from the Department of Neurosurgery, who were from both urban and rural areas. Data were collected through interview, history taking, and clinical examination followed by recording the desired parameters and finally imaging. The study subjects were divided into five groups: Controls (n = 4), low-grade tumors (n = 8), high-grade tumors (n = 8), metastases (n = 5), and nonneoplastic lesions (n = 5). This division was based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification postclinico-histological diagnosis. Each of the subjects underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography/contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance and Tc-99m GHA SPECT preoperatively. All were followed up postoperatively, and histopathological reports were regarded as the gold standard for tumor grading wherever available. Results: It was found that high-grade tumors (Grades III/IV and IV/IV according to the WHO classification) showed significantly higher tumor to normal (T/N) ratios as well as Tmax/N ratios when compared with low-grade tumors (Grades I/IV and II/IV), metastases or nonneoplastic lesions. Conclusions: In summary, the results of this study suggest that in situations where a preoperative grading of tumor is required Tc-99m GHA can be used in tumor grading and its use should be encouraged. Semi-quantitative analysis using both T/N as well as Tmax/N can be used in differentiating high-grade tumors from low-grade ones. PMID:27057217

  4. Technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial imaging: same-day rest-stress studies and dipyridamole.

    PubMed

    Taillefer, R

    1990-10-16

    Unlike thallium-201, technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi does not redistribute in the myocardium after injection. Thus, 2 separate injections, 1 at rest and the other at stress (or after dipyridamole), are required to differentiate ischemia from scar. From a physical viewpoint, a 24-hour interval between the 2 injections is preferable for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging. However, same-day studies are more convenient in clinical practice. Results of studies using different Tc-99m sestamibi injection protocols are presented with emphasis on the advantages of a rest-stress injection sequence with a low dose at rest (7 mCi) followed 2 hours later by a higher dose at stress (25 mCi). A prospective study was conducted in a patient population with proven CAD using same-day studies to compare a rest-stress (7 and 25 mCi, respectively) to a stress-rest (7 and 25 mCi) Tc-99m sestamibi injection sequence. There was an agreement in 87.3% of the analyzed segments between the 2 protocols. However, the largest discordance for type of defect applied to 7.4% of the segments judged ischemic in the rest-stress protocol, which were called scars on stress-rest. This study showed that a rest-stress sequence is preferable when using a same-day protocol with a short time interval (less than 2 hours) between the 2 Tc-99m sestamibi injections because the rest image performed initially represents a "true" rest study, which is not necessarily the case with the stress-rest sequence. Preliminary studies were performed to evaluate dipyridamole with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging in normal subjects and in patients with CAD. These studies showed that treadmill and dipyridamole Tc-99m sestamibi imaging are comparable and the results are similar to those obtained with thallium-201. PMID:2145751

  5. Effect of graded hypoxia on retention of technetium-99m-nitroheterocycle in perfused rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Rumsey, W.L.; Patel, B.; Linder, K.E.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of graded hypoxia on the retention of a {sup 99m}Tc-labeled nitroimidazole. Rat hearts were perfused retrogradely with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37{degrees}C and paced at 5 Hz. After a 20-min stabilization period, coronary flow was maintained at 8 ml/min/g wet wt and the hearts were perfused with media equilibrated with gas mixtures containing 5% CO{sub 2} and various levels of O{sub 2}, from 544 to 29 Torr. Technetium-99m-O(PnAO-1-(2-nitroimidazole)), BMS-181321, was infused for 20 min into a side port of the aortic cannula. Perfusion continued for an additional 40 min to allow for compound clearance. Each decrease of perfusate PO{sub 2} brought about an increase in the retention of BMS-181321, resulting in a good correlation between its retention and perfusate PO{sub 2} (r=0.97). Myocardial oxygen consumption was independent of oxygen delivery when the perfusate oxygen pressure was greater than 350 Torr. Below this value, oxygen consumption declined markedly as influent PO{sub 2}. A good correlation was obtained between retention of the nitroheterocycle and the cytosolic lactate/pyruvate ratio (r=0.98). When glucose was omitted from the perfusate (PO{sub 2}=27 Torr), retention of the nitroheterocycle was increased by about 25% as compared to hearts perfused in the presence of this substrate. These results indicate that myocardial retention of BMS-181321 is coupled to the level of tissue oxygenation and that hypoxic retention may be affected by substrate input. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Braga, A C; Oliveira, M B; Feliciano, G D; Reiniger, I W; Oliveira, J F; Silva, C R; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2000-07-01

    The influence of drugs on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc has been reported. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. We have evaluated the effect of Thuya occidentalis, Peumus boldus and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) extracts on the labeling of RBC and plasma and cellular proteins with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with the drugs. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solutions and 99mTc were added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to P and BC was determined. The %ATI on the plasma and cellular proteins was also evaluated by precipitation of P and BC samples with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and isolation of soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in %ATI (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with Thuya occidentalis extract. The labeling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco. The analysis of radioactivity in samples of P and BC isolated from samples of whole blood treated with Peumus boldus showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the Peumus boldus, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. This study shows that extracts of some medicinal plants can affect the radiolabeling of red blood cells with 99mTc using an in vitro technique. PMID:10903389

  7. Evaluation of the severity of traumatic rhabdomyolysis using technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Chang, H R; Kao, C H; Lian, J D; Shu, K H; Cheng, C H; Wu, M J; Chen, C H

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative scoring method was designed to assess the extent of muscle damage. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP) scintigraphy was performed for 9 patients experiencing crush injury in the Chichi (Taiwan) earthquake. The magnitude of muscle uptake of 99mTc-PYP was graded as follows: grade 0, less than bone radioactivity (BRA); grade 1, equal to BRA; grade 2, higher than BRA; or grade 3, greatly higher than BRA. The area of muscle injury was estimated according to the rule of nines. The sum of the muscle injury size multiplied by its corresponding grading was defined as the anterior or posterior score according to the anterior or posterior images. Each image was interpreted by two physicians and average anterior and posterior scores were calculated. The muscle score was defined as the geometric mean of the average anterior and posterior scores. Significant correlations were obtained between the muscle score and duration of time trapped (r = 0.868, p < 0.01), peak serum creatine kinase level (r = 0.866, p < 0.01), peak serum phosphorus level (r = 0.877, p < 0.01) and number of hospital days (r = 0.875, p < 0.01). A negative correlation between the muscle score and blood pH (r = -0.706, p < 0.01) was also observed. We concluded that this scoring method may be used as an adjunct for evaluating the locations of trauma and the severity of crush syndrome, and for predicting the duration of hospital stay. PMID:11423690

  8. Technetium-99m Bone Scan and Panoramic Radiography in Detection of Bone Invasion by Oral Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    John, Ani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The correct extension of cancer in the bone usually remains undetected on static imaging which may lead to inadequate or over excision. The conventional radiography as well as other anatomical imaging modalities like computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging often fails to detect functional changes in the bone. However, bone scinitigraphy is highly sensitive in detecting earlier changes in the bone but lack anatomical definition. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of combining technetium-99m bone scan and panoramic radiography (Tc scan/PR) over using single diagnostic modality in detection of jaw bone invasion by oral carcinomas. The accuracy of these imaging modalities either alone or in combination were determined by comparing with the histopathological findings. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with biopsy-proven oral malignant tumors were randomly selected from Oral Medicine and Radiology department over a period of two years. All patients were investigated preoperatively by Tc scan and PR. Lewis – Jones’s designed diagnostic criterion was applied on Tc scan/PR to evaluate bone involvement by cancer. To test the accuracy of Tc scan, PR and Tc scan/PR, their results were compared with the histopathological findings of resected specimen. Results: Hybrid Tc scan/PR had higher specificity, accuracy and positive predictive value (83.3%, 94.7%, 92.8%) than Tc scan alone (50%, 84.2%, 81.2%) and higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (100%, 100%) than PR (69.2%, 55.5%). Conclusion: Combination of Tc scan and PR was more accurate in detecting jaw bone invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma than Tc scan and PR alone. PMID:24995244

  9. Technetium-99m somatostatin analogues: effect of labelling methods and peptide sequence.

    PubMed

    Decristoforo, C; Mather, S J

    1999-08-01

    In this paper the preclinical evaluation of the somatostatin analogue RC160 labelled with technetium-99m using bifunctional chelators (BFCs) based on the hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and N(3)S system is described and a comparison made with [Tyr(3)]-octreotide (TOC). Conjugates of both peptides with HYNIC, and of RC160 with benzoyl-MAG(3) and an N(3)S-adipate derivative were prepared and radiolabelling performed at high specific activities using tricine, tricine/nicotinic acid and ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA) as co-ligands for HYNIC conjugates. All conjugates and (99m)Tc-labelled peptides showed preserved binding affinity for the somatostatin receptor (IC50, Kd<5 nM). The biodistribution was markedly dependent on the BFC and co-ligand used, with the amidothiol ligands showing a greater degree of hepatobiliary clearance, the HYNIC/tricine complex higher blood levels and the HYNIC/EDDA complex the highest level of renal excretion and lowest blood levels. All peptide conjugates showed receptor-mediated uptake in tumour xenografts, but tumour uptake was significantly lower for the (99m)Tc-RC160 derivatives compared with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr(3)]-octreotide (0.2%-3.5%ID/g vs 9.7%ID/g) and correlated well with the reduced internalisation rate for RC160 derivatives. Our results show that the selection of the labelling approach as well as the right choice of the peptide structure are crucial for labelling peptides with (99m)Tc to achieve complexes with favourable biodistribution. Despite the relatively low tumour uptake compared with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr(3)]-octreotide, (99m)Tc-RC160 could play a role in imaging tumours that do not bind octreotide derivatives. PMID:10436200

  10. Clinical experience with technetium-99m teboroxime, a neutral, lipophilic myocardial perfusion imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Seldin, D.W. )

    1990-10-16

    Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) teboroxime is a new technetium-based myocardial perfusion imaging agent (investigational code = SQ30217 (Cardiotec, Squibb Diagnostics)). A member of a class of neutral, lipophilic, technetium-containing complexes known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime (BATO) complexes, this agent is chemically very different from the cationic tracer thallium-201 (Tl-201) and from the cationic technetium complex Tc-99m sestamibi (Cardiolite, Du Pont Imaging Agents). Tc-99m teboroxime has high myocardial extraction, rapid blood clearance, little lung uptake and rapid myocardial washout. A biexponential pattern of myocardial washout is demonstrated in animals and in man. Effective half-lives of the 2 washout components in man are 5.2 minutes and 3.8 hours and represent approximately 66 and 33% of the myocardial activity, respectively. The first half-life for the myocardium is approximately 11 minutes. As the agent washes out of the heart, hepatic uptake occurs, peaking at about 5 minutes after injection. The liver is the major organ of excretion and receives, along with the large bowel, the largest radiation dose. Rapid imaging protocols using standard cameras have achieved good myocardial counts from 3 planar views acquired over a 4- to 5-minute period or for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images acquired over a 10-minute period. An entire stress/rest procedure can be completed in 1 hour. Analysis of data from 155 patients from 4 centers using planar or SPECT imaging showed a sensitivity and specificity for blinded readings of 82 and 91%, respectively, when compared against overall clinical impression. 13 references.

  11. Retention mechanism of technetium-99m-HM-PAO: intracellular reaction with glutathione

    SciTech Connect

    Neirinckx, R.D.; Burke, J.F.; Harrison, R.C.; Forster, A.M.; Andersen, A.R.; Lassen, N.A.

    1988-12-01

    Preparations of d,l- and meso-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) labeled with technetium-99m were added to rat brain homogenates diluted with phosphate buffer (1:10). The conversion of d,l-HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms took place with an initial rate constant of 0.12 min-1. Incubation of the brain homogenate with 2% diethyl maleate for 5 h decreased the homogenate's measured glutathione (GSH) concentration from 160 to 16 microM and decreased the conversion rate to 0.012 min-1. Buffered aqueous solutions of glutathione rapidly converted the HM-PAO tracers to hydrophilic forms having the same chromatographic characteristics as found in the brain homogenates. The rate constant for the conversion reaction of d,l-HM-PAO in GSH aqueous solution was 208 and 317 L/mol/min in two different assay systems and for meso-HM-PAO the values were 14.7 and 23.2 L/mol/min, respectively. Rat brain has a GSH concentration of about 2.3 mM and the conversion of the d,l-HM-PAO due to GSH alone should proceed with a rate constant of 0.48 to 0.73 min-1 and be correspondingly 14-fold slower for meso-HM-PAO. In human brain, the in vivo data of Lassen et al. show a conversion rate constant of 0.80 min-1. This correspondence of values supports the notion that GSH may be important for the in vivo conversion of 99mTc-labeled HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms and may be the mechanism of trapping in brain and other cells. A kinetic model for the trapping of d,l- and meso-HM-PAO in tissue is developed that is based on data of GSH concentration in various organs.

  12. Assessment of gastric motility using meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid

    SciTech Connect

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1983-12-01

    During a 2 year period, 83 patients with gastric motility problems were evaluated using radionuclide imaging. The patients presented with epigastric distress, postprandial fullness, pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; signs and symptoms suggestive of either gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy, or both, demonstrated no mechanical obstruction. After oral administration of a 300 g meal labeled with 600 muCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid, a gastric emptying study consisting of serial images and data acquisition was performed. Of the patients studied, 52 had had peptic ulcer surgery, 17 were suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux, 8 were diabetic and suspected of having visceral enteropathy, and 6 had a history of irritable bowel syndrome. The normal mean gastric half emptying time was 77 +/- 16 minutes. Of the patients who had had gastric surgery, 90.4 percent had abnormal emptying: 69.2 percent had delayed gastric emptying and 21.2 percent had rapid gastric emptying time; 9.6 percent had normal emptying time. Of the gastroesophageal reflux group, all but two had normal gastric emptying time; 65 percent demonstrated gastroesophageal reflux within 15 minutes. Two of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome had prolonged emptying; the rest had normal emptying. All diabetic patients with gastroparesis had prolonged gastric emptying time, and all responded favorably to metoclopramide. Of the patients who previously had peptic ulcer surgery and had prolonged emptying time, 72 percent also responded favorably to metoclopramide. We conclude that radionuclide gastric imaging is a useful diagnostic test for the measurement of gastric emptying in patients with a variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders and may be helpful in assessing medical therapy and selecting those who may be candidates for surgery.

  13. Technetium-99m HM-PAO-labeled leukocytes in detection of inflammatory lesions: Comparison with gallium-67 citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorne, M.; Soini, I.; Lantto, T.; Paakkinen, S. )

    1989-08-01

    Forty-three patients with suspected benign, inflammatory, or infectious diseases were imaged with ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO-labeled leukocytes and ({sup 67}Ga)citrate. Technetium-99m leukocytes showed 22 true-positive, no false-positive, 19 true-negative, and two false-negative findings and ({sup 67}Ga)citrate 23, 7, 12 and 1, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values with {sup 99m}Tc leukocytes were 92%, 100%, and 95%, and with ({sup 67}Ga)citrate 96%, 63%, and 81%. Technetium-99m leukocyte scintigraphy has a promising future in comparison with ({sup 67}Ga)citrate because of the ready availability of ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO, the good image quality, more rapid results (within few hours), and the lower radiation exposure to the patient with {sup 99m}Tc leukocytes. The usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc leukocytes in chronic osteomyelitis needs further evaluation.

  14. Technetium-99m ethylene dicysteine: a new renal tubular function agent.

    PubMed

    Kabasakal, L

    2000-03-01

    Technetium-99m ethylene dicysteine (EC), a metabolite of ethylene cysteine dimer (ECD), is a new technetium-labelled renal tubular function tracer introduced as an alternative to ortho-iodohippurate (OIH) and with imaging qualities similar to 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3). The elimination of 99mTc-EC is principally via active tubular transport. It is available in lyophilised kit form which can be easily prepared at room temperature, and the compound remains stable for at least 8 h. Both in normal individuals and in patients, plasma clearance of 99mTc-EC has been reported to be around 0.75 of OIH clearance. Thus there is a very strict correlation between 99mTc-EC and OIH clearance, and several algorithms are available to estimate OIH clearance from 99mTc-EC clearance. The renal extraction ratio of 99mTc-EC is 0.70. The distribution volume of 99mTc-EC is twice that of 99mTc-MAG3 (20% of body weight) and slightly higher than that of OIH. The plasma protein-bound fraction of 99mTc-EC (30%) is significantly lower than that of 99mTc-MAG3 and OIH. The same applies to red blood cell binding of 99mTc-EC (5.7%). There is negligible uptake in the liver and intestines. Within 1 h 70% of 99mTc-EC is excreted in the urine. 99mTc-EC provides the same scintigraphic information as 99mTc-MAG3. The lower liver activity makes 99mTc-EC particularly attractive in patients with renal failure. The 99mTc-EC clearance can be accurately estimated from a single plasma sample obtained at 54 min after injection. In conclusion, 99mTc-EC is a suitable renal imaging agent and for some applications is even more attractive than OIH: it provides an index of tubular function and yields high-quality images. The labelling procedure is easy, radiochemical purity is high and the complex is stable for a long time. The extent to which 99mTc-EC is adopted for clinical use will ultimately depend upon its cost and availability. PMID:10774890

  15. Assessment of inflammatory bowel disease activity by technetium 99m phagocyte scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Pullman, W.E.; Sullivan, P.J.; Barratt, P.J.; Lising, J.; Booth, J.A.; Doe, W.F.

    1988-10-01

    Autologous technetium 99m-labeled phagocyte scanning has been used to assess disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease in 51 consecutive patients. Strong correlations were found between the 24-h fecal excretion of isotope and the histologic score of mucosal biopsy specimens (rS = 0.84, p less than 0.001, where rS is Spearman's rank correlation coefficient), and between the 24-h fecal excretion of isotope and a clinical inflammatory bowel disease activity index based on the Crohn's disease activity index (rS = 0.87, p less than 0.001). To develop a clinically useful and objective measure of inflammatory bowel disease activity that did not require a 24-h stool collection, the intensity of bowel uptake on scanning was graded visually from 0 to 4, a ratio of count rates for the region of interest to the iliac crest reference region was calculated, and the rapidity of labeled phagocyte uptake into inflamed bowel was measured as the peak uptake time. Visual grading of disease activity on the scans was validated by comparing it with the ratio of count rates from inflamed bowel regions of interest and those from the iliac crest reference region. The ratio of count rates showed a significant correlation with the clinical disease activity index (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001). The visual scan grade also correlated well with the clinical activity index (r = 0.87, p less than 0.001). Count rates from hourly scans were also used to calculate the time of peak uptake of counts for a given region of interest. There was a strong negative correlation between this peak uptake time and the fecal excretion of isotope (rS = -0.81, p less than 0.001), a clinical activity index (r = -0.60, p less than 0.001), and the histologic score of the mucosal biopsy specimens (r = -0.84, p less than 0.001).

  16. [Renal functional reserve in children with a history of hemolytic uremic syndrome through technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid clearance].

    PubMed

    Bruno, Guillermo O A; Diéguez, Stella Maris; Voyer, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    Protein loads in normal subjects increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which implies a renal functional reserve (RFR). Patients who have suffered a loss in the number of nephrons may show normal values of GFR due to hyperfiltration of remnant nephrons, with subsequent loss of RFR. This could be an early sign of renal damage, and probably a contributory factor to renal damage progress. The objective of this study is to determine the RFR through technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (99m Tc-DTPA) clearance in patients who have recovered from hemolytic uremic syndrome. Renal functional reserve was determined in 33 children from 2 to 16 years old, with normal values of proteinuria, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance after over a year of having suffered hemolitic uremic syndrome. For that purpose 99m Tc-DTPA clearance was determined in basal condition and following protein load. In 17 patients DTPA clearance increased 20% or more after protein load compared to basal condition, and they were considered to have normal RFR, a probably index of totally recovered renal function; in the remaining 16 patients the increases were lower than 20%, and were considered to have no RFR, condition that was postulated as a contributing factor to renal damage progress. There was not significant differences either in age or basal GFR between both groups. Being the test easier than inuline clearance and more accurate than creatinine clearance, it proves particularly useful for early diagnosis of patients that need special follow-up and treatment. PMID:22307424

  17. Sentinel node biopsy in melanoma using technetium-99m rhenium colloid: the London experience.

    PubMed

    Temple, C L; Scilley, C G; Engel, C J; Shum, D T; Lohmann, R C; Mattar, A G; Zabel, P L

    2000-11-01

    Nodal metastases in patients with melanoma identify a reduction of survival by 50%; however, elective lymph node dissection (ELND) has not been shown clearly to improve survival. Morton's technique of sentinel node biopsy, using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative blue dye, addresses elegantly the controversy regarding ELND. Sentinel node biopsy has been shown to stage the patient accurately because metastases from melanoma follow an orderly progression from the sentinel node to the remainder of the basin. Fifty-six consecutive patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 1b or 2 melanoma seen at the London Health Sciences Center between July 1998 and January 2000 were enrolled prospectively to undergo sentinel node biopsy. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was conducted in the nuclear medicine department. A total of 10 to 15 MBq (0.27-0.41 mCi) of technetium 99m (99mTc) rhenium colloid or filtered sulfur colloid was injected intradermally around the biopsy scar. Images were obtained to localize all draining nodal basins. The location of the sentinel node was marked on the skin. The patient was taken to the operating room and anesthetized. Isosulfan blue dye was injected intradermally around the biopsy scar. A hand-held gamma probe was used intraoperatively as a guide to the first draining node. Blue-stained lymphatic channels aided in the dissection. Sentinel node localization was successful in 55 of 56 patients, for an overall success rate of 98%. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy identified a sentinel node in an unpredictable location in 32% of patients. On average, 2.3 sentinel nodes per patient were identified on the initial scan, and 2.2 sentinel nodes per patient were recovered at surgery. Both 99mTc rhenium and filtered sulfur colloid showed no substantial differences in tracer uptake and retention in the sentinel node. Twelve patients had a positive sentinel node on routine histology, and 11 patients subsequently underwent completion

  18. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in patients with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis: a prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Leclerc, J.R.; Wolfson, C.; Arzoumanian, A.; Blake, G.P.; Rosenthall, L.

    1988-09-01

    We have compared technetium-99m (99mTc) red blood cell (RBC) venography to serial impedance plethysmography (IPG) in 110 consecutive patients with a first episode of clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). IPG was performed at Day 0 and, if abnormal, contrast venography was also performed to rule out a falsely positive result. Patients with an initially normal IPG had the test repeated at Days 1, 3, 5 to 7, and 10 to 14. Contrast venography was not performed and anticoagulant treatment was withheld in all patients who remained normal during repeated IPG testing. Technetium-99m RBC venography was performed at Day 0 in patients with an initially abnormal IPG and during the period of serial IPG testing in those with an initially normal IPG. The sensitivity of (99mTc)RBC venography for proximal DVT was 0.68, with 95% confidence limits (CL) from 0.48 to 0.89. Specificity was 0.88 (95% CL from 0.81 to 0.95). When the findings of (99mTc)RBC venography for the entire lower extremity were compared to the reference method, the sensitivity increased to 0.90 (95% CL from 0.82 to 0.97) but the specificity decreased to 0.56 (95% CL from 0.51 to 0.62). Technetium-99m RBC venography is a sensitive but less specific method for detecting DVT of the entire lower extremity. An abnormal (99mTc)RBC venogram, particularly in the calf region, should always be confirmed by another diagnostic method.

  19. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in patients with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, J R; Wolfson, C; Arzoumanian, A; Blake, G P; Rosenthall, L

    1988-09-01

    We have compared technetium-99m (99mTc) red blood cell (RBC) venography to serial impedance plethysmography (IPG) in 110 consecutive patients with a first episode of clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). IPG was performed at Day 0 and, if abnormal, contrast venography was also performed to rule out a falsely positive result. Patients with an initially normal IPG had the test repeated at Days 1, 3, 5 to 7, and 10 to 14. Contrast venography was not performed and anticoagulant treatment was withheld in all patients who remained normal during repeated IPG testing. Technetium-99m RBC venography was performed at Day 0 in patients with an initially abnormal IPG and during the period of serial IPG testing in those with an initially normal IPG. The sensitivity of [99mTc]RBC venography for proximal DVT was 0.68, with 95% confidence limits (CL) from 0.48 to 0.89. Specificity was 0.88 (95% CL from 0.81 to 0.95). When the findings of [99mTc]RBC venography for the entire lower extremity were compared to the reference method, the sensitivity increased to 0.90 (95% CL from 0.82 to 0.97) but the specificity decreased to 0.56 (95% CL from 0.51 to 0.62). Technetium-99m RBC venography is a sensitive but less specific method for detecting DVT of the entire lower extremity. An abnormal [99mTc]RBC venogram, particularly in the calf region, should always be confirmed by another diagnostic method. PMID:3411373

  20. Delayed positive gastrointestinal bleeding studies with technetium-99m-red blood cells: Utility of a second injection

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.F. )

    1991-02-01

    Two patients studied with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells (RBCs) for gastrointestinal bleeding had positive findings only on 24-hr delayed images, at which time the site of bleeding could not be ascertained. In each instance, when additional delayed images suggested that active bleeding was occurring, a second aliquot of RBCs was labeled and injected. Sites of active hemorrhage were identified following further imaging in both patients. When delayed GI bleeding images are positive, further views should be obtained to ascertain if the pattern of intraluminal activity changes. If renewed active hemorrhage is suspected, reinjection with a second dose of labeled RBCs may identify the bleeding site.

  1. Thallium-201 versus technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging in detection and evaluation of patients with acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, B.; Thrall, J.H.

    1980-12-18

    Thallium-201 myocardial imaging is of value in the early detection and evaluation of patients with suspected acute infarction. Thallium imaging may have a special value in characterizing patients with cardiogenic shock and in detecting patients at risk for subsequent infarction or death or death or both, before hospital discharge. Approximately 95 percent of pateints with transmural or nontransmural myocardial infarction can be detected with technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging if the imaging is performed 24 to 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Pyrophosphate imaging may have an important role in the evaluation of patients during the early follow-up period after hospital discharge from an episode of acute infarction. The finding of a persistently positive pyrophosphate image suggests a poor prognosis and is associated with a relatively large incidence of subsequent myocardial infarction and death.

  2. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells in the evaluation of hemangiomas of the liver in infants and children

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.

    1987-09-01

    The vascular origin lesions of the liver (capillary hemangioma/infantile hemangioendothelioma) that present in infancy or early childhood often have a typical clinical picture of hepatomegaly and congestive heart failure. These lesions rarely present as asymptomatic hepatomegaly, simulating a primary hepatic malignancy. These lesions may also simulate a primary or secondary hepatic malignancy on cross-sectional imaging or angiography. Scintigraphic evaluations with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells offers an accurate method of identification of these lesions, and allows differentiation from other common primary or secondary hepatic masses in infancy or childhood. This scintigraphic method may also be used to follow these patients after medical, radiation, or embolization therapy. Experience with seven patients with these tumors is reported and compared with eight children with other primary or secondary liver tumors also evaluated by this method.

  3. The role of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate in myocardial imaging to recognize, localize and identify extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willerson, J. T.; Parkey, R. W.; Bonte, F. J.; Stokely, E. M.; Buja, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams to aid diagnostically in recognizing, localizing, and identifying extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients was evaluated. The present study is an extension of previous animal and patient evaluations that were recently performed utilizing this myocardial imaging agent.

  4. Modulation of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein: Detection with technetium-99m-sestamibi in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Luker, G.D.; Fracasso, P.M.; Dobkin, J.; Piwnica-Worms, D.

    1997-03-01

    Overexpression of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) has been documented in nearly all forms of human cancers and increased levels of Pgp in some tumors correlate with poor response to treatment. Technetium-99m-sestamibi has recently been validated as a Pgp transport substrate. Pgp is also normally expressed along the biliary canalicular surface of hepatocytes and the luminal side of proximal tubule cells in the kidney, while not expressed in heart. Focused on these organs with known Pgp status, we present the findings on {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi showed normal, prompt clearance of the radiotracer from the liver and kidneys relative to the heart. After administration of the Pgp modulator, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi was selectively retained in the liver and kidneys. Hepatobiliary and renal clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi are Pgp-mediated, and inhibition of Pgp transport in these organs can be successfully imaged using {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in patients. Similar results might be expected with this and related radiopharmaceuticals for functional imaging of Pgp transport and modulation in tumors. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Technetium-99m bis (aminoethanethiol) complexes with amine sidechains--potential brain perfusion imaging agents for SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Efange, S.M.; Kung, H.F.; Billings, J.; Guo, Y.Z.; Blau, M.

    1987-06-01

    In an effort to develop new clinically useful technetium-99m bis(aminoethanethiol) ((/sup 99m/Tc)BAT) complexes for the evaluation of regional cerebral perfusion, two new BAT ligands containing amines in the sidechain were synthesized and subsequently complexed with /sup 99m/Tc to yield the target complexes: (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA and (/sup 99m/Tc)TMPDA. Each complex was obtained as mixtures of two isomers, syn and anti, which were separated chromatographically. In biodistribution studies, both isomers of (/sup 99m/Tc)TMPDA showed little uptake in the brain. In contrast, the brain uptake values at 2 and 15 min for (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA-anti were 0.99 and 0.26, whereas, the corresponding values for DEA-syn were 2.27, 0.64% dose/organ, respectively. Autoradiographic studies (in rats) using both isomers of (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA show a fixed regional distribution and a higher concentration of radioactivity in the gray matter relative to the white matter. Planar imaging using (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA-syn clearly demonstrates localization of the complex in the brain with a T 1/2 of 41 min, suggesting some potential for use with single photon emission computed tomography.

  6. Comparison of technetium-99m-HM-PAO leukocytes with indium-111-oxine leukocytes for localizing intraabdominal sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Mountford, P.J.; Kettle, A.G.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Coakley, A.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Technetium-99m-HM-PAO (({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO) leukocyte and indium-111-oxine (111In-oxine) leukocyte scanning were carried out simultaneously in 41 patients at 4 hr and 24 hr after reinjection to determine whether the 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc scan could replace the 24-hr {sup 111}In scan for detecting intraabdominal sepsis. Abdominal infection was confirmed in 12 cases. The 4-hr {sup 99}Tc-leukocyte scan, the 4-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan, and the 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan yielded a sensitivity of 100%, 67%, and 100%, respectively, and a specificity of 62%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The 24-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scan also produced a sensitivity of 100%, but it was falsely positive in all 29 cases without infection due to physiologic bowel uptake. False-positive 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scans were also produced by physiologic bowel uptake in seven cases all of whom had true-negative 4-hr and 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans. Because of the high incidence of false-positive 4-hr ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO leukocyte scans, it was concluded that they could not replace 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans for detecting intraabdominal sepsis, and that serial {sup 99m}Tc leukocyte scans starting earlier than 4 hr after reinjection must be evaluated.

  7. High-risk angina patient. Identification by clinical features, hospital course, electrocardiography and technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.G.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.; Stinson, P.J.; Kuperus, J.; Waters, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    We evaluated 193 consecutive unstable angina patients by clinical features, hospital course and electrocardiography. All patients were managed medically. Of the 193 patients, 150 (78%) had a technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) myocardial scintigram after hospitalization. Of these, 49 (33%) had positive scintigrams. At a follow-up of 24.9 +/- 10.8 months after hospitalization, 16 of 49 patients (33%) with positive scintigrams died from cardiac causes, compared with six of 101 patients (6%) with negative scintigrams (p less than 0.001). Of 49 patients with positive scintigrams, 11 (22%) had had nonfatal myocardial infarction at follow-up, compared with seven of 101 patients (7%) with negative scintigrams (p less than 0.01). Age, duration of clinical coronary artery disease, continuing angina during hospitalization, ischemic ECG, cardiomegaly and a history of heart failure also correlated with cardiac death at follow-up. Ischemic ECG and a history of angina with a crescendo pattern also correlated with nonfatal infarction at follow-up. Patients with continuing angina, an ischemic ECG and a positive scintigram constituted a high-risk unstable angina subgroup with a survival rate of 58% at 6 months, 47% at 12 months and 42% at 24 and 36 months. We conclude that the assessment of clinical features, hospital course, ECG and Tc-PYP scintigraphy may be useful in identifying high-risk unstable angina patients.

  8. High-risk angina patient: identification by clinical features, hospital course, electrocardiography, and technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.G.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.; Stinson, P.J.; Kuperus, J.; Waters, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    We evaluated 193 consecutive unstable angina patients by clinical features, hospital course and electrocardiography. All patients were managed medically. Of the 193 patients, 150 (78%) had a technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) myocardial scintigram after hospitalization. Of these, 49 (33%) had positive scintigrams. At a follow-up of 24.9 +- 10.8 months after hospitalization, 16 of 49 patients (33%) with positive scintigrams died from cardiac causes, compared with six of 101 patients (6%) with negative scintigrams (p < 0.001). Of 49 patients with positive scintigrams, 11 (22%) had had nonfatal myocardial infarction at follow-up, compared with seven of 101 patients (7%) with negative scintigrams (p < 0.01). Age, duration of clinical coronary artery disease, continuing angina during hospitalization, ischemic ECG, cardiomegaly and a history of heart failure also correlated with cardiac death at follow-up. Ischemic ECG and a history of angina with a crescendo pattern also correlated with nonfatal infarction at follow-up. Patients with continuing angina, an ischemic ECG and a positive scintigram constituted a high-risk unstable angina subgroup, with a survival rate of 58% at 6 months, 47% at 12 months and 42% at 24 and 36 months. We conclude that the assessment of clinical features, hospital course, ECG and Tc-PYP scintigraphy may be useful in identifying high-risk unstable angina patients.

  9. Thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction: Assessment of efficacy by myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J. )

    1990-10-16

    Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi has been used to evaluate the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy. Improved image quality due to the higher photon energy of Tc-99m and the increased allowable doses of this radiopharmaceutical along with its lack of redistribution makes Tc-99m sestamibi an acceptable imaging agent for such studies. This imaging agent was used for serial quantitative planar and tomographic imaging to assess the initial risk area of infarction, its change over time and the relation to infarct-related artery patency in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction. Twenty-three of 30 patients were treated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 4 hours after onset of acute chest pain. Seven patients were treated in the conventional manner and did not receive thrombolytic therapy. The initial area at risk varied greatly both in patients treated with rt-PA and in those who received conventional therapy. Patients with successful thrombolysis and patient infarct arteries had a significantly greater reduction of Tc-99m sestamibi defect size than patients who had persistent coronary occlusion. Serial imaging with Tc-99m sestamibi could find important application in future clinical research evaluating the efficacy of new thrombolytic agents. Direct measurements of the amount of hypoperfused myocardium before and after thrombolysis could provide rapid and unequivocal results using fewer patients and avoiding the use of mortality as an end point. This approach has not yet been widely tested in the clinical arena.

  10. Assessment of diagnostic value of technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy in 80 patients with possible acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, W F; Karunaratne, H B; Resnekov, L; Fill, H R; Harper, P V

    1977-01-01

    The diagnostic value of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-pyrophosphate) myocardial scintigraphy was determined in 80 consecutive patients who had been admitted to the coronary care unit in order to rule out an acute myocardial infarction. Scintigraphic findings obtained within 5 days of admission were correlated with the final cardiac diagnosis determined for each patient. Significant myocardial uptake of Tc-pyrophosphate (positive scans) occurred in 13 of 22 patients (59%) who had enzyme and/or electrocardiographic proven acute myocardial infarct: 3 out of 5 with transmural myocardial infarct, 9 of 16 with nontransmural myocardial infarct, and 1 patient with left bundle-branch block. Of 58 patients who showed no evidence of acute myocardial infarction, positive scans occurred in 14 of 33 patients who had unstable angina pectoris (42%), 0 of 6 who had congestive heart failure, 6 of 9 who had other acute cardiac syndromes, and in 0 of 10 who had noncardiac chest pain. In the patients with unstable angina pectoris positive scans could not be predicted on the basis of the history, electrocardiographic findings or the arteriographically determined severity of the coronary artery disease. Blood levels of Tc-99m activity measured in 21 cardiac patients and in 6 volunteers did not correlate with the uptake intensity of Tc-pyrophosphate. These findings suggest caution in the use of this imaging method for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarct in patients admitted with 'rule out myocardial infarction'. Images PMID:907776

  11. Early identification of amyloid heart disease by technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy: a study with familial amyloid polyneuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Hongo, M.; Hirayama, J.; Fujii, T.; Yamada, H.; Okubo, S.; Kusama, S.; Ikeda, S.

    1987-03-01

    To determine whether technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scanning or two-dimensional echocardiography can detect amyloid heart disease in an earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy, 15 patients were examined. Although 10 of the 15 patients had no clinical evidence of congestive heart failure, as well as normal ventricular wall thickness and normal values for left ventricular systolic function, five (50%) of them showed mild or moderate myocardial uptake. On the other hand, none had characteristic highly refractile myocardial echoes on the two-dimensional echocardiographic images (p less than 0.01), and values for diastolic function were reduced in four of the five and normal in the remaining one. In 85 control subjects, diffuse positive pyrophosphate scans of the heart were found in four (5%) of them (three with dilated cardiomyopathy and one with sarcoidosis), and highly refractile granular sparkling echoes were observed in nine (11%) (five with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, three with aortic stenosis, and one with hypereosinophilic syndrome). We conclude that Tc-99m-PYP scanning is a more sensitive and specific method and may have the potential ability to detect amyloid heart disease in the earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy than two-dimensional echocardiography.

  12. Value of positive myocardial technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy in the noninvasive diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wizenberg, T.A.; Muz, J.; Sohn, Y.H.; Samlowski, W.; Weissler, A.M.

    1982-04-01

    Ten consecutive patients with tissue-proven amyloidosis, seven of whom presented with congestive heart failure, were found to exhibit intense diffuse uptake of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) on cardiac radionuclide imaging. The patients exhibited echocardiographic and systolic time interval abnormalities suggesting combined restrictive and congestive cardiomyopathic changes. On M-mode echocardiograms, there was symmetrically increased thickness of the interventricular septum and left ventricular (LV) posterior wall in diastole (10 of 10), decreased fractional shortening of the LV minor axis diameter in systole (eight of nine), and decreased percent thickening of the LV minor axis diameter in systole (eight of nine) and LV posterior wall (10 of 10) in systole. Three patients demonstrated enlarged LV end-diastolic diameter. All 10 patients had abnormal PEP/LVET and eight had shortened LVETI. When combined with noninvasive tests of LV performance, positive myocardial pyrophosphate (PYP) scanning provides a new and useful adjunct in the diagnosis of amyloid heart disease.

  13. Experimental studies of the physiologic properties of technetium-99m agents: Myocardial transport of perfusion imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Meerdink, D.J.; Leppo, J.A. )

    1990-10-16

    The physiologic properties of new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial imaging agents (Tc-99m sestamibi, an isonitrile; and Tc-99m teboroxime, a boronic acid adduct of technetium dioxime) are discussed and compared to thallium-201 (Tl-201). Studies with isolated hearts, subcellular fractions and cell cultures indicate that Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 do not share common transport or sequestration mechanisms. Although peak Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial extraction over time is about half that of Tl-201 at equivalent coronary blood flows, the amount of Tc-99m sestamibi that remains in the heart is similar to that of Tl-201 because of its higher retention efficiency. The high retention efficiency for Tc-99m sestamibi also results in minimal redistribution. In contrast, Tc-99m teboroxime myocardial extraction is higher than that of Tl-201, but its retention is less efficient, resulting in relatively rapid washout characteristics which may quickly result in tracer redistribution. During reperfusion after a no-flow period, Tc-99m sestamibi extraction and retention increase, but for Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 these values tend to decrease. All tracers show adequate transport characteristics for perfusion imaging, and differences in transport and retention should lead to the development of new clinical protocols.27 references.

  14. Distribution of injected technetium(99m)-labeled mesenchymal stem cells in horses with naturally occurring tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Patricia; Valdés Vázquez, Miguel A; Dudhia, Jayesh; Fiske-Jackson, Andrew R; Neves, Francisco; Hartman, Neil G; Smith, Roger K W

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate immediate cell survival and distribution following different administration routes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into naturally occurring tendon injuries. Ten million MSCs, labeled with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime, were implanted into 13 horses with naturally occurring tendon or ligament injuries intra-lesionally, intravenously and by regional perfusion, and traced for up to 48 h using planar gamma scintigraphy. Labeling efficiencies varied between 1.8% and 18.5% (mean 9.3%). Cells were retained in the damaged area after intra-lesional administration but only 24% of cells were still present within the tendon after 24 h. After intravenous injection, cells largely distributed to the lung fields, with no detectable cells in the tendon lesions. Significant labeling of the tendon lesions was observed in 11/12 horses following regional perfusion but at a lower level to intra-lesional injection. The highest cell numbers were retained after intra-lesional injection, although with considerable cell loss, while regional perfusion may be a viable alternative for MSC delivery. Cells did not "home" to damaged tendon in large numbers after intravenous administration. Cells were detected in the lungs most frequently after intravascular administration, although with no adverse effects. Low cell retention has important implications for designing effective clinical therapies for human clinical use. PMID:23508674

  15. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  16. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in experimental viral perimyocarditis: sequential study of myocardial uptake and pathologic correlates

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumori, A.; Kadota, K.; Kawai, C.

    1980-04-01

    The myocardial uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) in perimyocarditis induced by coxsackievirus B3 in BALB/c mice was studied. /sup 99m/Tc-PYP uptake ratio, measured by the ratio of counts/min per gram for the heart to counts/min per gram for the skull, began to increase 5 days after virus inoculation when myocardial necroosis was evident. On the seventh day after the inoculation, /sup 99m/Tc-PYP ratio reached a maximum. Histologically, fine, dystrophic calcification appeared in the necrotic fibers. /sup 99m/Tc-PYP uptake was in proportion to the extent of the myocardial lesions. Thereafter, cellular infiltrations increased with time and were most severe on the fourteenth day, but /sup 99m/Tc-PYP ratio had begun to fade. On the twenty-eighth day, perimyocardial fibrosis increased and calcification was still present, but /sup 99m/Tc-PYP ratio had decreased. Myocardial uptake with severe pathologic lesions was visualized on a whole-body image on the seventh day after inoculation with the virus. The findings may provide a basis upon which /sup 99m/Tc-PYP imaging may be applied to viral perimyocarditis in humans.

  17. Simultaneous Technetium-99m/Thallium-201 SPECT Imaging with Model-Based Compensation for Cross-Contaminating Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kadrmas, Dan J.; Frey, Eric C.; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous acquisition of dual-isotope SPECT data offers a number of advantages over separately acquired data; however, simultaneous acquisition can result in cross-contamination between isotopes. In this work we propose and evaluate two frameworks for iterative model-based compensation of cross-contamination in dual-isotope SPECT. The methods were applied to cardiac imaging with Technetium-99m-sestamibi and Thallium-201, and they were compared to a subtraction-based compensation method using a cross-talk estimate obtained from an auxiliary energy window. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to carefully study aspects of bias and noise for the methods, and a torso phantom with cardiac insert was used to evaluate the performance of the methods for experimentally acquired data. The cross-talk compensation methods substantially improved lesion contrast and significantly reduced quantitative errors for simultaneously acquired data. Thallium image normalized mean square error (NMSE) was reduced from 0.522 without cross-talk compensation to as low as 0.052 with model-based cross-talk compensation. This is compared to a NMSE of 0.091 for the subtraction-based compensation method. The application of a preliminary model for crosstalk arising from lead fluorescence x-rays and collimator scatter gave promising results, and the future development of a more accurate model for collimator interactions would likely benefit simultaneous Tc/Tl imaging. Model-based compensation methods provide feasible cross-talk compensation in clinically acceptable times, and they may ultimately make simultaneous dual-isotope protocols an effective alternative for many imaging procedures. PMID:10442716

  18. Detection of occult pericardial hemorrhage early after open-heart surgery using technetium-99m red blood cell radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, T.M.; Czer, L.S.; Gray, R.J.; Kass, R.M.; Raymond, M.J.; Garcia, E.V.; Chaux, A.; Matloff, J.M.; Berman, D.S.

    1984-11-01

    Pericardial or mediastinal hemorrhage requiring reoperation occurs in 2% to 5% of patients, usually early (0 to 48 hours), after open-heart surgery. This hemorrhage may be occult, and resulting cardiac tamponade may easily be misinterpreted as ventricular dysfunction, common early postoperatively. In such cases, appropriate and timely intervention may not occur. Of 50 patients evaluated by technetium-99m red blood cell gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) because of early postoperative cardiogenic shock of uncertain etiology, 17 had unique scintigraphic images suggestive of intrathoracic hemorrhage. Of these 17, 5 had a generalized halo of abnormal radioactivity surrounding small hyperdynamic right and left ventricles, 11 had localized regions of intense blood pool activity outside the cardiac chambers (two with compression of single chambers), and one demonstrated marked radionuclide activity in the right hemithorax (2000 ml of blood at reoperation). Twelve patients had exploratory reoperation for control of hemorrhage as a direct result of the scintigraphic findings, three were successfully treated with fresh frozen plasma and platelet infusions along with medical interventions to optimize cardiac performance, and two patients died in cardiogenic shock (presumed tamponade) without reoperation. In the 12 reoperated patients, all were confirmed to have active pericardial bleeding. Scintigraphic localization of abnormal blood pools within the pericardium corresponded to the sites at which active bleeding was witnessed at reoperation. The abnormal bleeding was etiologically related to the tamponade state, with marked improvement in hemodynamics after reoperation. Nine additional patients were reoperated for presumed tamponade after RNV revealed an exaggerated halo of photon deficiency surrounding the cardiac chambers.

  19. Pathophysiology of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate and thallium-201 scintigraphy of acute anterior myocardial infarcts in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Buja, L M; Parkey, R W; Stokely, E M; Bonte, F J; Willerson, J T

    1976-01-01

    In 17 dogs with acute myocardial infarcts produced by ligation of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery, a comparative study was made of myocardial scintigrams obtained with technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP) and thallium-201 (201T1), tissue levels of 99mTc-PYP and 201T1 uptake, histopathologic alterations, and regional myocardial perfusion measured with radioactive microspheres. 9 of the 10 hearts examined histologically had transmural infarcts with outer peripheral, inner peripheral, and central zones characterized by distinctive histopathologic features. A progressive reduction in myocardial blood flow was demonstrated between normal myocardium and the centers of the infarcts, and correlated well with progressive reduction in 201T1 upatke in the same regions. Marked 99mTc-PYP concentration occurred in areas with partial to homogeneous myocardial necrosis and residual perfusion located in the outer peripheral regions of the infarcts. The latter areas also were characterized by the presence of muscle cell calcification. The patterns of distribution of 99mTc-PYP and 201T1 explained the filling defects on 201T1 myocardial scintigrams and the doughnut patterns on 99mTc-PYP myocardial scintigrams in dogs with transmural infarcts. One dog with a subendocardial infarct had a small homogeneous area of activity on the 99mTc-PYP myocardial scintigram, and showed marked uptake of 99mTc-PYP in subendocardial areas of extensive necrosis and calcification still receiving some coronary perfusion. Thus, the data indicate that the status of regional myocardial perfusion is a key determinant for the occurrence of distinctive patterns of myocardial necrosis and for the scintigraphic detection of acute myocardial infarcts with 99mTc-PYP and 201T1. Images PMID:180053

  20. Effect of Thuya occidentalis on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, J. F.; Braga, A. C.; Avila, A. S.; Fonseca, L. M.; Gutfilen, B.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    1996-01-01

    Thuya occidentalis is used in popular medicine in the treatment of condyloma and has antibacterial action. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. This labeling depends on a reducing agent, usually stannous ion. Any drug which alters the labeling of the tracer could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceutical. We have evaluated the influence of T. occidentalis extract on the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins with 99mTc. Blood was withdrawn and incubated with T. occidentalis (0.25; 2.5; 20.5; and 34.1 percent v/v). Stannous chloride (1.2 micrograms/ml) was added and then 99mTc was added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) separated. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in radioactivity (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with 34.1 percent of the drug. In the labeling process of RBC with 99mTc, the stannous and pertechnetate ions pass through the membrane, so we suggest that the T. occidentalis effect can be explained (i) by an inhibition of the transport of these ions, (ii) by damage in membrane, (iii) by competition with the cited ions for the same binding sites, or (iv) by possible generation of reactive oxygen species that could oxidize the stannous ion. PMID:9436292

  1. Biodistribution and kinetic studies of technetium-99m labeled Naja naja karachiensis venom via gamma scintigraphic and SPECT images.

    PubMed

    Bin-Asad, Muhammad Hassham-Hassan; e-Sabih, Durr; Ahmad, Israr; Choudhry, Bashir Ahmad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Hussain, Izhar

    2015-07-01

    Naja naja karachiensis have been responsible for plentiful deaths in Pakistan. To investigate bio distribution and blood kinetics, venom was labeled with the radiotracer (technetium-99m) by following the method of direct labeling technique. Its maximum labeling percentage was 97.7% (pH 6, 100 µg stannous chloride dihydrate) which was higher than some other reported venom. Radio labeled venom was stable for more than 4 hours both in vivo (96%) and in vitro (serum 94.1%, saline 94.3%) experimentations. Intravenous doses of venom (250 µg, 0.5 mCi) were found to be evenly distributed (having R/L ratio=1.0) in all parts of sacrificed rabbits. Kidneys (53.75% activity/g) and urinary bladder (23.70% activity/g) were found with the copious quantity of injected dose of venom. Rest of all other organs was found with subsequent remaining dose of venom. Among them, lungs (14.2% activity/g), liver (4.32% activity/g), bones (1.38% activity/g), heart (0.8% activity/g), blood (0.56% activity/g), skin (0.45% activity/g), intestines (0.35% activity/g), skeleton muscles (0.3% activity/g), brain (0.14% activity/g) and stomach (0.05% activity/g) are included. After 24 hours of injection, poisoned blood of rabbits was almost cleared from venom. Gamma scintigraphic images (up to 2 hours) along with bio distribution suggest that kidneys are main organs of excretion in rabbits. Elimination started immediately after administration of venom however, possible sites for metabolism of venom are liver and lungs. More accumulation of venom in heart compared to brain suggests its higher affinity (thus possible higher toxicity) to cardiac muscles as compared to brain tissues. PMID:26142502

  2. Technetium-99m-d, 1-HM-PAO: a new radiopharmaceutical for imaging regional brain perfusion using SPECT--a comparison with iodine-123 HIPDM

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.P.; Nowotnik, D.P.; Neirinckx, R.D.

    1986-12-01

    A new radiopharmaceutical, technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (/sup 99m/Tc-d, 1-HM-PAO), has been reported to cross the blood-brain-barrier and to distribute in brain in proportion to regional blood flow. This study reports brain imaging obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-d,1 HM-PAO in 20 subjects; seven without evidence of cerebral disease and 13 with cerebrovascular disorders. In 16 patients comparative data were available with N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamine ((/sup 123/I)HIPDM). Technetium-99m-d, 1-HM-PAO is retained sufficiently long to allow single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with widely available rotating gamma camera systems. The kinetics demonstrated a rapid brain uptake and prolonged retention of activity in cerebral structures. Good tomographic images are obtained with much higher uptake in gray than in white matter. Blood flow maps are comparable to those achieved with (/sup 123/I)HIPDM and established strokes were clearly seen, with similar details as in HIPDM studies. Delayed studies showed that the distribution in the brain remained virtually unchanged. Technetium-99m-d, 1-HM-PAO imaging appears particularly promising in routine examination of patients with cerebrovascular disorders.

  3. Use of a new tandem cation/anion exchange system with clinical-scale generators provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.R. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Guhlke, S. |

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the authors describe the first application of a simple and inexpensive post elution tandem cation-anion exchange column system which is based on generator elution with salts of weak acids such as ammonium acetate instead of saline solution to provide very high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188 from clinical scale molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator prepared from low specific activity (n,y) molybdenum-99, and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators, respectively. Initial passage of the bolus through a strong cation exchange cartridge converts the ammonium acetate to acetic acid which is essentially not ionized at the acidic pH, allowing specific subsequent amine type (QMA SepPak{trademark}) anion exchange cartridge column trapping of the microscopic levels of the pertechnetate or perrhenate. Subsequent elution of the anion cartridge with a small volume (< 1 mL) of saline then provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m by concentration of the high eluant volumes obtained by elution of clinical-scale (1 Ci) generators. This new approach also works very effectively to obtain high specific volume solutions of rhenium-188 (> 500 mCi/mL) from the alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator.

  4. Technetium-99m labelled macroaggregated albumin arterial catheter perfusion scintigraphy: prediction of gastrointestinal toxicity in hepatic arterial chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, E; Masaneo, I; Clara, R; Valetto, M R; Bellò, M; Zanon, C; Chiappino, I; Grosso, M; Mussa, A; Bisi, G

    2000-06-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity from hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of floxuridine in patients with liver metastases is probably due to extrahepatic perfusion or to partial escape of the drug from first-pass liver extraction. The aim of this study was to verify the role of technetium-99m-labelled macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) arterial catheter perfusion scintigraphy at the beginning of each chemotherapy cycle in decreasing or preventing gastrointestinal toxicity. We studied 167 consecutive patients. On the basis of the scintigraphic follow-up and the presence or absence of an intrahepatic arteriovenous shunt (IHAVS), we classified our patients into the following groups: (1) FU+ hepatic distribution pattern (DP), comprising 29 patients with regular scintigraphic follow-up who showed the expected distribution pattern at each control or a distribution pattern with transient alterations (extrahepatic escape) promptly reversed by the replacement of the catheter. Among these 29 patients there was one case of gastrointestinal toxicity. (2) FU- hepatic DP, comprising 128 patients who were evaluated with 99mTc-MAA only at the beginning of the first chemotherapy cycle, showed the expected distribution pattern and underwent HAI with no further scintigraphic evaluation. Among these 128 patients there were 28 cases of gastrointestinal toxicity. (3) FU+ pulmonary DP, comprising three patients with abnormally elevated pulmonary uptake (higher than 5%) and with regular scintigraphic follow-up. There were two cases of gastrointestinal toxicity among these three patients. (4) FU- pulmonary DP, comprising seven patients with abnormally elevated pulmonary uptake and without regular scintigraphic follow-up. There were four cases of gastrointestinal toxicity among these seven patients. The incidence of toxicity was significantly higher in group FU- hepatic DP than in group FU+ hepatic DP (21.9% vs 3.4%, P<0.05). In both the FU+ pulmonary DP and FU- pulmonary DP groups, the incidence of

  5. Personalized predictive lung dosimetry by technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT for yttrium-90 radioembolization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization, the common practice of assuming a standard 1,000-g lung mass for predictive dosimetry is fundamentally incongruent with the modern philosophy of personalized medicine. We recently developed a technique of personalized predictive lung dosimetry using technetium-99m (99mTc) macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography with integrated CT (SPECT/CT) of the lung as part of our routine dosimetric protocol for 90Y radioembolization. Its rationales are the technical superiority of SPECT/CT over planar scintigraphy, ease and convenience of lung auto-segmentation CT densitovolumetry, and dosimetric advantage of patient-specific lung parenchyma masses. Methods This is a retrospective study of our pulmonary clinical outcomes and comparison of lung dosimetric accuracy and precision by 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT versus conventional planar methodology. 90Y resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres) were used for radioembolization. Diagnostic CT densitovolumetry was used as a reference for lung parenchyma mass. Pulmonary outcomes were based on follow-up diagnostic CT chest or X-ray. Results Thirty patients were analyzed. The mean lung parenchyma mass of our Southeast Asian cohort was 822 ± 103 g standard deviation (95% confidence interval 785 to 859 g). Patient-specific lung parenchyma mass estimation by CT densitovolumetry on 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT is accurate (bias −21.7 g) and moderately precise (95% limits of agreement −194.6 to +151.2 g). Lung mean radiation absorbed doses calculated by 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT and planar methodology are both accurate (bias <0.5 Gy), but 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT offers better precision over planar methodology (95% limits of agreement −1.76 to +2.40 Gy versus −3.48 to +3.31 Gy, respectively). None developed radiomicrosphere pneumonitis when treated up to a lung mean radiation absorbed dose of 18 Gy at a median follow-up of 4.4 months. Conclusions Personalized predictive lung

  6. Sites and Mechanisms of Localization of Technetium-99m Phosphorus Radiopharmaceuticals in Acute Myocardial Infarcts and other Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Buja, L. Maximilian; Tofe, Andrew J.; Kulkarni, Padmakar V.; Mukherjee, Amal; Parkey, Robert W.; Francis, Marion D.; Bonte, Frederick J.; Willerson, James T.

    1977-01-01

    This study was performed to elucidate the localization at the cellular level of technetium-99m phosphorus (99mTc-P) radiopharmaceuticals in acute myocardial infarcts and the mechanisms responsible for 99mTc-P uptake in acute myocardial infarcts and other tissues. In 20 dogs with proximal left anterior descending coronary arterial ligation for 1-3 days, elevated calcium levels were measured at all sites of increased 99mTc-P uptake (acute myocardial infarcts, necrotic thoracotomy muscle, lactating breast, and normal bone); however, a consistent linear relationship between 99mTc-P and calcium levels was not observed. A strong correlation (r = 0.95 and 0.99, n = 2 dogs) was demonstrated between levels of 3H-diphosphonate and 99mTc-P in infarcted myocardium. Autoradiographic studies with 3H-diphosphonate revealed extensive labeling in the infarct periphery which contained necrotic muscle cells with features of severe calcium overloading, including widespread hypercontraction as well as more selective formation of mitochondrial calcific deposits. Autoradiography also demonstrated labeling of a small population of damaged border zone muscle cells which exhibited prominent accumulation of lipid droplets and focal, early mitochondrial calcification. Cell fractionation studies revealed major localization of both 99mTc-P and calcium in the soluble supernate and membrane-debris fractions of infarcted myocardium and less than 2% of total 99mTc-P and calcium in the mitochondrial fractions; however, electron microscopic examination showed that mitochondria with calcific deposits were not preserved in the mitochondrial fractions. In vitro studies evaluating the role of serum protein binding on tissue uptake of 99mTc-P agents demonstrated that, in spite of significant complexing with serum proteins, serum 99mTc-P activity retained the ability to adsorp to calcium hydroxyapatite and amorphous calcium phosphate. In vivo studies showed that concentration of human serum albumin

  7. Scintigraphic assessment of bowel involvement and disease activity in Crohn's disease using technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine as leukocyte label

    SciTech Connect

    Schoelmerich, J.S.; Schmidt, E.; Schuemichen, C.B.; Billmann, P.; Schmidt, H.; Gerok, W.

    1988-11-01

    Using a novel labeling technique with technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine, we studied 29 patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease. Technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine leukocyte scanning (99mTc scan) was prospectively compared with the results of independently performed radiologic, endoscopic, and histologic examinations, and with findings at surgery, to assess the clinical usefulness of this technique to localize inflammatory lesions. In addition, uptake of technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine in the bowel was graded by comparing it with the uptake in liver and bone marrow and correlating this with established parameters of disease activity. The viability of homologous labeled leukocytes was greater than 95%. Less than 5% of lymphocytes were found in the final preparation. It was found that 45% +/- 12% of the label was bound to granulocytes, and 98% of the unbound label was washed off before reinjection. The results of 99mTc scan revealed a good correlation with those of barium enema (r = 0.880, p less than 0.001), of endoscopy/surgery (r = 0.983, p less than 0.001), and of all combined reference methods (r = 0.981, p less than 0.001). Activity as determined by 99mTc scan was weakly correlated with the results of Crohn's disease activity index (r = 0.559, p less than 0.01), van Hees index (r = 0.606, p less than 0.01), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.456, p less than 0.05) in 24 patients with proven Crohn's disease. The correlation was improved when the 99mTc scan was compared with a combination of these activity parameters and C-reactive protein (r = 0.781, p less than 0.001). Extraintestinal manifestations (joints) and complications (cholecystitis) were also identified correctly by the 99mTc scan.

  8. Post-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head predicted by preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid scan: an experimental and clinical study. [Rabbits; patients

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.H.

    1983-07-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was used to visualize the bone marrow of the head of the femur within twenty-four hours after interruption of the blood supply by subcapital osteotomy and section of the ligamentum teres in thirteen rabbits and within twenty-four hours after a subcapital fracture in thirty patients. Of the rabbits, all showed loss of marrow radioactivity over the affected femoral head. Bone-imaging with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate, in contrast, failed to demonstrate any abnormality in the avascular head of the femur for as long as forty-eight hours after osteotomy. This difference between the marrow scan and the bone scan was attributed to earlier loss of function in the marrow cells than in the osteocytes. The thirty patients who had a preoperative scan within twenty-four hours after sustaining a subcapital fracture were treated by internal fixation with a Richards screw and plate and were followed for as long as two years, or until the patient died or radiographs showed evidence of avascular necrosis. The preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid activity in the head of the fractured femur was normal in sixteen patients and absent in fourteen; two of the fourteen had no activity in either hip, which precluded assessment of the fractured hip in these patients. In fifteen of the sixteen hips, preservation of the uptake in the marrow of the head of the fractured femur preoperatively predicted normal healing. Late segmental collapse developed in the remaining hip. In eleven of the twelve patients who had loss of marrow activity in the femoral head preoperatively, avascular necrosis developed within two years.

  9. Use of technetium-99m sulfur colloid to evaluate changes in reticuloendothelial function in dogs with experimentally induced chronic biliary cirrhosis and portosystemic shunting.

    PubMed

    Koblik, P D; Hornof, W J; Yen, C K; Fisher, P E; Komtebedde, J

    1995-05-01

    Technetium-99m sulfur colloid scintigraphy was used to study alterations of reticuloendothelial function in 7 dogs with experimentally induced biliary cirrhosis and portosystemic shunting. Scintigraphic studies were performed before and 6 weeks after common bile duct ligation. Radiocolloid plasma clearance rate was determined by measuring activity in plasma samples and by analyzing the rate of liver uptake on dynamic scintigraphic image sequences. Percentage of uptake in the liver, spleen, and lungs, as well as the ratio of hepatic-to-extrahepatic uptake, was determined from static equilibrium images. Relative to preoperative values, there were significant decreases in plasma clearance rate, percentage of liver uptake, and ratio of hepatic-to-extrahepatic uptake and significant increases in percentage of spleen and lung uptake on postoperative studies. The mechanism of technetium-99m-labeled sulfur colloid extraction by the liver is different from that of other radiocolloids; it does not require active phagocytosis or pinocytosis. Thus, liver uptake of this tracer principally reflects effective liver blood flow. Portosystemic shunting was documented in these dogs at the time of the postoperative radiocolloid scans, and we believed was responsible for the decrease in liver reticuloendothelial activity. Possible mechanisms for the increased splenic and pulmonary reticuloendothelial activities are discussed. PMID:7661466

  10. Non-invasive assessment of the presence and severity of cardiac amyloidosis. A study in familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy by cross sectional echocardiography and technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy.

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, P; Backman, C; Bjerle, P; Eriksson, A; Holm, S; Olofsson, B O

    1984-01-01

    Twelve patients with familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy were examined both by cross sectional echocardiography and by technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy to assess involvement of the heart non-invasively. All 12 patients had echocardiographic abnormalities. The most prominent findings were highly refractile myocardial echoes, thickened heart valves, and increased thickness of the heart walls. Four patients had abnormal myocardial uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate. The remaining eight had equivocal or no myocardial uptake and were considered to have normal scintigrams. A certain amount of amyloid is probably required to produce an abnormal scintigram, although lesions with less amyloid can evidently be identified by echocardiography. Neither the duration of polyneuropathy nor its severity showed any relation to the echocardiographic or scintigraphic findings. It is concluded that cross sectional echocardiography is superior to technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy in detecting cardiac involvement in familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy and that these results may also be applicable to other forms of amyloidosis. Images PMID:6087862

  11. Comparison of shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and technetium-99m-pertechnetate in a group of dogs with experimentally-induced chronic biliary cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Koblik, P.D.; Hornof, W.J.; Yen, C.K.; Komtebedde, J.; Breznock, E.; Fisher, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Portosystemic shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine (IMP) has been previously validated relative to portal vein macroaggregated albumin injections using an experimental model of cirrhosis. Transcolonic technetium-99m-pertechnetate (TcO4-) has been proposed as an alternative tracer to IMP to study portal circulation in cirrhotic patients. We compared shunt fraction estimates from paired transcolonic IMP and TcO4- studies performed on a group of dogs before and after common bile duct ligation surgery. Pertechnetate over-estimated shunt fraction in 6/7 postoperative studies relative to IMP. A good correlation between the two methods was demonstrated, however, the slope of the regression line was substantially less than 1.0 with TcO4- values reaching 100% at IMP shunt values of approximately 60%. This apparent inability to accurately assess high shunt flows may limit the quantitative aspects of TcO4- studies on patients with severe portosystemic shunting.

  12. Technetium-99m (⁹⁹mTc)-labelled sulesomab in the management of malignant external otitis: is there any role?

    PubMed

    Galletti, Francesco; Cammaroto, Giovanni; Galletti, Bruno; Quartuccio, Natale; Di Mauro, Francesca; Baldari, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    We report two cases of malignant external otitis (MEO) evaluated with Technetium-99m((99m)Tc)-labelled sulesomab. Two patients affected by MEO are presented, together with a literature review. Both patients were studied with clinical examination, ear discharge culture, radiological imaging, blood exams, (99m)Tc Sulesomab, and treated with antibiotic therapy. (99m)Tc-Sulesomab would appear to be an useful tool for diagnosis and follow-up of MEO, highlighting the site and extension of the inflammatory process, and evaluating course and treatment efficacy. (99m)Tc-Sulesomab shows promise as a rapid, effective and safe imaging agent for treatment response evaluation and follow-up of patients with MEO. Further studies are warranted to validate the inclusion of (99m)Tc-Sulesomab scan in the imaging follow-up of patients with MEO. PMID:24534898

  13. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid uptake by a malignant fibrous histiocytoma: phagocytosis by tumor cells?

    PubMed

    Palestro, C J; Klein, M; Kim, C K; Swyer, A J; Goldsmith, S J

    1990-09-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte imaging, performed on a patient with a calcified mass in the right thigh, demonstrated labeled leukocyte accumulation in this mass. Technetium-99m-sulfur colloid imaging was performed to differentiate labeled leukocyte uptake in heterotopic bone marrow from uptake in a focus of infection. Leukocyte and sulfur colloid images were virtually identical, and the study was interpreted as without evidence of infection. Excision of the mass revealed an angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma with metaplastic bone formation. While no marrow elements were present in either the tumor or the metaplastic bone, phagocytosis of leukocytes by tumor cells was identified. Phagocytosis of leukocytes by tumor cells may be another cause of white cell accumulation in uninfected neoplasms. PMID:2168475

  14. Factors affecting uptake and retention of technetium-99m-diphosphonate and 99m-pertechnetate in osseous, connective and soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Francis, M D; Slough, C L; Tofe, A J

    1976-06-14

    The bone scanning complex, 99mTc-Sn-EHDP, consisting of the nuclide technetium-99m, stannous ion and ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate, administered intravenously is retained in soft tissues in proportion to increasing calcium content of the tissues. Within bone tissue, the retention is proportional to vascularity and to surface area of calcium phosphate in bones and not necessarily to calcium and phosphate concentration. The nuclidic agent 99mTcO4-BUT NOT THE 99MTc-diphosphonate is selectively taken up by the thyroid and this uptake can be blocked by administering sodium perchlorate. Among the connective tissues studied, the tracheal cartilage seems to have the greatest potential to calcify with increasing age of the animal and man. Soft tissue does not retain the bone scanning complex 99mTc-Sn-EHDP but does retain 99mTcO4-. PMID:182328

  15. Extramedullary Pulmonary Hematopoiesis Causing Pulmonary Hypertension and Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation Detected by Technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid Bone Marrow Scan and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/CT

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Michael John; Kannivelu, Anbalagan; Chinchure, Dinesh; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Extramedullary pulmonary hematopoiesis is a rare entity with a limited number of case reports in the available literature only. We report the case of a 66-year-old man with known primary myelofibrosis, in whom a Technetium-99m sulfur colloid bone marrow scan with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT revealed a pulmonary hematopoiesis as the cause of pulmonary hypertension and severe tricuspid regurgitation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid SPECT/CT imaging in this rare condition. PMID:24843243

  16. p-Tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion: preparation, characterization and comparative evaluation of its decontamination efficacy against Technetium-99m, Iodine-131 and Thallium-201.

    PubMed

    Rana, Sudha; Sharma, Navneet; Ojha, Himanshu; Shivkumar, Hosakote Gurumalappa; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to develop p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene o/w nanoemulsion for decontamination of radioisotopes from skin. Formulation was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), multi-photon confocal microscopy techniques and in vitro dissolution studies. In vivo evaluation of nano-emulsion was done using nuclear medicine technique. Stability studies and dermal toxicity studies were also carried out. Comparative decontamination efficacy (DE) studies were performed on synthetic human tissue equivalent material and Sprague Dawley rat against three commonly used medical radioisotopes, i.e., Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), Iodine-131 ((131)I) and Thallium-201 ((201)Tl). Decontamination was performed using cotton swabs soaked in nanoemulsion at different time intervals of contaminants exposure. Whole body imaging and static counts were recorded using gamma camera before and after each decontamination attempt data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). DE of the nanoemulsion loaded with p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene was observed to be 88±5%, 90±3% and 89±3% for (99m)Tc, (131)I and (201)Tl respectively. Dermal toxicity studies revealed no significant differences between treated and control animals. Skin histopathology slides with and without API (Active pharmaceutical ingredients) also found to be comparable. p-Tertbutylcalix[4]arene loaded nanoemulsion shows great promise for skin decontamination against broad ranges of radiological contaminants besides being stable and safe. PMID:24632037

  17. Kinetics of a putative hypoxic tissue marker, Technetium-99m-nitroimidazole (BMS181321), in normoxic, hypoxic, ischemic and stunned myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Kusuoka, Hideo; Hashimoto, Katsuji; Fukuchi, Kazuki

    1994-08-01

    This study focused on the kinetics of the newly developed {sup 99m}TTc-nitroimidazole, propyleneamine oxime-1,2-nitroimidazole (BMS181321) in the different setting of myocardial perfusion states and oxygenation levels, and compared the kinetics of BMS181321 with those of other technetium analogues. The kinetics of BMS181321 were evaluated in isolated perfused rat hearts. Technetium-99m-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and a non-nitroimidazole-containing analogue of BMS 181321 (6-methyl propyleneamine oxime; PAO-6-Me) were used to compare their kinetics with those of BMS181321. BMS181321 cleared quickly from normoxic hearts and the retention in the myocardium 10 min after injection was 0.84% {plus_minus} 0.04% ID/g wet wt (mean {plus_minus} s.e.m.). In contrast, BMS181321 was retained after reperfusion when it was injected before ischemia; the uptake in the myocardium 10 min after reperfusion was significantly greater than in controls (23.9% {plus_minus} 3.9%ID/g wt, p<0.05). These results indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-BMS181321 is well trapped in ischemic myocardium and moderately trapped in hypoxic myocardium, but washed out quickly in stunned myocardium. The residence time influences the amount retained. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow imaging: A quantitative comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT with C15O2 PET

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmell, H.G.; Evans, N.T.; Besson, J.A.; Roeda, D.; Davidson, J.; Dodd, M.G.; Sharp, P.F.; Smith, F.W.; Crawford, J.R.; Newton, R.H. )

    1990-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). As investigation of dementia is likely to be one of the main uses of routine rCBF imaging, 18 demented patients were imaged with both techniques. The PET data were compared quantitatively with three versions of the SPECT data. These were, first, data normalized to the SPECT cerebellar uptake, second, data linearly corrected using the PET cerebellar value and, finally, data Lassen corrected for washout from the high flow areas. Both the linearly-corrected (r = 0.81) and the Lassen-corrected (r = 0.79) HMPAO SPECT data showed good correlation with the PET rCBF data. The relationship between the normalized HMPAO SPECT data and the PET data was nonlinear. It is not yet possible to obtain rCBF values in absolute units from HMPAO SPECT without knowledge of the true rCBF in one reference region for each patient.

  19. Relation of technetium-99m pyrophosphate accumulation to time interval after onset of acute myocardial infarction as assessed by a tomographic acquisition technique.

    PubMed

    Krause, T; Kasper, W; Zeiher, A; Schuemichen, C; Moser, E

    1991-12-15

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PYP) myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 110 clinically stable patients with acute or healed acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Tomography was performed 12 hours to 7 days (group A), 7 to 30 days (Group B), 1 to 6 months (Group C) and after greater than 6 months (group D) after AMI. All 40 patients in group A, 9 of 31 in group B, 1 of 22 in group C, and no patient (0 of 17) in group D had a pathologic Tc-99m PYP tomogram. Relative Tc-99m PYP accumulation within the area of infarction was measured as infarct zone to blood pool ratio, which decreased significantly (p less than 0.001) from group A (1.54 +/- 0.39) to group B (0.89 +/- 0.24), group C (0.8 +/- 0.19) and group D (0.76 +/- 0.13). These data were confirmed by sequential scintigraphy in 17 patients. It is concluded that a persisting Tc-99m PYP uptake is rarely found greater than 1 month after AMI using tomographic imaging techniques in clinically stable patients with coronary artery disease. Positive results on Tc-99m PYP tomography are a reliable indicator of AMI. Thus, Tc-99m PYP tomography is not only a sensitive but also a specific imaging technique for AMI, which might be especially useful for diagnosis of reinfarction. PMID:1836101

  20. Assessment of acute myocardial necrosis after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and cardioversion by means of combined thallium-201/technetium-99m pyrophosphate tomography.

    PubMed

    Krause, T; Hohnloser, S H; Kasper, W; Schümichen, C; Reinhardt, M; Moser, E

    1995-11-01

    Diagnosis of acute myocardial necrosis by means of conventional electrocardiographic criteria or the release of cardiac enzymes is often difficult or even impossible in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation with subsequent cardiopulmonary resuscitation including several DC countershocks. Simultaneous thallium-201/technetium-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) tomography was prospectively applied to 57 patients without typical clinical or electrocardiographic signs of acute myocardial infarction within 48 h after successful resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Scintigraphic evidence of acute necrosis was present in 23/57 patients (40%). Increased 99mTc-PYP uptake in the pericardial tissue was found in 24 patients (42%). Maximal creatine kinase (CK) concentration was increased in 50/57 patients (88%). CK-MB activity averaged 68+/-52 U/l in patients with positive and 17+/-13 U/l in patients with negative tomograms (P<0.0005), demonstrating the validity of 201Tl/99mTc-PYP tomography. It may be concluded that simultaneous 201Tl/99mTc-PYP tomography is a valuable tool for evaluation of myocardial necrosis after cardiopulmonary resuscitation including DC countershock. Acute myocardial necrosis, as indicated by scintigraphy, represents a potential trigger for the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation. Therefore, 201Tl/99mTc-PYP tomography can be recommended in order to guide further diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in whom the underlying cause of the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation is obscure. PMID:8575479

  1. Differences in the intracellular processing of the radiolabel following the uptake of iodine-125- and technetium-99m-neogalactosyl albumin by the isolated perfused rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, S.; Morris, A.I.; Gilmore, I.T.; Maltby, P.J.; Thornback, J.R.; Billington, D. )

    1991-03-01

    Neogalactosyl albumin (NGA) is a synthetic ligand to the asialoglycoprotein receptor (hepatic binding protein), which has been proposed as a useful receptor binding radiopharmaceutical for the noninvasive assessment of liver function. We have compared the uptake and intracellular processing of iodine-125- (125I) and technetium-99m- ({sup 99m}Tc) NGA following its administration as a 1-min pulse (147 pmol) to the isolated perfused rat liver. Approximately 40% of a pulse of either {sup 125}I- or {sup 99m}Tc-NGA were taken up first pass by the liver. Of the {sup 125}I taken up by the liver, 82% was released after 15-20 min at the sinusoidal pole of the hepatocyte, predominantly as small molecular weight metabolites. A further 8% of the {sup 125}I-associated radioactivity was secreted as intact NGA into bile by the non-lysosomal (direct) pathway while 6% remained in the liver 1 hr after the pulse. In contrast, of the {sup 99m}Tc taken up by the liver, only 4% reappeared in the perfusate while 40% was secreted into bile by the lysosomal (indirect) pathway and 55% remained in the liver 1 hr after the pulse. Since labeled metabolites of {sup 99m}Tc-NGA do not appear in plasma, this permits kinetic modeling with {sup 99m}Tc-NGA without correction for labeled metabolites. Thus, {sup 99m}Tc-NGA is an excellent candidate as a receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical.

  2. Review of diagnostic uses of shunt fraction quantification with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin perfusion scan as illustrated by a case of Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chokkappan, Kabilan; Kannivelu, Anbalagan; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian; Babut, Suresh Balasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare and are often associated with the hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT/Osler–Weber–Rendu) syndrome. We present a woman who presented with neurological symptoms due to a cerebral abscess. On further evaluation, bilateral pulmonary AVMs were identified. The patient was diagnosed with HHT, based on positive family history and multiple cerebral AVMs recognized on subsequent catheter angiogram, in addition to the presence of bilateral pulmonary AVMs. Craniotomy with drainage of the brain abscess and endovascular embolization of the pulmonary AVMs was offered to the patient. As a preembolization work-up, the patient underwent nuclear lung perfusion scan with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) to assess the right-to-left shunt secondary to the pulmonary AVMs. Postembolization follow-up perfusion scan was also obtained to estimate the hemodynamic response. The case is presented to describe the role of Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan in preoperatively evaluating patients with pulmonary AVMs and to emphasize on the scan's utility in posttreatment follow-up. Various present day usages of the Tc-99m MAA lung perfusion scan, other than diagnosing pulmonary thromboembolism, are discussed. Providing background knowledge on the physiological and hemodynamic aspects of the Tc-99m MAA lung perfusion scan is also attempted. Various imaging pitfalls and necessary precautions while performing Tc-99m MAA lung perfusion scan are highlighted. PMID:27168866

  3. Anti-CEA monoclonal antibody: technetium-99m labeling and the validation process of a scintigraphic animal model with a non-cellular antigenic implant.

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Marques, Fabio Luiz Navarro; Okamoto, Miriam Roseli Yoshie; Hironaka, Fausto Haruki; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2002-07-01

    Animal models are currently used to verify the biodistribution of different radiopharmaceuticals before its clinical application in Nuclear Medicine; however, there may be some limitations. The utilization of labelled anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) in experimental models often requires implant of human antigens (usually a cellular implant), which cannot be achieved in immunocompetent animals. Our purpose was to label an anti-CEA MoAb with technetium-99m (99Tc) and to validate a simplified animal model using a noncellular antigenic implant. MoAb was directly labelled with 99mTc, after reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. Labeling efficiency was checked by ascending chromatography and immunoreactive fraction was measured in plastic wells sensitized with the antigen. Radiopharmaceutical biodistribution was evaluated by dissection and scintigraphy in 5 mice groups; following the subcutaneous administration of Al(OH)3, CEA adsorbed Al(OH)2 and a control group evaluation. Labeling efficiency was 94+/-3%, which showed to be stable for 24 hr, with immunoreactive fraction above 50%. Invasive biodistribution evaluation showed prolonged blood retention, hepatic and renal uptake. A significant increase in uptake was observed in scintigraphic studies of animals with CEA-adsorbed Al(OH)3 implants compared with the other groups (p<0.05). The non-cellular antigenic implant model simplifies the pre-clinical evaluation of labelled MoAb. PMID:12146705

  4. Indium-111-leukocyte/technetium-99m-MDP bone and magnetic resonance imaging: Difficulty of diagnosing osteomyelitis in patients with neuropathic osteoarthropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Flickinger, F.W.; Kao, S.C.; Gleason, T.J.; Kahn, D.; Nepola, J.V.; Marsh, J.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Fourteen patients (16 sites) with clinical and/or radiographic evidence of neuropathic osteoarthropathy (Charcot joints) were evaluated with combined indium-111-leukocyte ({sup 111}In-WBC) and technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP) bone imaging for suspected osteomyelitis. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in seven patients. Using a positive bone culture as the criterion for the presence of osteomyelitis, there were four true-positive studies, six true-negative sites, and one false-negative {sup 111}In-WBC study. Five of 16 sites (31%) had false-positive {sup 111}In-WBC uptake at noninfected sites. There were four true-positive and three false-positive MR studies. All false-positives showed at least moderately abnormal findings by both techniques at sites of rapidly progressing osteoarthropathy of recent onset. In this preliminary study, both techniques appear to be sensitive for detection of osteomyelitis, and a negative study makes osteomyelitis unlikely. However, the findings of {sup 111}In-WBC/{sup 99m}Tc-MDP and MR images at sites of rapidly progressing, noninfected neuropathic osteoarthropathy may be indistinguishable from those of osteomyelitis.

  5. Review of diagnostic uses of shunt fraction quantification with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin perfusion scan as illustrated by a case of Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chokkappan, Kabilan; Kannivelu, Anbalagan; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian; Babut, Suresh Balasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare and are often associated with the hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT/Osler-Weber-Rendu) syndrome. We present a woman who presented with neurological symptoms due to a cerebral abscess. On further evaluation, bilateral pulmonary AVMs were identified. The patient was diagnosed with HHT, based on positive family history and multiple cerebral AVMs recognized on subsequent catheter angiogram, in addition to the presence of bilateral pulmonary AVMs. Craniotomy with drainage of the brain abscess and endovascular embolization of the pulmonary AVMs was offered to the patient. As a preembolization work-up, the patient underwent nuclear lung perfusion scan with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) to assess the right-to-left shunt secondary to the pulmonary AVMs. Postembolization follow-up perfusion scan was also obtained to estimate the hemodynamic response. The case is presented to describe the role of Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan in preoperatively evaluating patients with pulmonary AVMs and to emphasize on the scan's utility in posttreatment follow-up. Various present day usages of the Tc-99m MAA lung perfusion scan, other than diagnosing pulmonary thromboembolism, are discussed. Providing background knowledge on the physiological and hemodynamic aspects of the Tc-99m MAA lung perfusion scan is also attempted. Various imaging pitfalls and necessary precautions while performing Tc-99m MAA lung perfusion scan are highlighted. PMID:27168866

  6. [Clinical evaluation of patients with right ventricular infarction detected by dual SPECT imaging of thallium-201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate].

    PubMed

    Kuwano, H; Kimura, M; Sakai, K; Ishiguro, J; Ishida, H; Okabe, M

    1994-10-01

    We evaluated clinical significance of dual-nuclide SPECT imaging (D-SPECT) of thallium-201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) in patients of acute inferior left ventricular infarction with PYP uptake in the right ventricle (PYP (+) group) in comparison with those without PYP uptake (PYP (-) group). There was no difference in coronary risk factors, history of angina, blood pressure, heart rate, and hemodynamics on admission between PYP (+) group and PYP (-) group. The duration from onset to admission was longer in PYP (+) group and coronary reperfusion therapies were carried out in few cases. In 7 of 8 PYP-positive patients, the diagnosis of right ventricular infarction was made only by D-SPECT. Four of 8 were complicated with shock within three days, and the duration of hospitalization was longer. Coronary angiography demonstrated many proximal lesions (50%) in PYP (+) group but few ones (18%) in PYP (-) group. D-SPECT was very useful for diagnosing acute right ventricular infarction, and it might contribute to the prevention of shock if performed within a few days. PMID:7807721

  7. Technetium-99m generator system

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Collins, E.D.

    1998-06-30

    A {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating {sup 99m}Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of {sup 99m}Tc includes the general steps of: (a) providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; (b) eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute {sup 99m}Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted {sup 99m}Tc on the ion-exchange column; and (c) eluting the concentrated {sup 99m}Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent. 1 fig.

  8. Technetium-99m generator system

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Collins, Emory D.

    1998-01-01

    A .sup.99 Mo/.sup.99m Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating .sup.99m Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of .sup.99m Tc includes the general steps of: a. providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; b. eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute .sup.99m Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted .sup.99m Tc on the ion-exchange column; and c. eluting the concentrated .sup.99m Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent.

  9. A comparative study of renal scintigraphy and clearance with technetium-99m-MAG3 and iodine-123-hippurate in patients with renal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Suur, R.B.; Bois-Svensson, I.; Mesko, L. )

    1990-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare kit prepared technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) with our routine radiopharmaceutical, iodine-123-hippurate our routine radiopharmaceutical, iodine-123-hippurate ((123I)OIH) for renal dynamic scintigraphy. Seventeen patients with different nephrologic disorders or hypertension were first studied with OIH and then reinvestigated with MAG3 2-8 days later. Renal MAG3 gamma camera images were almost identical with those of OIH except for higher (p less than 0.01) liver-to-background ratios at 20 min postinjection, irrespective of kidney function. Urinary peristalsis was visible longer and more clearly in the MAG3 studies. MAG3 and OIH renograms showed identical relative kidney uptake (r = 0.99), but elimination of MAG3 from the kidneys was slower (p less than 0.01). The plasma clearance of MAG3 was lower than that of OIH, but correlated (r = 0.92) significantly. The plasma distribution volume and content in blood cells was lower (p less than 0.01), but the binding of MAG3 to plasma proteins was higher, 90%, as compared with 74% for OIH, p less than 0.01. Urinary excretion expressed as a percent of the given dose 60 min after injection was the same for the two substances. Thus, there are some significant differences in the renal handling, plasma distribution, and cell penetration between MAG3 and (123I)OIH. MAG3, however, seems to have particular qualifications as a radionuclide for dynamic renal scintigraphy, especially in patients who require acute investigations or in those with low renal function.

  10. Technetium-99m nitrido dithiocarbamate complex with lateral ester groups: A potential agent for cerebral perfusion. Direct labeling and kinetic results in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Bottlaender, M.; Bourguignon, M.; Maziere, M.

    1994-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that technetium-99m-nitrido (TcN) complexes of ester derivatives of dithiocarbamate cross the brain-blood barrier and one term of this class, namely the complex formed with sarcosine methyl ester dithiocarbamate (TcN-PR13) is retained in the brain of Cynomolgus monkeys. However these compounds were obtained through an in situ esterification of preformed TcN dicarboxylic derivative. We have been able to synthesize one term of this class of ligands, the sarcosine methylester dithiocarbamate, by reacting sarcosine with thionyl chloride in methanol to give the sarcosine methyl ester, which was reacted with carbon disulfide and NaOH in methanol to give the sodium salt of the dithiocarbamate derivative which was isolated as an oil. The corresponding TcN complex was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 96% by a kit method. The complex was injected in baboons and its radioactive distribution compared to that obtained with Tc-HMPAO. Blood and plasma kinetics were calculated from arterial sampling whereas tissue kinetics (brain, lungs) were obtained by ROI`s analysis. The values of the half-life in the blood were comparable for the two tracers, although the absolute activity was about 20% lower for TcN-PR13. The brain uptake of TcN-PR13 was 10% lower than that observed for Tc-HMPAO, and remained stable during 2 hours. TcN-PR13 displayed lower lung uptake and faster clearance from this organ than Tc-HMPAO. Brain/Lung ratios were 1.11 and 1.65 at 30 and 60 min for TcN-PR13 compared to 0.93 and 0.99 at the same time for Tc-HMPAO.

  11. Comparison of left ventricular function and infarct size in patients with and without persistently positive technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams after myocardial infarction: analysis of 357 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, C.H.; Rude, R.E.; Lewis, S.E.; Parkey, R.W.; Poole, W.K.; Parker, C.; Fox, N.; Roberts, R.; Strauss, H.W.; Thomas, L.J.

    1984-02-01

    One hundred nine patients with persistently positive technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PPi) myocardial scintigrams 6 months after acute myocardial infarction (MI) (Group A) and 185 patients without such persistently positive scintigrams (Group B) were compared with regard to enzymatically determined infarct size, early and late measurements of left ventricular (LV) function determined by radionuclide ventriculography, and preceding clinical course during the 6 months after MI. The CK-MB-determined infarct size index in Group A (17.4 +/- 10.6 g-Eq/m2) did not differ significantly from that in Group B (16.0 +/- 14.6 g-Eq/m2). Similarly, myocardial infarct areas in the 2 groups, determined by planimetry of acute Tc-99m-PPi scintigrams in those patients with well-localized 3+ or 4+ anterior pyrophosphate uptake, were not significantly different (35.7 +/- 13.4 vs 34.4 +/- 13.1 cm2, respectively). However, patients in Group A had significantly lower LV ejection fractions than those in Group B, both within 18 hours of the onset of MI (0.42 +/- 0.14 vs 0.49 +/- 0.14, p less than 0.01) and at 3 months after MI, both at rest (0.42 +/- 0.14 vs 0.51 +/- 0.14, p less than 0.01) and at maximal symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise (0.44 +/- 0.17 vs 0.51 +/- 0.17, p less than 0.01). Peak exercise levels achieved in the 2 groups were not significantly different. Furthermore, patients in Group A demonstrated a greater incidence of congestive heart failure during the initial hospital admission (41 vs 24%; p less than 0.01) and a greater requirement for digoxin (p less than 0.05) and furosemide (p less than 0.01) after discharge.

  12. Technetium-99m labelled LDL as a tracer for quantitative LDL scintigraphy. II. In vivo validation, LDL receptor-dependent and unspecific hepatic uptake and scintigraphic results.

    PubMed

    Leitha, T; Staudenherz, A; Gmeiner, B; Hermann, M; Hüttinger, M; Dudczak, R

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the hepatic uptake of dialysed technetium-99m labelled low-density lipoprotein (99mTc-LDL) reflects the hepatic LDL receptor activity and to what extent the non-LDL receptor-dependent 99mTc-LDL uptake by non-parenchymal cells relates to the diagnostic utility of quantitative 99mTc-LDL scintigraphy of the liver. New Zealand White rabbits and Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidaemic rabbits, which were sacrificed 24 h after simultaneous injection of 99mTc-LDL and iodine-125 labelled LDL, were clearly discriminated by their hepatic 99mTc-LDL uptake according to their genetically different hepatic LDL receptor activity. Yet the hepatic 99mTc-LDL uptake exceeded the 125I-LDL uptake in all animals. The different hepatic uptake of the tracers was elucidated in the isolated perfused rat liver and was due to rapid intracellular degradation and the release of low molecular catabolites of 125I-LDL. In contrast, 99mTc activity was trapped in the liver. Analysis of biliary 99mTc activity provided evidence for the excretion of 99mTc-labelled apolipoprotein B. The amount of biliary excreted protein-bound 99mTc was linked to total hepatic 99mTc-LDL uptake and presumably reflected LDL receptor-mediated apolipoprotein excretion. Collagenase liver perfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats 90 min following simultaneous injection of 99mTc- and 125I-LDL and subsequent cell separation by gradient centrifugation revealed that 99mTc-LDL and 125I-LDL had a comparably low uptake into non-parenchymal cells; thus its contribution can be neglected for scintigraphic purposes. Planar scintigraphy was performed in New Zealand White and Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidaemic rabbits.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8404953

  13. Myocardial infarction determined by technetium-99m pyrophosphate single-photon tomography complicating elective coronary artery bypass grafting for angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.J.; Gladstone, P.J.; Tremblay, P.C.; Feindel, C.M.; Salter, D.R.; Lipton, I.H.; Ogilvie, R.R.; David, T.E.

    1989-06-15

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicating coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has previously been based on concordance of electrocardiographic, enzymatic and scintigraphic criteria. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PPi) single-photon emission computed tomography now enables detection of AMI with high sensitivity and specificity. Using this technique, perioperative AMI was detected in 12 of 58 patients (21%) undergoing successful elective CABG for stable angina pectoris. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the predictive value of preoperative (New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction and use of beta blockers) and intraoperative (number of grafts constructed, use of internal mammary anastomoses, use of sequential saphenous vein grafts, smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber and aortic cross-clamp time) variables. Preoperative New York Association class (p = 0.04) and smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber (p = 0.03) were significant multivariate predictors of perioperative AMI. Only 1 perioperative patient with AMI (and 1 pyrophosphate-negative patient) developed new Q waves. Serum creatine kinase-MB was higher in patients with AMI by repeated measures analysis of variance (p = 0.0003). Five AMIs occurred in myocardial segments revascularized using sequential saphenous vein grafts, and 7 in segments perfused by significantly stenosed epicardial vessels with distal lumen diameter and perfusion territory considered too small to warrant CABG. At 6-month follow-up, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 0.61 to 0.65 in Tc-PPI-negative patients (p = 0.01), but not in perioperative patients with AMI.

  14. The effect of an iodine restricted including no sea foods diet, on technetium-99m thyroid scintigraphy: a neglected issue in nuclear medicine practice.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Neshandarasli, Isa; Mogharrabi, Mehdi; Jalallat, Sara; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Although it is recommended to patients to avoid sea food and iodine-containing medications prior to iodine-131 (¹³¹I) scanning, the efficacy of this diet as for technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) thyroid scintigraphy is not well addressed in the literature. We evaluated a self-managed, outpatients, iodine restricted diet (IRD) designed to reduce total body iodine in preparation for such a scan. We have studied 39 patients who referred to our Department for multinodular goiter, 30 females and 9 males, aged:14-54 years and their (99m)Tc-P thyroid scintigraphy showed poor visualization of the thyroid gland. These patiens were living in regions with high consumption of sea foods went underwent a two-weeks iodine restriction including restriction of sea food diet for the reduction of iodine body content. These patients were called for a repeated scan after going on a IRD for at least two weeks. The two scans were compared visually, and by semiquantitative analysis. Semiquantitative analysis was applied in 8 regions of interest (ROI) by using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Thirty-six subjects had better quality scintigraphy images in the post IRD thyroid scan, as was visually assessed by two nuclear medicine physicians. Semiquantitatetively, there was a significant difference in the mean counts of ROI of the right and the left thyroid lobes in favor of the post IRD scans (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study suggests that in patients with multinodular goiter, living in regions with high consumption of sea foods a two-weeks diet for the reduction of iodine body content induces in most of the cases a slightly better diagnostic thyroid (99m)Tc-P scan. PMID:22413111

  15. Fetal dose estimates and the ICRP abdominal dose limit for occupational exposure of pregnant staff to technetium-99m and iodine-131 patients.

    PubMed

    Mountford, P J; Steele, H R

    1995-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recently recommended a supplementary dose limit of 2 mSv to the abdominal surface of a pregnant member of staff in order to provide protection to her fetus comparable to that in members of the public, whose annual limit is recommended to be 1 mSv. In order to determine whether this apparent attenuation factor of 50% is appropriate for nursing and imaging staff exposed to nuclear medicine patients, estimates were made of the ratios of the maternal abdominal surface to fetal dose appropriately weighted for time, distance and dose rate. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements were made at various depths in an anthropomorphic phantom irradiated at different distances by a distributed source of either technetium-99m or iodine-131 in order to determine the corresponding attenuation factors at the average fetal midline depth. Dose estimates were based on these factors and on published values of dose rate and exposure times for nursing and imaging staff at these distances from the patient. Fetal doses to nursing staff caring for an adult 99mTc patient were estimated to vary from 86 microSv to 1.6 microSv, with the corresponding ratio of the abdominal surface to fetal dose varying from about 1.8:1 to 1.5:1 as the patient became less dependent on nursing care and the mean distance from the patient increased. Fetal doses to imaging staff varied from 1.12 microSv to 0.17 microSv for three types of 99mTc scan, but the ratio only varied from 1.4:1 to 1.3:1. Fetal doses to imaging staff were estimated to be 6.7 microSv and 9.0 microSv for a whole-body scan of a thyroid cancer patient after 131I ablation and therapy respectively, and the ratio was 1.3:1 for both types of scan. It was concluded that for a pregnant ward nurse or imaging technologist exposed to an adult or paediatric patient administered 99mTc or 131I, a dose limit of 1.3 mSv to the maternal abdominal surface will restrict their fetal dose to 1 mSv. A

  16. Preoperative Diagnostic Strategy for Parotid Gland Tumors Using Diffusion-Weighted MRI and Technetium-99m Pertechnetate Scintigraphy: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Koyasu, Sho; Shinohara, Shogo; Imai, Yukihiro; Hino, Megumu; Naito, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for diagnosis of a parotid gland tumor is widely used but its sensitivity is low and non-diagnostic rate is relatively high. In contrast, core needle biopsy (CNB) has a higher sensitivity and lower rate of sampling errors but has a higher risk of injury to adjacent organs such as facial nerve than FNAC. Screening of patients with parotid gland tumors to identify cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and Warthin tumor (WT) may allow CNB to be confined to patients without PA and WT. We established an algorithm for preoperative diagnosis and management of parotid gland tumor using diffusion-weighted MRI and 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy. This algorithm was developed with the goal of maximal reduction of the number of patients in whom CNB is required. The purpose of the study is to validate our algorithm prospectively. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 71 cases who were newly diagnosed with parotid gland tumor and 53 cases were enrolled in the study. In the algorithm, PA (high apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mean≥1.5×10−3 mm2/s) and non-PA (low ADCmean<1.5×10−3 mm2/s) cases are first distinguished based on the ADCmean on diffusion-weighed MRI. Second, among suspected non-PA cases, WT and non-WT are distinguished using technetium-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy. CNB is then performed only in probable non-PA and non-WT cases. Results Although CNB was only required in 40% (21/53) of all cases, we made a preoperative histopathological diagnosis with an accuracy of 87% (46/53) and we correctly diagnosed whether a tumor was benign or malignant with an accuracy of 96% (51/53). Preoperative surgical planning had to be changed during surgery in only one case (2%) Conclusions Our algorithm is valuable in terms of clinical practice with highly potential for preoperative diagnosis and with less risk of CNB procedure. PMID:26849569

  17. Relationship of end-expiratory pressure, lung volume, and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.; van der Zee, H.; Line, B.R.; Malik, A.B.

    1987-10-01

    We investigated the dose-response effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and increased lung volume on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA). Clearance of lung radioactivity was expressed as percent decrease per minute. Base-line clearance was measured while anesthetized sheep (n = 20) were ventilated with 0 cmH/sub 2/O end-expiratory pressure. Clearance was remeasured during ventilation at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, or 20 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP. Further studies showed stepwise increases in functional residual capacity (FRC) (P less than 0.05) measured at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP. At 2.5 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP, the clearance rate was not different from that at base line (P less than 0.05), although FRC was increased from base line. Clearance rate increased progressively with increasing PEEP at 5, 10, and 15 cmH/sub 2/O (P less than 0.05). Between 15 and 20 cmH/sub 2/O PEEP, clearance rate was again unchanged, despite an increase in FRC. The pulmonary clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA shows a sigmoidal response to increasing FRC and PEEP, having both threshold and maximal effects. This relationship is most consistent with the hypothesis that alveolar epithelial permeability is increased by lung inflation.

  18. Comparison of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 113m/In-DTPA aerosol clearances in humans. Effects of smoking, hyperinflation, and in vitro oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Nolop, K.B.; Maxwell, D.L.; Fleming, J.S.; Braude, S.; Hughes, J.M.; Royston, D.

    1987-11-01

    As an index of permeability of the alveolar epithelium, the clearance of an inhaled aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA is increased in several disease states. However, the usefulness of the test to assess the severity of disease is limited because healthy smokers also have abnormally rapid rates of clearance. Because the stability of the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA bond might be a contributory factor, we tested the affinity of /sup 99m/Tc for DTPA in vitro, and in groups of healthy smokers (n = 13) and nonsmokers (n = 7) we measured the clearances of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 113m/In-DTPA, which have a similar molecular shape and charge. In vitro, sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide released as much as 98% of free /sup 99m/Tc from the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA complex. When incubated with human neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, between 4 and 7% of free /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was released after 30 min, and 12% was released after 60 min. In vivo, the clearances of both /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 113m/In-DTPA in the smokers (n = 13) were faster than in the nonsmokers (n = 7) (p less than 0.05). Within the smokers, the mean /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance (T1/2 25 +/- 4 min) was faster than the mean /sup 113m/In-DTPA clearance (34 +/- 6 min), (p less than 0.05). For nonsmokers, the difference was smaller (T1/2 /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA, 56 +/- 6; T1/2 /sup 113m/In-DTPA, 62 +/- 6) and not significant. During hyperinflation, smokers (n = 8) and nonsmokers (n = 8) both demonstrated an increase in /sup 113m/In-DTPA clearance.

  19. Effect of increased surface tension and assisted ventilation on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferies, A.L.; Kawano, T.; Mori, S.; Burger, R.

    1988-02-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and high-frequency oscillation (HFO) on the clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) from lungs with altered surface tension properties. A submicronic aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized, tracheotomized rabbits before and 1 h after the administration of the aerosolized detergent dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (OT). Rabbits were ventilated by one of four methods: 1) spontaneous breathing; 2) CMV at 12 cmH2O mean airway pressure (MAP); 3) HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP; 4) HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP. Administration of OT resulted in decreased arterial PO2 (PaO2), increased lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, and abnormal lung pressure-volume relationships, compatible with increased surface tension. /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance was accelerated after OT in all groups. The post-OT rate of clearance (k) was significantly faster (P less than 0.05) in the CMV at 12 cmH2O MAP (k = 7.57 +/- 0.71%/min (SE)) and HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP (k = 6.92 +/- 0.61%/min) groups than in the spontaneously breathing (k = 4.32 +/- 0.55%/min) and HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP (4.68 +/- 0.63%/min) groups. The clearance curves were biexponential in the former two groups. We conclude that pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA is accelerated in high surface tension pulmonary edema, and this effect is enhanced by both conventional ventilation and HFO at high mean airway pressure.

  20. [Noninvasive diagnosis of cardiac involvement by technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PYP) myocardial scintigraphy in 2 cases of familial amyloid polyneuropathy and 1 case of secondary amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Takezaki, M; Ishida, Y; Morozumi, T; Tani, A; Sato, H; Hori, M; Kitabatake, A; Kamada, T; Kimura, K; Kozuka, T

    1989-12-01

    To validate the significance of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PYP) myocardial scintigraphy in diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis, 2 patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) and 1 patient with amyloidosis secondary to chronic rheumatic arthritis were studied. All three patients had echocardiographic abnormalities, which were increased wall thickness of the interventricular septum and the left ventricular posterior wall, and granular sparkling appearance in the septum. In 2 patients with FAP, abnormal myocardial uptake of Tc-99m PYP was diffusely detected in Tc-99m PYP SPECT. In the remaining 1 patient with secondary amyloidosis, however, Tc-99m PYP SPECT showed no abnormality, although we had confirmed the presence of myocardial amyloid deposits (type AA amyloid protein) with high amount in the histological examination. Thus, these results indicate that Tc-99m PYP scintigraphy may have a limitation in detecting cardiac involvement in secondary amyloidosis although it is useful in FAP. PMID:2560088

  1. Use of technetium-99m isonitrile (RP-30A) in assessing left ventricular perfusion and function at rest and during exercise in coronary artery disease, and comparison with coronary arteriography and exercise thallium-201 SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Kong, B.; Lyons, E.; Marsch, S. )

    1989-08-01

    This study compared the results of stress and rest single-photon emission computed tomography imaging of myocardial perfusion using technetium-99m isonitrile (RP-30A) with the results of stress and redistribution tomographic thallium imaging and the results of coronary arteriography in 39 patients, 11 without and 28 with coronary artery disease (CAD). Each patient underwent 2 exercise studies at identical workload, heart rate and double product. In a subset of 13 patients, concomitant evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function using first-pass radionuclide angiography with a multi-crystal camera also was performed with bolus injections of isonitrile. Isonitrile had similar sensitivity (82 vs 82%, difference not significant), a slightly--but not significantly--higher specificity (100 vs 82%) and similar predictive accuracy (87 vs 82%) to thallium-201. The tracer uptake was assessed in 20 segments/study. There was concordance between the isonitrile and thallium-201 images in 723 of the 780 segments (93%) (kappa = 0.83 +/- 0.02). In general, the isonitrile images were considered of better quality than the thallium-201 images. All 10 patients with CAD who underwent concomitant first-pass radionuclide angiography had either perfusion abnormalities or an abnormal ejection fraction response to exercise. Thus, technetium-99m isonitrile provides a reliable method of assessment of CAD with a sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy comparable to that of exercise thallium-201 imaging. Additional advantages include better image quality and the ability to obtain concomitant assessment of LV function with the use of first-pass radionuclide angiography.

  2. Effect of inspiratory resistance and PEEP on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brodovich, H.; Coates, G.; Marrin, M.

    1986-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effect of markedly negative pleural pressure (Ppl) or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the pulmonary clearance (k) of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA). A submicronic aerosol containing /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized intubated sheep. In six experiments k was 0.44 +/- 0.46% (SD)/min during the initial 30 min and was unchanged during the subsequent 30-min interval (k = 0.21 +/- 12%/min) when there was markedly increased inspiratory resistance. A 3-mm-diam orifice in the inspiratory tubing created the resistance. It resulted on average in a 13-cmH2O decrease in inspiratory Ppl. In eight additional experiments sheep were exposed to 2, 10, and 15 cmH2O PEEP (20 min at each level). During 2 cmH2O PEEP k = 0.47 +/- 0.15%/min, and clearance increased slightly at 10 cmH2O PEEP (0.76 +/- 0.28%/min, P less than 0.01). When PEEP was increased to 15 cmH2O a marked increase in clearance occurred (k = 1.95 +/- 1.08%/min, P less than 0.001). The experiments demonstrate that markedly negative inspiratory pressures do not accelerate the clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA from normal lungs. The effect of PEEP on k is nonlinear, with large effects being seen only with very large increases in PEEP.

  3. Neurofibromas: location by scanning with Tc-99m DTPA. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.M.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-12-01

    The accumulation of technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) in benign soft-tissue neurofibromatosis tumors is reported. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, 28 sites of abnormal soft-tissue localization of the isotope observed scintigraphically were documented to be sites of soft-tissue tumor by clinical and/or radiographic (predominantly computed tomographic) correlations. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-cm subcutaneous neurofibroma. Normal physiologic nonrenal distribution of the Tc-99m DTPA was established by scintigraphic imaging of a control population.

  4. Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow found by technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer brain single photon emission computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with normal brain MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Chen, J J-H; Yen, R-F; Kao, A; Lin, C-C; Lee, C-C

    2002-11-01

    In this study, technetium-(99m) ethyl cysteinate dimer ((99m)Tc ECD) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was used to detect regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the brain in SLE patients with normal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Twenty female SLE patients were enrolled in this study, divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 10 patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations. Group 2 consisted of 10 patients without neuropsychiatric manifestations. All patients had normal brain MRI findings. Another 10 SLE patients with abnormal MRI findings were included as group 3 for comparison. Meanwhile, 10 healthy female volunteers also underwent brain MRI and (99m)Tc ECD brain SPECT for comparison. The scans revealed hypoperfusion lesions in 9/20 (45%) SLE patients, including 7/10 (70%) cases in group 1 and 2/10 (20%) cases in group 2. In contrast, all 10 patients (100%) in group 3 had abnormal (99m)Tc ECD brain SPECT findings. The parietal lobes were the most commonly involved areas. We conclude that (99m)Tc ECD brain SPECT is more sensitive for detecting rCBF changes than is brain MRI in detecting the brain anatomic changes, and may have a diagnostic value in lupus cerebral involvement. However, (99m)Tc ECD brain SPECT may not be indicated for SLE patients with normal MRI and mild neuropsychiatric symptoms/signs, such headaches and dizziness. PMID:12447638

  5. Measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, G.; O'Brodovich, H.

    1986-10-01

    The rate at which inhaled aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) leaves the lung by diffusion into the vascular space can be measured with a gamma camera or simple probe. In normal humans, /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clears from the lung with a half time of about 80 minutes. Many acute and chronic conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary epithelium cause an increased clearance rate. Thus cigarette smoking, alveolitis from a variety of causes, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) in the infant have all been shown to be associated with rapid pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. Rapid clearance is also promoted by increased lung volume and decreased surfactant activity. Although the mechanism of increased clearance in pathological states is not known, the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA lung-clearance technique has great potential clinically, particularly in patients at risk from ARDS and HMD and in the diagnosis and follow-up of alveolitis. 58 references.

  6. Accuracy and safety of technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxy-2-isobutyl isonitrile (Sestamibi) myocardial scintigraphy with high dose dipyridamole test in patients with effort angina pectoris: a multicenter study. Italian Group of Nuclear Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Parodi, O; Marcassa, C; Casucci, R; Sambuceti, G; Verna, E; Galli, M; Inglese, E; Marzullo, P; Pirelli, S; Bisi, G

    1991-11-15

    Clinical and physiologic evidence indicates that maximal coronary vasodilation is not achieved in a large number of patients with use of the standard dose of dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg body weight over 4 min). The feasibility, safety and accuracy of technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxy-2-isobutyl isonitrile (Sestamibi) scintigraphy associated with intravenous high dose dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg over 4 min followed 4 min later by an additional 0.28 mg/kg over 2 min) were evaluated in a multicenter study. Planar myocardial perfusion images were obtained at rest and after dipyridamole in 101 patients with effort chest pain and no prior myocardial infarction. High dose dipyridamole (62 patients) was used when typical chest pain or electrocardiographic (ECG) signs of ischemia, or both, did not occur during or after the standard dose (39 patients). With high dose dipyridamole, 34 patients had pain (18 patients) or ECG signs of ischemia (ST depression greater than or equal to 2 mm) (8 patients), or both (8 patients), whereas the other 28 patients had Sestamibi injection in the absence of symptoms or ECG changes. All patients underwent coronary angiography: 81 had significant coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 50% reduction of lumen diameter) (affecting one vessel in 38, two vessels in 19 and three vessels in 24 patients) and 20 patients had normal coronary arteries. The overall sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy of Sestamibi scintigraphy were 81%, 90% and 83%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1834717

  7. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol from coal miners' lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Brill, A.B.; Harold, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Alterations in regional epithelial permeability were assessed in 22 retired West Virginia coal miners' lungs by measuring the clearance of inhaled 0.5-..mu..m Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. Activity was measured in both lungs and in regions of interest placed over the lung periphery in the apical, middle, and basal portions of each lung. Clearance rates (T/sub 1/2/) for 5 nonsmokers, 8 ex-smokers, and 9 smokers were significantly faster than for comparable subjects measured elsewhere, who were not coal miners. Regional apex-to-base distributions of DTPA were measured as a function of clearance time and compared with regional ventilation and perfusion. Regional, as well as overall lung clearance curves of 8 smokers and 4 ex-smokers had two components, with overall T/sub 1/2/ of <7 min for the faster one. No correlations were found between T/sub 1/2/ and DLCO or with P(A-a)O/sub 2/. The results of our study suggest that measurement of DTPA clearance is a potentially useful noninvasive technique to assess lung injury in miners exposed to coal dust. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Effects of sustained exercise on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Lorino, A.M.; Meignan, M.; Bouissou, P.; Atlan, G. )

    1989-11-01

    The effects of intensive prolonged exercise on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized {sup 99m}Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary mechanics were studied in seven healthy nonsmoking volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA clearance and pulmonary mechanics (lung volumes and compliance) were assessed before and after 75 min of constant-load exercise performed on a treadmill, corresponding to 75% of maximal O{sub 2} uptake. Because both clearance measurements were made in similar conditions of pulmonary blood flow, respiratory rate, and tidal volume, changes in clearance rate can be assumed to represent changes of alveolar epithelial permeability. After exercise, total, apical, and basal clearance were significantly increased (P less than 0.01, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively) and the increases in total clearance and tidal volume observed during exercise were significantly correlated (P less than 0.05). In contrast, no significant change was found in pulmonary mechanics. These results show that prolonged intensive exercise induces an increase in epithelial permeability, which appears to be related to the mechanical effects of sustained increased ventilation. Because no change was evidenced in pulmonary volumes or in lung elasticity, our results suggest that this increase may result from alteration of the intercellular tight junctions rather than from a surfactant deficiency.

  9. Potential dose to nuclear medicine technologists from 99mTc-DTPA aerosol lung studies.

    PubMed

    Achey, Bryan; Miller, Ken; Erdman, Mike; King, Steve

    2004-05-01

    Air sampling performed during 190 Tc-labeled DTPA aerosol lung ventilation studies indicated that the maximum airborne concentration to which the nuclear medicine technologists might be exposed was 7.1 x 10(-1) Bq mL(-1) (1.9 x 10(-5) microCi mL(-1)). If a single technologist performed ALL the aerosol studies, at this maximum airborne concentration, based on the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI), the resulting dose equivalents could be either 1 mSv (100 mrem) to the lungs or 0.1 mSv (10 mrem) to the total body. However, the procedures are shared by the technical staff, the times of exposure are represented by only a fraction of the overall procedure time, and the average airborne concentrations were found to be more than an order of magnitude lower than the maximum. This resulted in a projected average annual dose equivalent of 7.0 x 10(-3) mSv (0.7 mrem) to the lungs or 7.0 x 10(-4) mSv (0.07 mrem) to the whole body from the performance of these procedures. PMID:15069295

  10. Breast-milk radioactivity after a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol/Tc-99m MAA lung study

    SciTech Connect

    Mountford, P.J.; Hall, F.M.; Wells, C.P.; Coakley, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Measurements were made of the concentration of Tc-99m activity in samples of breast milk following an administration of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol for a lung ventilation image and one of Tc-99m MAA for lung perfusion. The activity was 222 nCi/ml of milk (8.2 kBq/ml) at 2 hr after the MAA injection, and it was found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 4.6 hr. There was a small incorporation of Tc-99m into breast-milk protein. The authors conclude that the combined use of these two Tc-99m agents did not indicate the interruption of breast feeding beyond 24 hr after administration of the MAA, and that for an aerosol ventiliation study alone, breast feeding need not be interrupted for more than 4 hr after the test.

  11. Comparison of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol with radioactive gas ventilation imaging in patients (pts) with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE)

    SciTech Connect

    Alderson, P.O.; Kroop, S.A.; Biello, D.R.; Siegel, B.A.; Gottschalk, A.; Hoffer, P.B.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of Tc-99m labeled DTPA aerosol (A) as a ventilation agent was compared to that of Xe-133 (Xe) or Kr-81m (Kr) gases in a series of 100 pts (age range 20-83, 53% women) undergoing ventilation-perfusion (V-P) imaging for suspected PE. The majority of pts had A and Xe studies in conjunction with P scans; 26 had A and Kr studies. All A studies were comprised of multiple 100K ct views performed prior to P scanning. Conventional Xe or Kr studies were then performed in conjunction with a multiview P scan. The studies were later reviewed by four independent readers who evaluated 100 V-P studies (100 A-P pairs, 100 gas-P pairs) and the accompanying chest radiographs and determined the probability of PE as none, low, high, or nondiagnostic (NDX). The A scans showed central hot spots in 27% of pts, but poor peripheral penetration in only 5%. Prominent lower lobe deposition was seen in 19 of the 66 pts who inhaled A upright, but in none who inhaled in the supine position. The A-P and gas-P scans were either both diagnostic or both NDX 82% of the time. There were 77% agreement between probability categories for A-P and Kr-P studies, and 74% agreement with Xe-P. These results were better than the inter-observer agreement for gas-P studies alone. Angiography revealed that 3 A-P studies were true negatives, 3 were true positives (pos), and one was a false pos (also pos by gas-P). The results suggest that commercially available DTPA aerosols provide comparable results to gas-P studies in pts with suspected PE.

  12. Hepatic uptake of technetium-99m diphosphonate in thalassemia major

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, H.M.; Smith, R.

    1986-02-01

    Two cases of thalassemia major are presented in which bone scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse hepatic uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate. Although abnormal splenic and renal uptake of Tc-99m phosphates has been reported in patients with thalassemia major, hepatic uptake has not been reported previously. This scintigraphic finding is presumably due to increased iron deposition in the liver, resulting from increased iron turnover and retention in these patients and from multiple previous blood transfusions.

  13. Technetium 99m scan in acute scrotal lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Eshghi, M.; Silver, L.; Smith, A.D.

    1987-12-01

    Scrotal scintigraphy is nearly 100 per cent accurate in identifying testicular torsion and can distinguish that condition, which requires an operation, from torsion of testicular appendages, which often can be treated nonoperatively. The technique is 90 per cent accurate in distinguishing epididymo-orchitis, epididymitis, and testicular abscess and is valuable in the follow-up of testicular torsion or inflammation. It can screen patients for varicocele, identifying possible candidates for spermatic venography and embolization. However, it has nothing to offer in the differential diagnosis of painless testicular masses.

  14. Multifocal pyomyositis. Diagnosis on technetium-99m MDP bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Howman-Giles, R.; McCauley, D.; Brown, J.

    1984-03-01

    Pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of skeletal muscle occurring in the absence of trauma or a primary site of infection. The condition is rare in temperate climates. The diagnosis is often difficult to make and frequently delayed since the suppurative process is confined by the tense overlying muscle and fascia. The bone scan is very useful in differentiating underlying osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. An 11-year-old boy is described who presented with multifocal pyomyositis in the elbow region and thigh. Lateral blood pool images suggested infection with liquefaction within the muscles without evidence of osteomyelitis.

  15. Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

  16. Technetium-99m MDP vs technetium-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate. A clinical comparison in various pathologic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Godart, G.; Durez, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Abramovici, J.; Robience, Y.

    1986-02-01

    The performance of Tc-99m MDP vs Tc-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) was evaluated in 20 patients with various skeletal bone diseases. Each patient was investigated twice, with an interval of three days between studies and using the same protocol, hence each case served as its own control. The results were: In a subjective interpretation by five independent and experienced investigators, the difference between agents was small, yet in favor of MDP. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the pooled results in 74.4% of all cases shows a higher bone lesion to normal bone ratio (BL/NB), and in 79.3% of all cases, a better bone lesion to soft tissue ratio (BL/ST) with Tc-99m MDP. When considering pathology types separately, the BL/NB ratio of Tc-99m MDP was 17.7% higher than the one of Tc-99m DPD in metastases, 9.5% higher in rheumatoid arthritis, 2.8% higher in metabolic diseases, and 24% higher in bone fractures. Student's paired t test on the pooled BL/NB ratios shows a difference of 15.5% for Tc-99m MDP, significant at P = 0.00155. The overall results of our study favor Tc-99m MDP.

  17. Splenic uptake of both technetium-99m diphosphonate and technetium-99m sulfur colloid in sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, L.L.; Brittin, G.M. )

    1989-08-01

    A 19-year-old black woman with sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia had experienced more than 100 hospital admissions for sickle cell crisis and aseptic necrosis of both femoral heads. Her spleen was enlarged threefold and accumulated both radiocolloid and bone-seeking agent on two occasions, demonstrating an exception to the rule in sickle cell anemia that spleens that take up bone-seeking agents demonstrate functional asplenia. In the context of fever, left upper quadrant pain, and splenomegaly, the pattern of calcification in the patient's spleen as revealed in ultrasound and CT studies suggested possible abscess and led to unnecessary splenectomy. The nuclear medicine studies did not support this diagnosis. Nuclear medicine physicians should not be misled by splenic findings of sickle cell thalassemia (and possibly of other heterozygous sickle cell disorders) that differ from those of the more familiar homozygous sickle cell anemia.

  18. Diagnosis of bone infection by complementary role of technetium-99m MDP and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime-leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zahrani, Abdullah; El-Saban, Khaled; Al-Sakhri, Hijji

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Valuate complementary role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan and 99mTechnetium hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone infection. Patients and Methods: Ninety one sites suspected to have bone infection were divided in to two groups: Group I 49 sites with current endo-prothesis; and group II 42 sites with no prosthesis. All patients were subjected to serial images of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte (99mTc-white blood cells (WBCs)), triple phase bone scan (99mTc-MDP) and plain X-ray, in addition to clinical and bacteriological assessment, together with follow-up. Results: The overall sensitivity (Sn) was found to be 34.9%, 95.4%, and 86% for plain X-ray, 99mTc-MDP, and 99mTc-WBCs respectively. Concerning specificity (Sp) was found to be 47.9%, 45.8%, and 91.7% respectively for the three imaging modalities. 99mTc-WBCs showed better Sn, Sp, and accuracy in group I (95%, 93.1% and 93.9%, respectively) compared to 40%, 41.4%, and 40.8% for plain X-ray and 90%, 62%, and 73.5% respectively for 99mTc-MDP. On the other hand, 99mTc-MDP proved to have best Sn 100% versus 78.3% and 30.4% for 99mTc-WBCs and plain X-ray respectively. Yet, Sp and accuracy was found to best for 99mTc-WBCs (89.5% and 83.3% respectively) compared to 57.9% and 42.9% for plain X-ray and 21.1% and 64.3% for 99mTc-MDP. Conclusion: Combined imaging with 99mTc-WBCs and 99mTc-MDP proved to be effective in early detection of bone infection in the presence or absence of prosthesis. PMID:23919069

  19. Potential Role of Tc-99m DTPA Diuretic Renal Scan in the Diagnosis of Calyceal Diverticulum in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Shih, Shin-Lin; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) diuretic scan to diagnose calyceal diverticulum (CD). From January 2000 to June 2014, children with evidence of renal cystic lesions of undetermined diagnosis on ultrasound were enrolled. Computed tomography urography (CTU) and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic scan were performed to characterize the precise anatomy. The diagnosis of CD depended on visualization of a renal cystic lesion with filling of contrast material or radiotracer from the collecting system on CTU or diuretic renal scan. Children who had positive findings of CD on 1 or both imaging studies were selected and analyzed. Both CTU and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan were performed in 39 children. A total of 9 (23.1 %) children with CD were diagnosed. All 9 children had positive diagnosis of CD on diuretic renal scan. Only 6 (66.7%) children could be diagnosed by CTU, and CD was missed by CTU in 3 subjects. The differential renal functions in patients with CD were 46% to 55%. The time of radiotracer appearance in the CD ranged from the 8th to the 24th minute. Seven patients had persistent accumulation of radiotracer in their CD at the end of the study. Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan seems to be more sensitive than CTU in diagnosing CD. The possible reasons of higher sensitivity are discussed. Additional advantages that Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan provides include the following: continuous monitoring, less radiation doses, and information on renal function, making it an attractive alternative to CTU for diagnosis of CD.

  20. Synthesis of a novel antiestrogen radioligand (99mTc-TOR-DTPA).

    PubMed

    Yurt, Ayfer; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut B; Unak, Perihan; Yolcular, Seniha; Acar, Cigdem; Enginar, Huseyin

    2009-12-01

    This study was aimed at developing a hydrophilic radioligand as an antiestrogen drug derivative to be used for imaging breast tumors. Toremifene [TOR; 4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-1-(4-(2-(N,N-di-methylamino)ethoxy)phenyl)-1-butene, as citrate salt] was selected as the starting material to be derived, since it has been used extensively as an antiestrogen drug for treatment and prevention of human breast cancer. An antiestrogen drug derivative, TOR attached to diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), was synthesized by two experimental treatments, including a purification and a reaction step. We described the synthesis of this TOR derivative, (3Z)-4-{4-[2-(dimethylamino) ethoxy] phenyl}-3,4-diphenylbut-3-en-1-ylN,N-bis[2-(2,6-dioxomorpholin-4-yl)ethyl]glycinate (TOR-DTPA), in detail. Mass spectroscopy confirmed the expected structures. TOR-DTPA was labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), using stannous chloride (SnCl(2)) as the reducing agent. Biodistribution studies were performed on female Albino Wistar rats. Quality controls, radiochemical yield, and stability studies were done utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography, radioelectrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography, and thin-layer radiochromatography methods. The synthesized compound was found to be hydrophilic and anionic, with high stability for the duration of the testing period in vitro. The results indicated that the radiolabeled compound has estrogen-receptor specificity, especially for the breast tissue. It is highly possible that this compound could be used for imaging breast tumors as a novel technetium-labeled hydrophilic estrogen derivative radioligand. PMID:20025551

  1. Excretion of iodine-123-hippuran, technetium-99m-red blood cells, and technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin into breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, M.R.; Prescott, M.C.; Herman, K.J. )

    1990-06-01

    The amount of radioactivity excreted in breast milk following three different nuclear medicine procedures on twelve nursing mothers has been measured. Some of this information has already been incorporated into the latest guidelines on suspension of feeding after maternal radiopharmaceutical administration. The overall radiation dose that the patients' babies would have sustained had breast feeding not been interrupted has been estimated as an effective dose equivalent. A model has been developed to describe the relationship between clearance of activity from the milk, time between expressions, and the fraction of milk expressed. Some simple guidance is given on calculation of suitable interruption times for any individual mother from counts on her milk samples.

  2. Production of Molybdenum-99 by (n, ) activation and direct separation of Technetium-99m without column generator fabrication: A viable strategy for enhanced availability of technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp Jr, Russ F; Pillai, M R A

    2012-01-01

    Fission-produced 99Mo (F 99Mo) is traditionally used for fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc adsorption-type column generators. In this paper, several emerging strategies that are being pursued or have been suggested to overcome the continuing shortages of F 99Mo are discussed. To provide an alternative source of 99Mo, the principal focus of this analysis is a detailed discussion of the advantages and strategies for enhanced production of low-specific-activity 99Mo (LSA 99Mo) by direct activation of molybdenum targets in nuclear reactors. In order to enhance the availability of 99Mo, development of an increased network of reactors for production of LSA 99Mo is described, as well as utilization of currently unused reactors. The time spent in manufacturing of 99Mo/99mTc column generators is responsible for the loss of more than 50% of F99Mo produced. Hence, the authors propose a paradigm shift in the use of 99Mo by recovering clinical-grade 99mTc from 99Mo solution as an alternative to use of 99Mo/99mTc column generators, thereby avoiding substantial decreased availability of 99Mo from radioactive decay. Implementation of the suggested strategies would be expected to increase availability of 99mTc to the clinical user community by several folds. Additional important advantages of the use of LSA 99Mo include precluding the need for fission product waste management and phasing out the need for high- and low-enriched uranium as target materials for medical radioisotope production.

  3. Comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO and technetium-99m-ECD cerebral SPECT images in Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dyck, C.H. van; Lin, C.H.; Smith, E.O.

    1996-11-01

    SPECT has shown increasing promise as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer`s disease (AD). Recently, a new SPECT brain perfusion agent, {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) has emerged with purported advantages in image quality over the established tracer, {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in discriminating patients with AD form control subjects. 51 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Gallbladder visualization during technetium-99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy for gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1985-12-01

    Localization of radionuclide activity in the gallbladder was seen on delayed views following injection of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells for gastrointestinal bleeding in five patients. The mechanism for this unusual finding probably relates to labeling of heme, the biochemical precursor of bilirubin. All patients had had prior transfusions. All but one had severe renal impairment, probably an important predisposing factor.

  5. Value of obtaining renal images following brain scintigraphy with technetium-99m glucoheptonate

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Rodriguez, A.A.; Spicer, M.J.; Jackson, R.E.; Byrd, B.F.; Turnbull, G.L.

    1986-08-01

    The value of adding an extra view of the kidneys immediately following brain imaging with Tc-99m glucoheptonate was investigated in a two-year retrospective study at our institution. Between October 1982 and October 1984, 561 individuals underwent Tc-99m glucoheptonate brain imaging with the added renal view. Twenty-nine of these individuals (5.2%) demonstrated renal abnormalities. The abnormal renal findings were clinically correlated in 24 of these persons. Sixteen (67%) of these 24 individuals were unaware of any renal abnormality. Useful information can be obtained from renal images incidental to brain imaging at no added expense or radiation exposure to the patient, and at a minimal cost in time to the imaging clinic.

  6. Protein binding studies of technetium-99m-labeled phosphine and isocyanide cationic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Zanelli, G.D.; Cook, N.; Lahiri, A.; Ellison, D.; Webbon, P.; Woolley, G.

    1988-01-01

    Most /sup 99m/Tc/phosphine/isocyanide complexes synthesized to date show preferential uptake by the myocardium of many animal species but not in man. A new complex has been synthesized, (/sup 99m/Tc(DEPE)2(CNR)2), +(DEPIC), where R = t - butyl isocyanide, which in three animal species images the myocardium very well, but in humans it remains primarily in the blood pool. One reason for the difference in the behavior of these complexes in different species could be the characteristics of their binding to plasma proteins. The protein binding characteristics of DEPIC and two other well-known complexes have therefore been studied. Whereas the other complexes bind nonspecifically to many proteins both in animal and human plasma, DEPIC binds almost exclusively to prealbumin in humans but nonspecifically to other proteins in the rabbit. The binding sites in human plasma appear to be those normally occupied by thyroxine on the prealbumin tetramer and these can be blocked by sodium salicylate.

  7. New technetium-99m generator technologies utilizing polyethylene glycol-based aqueous biphasic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; Bond, A.H.; Zhang, Jianhua; Horwitz, P.

    1995-12-31

    Two new schemes for TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}/MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} separations from OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} media using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) have been developed. The two most important salt solutions in current {sup 99m}Tc-generator technologies, OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, also salt out PEG to form ABS. In liquid/liquid PEG- ABS, pertechnetate can be separated from molybdate with separation factors as high as 10,000. Stripping is accomplished by reduction of the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and back extraction into a salt solution. the strip solution can be the salt of an imaging agent (e.g., Na{sub 4}HEDPA) and thus may, under the appropriate conditions, be injected directly into the human body. {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} can also be concentrated from a dilute load solution of {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} in NaOH using an aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic technique (ABEC). A rinse with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} assures that all {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} is removed from the column and this is confirmed by a rapid drop in {sup 99}Mo activity by the fourth free column volume (fcv) of rinse. The {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} is then eluted with water. This chromatographic separation affords 94% of the {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} activity in 5 fcv, with the y spectrum showing less than 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of the original {sup 99}Mo activity.

  8. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

  9. Pattern of brain blood perfusion in tinnitus patients using technetium-99m SPECT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudian, Saeid; Farhadi, Mohammad; Gholami, Saeid; Saddadi, Fariba; Karimian, Ali Reza; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Ghoreyshi, Esmaeel; Ahmadizadeh, Majid; Lenarz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Tinnitus is associated with an increased activity in central auditory system as demonstrated by neuroimaging studies. Brain perfusion scanning using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was done to understand the pattern of brain blood perfusion of tinnitus subjects and find the areas which are mostly abnormal in these patients. Materials and Methods: A number of 122 patients with tinnitus were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. They underwent SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain, and the images were fused to find the regions with abnormal perfusion. Results: SPECT scan results were abnormal in 101 patients (83%). Most patients had bilateral abnormal perfusion (N = 65, 53.3%), and most subjects had abnormality in middle-temporal gyrus (N = 83, 68%) and temporoparietal cortex (N = 46, 37.7%). Patients with multifocal involvement had the least mean age than other 2 groups (patients with no abnormality and unifocal abnormality) (P value = 0.045). Conclusions: Brain blood perfusion pattern differs in patient with tinnitus than others. These patients have brain perfusion abnormality, mostly in auditory gyrus (middle temporal) and associative cortex (temporoparietal cortex). Multifocal abnormalities might be due to more cognitive and emotional brain centers involvement due to tinnitus or more stress and anxiety of tinnitus in the young patients. PMID:23267375

  10. Cationic technetium-99m complexes of N-substituted pyridoxal derivatives as renal function agents

    SciTech Connect

    Karube, Yoshiharu; Iwamoto, Koji; Takata, Jiro

    1994-10-01

    New cationic technetium-chelating agents containing a pyridinium group have been synthesized and evaluated as potential renal radiopharmaceuticals. The pyridinium compounds used in the study are N-methyl pyridoxal chloride, N-ethyl pyridoxal chloride, N-propyl pyridoxal chloride, 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-4-formylpyridinium chloride, 1-methyl-2-formyl-3-hydroxpyridinium chloride and the Schiff`s bases of N-methyl pyridoxal chloride with amino acid, amino acid ester and amino acid amide. Complexes of these chelating agents with {sup 22m}Tc were prepared using a Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} or a SnCl{sub 2} solution as a reducing agent. The purity of the {sup 99m}Tc complexes was determined by paper electrophoresis in 0.1 Mtris buffer. Electrophoresis indicates slightly positive-charged species. The log P values of these complexes showed a hydrophilic nature. Urinary excretion of the {sup 99m}Tc N-alkylated pyridoxal derivatives, {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG3) and {sup 131}I-o-iodohippurate were determined in mice and rats at different time intervals. In a rat model, the pyridoxal-derived {sup 99m}Tc complexes are rapidly excreted in urine and provide clear renal scintigrams. Hepatobiliary excretion was negligible, reducing scan interference from the intestines. Total clearances were lower than that of {sup 131}I-hippurate and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3. The rate of urinary clearance of the new tracers was not significantly faster than {sup 99m}Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the inhibitor N{sup 1}-methylnicotinamide had only a minimal effect on the renal behavior. Though the new tracers have cationic properties, the pyridinium group did not contribute largely to the excretion of active transport. 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  12. Technetium-99m-exametazine: Pitfalls in preparation and quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Karesh, S.M. )

    1989-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently approved the drug exametazine (Cretec or hexamethylenepropylene-amineoxime) for use in preparation of a {sup 99m}Tc-chelate suitable for human use. This radiopharmaceutical is indicated for detection of altered regional cerebral perfusion in patients with stoke. Unlike the majority of radiopharmaceuticals containing stannous ion (Sn{sup 2+}), which can be prepared by addition of varying volumes and activities of ({sup 99m}Tc)pertechnetate, successful preparation of {sup 99m}Tc-exametazime requires careful control of both volume and activity. The necessity for careful control of the final chemical concentration and radioconcentration is based on the minimal amount of Sn{sup 2+} ion present.

  13. Feasibility study of accelerator based production of molybdenum-99/technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchelidze, Lali

    Stability of supply in the medical radioisotope market is now of overriding importance. One of the most commonly used radioisotopes is 99mTc, which is produced from 99Mo decay. 99Mo has been produced in nuclear reactors before, however these reactors are aging and have been not reliable lately and there is a great need to find an alternative for the production. In the current project, photo-neutron production of 99Mo/ 99mTc was investigated. An electron linear accelerator at the Idaho Accelerator Center was used to study the feasibility of 99mTc production using bremsstrahlung photon beams from the accelerator. The kinematic recoil process that occurs with every photo nuclear reaction was exploited. With the emission of a neutron in a photo nuclear reaction, the parent nucleus recoils in order to conserve momentum. This recoil can be used to separate 99Mo from 100Mo, at which point one has a very pure and very high specific activity source of 99Mo. We verified the photo-neutron production rates for 99Mo. Also, the kinematic recoil process was modeled and separation efficiencies were measured experimentally. We concluded that it is feasible to produce high 99Mo activities, however nano-particles of molybdenum have to be used and a clean nano-particle separation method has to be achieved.

  14. Age-related change of technetium-99m-HMDP distribution in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Kigami, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Ohnishi, Hideo

    1996-05-01

    To understand age-related changes of whole-body and regional skeletal metabolism, it is important to investigate the mechanisms of age-related bone loss and to develop suitable treatments for it. Bone biopsies show metabolism of the particular site examined while biochemical markers for bone metabolism reflect total skeletal metabolis. Bone scintigraphy is a convenient and simple way to analyze whole-body and regional skeletal metabolism. We attempted to study and understand age-related changes in bone metabolism by quantifying the bone scan and correlating it with biochemical bone metabolic markers. The whole-body skeletal uptake (WBSU) and whole-body skeletal tracer distribution pattern were studied in men and women by bone scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-hydroxy-methane-diphosphonate (HMDP). Bone scans were performed using a standard protocol and quantified by setting regions of interest (ROIs) on selected regions. WBSU and the skeletal distribution pattern were compared with simultaneously obtained serum biochemical markers. WBSU showed an increase with age in both sexes, but in women, uptake in the head and legs increased more relatively than in the thoracic region, while in men no such tendency was observed. Increase of WBSU and relative increase of uptakes in the head demonstrated a weak correlation with the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and type 1 collagen metabolites. These results show an age-related increase of skeletal turnover and sex-dependent regional skeletal metabolism. The age-related changes seen in bone scintigrams might be a sign of progressive bone loss, reflecting changes in local bone matabolism. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate uptake in the fetal skeleton at 30 weeks gestation

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, A.F.; Budd, R.S.; Yang, C.

    1994-08-01

    Retention of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the fetal skeleton and placenta at 30 and 32 wk gestation was observed during bone scan examination of the maternal skeleton for staging of malignant tumors. The implications and significance of these observations are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Abdominal varices mimicking an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage during technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Byrd, B.F.; Berger, D.E.; Turnbull, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    Abdominal varices consisting of a caput medusae and dilated mesenteric veins resulted in pooling of Tc-99m tagged red blood cells (RBC) within these dilated vessels in a 57-year-old man with severe Laennec's cirrhosis. The atypical radiotracer localization within the abdomen mimicked an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Clinical suspicion and careful evaluation of scintigraphic gastrointestinal bleeding studies will avoid false-positive interpretations.

  17. Technetium-99m labeled RBC imaging in gastrointestinal bleeding from gastric leiomyoma

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, U.A.; Jhingran, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging is becoming increasingly useful in detecting gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding sites. A patient is presented who had massive GI bleeding from an unsuspected gastric leiomyoma in whom a Tc-99m sulfur colloid GI bleed image was negative. The Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging done on the day after sulfur colloid imaging revealed increased gastric activity due to active bleeding from an intragastric leiomyoma. Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging helped in early detection of the bleeding site resulting in its successful treatment. This experience also reinforces the assertion that Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging may be more helpful than Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging in patients with upper GI or intermittent bleeding.

  18. Investigations of ascorbate for direct labeling of antibodies with technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Hnatowich, D.J.; Winnard, P. Jr.; Virzi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, a method for the direct labeling of antibodies with {sup 99m}Tc was described in which sulfhydryls were reportedly generated by reduction of antibody disulfides with ascorbic acid. Thereafter, these proteins may be labeled at high efficiency with {sup 99m}Tc following reduction of pertechnetate with dithionite. This investigation was initially conducted to evaluate the mechanism of the increased stability towards cysteine challenge reported for the label and subsequently to determine the role of ascorbate in the labeling process. It was possible to reproduce the reported high labeling efficiencies by increasing the dithionite concentration fivefold, presumably because of variabilities among lots of commercial sodium dithionite. Despite success in labeling, it was not possible to confirm that antibody reduction followed the treatment with ascorbate. Using both Ellman`s reagent and 2,2`-dithiodipyridine as indicators, the authors were unable to detect sulfhydryls on one IgG antibody treated at ten times the suggested ascorbate-to-antibody molar ratio. It was estimated that the number of sulfhydryls generated could not have been more than 1% (dithiodipyridine) to 2% (Ellman`s). Furthermore, radiolabeling efficiencies for two IgG antibodies and stabilities of the label to cysteine challenge were unchanged when the ascorbate was eliminated. The number of sulfhydryls generated by treatment of the antibody with dithionite at 1-2 times the concentration required for adequate labeling was about 1% (dithiodipyridine) to 5% (Ellman`s). For the conditions of this investigation and for the antibodies employed, ascorbate apparently played no more than a minor role at best in the labeling process. If antibody reduction occurred, this most likely was a result of residual dithionite presented to the protein along with the reduced {sup 99m}Tc. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy for the detection of acute myocardial infarction. How useful is it

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, A.G.; Berger, B.C.; Shin, Y.W.; Park, C.H.; Madsen, M.T.

    1985-09-01

    To evaluate the contribution of Tc-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy (TPS) on the overall management of patients suspected of having acute myocardial infarction (AMI), hospital records of 58 consecutive patients who underwent TPS, were evaluated in depth. The results indicate that TPS was essential for the diagnosis of AMI in 16% of the patients. TPS was most rewarding in perioperative patients and in patients with borderline or uninterpretable electrocardiographic and enzyme changes. Also, in some cases, TPS was able to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of AMI prior to the confirmation by serial electrocardiograms (ECG) and serial enzyme changes. TPS was less rewarding in patients with clinically low index of suspicion for AMI. It may also be confusing in patients with high clinical likelihood of AMI and a history of prior myocardial infarction because of the possibility of persistently positive TPS in some of these patients. Considering the limitations of ECGs, the cardiac enzymes, and atypical clinical presentations in the patient population we evaluated, TPS appears to be fairly accurate when the scintigraphic findings are compared with the final diagnosis at the time of discharge from the hospital.

  20. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in upper extremity deep venous thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, A.M.; Turbiner, E.H.

    1987-06-01

    The efficacy of Tc-99m RBC venography has been demonstrated with respect to the study of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. A case is presented where Tc-99m RBC venography was used to study the upper as well as lower extremities in a patient with upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) who was found to have pulmonary embolism.

  1. Failure to visualize acutely injured kidneys with technetium-99m DMSA does not preclude recoverable function

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Akiya, F.; Gregory, M.C.

    1986-03-01

    A 35-yr-old patient developed severe acute tubular necrosis requiring hemodialysis. A (99mTc)dimercaptosuccinic acid scan of the kidneys showed no renal uptake at 4 or 24 hr, but the patient subsequently recovered normal renal function as judged by a normal serum creatinine. Based on this case report and a review of the literature, one cannot assume irreversible loss of function in patients with acute renal failure, based on the absence of radiopharmaceutical uptake by the kidneys.

  2. Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA) liver imaging: Application in liver transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, E.S.; Ward, R.E.; Vera, D.R.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-NGA is a new liver imaging agent which binds to hepatic binding protein (HBP), a hepatocyte-specific membrane receptor. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of Tc-NGA imaging in liver transplantation. The molar Tc-NGA dose was standardized according to patient weight (0.7 nmole/kg). After a 30 minute dynamic imaging study (5 mCi, IV), kinetic analysis of time activity data (heart, liver), provided values for receptor concentration, (HBP), and hepatic blood flow, Q. Eleven Tc-NGA imaging studies were performed in transplant candidates and 22 studies were performed in seven transplant recipients. Preservation damage was manifested by diffuse patchiness in tracer distribution which resolved during the following two weeks. Histologically proven, localized hepatic infarcts were demonstrated in three recipients. Lobar infarction was demonstrated in one recipient. Hepatic regeneration was later demonstrated in this patient after hepatic lobectomy. Hepatic blood flow was markedly decreased in the early postoperative period, but improved with time. Increased (HBP) was demonstrated with regeneration. Markedly decreased (HBP) and Q were obtained in several candidates who died awaiting transplantation. These studies indicate that TC-NGA liver imaging provides a valuable new means for: (1) evaluation of preservation damage, (2) early demonstration of hepatic infarction, (3) evaluation of hepatic rejection, and (4) selection of patients for hepatic transplantation.

  3. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in upper extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, A M; Turbiner, E H

    1987-06-01

    The efficacy of Tc-99m RBC venography has been demonstrated with respect to the study of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. A case is presented where Tc-99m RBC venography was used to study the upper as well as lower extremities in a patient with upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) who was found to have pulmonary embolism. PMID:3595023

  4. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography of the lower limb in symptomatic pulmonary embolization.

    PubMed

    Lisbona, R; Rush, C; Lepanto, L

    1987-02-01

    Tc-99m RBC venography of the legs was obtained in 42 patients with primary pulmonary symptomatology and a diagnosis of pulmonary embolization. In 31 of these 42 patients (74%), the nuclear venogram revealed the presence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a source of embolization. Of the 31 patients with leg DVT documented by venography, 13 (42%) showed thrombosis confined to the calf. Clinical findings suggested that only 20 of the 31 patients (65%) with DVT could have harboured a source of embolization in the legs. Tc-99m RBC venography is a useful noninvasive test for the global and comprehensive assessment of patients with symptomatic pulmonary embolization. PMID:3829541

  5. Kinetic sensitivity of a receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical: Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, D.R.; Woodle, E.S.; Stadalnik, R.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Kinetic sensitivity is the ability of a physiochemical parameter to alter the time-activity curve of a radiotracer. The kinetic sensitivity of liver and blood time-activity data resulting from a single bolus injection of ({sup 99m}Tc)galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (( Tc)NGA) into healthy pigs was examined. Three parameters, hepatic plasma flow scaled as flow per plasma volume, ligand-receptor affinity, and total receptor concentration, were tested using (Tc)NGA injections of various molar doses and affinities. Simultaneous measurements of plasma volume (iodine-125 human serum albumin dilution), and hepatic plasma flow (indocyanine green extraction) were performed during 12 (Tc)NGA studies. Paired data sets demonstrated differences (P(chi v2) less than 0.01) in liver and blood time-activity curves in response to changes in each of the tested parameters. We conclude that the (Tc)NGA radiopharmacokinetic system is therefore sensitive to hepatic plasma flow, ligand-receptor affinity, and receptor concentration. In vivo demonstration of kinetic sensitivity permits delineation of the physiologic parameters that determine the biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical. This delineation is a prerequisite to a valid analytic assessment of receptor biochemistry via kinetic modeling.

  6. Technetium-99m colloidal bismuth subcitrate: A novel method for the evaluation of peptic ulcer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, T.E.; Lyons, K.P.; Raiszadeh, M.; Fardi, M.; Snider, P.

    1984-01-01

    The therapeutic agent colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) selectively binds to peptic ulcers. The authors have developed a method for labeling this agent with Tc-99m. Chromatographic quality control studies of the agent on silica gel coated strips (ITLC-SG) showed that more than 97% of Tc-99m was bound to CBS. During in-vitro stability testing, the radio-label was stable for a minimum of 6 hours. The chromatographic findings are in agreement with the in-vivo distribution of the agent which showed no significant radioactivity in thyroid, kidneys, liver, or bladder. The resulting Tc-99m-CBS solution is administered orally in drinking water. Preliminary animal studies have been conducted on 5 adult 3 kg New Zealand rabbits sedated with 50 mg Ketamine I.M. The rabbits were intubated with I.V. tubing advanced to the stomach. They were given a gastric erosive suspension of 600-1000 mg/kg of pulverized ASA in 10 cc tap water. Four hours later they were given 3-4 mCi of the radiotracer in a 5 cc volume of water. Serial in-vivo images were obtained for 2 hours which included thyroid, abdomen, and urinary bladder. Next the stomachs were excised, opened along the greater curvature, imaged, vigorously washed and reimaged. All 5 rabbits showed avid localized binding of radiotracer which remained fixed even with vigorous washing. Areas of normal appearing mucosa were relatively devoid of radiotracer. This new compound may have significant clinical usefulness in the detection of peptic ulcer disease. In addition, such a non-invasive technique, carrying none of the risks or discomfort of endoscopy could also find application in the evaluation of the response to therapy.

  7. Imaging of glutathione localization in brain with technetium-99M meso-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Toyama, H.; Oda, K.

    1995-05-01

    Previous studies have shown decreasing [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake in accordance with glutathione (GSH) content in diethyl, maleate (DEM) treated mice brain. In order to elucidate the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO in brain and to visualize the regional localization of GSH in the brain with [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO, the relationship between the tissue GSH content and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO was studied in rats and rabbits. Increasing pre-load of DEM (550 mg/kg body weight), an agent to reduce GSH content by glutathione transferase, led to a decrease in GSH (control 1.972{plus_minus}0.017 vs DEM 1.138{plus_minus}0.106 mM) and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO to half of the control in the rat brain (control 0.281{plus_minus}0.024 vs DEM 0.153 {plus_minus} 0.009 % dose/g). On the other hand, the DEM did not decrease GSH or the uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO in the rabbit brain, in which glutathione transferase activity is very low. These results were also demonstrated by images with pin-hole collimated gamma camera. The uptake of [Tc-99m] meso showed variations in the regional distribution, but the d,l-isomer was uniform. [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake was well correlated with GSH content in mice brain regions (r=0.800, p<0.02), whereas [Tc-99m]d,l-HM-PAO was not (r=0.017, p>0.5). Both [Tc-99m] mesa HM-PAO uptake and GSH content were especially high at cerebellum (Uptake: 2.598{plus_minus}0.256 % dose/g. GSH: 2.372{plus_minus}0.107 mM) as compared to other areas (Uptake;cerebral cortex 1.797{plus_minus}0.100 brain stem 1.607 {plus_minus}0.112 % dose/g. GSH: cerebral cortex 1.635{plus_minus}0.142 brain stem 1.478{plus_minus}0.141 mM).

  8. Technetium-99m-sulfur colloid identification of a mediastinal mass: Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, B.; Heyman, S.; Velchik, M.G. )

    1989-09-01

    The authors present a case of an 8-yr-old boy who had a tracheoesophageal fistula repaired shortly after birth. At that time, a right posterior chest mass was noted. Since he remained asymptomatic and all other studies were negative, he was followed with serial chest x-rays. A question arose as to whether the mass was enlarging out of proportion to the growth of the thorax, and the etiology of the mass was sought. A liver-spleen scan was performed, which demonstrated liver parenchyma in the area of the mass noted on chest x-ray. Diaphragmatic herniations (congenital or traumatic) should always be considered whenever mediastinal masses are noted on chest x-ray.

  9. Accumulation of iodine-131 and technetium-99m pertechnetate in thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, M.; Suzuki, S.; Sadahiro, S.; Kubouchi, K.; Ohmura, T.; Tsumura, O.; Akatsuka, S.

    1988-04-01

    Carcinoma of the thyroid is usually delineated as a cold defect on images with radioiodine and Tc-99m pertechnetate. However, several cases that showed an accumulation of Tc-99m pertechnetate in thyroid carcinoma or in their metastases, but did not show any accumulation of radioiodine, have been reported. This paper presents a rare case of an advanced follicular adenocarcinoma of the thyroid that accumulated both Tc-99m pertechnetate and I-131. In this 41-year-old male patient, there were two primary foci in the thyroid; one occupied the whole left lobe with extension to the mediastinum and the other located in the lower part of the right lobe. In addition, there was a lymph node metastasis in the upper mediastinum adjacent to the left lobe. On images with both I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate, the tumor in the left lobe and the metastatic lymph node were delineated, but the tumor in the right lobe was not. Accumulation of Tc-99m pertechnetate in the lower part of the tumor of the left lobe was more distinct than that of I-131. Therefore, it is considered that despite similar histologic findings the trapping ability of the cancerous tissue differed from area to area.

  10. Imaging of inflammatory arthritis with technetium-99m-labeled IgG

    SciTech Connect

    Breedveld, F.C.; van Kroonenburgh, M.J.; Camps, J.A.; Feitsma, H.I.; Markusse, H.M.; Pauwels, E.K. )

    1989-12-01

    The accumulation of nonspecific polyclonal human immunoglobulin G (IgG) radiolabeled with 99mTc was compared to that of (99mTc)albumin and (99mTc)nanocolloid in rats with collagen induced arthritis. Serial scintigrams were acquired directly, 4 and 24 hr after injection. A clearly discernable image of the site of synovitis was seen with (99mTc)IgG as early as 4 hr postinjection. The relative intensity of the inflammatory lesion was maximal at 24 hr. Discrimination between arthritic and nonarthritic joints as well as correlations between the relative intensity of the arthritic joint and clinical indices of joint inflammation were superior with IgG compared to albumin or nanocolloid. These studies show that localization and severity of inflammatory joint disease can be detected with radiolabeled nonspecific IgG.

  11. Myocardial uptake and kinetic properties of technetium-99m-Q3 in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gerson, M.C.; Millard, R.W.; McGoron, A.J.

    1994-10-01

    We postulated that {sup 99m}Tc-Q3, a cationic imaging agent, produces myocardial activity related to myocardial blood flow during myocardial ischemia and pharmacologic coronary artery vasodilation, and shows little or no myocardial redistribution over 4 hr after intravenous injection. In six Group 1 dogs, the chest was opened, the left circumflex coronary artery was acutely ligated, and dipyridamole (0.32, 0.56 or 0.84 mg/kg) was infused into the right atrium, followed by 10 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-Q3. Myocardial blood flow was measured by radiolabeled microspheres. The animals were euthanized and 357 myocardial samples were assayed in a well counter for {sup 99m}Tc activity. One week later, radiolabeled microsphere activity was counted and myocardial blood flow calculated. In nine Group 2 dogs, a variable occluder was placed around the left circumflex coronary artery and an ischemic level of circumflex blood flow was maintained constant over 4 hr as measured by an ultrasonic flow meter. Dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg) was then infused into the right atrium followed by 10mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-Q3. Gamma camera images were acquired at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min following k{sup 99m}Tc-Q3 injection. Microsphere blood flow and endocardial biopsies (n - 6 dogs) were performed at 30, 60, 120 and 240 min following {sup 99m}TcQ3 injection. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Subcellular distribution of technetium-99m-N-NOEt in rat myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Uccelli, L.; Giganti, M.; Duatti, A. ||

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the subcellular distribution of bis(N-ethoxy N-ethyl)dithiocarbamato, nitrido technetium(V) ({sup 99m}TcN-NOEt) in rat heart by differential centrifugation techniques. Extraction of the activity from homogenized rat heart tissue was also performed to assess whether myocardial retention might induce changes in the chemical identity of the complex. Anesthetized rats were intravenously injected with {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt, the heart tissue was extracted and homogenized and tissue fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. The efficiency of organelle separation was determined by assay of each centrifugal fraction using enzyme markers. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and 5{prime}-nucleotidase (5{prime}ND) activities were assayed using standard spectrophotometric methods. Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was determined using a p-iodo-nitrotetrazolium-linked assay. Severe cell membrane and organelle disruption were induced by prolonging the homogenization time and their effect on the subcellular distribution of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt was studied. The activity from homogenized heart tissue was extracted using the Folch technique and analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Most of the {sup 99}TcN-NOEt activity was found to be associated with the hydrophobic components of the cell. No evidence of specific association of activity with the cytosolic and mitochondrial components was observed. Organelle and membrane cleavage did not cause release of activity into the cytosol. Approximately 90% of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt activity was extracted from ventricular tissue and the chemical nature of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt was not altered by uptake by myocardium. Cell membranes are the most apparent site of localization of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt in heart tissue. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Sequential technetium-99m/gallium-67 scintigraphic evaluation of subclinical osteomyelitis complicating fracture nonunion

    SciTech Connect

    Esterhai, J.; Alavi, A.; Mandell, G.A.; Brown, J.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with a history of post-traumatic fracture nonunion underwent sequential /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 67/Ga citrate scintigraphy in an attempt to differentiate between posttraumatic fracture nonunion and nonunion complicated by subclinical osteomyelitis. Neither technetium nor gallium studies alone nor in combination, with or without clinical correlation, could help delineate between fracture nonunion and nonunion complicated by subclinical osteomyelitis because of the increased technetium and gallium radioisotope uptake associated with the nonunion site.

  14. Uptake and clearance analysis of Technetium99m labelled iron oxide nanoparticles in a rabbit brain.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Saeed, M A; Shaari, Amiruddin; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Rashid, Khalid

    2015-06-01

    Nanoparticles as solid colloidal particles are extensively studied and used as anticancer drug delivery agents because of their physical properties. This current research aims to prepare water base suspension of uncoated iron oxide nanoparticles and their biodistribution study to different organs, especially the brain, by using a single photon emission computed tomography gamma camera. The water-based suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles was synthesised by a reformed version of the co-precipitation method and labelled with Tc99m for intravenous injection. The nanoparticles were injected without surface modification. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques were used for characterisation. Peaks of XRD and EDS indicate that the particles are magnetite and exist in aqueous suspension. The average diameter of iron oxide nanoparticles without any surface coating determined by TEM is 10 nm. These particles are capable of evading the reticuloendothelial system and can cross the blood-brain barrier in the rabbit. The labelling efficiency of iron oxide nanoparticles labelled with Tc99m is 85%, which is good for the biodistribution study. The sufficient amount of iron oxide nanoparticles concentration in the brain as compared with the surrounding soft tissues and their long blood retention time indicates that the water-based suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles may be an option for drug delivery into the brain. PMID:26023157

  15. Effect of technetium-99m on iodine-131 thyroid uptake measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, H.J.; Klopper, J.F.; Erlank, P.

    1985-06-01

    Following administration of 2.5-5.0 mCi(/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate, several hundred microcuries may be present in the necks of hyperthyroid patients after 6 hr. Coincidence summing of Tc-99m photons may disturb I-131 uptake measurements in such patients if an oral diagnostic dose of I-131 is administered immediately after completion of a (/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate scintigram. Using a lower discriminator level of 300 keV, false increases of 10%-50% may occur at 6 hr. The 24-hr uptake is also affected if an I-131 predose measurement is performed after administration of the Tc-99m dose. The authors have shown that these errors may be prevented by using a 1-mm lead filter in front of the scintillation detector. The attenuation of Tc-99m photons by the filter effectively eliminates summation pulses while it reduces the I-131 count rate by approximately 28%.

  16. Experimental study of radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose for tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. Radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B 1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 minutes. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D- glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3±0.15MBq and 1.07±0.6MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio- D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  17. Factors affecting eluation characteristics of sorption generators of technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Chernov, V. I.; Sadkin, V. L.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Rogov, A. S.; Nesterov, E. A.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Medvedeva, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the adsorbed mass of molybdenum on the width of eluation profiles of generators and the patterns of molybdenum distribution in the amount of chromatographic columns by scanning them on the germanium-gallium detector using collimating device are studied. The boundary conditions under which the maximum value of 99mTc yield from generators Ye = 1 are defined. After scanning the columns, it was found out that the degree of filling the columns with molybdenum Q and the value of its maximum adsorption depend naturally on the total weight of the adsorbed mass. In order to achieve the condition Ye = 1 the value of Q should be at least 85%.

  18. Technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scans in children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Laxer, R.M.; Allen, R.C.; Malleson, P.N.; Morrison, R.T.; Petty, R.E.

    1985-03-01

    Eleven children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy were investigated by technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate bone scanning. Eight of 12 scans demonstrated abnormal findings, four showing diffusely decreased uptake and four diffusely increased uptake of the radionuclide in the affected site. Three scans showed normal findings initially, as did one previously abnormal scan when repeated in the asymptomatic patient 6 months later. Diffusely abnormal findings can be helpful in the diagnosis of childhood reflex neurovascular dystrophy, but a normal scan does not exclude the diagnosis.

  19. Technetium-99m MDP imaging of acute radiation-induced inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, J.V.; Ziessman, H.A.

    1988-06-01

    Tc-99m MDP three-phase bone imaging demonstrated the acute hyperemic inflammatory soft tissue phase of radiation injury to the hand in a patient receiving radiation therapy to bone lesions of multiple myeloma.

  20. Technetium-99m red blood cell labeling in patients treated with doxorubicin

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, J.R.; Gerson, B.; Gulenchyn, K.Y.; Ruddy, T.D.; Davies, R.A.

    1988-03-01

    Radionuclide angiography is useful in monitoring cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin, but in vivo RBC labeling in these patients is believed to be poorer than that in general patients. The left ventricle-to-background activity ratio (R) was not significantly lower in patients treated with doxorubicin (3.24 +/- 1.15, N = 13) than in control patients (3.89 +/- 1.60, N = 14). With both modified in vivo and in vitro labeling, R was significantly improved in patients treated with doxorubicin (4.37 +/- 0.91, N = 8, and 4.37 +/- 1.22, N = 13, respectively). However, with the modified in vivo method, labeling efficiency remained a function of hematocrit, whereas the in vitro method removed this dependency. Both modified in vivo and in vitro labeling result in improved image quality over in vivo labeling in patients treated with doxorubicin, and the choice of method can be based on other factors.

  1. Plutonium-DTPA Model Application with USTUR Case 0269.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard; Miller, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A plutonium-DTPA (Pu-DTPA) biokinetic model was introduced that had originated from the study of a plutonium-contaminated wound. This work evaluated the extension of the Pu-DTPA model to United States Transuranium and Uranium Registry (USTUR) Case 0269 involving an acute inhalation of a plutonium nitrate aerosol. Chelation was administered intermittently for the first 7 mo as Ca-EDTA, mostly through intravenous injection, with Ca-DTPA treatments administered approximately 2.5 y post intake. Urine and fecal bioassays were collected following intake for several years. Tissues were collected and analyzed for plutonium content approximately 38 y post intake. This work employed the Pu-DTPA model for predicting the urine and fecal bioassay and final tissue quantity at autopsy. The Pu-DTPA model was integrated with two separate plutonium systemic models (i.e., ICRP Publication 67 and its proposed modification). This work illustrated that the Pu-DTPA model was useful for predicting urine and fecal bioassay, including final tissue quantity, 38 y post intake. PMID:26606066

  2. Pulmonary epithelial permeability after inhaling saline, distilled water ''fog'' and cold air

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, C.; Chamberlain, A.; Barber, B.; Higenbottam, T.

    1985-03-01

    It is recognized that hyperventilation of cold air and the inhalation of fine mists of distilled water provoke significant bronchoconstriction in the asthmatic individual, yet little is known as to how these provocations affect the structural integrity of the alveolar epithelial membrane. In 11 normal subjects, the following effects have been studied: cold air hyperventilation for three minutes, inhalation of 80 L of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water ''fog,'' and 80 L of isotonic saline ''fog'' on the half time clearance (T1/2) from the alveoli of technetium 99m diethylene triamine pentaacetate (DTPA), inhaled as an aerosol. The DTPA T1/2 provided a measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability.

  3. Effect of particle size of bronchodilator aerosols on lung distribution and pulmonary function in patients with chronic asthma.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D M; Solomon, M A; Tolfree, S E; Short, M; Spiro, S G

    1987-06-01

    The particle size of bronchodilator aerosols may be important in determining the site of deposition in the lung and their therapeutic effect. The distribution of aerosols (labelled with technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentacetic acid) of two different particle sizes has been studied by gamma camera imaging. The particles had mass median aerodynamic diameters (geometric standard deviations) of 1.4 (1.4) and 5.5 (2.3) micron, and they were administered from a jet nebuliser to eight patients with chronic severe stable asthma. There was no significant difference in peripheral lung deposition with the two aerosols in any patient. The bronchodilator effect of the two aerosols was determined from cumulative dose-response studies. To avoid large doses that might mask possible differences in effect due to aerosol size, small, precisely determined incremental amounts of salbutamol (25-250 micrograms total lung dose) were used. The two doses were given via a nebuliser on separate occasions and the bronchodilator response was measured from FEV1, forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow 30 minutes after each dose. Bronchodilatation was similar with the two aerosols at each dose of salbutamol. There was therefore no difference in distribution within the lung or any difference in bronchodilator effect between an aerosol of small (1.4 micron) particle size and an aerosol of 5.5 microns in patients with severe but stable asthma. PMID:3660305

  4. Distribution and clearance of radioactive aerosol on the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    McLean, J A; Bacon, J R; Mathews, K P; Thrall, J H; Banas, J M; Hedden, J; Bayne, N K

    1984-03-01

    The distribution and clearance of aerosolized radioactive technetium 99m pertechnate in physiologic buffered saline was analyzed in four human adult asymptomatic volunteers following delivery into one nostril in the same manner as for nasal challenge testing (i.e., 0.1 ml via a 251 DeVilbiss atomizer powered by a compressor delivering 0.10 +/- 0.01 gm/spray). For comparison, squeeze bottles and spray bottles from commercial sources, a 114 and a 127 DeVilbiss atomizer, and a pipette were employed. Lateral imagery via minicomputer processing was used to determine both distribution and clearance of the radiotracer. The counts after 1 minute were lower following pipette delivery than with the other devices. None yielded discernable , wide-spread distribution of aerosol throughout the nasal cavity. Following delivery from the 251 atomizer, mean clearance at 17 minutes was 60.0%. Similar clearance rates were obtained with the other spraying methods except for lower values with the squeeze bottle. Analysis of six hour clearance studies by linear regression showed a relatively rapid initial phase, which is probably due largely to mucociliary clearance, and a prolonged late phase related to the very slow disappearance of residual material located far anteriorly in the nose. Achieving good initial retention and rapid clearance of material deposited anteriorly in the nose are desirable attributes of devices employed for administering materials intranasally. PMID:6328631

  5. Preparation and Biodistribution of Technetium-99m-Labeled Bis- Misonidazole (MISO) as an Imaging Agent for Tumour Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Fan, Di; Qian, Jun; Zhang, Zhe; Zhu, Jianhua; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of tumour hypoxia is an important aspect in determining the course of tumour therapy. In this study, we developed a novel imaging agent, (99m)Tc-ethylenedicysteine-bis-misonidazole ((99m)Tc-EC-MISO), for diagnosing tumour hypoxia. We used 2-nitroimidazole as a reactant to synthesize the amino derivative of misonidazole (MISO) in the first step and then conjugated the di-amino derivative of MISO to the chelating agent ethylenedicysteine (EC) for labelling (99m)Tc in the second step. (99m)Tc-pertechnetate ((99m)TcO4-) was reduced by tin chloride (SnCl2) for radiolabeling. The radiochemical purity was up to 94%. Tissue biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging studies were conducted on subcutaneous gliomal tumour-bearing mice. The tumour-to-muscle ratio in the (99m)Tc-EC-MISO group increased with time, up to 4.6 at 4 h after injection. SPECT/CT imaging confirmed that the tumours could be visualized clearly with (99m)Tc-EC-MISO at 2 h. By introducing a second 2-nitroimidazole redox centre, an apparent hypoxic accumulation of this novel (99m)Tc-labeled imaging agent in the tumour was observed. PMID:25938423

  6. Comparison of personnel radiation dosimetry from myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: Technetium-99m-sestamibi versus thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, C.M.; Dworkin, H.J. )

    1993-07-01

    The whole-body and hand radiation doses to our technical staff were retrospectively compared for three distinct 4-mo periods when either 201TI or 99mTc-sestamibi were exclusively used for stress myocardial perfusion imaging. During the initial 4-mo period when 99mTc-sestamibi replaced 201TI, the mean whole-body film badge readings increased from 100 to 450 microSv/mo (p < 0.001) for nuclear medicine technologists (n = 10) and from 240 to 560 microSv/mo (p < 0.05) for radiopharmacy technologists (n = 2). Mean TLD readings to the hands also increased, although the differences were not statistically significant for the nuclear medicine technologists. Noninvasive cardiology staff were monitored with film badges and the mean whole-body film badge reading, when 99mTc-sestamibi was the imaging agent, was 360 microSv per month. Radiation reduction methods that decreased radiation exposure to staff were utilized. The most effective included the use of a lead face shield and lead lined storage container in the noninvasive imaging area, handling spills by shielding instead of decontamination and methods to reduce time spent in close proximity to the patient.

  7. Comparison of personnel radiation dosimetry from myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: technetium-99m-sestamibi versus thallium-201.

    PubMed

    Culver, C M; Dworkin, H J

    1993-07-01

    The whole-body and hand radiation doses to our technical staff were retrospectively compared for three distinct 4-mo periods when either 201TI or 99mTc-sestamibi were exclusively used for stress myocardial perfusion imaging. During the initial 4-mo period when 99mTc-sestamibi replaced 201TI, the mean whole-body film badge readings increased from 100 to 450 microSv/mo (p < 0.001) for nuclear medicine technologists (n = 10) and from 240 to 560 microSv/mo (p < 0.05) for radiopharmacy technologists (n = 2). Mean TLD readings to the hands also increased, although the differences were not statistically significant for the nuclear medicine technologists. Noninvasive cardiology staff were monitored with film badges and the mean whole-body film badge reading, when 99mTc-sestamibi was the imaging agent, was 360 microSv per month. Radiation reduction methods that decreased radiation exposure to staff were utilized. The most effective included the use of a lead face shield and lead lined storage container in the noninvasive imaging area, handling spills by shielding instead of decontamination and methods to reduce time spent in close proximity to the patient. PMID:8315504

  8. Quantitative conjugate imaging of iodine-123 and technetium-99m labeled brain agents in the basal ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangha, Desiree N.

    In the research reported in this dissertation, the concept of classic conjugate imaging, a non-tomographic nuclear medicine technique, is modified such that activity of a radiopharmaceutical distribution in the striata can be estimated. A mathematical model is developed that extended the application of classic conjugate imaging to estimation of two distinct and aligned activity distributions. Error analysis of the mathematical model is performed to characterize the accuracy of the model and to benchmark the limitations of the model. Phantom experiments are performed to demonstrate the practical application of the model and to evaluate its' accuracy. A Monte Carlo simulation model of conjugate imaging of activity uptake in the striata of a primate is developed to evaluate the accuracy of the modified conjugate imaging technique as applied in the use of a dedicate conjugate imaging system. In addition, the simulation model is used to determine and characterize the shielding design of the small field of view gamma cameras comprising the dedicated conjugate imaging system. The application of scatter correction is investigated to address the downscatter of high-energy photon emissions into the photopeak window and the inclusion of scattered primary photons in the photopeak window. In this dissertation, it is shown that the modified conjugate imaging technique developed can be used to estimate accurately activity uptake in each of two distinct and aligned activity distributions. The accuracy of the technique was shown to be comparable to that of clinical quantitative SPECT. The modified conjugate imaging technique used with the dedicated conjugate imaging system may, therefore, be a viable quantitative nuclear medicine technique for activity estimation of radiopharmaceutical uptake in the striata of Parkinsonian and schizophrenic patients. The portability and low cost relative to SPECT systems make the dedicated conjugate imaging system advantageous for clinics with Parkinsonian and schizophrenic patients, who are unable to travel due to physical or mental limitation.

  9. Technetium-99m labeled red blood cells for the detection and localization of cavernous hemangiomas of the bone

    SciTech Connect

    Lenane, P.

    1986-09-01

    Labeled red blood cells (RBCs) have already been proven useful in the detection and localization of many vascular abnormalities. One such abnormality is that of a cavernous hemangioma. Cavernous hemangiomas have a distinct circulation and have been found in many areas of the body. The ability to utilize this unique circulation is important to consider when choosing a diagnostic exam. This paper reports a case demonstrating the usefulness of labeled red blood cells for the detection and localization of cavernous hemangioma of the bone. A 31-yr-old female present with a history of persistent generalized headaches for many years. About 1 yr prior to the exam, she noticed that her headaches had become more localized to the right side of her head. Physical examination revealed a palpable lump developing on the right side of her head which was sensitive to the touch. The patient was then scheduled for a CT scan to be followed by both a bone scan and a /sup 99m/Tc blood-pool scan. A flow study using 15 mCi /sup 99m/Tc labeled RBCs was performed in the right lateral position at 1.5 sec/frame for 32 frames. Immediate blood-pool images 30-min, and 1-hr delayed images were recorded.

  10. Effect of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Reiniger, I W; de Oliveira, J F; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-08-01

    Peumus boldus is used in popular medicine in Brazil. The influence of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc was studied. Stannous chloride and 99mTc pertechnetate were incubated with blood and a tincture of Peumus boldus. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were isolated from the mixture and treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). After separation, analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the drug, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. PMID:10376326

  11. Diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis with technetium 99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, C.A.; Keeffe, E.B.; Lieberman, D.A.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Gilbert, S.; Eklem, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid planar biliary scintigraphy combined with single photon emission computed tomography could detect sclerosing cholangitis and provide additional information regarding the extent and severity of disease. Thirteen patients with sclerosing cholangitis and 13 normal control subjects were studied. Scintigraphic results were also compared with previously reported studies of patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction and with primary biliary cirrhosis. The planar scintigraphy in patients with sclerosing cholangitis showed beading or bandlike constrictions of the biliary tract corresponding to lesions seen on cholangiography, and the image pattern was distinctly different from images obtained from patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction or primary biliary cirrhosis. The single photon emission computed tomography images of the liver in patients with sclerosing cholangitis demonstrated multiple focal areas of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid retention, representing bile stasis in intrahepatic bile ducts. Compared to controls, the mean hepatic clearance half-time of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid was markedly delayed in patients with sclerosing cholangitis (6-10 times normal). Individual patients with sclerosing cholangitis had wider variation in isotope clearance half-time from three regions of the liver than patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction, consistent with regional difference in disease severity and variable impairment of bile flow. In 4 patients with sclerosing cholangitis with incomplete filling of the right and left hepatic ducts at cholangiography, planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy provided evidence of significant intrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis.

  12. Administered activity optimization in patients studied by equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography using pyrophosphate and technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M P; Garcia, J Q; Vicente, F P; Rizo, O D

    2002-04-01

    Equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography is one of the most important fields of work in nuclear cardiology. The in vivo labelled method utilizing 99mTc and red cells labelled with pyrophosphate is one of the most widely used. In the present work determination of the optimum 99mTc activity was studied. A sample of 30 patients was divided into five groups which received various amounts of radioactivity: 303 MBq, 444 MBq, 617 MBq, 803 MBq and 1020 MBq. The image quality of each study was assessed qualitatively and by using a method based on the construction of an image quality discriminant function. The number of counts in regions of interest in the heart, liver, lung and spleen, and the background, were processed as variables. The best results for the selected variables were obtained with 803 MBq. PMID:11930188

  13. Indium-111-antimyosin antibody imaging for detecting different stages of myocardial infarction: Comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, N.; Yamada, T.; Matsumori, A.; Yoshida, A.; Fujita, T.; Ohtani, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Endo, K.; Konishi, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The diagnostic value of {sup 111}In-antimyosin (AM) imaging for identifying myocardial infarction was evaluated in comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate (PPi) imaging. Twenty-four patients with various stages of myocardial infarction, ranging from three days to nine months after the onset of infarction, underwent both AM and PPi scans. Of 26 infarct lesions AM scan identified 22 (85%), while PPi scans detected 10 (38%) (p less than 0.01). When less than a week had passed since the onset both scans demonstrated all infarct lesions. For seven subacute lesions studied within one to two weeks of onset, AM scans detected (100%), while PPi scans identified only 2 (29%). Furthermore, AM scans showed discrete myocardial uptake in 7 (64%) of those studied more than two weeks after onset. The intensity of AM uptake in the infarcts studied more than seven days after onset was less than that in acute infarcts studied within seven days of onset (p less than 0.05). These preliminary data indicate that the abnormal myocardial uptake of AM persists beyond the first two weeks when PPi no longer accumulates. Thus, AM scans can be considered to provide a sensitive diagnosis of subacute as well as acute myocardial necrosis.

  14. Radionuclide imaging of the spleen with heat denatured technetium-99m RBC when the splenic reticuloendothelial system seems impaired

    SciTech Connect

    Owunwanne, A.; Halkar, R.; Al-Rasheed, A.; Abubacker, K.C.; Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1988-03-01

    Imaging of the spleen of 10 patients who had been hematologically diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia (SCA) was studied with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid and heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs. In all ten patients, there was faint or nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid. However, with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs, nine spleens were well visualized, and the uptake was homogenous. One spleen had two patchy areas of uptake. The results indicate that when splenic phagocytic function is impaired as reflected by nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid, it is still possible to image such a spleen with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs

  15. Use of technetium-99m-HM-PAO in the assessment of patients with dementia and other neuropsychiatric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.W.; Besson, J.A.; Gemmell, H.G.; Sharp, P.F.

    1988-12-01

    One hundred fourteen patients suffering from neuropsychiatric conditions have been studied using 99mTc-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Ninety-one patients had a firm clinical diagnosis while 23 were examined without knowledge of the clinical diagnosis. Of the 91 patients, 51 were suffering from dementia, 25 multi-infarct type and 26 Alzheimer's disease. In 19 of the Alzheimer's patients, a characteristic pattern of decreased perfusion in the parieto-occipital regions was demonstrated while those with multi-infarct type showed varying degrees of irregular uptake in the cerebral cortex. These appearances are similar to those shown with positron emission tomography (PET) and we believe that HM-PAO will provide a widely available method for identifying patients with Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-nine patients were suffering from diseases involving the basal ganglia. Fifteen patients with Parkinson's disease showed no significant abnormality in basal ganglia uptake, while 7 or 8 patients with Huntington's disease who had full examinations showed decreased uptake in the caudate nuclei. Similarly, four of six patients with other basal ganglia diseases showed impaired uptake by basal ganglia, and it is concluded that HM-PAO may be useful for the diagnosis and management of this type of patient. Twenty-three patients received HM-PAO imaging as part of their diagnostic work-up; in 19 of them, detailed follow-up was obtained, which indicated that in 7 cases the result of the HM-PAO scan altered the clinical diagnosis and in 9 cases resulted in a change in management. In the remaining 13 cases, the study was found to be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

  16. Quantitative local cerebral blood flow measurements with technetium-99m HM-PAO: evaluation using multiple radionuclide digital quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    We investigated d,1 (/sup 99m/Tc)hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime complex (HM-PAO) as a tracer for quantitative measurement of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) in a series of awake male rats. LCBF measurements with HM-PAO were compared to those of two other tracers, (/sup 14/C) iodoantipyrine (IAP) and (/sup 201/Tl)diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), using quantitative double and triple tracer digital autoradiography. LCBF values with HM-PAO averaged 64% those of IAP and were generally linearly related. Detailed analysis suggested that the underestimation of LCBF by HM-PAO was related to blood constituent binding and/or rapid conversion to a noncerebrophilic compound, as well as noninstantaneous cerebral trapping, rather than to diffusion limitation.

  17. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

  18. Mismatch between iodine-123 IMP and technetium-99m HM-PAO brain perfusion imaging in a patient with meningioma

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, H.; Jinnouchi, S.; Watanabe, K.; Nakano, S.; Kinoshita, K.

    1987-09-01

    The discrepancy between three methods for cerebral perfusion imagings in the case of a man with meningioma is presented. Imaging with N-isopropyl-P-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP) showed no activity in the tumor. Imaging with Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) and the local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) image with Xe-133 inhalation showed high tumor activity. IMP is a more accurate method for imaging the brain tissue blood flow.

  19. Assessment of antioxidative ability in brain: Imaging of glutathione localization with technetium-99M meso-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Toyama, H.; Oda, K.

    1994-05-01

    An oxidative stress is postulated to be important in tissue injury after ischemia and reperfusion, inflammation, aging and various disease. Glutathione (GSH), one of the major antioxidants in the brain, is presumed to be responsible for the metabolism and retention of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO. In order to visualize the regional localization of GSH in the brain, the relationship between the concentrations of tissue GSH and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO and [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO was studied in mice. Increasing load of diethyl maleate (DEM), a reducing agent of GSH and several other thiols, before [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO injection, led to a dose dependent decrease of GSH and [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO. At the highest dose of loaded DEM, the uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO in the brain was decreased to 20-30% of the control. In contrast, pretreatment with DEM did little affect the [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO uptake. To elucidate the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO in brain, we studied the in vitro interactions of [Tc-99m] meso-HMPAO and [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO with GSH, ascorbate and cysteine by measuring octanol-extractable radioactivity, which is remaining intact [Tc-99m] HM-PAO, as a function of incubation period. The disappearance raw of [Tc-99m] meso-HMPAO and [TC-99m] d,l-HM-PAO were 0.18 and 0.96%/min, respectively. Either meso or d,l-isomer did not interact with ascorbate or cysteine. This result suggested that the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] meso- and d,l-isomers in brain was related to their specific interaction with GSH, and did not related to non-specific interaction with various thiols or other reducing agents. This extremely high reaction rate of [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO with GSH could explain the capability of a small amount of GSH to trap [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO in maximum DEM loading. These results indicated that [Tc-99m] meso-HMPAO would be suitable to image the concentration of GSH in the brain, as opposed d,l-isomer that images blood flow.

  20. Evaluation of Cardiac Mitochondrial Function by a Nuclear Imaging Technique using Technetium-99m-MIBI Uptake Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria play an important role in energy production for the cell. The proper function of a myocardial cell largely depends on the functional capacity of the mitochondria. Therefore it is necessary to establish a novel and reliable method for a non-invasive assessment of mitochondrial function and metabolism in humans. Although originally designed for evaluating myocardial perfusion, 99mTc-MIBI can be also used to evaluate cardiac mitochondrial function. In a clinical study on ischemic heart disease, reverse redistribution of 99mTc-MIBI was evident after direct percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The presence of increased washout of 99mTc-MIBI was associated with the infarct-related artery and preserved left ventricular function. In non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, an increased washout rate of 99mTc-MIBI, which correlated inversely with left ventricular ejection fraction, was observed in patients with congestive heart failure. Increased 99mTc-MIBI washout was also observed in mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Noninvasive assessment of cardiac mitochondrial function could be greatly beneficial in monitoring possible cardiotoxic drug use and in the evaluation of cardiac damage in clinical medicine.

  1. Technetium-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary agent in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: relationship between detectability and tumor differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Calvet, X.; Pons, F.; Bruix, J.; Bru, C.; Lomena, F.; Herranz, R.; Brugera, M.; Faus, R.; Rodes, J.

    1988-12-01

    The present investigation was aimed to assess the usefulness of biliary agents scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to ascertain the relationship between the uptake of these agents and the degree of HCC differentiation. Forty-four patients with this hepatic cancer were included in the study. Liver scans were performed 20 min and 3 hr after the administration of 99mTc diisopropyliminodiacetic acid (DISIDA). DISIDA scintigraphy could not be assessed in six cases. In 16 (42%) out of the remaining 38 patients, the tumor exhibited equal or greater radioactivity uptake than the surrounding liver. In six out of these 16 patients, tumor uptake was apparent in the early and delayed hepatic scans, while in the other ten subjects radioactivity uptake by the HCC could only be detected in the 3-hr delayed scans. In the remaining 22 patients, HCC appeared as a cold area. Tumor location by this technique did not differ from that observed by 99mTc-sulfur colloid scan or ultrasound. DISIDA uptake was significantly related to tumor differentiation: 70% of those well differentiated tumors exhibited DISIDA uptake, whereas it was found in only 30% of those moderately differentiated and in none of those poorly differentiated (p less than 0.05). These results show that DISIDA scintigraphy can be useful in the diagnosis of HCC. Since its sensitivity is related to the degree of tumor differentiation, it may be indicated when aspiration cytology is unable to distinguish between well differentiated HCC and reactive changes due to hepatic cirrhosis.

  2. Use of blood-pool imaging in evaluation of diffuse activity patterns in technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Cowley, M J; Mantle, J A; Rogers, W J; Russell, R O; Rackley, C E; Logic, J R

    1979-06-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse Tc-99m pyrophosphate precordial activity may be due to persistent blood-pool activity in routine delayed views during myocardial imaging. To answer this question, we reviewed myocardial scintigrams recorded 60--90 min following the injection of 12--15 mCi of Tc-99m pyrophosphate for the presence of diffuse precordial activity, and compared these with early images of the blood pool in 265 patients. Diffuse activity in the delayed images was identified in 48 patients: in 20 with acute myocardial infarction and in 28 with no evidence of it. Comparison of these routine delayed images with early views of the blood pool revealed two types of patterns. In patients with acute infarction, 95% had delayed images that were distinguishable from blood pool either because the activity was smaller than the early blood pool, or by the presence of localized activity superimposed on diffuse activity identical to blood pool. In those without infarction, 93% had activity distribution in routine delayed views matching that in the early blood-pool images. The usefulness of the diffuse TcPPi precordial activity in myocardial infarction is improved when early blood-pool imaging is used to exclude persistence of blood-pool activity as its cause. Moreover, it does not require additional amounts of radioactivity nor complex computer processing, a feature that may be of value in the community hospital using the technique to "rule out" infarction 24--72 hr after onset of suggestive symptoms. PMID:231644

  3. Compartmental analysis of technetium-99m-teboroxime kinetics employing fast dynamic SPECT at rest and stress

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, P.C.; Ficaro, E.P.; Dayaniki, F.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have examined the feasibility of compartmental analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime kinetics in measuring physiological changes in response to adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation. To evaluate the effect of tracer recirculation on {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime kinetics in the myocardium, they also compared compartmental analysis with washout analysis (monoexponertial fitting), which does not account for this effect. Eight healthy male volunteers were imaged using fast dynamic SPECT protocols (5 sec per tomographic image) at rest and during adenosine infusion. A two-compartment model was used and compartmental parameters K1 and k2 (characterizing the diffusion of {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime from the blood to the myocardium and from the myocardium to the blood, respectively) were fitted from myocardial time-activity curves and left ventricular input functions. Both K1 and washout estimates for the whole left ventricular myocardium changed significantly in response to coronary vasodilation. Mean stress-to-rest (S/R) ratios were almost two times higher for K1 (S/R = 2.7 {plus_minus} 1.1) than for washout estimates (S/R = 1.5 {plus_minus} 0.3). Estimation of K1 for all local regions, except the septal wall, is feasible because variations in K1 estimates for all local regions, except the septum during stress, are comparable with those for the global region. The authors conclude that quantitative compartmental analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime kinetics provides a sensitive indicator for changes in response to adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation. 39 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Assessment of skin ulcer healing capability by technetium-99m phosphate angiogram and blood-pool images

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; Dries, D.; Lawrence, P.; Morton, K.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.

    1985-06-01

    The accuracy of radionuclide angiography and blood-pool imaging using (/sup 99m/Tc)-phosphate to assess skin ulcer perfusion as an indicator of healing capacity was determined in 50 studies performed on 45 patients with nonhealing ulcers of the lower extremities. Two nuclear medicine physicians without clinical bias, graded the perfusion of the ulcer on the images as normal, increased or reduced with respect to the opposite limb. Patients were followed closely with aggressive local wound care for at least 14 days. Of the 31 ulcers which healed, the radionuclide study correctly predicted 30; of the 19 ulcers which did not heal, 14 were correctly predicted. Eight patients had osteomyelitis; four of those healed and four did not. The radionuclide study predicted healing in seven. This technique is a simple, reliable way to predict the microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing. Specificity is diminished in the presence of osteomyelitis.

  5. In vivo kinetics of canine leukocytes labeled with technetium-99m HM-PAO and indium-111 tropolonate

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, B.H.; Schauwecker, D.S.; English, D.; Young, K.A.; Wellman, H.N.

    1988-07-01

    Two weeks after the introduction of osteomyelitis in three dogs, autologous leukocytes were dual-labeled with both (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO and (/sup 111/In)tropolonate, and reinjected. Blood sampling and imaging were then performed. Two weeks later, the same dogs received simultaneous injections of singly-labeled (/sup 99m/Tc)WBC and (/sup 111/In)WBC for comparison. For both studies, blood samples were drawn over 6 hr to determine the respective blood clearance half-time (TB) and % recovery (%R0) of cell-bound radioactivity. There were no significant differences in the average TB results of the /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 111/In groups, either within or between the dual- and singly-labeled studies. The %R0 of singly-labeled (/sup 99m/Tc)WBC was about half that of the other groups (p less than 0.01); however, this difference was attributed to the dissimilar radiochemical purity of the (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO reagents. Region of interest analysis of the 6 and 24 hr images revealed no significant differences between either cell label in the relative or absolute in vivo uptake at known sites of osteomyelitis, noninfected surgery, and normal bone marrow.

  6. Evaluation of extremity pain in children using technetium-99m MDP bone scan: A general hospital experience

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Rothschild, P.A.; Kernek, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three-phase bone scan in detection of significant pathology i.e., osteomyelitis (OM), septic joint, cellulitis, etc., in children with symptoms of extremity pain. A total of 100 consecutive patients (age 9 days - 16 yrs, 63 boys and 37 girls) were studied. The authors reviewed their scans, x-rays and hospital records. The final diagnoses were based on the findings of needle aspiration, surgical drainage, biopsy, culture, and on the therapeutic response. In 87%, sufficiently long clinical follow-up was available to confirm the final diagnoses. In the remaining 13%, the symptoms resolved quickly and follow-up was not felt necessary. The scan was essential in pinpointing the lesions in pts with referred or nonlocalizing extremity pain. The +ve and -ve predictive values of the scan and OM were 89% and 96% respectively. One spiral fracture was misinterpreted as diffuse OM. One ''Subacute epiphyseal OM'' was not detected. In two cases, cellulitis and septic joint obscured underlying OM. Prior antibotic therapy resulted in one equivocal scan. Although less sensitive (29%) in early OM, radiographs play an important complimentary role. Bone scans detected underlying pathology for extremity pain in 61% of all pts studied.

  7. Subacute splenic abscess. Appearance on indium-111 leukocyte, gallium-67, and technetium-99m sulfur colloid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ammann, W.; Chiu, B.K.; Wright, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    A case of a 23-year-old man with an encapsulated, anaerobic splenic abscess is reported. Both the In-111 leukocyte and Tc-99m sulfur colloid scans demonstrated an intrasplenic defect. The Ga-67 citrate scan revealed uptake in the rim of the abscess only where the abscess cavity was relatively photon-deficient. The combined Tc-99m sulfur colloid/In-111 leukocyte/Ga-67 scan appearance of a subacute splenic abscess has not been described previously. In cases suspected to be splenic abscesses the combined In-111 leukocyte/Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging is the most useful.

  8. Myocardial kinetics of hexakis (trimethylphosphite) technetium-99m (I) chloride (Tc-TMP) in rats, rabbits, dogs, cats and pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, M.S.; Adams, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-TMP is readily taken up by the myocardium following intravenous administration to rats and dogs. In order to assess its potential as a myocardial perfusion imaging agent, the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of Tc-TMP were evaluated following intravenous administration to rats, rabbits, dogs, cats and miniature pigs. Rats and rabbits were killed at several time points within a 24 hr period after treatment and tissue samples were assayed for radioactivity. In rats, estimated heart, liver and lung half-lives were 14.4 hr, 24 min and 40 min, respectively. In rabbits, 0.6% dose/g was observed in the heart at 30 min. Corresponding heart/blood, heart/liver and heart/lung ratios were 39.1, 10.7 and 5.1. Gamma camera imaging experiments were conducted in rabbits, dogs, cats and pigs over a 1-2 hr period following administration of Tc-TMP. All species exhibited myocardial uptake resulting in sustained visualization, although myocardial image intensity was less pronounced in the pig compared to the other species. Regions of interest were selected over the heart, liver and background, and time-activity curves were generated. Minimal myocardial clearance was observed in all species during the imaging time course. Hepatic activity was rapidly cleared in rabbits and pigs (t1/2 < 1.0 hr) resulting in improved heart/liver ratios at later time intervals. The myocardial accumulation and retention of Tc-TMP, demonstrated in five species, supports clinical evaluation as a myocardial imaging agent.

  9. Estimation of brain perfusion using Va value as initial distribution volume in radionuclide angiography with technetium-99m HMPAO

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, M.; Ikegami, T.

    1994-05-01

    Matsuda reported a non-invasive, simple method for the quantitative measurements of brain perfusion using radionuclide angiography with Tc-99m. HMPAO and showed graphical analysis of the ratio of brain activity to aortic arch activity gave two parameters, which are the slope of the fitted line (Ku:unidirectional influx constant) and its intercept with the yards (Vn:initial volume of distribution). Brain perfusion index (BPI),which is a connected Ku value, showed good correlation with cerebral blood flow determined with Xe-133 SPECT. The aim of our study is to elucidate the clinical significance of another parameter, Vn value, determined inpatients with cerebral vessel disease. Eighty-nine cases were studied and classified into three groups on the basis of clinical history and images of CT and/or MR: Group A, normal, 36 cases; Group B, infarction, 44 cases; Group C, subarachnoid hemorrhage, 9 cases. The average age of each group were not different statistically (63.3, 67.4 and 59.8, respectively). The average BPI values for group B and C were significantly lower than that of group A(7.7, 6. 8 and 9.5, respectively ). On the other hand, Vn for group C(0.23) was significantly lower than that for group A(0.45); however that for group B(0.49) was not. These findings indicate that cerebral blood flow in both infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage decrease but their circumstances near vessels differ from the aspect of initial volume of tracer distribution. This might help to understand or diagnose cerebral vessel diseases.

  10. Global Xenon-133 Emission Inventory Caused by Medical Isotope Production and Derived from the Worldwide Technetium-99m Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, Martin B.; Grosch, Martina; Hebel, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Emissions from medical isotope production are the most important source of background for atmospheric radioxenon measurements, which are an essential part of nuclear explosion monitoring. This article presents a new approach for estimating the global annual radioxenon emission inventory caused by medical isotope production using the amount of Tc-99m applications in hospitals as the basis. Tc-99m is the most commonly used isotope in radiology and dominates the medical isotope production. This paper presents the first estimate of the global production of Tc-99m. Depending on the production and transport scenario, global xenon emissions of 11-45 PBq/year can be derived from the global isotope demand. The lower end of this estimate is in good agreement with other estimations which are making use of reported releases and realistic process simulations. This proves the validity of the complementary assessment method proposed in this paper. It may be of relevance for future emission scenarios and for estimating the contribution to the global source term from countries and operators that do not make sufficient radioxenon release information available. It depends on sound data on medical treatments with radio-pharmaceuticals and on technical information on the production process of the supplier. This might help in understanding the apparent underestimation of the global emission inventory that has been found by atmospheric transport modelling.

  11. Radioactive technetium-99m labelling of Salmonella abortusovis for the assessment of bacterial dissemination in sheep by in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Perin, F; Laurence, D; Savary, I; Bernard, S; Le Pape, A

    1997-09-01

    We report the development and validation of a 99mTc-labelling technique of bacteria, applied to Salmonella abortusovis. The radioactive labelling is obtained using a pre-tinning step of the cells followed by direct incubation of S. abortusovis suspension with 99mTc-pertechnetate. Several procedures with different amounts of stannous tin (SnF2 or SnCl2) were evaluated. The selected method, respectful of bacterial viability, provided a 30% labelling yield. Viability of 99mTc-labelled bacteria was assessed by flow cytometry using rhodamine 123 and was demonstrated to be unchanged, turbidimetric measurements showing only a slight increase in the growth rate for radiolabelled cells. Incubation of 99mTc-labelled S. abortusovis with pronase, saponine and urea demonstrated labelling stability and suggested an intra-cellular localization for 99mTc. A preliminary study was also conducted in sheep to evaluate the value of the imaging of radiolabelled S. abortusovis. Spatial and temporal patterns of their in vivo dissemination in the lymphatic system after a sub-cutaneous injection were compared with control lymphoscintigraphic agents. These imaging data supported the assumption that the radioactivity detected in vivo was proportional to the number of 99mTc-labelled bacteria. PMID:9355252

  12. Filling out phenomenon with technetium-99m HM-PAO brain SPECT at the site of mild cerebral ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, K.; Nishimura, T.; Imakita, S.; Uehara, T.

    1989-05-01

    Although the distribution of (/sup 99m/Tc)hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) in the brain is said to be in a flow-related manner without temporal change, we present cases with leakage of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO (filling out phenomenon) in the delayed image of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and clarify its clinical significance. The filling out phenomenon was observed in seven out of 21 cases of cerebrovascular disease and four cases of arteriovenous malformation. The leakage of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO was also confirmed by visual and semiquantitative analysis. In the pharmacokinetics of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO in the blood, the percent dose of plasma fraction at 4 hr was reduced to 54% of activity at 30 min. The percent dose of brain blood could be predicted as 3.36%/1 at 30 min and 2.35%/1 at 4 hr after correction with the hematocrit of the brain. The filling out phenomenon of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO was attributed to a significant reduction of blood activity of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO in the plasma. Since the initial image might mask reduced rCBF with an increase of rCBV, the late image would have an advantage in accurately evaluating rCBF from the clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc) HM-PAO bound to the plasma. Therefore, the filling out phenomenon of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO in late images of brain SPECT could show the area of mild cerebral ischemia accompanying cerebral vascular reserve.

  13. Respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dusser, D.J.; Collignon, M.A.; Stanislas-Leguern, G.; Barritault, L.G.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-09-01

    To investigate the relationships between the respiratory epithelial clearance of micronic aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) and pulmonary function, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE), and lymphocytic alveolitis in patients with sarcoidosis, RC-DTPA was measured in 49 nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 38 normal nonsmokers. Pulmonary involvement was evaluated on chest roentgenograms (type O = normal, type I = hilar adenopathies, type II = hilar adenopathies associated with parenchymal shadows, type III = parenchymal shadows without adenopathy) and by pulmonary function tests. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme was determined, and a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for alveolar lymphocyte differential counting (Ly%). RC-DTPA was increased (greater than or equal to 1.96%/min) in 12 of 31 patients with type II or III involvement but was normal in all 18 patients with type O or I involvement (p = 0.002). Patients with increased RC-DTPA had low FVC, TLC, FEV1, and resting Pao2 (p less than 0.05); resting and exercise AaPo2 were increased (p less than 0.05), but RC-DTPA correlated negatively with FEV1 (p less than 0.01), Pao2 at rest (p less than 0.005), and DLCO (p less than 0.05) and positively with resting and exercise AaPO2 (p less than 0.01). In patients with increased RC-DTPA (42 +/- 17%), Ly% did not differ from Ly% in patients with normal RC-DTPA (34 +/- 16%). SACE was increased in patients with increased RC-DTPA (56 +/- 26 U/ml versus 38 +/- 16 U/ml; p = 0.007) and correlated positively with RC-DTPA (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Bifunctional DTPA-type ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Gansow, O.A.; Brechbiel, M.W.

    1990-03-26

    The subject matter of the invention relates to bifunctional cyclohexyl DTPA ligands and methods of using these compounds. Specifically, such ligands are useful for radiolabeling proteins with radioactive metals, and can consequently be utilized with respect to radioimmunoimaging and/or radioimmunotherapy.

  15. Permeability of the bronchial mucosa to /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA in asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Ilowite, J.S.; Bennett, W.D.; Sheetz, M.S.; Groth, M.L.; Nierman, D.M.

    1989-05-01

    Previous investigators, using 99mTc-DTPA aerosol as a marker to assess epithelial permeability in asthma, did not find an increased permeability in this group. However, they either failed to deliver the aerosol to the optimal site (bronchial mucosa, not alveoli) or failed to account for mucociliary clearance in analyzing their results. We studied 10 asthmatics and eight age-matched control subjects using a dosimeter (Spira-Elektra 2) and a carefully controlled breathing pattern to deliver aerosol to the subjects' airways. Two aerosols were delivered on separate days in each patient; 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, and 99mTc-HSA (human serum albumin), using similar breathing patterns to ensure reproducibility of the deposition pattern with the two aerosols. From measurements of retention versus time over a 1-h period, rate constants Ktot and Km were determined for the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-HSA, respectively. By modelling the airways as a single compartment with two possible routes of clearance, we determined the permeability rate constant, Kp, as Ktot minus Km. There was no significant difference between Ktot in normal subjects and asthmatics; however, because of the slower mucociliary clearance in the asthmatic group, and the relative importance of mucociliary clearance in determining the washout of 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, there was a significant difference in airway permeability between the normal subjects and the asthmatics (t1/2 = 296 min +/- 141 SD and 126 min +/- 58, p less than 0.01, in normal subjects and asthmatics, respectively).

  16. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Huckle, James E.; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [14C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared to a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of 241Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of 241Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  17. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled (241)Am.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Huckle, James E; Leed, Marina G D; Weber, Waylon M; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A; Jay, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [(14) C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared with a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of (241) Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of (241) Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  18. Comparison of the biodistribution of manganese-54 DTPA and gadolinium-153 DTPA in dogs.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, R J; Burbidge, S; Sirr, S; Loken, M K

    1987-03-01

    The biodistribution of [54Mn]DTPA and [153Gd]DTPA dimeglumine were investigated and compared following i.v. administration to fasting anesthetized dogs. Unlike most previously reported metal ion-DTPA complexes, [54Mn]DTPA showed high uptakes in several organs including the liver, bile, pancreas, bowel, and kidney. This uptake was independent of the pH of the injected solution. Accumulation in these organs suggests a potential role for [Mn]DTPA as a paramagnetic contrast agent for NMR imaging. With the exception of the kidneys, [153Gd]DTPA showed no evidence of tissue specific uptake over the course of 4 hr, consistent with it being an extracellular ion that is cleared by glomerular filtration. PMID:3819851

  19. Comparison of the biodistribution of manganese-54 DTPA and gadolinium-153 DTPA in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, R.J.; Burbidge, S.; Sirr, S.; Loken, M.K.

    1987-03-01

    The biodistribution of (/sup 54/Mn)DTPA and (/sup 153/Gd)DTPA dimeglumine were investigated and compared following i.v. administration to fasting anesthetized dogs. Unlike most previously reported metal ion-DTPA complexes, (/sup 54/Mn)DTPA showed high uptakes in several organs including the liver, bile, pancreas, bowel, and kidney. This uptake was independent of the pH of the injected solution. Accumulation in these organs suggests a potential role for (Mn)DTPA as a paramagnetic contrast agent for NMR imaging. With the exception of the kidneys, (/sup 153/Gd)DTPA showed no evidence of tissue specific uptake over the course of 4 hr, consistent with it being an extracellular ion that is cleared by glomerular filtration.

  20. Poor accumulation of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in sarcoidosis and other diffuse infiltrative lung diseases as compared with gallium-67 citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorne, M.; Sahlstroem, K.A.; Alanko, K.

    1988-02-01

    Forty-two patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases were imaged with Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m glucoheptonate (GH). Twenty patients had sarcoidosis, six had fibrosis, six had tuberculosis, nine had lung infiltration, and one had pleural empyema. The main difference between Ga-67 and Tc-99m GH was the much greater uptake of Ga-67 in sarcoidosis than that of Tc-99m GH. Fifteen patients with sarcoidosis had positive Ga-67 scans but only six had positive Tc-99m GH scans. The results in other diffuse infiltrative lung diseases were almost equal with Ga-67 and Tc-99m GH. Although Tc-99m GH is less expensive and simpler to use, it is not an adequate substitute for Ga-67 in diffuse infiltrative lung diseases.

  1. Nearly total absence of pulmonary perfusion with corresponding technetium-99m MDP and gallium-67 uptake in a patient with mediastinal neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.; Moguilner, G.; Dharan, M.; Siplovitch, L.

    1985-08-01

    A case of unilateral nearly total hypoperfusion of the left lung in a 13-month-old girl is presented. The combination of the lung hypoperfusion and accumulation of the Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate in the same area suggested the preoperative diagnosis of mediastinal neuroblastoma. Explorative thoracotomy revealed the presence of a neuroblastoma compressing the left lung pedicle. The described scintigraphic appearance in the pediatric age group is suggested as typical of mediastinal neuroblastoma. This pathology should be included in the following gamuts in nuclear medicine: unilateral decrease or absent lung perfusion, unilateral diffuse chest uptake of Ga-67 citrate, and unilateral pulmonary uptake in bone scintigraphy.

  2. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate by fractured and osteoporotic bone after a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.; Zielezny, M.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/ on uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP by fractured and osteoporotic bone, respectively, was compared with D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by normal bone in rats. At 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively, after femoral fracture, basal uptake was significantly increased at the fracture site by 336.8, 276.1, and 183.5%, respectively, over the contralateral control site. D/sub 3/-treated rats had lower uptakes than untreated controls at all three fracture sites and at 12 of 15 normal bone sites but analysis of variance showed the uptake differences were not significant. Cortisone-induced osteoporosis caused a significant decrease in basal uptake. The decrease occurred in all nine bone areas studied. D/sub 3/ caused a significant increase in uptake by these osteoporotic bones, but a significant decrease in uptake by the same bones in normal controls. Thus, D/sub 3/ had an effect on uptake by the bone lesion, osteoporosis, that differed from D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by fracture or normal bone.

  3. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of colorectal carcinoma using technetium-99m-labeled, totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59H21-2.

    PubMed

    Gulec, S A; Serafini, A N; Moffat, F L; Vargas-Cuba, R D; Sfakianakis, G N; Franceschi, D; Crichton, V Z; Subramanian, R; Klein, J L; De Jager, R L

    1995-12-01

    Radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) using human monoclonal antibodies offers the important clinical advantage of repeated imaging over murine monoclonal antibodies by eliminating the cross-species antibody response. This article reports a Phase I-II clinical trial with Tc-99m-labeled, totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59H21-2 in patients with colorectal carcinoma. The study population consisted of 34 patients with colorectal cancer (20 men and 14 women; age range, 44-81 years). Patients were administered 5-10 mg antibody labeled with 21-41 mCi Tc-99m by the i.v. route and imaged at 3-10 and 16-24 h after infusion using planar and single-photon emission computed tomographic (CT) techniques. Pathological confirmation was obtained in 25 patients who underwent surgery. Human antihuman antibody (HAHA) titers were checked prior to and 1 and 3 months after the infusion. RIS with Tc-99m-labeled 88BV59H21-2 revealed a better detection rate in the abdomen-pelvis region compared with axial CT. The combined use of both modalities increased the sensitivity in both the liver and abdomen-pelvis regions. Ten patients developed mild adverse reactions (chills and fever). No HAHA response was detected in this series. Tc-99m-labeled human monoclonal antibody 88BV59H21-2 RIS shows promise as a useful diagnostic modality in patients with colorectal cancer. RIS alone or in combination with CT is more sensitive than CT in detecting tumor within the abdomen and pelvis. Repeated RIS studies may be possible, due to the lack of a HAHA response. PMID:7493345

  4. Myocardial distribution of indium-111-antimyosin Fab in acute inferior and right ventricular infarction: comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, T.; Sakakibara, T.; Noto, T.; Shoji, T.; Tsuda, T.; Kubota, M.; Hattori, A.; Iimura, O. )

    1991-05-01

    In a postmortem study of a 69-yr-old female patient who had suffered 2 yr previously a non-Q-wave anterior infarction and who had sustained just seven days earlier a left inferior and right ventricular infarction, the distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab was compared to the results of {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination. Indium-111-antimyosin Fab imaging could not be performed because of cardiogenic shock. However, postmortem gamma scintillation counting revealed increased activities of antimyosin Fab in the inferoapical and right ventricular infarcted regions in which {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate positive imagings were observed; in contrast, a histologically confirmed old subendocardial anterior infarction had no definite activity. Thus, the myocardial distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab corresponded well to the results of {sup 99}mTc scintigrams and histologic examinations in a human heart, suggesting that this technique could be useful in vivo for detecting several-day-old myocardial infarction of the right ventricle as well as the left ventricle. Tissue from the 2-yr-old infarction was not identified by this technique.

  5. [Scintigraphy of the intraperitoneal cavity using technetium 99m as a diagnostic technique for diaphragmatic leaks in peritoneal dialysis: regarding two cases].

    PubMed

    Gil Carballeira, I; Ramos Sánchez, R; Antonia Azancot, M; Bartolomé Espinosa, J; Vilaplana Moltó, M; Camps Domènech, J

    2009-01-01

    Pleural effusion secondary to pleuroperitoneal communication is an unusual complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Many modalities have been used to diagnosis pleuroperitoneal: pleural fluid analysis, chest X- ray, Tc-99m gammagraphy, computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance image. Some of these procedures are invasive or have a high risk of induced-contrast nephrotoxicity. We present two case reports of pleuroperitoneal leak in two patients on peritoneal dialysis diagnosed with Tc-99m gammagraphy. We conclude that Tc- 99m gammagraphy is a simple, safe, non invasive, low radiation exposure and cost effective method in the assessment and evaluation of complications related to peritoneal dialysis such as pleuroperitoneal leak. PMID:19554061

  6. Technetium-99m-RBC venography in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pinson, A G; Becker, D M; Philbrick, J T; Parekh, J S

    1991-12-01

    We systematically reviewed the six articles from the English-language medical literature, since 1979, which compared 99mTc-RBC venography with contrast venography for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremity. The studies were generally small in size and poorly compliant with methodologic standards for diagnostic test research. There was considerable variation in both how the 99mTc-RBC venograms were performed and how they were interpreted. Sufficient clinical information on the patients was not provided. Although the overall sensitivities and specificities were high with a mean sensitivity of 0.89 and a mean specificity of 0.84, the small numbers of patients resulted in wide 95% confidence intervals. For distal disease, with only a total of 14 patients studied, the 95% confidence intervals were particularly broad. Although 99mTc-RBC venography is a promising technique, future studies with larger numbers of patients and closer adherence to methodologic standards are required. PMID:1836023

  7. Comparison in acute myocardial infarction of anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex versus heparin evaluated by simultaneous thallium-201/technetium-99m pyrophosphate tomography.

    PubMed

    Krause, T; Kasper, W; Meinertz, T; Schnitzler, M; Just, H; Schümichen, C; Moser, E

    1993-01-01

    In a subgroup of 45 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from the German multicenter trial of anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex (APSAC) (n = 20) versus heparin (n = 25), simultaneous thallium (TI)-201 technetium (Tc)-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) tomography was initiated to elucidate a possible benefit of APSAC over heparin. Findings in the 2 treatment groups were similar with respect to TI-201 defect score, relative scintigraphic infarct size, and in keeping with the main group coronary artery patency, global ejection fraction and maximal creatine kinase level. However, 2 different TI-201/Tc-99m PYP accumulation patterns within the area of infarction (homogeneous, group A; inhomogeneous, group B) were identified. Both treatment groups were similar with regard to the frequency of the homogeneous and inhomogeneous pattern. In comparing the 2 accumulation patterns, creatine kinase peaked earlier in group A than in group B, and global left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in group A than in group B. In Group A, 30 of 31 patients and in group B 7 of 11 patients had a patent infarct-related vessel (p < 0.025). TI-201 defect score was lower in group A than in group B. Likewise, relative size of the infarction as determined from Tc-99m PYP images was significantly lower in group A than in group B. Fifteen patients experienced cardiogenic shock or severe heart failure. Patients in group B had a higher incidence of these in-hospital complications than patients in group A (92 vs 12%, p < 0.0005). Scintigraphic infarct size and TI-201 defect score were greater in patients with the aforementioned clinical events.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8420241

  8. Estimation of 24-hour thyroid uptake of I-131 sodium iodide using a 5-minute uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.J.; Croft, B.Y.; Brookeman, V.A.; Teates, C.D. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors have developed a method to estimate the 24-hour sodium iodide thyroid uptake based on a 5-minute Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake using the equation: Estimated Iodide Uptake = 17.72*In(Pertechnetate Uptake) + 30.40. This estimation has a correlation coefficient of 0.90. It is based on a data pool of 44 patients who underwent I-131 and Tc-99m studies within 2 weeks of each other from 1978-1988, with established diagnoses as follows: 12 euthyroid, 6 hyperthyroid with multinodular goiters, 15 hyperthyroid with diffuse goiters, 4 with subacute thyroiditis, and 7 unknown. The population consisted of 30 women and 14 men with a mean age of 52.0 +/- 17.5 years; this sample was screened for use of thyroid hormone, propylthiouracil, and radiographic contrast. The authors believe this estimation method is of value whenever a 24-hour iodide uptake is desired, and where speed and minimizing radiation dose are factors. This method is strongly recommended for thyroid uptake evaluation before I-131 therapy.

  9. Acid-citrate-dextrose compared with heparin in the preparation of in vivo/in vitro technetium-99m red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, W.C.; Dees, S.M.; Freitas, J.E.; Dworkin, H.J.

    1983-05-01

    Red blood cells labeled in vivo/in vitro with Tc-99m (Tc-99m RBC) were prepared in a series of 21 patients and two normal volunteers. In each subject both heparin and acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) solutions were used to label tandem blood samples. The immediate preinjection binding efficiency (BE) was then determined. In each of the 23 studies, the ACD preparation yielded superior BE. The average BE was 93.47% (+/- 3.78) with ACD and 87.23% (+/- 4.29) with heparin. With the ACD method the effect of carrier Tc-99 may be as great as a 24% reduction in BE observed when initial eluates from long-ingrowth-time generators were used. Improved image quality with minimal renal and urinary-bladder activity results with ACD labeling. It is concluded that the use of ACD results in superior RBC labeling with less nontarget activity relative to heparin and is preferred over heparin for preparing in vivo/in vitro Tc-99m RBC.

  10. Assessment of the Effects of Access Count in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy on Renal Functions by Technetium-99m-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Demirtaş, Abdullah; Caniklioğlu, Mehmet; Kula, Mustafa; Akınsal, Emre Can; Ergül, Mehmet Ali; Baydilli, Numan; Ekemekçioğlu, Oğuz

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effects of percutaneous nephrolithotomy on renal functions by using DMSA scintigraphy while considering access counts. Material and Methods. A total of 37 patients who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy were included. Preoperative DMSA scans were performed a day before the surgery, whereas postoperative scans were randomized by evaluating them before (n = 25) and after (n = 12) the 6th postoperative month. Twenty-six of 37 cases underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy with a single access site and 11 with multiple access sites. Results. There were no significant changes of total renal functions in the whole study group (P = 0.054). In the single access group, total functions were significantly elevated (P = 0.03) In the multiple access group, while treated site functions were significantly decreased (P = 0.01), total functions did not change significantly (P = 0.42). There was an insignificant decrease in those evaluated before the 6th postoperative month (P = 0.27) and an insignificant increase in the others (P = 0.11). Conclusion. We could not find a superiority of single access over multiple accesses. There is a temporary functional loss in the treated site. PMID:23738147

  11. Computer-assisted superimposition of magnetic resonance and high-resolution technetium-99m-HMPAO and thallium-201 SPECT images of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Johnson, K.A.; Carvalho, P.A.; Schwartz, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Chen, G.T. )

    1991-08-01

    A method for registering three-dimensional CT, MR, and PET data sets that require no special patient immobilization or other precise positioning measures was adapted to high-resolution SPECT and MRI and was applied in 14 subjects (five normal volunteers, four patients with dementia (Alzheimer's disease), two patients with recurrent glioblastoma, and three patients with focal lesions (stroke, arachnoid cyst and head trauma)). T2-weighted axial magnetic resonance images and transaxial 99mTc-HMPAO and 201Tl images acquired with an annular gamma camera were merged using an objective registration (translation, rotation and rescaling) program. In the normal subjects and patients with dementia and focal lesions, focal areas of high uptake corresponded to gray matter structures. Focal lesions observed on MRI corresponded to perfusion defects on SPECT. In the patients who had undergone surgical resection of glioblastoma followed by interstitial brachytherapy, increased 201Tl corresponding to recurrent tumor could be localized from the superimposed images. The method was evaluated by measuring the residuals in all subjects and translational errors due to superimposition of deep structures in the 12 subjects with normal thalamic anatomy and 99mTc-HMPAO uptake. This method for superimposing magnetic resonance and high-resolution SPECT images of the brain is a useful technique for correlating regional function with brain anatomy.

  12. Radiolabeled, nonspecific, polyclonal human immunoglobulin in the detection of focal inflammation by scintigraphy: Comparison with gallium-67 citrate and technetium-99m-labeled albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, R.H.; Fischman, A.J.; Needleman, M.; Wilkinson, R.; Callahan, R.J.; Khaw, B.A.; Hansen, W.P.; Kramer, P.B.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-03-01

    The accumulation of nonspecific polyclonal human immunoglobulin (IgG) radiolabeled with /sup 125/I or /sup 111/In was compared to that of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate and (/sup 99m/Tc)albumin in rats with deep thigh inflammation due to Escherichia coli infection. Serial scintigrams were acquired at 1, 3, 24, and in some cases, 48 hr after injection. As early as 3 hr postinjection, (/sup 111/In)IgG showed greater accumulation at the lesion than (/sup 99m/Tc)HSA (p less than 0.01). Both (/sup 125/I)IgG and (/sup 111/In)IgG showed greater accumulation than (/sup 67/Ga)citrate (p less than 0.01). At 24 hr, IgG image definition increased, while HSA image definition decreased, and the intensity of accumulation of both IgG preparations was greater than that of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate or (/sup 99m/Tc)HSA (p less than 0.01). At all imaging times, (/sup 67/Ga)citrate accumulation was surprisingly low. In inflammation produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, or turpentine, (/sup 111/In)IgG accumulation was similar to the results obtained with Escherichia coli. These studies suggest that focal sites of inflammation can be detected with radiolabeled nonspecific human polyclonal IgG.

  13. The CONRAD approach to biokinetic modeling of DTPA decorporation therapy.

    PubMed

    Breustedt, Bastian; Blanchardon, Eric; Bérard, Philippe; Fritsch, Paul; Giussani, Augusto; Lopez, Maria Antonia; Luciani, Andrea; Nosske, Dietmar; Piechowski, Jean; Schimmelpfeng, Jutta; Sérandour, Anne-Laure

    2010-10-01

    Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) is used for decorporation of plutonium because it is known to be able to enhance its urinary excretion for several days after treatment by forming stable Pu-DTPA complexes. The decorporation prevents accumulation in organs and results in a dosimetric benefit, which is difficult to quantify from bioassay data using existing models. The development of a biokinetic model describing the mechanisms of actinide decorporation by administration of DTPA was initiated as a task in the European COordinated Network on RAdiation Dosimetry (CONRAD). The systemic biokinetic model from Leggett et al. and the biokinetic model for DTPA compounds of International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 53 were the starting points. A new model for biokinetics of administered DTPA based on physiological interpretation of 14C-labeled DTPA studies from literature was proposed by the group. Plutonium and DTPA biokinetics were modeled separately. The systems were connected by means of a second order kinetics process describing the chelation process of plutonium atoms and DTPA molecules to Pu-DTPA complexes. It was assumed that chelation only occurs in the blood and in systemic compartment ST0 (representing rapid turnover soft tissues), and that Pu-DTPA complexes and administered forms of DTPA share the same biokinetic behavior. First applications of the CONRAD approach showed that the enhancement of plutonium urinary excretion after administration of DTPA was strongly influenced by the chelation rate constant. Setting it to a high value resulted in a good fit to the observed data. However, the model was not yet satisfactory since the effects of repeated DTPA administration in a short time period cannot be predicted in a realistic way. In order to introduce more physiological knowledge into the model several questions still have to be answered. Further detailed studies of human contamination cases and experimental data will be needed in

  14. [3D-MR-angiography using Gd-DTPA].

    PubMed

    Seiderer, M; Bauer, W M; Villringer, A; Einhäupl, K

    1990-03-01

    Projection angiograms similar to DSA can be obtained via 3D-gradient echo techniques by subtraction of data sets acquired before and after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1-0.2 mmol/kg body weight). As Gd-DTPA does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier, image subtraction results in complete cancellation of non vascular tissue. In organs without blood-brain barrier Gd-DTPA induced signal enhancement results in modest background superposition of vascular anatomy. With Gd-DTPA angiography vessels are imaged favouring the venous system because of the more constant flow velocity and the lack of ECG synchronization. Gd-DTPA angiography results in high signal-to-noise angiograms and can even be performed with MR imagers which do not meet the hardware requirements for angiography based on flow compensated gradients. PMID:2157258

  15. DTPA complexation of bismuth in human blood serum.

    PubMed

    Montavon, G; Le Du, A; Champion, J; Rabung, T; Morgenstern, A

    2012-07-28

    The in vivo(212)Pb/(212)Bi generator is promising for application in targeted alpha therapy (TAT) of cancer. One main limitation of its therapeutic application is due to potential release of (212)Bi from the radioconjugate upon radioactive decay of the mother nuclide (212)Pb, potentially leading to irradiation of healthy tissue. The objective of the present work is to assess whether the chelate CHX-A''-DTPA (N-(2-aminoethyl)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N',N''-pentaacetic acid) bound to a biological carrier molecule may be able to re-complex released (212)Bi under in vivo conditions to limit its translocation from the target site. CHX-A''-DTPA was bound to bovine gamma globulin (BGG) to mimic a model conjugate and the stability of the Bi-CHX-A''-DTPA-BGG conjugate was studied in blood serum by ultrafiltration. TRLFS experiments using Cm(III) as a fluorescent probe demonstrated that linking CHX-A''-DTPA to BGG does not affect the coordination properties of the ligand. Furthermore, comparable stability constants were observed between Bi(III) and free CHX-A''-DTPA, BGG-bound CHX-A''-DTPA and DTPA. The complexation constants determined between Bi(III) and the chelate molecules are sufficiently high to allow ultra trace amounts of the ligand to efficiently compete with serum transferrin controlling Bi(III) speciation in blood plasma conditions. Nevertheless, CHX-A''-DTPA is not able to complex Bi(III) generated in blood serum because of the strong competition between Bi(III) and Fe(II) for the ligand. In other words, CHX-A''-DTPA is not "selective" enough to limit Bi(iii) release in the body when applying the (212)Pb/(212)Bi in vivo generator. PMID:22678751

  16. Development of the Plutonium-DTPA biokinetic model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Estimating radionuclide intakes from bioassays following chelation treatment presents a challenge to the dosimetrist due to the observed excretion enhancement of the particular radionuclide of concern, where no standard biokinetic model exists. This document provides a Pu-DTPA biokinetic model that may be used for making such determination for plutonium intakes. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model is intended to supplement the standard recommended biokinetic models. The model was used to evaluate several chelation strategies that resulted in providing recommendations for effective treatment. These recommendations supported early treatment for soluble particle inhalations and an initial 3-day treatment series of DTPA treatments for wounds.more » Several late chelation strategies were also compared where reduced treatment frequencies proved to be as effective as multiple treatments. Furthermore, the Pu-DTPA biokinetic model can be used to assist in estimating initial intakes of transuranic radionuclides, and for studying the effects of different treatment strategies.« less

  17. Development of the Plutonium-DTPA biokinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Estimating radionuclide intakes from bioassays following chelation treatment presents a challenge to the dosimetrist due to the observed excretion enhancement of the particular radionuclide of concern, where no standard biokinetic model exists. This document provides a Pu-DTPA biokinetic model that may be used for making such determination for plutonium intakes. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model is intended to supplement the standard recommended biokinetic models. The model was used to evaluate several chelation strategies that resulted in providing recommendations for effective treatment. These recommendations supported early treatment for soluble particle inhalations and an initial 3-day treatment series of DTPA treatments for wounds. Several late chelation strategies were also compared where reduced treatment frequencies proved to be as effective as multiple treatments. Furthermore, the Pu-DTPA biokinetic model can be used to assist in estimating initial intakes of transuranic radionuclides, and for studying the effects of different treatment strategies.

  18. Influence of DTPA Treatment on Internal Dose Estimates.

    PubMed

    Davesne, Estelle; Blanchardon, Eric; Peleau, Bernadette; Correze, Philippe; Bohand, Sandra; Franck, Didier

    2016-06-01

    In case of internal contamination with plutonium materials, a treatment with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) can be administered in order to reduce plutonium body burden and consequently avoid some radiation dose. DTPA intravenous injections or inhalation can start almost immediately after intake, in parallel with urinary and fecal bioassay sampling for dosimetric follow-up. However, urine and feces excretion will be significantly enhanced by the DTPA treatment. As internal dose is calculated from bioassay results, the DTPA effect on excretion has to be taken into account. A common method to correct bioassay data is to divide it by a factor representing the excretion enhancement under DTPA treatment by intravenous injection. Its value may be based on a nominal reference or observed after a break in the treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of this factor on internal dose by comparing the dose estimated using default or upper and lower values of the enhancement factor for 11 contamination cases. The observed upper and lower values of the enhancement factor were 18.7 and 63.0 for plutonium and 24.9 and 28.8 for americium. For americium, a default factor of 25 is proposed. This work demonstrates that the use of a default DTPA enhancement factor allows the determination of the magnitude of the contamination because dose estimated could vary by a factor of 2 depending on the value of the individual DTPA enhancement factor. In case of significant intake, an individual enhancement factor should be determined to obtain a more reliable dose assessment. PMID:27115221

  19. Aerosol delivery in ventilated newborn pigs: an MRI evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sood, Beena G; Shen, Yimin; Latif, Zahid; Chen, Xinguang; Sharp, Jody; Neelavalli, Jaladhar; Joshi, Aparna; Slovis, Thomas L; Haacke, E M

    2008-08-01

    Pulmonary deposition of inhaled drugs in ventilated neonates has not been studied in vivo. The objective of this study was to evaluate pulmonary delivery of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) following nebulization in ventilated piglets using magnetic resonance imaging. Seven ventilated piglets (5 +/- 2 d old, weight 1.8 +/- 0.5 kg) were scanned in the Bruker/Siemens 4T magnetic resonance scanner using T1 weighted spin-echo sequence. Aerosols of Gd-DTPA were generated continuously using the MiniHeart jet nebulizer. Breath-hold coronal images were obtained before and every 10 min during aerosolized Gd-DTPA for 90 min. Signal intensity (SI) changes over the lungs, kidneys, liver, skeletal muscle, and heart were evaluated. A significant increase in SI was observed in the lungs, kidney, and liver at 10, 20, and 40 min respectively after start of aerosol. At the end of 90 min, the SI increased by 95%, 101%, and 426% over the right lung, left lung, and kidney, respectively. A much smaller increase in SI was observed over the liver. In conclusion, we have demonstrated effective pulmonary aerosol delivery within 10 min of contrast nebulization in ventilated piglets. Contrast visualization in the kidneys within 20 min of aerosol initiation reflects alveolar absorption, glomerular filtration and renal concentration. PMID:18391839

  20. USTUR WHOLE BODY CASE 0269: DEMONSTRATING EFFECTIVENESS OF I.V. CA-DTPA FOR PU

    SciTech Connect

    James, Anthony C.; Sasser , Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-01-28

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol ‘mist.’ Chelation treatment with i.v. Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2½ years with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation), and continuing for 37 years. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 years after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive dataset has been applied to derive ‘chelation-enhanced’ transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys, and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modeling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as

  1. Straightforward thiol-mediated protein labelling with DTPA: Synthesis of a highly active 111In-annexin A5-DTPA tracer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Annexin A5 (anxA5) has been found useful for molecular imaging of apoptosis and other biological processes. Methods Here, we report an optimised two-step synthesis of annexin A5-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) (anxA5-DTPA) for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with a single purification step. The use of a recombinant annexin A5 (cys-anxA5) with a single thiol group allowed regionally specific coupling, without affecting the binding domain of cys-anxA5. Results The metal complexing capacity of anxA5-DTPA was investigated by labelling with 111In3+ and Eu3+. Binding of modified anxA5-DTPA to apoptotic cells was tested in competition experiments with a fluorescent anxA5 derivative (anxA5-FITC) using flow cytometry and compared with that of wildtype anxA5 or non-binding anxA5-DTPA (M1234-anxA5-DTPA). The binding affinity to apoptotic cells of the anxA5-DTPA conjugate does not differ from that of wildtype anxA5. Conclusions This two-step synthesis of annexin A5-DTPA resulted in biologically active anxA5-DTPA, which can be labelled with radionuclides for use in SPECT and PET imaging. PMID:22541756

  2. Induction of Bordetella pertussis-specific immune memory by DTPa vaccines.

    PubMed

    Morel, Sandra; Denoël, Philippe; Godfroid, Fabrice; Cortvrindt, Caroline; Vanderheyde, Nathalie; Poolman, Jan

    2011-04-18

    Several vaccines are available against pertussis, differing by the number of Bordetella pertussis antigens that they contain as well as their formulation. The GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK Bio) tricomponent DTPa vaccine (DTPa3, Infanrix™), and the Sanofi-Pasteur (SP) five-component formulation (DTPa5, Pediacel™) were shown to have comparable short-term efficacy in clinical trials. However, potential differences in long-term protection were recently suggested, which might reflect the elicitation of different specific immune memory by the two vaccines. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate in mice the immune responses against B. pertussis, and particularly the establishment of specific B cell memory after immunization with DTPa3 and DTPa5 vaccines. Whereas intranasal challenge experiments showed similar protection with both vaccines, DTPa3 induced higher antibody levels to FHA and PRN than DTPa5. Further, the frequency of memory B cells was investigated by B cell ELISPOT. Higher frequencies of PT- and PRN-specific memory B cells were evidenced after vaccination with DTPa3, compared with DTPa5. Although the origin of such difference is unclear, the use of two different adjuvants (aluminum phosphate versus hydroxide) is proposed as a possible explanation. In conclusion, this study proposes that the induction of higher levels of B. pertussis antigen-specific memory B cells with DTPa3 participate to the suggested longer persistence of protection observed with this vaccine, as compared with DTPa5. PMID:21382483

  3. Synthesis, DTPA coupling and radio labeling of cationic aminodextran

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.; Schneider, R.F.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Palladino, E.; Lyons, B.J.; Roskopf, M.

    1984-01-01

    In glomerular diseases, the normal anionic charge of the basement membrane is lost at an early stage. Glomerular damage in rats has been detected more readily with cationic dextrans than with inulin. Hence, the authors attempted to demonstrate this phenomenon in vivo in rats with labeled cationic dextran. Aminated Dextran (AMDEX) was prepared by treating Dextran(mol. wt approx. = 15k) with sodium methoxide followed by a bromethylamine HBr in DMSO resulting in 10-25 aminogroups per mole. DTPA cyclic dianhydride was coupled to AMDEX using a weight ratio of 1:10 in 0.2 - 1.0 ml 0.42 M Hepes buffer at pH 7.4. Free DTPA was removed by gel filtration (Sephadex P6DG) or by using Centricon-10 (AMICON) centrifugal microconcentrators. AMDEX coupled with DTPA was labeled with Indium-111 in 0.25 M acetate buffer. Labeling yields were >90% by gel chromatography and electrophoresis (pH8.2 Barbitol buffer). AMEXDTPA was labeled also by ligand exchange with Tc-99m-Sn-citrate at neutral pH with a labeling yield of 30%. On electrophoresis, all the labeled samples retained their cationic character. The distribution of purified In-111 AMDEX, was compared with simultaneously IV injected Tc-99m DTPA in rats. The 2 hour urinary excretion, and renal clearance (calculated from the biexponential plasma clearance) were slower (70 to 80%) than those of DTPA, due to the larger molecular size of AMDEX. By 1 hr., 5% of the administered activity was retained in each kidney, probably due to adherence to anionic binding sites.

  4. Use of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and gallium-67 citrate scans after intraarticular injection of Staphylococcus aureus into knee joints of rabbits with chronic antigen-induced arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahowald, M.L.; Raskind, J.R.; Peterson, L.; Gerding, D.; Raddatz, D.A.; Shafer, R.

    1986-08-01

    Numerous clinical studies have questioned the ability of radionuclide scans to differentiate septic from aseptic joint inflammation. A clinical study may not be able to document an underlying disease process or duration of infection and, thus, may make conclusions about the accuracy of scan interpretations open to debate. In this study, the Dumonde-Glynn model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits was used as the experimental model to study technetium and gallium scans in Staphylococcus aureus infection of arthritic and normal joints. Gallium scans were negative in normal rabbits, usually negative in antigen-induced arthritis, but positive in septic arthritis. The bone scan was usually negative in early infection but positive in late septic arthritis, a finding reflecting greater penetration of bacteria into subchondral bone because of the underlying inflammatory process.

  5. Effectiveness of DTPA treatments following the injection of particulate plutonium.

    PubMed

    Bruenger, F W; Taylor, D M; Taylor, G N; Lloyd, R D

    1991-11-01

    A limited long-term experiment has been completed in which the chronic toxicity resulting from a single intravenous injection of 31.4 kBq of a poly-disperse 239Pu colloid sol per kg of body weight was tested in Beagle dogs. The Pu deposited mostly in the phagocytic cells of liver, spleen and to a lesser degree in lung and bone marrow. Slow solubilization of the Pu particles by endogenous ligands caused translocation of the nuclide and redeposition mostly as monomeric Pu in the skeleton and in liver hepatocytes. Thus, the deposit behaved as expected from a pulmonary or wound contamination in humans with a moderately soluble depot of Pu such as Class W hot particles. Therefore, this type of deposit provided the basis for a practical model to study the ensuing radiation effects under various experimental conditions. The dogs were divided into three groups of four animals each, and the following conditions were applied: (a) no further treatment was given, allowing free translocation of the Pu to its secondary deposition sites; (b) interception of the Pu translocation by weekly injections of 30 mumol of Ca-DTPA/kg of body weight (Ca-chelate of diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid); and (c) interception of translocation by daily injections of 30 mumol/kg body weight of Zn-DTPA. For each of the groups (b) and (c), three dogs were used in a lifetime study, and one was sacrificed for nuclide distribution studies. Free translocation and subsequent deposition in the skeleton resulted in the death of each of the non-chelated dogs from osteosarcoma between 1267 and 1594 days after injection. Weekly treatment with Ca-DTPA reduced the total Pu burden significantly, but these dogs also died with osteosarcoma between 1462 and 1783 days. Daily injections with Zn-DTPA reduced the total Pu burden more efficiently than Ca-DTPA and prevented continuous deposition of solubilized Pu on bone surfaces. The mean post-injection survival of these dogs was 3520 days or about 2.1 times that of

  6. Effect of DTPA on Cd solubility in soil--accumulation and subsequent toxicity to lettuce.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Faisal; Rashid, Audil; Mahmood, Tariq; Dawson, Lorna

    2013-02-01

    In a controlled environment experiment, using Cd spiked soil, lettuce plants were grown under a range of DTPA levels and were subsequently harvested to determine levels of phytoaccumulation. Cadmium phytoaccumulation significantly increased with increasing soil Cd level (P<0.05) but unexpectedly decreased with increasing DTPA levels, despite the fact that solubility of Cd was increased in the soil. Cadmium translocation (from root to shoot) increased after DTPA application. Lettuce growth was inhibited by both Cd and DTPA (at and above 10 and 500 mg kg(-1) respectively), as a result of higher Cd mobility and subsequent toxicity which was caused by DTPA higher dosages. Metal solubility in the soil (ranged between 2.8 and 26.5 mg kg(-1)) was found to be significantly higher (P<0.01) as compared to control with increasing DTPA levels even after 3 months of DTPA application. Cadmium tissue concentration in all DTPA treatments was less than in the corresponding control treatment, indicating a negative effect of DTPA application on Cd uptake. In conclusion, lettuce was an unsuitable plant species for Cd accumulation, at least when associated with a DTPA chelator. PMID:23040648

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and relaxivity of two linear Gd(DTPA)-polymer conjugates.

    PubMed

    Duarte, M G; Gil, M H; Peters, J A; Colet, J M; Elst, L V; Muller, R N; Geraldes, C F

    2001-01-01

    Two linear polyamide conjugates of Gd(DTPA)2- were synthesized and characterized by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). DTPA was copolymerized with two different diamines, 1,6-hexanediamine and trans-1,4-cyclohexanediamine, yielding the polymers DTPA-HMD and DTPA-CHD, with low polydispersity. Their molecular flexibility in solution was studied using 13C spin-lattice relaxation time measurements, indicating that the cyclohexanediamine linking moiety of the DTPA-HMD polymer is more rigid than that of DTPA-CHD. The influence of the flexibility of the linking functionalities on the relaxivity of the Gd3+-DTPA-polymer conjugates was studied by water nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD). The relaxivity of the Gd(DTPA-CHD) polymer was only slightly higher than that of the Gd(DTPA-HMD) polymer, and only two times higher than the usual values for small Gd-DTPA-like chelates. The low relaxivities obtained for both polymers, much lower than expected from the polymer apparent molecular weights, result from their substantial residual flexibility, and also from a too long, nonoptimal, value of the inner-sphere water exchange rate. These polymeric compounds are also cleared very quickly from the blood of rats, indicating that they are of limited value as blood pool contrast agents for MRA. PMID:11312677

  8. Species-dependent effective concentration of DTPA in plasma for chelation of 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Jay, Michael; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a chelating agent that is used to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides, such as americium, from contaminated individuals. Its primary site of action is in the blood, where it competes with various biological ligands, including transferrin and albumin, for the binding of radioactive metals. To evaluate the chelation potential of DTPA under these conditions, the competitive binding of 241Am between DTPA and plasma proteins was studied in rat, beagle and human plasma in vitro. Following incubation of DTPA and 241Am in plasma, the 241Am-bound ligands were fractionated by ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography, and each fraction was assayed for 241Am content by gamma scintillation counting. Dose-response curves of DTPA for 241Am binding were established, and these models were used to calculate the 90% maximal effective concentration, or EC90, of DTPA in each plasma system. The EC90 were determined to be 31.4, 15.9 and 10.0 μM in rat, beagle and human plasma, respectively. These values correspond to plasma concentrations of DTPA that maximize 241Am chelation while minimizing excess DTPA. Based on the pharmacokinetic profile of DTPA in humans, after a standard 30 μmol kg−1 intravenous bolus injection, the plasma concentration of DTPA remains above EC90 for approximately 5.6 h. Likewise, the effective duration of DTPA in rat and beagle were determined to be 0.67 and 1.7 h, respectively. These results suggest that species differences must be considered when translating DTPA efficacy data from animals to humans and offer further insights into improving the current DTPA treatment regimen. PMID:23799506

  9. Gd-DTPA Adsorption on Chitosan/Magnetite Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Pylypchuk, Ie V; Kołodyńska, D; Kozioł, M; Gorbyk, P P

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis of the chitosan/magnetite nanocomposites is presented. Composites were prepared by co-precipitation of iron(II) and iron(III) salts by aqueous ammonia in the 0.1 % chitosan solution. It was shown that magnetite synthesis in the chitosan medium does not affect the magnetite crystal structure. The thermal analysis data showed 4.6 % of mass concentration of chitosan in the hybrid chitosan/magnetite composite. In the concentration range of initial Gd-DTPA solution up to 0.4 mmol/L, addition of chitosan to magnetite increases the adsorption capacity and affinity to Gd-DTPA complex. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe adsorption processes. Nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and specific surface area determination (ASAP) methods. PMID:27030468

  10. Gd-DTPA Adsorption on Chitosan/Magnetite Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylypchuk, Ie. V.; Kołodyńska, D.; Kozioł, M.; Gorbyk, P. P.

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis of the chitosan/magnetite nanocomposites is presented. Composites were prepared by co-precipitation of iron(II) and iron(III) salts by aqueous ammonia in the 0.1 % chitosan solution. It was shown that magnetite synthesis in the chitosan medium does not affect the magnetite crystal structure. The thermal analysis data showed 4.6 % of mass concentration of chitosan in the hybrid chitosan/magnetite composite. In the concentration range of initial Gd-DTPA solution up to 0.4 mmol/L, addition of chitosan to magnetite increases the adsorption capacity and affinity to Gd-DTPA complex. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe adsorption processes. Nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and specific surface area determination (ASAP) methods.

  11. Spectroscopic studies on interaction of BSA and Eu(III) complexes with H5ph-dtpa and H5dtpa ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Deyong; Qin, Cui; Fan, Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Jun

    2015-04-01

    An novel aromatic aminopolycarboxylic acid ligand, N-(2-N,N-Dicarboxymethylaminophenyl) ethylenediamine-N,N‧,N‧-triacetic acid (H5ph-dtpa), was synthesized by improving experimental method and its corresponding Eu(III) complex, Na2[EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]·6H2O, was successfully prepared through heat-refluxing method. As a comparison, the Eu(III) complex with diethylenetriamine-N,N,N‧,N‧,N″-pentaacetic acid (H5dtpa) ligand, Na2[EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]·6H2O, was also prepared by the same method. And then, the interaction between prepared Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution were studied by the combination of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. In addition, the binding sites of Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) to BSA molecules were also estimated by synchronous fluorescence. Moreover, the theoretical and experimental results show that the Van der Waals, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interactions are the mainly impulse to the reaction. The binding distances (r) between Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) and BSA were obtained according to Förster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. Also, the determined UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the conformation of BSA could be changed in the presence of Eu(III) complexes. The obtained results can help understand the action mode between rare earth metal complexes of aminopolycarboxylic acid ligands with BSA and they are also expected to provide important information of designs of new inspired drugs.

  12. Analysis of pharmacokinetics of Gd-DTPA for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Saeid; Shah, N Jon; Rosenberg, Gary A

    2016-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA administered intravenously (i.v.) for contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) is an important factor for quantitative data acquisition. We studied the effect of various initial bolus doses on the PK of Gd-DTPA and analyzed population PK of a lower dose for intra-subject variations in DCE-MRI. First, fifteen subjects (23-85years, M/F) were randomly divided into four groups for DCE-MRI with different Gd-DTPA dose: group-I, 0.1mmol/kg, n=4; group-II, 0.05mmol/kg, n=4; group-III, 0.025mmol/kg, n=4; and group-IV, 0.0125mmol/kg, n=3. Sequential fast T1 mapping sequence, after a bolus i.v. Gd-DTPA administered, and a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship were used to estimate the PK of Gd-DTPA. Secondly, MR-acquired PKs of Gd-DTPA from 58 subjects (28-80years, M/F) were collected retrospectively, from an ongoing study of the brain using DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA at 0.025mmol/kg, to statistically analyze population PK of Gd-DTPA. We found that the PK of Gd-DTPA (i.v. 0.025mmol/kg) had a half-life of 37.3±6.6min, and was a better fit into a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship than higher doses (up to 0.1mmol/kg). The area under the curve (AUC) for 0.025mmol/kg was 3.37±0.46, which was a quarter of AUC of 0.1mmol/kg. In population analysis, a dose of 0.025mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA provided less than 5% subject-dependent variation in the PK of Gd-DTPA. Administration of 0.025mmol/kg Gd-DTPA enabled us to estimate [Gd-DTPA] from T1 by using a linear relationship that has a lower estimation error compared to a non-linear relationship. DCE-MRI with a quarter dose of Gd-DTPA is more sensitive to detect changes in [Gd-DTPA]. PMID:27109487

  13. Analysis of Pharmacokinetics of Gd-DTPA for Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Saeid; Jon Shah, N.; Rosenberg, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA administered intravenously (i.v.) for contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) is an important factor for quantitative data acquisition. We studied the effect of various initial bolus doses on the PK of Gd-DTPA and analyzed population PK of a lower dose for intra-subject variations in DCE-MRI. First, fifteen subjects (23–85 years, M/F) were randomly divided into four groups for DCE-MRI with different Gd-DTPA dose: group-I, 0.1mmol/kg, n=4; group-II, 0.05 mmol/kg, n=4; group-III, 0.025mmol/kg, n=4; and group-IV, 0.0125 mmol/kg, n=3. Sequential fast T1 mapping sequence, after a bolus i.v. Gd-DTPA administered, and a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship were used to estimate the PK of Gd-DTPA. Secondly, MR-acquired PK of Gd-DTPA from 58 subjects (28–80 years, M/F) were collected retrospectively, from an ongoing study of the brain using DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA at 0.025 mmol/kg, to statistically analyze population PK of Gd-DTPA. We found that the PK of Gd-DTPA (i.v. 0.025 mmol/kg) had a half-life of 37.3 ± 6.6 mins, and was a better fit into a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship than higher doses (up to 0.1 mmol/kg). The area under the curve (AUC) for 0.025 mmol/kg was 3.37± 0.46, which was a quarter of AUC of 0.1 mmol/kg. In population analysis, a dose of 0.025 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA provided less than 5% subject-dependent variation in the PK of Gd-DTPA. Administration of 0.025 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA enable us to estimate [Gd-DTPA] from T1 by using a linear relationship that has a lower estimation error compared to a non-linear relationship. DCE-MRI with a quarter dose of Gd-DTPA is more sensitive to detect changes in [Gd-DTPA]. PMID:27109487

  14. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wainer, E.; Boner, G.; Lubin, E.; Rosenfeld, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    The clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was studied in 14 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance during HD was 37.8% +/- 10.1 of creatinine clearance. Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance in PD was 65.1% +/- 10.3 of creatinine clearance. Tc-99m DTPA, with a larger molecular weight than that of creatinine, is cleared relatively better during PD than during HD. Thus Tc-99m DTPA may be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of different dialytic treatments for substances of similar molecular weight. In addition, our study shows that clearance of DTPA both in HD and PD is sufficiently high to allow the removal of this chelating agent in patients with renal failure.

  15. A new approach to quantification of DTPA incorporation into monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) labeled by the cyclic anhydride DTPA method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.S.T.; Ng, A.K.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Alsedairy, S.; Alderson, P.O.

    1985-05-01

    A method for determining the ratio of DTPA molecules attached per molecule of Ab was developed and used to examine the immunoreactivity of different Abs as a function of the amount of incorporated DTPA. The bicyclic anhydride of DTPA(2-C-14)acetic acid (BADTPA-C-14) was synthesized by reacting DTPA(2-C-14)acetic acid (1mCi/mmo1) and acetic anhydride. BADTPA-C-14 then was reacted with a MoAb to a melanoma associated antigen (MA) and to a MoAb to human HLA class II antigen (HLA) at 2mg/m1 of MoAb concentration, at MoAb to BADTPA-C-14 ratios (mmo1/mmo1) of l:1, 1:10, 1:00, l:200. The conjugate was dialyzed exhaustively against HEPES at pH 7.0. The MoAb concentration was measured at 280mm of uv; the DTPA/MoAb ratio was calculated based on the specific activity of BADTPA-C-14, and the immunoreactivity was assessed by direct cell-binding to melanoma, the HLA antigen and control (lymphoma) cells. Percent binding to the lymphoid cell line was less than 3%. The authors' results demonstrated a method for directly determining the number of DTPA molecules attached to a MOAb, and demonstrated variations in immunoreactivity as the number of DTPA groups per MoAb is altered.

  16. Complexation of Curium(III) with DTPA at 10–70 °C: Comparison with Eu(III)–DTPA in Thermodynamics, Luminescence, and Coordination Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Martin, Leigh R.; Rao, Linfeng

    2015-02-16

    Separation of trivalent actinides (An(III)) from trivalent lanthanides (Ln(III)) is a challenging task because of their nearly identical chemical properties. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), a key reagent used in the TALSPEAK process that effectively separates An(III) from Ln(III), is believed to play a critical role in the An(III)/Ln(III) separation. However, the underlying principles for the separation based on the difference in the complexation of DTPA with An(III) and Ln(III) remain unclear. In this work, the complexation of DTPA with Cm(III) at 10-70 ºC was investigated by spectrophotometry, luminescence spectroscopy, and microcalorimetry, in conjunction with computational methods. The binding strength, the enthalpy of complexation, the coordination modes, and the luminescence properties are compared between the Cm(III)-DTPA and Eu(III)-DTPA systems. The experimental and computational data have demonstrated that the difference between Cm(III) and Eu(III) in the binding strength with DTPA can be attributed to the stronger covalence bonding between Cm(III) and the nitrogen donors of DTPA.

  17. Influence of posture and positive end-tidal expiratory pressure (PEEP) on clearance of Tc99m-DTPA from the lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.R.; Maublant, J.; Sietsema, K.; Effros, R.M.; Mena, I.

    1984-01-01

    The clearance of Tc99m-DTPA aerosols from the lung has been used to detect and quantitate alterations in the permeability of the pulmonary epithelium. Clearance of the radionuclide is accelerated by both chronic and acute injuries to the lung and by smoking. Several laboratories have reported that Tc99m-DTPA clearance from upper lobes exceeded that from lower lobes in upright subjects. To investigate this phenomenon further the authors studied subjects with simultaneous anterior and posterior cameras in upright and supine positions. In the upright position, clearance from both the anterior and posterior upper regions of interest (ROI's) exceeded the lower regions (-1.64 +- .42 S.D. vs. -0.75 +- .41, anterior, p < .05, n=6), -1.04 +- .23 vs. -0.50 +- .36, posterior. All units = %/min. This difference was not observed in the supine subjects. Clearance from the anterior chest exceeded that from the posterior chest in the supine subjects (-1.28 +- .45 vs. -0.05 +- 1.08) and a small increase in radio-activity was observed in at least one ROI of 5 of 6 subjects from the posterior camera. An increase in activity is likely to be secondary to labeling of blood pool, which would have greatest affect where pulmonary blood volume is largest. Computer processing of the entire lung without observer bias in ROI placement showed similar effects of posture over non-peripheral ROI's. Five subjects breathed on PEEP to cause airspace distention, causing clearance to double. Both dependency and airspace distention appear to influence clearance of aerosolized DTPA, the latter may occur by stretching of epithelial pores.

  18. Organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN.

  19. Iron chelation using subcutaneous infusions of diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA).

    PubMed

    Pippard, M J; Jackson, M J; Hoffman, K; Petrou, M; Modell, C B

    1986-05-01

    The iron chelating ability and potential toxicity of subcutaneous infusions of the calcium and zinc salts of diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) have been assessed in metabolic balance studies in 2 iron-loaded thalassaemic patients. Infusions of calcium DTPA were locally well tolerated and the drug was as effective as desferrioxamine in mobilising iron. However, daily infusions in the 1st patient also produced symptomatic zinc depletion which could not be controlled by simultaneous oral zinc supplements. Zinc DTPA proved ineffective as an iron chelator, but zinc balance could be maintained in the 2nd patient by combining intermittent (every 4 d) use of calcium DTPA with oral zinc supplements. Combined studies with desferrioxamine and calcium DTPA showed the drugs to have additive effects, probably as a result of the chelation of iron from different body sites. PMID:3738427

  20. Pharmacokinetic analysis of blood distribution of intravenously administered sup 153 Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- and sup 99m Tc(DTPA) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wedeking, P.; Eaton, S.; Covell, D.G.; Nair, S.; Tweedle, M.F.; Eckelman, W.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Rat plasma distribution data obtained following IV administration of {sup 99m}Tc(DTPA) alone or after co-administration of {sup 99m}Tc(DTPA) and {sup 153}Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- at 0.001, 0.1, and 1.0 mmol Gd/kg were evaluated using compartmental modeling techniques. A three-compartment open model was found to fit the data significantly better (P less than 0.01) than a two- or four-compartment open model. This model incorporates and links the plasma and urine data and includes a delay to account for the transit time through the kidneys/ureters. The two nonplasma compartments of the model were assumed to be related to rapidly and slowly equilibrating tissues. Tc(DTPA) and Gd(DTPA)2- had nearly identical pharmacokinetic profiles in plasma and the rate constants were essentially the same. No significant dose dependent pharmacokinetic differences were found for the range of Gd(DTPA)2- doses tested. Simulations of the proposed three-compartment model were used to generate concentration-time curves for each of the three compartments.

  1. Pharmacokinetic analysis of blood distribution of intravenously administered 153Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- and 99mTc(DTPA) in rats.

    PubMed

    Wedeking, P; Eaton, S; Covell, D G; Nair, S; Tweedle, M F; Eckelman, W C

    1990-01-01

    Rat plasma distribution data obtained following IV administration of 99mTc(DTPA) alone or after co-administration of 99mTc(DTPA) and 153Gd-labeled Gd(DTPA)2- at 0.001, 0.1, and 1.0 mmol Gd/kg were evaluated using compartmental modeling techniques. A three-compartment open model was found to fit the data significantly better (P less than 0.01) than a two- or four-compartment open model. This model incorporates and links the plasma and urine data and includes a delay to account for the transit time through the kidneys/ureters. The two nonplasma compartments of the model were assumed to be related to rapidly and slowly equilibrating tissues. Tc(DTPA) and Gd(DTPA)2- had nearly identical pharmacokinetic profiles in plasma and the rate constants were essentially the same. No significant dose dependent pharmacokinetic differences were found for the range of Gd(DTPA)2- doses tested. Simulations of the proposed three-compartment model were used to generate concentration-time curves for each of the three compartments. PMID:2082126

  2. Structure of a single model to describe plutonium and americium decorporation by DTPA treatments.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, P; Sérandour, A L; Grémy, O; Phan, G; Tsapis, N; Fattal, E; Benech, H; Deverre, J R; Poncy, J L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a single modeling structure to describe both plutonium and americium decorporation by DTPA, which is based on hypotheses mostly validated by experimental data. Decorporation efficacy of extracellular retention depends on the concentration ratio of DTPA vs. actinides and varies in each compartment according to the amount of biological ligands and their affinity for actinides. By contrast, because the relatively long residence time of DTPA after its cell internalization and the stability of actinide-DTPA complexes, intracellular decorporation efficacy is mainly controlled by a DTPA/actinide ratio, which is specific to each retention compartment. Although the affinity of DTPA is much lower for americium than for plutonium, a larger decorporation of americium can be obtained, which is explained by different biological ligands and/or their affinity for the actinide. Altogether, these results show that the relative contribution of intra vs. extracellular decorporation varies depending on the actinide, the chemical form of radionuclides, the galenic formulation of DTPA, and the treatment schedule. PMID:20838098

  3. Pulmonary clearance of radiotracers after positive end-expiratory pressure or acute lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Barrowcliffe, M.P.; Zanelli, G.D.; Jones, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    In anesthetized rabbits we measured clearance from lung to blood of eight aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled compounds: diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA); cytochrome c; myoglobin; a myoglobin polymer; albumin; and anionic, cationic, and neutral dextrans of equivalent molecular size. We investigated the effect of applying positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and, on a subsequent occasion, of injecting oleic acid intravenously to produce acute lung injury on the pulmonary clearance rate. Base-line clearance rates were monoexponential and varied with the molecular weights of the radiotracers. For each tracer the rate of clearance was increased a similar degree by either PEEP or oleic acid. However, with PEEP, clearance remained monoexponential, whereas after oleic acid, smaller molecular-weight radiotracers had multiexponential clearance curves. This suggests that after oleic acid the alveolar epithelium breaks down in a nonuniform fashion. We conclude that differentiation of the effect of PEEP from that of severe lung injury caused by oleic acid is not readily accomplished by either increasing the size of the tracer molecule or by varying the molecular charge.

  4. On hafnium chelation by EDTA and DTPA for TDPAC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chain, Cecilia Y.; Pasquevich, A. F.

    2010-04-01

    Polyaminocarboxilate chelating agents, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), form stable complexes with many heavy metals ions and are of spread use in the industrial and biomedical field. In this paper, Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the formation of Hf-complexes prepared from 181Hf-HfF4 and polyaminocarboxylic acids, by taking into account the possible formation of inorganic compounds. The obtained wet precipitates were measured at room temperature. Different behaviors were observed depending on the ratio fluorine/sodium atoms present in the sample. The obtaining of sodium heptafluorohafnate Na3HfF7 was verified when the ratio F/Na was approximately 1.5 and tridecafluorodihafnate Na5Hf2F13 appeared for relations between 3 and 4. No evidence of hafnium complexation by the polyaminocarboxilic acids was observed.

  5. Palliation of bone pain with Sn-117m(4+)DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, L.F.; Mausner, L.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1994-05-01

    Sn-117m(4+)DTPA prepared at Brookhaven National Laboratory has favorable physical and biological characteristics for use as a palliative agent to relieve pain from osseous metastases. The short range of the emitted conversion electrons permits large bone radiation doses without excessive radiation to the bone marrow. An accompanying 158.6 keV gamma is useful for monitoring the distribution. The T1/2 of 13.6 days provides an adequate shelf life. A previous study in humans has demonstrated favorable dosimetry with a bone surface dose of approximately 57.9 mGy/MBq and a bone surface to marrow ratio of 10:1. This study was instituted to find a dose level which was effective and to monitor effects on bone marrow. Sn-117m was administered to 14 patients. Administered activity ranged between 66 and 573 MBq or 1.2-5.8 MBq/kg body weight. At the lower dose levels (<3.1 MBq/kg, n=7), 1 obtained good relief of pain, 1 partial relief, and 1 no relief. The remaining 4 were not evaluated because of the need for further treatment of soft tissue disease or because of intervening death. The 7 patients treated at the higher dose level (4.8-5.8 MBq/kg) included patients with prostate (3), breast (3) and unknown (1) primary cancers. All patients experienced relief of pain, 5 excellent and 2 partial. No marrow suppression was observed as a result of Sn-117m therapy. Initial observations indicate that Sn-117m DTPA is effective in palliation of pain from osseous metastases without producing bone marrow suppression. Further studies at a higher dose level are planned.

  6. Decorporation of inhaled americium-241 dioxide and nitrate from hamsters using ZnDTPA and Puchel.

    PubMed

    Stradling, G N; Stather, J W; Sumner, S A; Moody, J C; Strong, J C

    1984-06-01

    Accidental intakes of 241AmO2 and 241Am(NO3)3 can be treated with some success by inhalation of ZnDTPA . The main advantage of this method of treatment is that it can be self-administered very soon after an accidental intake, and it is effective for reducing the lung content of Am at doses about 10 times less than those usually used intravenously. Otherwise the efficacy of injected ZnDTPA is superior since in addition to removing 241Am from the lungs it can deplete appreciably the systemic deposit of the nuclide. There appears to be no advantage in using the lipophilic form of DTPA code-named Puchel , since following the inhalation or injection of the compound decorporation is not significantly increased relative to ZnDTPA . PMID:6724941

  7. Insight into the dynamics of lanthanide-DTPA complexes as revealed by oxygen-17 NMR.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Luca; Mocci, Francesca; Muller, Robert N; Luhmer, Michel

    2012-08-01

    DTPA chelates of various diamagnetic and paramagnetic lanthanide(III) metal ions, as well as the chemically similar DTPA chelate of Y(3+), were studied in aqueous solution by variable temperature (17)O NMR with the aim of characterizing their internal dynamics. As a consequence of poor chemical shift dispersion and fast quadrupole relaxation, no dynamic exchange process could be detected for the diamagnetic complexes nor for the Sm-DTPA complex. In contrast, the spectra recorded for the Eu-DTPA complex show chemical exchange due to the well-known racemization process and, at high temperature, feature signal broadening that reveals a fluxional process involving the interchange of the coordinated and noncoordinated oxygen atoms of the carboxylate groups. The spectra recorded for the Pr-DTPA complex feature coalescence events due to such a fluxional process, which is ascribable to the rotation of the carboxylate groups. The activation free energy barriers determined experimentally are remarkably lower than the calculated activation barriers recently reported for the rotation of the carboxylate groups of various Ln-DOTA complexes. Furthermore, the smallest activation free energy measured for the Pr-DTPA complex, about 45 kJ mol(-1), is significantly lower than the activation free energy characterizing the racemization process. The fluxional behavior of the carboxylate groups is, however, not expected to significantly affect the residence time of the water molecule coordinated to the metal ion. PMID:22817329

  8. Global Aerosols

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... sizes and from multiple sources, including biomass burning, mineral dust, sea salt and regional industrial pollution. A color scale is ... desert source region. Deserts are the main sources of mineral dust, and MISR obtains aerosol optical depth at visible wavelengths ...

  9. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for bile duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Shi-Hong; Teng, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Qi-Dong; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Chen, Feng; Xiao, Wen-Bo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B). METHODS: The imaging findings of five cases of IPMN-B which were pathologically confirmed at our hospital between March 2012 and May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Three of these cases were diagnosed by duodenal endoscopy and biopsy pathology, and two cases were diagnosed by surgical pathology. All five patients underwent enhanced and non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI; one case underwent both Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and positron emission tomography-CT. The clinical data and imaging results for these cases were compared and are presented. RESULTS: Conventional imaging showed diffuse dilatation of bile ducts and multiple intraductal polypoid and papillary neoplasms or serrated changes along the bile ducts. In two cases, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI revealed dilated biliary ducts and intraductal tumors, as well as filling defects caused by mucin in the dilated bile ducts in the hepatobiliary phase. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in one case clearly showed a low-signal tumor in the hepatobiliary phase, similar to what was seen by positron emission tomography-CT. In two patients, routine inspection was unable to discern whether the lesions were inflammation or tumors. However, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI revealed a pattern of gradual enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase, and the signal intensity of the lesions was lower than the surrounding liver parenchyma, suggesting tissue inflammation in both cases, which were confirmed by surgical pathology. CONCLUSION: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI reveals the intraductal mucin component of IPMN-B in some cases and the extent of tumor infiltration beyond the bile ducts in invasive cases. PMID:26167082

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of novel polysaccharide-Gd-DTPA compounds as contrast agent for MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guoying; Feng, Jianghua; Jing, Fengying; Pei, Fengkui; Liu, Maili

    2003-09-01

    Macromolecular conjugates of two kinds of natural polysaccharides, that from Panax quinquefolium linn (PQPS) and Ganoderma applanatum pat (GAPS), with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) have been synthesized and characterized by means of FTIR, elementary analysis and ICP-AES. Their stability was investigated by competition study with Ca 2+, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and DTPA. Polysaccharide-bound complexes exhibit T1 relaxivities of 1.5-1.7 times that of Gd-DTPA in D 2O at 25°C and 9.4 T. MR imaging of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats showed remarkable enhancement in rat liver and kidney after i.v. injection of these two complexes: liver parenchyma 60.9±5.6%, 57.8±7.4% at 65-85 min; kidney 144.9±14.5%, 199.9±25.4% at 10-30 min for PQPS-Gd-DTPA, GAPS-Gd-DTPA at gadolinium dose of 0.083 and 0.082 mmol/kg, respectively. Our preliminary in vivo and in vitro study indicates that the two kinds of polysaccharide-bound complexes are potential tissue-specific contrast agents for MRI.

  11. Use of ammonium bicarbonate DTPA soil test to evaluate elemental availability and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Soltanpour, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The literature published on the use of the Soltanpour and Schwab Ammonium Bicarbonate-DTPA (AB-DTPA) soil test shows that it can be used to determine availability and toxicity indices for many elements. It has been shown to be an effective test for measuring the availability indices of P, K, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Ni, Cd and Se. Theoretically, it can also be used to determine the availability indices for S, Cu and As. The AB-DTPA test can predict toxicity of B as well as the standard hot water test, although within the non-toxic range of B, it is not as effective as the hot water test. The hot water test alone predicts B availability well, but the AB-DTPA B test result requires inclusion of soil water pH, organic matter and clay contents in a regression equation for predicting B availability. This test is not suitable for determination of exchangeable plus soluble Ca and Mg (high levels), as these precipitate as carbonates during extraction. The AB-DTPA test procedure with analysis by an inductively-coupled plasma spectrometer for simultaneous determination of elements, makes soil and overburden testing very efficient.

  12. Tropospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5=0.3 μg m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10

  13. Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Respiratory epithelial clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of {sup 113m}In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy.

  14. Decorporation of Pu/Am Actinides by Chelation Therapy: New Arguments in Favor of an Intracellular Component of DTPA Action.

    PubMed

    Grémy, Olivier; Laurent, David; Coudert, Sylvie; Griffiths, Nina M; Miccoli, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is currently still the only known chelating drug that can be used for decorporation of internalized plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am). It is generally assumed that chelation occurs only in biological fluids, thus preventing Pu/Am deposition in target tissues. We postulate that actinide chelation may also occur inside cells by a mechanism called "intracellular chelation". To test this hypothesis, rats were given DTPA either prior to (termed "prophylactic" treatment) or belatedly after (termed "delayed" treatment) Pu/Am injection. DTPA decorporation efficacy was systematically tested for both plutonium and americium. Both prophylactic and delayed DTPA elicited marked decreases in liver Pu/Am. These results can be explained by chelation within subcellular compartments where DTPA efficacy increased as a function of a favorable intracellular DTPA-to-actinide molar ratio. The efficacy of intracellular chelation of liver actinides decreased with the delay of treatment. This is probably explained by progressive actinide binding to the high-affinity ligand ferritin followed by migration to lysosomes. Intracellular chelation was reduced as the gap between prophylactic treatment and contamination increased. This may be explained by the reduction of the intracellular DTPA pool, which declined exponentially with time. Skeletal Pu/Am was also reduced by prophylactic and delayed DTPA treatments. This decorporation of bone actinides may mainly result from extracellular chelation on bone surfaces. This work provides converging evidence for the involvement of an intracellular component of DTPA action in the decorporation process. These results may help to improve the interpretation of biological data from DTPA-treated contamination cases and could be useful to model DTPA therapy regimens. PMID:27195610

  15. A pharmacokinetic approach to the evaluation of aerosol solutes for lung permeability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, D.L.; Weber, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and clearance of inhaled radioactive aerosols prepared from five Tc-99m labelled derivatives of HIDA, Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m 04- were evaluated in Beagle dogs. The investigation was designed to develop new aerosol solutes and to obtain information on molecular transport across the alveolar capillary membrane by evaluating molecular structure versus biological activity relationships. Aerosols with an aerodynamic mean diameter of .48 microns (sigmag=1.50), produced in a jet nebulizer, were administered to anesthetized dogs through an endotrachial tube. Aerosols were evaluated twice in each of five dogs for three HIDA derivatives, pertechnetate, and DTPA. Two other HIDA derivatives were evaluated twice in one animal. Sixty min. quantitative gamma camera studies were obtained. ROI processing and functional mapping of images showed distribution and clearance of identically sized aerosols to have a strong dependance on chemical properties. Dimethyl HIDA, trimethylbromo HIDA, and DISIDA with capacity factors (k') of -0.24, 0.63, and 0.65 respectively gave mean lung clearance t1/2 times of 76.6, 206.7, and 97.3 min. 4-bromo HIDA and 3,5-dichloro HIDA were administered to one animal; t1/2 times were 80.0 and 330 min. Two hydro-philic compounds, Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m 04-, were examined; t1/2 times were 49.6 min. and 21.2 min. respectively. A trend is seen where t1/2 values increase with lipophilicity; this suggests that structure activity relationships could be built on lipophilicity. These studies support the contention that molecular transport in the lung is an intercellular mechanism.

  16. Description of focal liver lesions with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    CARAIANI, COSMIN-NICOLAE; DAN, MARIAN; FENESAN, DIANA-IOANA; BADEA, RADU

    2015-01-01

    Imaging procedures play a fundamental role in the therapeutic management of focal liver lesions. The goals of imaging are to detect and correctly characterize focal liver lesions. This review highlights the performances of newer, liver-specific, contrast media in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions, particularly Gd-EOB-DTPA (Primovist), the most frequently used liver specific contrast media. It has been shown, in different papers, that Gd-EOB-DTPA has better performances compared to either triphasic contrast enhanced computed tomography or dynamic MRI in both detection and characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma on the cirrhotic liver. Therefore liver MRI with Primovist is considered, in many centers, the “state-of-the-art” imaging examination of the liver before surgery or liver transplantation. Gd-EOB-DTPA is also useful in the differential diagnosis of benign hypervascular focal liver lesions such as adenomas or focal nodular hyperplasias. PMID:26733231

  17. Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of bone cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, F M; Algra, P R; Maas, M; Dijkstra, P F; Falke, T H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine the contents of intraosseous cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through the signal intensity characteristics on gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS--The hand or foot joints of nine patients with the cystic form of RA (where the initial radiological abnormality consisted of intraosseous cysts without erosions) were imaged before and after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. A 0.6 unit, T1 weighted spin echo and T2* weighted gradient echo were used to obtain images in at least two perpendicular planes. RESULTS--Most cysts showed a low signal intensity on the non-enhanced T1 weighted (spin echo) images and a high signal intensity on the T2* weighted (gradient echo) images, consistent with a fluid content. No cyst showed an enhancement of signal intensity on the T1 weighted images after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA, whereas synovium hyperplasia at the site of bony erosions did show an increased signal intensity after Gd-DTPA. Magnetic resonance imaging detected more cysts (as small as 2 mm) than plain films, and the cysts were located truly intraosseously. In six patients no other joint abnormalities were identified by magnetic resonance imaging; the three other patients also showed, after Gd-DTPA administration, an enhanced synovium at the site of bony erosions. CONCLUSIONS--It is suggested that intraosseous bone cysts in patients with RA do not contain hyperaemic synovial proliferation. The bone cysts in patients with the cystic form of RA may be the only joint abnormality. Images PMID:8257207

  18. Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aerosols, defined as particles and droplets suspended in air, are always present in the atmosphere. They are part of the earth-atmosphere climate system, because they interact with both incoming solar and outgoing terrestrial radiation. They do this directly through scattering and absorption, and indirectly through effects on clouds. Submicrometer aerosols usually predominate in terms of number of particles per unit volume of air. They have dimensions close to the wavelengths of visible light, and thus scatter radiation from the sun very effectively. They are produced in the atmosphere by chemical reactions of sulfur-, nitrogen- and carbon-containing gases of both natural and anthropogenic origins. Light absorption is dominated by particles containing elemental carbon (soot), produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and by biomass burning. Light-scattering dominates globally, although absorption can be significant at high latitudes, particularly over highly reflective snow- or ice-covered surfaces. Other aerosol substances that may be locally important are those from volcanic eruptions, wildfires and windblown dust.

  19. Treatment of actinide exposures: a review of Ca-DTPA injections inside CEA-COGEMA plants.

    PubMed

    Grappin, Louise; Berard, Philippe; Menetrier, Florence; Carbone, Lise; Courtay, Catherine; Castagnet, Xavier; Le Goff, Jean-Pierre; Neron, Marie-Odile; Piechowski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Calcium diethylenetriamine pentacetate (Ca-DTPA) has been used for medical treatment of plutonium and americium contaminations in the CEA and COGEMA plants from 1970 to 2003. This paper is a survey of the injections Ca-DTPA administered as a chelating molecule and it will be a part of the authorisation process for Ca-DTPA by intravenous administration. Out of 1158 injections administered to 469 persons, 548 events of possible or confirmed contamination were reported. These employees were followed by occupational physicians according to the current French regulations. These incidents took place at work, were most often minor, not requiring follow-up treatment. The authors present (1) a synthesis of the most recent findings. Due to its short biological half-time and its limited action in the blood, Ca-DTPA does not chelate with plutonium and americium as soon as these elements are deposited in the target organs. It justifies an early treatment, even in cases of suspected contamination followed by additional injections if necessary (2) data concerning these 1158 injections (route of contamination, dosage, adverse effects, etc.) The authors also investigated a study on the efficacy of the product on a group of persons having received five or more injections. These results were compared with the efficacy estimated theoretically. Dosages and therapeutic schemes were proposed based on these observations. This synthesis is the result of a collective work having mobilised the occupational medicine departments, the medical laboratories inside a working group CEA-COGEMA-SPRA. PMID:17940101

  20. Vesicoureteral Reflux Detected with 99mTc-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy during Evaluation of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Majstorov, Venjamin; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Zdraveska, Nikolina; Kuzmanovska, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux nephropathy (RN) in children. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US) pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal, severe bilateral VUR was detected by voiding urethrocytography. US and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy performed in the first month of life showed small left kidney that participated with 2% in the global renal function. Bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy has been performed in order to obtain good renal drainage and promote optimal renal growth. Twelve months later, classic antireflux procedure was done. Control 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy, 5 ys after antireflux surgery, revealed persisting radioactivity during the diuretic phase, in the left kidney that indicated antireflux procedure failure with VUR reappearance. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is the first method of choice for long-term monitoring of individual kidney function in children with VUR and other congenital urinary tract anomalies. Additionally, it can be used as indirect radionuclide cystography when rising of radioactivity in the kidney region, during the diuretic phase can indicate presence of VUR. PMID:27275347

  1. Assessment of liver function in primary biliary cirrhosis using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Henrik; Blomqvist, Lennart; Douglas, Lena; Nordell, Anders; Jonas, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Gd-EOB-DTPA (gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) is a gadolinium-based hepatocyte-specific contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to determine whether the hepatic uptake and excretion of Gd-EOB-DTPA differ between patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and healthy controls, and whether differences could be quantified. Methods Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI was performed in 20 healthy volunteers and 12 patients with PBC. The uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA was assessed using traditional semi-quantitative parameters (Cmax, Tmax and T1/2), as well as model-free parameters derived after deconvolutional analysis (hepatic extraction fraction [HEF], input-relative blood flow [irBF] and mean transit time [MTT]). In each individual, all parameters were calculated for each liver segment and the median of the segmental values was used to define a global liver median (GLM). Results Although the PBC patients had relatively mild disease according to their Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD), Child–Pugh and Mayo risk scores, they had significantly lower HEF and shorter MTT values compared with the healthy controls. These differences significantly increased with increasing MELD and Child–Pugh scores. Conclusions Dynamic hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced MRI (DHCE-MRI) has a potential role as an imaging-based liver function test. The high spatial resolution of MRI enables hepatic function to be assessed on segmental and sub-segmental levels. PMID:20887325

  2. Liver fibrosis and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI: A histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Verloh, Niklas; Utpatel, Kirsten; Haimerl, Michael; Zeman, Florian; Fellner, Claudia; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Teufel, Andreas; Stroszczynski, Christian; Evert, Matthias; Wiggermann, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agent. Because the hepatic uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA depends on the integrity of the hepatocyte mass, this uptake can be quantified to assess liver function. We report the relationship between the extent of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake and the degree of liver fibrosis. T1-weighted volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before and 20 minutes after contrast injection. Strong correlations of the uptake characteristics of Gd-EOB-DTPA with the relative enhancement (RE) of the liver parenchyma and the grade of fibrosis/cirrhosis, classified using the Ishak scoring system, were observed. The subdivisions between the grades of liver fibrosis based on RE were highly significant for all combinations, and a ROC revealed sensitivities ≥82% and specificities ≥87% for all combinations. MR imaging is a satisfactorily sensitive method for the assessment of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. PMID:26478097

  3. Biodistribution of Ru-97-labeled DTPA, DMSA and transferrin. [Diagnostic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P; Oster, Z H; Fairchild, R G; Atkins, H L; Brill, A B; Gil, M C; Srivastava, S C; Meinken, G E; Goldman, A G; Richards, P

    1980-01-01

    Ruthenium-97 is being produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The favorable physical properties of Ru-97 and chemical reactivity of ruthenium offer a potential for using this isotope to label compounds useful for delayed scanning. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and Transferrin (TF) were labeled with Ru-97-chloride. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA, injected intravenously, showed similar organ distribution, kinetics, and more than 80% excretion by 0.5 h. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA injected into the cisterna magna of dogs showed similar kinetics in brain, blood, and urinary bladder. The energy deposited by 1 mCi In-111-DTPA is twice that from 1 mCi Ru-97-DTPA. High quality camera images of the CSF space in the dog were obtained with both isotopes. Ru-97-DMSA was prepared with and without the addition of SnCl/sub 2/.2H/sub 2/O. Tin-free DMSA was rapidly excreted via the kidneys, whereas for maximum cortical deposition, the tin-containing preparation was superior. This compound is suitable for delayed imaging of both normal and impaired kidneys. Tissue distribution studies were performed in abscess-bearing rats with Ru-97-transferrin. Although blood levels were higher than with Ga-67-citrate, the abscess had twice as much Ru-97-TF as Ga-67-citrate and the Ru-97 muscle activity was one-third that of Ga-67. Imaging of abscess-bearing rabbits with Ru-97-TF visualized the abscesses as early as 1/2 hr after injection. Since the initial images visualize the abscess so clearly and since the TF portion of the compound binds to the abscess, Tc-99m-TF is being studied for the same purpose. Ru-97-labeled compounds are a promising replacement for In-111 and possibly also for Ga-67 compounds with the advantages of lower radiation dose and high quality image. (ERB)

  4. Factors in myocardial "perfusion" imaging with ultrafast MRI and Gd-DTPA administration.

    PubMed

    Burstein, D; Taratuta, E; Manning, W J

    1991-08-01

    Ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and first pass observation of an interstitial contrast agent are currently being used to study myocardial perfusion. Image intensity, however, is a function of several parameters, including the delivery of the contrast agent to the interstitium (coronary flow rate and diffusion into the interstitium) and the relaxation properties of the tissue (contrast agent concentration, proton exchange rates, and relative intra- and extracellular volume fractions). In this study, image intensity during gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) administration with T1-weighted ultrafast MR imaging was assessed in an isolated heart preparation. With increasing Gd-DTPA concentration, the steady-state myocardial image intensity increased but the time to reach steady state remained unchanged, resulting in an increased slope of image intensity change. A range of physiologic perfusion pressures (and resulting coronary flow rates) had insignificant effects on kinetics of Gd-DTPA wash-in or steady-state image intensity, suggesting that diffusion of Gd-DTPA into the interstitium is the rate limiting step in image intensity change with this preparation. Following global ischemia and reperfusion, transmural differences in the slope of image intensity change were apparent. However, the altered steady-state image intensity (due to postischemic edema) makes interpretation of this finding difficult. The studies described here demonstrate that although Gd-DTPA administration combined with ultrafast imaging may be a sensitive indicator of perfusion abnormalities, factors other than perfusion will affect image intensity. Extensive studies will be required before image intensity with this protocol is fully understood. PMID:1775055

  5. Determination of glomerular filtration rate with 99mTc-DTPA in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Galli, G; Rufini, V; Meduri, G; Piraccini, R; D'Andrea, G

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the practical reliability of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determination with 99mTc-DTPA and plasma sampling, the authors compared the results obtained with 51Cr-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA in 50 patients using five easily applied methods (two double-plasma-sample methods and three single-plasma-sample methods), and two kits with different compositions. It was observed that: 1) there is no difference between the results obtained with the two different kits. 2) Compared with 51Cr-EDTA the 99mTc-DTPA overestimates the result by about 2 mL/min: precision is slightly lower with 99mTc-DTPA than with 51Cr-EDTA but is sufficient for practical use. 3) The method recommended by the authors on the basis of this experience is the Russell's method with two samples. 4) The simplified methods with one sample give comparable results to the Russell's method for GFR levels between 50 and 115 mL/min, while the results are unsatisfactory below 50 mL/min. 5) Among the single-sample methods, the authors suggest that of Christensen and Groth. 6) A preliminary estimate of GFR (from the serum creatinine level, for instance) is useful for the choice between double-plasma-sample methods and simplified methods. In conclusion, the authors consider that the estimation of GFR with 99mTc-DTPA can be performed efficiently in clinical practice even when operating in absolutely routine conditions. PMID:7786917

  6. Species-dependent chelation of (241)Am by DTPA Di-ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Huckle, James E; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an FDA-approved chelating agent for enhancing the elimination of transuranic elements such as americium from the body. Early access to therapy minimizes deposition of these radionuclides in tissues such as the bone. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, DTPA is administered as an IV injection, delaying access. Therefore, a diethyl-ester analog of DTPA, named C2E2, was synthesized as a means to increase oral absorption. As a hexadentate ligand, it was hypothesized that C2E2 was capable of binding americium directly. Therefore, the protonation constants and americium stability constant for C2E2 were determined by potentiometric titration and a solvent extraction method, respectively. C2E2 was shown to bind americium with a log K of 19.6. The concentrations of C2E2, its metabolite C2E1, and DTPA required to achieve effective binding in rat, beagle, and human plasma were studied in vitro. Dose response curves for each ligand were established, and the 50% maximal effective concentrations were determined for each species. As expected, higher concentrations of C2E2 were required to achieve the same degree of binding as DTPA. The results indicated that chelation in beagle plasma is more representative of the human response than rats. Finally, the pharmacokinetics of C2E2 were investigated in beagles, and the data was fit to a two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, along with first-order absorption. Based on the in vitro data, a 100 mg kg dose of C2E2 can be expected to have an effective duration of action of 3.8 h in beagles. PMID:25706138

  7. Species-Dependent Chelation of 241Am by DTPA Di-ethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Huckle, James E.; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Mumper, Russell J.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an FDA approved chelating agent for enhancing the elimination of transuranic elements such as americium from the body. Early access to therapy minimizes deposition of these radionuclides in tissues such as the bone. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, DTPA is administered as an IV injection, delaying access. Therefore a diethyl-ester analog of DTPA, named C2E2, was synthesized as a means to increase oral absorption. As a hexadentate ligand, it was hypothesized that C2E2 was capable of binding americium directly. Therefore, the protonation constants and americium stability constant for C2E2 were determined by potentiometric titration and a solvent extraction method, respectively. C2E2 was shown to bind americium with a log K of 19.6. The concentrations of C2E2, its metabolite C2E1, and DTPA required to achieve effective binding in rat, beagle, and human plasma were studied in vitro. Dose response curves for each ligand were established and the 50% maximal effective concentrations were determined for each species. As expected, higher concentrations of C2E2 were required to achieve the same degree of binding as DTPA. The results indicated that chelation in beagle plasma is more representative of the human response than rats. Finally, the pharmacokinetics of C2E2 were investigated in beagles and the data was fit to a two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, along with first-order absorption. Based on the in vitro data, a 100 mg kg−1 dose of C2E2 can be expected to have an effective duration of action of 3.8 hours in beagles. PMID:25706138

  8. Detection of pleural effusions and increased lung water by Tc-99m DTPA imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, E.C.; Karelitz, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to report a systematic observation of uptake or retention of Tc-99m DTPA in pleural effusions and other abnormal states of increased lung water. 24 patients who underwent renal imaging with 10 mCi Tc-99m DTPA were included. Imaging was performed with a large field of view camera for 0-03 minutes after injection and delayed images acquired 2-4 hours later. The images encompassed the mid and lower thorax as well as kidneys. 15 patients showed, at 0-5 minutes, cold areas at lung bases that later showed relatively increased activity at 2-4 hours (hot on delayed images). 14 of these 15 patients showed pleural effusions on chest x-ray. Small bilateral effusions were more clearly demonstrated by scan than by x-ray in 8 of 15 patients. One patient with pneumonia showed an immediate hot area in the infected lobe, and two with pulmonary edema and congestive failure showed diffuse lung retention of Tc-99m on delayed images. Among 9 patients who did not demonstrate abnormal cold or hot areas in their lungs on DTPA images, none had clinical or x-ray evidence of pleural effusion, pneumonia, or congestive failure (100% negative predictive value). Differences in rate constants for diffusion into vs. out of pleural fluid provide a plausible explanation for the observed retention of tracer in effusions, as seen on delayed images. This study indicates that imaging with Tc-99m DTPA provides information of diagnostic value in the detection of pleural effusions. Futhermore, the data suggests that DTPA imaging may also be useful as a simple, cost-effective method to detect other conditions in which regional lung water is abnormally increased.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of new low-molecular-weight lysine-conjugated Gd-DTPA contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Sophie; Burtea, Carmen; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    Various blood pool contrast agents (CAs), characterized by intravascular distribution, have been developed to assist contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Among these CAs, the DTPA derivatives conjugated to synthetic polypeptides, such as polylysine, represent attractive candidates for blood pool imaging. However, due to the presence of charged residues located on their backbone, these agents are retained in the kidneys and this compromises their long blood half-life. In order to overcome this major drawback of the polylysine compounds, two new low-molecular-weight CAs were synthesized in the present work by conjugating four or six 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-DTPA moieties to tri- or penta-Lys peptides [(Gd-DTPA)(4) Lys(3) and (Gd-DTPA)(6) Lys(5)], respectively. All the -NH(2) groups of Lys were thus blocked by covalent conjugation to DTPA. The stability and relaxometric properties of these compounds, as well as their pharmacokinetic and biodistribution characteristics, were then evaluated. The half-life in blood of these new polylysine derivatives, as determined in rats, is twofold longer than that of Gd-DTPA. The compounds could thus be optimal blood pool markers for MRA, which typically uses fast acquisition times. The absence of positive molecular charge did not limit their retention in kidneys 2 h after administration. On the other hand, (Gd-DTPA)(4) Lys(3) is retained in kidneys to a lesser extent than (Gd-DTPA)(6) Lys(5) . Their moderate retention in blood and their higher stability and relaxivity in comparison with Gd-DTPA highlight these polylysine derivatives as optimal compared with previously developed polylysine compounds. PMID:21861283

  10. Kidney scintigraphy after ACE inhibition in the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Ghione, S.; Fommei, E.; Palombo, C.; Giaconi, S.; Mantovanelli, A.; Ragazzini, A.; Palla, L.

    1986-01-01

    Suppression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition may induce renal failure in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis. Recent scintigraphic studies with the glomerular tracer technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (99m-Tc DTPA) indicate that in patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be markedly reduced in the affected kidney after inhibition of ACE. This finding reflects the important role of the RAS in maintaining GFR (by increasing postglomerular resistance) in states of low renal perfusion pressure. Preliminary observations suggest that this scintigraphic test might be useful in the detection of renovascular hypertension.

  11. Preclinical evaluation of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl AK; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the 111In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X (111In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the 111In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the 111In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer. PMID:24982817

  12. Comparison of the Relative Renal Function Calculated with 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Tanju; Yalçin, Hülya; Günay, Emel Ceylan; Özen, Aynur; Özer, Cahit

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to compare the relative renal functions measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) in children with renal diseases. Relative renal function of 128 children who applied to three hospitals from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean value measured with 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA were 51.58 ± 14.95 and 51.96 ± 14.99 for the right kidney, 47.87 ± 15.27 and 47.94 ± 15.17 for the left kidney, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the relative renal functions (r = 0.963, P < 0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, the mean difference between two methods was 0.7 and the correlation limits were between 10.1 and-10.8. As a result, although 99mTc-DMSA is accepted as the most reliable method for the determination of relative renal function, 99mTc-DTPA can be another choice for the calculation of relative renal function without a complementary DMSA scan particularly in pediatric patients who require renogram curve and GFR calculations. PMID:25538484

  13. Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

  14. Effectiveness of DTPA therapy when administered intragastrically or intraperitoneally to remove Pu from adult or neonatal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.F.; Ruemmler, P.S.

    1986-11-01

    Adult and neonatal rats were given /sup 238/Pu by gavage or parenterally and treated with 0.5 mmoles/kg of calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), by gavage or parenterally, to determine its effectiveness for removing Pu. Parenteral administration of DTPA to adult rats 2 h after an intravenous /sup 238/Pu injection was much more effective than intragastric treatment, removing nearly 70% of the retained dose. When /sup 238/Pu was given to adults intragastrically (IG), followed by DTPA given either intraperitoneally (IP) or IG 2 h later, /sup 238/Pu absorption increased while retention remained either unchanged, or increased. When neonates were given /sup 238/Pu IG and treated 2 h later with intraperitoneal or intragastric DTPA, removal of /sup 238/Pu was better than in adults: more than 80% of the /sup 238/Pu that was absorbed and retained was removed by intragastric DTPA. When neonates were injected IP with /sup 238/Pu, treatment with intraperitoneal DTPA was more effective for /sup 238/Pu removal than intragastric treatment.

  15. Influence of phosphorus sources and rates on soil pH, extractable phosphorus, and DTPA-extractable micronutrients

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Showk, A.M.; Westerman, R.L.; Weeks, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    Two soils (McLain sicl-fine, mixed, thermic, Pachic Argiustoll and Quinlan cl-loamy, mixed, thermic, shallow Typic Ustocrept) that differed in micronutrient content and chemical characteristics were collected from western Oklahoma. Soils were passed through a 2-mm screen and placed in plastic Petri dishes, and five P levels (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg ha/sup -1/) were applied using monocalcium phosphate (MCP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and ammonium polyphosphate (APP); the soils were then mixed uniformly. Soils were moistened to approximately 0.33 MPa and incubated for 2 mo at room temperature. Application of P decreased soil pH in both soils, and MAP and APP had a greater effect than MCP, which was attributed to the nitrification of the added ammonium. Bray and Kurtz no. 1 P increased with P application in both soils. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu in McLain soil. However, high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn in McLain soil. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Mn in the Quinlan soil; however; high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn and -Cu in Quinlan soil.

  16. Aerosol gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

  17. Pediatric leptomeningeal metastasis: 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow studies.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, M C

    1994-04-01

    Nine children (five girls and four boys) ranging in age from 1 to 18 years (median age, 12 years) with leptomeningeal metastasis were evaluated for cerebrospinal fluid compartmentalization with cerebrospinal fluid flow studies using ventricular diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with indium 111 (111In-DTPA). Histologic diagnosis included medulloblastoma (two), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (two), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (two), pineoblastoma (one), ependymoma (one), and anaplastic astrocytoma (one). Sixteen 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow studies were performed, of which nine demonstrated normal anterograde cerebrospinal fluid flow of radionuclide, with the following cerebrospinal fluid compartment median times to appearance, with ranges in parentheses: ventricles, 1 minute (0 to 3 minutes); cisterna magna/basal cisterns, 5 minutes (3 to 5 minutes); cervical subarachnoid space, 8 minutes (5 to 10 minutes); thoracic subarachnoid space, 15 minutes (10 to 30 minutes); lumbar subarachnoid space, 35 minutes (20 to 45 minutes); and sylvian cistern, 80 minutes (60 to 90 minutes). Blockage of normal anterograde cerebrospinal fluid flow was seen in seven 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow studies in the following cerebrospinal fluid compartments: cervical subarachnoid space (four), lumbar subarachnoid space (two), and cisterna magna/basal cisterns (one). Five 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow studies were performed after demonstration of cerebrospinal fluid compartmentalization and treatment with limited-field radiation therapy to involved regions; cerebrospinal fluid flow blocks resolved in three. In conclusion, cerebrospinal fluid compartmentalization, as shown by radionuclide ventriculography, is a common occurrence in pediatric leptomeningeal metastasis (four of nine patients, or 44%) and may be palliated by involved-field radiotherapy. PMID:8006365

  18. Mn-54 DTPA distribution in dogs: Evaluation as a potential NMR contrast agent

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, R.J.; Frick, M.P.; Levy, R.M.; Sirr, S.A.; Lund, G.; Loken, M.K.

    1985-05-01

    Several paramagnetic ions are currently being evaluated as potential contrast agents for NMR imaging. To date the most successful of these appears to be Gd-DTPA. The authors recently undertook an investigation into the kinetics of biodistribution of Mn-DTPA to determine if this agent showed any tissue specific uptake, and if so, to optimize the time for imaging. In order to obviate the need for repetitive quantitative NMR imaging they have substituted tracer amounts of Mn-54 for the stable ion. Following intravenous injection into three mongrel dogs, samples of blood, bowel, liver, and pancreas were obtained at 3, 15, 30 and 60 minutes and 2, 4 and 6 hours post-injection. Radioactivity, and thus tissue concentration, was then determined in a gamma counter. Urine was also collected throughout the study. At six hours 58.4 +- 7.1% of the injected dose had been excreted in the urine. Peak liver accumulation occurred within 30 minutes (0.503 +- 0.144% injected dose/gm x kg body weight). The pancreas also showed a relatively high accumulation of tracer (0.247 +- 0.039%/gram x kg body weight) by four hours. The pancreas to liver ratios were highest at six hours (.73). The blood concentration fell very rapidly with little tracer remaining in the blood at one hour. The results of these experiments indicate that a significant portion of the injected material was concentrated by liver and pancreas. Unlike MnCl/sub 2/, most of the Mn-DTPA is excreted in the urine. This excretion is expected to reduce the toxicity of the injected material. These results are being used to establish the optimal protocols for NMR imaging with Mn-DTPA.

  19. Clinical diagnostic application of 111In-DTPA-octreotide scintigraphy in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vaccarili, M; Lococo, A; Fabiani, F; Staffilano, A

    2000-01-01

    Some years ago it was proved that a good percentage of small cell lung cancers, classified among cancers of the APUD system, produces somatostatin receptors that can be detected in vivo by scintigraphy with 111In-DTPA-octreotide. With the method in the whole body it is possible to identify the principal neoformation and the probable metastases. The authors present a study of 21 patients afflicted with small cell lung cancer diagnosed histologically. The study, carried out between January 1995 and December 1997, compared the radiologic iconography of the CT scan with the scintigraphic map obtained by a planar scintigraphy and in SPECT 1, 4 and 24-hr after iv injection of 110 MBq of 111In-DTPA-octreotide. The comparison was made with reference to the principal neoplasm and probable metastases. A scintigraphic study, a CT of restaging and a follow-up, done after 3 and 6 months of chemotherapy, on 15 patients with cancer that produces somatostatin receptors proved that the neoplasm sometimes regresses and sometimes progresses. In the latter case, it is possible to identify cerebral, mediastinal and hepatic metastases with the administration of 200 microg of octreotide 3 times a day for 7 days before the scintigraphy. In fact, the administration lowers background activity. The authors concluded that scintigraphy with 111In-DTPA-octreotide plays an important part in the study of patients afflicted with small cell lung cancer. Scintigraphy identifies the subgroups of patients who can be cured with somatostatin analogues together with chemotherapy. Scintigraphy presents a good sensibility in the re-staging and in the follow-up of patients who are treated, even though it is difficult to identify subdiaphragmatic metastases where liver, spleen and kidney show an increase in 111In-DTPA-octreotide. PMID:10939603

  20. [DTPA-99mTc in pediatric renal disease (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Abós Olivares, M D; Banzo Marraco, J; Teijeiro Vidal, J; Mateo Navarro, A; Carreras Delgado, J L; García López, F

    1980-01-01

    99MTc is an ideal nuclide for Pediatric use. Combined with DTPA is an adequate agent for renal studies. 15 patients with ages ranging from eight days to eleven years were studied (10 patients with congenital malformation and five with renal tumour). The dosimetric advantages, the obtention with a single nuclide dose of multiple images and the diagnostic usefulness in congenital malformation and renal tumour suggest their use. PMID:7369638

  1. Evaluation of the viability of /sup 111/In-abeled DTPA coupled to fibrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, W.W.; Hnatowich, D.J.; Doherty, P.W.; Childs, R.L.; Lanteigne, D.; Ansell, J.

    1982-07-01

    In earlier work, DTPA has been covalently coupled to albumin via the cyclic anhydride of DTPA. Using fibrinogen, we have studied the effect of such coupling on protein viability by both an in vitro and an in vivo assay. Clotting time remained identical to that of the native protein whether the anhydride-to-protein molar ratio was 1:1 or 5:1. In vivo studies were done in dogs, with human fibrinogen labeled with /sup 125/I and /sup 111/In. Throughout 130 hr, blood clearances for the two tracers agreed whether with 1:1 or 5:1 coupling. In a dog model with a thrombogenic catheter, the clot-to-blood ratios for the two radiotracers agreed within experimental error. Finally, 1:1-coupled canine fibrinogen, labeled with /sup 111/In, was administered to dogs with a catheter in a jugular vein, and scintigrams at 24 hr clearly showed clotting along the length of the catheter. We conclude that fibrinogen, coupled to DTPA, retains its viability, behaving like radioiodinated fibrinogen in vivo, and /sup 111/In labeled fibrinogen looks promising as a clinical diagnostic agent.

  2. Evaluation of liver function using gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhanced MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Akira; Hara, Takeshi; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio

    2010-03-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is widely used for its clearance test in the evaluation of liver function. Gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a targeted MR contrast agent partially taken up by hepatocytes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an estimation of the liver function corresponding to plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (ICG-PDR) by use of the signal intensity of the liver alone in Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR imaging (EOB-MRI). We evaluated fourteen patients who had EOB-MRI and ICG clearance test within 1 month. 2D-GRE T1 weighted images were obtained at pre contrast, 3 min (equilibrium phase) and 20 min (hepatobiliary phase) after the intravenous administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA, and the mean signal intensity of the liver was measured. The correlation between ICG-PDR and many parameters derived from the signal intensity of the liver in EOB-MRI was evaluated. The correlation coefficient between ICG-PDR and many parameters derived from the signal intensity of the liver in EOBMRI was low and not significant. The estimation of the liver function corresponding to ICG-PDR by use of the signal intensity of the liver alone in EOB-MRI would not be reliable.

  3. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  4. Lung inflammation in coal miners assessed by uptake of 67Ga-citrate and clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Rom, W.N. )

    1992-07-01

    The authors compared the diffuse lung uptake of 67Ga-citrate, an index of inflammatory lung activity, with the lung clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) aerosol, an index of pulmonary epithelial permeability, in a group of 19 West Virginia coal miners whose pulmonary status was compatible with coal worker's pneumoconiosis. 99mTc-DTPA clearance alone and 67Ga-citrate uptake alone were measured in nine and five additional subjects, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine if increased 99mTc-DTPA lung clearance was caused by inflammation at the lung epithelial surfaces. Subjects inhaled approximately 150 microCi (approximately 5.6 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, and quantitative gamma camera images of the lungs were acquired at 1-min increments for 25 min. Regions of interest (ROI) were selected to include (1) both lungs; (2) each individual lung; and (3) the upper, middle, and lower thirds of each lung. 99mTc-DTPA clearance was determined from the slopes of the respective time-activity plots for the different ROI. Each subject was intravenously administered 50 miCroCk (1.9 MBq)/kg 67Ga-citrate 48 to 72 h before imaging the body between neck and pelvis. The extent of 67Ga-citrate lung uptake was expressed as the gallium index (GI). Mean radioaerosol clearance half-time (T1/2) for the six nonsmoking coal miners (60.6 +/- 16.0 min) was significantly shorter (p less than 0.001) than for the nonsmoking control group (123.8 +/- 28.7 min). T1/2 for the 12 smoking miners (18.4 +/- 10.2 min) was shorter than for the smoking control group (33.1 +/- 17.8 min), but the difference did not attain statistical significance.

  5. Acceleration of natural-abundance solid-state MAS NMR measurements on bone by paramagnetic relaxation from gadolinium-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Mroue, Kamal H; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H; Morris, Michael D; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-07-01

    Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA=Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the (1)H T1 values were calculated from data collected by (1)H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the (1)H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the (13)C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from (13)C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using (1)H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans. PMID:24881032

  6. Acceleration of natural-abundance solid-state MAS NMR measurements on bone by paramagnetic relaxation from gadolinium-DTPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroue, Kamal H.; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-07-01

    Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA = Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the 1H T1 values were calculated from data collected by 1H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the 1H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10 mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the 13C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from 13C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using 1H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans.

  7. Acceleration of Natural-Abundance Solid-State MAS NMR Measurements on Bone by Paramagnetic Relaxation from Gadolinium-DTPA

    PubMed Central

    Mroue, Kamal H.; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA = Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the 1H T1 values were calculated from data collected by 1H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the 1H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10 mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the 13C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from 13C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using 1H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans. PMID:24881032

  8. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  9. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  10. Aerosols and environmental pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth’s radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  11. Aerosol penetration ratio: a new index of ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sirr, S A; Elliott, G R; Regelmann, W E; Juenemann, P J; Morin, R L; Boudreau, R J; Warwick, W J; Loken, M K

    1986-08-01

    Superimposition of nuclear medicine scintigrams and standard radiographs provides a unique opportunity for merging functional information intrinsic to nuclear medicine images with the high resolution anatomic detail of radiographs. A newly developed image processing system allows the merging of two separate films of greatly varying sizes to form a single composite image. Subsequent quantitative analysis of the composite image may be performed. Using the superimposition technique, [99mTc]DTPA aerosol ventilation scans (4.5 X 4.5 cm) were superimposed upon chest radiographs (35.6 X 43.2 cm) in 17 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Subsequent quantification of the area of nuclear scan ventilation and the radiographic lung area was then performed. A new quantitative radiologic index of ventilation, the aerosol penetration ratio (APR), was defined. Linear correlation of aerosol penetration ratio with residual volume (RV) as percent of total lung capacity (TLC) measured by body plethysmography was good. We conclude that the APR has validity as a physiologic parameter which localized regional excessive residual volume and correlates well with RV/TLC, the "gold standard" pulmonary function index of obstructive airway disease. PMID:3525781

  12. Aerosol penetration ratio: a new index of ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Sirr, S.A.; Elliott, G.R.; Regelmann, W.E.; Juenemann, P.J.; Morin, R.L.; Boudreau, R.J.; Warwick, W.J.; Loken, M.K.

    1986-08-01

    Superimposition of nuclear medicine scintigrams and standard radiographs provides a unique opportunity for merging functional information intrinsic to nuclear medicine images with the high resolution anatomic detail of radiographs. A newly developed image processing system allows the merging of two separate films of greatly varying sizes to form a single composite image. Subsequent quantitative analysis of the composite image may be performed. Using the superimposition technique, (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol ventilation scans (4.5 X 4.5 cm) were superimposed upon chest radiographs (35.6 X 43.2 cm) in 17 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Subsequent quantification of the area of nuclear scan ventilation and the radiographic lung area was then performed. A new quantitative radiologic index of ventilation, the aerosol penetration ratio (APR), was defined. Linear correlation of aerosol penetration ratio with residual volume (RV) as percent of total lung capacity (TLC) measured by body plethysmography was good. We conclude that the APR has validity as a physiologic parameter which localized regional excessive residual volume and correlates well with RV/TLC, the gold standard pulmonary function index of obstructive airway disease.

  13. Particle size influences aerosol deposition in guinea pigs during bronchoconstriction

    SciTech Connect

    Praud, J.P.; Macquin-Mavier, I.; Wirquin, V.; Meignan, M.; Harf, A.

    1986-03-01

    The role of two factors determining the deposition of aerosols in the respiratory tract was investigated: the particle size and the nature of the airflow in the airways. An aerosol of Tc99 m-DTPA was generated, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of either 3 ..mu..m (Bird nebulizer) or 0.5 ..mu..m (Jouan nebulizer). The vehicle was either saline (S) or histamine (H) at a concentration which was previously shown to induce a 50% decrease of specific airway conductance. Spontaneously breathing guinea pigs were exposed during 2 minutes to the aerosol, then killed and the radioactivity in the pharynx, the trachea, the large bronchi and the remaining parenchyma was measured. Results are evaluated as the percentage of total radioactivity in the respiratory tract (mean +/- SEM). Analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference in the pattern of deposition for large particles (3 ..mu..m) during bronchoconstriction: the more proximal deposition can be ascribed to inertial impaction. Particle size should be clearly defined during histamine challenge in experimental animals.

  14. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  15. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  16. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  17. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, Donald S.; Schober, Robert K.; Beller, John

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  18. Self-assembly of SiO2/Gd-DTPA-polyethylenimine nanocomposites as magnetic resonance imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kui; Tian, Jing; Liu, Gang; Sun, Jiayu; Xia, Chunchao; Tang, Hehan; Lin, Ling; Miao, Tianxin; Zhao, Xuna; Gao, Fabao; Gong, Qiyong; Song, Bin; Shuai, Xintao; Ai, Hua; Gu, Zhongwei

    2010-01-01

    Controlled self-assembly of organic/inorganic magnetic hybrid materials have important applications in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, a widely used polycation polyethylenimine was conjugated with gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA) as a gadolinium bearing polyelectrolyte (Gd-DTPA-PEI). Next, multilayers of Gd-DTPA-PEI were coated on silica nanoparticles through layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly with polyanions as monitored by dynamic light scattering, zeta-potential, and scanning electron microscopy. The thickness of the multilayer film was estimated from quartz crystal microbalance based on counting frequency change of each adsorbed layer. The magnetic relaxation of SiO2/(Gd-DTPA-PEl/polyanion), core-shell nanocomposite was tested at 1.5 T magnetic field in a clinical MRI scanner, and a 3-fold increase in T1 relaxivity to 15.1 Gd mM(-1)s(-1) was noticed comparing to Gd-DTPA small molecules. Dextran sulfate was coated as the outermost layer on the nanocomposite for better biocompatibility as verified by in vitro cytotoxicity studies. This formulation provides good signal intensity enhancement of mouse liver in vivo with only 1/25 dose of clinical standard at 30 and 60 minutes after intravenous injection. This sensitive imaging probe with unique core-shell structures may find broad applications in cellular and molecular imaging. PMID:20352889

  19. Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): Formulation design and optimization studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion.. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone. PMID:24047113

  20. Hydrothermally synthesized PEGylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles incorporating Gd-DTPA for contrast enhanced MRI diagnosis of solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Mi, Peng; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Cabral, Horacio; Kumagai, Michiaki; Nomoto, Takahiro; Aoki, Ichio; Terada, Yasuko; Kishimura, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2014-01-28

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles with calcium phosphate (CaP) core and PEGylated shell were developed to incorporate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (III) (Gd-DTPA) for noninvasive diagnosis of solid tumors. A two-step preparation method was applied to elaborate hybrid nanoparticles with a z-average hydrodynamic diameter about 80nm, neutral surface ξ-potential and high colloidal stability in physiological environments by self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartic acid) block copolymer, Gd-DTPA, and CaP in aqueous solution, followed with hydrothermal treatment. Incorporation into the hybrid nanoparticles allowed Gd-DTPA to show significant enhanced retention ratio in blood circulation, leading to high accumulation in tumor positions due to enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Moreover, Gd-DTPA revealed above 6 times increase of relaxivity in the nanoparticle system compared to free form, and eventually, selective and elevated contrast enhancements in the tumor positions were observed. These results indicate the high potential of Gd-DTPA-loaded PEGylated CaP nanoparticles as a novel contrast agent for noninvasive cancer diagnosis. PMID:24211705

  1. Tropopsheric Aerosol Chemistry via Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsnop, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    A broad overview of size resolved aerosol chemistry in urban, rural and remote regions is evolving from deployment of aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) throughout the northern hemisphere. Using thermal vaporization and electron impact ionization as universal detector of non-refractory inorganic and organic composition, the accumulation of AMS results represent a library of mass spectral signatures of aerosol chemistry. For organics in particular, mass spectral factor analysis provides a procedure for classifying (and simplifying) complex mixtures composed of the hundreds or thousands of individual compounds. Correlations with parallel gas and aerosol measurements (e.g. GC/MS, HNMR, FTIR) supply additional chemical information needed to interpret mass spectra. The challenge is to separate primary and secondary; anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning sources - and subsequent - transformations of aerosol chemistry and microphysics.

  2. Extrarenal abnormalities in Tc-99m-DTPA renal blood flow studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The authors observed extrarenal abnormalities during renal flow scintigraphy and retrospectively reviewed 90 patient studies to determine the types and frequencies of such abnormal findings. For each routine Tc-99m-DTPA renal flow study, they obtained nine 2-second sequential images, which included the heart, abdominal aorta, spleen and kidneys. Eighty abnormalities, observed in 62 patients, were divided into three categories: aortic, 37 cases; splenic, 40 cases; and miscellaneous, 3 cases. Other correlative studies including Tc-99m sulfur colloid-spleen scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), CT, aortography, and surgical and/or autopsy findings were available for corroboration in 56 of 80 lesions.

  3. Additive effect of BPA and Gd-DTPA for application in accelerator-based neutron source.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, F; Yamamoto, T; Nakai, K; Zaboronok, A; Matsumura, A

    2015-12-01

    Because of its fast metabolism gadolinium as a commercial drug was not considered to be suitable for neutron capture therapy. We studied additive effect of gadolinium and boron co-administration using colony forming assay. As a result, the survival of tumor cells with additional 5 ppm of Gd-DTPA decreased to 1/10 compared to the cells with boron only. Using gadolinium to increase the effect of BNCT instead of additional X-ray irradiation might be beneficial, as such combination complies with the short-time irradiation regimen at the accelerator-based neutron source. PMID:26242560

  4. Functional fecal retention visualized by (111)In-DTPA colon transit scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Infante, Jose Rafael; Rayo, Juan I; Serrano, Justo; Dominguez, Maria L; Garcia, Lucia; Moreno, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Constipation is an extremely common problem in children, varying from mild and short-lived to severe and chronic. Chronic constipation is a serious childhood condition and requires further investigation, including blood test, colonoscopy, radio-opaque marker study, and/or scintigraphy. We present small bowel and colon transit scintigraphy of a 14-year-old girl with history of chronic constipation, abdominal pain, weight loss, and poor response to medical treatment. After oral administration of In-DTPA in water, planar and SPECT/CT images showed normal small bowel transit time and functional fecal retention in colon transit study. PMID:25706788

  5. [55Co]- and [64Cu]DTPA: new radiopharmaceuticals for quantitative tomocisternography.

    PubMed

    Mazière, B; Stulzaft, O; Verret, J M; Comar, D; Syrota, A

    1983-03-01

    The diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) complexes of the convenient half-life positron emitters 55Co and 64Cu have been prepared for quantitation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) kinetics in different areas of the brain using positron emission tomography. The radionuclides are prepared by proton bombardment of natural nickel (58Ni(p, alpha)55 Co and 64Ni (p,n)64Cu reactions). The chemical separation of the radionuclides from the target is described, and the production yields, radionuclidic purities and specific activities are given. PMID:6602099

  6. 111In-BnDTPA-F3: an Auger electron-emitting radiotherapeutic agent that targets nucleolin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The F3 peptide (KDEPQRRSARLSAKPAPPKPEPKPKKAPAKK), a fragment of the human high mobility group protein 2, binds nucleolin. Nucleolin is expressed in the nuclei of normal cells but is also expressed on the membrane of some cancer cells. The goal was to investigate the use of 111In-labeled F3 peptide for Auger electron-targeted radiotherapy. Methods F3 was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for confocal microscopy and conjugated to p-SCN-benzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (BnDTPA) for labeling with 111In to form 111In-BnDTPA-F3. MDA-MB-231-H2N (231-H2N) human breast cancer cells were exposed to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 and used in cell fractionation, γH2AX immunostaining (a marker of DNA double-strand breaks), and clonogenic assays. In vivo, biodistribution studies of 111In-BnDTPA-F3 were performed in 231-H2N xenograft-bearing mice. In tumor growth delay studies, 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (3 μg, 6 MBq/μg) was administered intravenously to 231-H2N xenograft-bearing mice once weekly for 3 weeks. Results Membrane-binding of FITC-F3 was observed in 231-H2N cells, and there was co-localization of FITC-F3 with nucleolin in the nuclei. After exposure of 231-H2N cells to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 for 2 h, 1.7% of 111In added to the medium was membrane-bound. Of the bound 111In, 15% was internalized, and of this, 37% was localized in the nucleus. Exposure of 231-H2N cells to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (1 μM, 6 MBq/μg) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in γH2AX foci and in a significant reduction of clonogenic survival compared to untreated cells or cells exposed to unlabeled BnDTPA-F3 (46 ± 4.1%, 100 ± 1.8%, and 132 ± 7.7%, respectively). In vivo, tumor uptake of 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (3 μg, 6 MBq/μg) at 3-h post-injection was 1% of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g), and muscle uptake was 0.5%ID/g. In tumor growth delay studies, tumor growth rate was reduced 19-fold compared to untreated or unlabeled BnDTPA-F3-treated mice (p = 0.023). Conclusion 111In-BnDTPA-F3 is

  7. Radionuclide studies of chronic schistosomal uropathy. [/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; /sup 131/I-hippuran

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Lamki, N.

    1981-08-01

    Fifty patients with chronic urinary tract schistosomiasis were studied with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. All had a flow study, sequential analog imaging, and digital imaging for 25 to 35 min (20-sec frames). Time-activity curves (DTPA renograms) were extracted; 12 patients had /sup 131/I-Hippuran probe renograms as well. Renal changes included diminished perfusion and structural abnormalities ranging from minor calyceal dilatation to overt hydronephrosis. Ureteral changes included dilatation, tortuosity, and kinking. Marked distortion of the ureterovesical junction was seen in some patients due to periureteral and perivesicular fibrosis, which is a major factor in upper urinary tract damage. Renograms showed varying obstruction and parenchymal damage. Nuclear medicine complements excretory urography and is sometimes preferable for visualization of the ureters. After the initial urogram, sequential DTPA scanning and renography are sufficient for follow-up.

  8. Evaluation of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab as a radioimmunotherapy agent targeting VEGF expressing cancers.

    PubMed

    Kameswaran, Mythili; Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Vimalnath, K V; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at the preparation and evaluation of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab for targeting VEGF over-expressing cancers. Bevacizumab conjugated to p-NCS-Bn-CHX-A''-DTPA was radiolabeled with (177)Lu. The radioimmunoconjugate characterized by SE-HPLC exhibited radiochemical purity of 98.0±0.6%. In vitro stability was retained upto 4 days at 37°C. In vitro cell binding studies showed good uptake by VEGF expressing U937 tumor cells. Biodistribution studies in melanoma model showed significant uptake and retention of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab in tumor with reduction in uptake in presence of cold Bevacizumab confirming its specificity to VEGF. PMID:27258216

  9. ( sup 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe sup 1 )-octreotide, a potential radiopharmaceutical for imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors: Synthesis, radiolabeling and in vitro validation

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, W.H.; Albert, R.; Bruns, C.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Hofland, L.J.; Marbach, P.; Pless, J.; Pralet, D.; Stolz, B.; Koper, J.W.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P. Sandoz Pharma AG, Basel )

    1991-01-01

    As starting material for a potentially convenient radiopharmaceutical, a diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated derivative of octreotide (SMS 201-995) was prepared. This peptide, (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide (SDZ 215-811) binds more than 95% of added {sup 111}In in an easy, single-step labeling procedure without necessity of further purification. The specific somatostatin-like biologic effect of these analogues was proven by the inhibition of growth hormone secretion by cultured rat pituitary cells in a dose-dependent fashion by octreotide, (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide and non-radioactive ({sup 115}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide. The binding of ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide to rat brain cortex membranes proved to be displaced similarly by natural somatosatin as well as by octreotide, suggesting specific binding of ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide to somatostatin receptors. The binding of the indium-labeled compound showed a somewhat lower affinity when compared with the iodinated (Tyr{sup 3})-octreotide, but indium-labeled (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide still binds with nanomolar affinity. In conjunction with in vivo studies, these results suggest that ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide is a promising radiopharmaceutical for scintigraphic imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors.

  10. Comparison of the Absorbed Dose for 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Ethylenedicysteine Radiopharmaceuticals using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Pirdamooie, Shokufeh; Shanei, Ahmad; Moslehi, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the investigation of absorbed dose to the kidneys, spleen, and liver during technetium-99 m ethylene dicysteine and technetium-99 m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-EC and 99mTc-DTPA) kidney scan. Patients who had been prepared for the kidney scan, were divided into two groups (Groups 1 and 2). The first group (Group 1) and the second group (Group 2) received intravenous injection of 99mTc-EC and 99mTc-DTP, respectively. A certain amount of radiopharmaceuticals was injected into each patient and was immediately imaged with dual-head gamma camera to calculate the activity through the conjugated view method. Then, the doses of kidney, liver, and spleen were measured using medical internal radiation dosimetry method. Finally, absorbed dose of these organs was compared. Based on these different results (P < 0.05), organs absorbed dose was significantly less with radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-EC as compared with 99mTc-DTPA. PMID:26284173

  11. Coupling Gd-DTPA with a bispecific, recombinant protein anti-EGFR-iRGD complex improves tumor targeting in MRI

    PubMed Central

    XIN, XIAOYAN; SHA, HUIZI; SHEN, JINGTAO; ZHANG, BING; ZHU, BIN; LIU, BAORUI

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant anti-epidermal growth factor receptor-internalizing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (anti-EGFR single-domain antibody fused with iRGD peptide) protein efficiently targets the EGFR extracellular domain and integrin αvβ/β5, and shows a high penetration into cells. Thus, this protein may improve penetration of conjugated drugs into the deep zone of gastric cancer multicellular 3D spheroids. In the present study, a novel tumor-targeting contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was developed, by coupling gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) with the bispecific recombinant anti-EGFR-iRGD protein. The anti-EGFR-iRGD protein was extracted from Escherichia coli and Gd was loaded onto the recombinant protein by chelation using DTPA anhydride. Single-targeting agent anti-EGFR-DTPA-Gd, which served as the control, was also prepared. The results of the present study showed that anti-EGFR-iRGD-DTPA-Gd exhibited no significant cyto toxicity to human gastric carcinoma cells (BGC-823) under the experimental conditions used. Compared with a conventional contrast agent (Magnevist), anti-EGFR-iRGD-DTPA-Gd showed higher T1 relaxivity (10.157/mM/sec at 3T) and better tumor-targeting ability. In addition, the signal intensity and the area under curve for the enhanced signal time in tumor, in vivo, were stronger than Gd-DTPA alone or the anti-EGFR-Gd control. Thus, Gd-labelled anti-EGFR-iRGD has potential as a tumor-targeting contrast agent for improved MRI. PMID:27035336

  12. Preparation and immunoreactivity of high specific activity indium-111-DTPA labeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) using ultrapure indium-111

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghbi, S.S.; Neumann, R.D.; Gottschalk, A.

    1986-10-01

    The preparation of high-specific activity /sup 111/In-DTPA-MoAb without increasing the number of DTPA molecules per Ab was investigated. Instant thin layer chromatography was used to assay the relationship between labeling efficiencies and specific activities. With ultrapurified /sup 111/In, the specific activity of the radiolabeled MoAb approached the expected theoretic maximum of 100 muCi/microgram. The bioactivity of such high-specific activity preparation showed no degradation as measured by in vitro cell binding assay.

  13. Effect of DTPA on concentration ratios of /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm in vegetative parts of bush bean and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Mueller, R.T.; Cha, J.W.; Wood, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    We grew bush beans, barley, and rice in two different soils in a glasshouse with /sup 237/Np or /sup 244/Cm mixed into separate containers of the soil. The chelating agent DTPA at 100 ..mu..g/g soil was added to half of the containers. The concentration ratio (CR) for /sup 237/Np without DTPA was two orders of magnitude higher than for /sup 244/Cm without DTPA for all three plant species. The DTPA increased the CR of /sup 244/Cm by two to three orders of magnitude, but had no influence on that for /sup 237/Np. In bush beans, both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm CRs were higher in primary leaves than in trifoliate leaves, which were higher than for stems. The CRs for bush beans were generally higher for both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm than for either barley or rice, especially without DTPA.

  14. The preliminary evaluation of Mn DTPA as a potential contrast agent for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, R J; Frick, M P; Levey, R M; Lund, G; Sirr, S A; Loken, M K

    1986-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of 54Mn administered as Mn-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) are being investigated to determine if tissue-specific uptake of manganese could be observed while increasing urinary excretion. This chelation and increased excretion should reduce toxicity. In order to obviate the need for repetitive quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) we have substituted tracer amounts of a radioisotope of manganese, Mn-54, for the stable ion. By 6 hours, 58 +/- 7% of the injected dose had been excreted in the urine. Peak liver accumulation occurred within 30 minutes (0.50 +/- 0.14% injected dose/g X kg body weight). The pancreas also showed a relatively high accumulation of tracer (0.25 +/- 0.04%/g X kg body weight), reaching a peak at 4 hours. The pancreas to liver ratios were highest at 6 hours (0.7). There was also a substantial accumulation of the manganese in bile. The blood concentration fell very rapidly with little tracer remaining in the blood at 1 hour. Based on these pharmacokinetics, imaging experiments were conducted before, immediately after, and 9 or 24 hours postinjection. These images showed enhanced kidneys and, later (at 9 hours), an excellent parenchymal-collecting system differentiation. The gallbladder was negatively enhanced. The liver showed either increased or decreased signal strength relative to skeletal muscle depending on the pulse sequence used. We conclude that Mn++, administered as Mn-DTPA, merits further investigation as an NMR contrast agent. PMID:3451753

  15. Immunological persistence in 5 y olds previously vaccinated with hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib at 3, 5, and 11 months of age.

    PubMed

    Silfverdal, Sven A; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-poliomyelitis/Haemophilus influenza vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: Infanrix™ hexa, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) is used for primary vaccination of infants in a range of schedules world-wide. Antibody persistence after 4 DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib doses in the first 2 y of life has been documented, but long-term persistence data following the 3, 5, 11-12 months (3-5-11) infant vaccination schedule, employed for example in Nordic countries, are limited. We assessed antibody persistence in 57 5-year-old children who had received either DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib or DTPa-IPV/Hib (Infanrix™-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in the 3-5-11 schedule. Among DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib recipients, 7/12 retained seroprotective antibody concentrations for diphtheria, 10/12 for tetanus, 5/12 for hepatitis and 10/12 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 0/12 children for pertussis toxin (PT), 12/12 for filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and 8/12 for pertactin (PRN). Among DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients, 28/45 retained seroprotective anti-diphtheria concentrations, 34/44 for tetanus and 40/45 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 9/45 children for PT, 41/45 for FHA and 34/45 for PRN. Antibody persistence in DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and DTPa-IPV/Hib-vaccinees appeared similar in 5 y olds to that previously observed in children of a similar age who had received 4 prior doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (or DTPa-IPV/Hib). As in subjects primed with 4 prior doses, we observed that antibodies markedly declined by 5 y of age, calling for the administration of a pre-school booster dose in order to ensure continued protection against pertussis. PMID:25483640

  16. Thermoluminescent aerosol analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Long, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for detecting and measuring trace amounts of aerosols when reacted with ozone in a gaseous environment was examined. A sample aerosol was exposed to a fixed ozone concentration for a fixed period of time, and a fluorescer was added to the exposed sample. The sample was heated in a 30 C/minute linear temperature profile to 200 C. The trace peak was measured and recorded as a function of the test aerosol and the recorded thermoluminescence trace peak of the fluorescer is specific to the aerosol being tested.

  17. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1997-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included pollution haze layer from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core.

  18. 99m T c-DTPA Study to Validate an Experimental Model of Ureteral Obstruction in Rabbits: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Marcelo Lopes; Bertti, Rodolfo; Moro, Juliano César; Coltro Neto, Fábio; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Fregonesi, Adriano; de Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes; Ramos, Celso Darío

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To create a ureteral obstruction experimental model that can be proved through 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy and histopathological studies, without causing total renal function loss. Materials and Methods. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were submitted to a surgical experiment to create a model of unilateral obstruction to urinary flow. Surgery procedure provided unilateral ureteral obstruction (left kidney) to urinary flow and posteriorly was evaluated by 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy and histopathological study. 99mTc-DTPA renal study was performed to detect and quantify signs of obstruction and to evaluate renal function. Statistical analysis was performed through the Student t-test with a significance level of P<0.05. Results. Nine of the ten rabbits presented left renal unit obstruction and one nonobstructive on the 99mTc-DTPA and histopathological studies. All the right renal units, which were not submitted to surgical procedure, were nonobstructed by the studies. There was a general agreement between scintigraphy and histopathological results in both groups. Conclusion. The experimental model promoted the creation of ureteral obstruction in rabbits, confirmed by nuclear medicine scintigraphy and histopathology, and could be used in further studies to better understand urinary obstruction. PMID:24489538

  19. Nile Red Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Surface Modified with Gd-DTPA for Potential Dual-Modal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinqin; Li, Chenglin; Tong, Weijun

    2016-06-01

    Here, a novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles (NPs) for magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence imaging was developed for cell imaging. PLGA NPs loaded with fluorescent dye Nile red (NR) and surface-coated with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) were produced in a single step nanoprecipitation process. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic dianhydride (DTPA) was conjugated to PLGA/NR@PEI NPs through amidation reaction between -COOH of DTPA and -NH2 of PEI, which can chelate gadolinium (Gd3+) as an MR imaging contrast agent. The PLGA/NR@PEI-DTPA-Gd NPs exhibited a uniform particle size of -200 nm and were stable in culture medium. These NPs had a high T relaxivity (R1) of 28.36 mM(-1)S(-1). They did not introduce serious cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, fluorescence and MR imaging studies on A549 lung cancer cells in vitro revealed that PLGA/NR@PEI-DTPA-Gd NPs can serve as an efficient fluorescence/MR dual-modality imaging nanoprobe. PMID:27427598

  20. Synthesis of novel tetravalent galactosylated DTPA-DSPE and study on hepatocyte-targeting efficiency in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Huafang; Zhang, Zhaoguo; Yan, Mina; Lei, Ming; Zeng, Ke; Zhao, Chunshun

    2013-01-01

    For the purposes of obtaining a hepatocyte-selective drug delivery system, a novel tetravalent galactosylated diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (4Gal-DTPA-DSPE) was synthesized. The chemical structure of 4Gal-DTPA-DSPE was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The four galactose-modified liposomes (4Gal-liposomes) were prepared by thin-film hydration method, then doxorubicin (DOX) was encapsulated into liposomes using an ammonium sulfate gradient loading method. The liposomal formulations with 4Gal-DTPA-DSPE were characterized by laser confocal scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, and the results demonstrated that the 4Gal-liposomes facilitated the intracellular uptake of DOX into HepG2 cells via asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the cell proliferation inhibition effect of 4Gal-liposomes was higher than that of the conventional liposomes without the galactose. Additionally, pharmacokinetic experiments in rats revealed that the 4Gal-liposomes displayed slower clearance from the systemic circulation compared with conventional liposomes. The organ distributions in mice and the study on frozen sections of liver implied that the 4Gal-liposomes enhanced the intracellular uptake of DOX into hepatocytes and prolonged the circulation. Taken together, these results indicate that liposomes containing 4Gal-DTPA-DSPE have great potential as drug delivery carriers for hepatocyte-selective targeting. PMID:23976853

  1. Pneumocystis pneumonia increases the clearance rate of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.K.; Higenbottam, T.W.

    1985-10-01

    Despite no radiographic change, a patient with Pneumocystis pneumonia showed increased clearance of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood. Gas transfer for carbon monoxide was also reduced, but improved with treatment. This was paralleled by serial increase in the t1/2 LB.

  2. Conversion of arterial input functions for dual pharmacokinetic modeling using Gd-DTPA/MRI and 18F-FDG/PET.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Eric; Lebel, Réjean; Croteau, Etienne; Blanchette, Marie; Tremblay, Luc; Lecomte, Roger; Bentourkia, M'hamed; Lepage, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Reaching the full potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-positron emission tomography (PET) dual modality systems requires new methodologies in quantitative image analyses. In this study, methods are proposed to convert an arterial input function (AIF) derived from gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) in MRI, into a (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) AIF in PET, and vice versa. The AIFs from both modalities were obtained from manual blood sampling in a F98-Fisher glioblastoma rat model. They were well fitted by a convolution of a rectangular function with a biexponential clearance function. The parameters of the biexponential AIF model were found statistically different between MRI and PET. Pharmacokinetic MRI parameters such as the volume transfer constant (K(trans)), the extravascular-extracellular volume fraction (ν(e)), and the blood volume fraction (ν(p)) calculated with the Gd-DTPA AIF and the Gd-DTPA AIF converted from (18)F-FDG AIF normalized with or without blood sample were not statistically different. Similarly, the tumor metabolic rates of glucose (TMRGlc) calculated with (18) F-FDG AIF and with (18) F-FDG AIF obtained from Gd-DTPA AIF were also found not statistically different. In conclusion, only one accurate AIF would be needed for dual MRI-PET pharmacokinetic modeling in small animal models. PMID:22570280

  3. Process for preparing radiopharmaceuticals

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Morton; Winchell, Harry S.

    1977-01-04

    A process for the preparation of technetium-99m labeled pharmaceuticals is disclosed. The process comprises initially isolating technetium-99m pertechnetate by adsorption upon an adsorbent packing in a chromatographic column. The technetium-99m is then eluted from the packing with a biological compound to form a radiopharmaceutical.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Reperfused Myocardial Infarction: Intraindividual Comparison of ECIII-60 and Gd-DTPA in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jiyang; Teng Gaojun; Feng Yi; Wu Yanping; Jin Qindi; Wang Yu; Wang Zhen; Lu Qin; Jiang Yibo; Wang Shengqi; Chen Feng; Marchal, Guy; Ni Yicheng

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. To compare a necrosis-avid contrast agent (NACA) bis-Gd-DTPA-pamoic acid derivative (ECIII-60) after intracoronary delivery with an extracellular agent Gd-DTPA after intravenous injection on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a swine model of acute reperfused myocardial infarction (MI). Methods. Eight pigs underwent 90 min of transcatheter coronary balloon occlusion and 60 min of reperfusion. After intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA at a dose of 0.2 mmol/kg, all pigs were scanned with T1-weighted MRI until the delayed enhancement of MI disappeared. Then they were intracoronarily infused with ECIII-60 at 0.0025 mmol/kg and imaged for 5 hr. Signal intensity, infarct-over-normal contrast ratio and relative infarct size were quantified, compared, and correlated with the results of postmortem MRI and triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) histochemical staining. Results. A contrast ratio over 3.0 was induced by both Gd-DTPA and ECIII-60. However, while the delayed enhancement with Gd-DTPA virtually vanished in 1 hr, ECIII-60 at an 80x smaller dose depicted the MI accurately over 5 hr as proven by ex vivo MRI and TTC staining. Conclusion. Both Gd-DTPA and ECIII-60 strongly enhanced acute MI. Comparing with fading contrast in a narrow time window with intravenous Gd-DTPA, intracoronary ECIII-60 persistently demarcated the acute MI, indicating a potential method for postprocedural assessment of myocardial viability after coronary interventions.

  5. Decorporation of systemically distributed americium by a novel orally administered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) formulation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James P; Cobb, Ronald R; Dungan, Nathanael W; Matthews, Laura L; Eppler, Bärbel; Aiello, Kenneth V; Curtis, Shiro; Boger, Teannetta; Guilmette, Raymond A; Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Talton, James D

    2015-03-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological accidents and terrorists attacks. Radioactive americium is a significant component of nuclear fallout. Removal of large radioactive materials, such as 241Am, from exposed persons is a subject of significant interest due to the hazards they pose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-related efficacy of daily doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating Am administered intravenously as a soluble citrate complex to male and female beagle dogs. In addition, the efficacy of the NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating 241Am was directly compared to intravenously administered saline and DTPA. Animals received a single IV administration of 241Am(III)-citrate on Day 0. One day after radionuclide administration, one of four different doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules [1, 2, or 6 capsules d(-1) (30 mg, 60 mg, or 180 mg DTPA) or 2 capsules BID], IV Zn-DTPA (5 mg kg(-1) pentetate zinc trisodium) as a positive control, or IV saline as a placebo were administered. NanoDTPA™ Capsules, IV Zn-DTPA, or IV saline was administered on study days 1-14. Animals were euthanized on day 21. A full necropsy was conducted, and liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and trachea, tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN), muscle samples (right and left quadriceps), gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach plus esophagus, upper and lower intestine), gonads, two femurs, lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4), and all other soft tissue remains were collected. Urinary and fecal excretion profiles were increased approximately 10-fold compared to those for untreated animals. Tissue contents were decreased compared to untreated controls. In particular, liver content was decreased by approximately eightfold compared to untreated animals. The results from this study further demonstrate that oral NanoDTPA™ Capsules are equally efficient compared to IV Zn-DTPA in decorporation of actinides. PMID:25627942

  6. Topical Drug Delivery in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients before and after Sinus Surgery Using Pulsating Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Winfried; Schuschnig, Uwe; Celik, Gülnaz; Münzing, Wolfgang; Bartenstein, Peter; Häussinger, Karl; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Knoch, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common chronic disease of the upper airways and has considerable impact on quality of life. Topical delivery of drugs to the paranasal sinuses is challenging, therefore the rate of surgery is high. This study investigates the delivery efficiency of a pulsating aerosol in comparison to a nasal pump spray to the sinuses and the nose in healthy volunteers and in CRS patients before and after sinus surgery. Methods 99mTc-DTPA pulsating aerosols were applied in eleven CRSsNP patients without nasal polyps before and after sinus surgery. In addition, pulsating aerosols were studied in comparison to nasal pump sprays in eleven healthy volunteers. Total nasal and frontal, maxillary and sphenoidal sinus aerosol deposition and lung penetration were assessed by anterior and lateral planar gamma camera imaging. Results In healthy volunteers nasal pump sprays resulted in 100% nasal, non-significant sinus and lung deposition, while pulsating aerosols resulted 61.3+/-8.6% nasal deposition and 38.7% exit the other nostril. 9.7+/-2.0 % of the nasal dose penetrated into maxillary and sphenoidal sinuses. In CRS patients, total nasal deposition was 56.7+/-13.3% and 46.7+/-12.7% before and after sinus surgery, respectively (p<0.01). Accordingly, maxillary and sphenoidal sinus deposition was 4.8+/-2.2% and 8.2+/-3.8% of the nasal dose (p<0.01). Neither in healthy volunteers nor in CRS patients there was significant dose in the frontal sinuses. Conclusion In contrast to nasal pump sprays, pulsating aerosols can deliver significant doses into posterior nasal spaces and paranasal sinuses, providing alternative therapy options before and after sinus surgery. Patients with chronic lung diseases based on clearance dysfunction may also benefit from pulsating aerosols, since these diseases also manifest in the upper airways. PMID:24040372

  7. Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Liu, Hao-Li; Su, Chia-Hao; Hua, Mu-Yi; Yang, Hung-Wei; Weng, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Po-Hung; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wu, Shih-Yen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents new albumin-shelled Gd-DTPA microbubbles (MBs) that can concurrently serve as a dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound (US) imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and detect intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during focused ultrasound brain drug delivery. Perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were prepared with a mean diameter of 2320 nm and concentration of 2.903×109 MBs ml-1 using albumin-(Gd-DTPA) and by sonication with perfluorocarbon (C3F8) gas. The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were then centrifuged and the procedure was repeated until the free Gd3+ ions were eliminated (which were detected by the xylenol orange sodium salt solution). The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were also characterized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by US and MR imaging. Focused US was used with the albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs to induce disruption of the BBB in 18 rats. BBB disruption was confirmed with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence MR imaging. Heavy T2*-weighted 3D fast low-angle shot sequence MR imaging was used to detect ICH. In vitro US imaging experiments showed that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can significantly enhance the US contrast in T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. The r1 and r2 relaxivities for Gd-DTPA were 7.69 and 21.35 s-1mM-1, respectively, indicating that the MBs represent a positive contrast agent in T1-weighted images. In vivo MR imaging experiments on 18 rats showed that focused US combined with albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can be used to both induce disruption of the BBB and detect ICH. To compare the signal intensity change between pure BBB opening and BBB opening accompanying ICH, albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MB imaging can provide a ratio of 5.14 with significant difference (p = 0.026), whereas Gd-DTPA imaging only provides a ratio of 2.13 and without significant difference (p = 0.108). The results indicate that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs have potential as a US/MR dual-modality contrast agent for

  8. HOUSTON AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An intensive field study of ambient aerosols was conducted in Houston between September 14 and October 14, 1978. Measurements at 12 sites were made using (1) two relocatable monitoring systems instrumented for aerosol and gaseous pollutants, (2) a network of high volume samplers ...

  9. Global Aerosol Observations

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... atmosphere, directly influencing global climate and human health. Ground-based networks that accurately measure column aerosol amount and ... being used to improve Air Quality Models and for regional health studies. To assess the human-health impact of chronic aerosol exposure, ...

  10. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    2008-01-15

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  11. Portable Aerosol Contaminant Extractor

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Cable-Dunlap, Paula

    2005-11-15

    A compact, portable, aerosol contaminant extractor having ionization and collection sections through which ambient air may be drawn at a nominal rate so that aerosol particles ionized in the ionization section may be collected on charged plate in the collection section, the charged plate being readily removed for analyses of the particles collected thereon.

  12. Tin-117m(4+)-DTPA for palliation of pain from osseous metastases: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C. ||

    1995-05-01

    The physical and biological attributes of {sup 117m}Sn(4+)-DTPA indicate that it should be an effective agent for palliative therapy of painful bony metastatic disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not this agent could effectively reduce pain while sparing the hemopoietic marrow from adverse effects. Fifteen patients (10 males and 5 females) with painful bony metastases from various primary cancers were included in the study. Seven patients received 1.22 to 3.11 MBq/kg of {sub 117m}Sn intravenously (Group 1) and eight patients received 4.85 to 5.77 MBq/kg (Group 2). All but one were treated as outpatients and followed for a minimum of 2 mo. In the first group, pain relief was nonassessable in four patients because of death or additional treatment of soft-tissue disease by another modality. One patient had no relief of pain, one had complete relief of pain and one had transient relief of pain. No myelotoxicity was observed. For Group 2, three patients achieved complete relief of pain, two good relief, two partial relief and one began to experience pain relief when he suffered a pathological fracture 2 mo most-treatment. None of these patients had myelotoxicity. Tin-117m(4+)-DTPA can reduce pain from metastatic disease to bone without inducing adverse reactions related to bone marrow. Further studies are needed to assess tolerance levels for the bone marrow and to evaluate response rates and duration of effect. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. [Clinical application of 99mTc-DTPA-galactosyl serum albumin in hepatobiliary disease].

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Itoh, K; Nagao, K; Katoh, H; Okushiba, T; Satoh, M; Tomiyama, M; Hiraguchi, E; Tanabe, T

    1993-02-01

    A clinical study with 99mTc-DTPA-galactosyl serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) was performed in 10 patients with hepatobiliary disease. In this study, scintigraphic data and images with 99mTc-GSA were compared with several serological liver function tests, the hepatic blood perfusion index and image quality using 99mTc-DTPA-human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA). Dynamic and serial hepatic images were obtained over a 20 min period after 99mTc-GSA injection, and time activity curves from the heart and liver were generated. The blood clearance index (HH15), and the hepatic uptake index (LHL15) were calculated from each curve of the heart and liver, respectively. In addition, using two compartment fitting, the blood clearance (KH1, KH2) index was calculated, and using exponential fitting, the hepatic uptake index (KL) was calculated. The mean HH15 in LC group and non-LC group was 0.81 +/- 0.05, 0.64 +/- 0.10, respectively. The mean LHL15 in LC group and non-LC group was 0.79 +/- 0.04, 0.91 +/- 0.06, respectively. There were significant differences between non-LC group and LC group in HH15, and LHL15, KH1 and KL. There were also significant correlations of KH1 with HH15, and KL with LHL15. Parameters of 99mTc-GSA showed significant correlations with various liver functions. 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy showed clearer liver images in hepatobiliary diseases than 99mTc-HSA. These results suggest that 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy is useful in estimating preserved liver function and hepatic morphology. PMID:8468807

  14. Primed Infusion with Delayed Equilibrium of Gd.DTPA for Enhanced Imaging of Small Pulmonary Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kalber, Tammy L.; Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E.; Siow, Bernard M.; Sage, Elizabeth; Price, Anthony N.; Ordidge, Katherine L.; Walker-Samuel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To use primed infusions of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent Gd.DTPA (Magnevist), to achieve an equilibrium between blood and tissue (eqMRI). This may increase tumor Gd concentrations as a novel cancer imaging methodology for the enhancement of small tumor nodules within the low signal-to-noise background of the lung. Methods A primed infusion with a delay before equilibrium (eqMRI) of the Gd(III) chelator Gd.DTPA, via the intraperitoneal route, was used to evaluate gadolinium tumor enhancement as a function of a bolus injection, which is applied routinely in the clinic, compared to gadolinium maintained at equilibrium. A double gated (respiration and cardiac) spin-echo sequence at 9.4T was used to evaluate whole lungs pre contrast and then at 15 (representative of bolus enhancement), 25 and 35 minutes (representative of eqMRI). This was carried out in two lung metastasis models representative of high and low tumor cell seeding. Lungs containing discrete tumor nodes where inflation fixed and taken for haematoxylin and eosin staining as well as CD34 staining for correlation to MRI. Results We demonstrate that sustained Gd enhancement, afforded by Gd equilibrium, increases the detection of pulmonary metastases compared to bolus enhancement and those tumors which enhance at equilibrium are sub-millimetre in size (<0.7 mm2) with a similar morphology to early bronchoalveolar cell carcinomas. Conclusion As Gd-chelates are routinely used in the clinic for detecting tumors by MRI, this methodology is readily transferable to the clinic and advances MRI as a methodology for the detection of small pulmonary tumors. PMID:23382996

  15. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

  16. Improved labelling of DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated peptides and antibodies with 111In in HEPES and MES buffer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], high specific activity of 111In-labelled tracers will allow administration of low amounts of tracer to prevent receptor saturation and/or side effects. To increase the specific activity, we studied the effect of the buffer used during the labelling procedure: NaAc, NH4Ac, HEPES and MES buffer. The effect of the ageing of the 111InCl3 stock and cadmium contamination, the decay product of 111In, was also examined in these buffers. Methods Escalating amounts of 111InCl3 were added to 1 μg of the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid [DTPA]- and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid [DOTA]-conjugated compounds (exendin-3, octreotide and anti-carbonic anhydrase IX [CAIX] antibody). Five volumes of 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid [MES], 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid [HEPES], NH4Ac or NaAc (0.1 M, pH 5.5) were added. After 20 min at 20°C (DTPA-conjugated compounds), at 95°C (DOTA-exendin-3 and DOTA-octreotide) or at 45°C (DOTA-anti-CAIX antibody), the labelling efficiency was determined by instant thin layer chromatography. The effect of the ageing of the 111InCl3 stock on the labelling efficiency of DTPA-exendin-3 as well as the effect of increasing concentrations of Cd2+ (the decay product of 111In) were also examined. Results Specific activities obtained for DTPA-octreotide and DOTA-anti-CAIX antibody were five times higher in MES and HEPES buffer. Radiolabelling of DTPA-exendin-3, DOTA-exendin-3 and DTPA-anti-CAIX antibody in MES and HEPES buffer resulted in twofold higher specific activities than that in NaAc and NH4Ac. Labelling of DTPA-exendin-3 decreased with 66% and 73% for NaAc and NH4Ac, respectively, at day 11 after the production date of 111InCl3, while for MES and HEPES, the maximal decrease in the specific activity was 10% and 4% at day 11, respectively. The presence of 1 pM Cd2+ in the labelling mixture of DTPA-exendin-3 in NaAc and NH4Ac

  17. Renal scans in pregnant transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1988-08-01

    This study demonstrates the normal technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA) renal scan in pregnant patients with transplanted kidneys. Five pregnant renal transplant patients had seven (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA renal studies to assess allograft perfusion and function. All scans showed the uteroplacental complex. The bladder was always compressed and distorted. The transplanted kidney was frequently rotated to a more vertical position. In all patients allograft flow and function were maintained. There was calyceal retention on all studies and ureteral retention activity in three of five patients. Using the MIRD formalism, the total radiation absorbed dose to the fetus was calculated to be 271 mrad. This radiation exposure is well within NRCP limits for the fetus of radiation workers and an acceptable low risk in the management of these high risk obstetric patients.

  18. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  19. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal. PMID:22738207

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using /sup 111/In-DTPA ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.; Thompson, G.; Camargo, E.E.

    1982-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by /sup 111/In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 111/In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that /sup 111/In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizing these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis.

  1. Assessment of effective absorbed dose of (111)In-DTPA-Buserelin in human on the basis of biodistribution rat data.

    PubMed

    Lahooti, Afsaneh; Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effective absorbed dose to human organs was estimated, following intra vascular administration of (111)In-DTPA-Buserelin using biodistribution data from rats. Rats were sacrificed at exact time intervals of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 24 h post injections. The Medical Internal Radiation Dose formulation was applied to extrapolate from rats to humans and to project the absorbed radiation dose for various human organs. From rat data, it was estimated that a 185-MBq injection of (111)In-DTPA-Buserelin into the human might result in an estimated absorbed dose of 24.27 mGy to the total body and the highest effective absorbed dose was in kidneys, 28.39 mSv. The promising results of this study emphasises the importance of absorbed doses in humans estimated from data on rats. PMID:22874898

  2. A novel contrast agent with rare earth-doped up-conversion luminescence and Gd-DTPA magnetic resonance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qing; Wei, Daixu; Cheng, Jiejun; Xu, Jianrong; Zhu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    The magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles based on Gd-DTPA and NaYF4:Yb, Er were successfully synthesized by the conjugation of activated DTPA and silica-coated/surface-aminolated NaYF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The as-prepared products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The room-temperature upconversion luminescent spectra and T1-weighted maps of the obtained nanoparticles were carried out by 980 nm NIR light excitation and a 3T MR imaging scanner, respectively. The results indicated that the as-synthesized multifunctional nanoparticles with small size, highly solubility in water, and both high MR relaxivities and upconversion luminescence may have potential usage for MR imaging in future.

  3. Volcanic Aerosol Radiative Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Large sporadic volcanic eruptions inject large amounts of sulfur bearing gases into the stratosphere which then get photochemically converted to sulfuric acid aerosol droplets that exert a radiative cooling effect on the global climate system lasting for several years.

  4. Palaeoclimate: Aerosols and rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, Jud

    2015-03-01

    Instrumental records have hinted that aerosol emissions may be shifting rainfall over Central America southwards. A 450-year-long precipitation reconstruction indicates that this shift began shortly after the Industrial Revolution.

  5. Aerosol lenses propagation model.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Grégoire; Roy, Gilles

    2011-09-01

    We propose a model based on the properties of cascading lenses modulation transfer function (MTF) to reproduce the irradiance of a screen illuminated through a dense aerosol cloud. In this model, the aerosol cloud is broken into multiple thin layers considered as individual lenses. The screen irradiance generated by these individual layers is equivalent to the point-spread function (PSF) of each aerosol lens. Taking the Fourier transform of the PSF as a MTF, we cascade the lenses MTF to find the cloud MTF. The screen irradiance is found with the Fourier transform of this MTF. We show the derivation of the model and we compare the results with the Undique Monte Carlo simulator for four aerosols at three optical depths. The model is in agreement with the Monte Carlo for all the cases tested. PMID:21886230

  6. Regional evaluation of renal dynamics in post transplant kidneys with Tc-99m DTPA and scinti-camera

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Akuta, K.; Aoki, S.; Furunishi, H.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Nakane, Y.; Pak, K.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the regional renal dynamic process (renal perfusion, accumulation and clearance) using Tc-99m DTPA and assess for the regional renal indices from this analysis early to detect acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection of post transplant kidneys. The subjects were 6 normal donors and 10 post renal transplant patients. Tc-99m DTPA (20 mCi) was injected into the vein by a bolus, and its activity change in the kidney was measured by a scintillation camera, and stored each 1 sec. for 20 sec. following each 15 sec. for 20 min. in the computer, to calculate the renal functional indices: the perfusion index, the blood flow mean transit time, the accumulation rate and the clearance rate in the cortex, medulla and pelvis, whose R.O.I. regions were separated in the early and late scinti-images. The accumulation ratio, a new parameter, which is the second upslope part of Tc-99m DTPA renogram, and the clearance rate were calculated from H/A method. The authors made the functional images of these indices to estimate their regional distribution. The accumulation rate and the clearance rate only in the cortex were markedly decreased in the acute tubular necrosis and the rejection, which functional images showed irregular distributions. It was possible to evaluate the renal perfusion with Tc-99m DTPA, separated from the renal accumulation and clearance process. The authors' method gave the assessment of the regional renal disorders with the functional images; the renal disorders in acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection exist mainly in the cortex.

  7. A novel contrast agent with rare earth-doped up-conversion luminescence and Gd-DTPA magnetic resonance properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Qing; Wei Daixu; Cheng Jiejun; Xu Jianrong; Zhu Jun

    2012-08-15

    The magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles based on Gd-DTPA and NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er were successfully synthesized by the conjugation of activated DTPA and silica-coated/surface-aminolated NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er nanoparticles through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The as-prepared products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The room-temperature upconversion luminescent spectra and T{sub 1}-weighted maps of the obtained nanoparticles were carried out by 980 nm NIR light excitation and a 3T MR imaging scanner, respectively. The results indicated that the as-synthesized multifunctional nanoparticles with small size, highly solubility in water, and both high MR relaxivities and upconversion luminescence may have potential usage for MR imaging in future. - Graphical abstract: We have synthesized magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles based on Gd-DTPA and NaYF4:Yb, Er by the conjugation of activated DTPA and silica-coated/surface-aminolated NaYF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoparticles are highly efficient for luminescence and T{sub 1}-weighted MR imaging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoparticles are small in size and highly solubility in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoparticles hold great potential usage for future biomedical engineering.

  8. Emergency Protection from Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, G.A.

    2001-11-13

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

  9. MISR Aerosol Typing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    AeroCom is an open international initiative of scientists interested in the advancement of the understanding of global aerosol properties and aerosol impacts on climate. A central goal is to more strongly tie and constrain modeling efforts to observational data. A major element for exchanges between data and modeling groups are annual meetings. The meeting was held September 20 through October 2, 1014 and the organizers would like to post the presentations.

  10. Monodisperse aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  11. Sulfapyridine appearance in plasma after salicylazosulfapyridine. Another simple measure of intestinal transit

    SciTech Connect

    Kellow, J.E.; Borody, T.J.; Phillips, S.F.; Haddad, A.C.; Brown, M.L.

    1986-08-01

    The appearance of sulfapyridine in plasma after oral administration of salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) was evaluated as a method for defining arrival time in the cecum, an index of small bowel transit. After direct instillation of SASP and lactulose into the cecum, the appearances of their metabolites (sulfapyridine in plasma and hydrogen in breath) were rapid (1-10 min) and simultaneous. When a mixture of SASP and lactulose was taken by mouth, times of the respective signals varied among individuals from 40 to 180 min (n = 8) but were correlated within individuals. Salicylazosulfapyridine transit times from duodenum to cecum were also very similar to simultaneous measurements of transit by scintigraphic monitoring of technetium 99m. Timing of the sulfapyridine signal corresponded to the arrival of 5%-13% of technetium 99m DTPA in the cecum. Exemplifying the use of this new technique, simultaneous administration of lactulose into the stomach and SASP into the duodenum yielded consistently longer stomach-to-cecum than duodenum-to-cecum transits, attributable to the delay caused by gastric emptying. Therapeutic doses of morphine delayed small bowel transit of SASP. Transit of SASP offers a second marker technique for the cecal arrival of the head of a bolus; the approach may be useful as an inexpensive, noninvasive measurement of transit.

  12. The determination of relative renal function in a pediatric population using Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Kuruc, A.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-05-01

    Three methods for evaluating relative renal function in a pediatric population were compared. The clinical and nuclear medicine data of 73 patients were reviewed. Pertinent data included patient age, serum creatinine and the referral diagnosis (reflux, hypertension, obstructive uropathy). Time activity curves for renal regions of interest (ROI) were obtained by renography with Tc-99m DTPA, and deconvolved by an externally detected blood pool curve Furosemide was then administered to evaluate the renal collecting system (if indicated). This was followed by DMSA administration. Relative function was determined in 3 ways: 1) Accumulated renal DTPA activity 60-120 sec. following injection. 2) Amplitude of the tubular phase of the deconvolved renal curve and, 3) Accumulated Tc-99m DMSA activity in renal ROI 4 or 24 hrs. post-injection. Regression analysis revealed: 1) The basic relationship of relative functional data obtained by all three methods was not affected by creatinine, age or other factors. 2) The relationship between the three methods is linear and highly correlated. 3) The DMSA values may be predicted from either method of analyzing the DTPA study using appropriate predictor equations. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DMSA, due to its higher cost and more radiation exposure should not be used for the routine evaluation of relative renal function.

  13. Influence of tyramine-induced neurotoxicity on kinetics of first-pass brain TC-99m-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Malveaux, E.; Schmidt, F.; Sarper, R.; Camp, V.; Faraj, B.A.

    1986-03-05

    Tyramine (T) induces coma in phenelzine-treated dogs. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the influence of T in MAO-inhibited dogs on the kinetics of Tc-99m-DTPA during its first passage through the brain by nuclear imaging. The study began with anesthetized dogs (n=10) in a supine position over the camera detector. Data acquisition was started simultaneously following the rapid intracarotid injection of Tc-99m-DTPA (30 mCi) and 60 0.5 second images of the brain were taken. T induced increased uptake with a concomittant impairment in the elimination of Tc-99m-DPTA from the brain of these treated animals as compared to controls. This was accompanied by an appreciable reduction in hemispheric cerebral blood flow (CBF) (56 +/- 19 vs 110 +/- 16 ml/100g/min). Increased cerebrovascular permeability of Tc-99m-DTPA and decreased CBF correlated significantly with development of intracranial hypertension and elevation in CSF catecholamines in these animals. T may have implication in the development of cerebral edema of Reye's syndrome.

  14. The effect of x rays, DTPA, and aspirin on the absorption of plutonium from the gastrointestinal tract of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.; Miller, B.M.

    1983-04-01

    To measure the effect of radiation on plutonium transport, rats that were exposed to 250-kVp X rays were given /sup 238/Pu 3 days afterwards by either gavage or injection into a ligated segment of the duodenum. In a second group of experiments, rats were either injected intraduodenally with /sup 238/Pu-DTPA or administered the chelate intravenously and the /sup 238/Pu by gavage. In a third experiment, rats that had been gavaged with 200 or 400 mg/kg/day of aspirin for 2 days were injected intragastrically with /sup 238/Pu nitrate. Results of the first experiment showed a dose-dependent increase in /sup 238/Pu absorption between 800 and 1500 rad of lower-body X irradiation. Intravenous or intraduodenal injections of DTPA caused a marked increase in /sup 238/Pu absorption but resulted in decreased plutonium deposition in the skeleton and liver. Retention of /sup 238/Pu in the skeleton of rats given aspirin was double that of controls, but the effect on plutonium absorption was less marked than that of DTPA.

  15. (153)Sm(3+) and (111)In(3+) DTPA derivatives with high hepatic specificity: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Prata, M I M; Santos, A C; Neves, M; Geraldes, C F G C; de Lima, J J P

    2002-07-25

    Two DTPA derivatives, a mono-amide derivative containing an iodinated synthon, DTPA-IOPsp (L(1)) and the ligand DTPA(BOM)(3) (BOM=benzyloxymethyl) (L(2)), radiolabelled with (153)Sm(3+) and (111)In(3+), were studied as potential hepatospecific gamma scintigraphic agents. In vivo studies with Wistar rats show that the main excretory pathway for all the chelates studied is the hepatobiliary system. The complexes of L(2) show even greater hepatobiliary specificity than L(1), perhaps as a consequence of longer blood circulation times due to their strong affinity towards HSA. The (153)Sm(3+) chelates are also more hepatospecific than the corresponding (111)In(3+) chelates. The La(3+) and In(3+) chelates of L(1) and L(2) show some structural and dynamic differences in aqueous solution, as studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. While only two nona-coordinated isomers were observed for the La(3+) complexes with both ligands, its number is much larger in the In(3+) complexes, with both octa- and hepta-coordinated species (with unbound side arms), as well as structural isomers for each coordination number. PMID:12121790

  16. Enhanced Delivery of Plasmid Encoding Interleukin-12 Gene by Diethylene Triamine Penta-Acetic Acid (DTPA)-Conjugated PEI Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dehshahri, Ali; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Keykhaee, Maryam; Khalvati, Bahman; Sheikhsaran, Fatemeh

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant therapeutic proteins have been considered as an efficient category of medications used for the treatment of various diseases. Despite their effectiveness, there are some reports on the systemic adverse effects of recombinant therapeutic proteins limiting their wide clinical applications. Among different cytokines used for cancer immunotherapy, interleukin-12 (IL-12) has shown great ability as a powerful antitumor and antiangiogenic agent. However, significant toxic reactions following the systemic administration of IL-12 have led researchers to seek for alternative approaches such as the delivery and local expression of the IL-12 gene inside the tumor tissues. In order to transfer the plasmid encoding IL-12 gene, the most extensively investigated polycationic polymer, polyethylenimine (PEI), was modified by diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) to modulate the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of the polymer as well as its toxicity. DTPA-conjugated PEI derivatives were able to form complexes in the size range around 100-180 nm with great condensation ability and protection of the plasmid against enzymatic degradation. The highest gene transfer ability was achieved by the DTPA-conjugated PEI at the conjugation degree of 0.1 % where the level of IL-12 production increased up to twofold compared with that of the unmodified PEI. Results of the present study demonstrated that modulation of the surface positive charge of PEI along with the improvement of the polymer hydrophobic balance could be considered as a successful strategy to develop safe and powerful nanocarriers. PMID:26801817

  17. RACORO aerosol data processing

    SciTech Connect

    Elisabeth Andrews

    2011-10-31

    The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

  18. Case Study: Three Acute 241Am Inhalation Exposures with DTPA Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Cannon, Curt; Lewis, Loren L.

    2010-10-01

    Three workers incurred inhalation exposures to 241Am oxide as a result of waste sorting and compaction activities. The magnitudes of the exposures were not fully recognized until the following day when an in vivo chest count identified a significant lung deposition of 241Am in a male worker, and DTPA chelation therapy was initiated. Two additional workers (one female and one male) were then identified as sufficiently exposed to also warrant therapy. In vivo bioassay measurements were performed over the ensuing 6 months to quantify the 241Am activity in the lungs, liver, and skeleton. Urine and fecal samples were collected and showed readily detectable 241Am. Clinical lab tests and medical evaluations all showed normal results. There were no significant adverse clinical health effects from the therapy. The estimated 241Am inhalation intakes for the three workers were 1800 Bq, 630 Bq, and 150 Bq. Lung retention showed somewhat longer pulmonary clearance half-times than standard inhalation class W or absorption Type M assumptions. The three underwent slightly different therapy regimes, with therapy effectiveness factors (defined as the ratio of the reference doses without therapy relative to the final assessed doses) of 4.65, 1.93, and 1.67, respectively.

  19. Comparison of MRI properties between derivatized DTPA and DOTA gadolinium-dendrimer conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Nwe, K.; Bernardo, M; Regino, C. A. S.; Williams, M; Brechbiel, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we directly compare the in vivo and in vitro MRI properties of gadolinium-dendrimer conjugates of derivatized acyclic diethylenetriamine-N,N’,N’,N’’, N’’-pentaacetic acid (1B4M-DTPA) and macrocyclic 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N’,N’’,N’’’-tetraacetic acid (C-DOTA). The metal-ligand chelates were pre-formed in alcohol prior to conjugation to the generation 4 PAMAM dendrimer (G4D), and the dendrimer-based agents were purified by Sephadex® G-25 column. The analysis and SE-HPLC data indicated chelate to dendrimer ratios of 30:1 and 28:1 respectively. Molar relaxivity measured at pH 7.4, 22°C, and 3T are comparable (29.5 vs. 26.9 mM−1s−1), and both conjugates are equally viable as MRI contrast agents based on the images obtained. The macrocyclic agent however exhibits a faster rate of clearance in vivo (t1/2 = 16 vs. 29 min.). Our conclusion is that the macrocyclic-based agent is the more suitable agent for in vivo use for these reasons combined with kinetic inertness associated with the Gd(III) DOTA complex stability properties. PMID:20663676

  20. Design and functionalities of the MADOR® software suite for dose-reduction management after DTPA therapy.

    PubMed

    Leprince, B; Fritsch, P; Bérard, P; Roméo, P-H

    2016-03-01

    A software suite on biokinetics of radionuclides and internal dosimetry intended for the occupational health practitioners of nuclear industry and for expert opinions has been developed under Borland C++ Builder™. These computing tools allow physicians to improve the dosimetric follow-up of workers in agreement with the French regulations and to manage new internal contaminations by radionuclides such as Pu and/or Am after diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid treatments. In this paper, the concept and functionalities of the first two computing tools of this MADOR(®) suite are described. The release 0.0 is the forensic application, which allows calculating the derived recording levels for intake by inhalation or ingestion of the main radioisotopes encountered in occupational environment. Indeed, these reference values of activity are convenient to interpret rapidly the bioassay measurements and make decisions as part of medical monitoring. The release 1.0 addresses the effect of DTPA treatments on Pu/Am biokinetics and the dose benefit. The forensic results of the MADOR(®) suite were validated by comparison with reference data. PMID:25999333

  1. AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION WITH CENTRIFUCAL AEROSOL SPECTROMETERS: THEORY AND EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A general mathematical model describing the motion of particles in aerosol centrifuges has been developed. t has been validated by comparisons of theoretically predicted calibration sites with experimental data from tests sizing aerosols in instruments of three different spiral d...

  2. Aerosol chemistry in GLOBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Antony D.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Jarzembski, Maurice A.

    1993-01-01

    This task addresses the measurement and understanding of the physical and chemical properties of aerosol in remote regions that are responsible for aerosol backscatter at infrared wavelengths. Because it is representative of other clean areas, the remote Pacific is of extreme interest. Emphasis is on the determination size dependent aerosol properties that are required for modeling backscatter at various wavelengths and upon those features that may be used to help understand the nature, origin, cycling and climatology of these aerosols in the remote troposphere. Empirical relationships will be established between lidar measurements and backscatter derived from the aerosol microphysics as required by the NASA Doppler Lidar Program. This will include the analysis of results from the NASA GLOBE Survey Mission Flight Program. Additional instrument development and deployment will be carried out in order to extend and refine this data base. Identified activities include participation in groundbased and airborne experiments. Progress to date includes participation in, analysis of, and publication of results from Mauna Loa Backscatter Intercomparison Experiment (MABIE) and Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE).

  3. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  4. SURVIVAL OF BACTERIA DURING AEROSOLIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One form of commercial application of microorganisms, including genetically engineered microorganisms is as an aerosol. To study the effect of aerosol-induced stress on bacterial survival, nonrecombinant spontaneous antibiotic-resistant mutants of four organisms, Enterobacter clo...

  5. Other medications for aerosol delivery.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2006-01-01

    Although aerosol therapy is most commonly used to treat asthma and COPD, there are a large number of aerosol medications now used or in development for other diseases. Mucoactive agents have long been available by aerosol, but now we have truly effective drugs to improve effective airway clearance including dornase alfa, hyperosmolar saline, and aerosol surfactant. Inhaled antibiotics are available for the treatment of cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis and other chronic airway infections. With the development of devices that can target aerosol to the deep lung, the opportunity to deliver medications systemically by the aerosol route has become a reality. Insulin, recently approved in the US as aerosol therapy, and other peptides are systemically absorbed from the distal airway and alveolus. Aerosol gene transfer therapy to correct abnormalities associated with cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia and other airway diseases also holds great potential. PMID:16798603

  6. Atmospheric Chemistry: Nature's plasticized aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of atmospheric aerosol particles affects their reactivity and growth rates. Measurements of aerosol properties over the Amazon rainforest indicate that organic particles above tropical rainforests are simple liquid drops.

  7. Aerosol characterization with lidar methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Matsui, Ichiro

    2014-08-01

    Aerosol component analysis methods for characterizing aerosols were developed for various types of lidars including polarization-sensitive Mie scattering lidars, multi-wavelength Raman scattering lidars, and multi-wavelength highspectral- resolution lidars. From the multi-parameter lidar data, the extinction coefficients for four aerosol components can be derived. The microphysical parameters such as single scattering albedo and effective radius can be also estimated from the derived aerosol component distributions.

  8. Mexico City Aerosol Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, P. A.; Eichinger, W. E.; Prueger, J.; Holder, H. L.

    2007-12-01

    A radiative impact study was conducted in Mexico City during MILAGRO/MIRAGE campaign in March of 2006. On a day when the predominant wind was from the north to the south, authors measured radiative properties of the atmosphere in six locations across the city ranging from the city center, through the city south limits and the pass leading out of the city (causing pollutants to funnel through the area). A large change in aerosol optical properties has been noticed. The aerosol optical depth has generally increased outside of the city and angstrom coefficient has changed significantly towards smaller values. Aerosol size distribution was calculated using SkyRadPack. The total optical depths allowed coincidental lidar data to calculate total extinction profiles for all the locations for 1064nm.

  9. Aerosol Quality Monitor (AQUAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Ignatov, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) developed at NESDIS generates three products from AVHRR, operationally: clear sky radiances in all bands, and sea surface temperature (SST) derived from clear-sky brightness temperatures (BT) in Ch3B (centered at 3.7 μm), Ch4 (11 μm) and Ch5 (12 μm), and aerosol optical depths (AOD) derived from clear-sky reflectances in Ch1 (0.63), Ch2 (0.83) and Ch3A (1.61 μm). An integral part of ACSPO is the fast Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM), which calculates first-guess clear-sky BTs using global NCEP forecast atmospheric and Reynolds SST fields. Simulated BTs are employed in ACSPO for improved cloud screening, physical (RTM-based) SST inversions, and to monitor and validate satellite BTs. The model minus observation biases are monitored online in near-real time using the Monitoring IR Clear-sky radiances over Oceans for SST (MICROS; http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/sod/sst/micros/). A persistent positive M-O bias is observed in MICROS, partly attributed to missing aerosol in CRTM input, causing "M" to be warmer than "O". It is thus necessary to include aerosols in CRTM and quantify their effects on AVHRR BTs and SSTs. However, sensitivity of thermal bands to aerosol is only minimal, and use of solar reflectance bands is preferable to evaluate the accuracy of CRTM modeling, with global aerosol fields as input (from e.g. Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport, GOCART, or Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System, NAAPS). Once available, the corresponding M-O biases in solar reflectance bands will be added to MICROS. Also, adding CRTM simulated reflectances in ACSPO would greatly improve cloud detection, help validate CRTM in the solar reflectance bands, and assist aerosol retrievals. Running CRTM with global aerosol as input is very challenging, computationally. While CRTM is being optimized to handle such global scattering computations, a near-real time web-based Aerosol Quality Monitor (AQUAM

  10. Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry

    2004-09-01

    The Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package is a general library for aerosol modeling to address aerosol general dynamics, including formation from gas phase reactions, surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis with linkage to DSMC studies, and thermal radiative transport. The library is based upon Cantera, a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. The method uses a discontinuous galerkin formulation for the condensation and coagulation operator that conserves particles, elements, and enthalpy up to round-off error. Both O-D and 1-D time dependent applications have been developed with the library. Multiple species in the solid phase are handled as well. The O-D application, called Tdcads (Time Dependent CADS) is distributed with the library. Tdcads can address both constant volume and constant pressure adiabatic homogeneous problems. An extensive set of sample problems for Tdcads is also provided.

  11. Indian aerosols: present status.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

    2002-12-01

    This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

  12. Global Aerosol Climatology Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Michael; Penner, Joyce; Anderson, Donald

    2002-02-01

    This paper is concerned with uncertainties in the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-based retrieval of optical depth for heavy smoke aerosol plumes generated from forest fires that occurred in Canada due to a lack of knowledge on their optical properties (single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter). Typical values of the optical properties for smoke aerosols derived from such field experiments as Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B); Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE-A); Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas (BASE-A); and Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) were first assumed for retrieving smoke optical depths. It is found that the maximum top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance values calculated by models with these aerosol parameters are less than observations whose values are considerably higher. A successful retrieval would require an aerosol model that either has a substantially smaller asymmetry parameter (g < 0.4 versus g > 0.5), or higher single-scattering albedo ( 0.9 versus < 0.9), or both (e.g., g = 0.39 and = 0.91 versus g = 0.57 and = 0.87) than the existing models. Several potential causes were examined including small smoke particle size, low black carbon content, humidity effect, calibration errors, inaccurate surface albedo, mixture of cloud and aerosol layers, etc. A more sound smoke aerosol model is proposed that has a lower content of black carbon (mass ratio = 0.015) and smaller size (mean radius = 0.02 m for dry smoke particles), together with consideration of the effect of relative humidity. Ground-based observations of smoke suggest that for < 2.5 there is an increasing trend in and a decreasing trend in g with increases in , which is consistent with the results of satellite retrievals. Using these relationships as constraints, more plausible values of can be obtained for heavy smoke aerosol. The possibility of smoke-cloud mixtures is also

  13. Highly stable aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.

    1981-11-03

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

  14. Highly stable aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    DeFord, Henry S.; Clark, Mark L.

    1981-01-01

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly.

  15. Real-time tracking of dissociation of hyperpolarized 89Y-DTPA: a model for degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Sarah; Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lumata, Lloyd

    Gadolinium (Gd) complexes are widely used relaxation-based clinical contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gd-based MRI contrast agents with open-chain ligand such as Gd-DTPA, commercially known as magnevist, are less stable compared to Gd complexes with macrocyclic ligands such as GdDOTA (Dotarem). The dissociation of Gd-DPTA into Gd ion and DTPA ligand under certain biological conditions such as high zinc levels can potentially cause kidney damage. Since Gd is paramagnetic, direct NMR detection of the Gd-DTPA dissociation is quite challenging due to ultra-short relaxation times. In this work, we have investigated Y-DTPA as a model for Gd-DPTA dissociation under high zinc content solutions. Using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), the 89Y NMR signal is amplified by several thousand-fold. Due to the the relatively long T1 relaxation time of 89Y which translates to hyperpolarization lifetime of several minutes, the dissociation of Y-DTPA can be tracked in real-time by hyperpolarized 89Y NMR spectroscopy. Dissociation kinetic rates and implications on the degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents will be discussed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense Award Number W81XWH-14-1-0048 and by the Robert A. Welch Foundation research Grant Number AT-1877.

  16. The DyP-type peroxidase DtpA is a Tat-substrate required for GlxA maturation and morphogenesis in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Petrus, Marloes L C; Vijgenboom, Erik; Chaplin, Amanda K; Worrall, Jonathan A R; van Wezel, Gilles P; Claessen, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces lividans depends on the radical copper oxidase GlxA for the formation of reproductive aerial structures and, in liquid environments, for the formation of pellets. Incorporation of copper into the active site is essential for the formation of a cross-linked tyrosyl-cysteine cofactor, which is needed for enzymatic activity. In this study, we show a crucial link between GlxA maturation and a group of copper-related proteins including the chaperone Sco and a novel DyP-type peroxidase hereinafter called DtpA. Under copper-limiting conditions, the sco and dtpA deletion mutants are blocked in aerial growth and pellet formation, similarly to a glxA mutant. Western blot analysis showed that GlxA maturation is perturbed in the sco and dtpA mutants, but both maturation and morphology can by rescued by increasing the bioavailability of copper. DtpA acts as a peroxidase in the presence of GlxA and is a substrate for the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) translocation pathway. In agreement, the maturation status of GlxA is also perturbed in tat mutants, which can be compensated for by the addition of copper, thereby partially restoring their morphological defects. Our data support a model wherein a copper-trafficking pathway and Tat-dependent secretion of DtpA link to the GlxA-dependent morphogenesis pathway. PMID:26740586

  17. The DyP-type peroxidase DtpA is a Tat-substrate required for GlxA maturation and morphogenesis in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Petrus, Marloes L. C.; Chaplin, Amanda K.; Worrall, Jonathan A. R.; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces lividans depends on the radical copper oxidase GlxA for the formation of reproductive aerial structures and, in liquid environments, for the formation of pellets. Incorporation of copper into the active site is essential for the formation of a cross-linked tyrosyl-cysteine cofactor, which is needed for enzymatic activity. In this study, we show a crucial link between GlxA maturation and a group of copper-related proteins including the chaperone Sco and a novel DyP-type peroxidase hereinafter called DtpA. Under copper-limiting conditions, the sco and dtpA deletion mutants are blocked in aerial growth and pellet formation, similarly to a glxA mutant. Western blot analysis showed that GlxA maturation is perturbed in the sco and dtpA mutants, but both maturation and morphology can by rescued by increasing the bioavailability of copper. DtpA acts as a peroxidase in the presence of GlxA and is a substrate for the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) translocation pathway. In agreement, the maturation status of GlxA is also perturbed in tat mutants, which can be compensated for by the addition of copper, thereby partially restoring their morphological defects. Our data support a model wherein a copper-trafficking pathway and Tat-dependent secretion of DtpA link to the GlxA-dependent morphogenesis pathway. PMID:26740586

  18. Geometrical Optics of Dense Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Michael J.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2013-04-24

    Assembling a free-standing, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rare ed than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed fi eld, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the nite particle density reduces the eff ective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing. __________________________________________________

  19. Coupling Gd‑DTPA with a bispecific, recombinant protein anti‑EGFR‑iRGD complex improves tumor targeting in MRI.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiaoyan; Sha, Huizi; Shen, Jingtao; Zhang, Bing; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Baorui

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant anti‑epidermal growth factor receptor‑internalizing arginine‑glycine‑aspartic acid (anti‑EGFR single‑domain antibody fused with iRGD peptide) protein efficiently targets the EGFR extracellular domain and integrin αvβ/β5, and shows a high penetration into cells. Thus, this protein may improve penetration of conjugated drugs into the deep zone of gastric cancer multicellular 3D spheroids. In the present study, a novel tumor‑targeting contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was developed, by coupling gadolinium‑diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd‑DTPA) with the bispecific recombinant anti‑EGFR‑iRGD protein. The anti‑EGFR‑iRGD protein was extracted from Escherichia coli and Gd was loaded onto the recombinant protein by chelation using DTPA anhydride. Single‑targeting agent anti‑EGFR‑DTPA‑Gd, which served as the control, was also prepared. The results of the present study showed that anti‑EGFR‑iRGD‑DTPA‑Gd exhibited no significant cyto-toxicity to human gastric carcinoma cells (BGC‑823) under the experimental conditions used. Compared with a conventional contrast agent (Magnevist), anti‑EGFR‑iRGD‑DTPA‑Gd showed higher T1 relaxivity (10.157/mM/sec at 3T) and better tumor‑targeting ability. In addition, the signal intensity and the area under curve for the enhanced signal time in tumor, in vivo, were stronger than Gd‑DTPA alone or the anti‑EGFR‑Gd control. Thus, Gd‑labelled anti‑EGFR‑iRGD has potential as a tumor‑targeting contrast agent for improved MRI. PMID:27035336

  20. ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

  1. EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

  2. FORMATION OF PHOTOCHEMICAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective was to develop a better understanding of smog aerosol formation with particular reference to haze in the Southern California area. This study combined laboratory work with ambient air studies. Counting of particles by light scattering was the principle physical tech...

  3. Discordant uptake of Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin and Tc-99m Sn colloid in a patient with severe acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, C; Matsunaga, T; Kubo, K

    1994-08-01

    A patient with recently diagnosed severe acute hepatitis underwent serial liver scintigraphy with Tc-99m Sn colloid and Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin. In initial studies, radionuclide distribution on Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin scintigraphy was completely discrepant to that on Tc-99m Sn colloid scintigraphy. In a follow-up study 1 month later, the distribution of both radionuclides in the liver appeared relatively homogeneous. The uptake of Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin and Tc-99m Sn colloid reflects the function of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, respectively. Both kinds of scintigraphic study may be helpful to assess histopathologic change of different hepatic tissue architectures. PMID:7955747

  4. Cigarette smoke induced changes in rat pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/TcDTPA. A comparison of particulate and gas phases

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, B.D.; Royston, D.

    1985-12-01

    The rat model was developed to study the effects of cigarette smoke on pulmonary clearance of 99mTcDTPA. The method developed was sufficiently noninvasive to allow frequent repeat measurements to be made with a high degree of reproducibility. Animals exposed twice daily to 90 puffs of dilute whole cigarette smoke for 7 days showed an increase in /sup 99m/TcDTPA clearance from the lung which returned to normal within 3 wk of stopping exposure. Filtration of the smoke to remove all the particulate matter abolished the changes.

  5. On the use of speciation techniques and ab initio modelling to understand tetravalent actinide behavior in a biological medium: An(IV)DTPA case.

    PubMed

    Aupiais, J; Bonin, L; Den Auwer, C; Moisy, P; Siberchicot, B; Topin, S

    2016-03-01

    In the case of an accidental nuclear event, contamination of human bodies by actinide elements may occur. Such elements have the particularity to exhibit both radiological and chemical toxicities that may induce severe damages at several levels, depending on the biokinetics of the element. In order to eliminate the actinide elements before they are stored in target organs (liver, kidneys, or bone, depending on the element), sequestering agents must be quickly injected. However, to date, there is still no ideal sequestering agent, despite the recent interest in this topic due to contamination concerns. DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) is currently generating interest for the development of oral or alternative self-administrable forms. Although biokinetics data are mostly available, molecular scale characterization of actinide-DTPA complexes is still scarce. Nevertheless, strong interest is growing in the characterization of An(IV)DTPA(-) complexes at the molecular level because this opens the way for predicting the stability constants of unknown systems or even for developing new analytical strategies aimed at better and more selective decorporation. For this purpose, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) investigations were undertaken and compared with capillary electrophoresis (CE) used in a very unusual way. Indeed, it is commonly believed that CE is incapable of extracting structural information. In capillary electrophoresis, the electrophoretic mobility of an ion is a function of its charge and size. Despite very similar ratios, partial separations between An(IV)DTPA(-) species (An(IV) = Th, U, Np, Pu) were obtained. A linear relationship between the electrophoretic mobility and the actinide--oxygen distance calculated by AIMD was evidenced. As an example, the interpolated U-O distances in U(IV)DTPA(-) from CE-ICPMS experiments, EXAFS, AIMD, and the relationship between the stability constants and

  6. Investigations on the Ga(III) Complex of EOB-DTPA and Its 68Ga Radiolabeled Analogue.

    PubMed

    Greiser, Julia; Niksch, Tobias; Weigand, Wolfgang; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for the isolation of EOB-DTPA (3,6,9-triaza-3,6,9-tris(carboxymethyl)-4-(ethoxybenzyl)-undecanedioic acid) from its Gd(III) complex and protocols for the preparation of its novel non-radioactive, i.e., natural Ga(III) as well as radioactive (68)Ga complex. The ligand as well as the Ga(III) complex were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. (68)Ga was obtained by a standard elution method from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator. Experiments to evaluate the (68)Ga-labeling efficiency of EOB-DTPA at pH 3.8-4.0 were performed. Established analysis techniques radio TLC (thin layer chromatography) and radio HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) were used to determine the radiochemical purity of the tracer. As a first investigation of the (68)Ga tracers' lipophilicity the n-octanol/water distribution coefficient of (68)Ga species present in a pH 7.4 solution was determined by an extraction method. In vitro stability measurements of the tracer in various media at physiological pH were performed, revealing different rates of decomposition. PMID:27584545

  7. Graphical aerosol classification method using aerosol relative optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi-Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Shuai, Yong; Tan, He-Ping

    2016-06-01

    A simple graphical method is presented to classify aerosol types based on a combination of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and aerosol relative optical thickness (AROT). Six aerosol types, including maritime (MA), desert dust (DD), continental (CO), sub-continental (SC), urban industry (UI) and biomass burning (BB), are discriminated in a two dimensional space of AOT440 and AROT1020/440. Numerical calculations are performed using MIE theory based on a multi log-normal particle size distribution, and the AROT ranges for each aerosol type are determined. More than 5 years of daily observations from 8 representative aerosol sites are applied to the method to confirm spatial applicability. Finally, 3 individual cases are analyzed according to their specific aerosol status. The outcomes indicate that the new graphical method coordinates well with regional characteristics and is also able to distinguish aerosol variations in individual situations. This technique demonstrates a novel way to estimate different aerosol types and provide information on radiative forcing calculations and satellite data corrections.

  8. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  9. Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-09-01

    The Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package is a general library for aerosol modeling to address aerosol general dynamics, including formation from gas phase reactions, surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis with linkage to DSMC studies, and thermal radiative transport. The library is based upon Cantera, a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. The method uses a discontinuous galerkinmore » formulation for the condensation and coagulation operator that conserves particles, elements, and enthalpy up to round-off error. Both O-D and 1-D time dependent applications have been developed with the library. Multiple species in the solid phase are handled as well. The O-D application, called Tdcads (Time Dependent CADS) is distributed with the library. Tdcads can address both constant volume and constant pressure adiabatic homogeneous problems. An extensive set of sample problems for Tdcads is also provided.« less

  10. Assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verver, Gé; Henzing, Bas

    Climate predictions are hampered by the large uncertainties involved in the estima- tion of the effects of atmospheric aerosol (IPCC,2001). These uncertainties are caused partly because sources and sinks as well as atmospheric processing of the different types of aerosol are not accurately known. Moreover, the climate impact (especially the indirect effect) of a certain distribution of aerosol is hard to quantify. There have been different approaches to reduce these uncertainties. In recent years intensive ob- servational campaigns such as ACE and INDOEX have been carried out, aiming to in- crease our knowledge of atmospheric processes that determine the fate of atmospheric aerosols and to quantify the radiation effects. With the new satellite instruments such as SCIAMACHY and OMI it will be possible in the near future to derive the ge- ographical distribution of the aerosol optical depths (AOD) and perhaps additional information on the occurrence of different aerosol types. The goal of the ARIA project (started in 2001) is to assimilate global satellite de- rived aerosol optical depth (AOD) in an off-line chemistry/transport model TM3. The TM3 model (Jeuken et al. 2001) describes sources, sinks, transformation and transport processes of different types of aerosol (mineral dust, carbon, sulfate, nitrate) that are relevant to radiative forcing. All meteorological input is provided by ECMWF. The assimilation procedure constrains the aerosol distribution produced by the model on the basis of aerosol optical depths observed by satellite. The product, i.e. an optimal estimation of global aerosol distribution, is then available for the calculation of radia- tive forcing. Error analyses may provide valuable information on deficiencies of the model. In the ARIA project it is tried to extract additional information on the type of aerosol present in the atmosphere by assimilating AOD at multiple wavelengths. First results of the ARIA project will be presented. The values

  11. Atmospheric aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Measured properties of atmospheric aerosol particles are presented. These include aerosol size frequency distribution and complex retractive index. The optical properties of aerosols are computed based on the presuppositions of thermodynamic equilibrium and of Mie-theory.

  12. Stratospheric aerosols - Observation and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Whitten, R. C.; Toon, O. B.

    1982-01-01

    Important chemical and physical roles of aerosols are discussed, and properties of stratospheric aerosols as revealed by experimental data are described. In situ measurements obtained by mechanical collection and scattered-light detection yield the overall size distribution of the aerosols, and analyses of preserved aerosol precursor gases by wet chemical, cryogenic and spectroscopic techniques indicate the photochemical sources of particle mass. Aerosol chemical reactions including those of gaseous precursors, those in aqueous solution, and those on particle surfaces are discussed, in addition to aerosol microphysical processes such as nucleation, condensation/evaporation, coagulation and sedimentation. Models of aerosols incorporating such chemical and physical processes are presented, and simulations are shown to agree with measurements. Estimates are presented for the potential aerosol changes due to emission of particles and gases by aerospace operations and industrial consumption of fossil fuels, and it is demonstrated that although the climatic effects of existing levels of stratospheric aerosol pollution are negligible, potential increases in those levels might pose a future threat.

  13. Volcanic aerosols and lunar eclipses.

    PubMed

    Keen, R A

    1983-12-01

    The moon is visible during total lunar eclipses due to sunlight refracted into the earth's shadow by the atmosphere. Stratospheric aerosols can profoundly affect the brightness of the eclipsed moon. Observed brightnesses of 21 lunar eclipses during 1960-1982 are compared with theoretical calculations based on refraction by an aerosol-free atmosphere to yield globally averaged aerosol optical depths. Results indicate the global aerosol loading from the 1982 eruption of El Chichón is similar in magnitude to that from the 1963 Agung eruption. PMID:17776243

  14. Synthesis, radiolabeling and In Vivo tissue distribution of an anti-oestrogen glucuronide compound, (99m)Tc-TOR-G.

    PubMed

    Muftuler, F Z Biber; Unak, P; Yolcular, S; Kilcar, A Yurt; Ichedef, C; Enginar, H; Sakarya, S

    2010-04-01

    Toremifene (TOR) has been used as an anti-oestrogen drug for the treatment and prevention of human breast cancer. The aim of this study was the addition of the hydrophilic groups diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and glucuronic acid to the starting substance TOR and to label it with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radionuclide and to investigate radiopharmaceutical potential of the new compound. The synthesis reactions are completed in four steps, including enzymatic reaction, with the following substeps; preparation of microsomal fraction from Hutu 80 cell line and subsequent purification of UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT), estimation of protein quantity in microsomal samples and glucuronidation reaction. The results indicate that (99m)Tc-TOR-G may be proposed as a new anti-oestrogen glucuronide imaging agent for ovarian tumours. PMID:20530435

  15. Simultaneous markers for fluid and solid gastric emptying: new variations on an old theme: concise communication.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Thompson, D; Syed, I

    1981-09-01

    Radiotracer techniques for the assessment of gastric emptying have become popular in the past 6 yr. A new double-nuclide technique, for the simultaneous tagging of the solid and fluid phases, is described. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m SC) is used in a manner similar to that described by Meyer and colleagues, but the new technique does not involve the use of live chickens, a significant advantage over the earlier procedures. Several fluid-phase radionuclides were tested to be used in conjunction with the Tc-99m SC. Indium-111 DTPA was found to be the only compatible fluid-phase agent. This new double-tracer technique promises to be safe, economical, simple, and physiologically sound. PMID:7277021

  16. Estimating blood-brain barrier opening in a rat model of hemorrhagic transformation with Patlak plots of Gd-DTPA contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Fenstermacher, J D; Knight, R A; Ewing, J R; Nagaraja, T; Nagesh, V; Yee, J S; Arniego, P A

    2003-01-01

    Patlak plot processing of Gd-shifted T1 relaxation-time images from a rat model of hemorrhagic transformation yielded estimates and maps of the blood-to-brain influx rate constant of Gd-DTPA (K1). The Patlak plots also produced a heretofore unrecognized parameter, the distribution space of the intravascular-Gd-shifted protons (Vp), an index of blood-to-tissue transfer of water. The K1 values for Gd-DTPA were very high for the regions of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and were similar to those of 14C-sucrose concurrently obtained by quantitative autoradiographic (QAR) analysis. In these same ROI's, Vp was five-fold greater than normal, which suggests that the permeability of the BBB to water was also increased. The 14C-sucrose space of distribution in the ischemic ROI's was around 8%, thus indicating a sizable interstitial space. The spatial resolving power of Gd-DTPA-deltaT1 imaging was rather good, although no match for 14C-sucrose-QAR. This study shows that quantitative deltaT1-MRI estimates of regional blood-brain transfer constants of Gd-DTPA and water distribution are possible when Patlak plots are employed to process the data. This approach may be useful for tracking the time-course of BBB barrier function in both animals and humans. PMID:14753399

  17. The correlation between effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with renal scintigraphy 99mTc-DTPA study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasari, D.; Nazir, F.; Toresano, L. O. H. Z.; Pawiro, S. A.; Soejoko, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal diseases in Indonesia has an increasing annual trend, because it is frequently unrecognized and often co-exists with other disease. GFR and ERPF are parameters currently utilized to estimate renal function at routine renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. This study used 99m-Tc DTPA to measure GFR and ERPF. The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between ERPF and GFR, for ERPF analysis with Schlegel's method, and GFR analysis with Gate's method, as well as to find correction factor between both variables. Analysis of renal scintigraphy has been performed at Department of Nuclear Medicine Pertamina Center Hospital to thirty patient images acquired from 2014 to 2015 which were analyzed retrospectively data, using gamma camera dual head with counting method from renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. The calculation was executed by means of both display and manual calculation. Pearson's statistical analysis resulted on Positive Correlation for all data, with ERPF and GFR (display) showing Strongly Positive Correlation (r = 0.82; p- value < 0.05). Standard deviation was found to be 27.58 and 107.64 for GFR and ERPF (display), respectively. Our result indicated that the use of 99mTc-DTPA measure ERPF was not recommended.

  18. Aragonite–calcite–vaterite: A temperature influenced sequential polymorphic transformation of CaCO{sub 3} in the presence of DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Gopi, Shanmukhaprasad; Subramanian, V.K.; Palanisamy, K.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Crystallization of CaCO{sub 3} between 60 and 230 °C in the presence of DTPA. ► Formation of exclusive and individual polymorphs at different temperatures. ► Violation of second law of thermodynamics/Ostwald rule of stages has been observed. - Abstract: Calcium carbonate was precipitated from calcium chloride using sodium carbonate in the presence of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) between 60 and 230 °C. The samples were characterized by FTIR, Raman, XRD and SEM techniques. CaCO{sub 3} with different crystal morphologies such as spherolite/datura pod, dumbbell, peanut, were obtained depending on the experimental conditions. The results showed that pure aragonite, calcite and vaterite were formed at low, moderate and high temperatures respectively. A binary mixture of calcite and vaterite was resulted between 150 and 200 °C. The data suggested an unusual conversion of stable calcite to meta stable vaterite at higher temperature in presence of DTPA. The study revealed a novel methodology for the exclusive/individual preparation of different crystalline polymorphs of CaCO{sub 3}. Formation of pure vaterite above 200 °C divulged the possibility of DTPA as a potential scale inhibitor and boiler sludge conditioner at elevated temperatures.

  19. Aerosol Absorption and Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stier, Philip; Seinfeld, J. H.; Kinne, Stefan; Boucher, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006) significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the shortwave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing clear-sky from -0.79 to -0.53 W m(sup -2) (33%) and all-sky from -0.47 to -0.13W m(sup -2 (72%). Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19W m(sup -2) (36%) clear-sky and of 0.12W m(sup -2) (92%) all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05W m(sup -2) and a positive TOA forcing perturbation of 0

  20. Variability in soil micronutrients extracted by DTPA and Mehlich-3 at the plot scale in an acidic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Lado, Marcos; de Abreu, Cleide A.

    2014-05-01

    Land use practices affect soil properties and nutrient supply. Very limited data are available on micronutrient extractability in northwest Spain. The aim of this study was to analyse long-term effects of land use on the concentration, variability and spatial distribution of soil nutrients. To this end, neighboring forest and cultivated stands were compared. The study was carried out in an acid, rich in organic matter soil developed over sediments at the province of Lugo, northwestern of Spain. Adjacent plots with a surface of 100 m2 were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted both by Mehlich-3 and DTPA solutions and determined by ICP-MS. General soil chemical and physical properties were routinely analyzed. In arable land, microelement concentration ranges were as follows: Fe (100 and 135 mg kg-1), Mn (7.6 and 21.5 mg kg-1), Zn (0.6 and 3.7 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.2 and 0.7 mg kg-1). In forest land, these ranges were: Fe (62 and 309 mg kg-1), Mn (0.2 and 2.1 mg kg-1), Zn (0.2 and 2.9 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.1 and 0.2 mg kg-1). With the exception of Fe-DTPA, microelement concentrations extracted both with DTPA and Mehlich-3 were higher in the cultivated than in the forest stand. Coefficients of variation were higher for the microelement content of the soil under forest. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate associations between extractable microelements and general physico-chemical properties. At the studied scale, nutrient management was the main factor affecting the agricultural site, whereas soil-plant interactions were probably responsible for the higher variation within the forest site. Patterns of spatial variability of the studied nutrients at the small plot scale also were assessed by geostatistical techniques. Results were discussed in the frame of sustainable land use and organic matter decline with conventional tillage and sustainable land use

  1. Studies of organic aerosol and aerosol-cloud interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Hanh To

    Atmospheric aerosols can influence society and the environment in many ways including altering the planet's energy budget, the hydrologic cycle, and public health. However, the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change indicates that the anthropogenic radiative forcing associated with aerosol effects on clouds has the highest uncertainty in the future climate predictions. This thesis focuses on the nature of the organic fraction of ambient particles and how particles interact with clouds using a combination of tools including aircraft and ground measurements, models, and satellite data. Fine aerosol particles typically contain between 20 - 90% organic matter by mass and a major component of this fraction includes water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Consequently, water-soluble organic species can strongly influence aerosol water-uptake and optical properties. However, the chemical composition of this fraction is not well-understood. PILS-TOC was used to characterize WSOC in ambient aerosol in Los Angeles, California. The spatial distribution of WSOC was found to be influenced by (i) a wide range of aerosol sources within this urban metropolitan area, (ii) transport of pollutants by the characteristic daytime sea breeze trajectory, (iii) topography, and (iv) secondary production during transport. Meteorology is linked with the strength of many of these various processes. Many methods and instruments have been used to study aerosol-cloud interactions. Each observational platform is characterized by different temporal/spatial resolutions and operational principles, and thus there are disagreements between different studies for the magnitude of mathematical constructs used to represent the strength of aerosol-cloud interactions. This work points to the sensitivity of the magnitude of aerosol-cloud interactions to cloud lifetime and spatial resolution of measurements and model simulations. Failure to account for above-cloud aerosol layers

  2. Unexpected side products in the conjugation of an amine-derivatized morpholino oligomer with p-isothiocyanate benzyl DTPA and their removal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; Liu, Yuxia; Liang, Minmin; Chen, Ling; Cheng, Dengfeng; Greiner, Dale; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2011-02-01

    In connection with pretargeting, an amine-derivatized morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomer (NH(2)-cMORF) was conjugated conventionally with p-isothiocyanate benzyl-DTPA (p-SCN-Bn-DTPA). However, after (111)In radiolabeling, unexpected label instability was observed. To understand this instability, the NH(2)-cMORF and, as control, the native cMORF without the amine were conjugated in the conventional manner. Surprisingly, the (111)In labeling of the native cMORF conjugate was equally effective as that of the NH(2)-cMORF conjugate (>95%) despite the absence of the amine group. Furthermore, heating the radiolabeled NH(2)-cMORF and native cMORF conjugates resulted in a 35% loss and a complete loss of the label, respectively. Since the (111)In labeled DTPA is known to be stable, the instability in both cases must be due to some unstable association of DTPA to the cMORF, presumably unstable association to some endogenous sites in cMORF. Based on this assumption, a postconjugation-prepurification heating step was introduced, and labeling efficiency and stability were again investigated. By introducing the heating step, the side products were dissociated, and after purification and labeling, the NH(2)-cMORF conjugate provided a stable label and high labeling efficiency with no need for postlabeling purification. The biodistribution of this radiolabeled conjugate in normal mice showed significantly lower backgrounds compared with the labeled unstable native cMORF conjugate. In conclusion, the conventional conjugation procedure to attach the p-SCN-Bn-DTPA to NH(2)-cMORF resulted in side product(s) that were responsible for the (111)In label instability. Adding a postconjugation-prepurification heating step dissociated the side products, improved the label stability and lowered tissue backgrounds in mice. PMID:21315270

  3. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes in a human tumour xenograft model: implications for novel targeting strategies

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, K J; Rowlinson-Busza, G; Syrigos, K N; Uster, P S; Abra, R M; Stewart, J S W

    2000-01-01

    The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes in tumour-bearing nude mice was studied to examine possible applications of pegylated liposome-targeted anti-cancer therapies. Nude mice received an intravenous injection of 100 μl of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes, containing 0.37–0.74 MBq of activity. The t 1/2α and t 1/2β of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes were 1.1 and 10.3 h, respectively. Tumour uptake was maximal at 24 h at 5.5 ± 3.0% ID g–1. Significant reticuloendothelial system uptake was demonstrated with 19.3 ± 2.8 and 18.8 ± 4.2% ID g–1at 24 h in the liver and spleen, respectively. Other sites of appreciable deposition were the kidney, skin, female reproductive tract and to a lesser extent the gastrointestinal tract. There was no indication of cumulative deposition of pegylated liposomes in the lung, central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, heart or adrenal glands. In contrast, the t 1/2α and t 1/2β of unencapsulated111In-DTPA were 5 min and 1.1 h, respectively, with no evidence of accumulation in tumour or normal tissues. Incubation of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes in human serum for up to 10 days confirmed that they are very stable, with only minor leakage of their contents. The potential applications of pegylated liposomes in the arena of targeted therapy of solid cancers are discussed. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901376

  4. AEROSOL EXPOSURE, PHYSICS, AND CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A brief review is given of the "Knowledge" and the "Gaps in Knowledge" of aerosol exposure, physics and chemistry relevant to health effects of aerosols, and presented or discussed in platform or poster presentations at the Symposium on Particulate Air Pollution - Associations wi...

  5. Nanotechnology and pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols.

    PubMed

    Patel, A R; Vavia, P R

    2007-02-01

    Pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols have been playing a crucial role in the health and well being of millions of people throughout the world for many years. The technology's continual advancement, the ease of use and the more desirable pulmonary-rather-than-needle delivery for systemic drugs has increased the attraction for the pharmaceutical aerosol in recent years. But administration of drugs by the pulmonary route is technically challenging because oral deposition can be high, and variations in inhalation technique can affect the quantity of drug delivered to the lungs. Recent advances in nanotechnology, particularly drug delivery field have encouraged formulation scientists to expand their reach in solving tricky problems related to drug delivery. Moreover, application of nanotechnology to aerosol science has opened up a new category of pharmaceutical aerosols (collectively known as nanoenabled-aerosols) with added advantages and effectiveness. In this review, some of the latest approaches of nano-enabled aerosol drug delivery system (including nano-suspension, trojan particles, bioadhesive nanoparticles and smart particle aerosols) that can be employed successfully to overcome problems of conventional aerosol systems have been introduced. PMID:17375556

  6. Mount Saint Helens aerosol evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Farlow, N. H.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Ferry, G. V.; Fong, W.; Hayes, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  7. Preliminary aerosol generator design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stampfer, J. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The design and construction of a prototype vaporization generator for highly dispersed sodium chloride aerosols is described. The aerosol generating system is to be used in the Science Simulator of the Cloud Physics Laboratory Project and as part of the Cloud Physics Laboratory payload to be flown on the shuttle/spacelab.

  8. Aerosol in the Pacific troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Antony D.

    1989-01-01

    The use of near real-time optical techniques is emphasized for the measurement of mid-tropospheric aerosol over the Central Pacific. The primary focus is on measurement of the aerosol size distribution over the range of particle diameters from 0.15 to 5.0 microns that are essential for modeling CO2 backscatter values in support of the laser atmospheric wind sounder (LAWS) program. The measurement system employs a LAS-X (Laser Aerosol Spectrometer-PMS, Boulder, CO) with a custom 256 channel pulse height analyzer and software for detailed measurement and analysis of aerosol size distributions. A thermal preheater system (Thermo Optic Aerosol Descriminator (TOAD) conditions the aerosol in a manner that allows the discrimination of the size distribution of individual aerosol components such as sulfuric acid, sulfates and refractory species. This allows assessment of the relative contribution of each component to the BCO2 signal. This is necessary since the different components have different sources, exhibit independent variability and provide different BCO2 signals for a given mass and particle size. Field activities involve experiments designed to examine both temporal and spatial variability of these aerosol components from ground based and aircraft platforms.

  9. INDOOR AEROSOLS AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of both indoor aerosol concentration measurements, and the considerations for assessment of exposure to aerosols in non-occupational settings. The fixed-location measurements of concentration at an outdoor location, while commuting inside an a...

  10. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Farlow, N. H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Ferry, G. V.; Hayes, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  11. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K.G.; Ferry, G.V.; Hayes, D.M.

    1982-09-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Analysis of samples show that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  12. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  13. Thermophoretically Dominated Aerosol Coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.; Arias-Zugasti, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    A theory of aerosol coagulation due to size-dependent thermophoresis is presented. This previously overlooked effect is important when local temperature gradients are large, the sol population is composed of particles of much greater thermal conductivity than the carrier gas, with mean diameters much greater than the prevailing gas mean free path, and an adequate “spread” in sizes (as in metallurgical mists or fumes). We illustrate this via a population-balance analysis of the evolution of an initially log-normal distribution when this mechanism dominates ordinary Brownian diffusion.

  14. Aerosol Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenoble, Jacqueline (Editor); Remer, Lorraine (Editor); Tanre, Didier (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a much needed explanation of the basic physical principles of radia5tive transfer and remote sensing, and presents all the instruments and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous manner. For the first time, an easy path from theory to practical algorithms is available in one easily accessible volume, making the connection between theoretical radiative transfer and individual practical solutions to retrieve aerosol information from remote sensing. In addition, the specifics and intercomparison of all current and historical methods are explained and clarified.

  15. Bilateral photon deficient area along lateral abdominal wall in a Tc-99m DTPA renogram. A sign of massive ascites.

    PubMed

    Shih, W J; Marsano, L S

    1993-07-01

    A patient with congestive heart failure and hepatic and renal dysfunction underwent Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphic studies in which persistent cardiac blood pool activity, hepatic arterialization, and a longitudinal photon deficient area in each side of the abdominal wall were observed. The increase in hepatic artery inflow was believed to be due to a decrease in portal inflow of the liver. The elevation of portal pressure secondary to heart failure is attributable to the decrease in portal inflow of the liver; this phenomenon could account for the hepatic arterialization. Progressive renal dysfunction with high body background resulted in demonstrable ascites as photon deficient areas. Scintigraphic findings of hepatic arterialization plus an abdominal photon deficient area reflect severe heart failure and renal dysfunction. PMID:8344036

  16. Gd-Complexes of New Arylpiperazinyl Conjugates of DTPA-Bis(amides): Synthesis, Characterization and Magnetic Relaxation Properties.

    PubMed

    Ba-Salem, Abdullah O; Ullah, Nisar; Shaikh, M Nasiruzzaman; Faiz, Mohamed; Ul-Haq, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    Two new DTPA-bis(amide) based ligands conjugated with the arylpiperazinyl moiety were synthesized and subsequently transformed into their corresponding Gd(III) complexes 1 and 2 of the type [Gd(L)H2O]·nH2O. The relaxivity (R1) of these complexes was measured, which turned out to be comparable with that of Omniscan®, a commercially available MRI contrast agent. The cytotoxicity studies of these complexes indicated that they are non-toxic, which reveals their potential and physiological suitability as MRI contrast agents. All the synthesized ligands and complexes were characterized with the aid of analytical and spectroscopic methods, including elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, FT-IR, XPS and fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry. PMID:25939069

  17. Synthesis of 1-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl) derivatives of DTPA and EDTA. Antibody labeling and tumor-imaging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Brechbiel, M.W.; Gansow, O.A.; Atcher, R.W.; Schlom, J.; Esteban, J.; Simpson, D.E.; Colcher, D.

    1986-07-30

    To investigate the /sup 111/In labeling of tumor-localizing monoclonal antibodies (MoAb), the chelate 1-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (p-SCN-Bz-DPTA) (1) and its EDTA analogue (2) have been synthesized. By the use of a MoAb (B72.3) specific for a high molecular weight antigen (TAG-72) on cells of a colorectal carcinoma grown in nude mice, optimal chemical conditions for MoAb conjugation of those ligands and of the dicyclic and isobutylcarboxy carbonic anhydrides of DTPA and subsequent /sup 111/In labeling were determined. All conjugates were shown by a competitive binding assay to retain their specificity and activity in vitro when less than one ligand is protein coupled both prior to and after /sup 111/In labeling. Chemical methods for purification of the MoAb were systematically investigated by injection of purified immunoprotein into athymic mice bearing LS-174T tumors that express the TAG-72 antigen. Tissue distribution studies revealed that simple addition of EDTA to labeled immunoglobulins was ineffective at complexing indium not linked to protein by chelates. Similarly, gel chromatography (Sephadex G-50) was not sufficient; rather, size exclusion HPLC had to be employed to remove unreacted /sup 111/In and aggregated antibody. To compare the relative utility of the four chelates for /sup 111/In diagnostic radioimmunoimaging, scintigraphic images of tumor-bearing mice were obtained and evaluated along with tissue distributions. Results showed that clear images of these solid tissue tumors free of extraneous radiation could be obtained only by using p-SCN-Bz-DTPA purified by HPLC. Methods developed are now being employed in clinical trials for diagnosis of human colorectal cancer. 71 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  18. The Aerosol Coarse Mode Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. P.; Adhikari, N.; Air, D.; Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J.

    2014-12-01

    Many areas of the world show an aerosol volume distribution with a significant coarse mode and sometimes a dominant coarse mode. The large coarse mode is usually due to dust, but sea salt aerosol can also play an important role. However, in many field campaigns, the coarse mode tends to be ignored, because it is difficult to measure. This lack of measurements leads directly to a concomitant "lack of analysis" of this mode. Because, coarse mode aerosols can have significant effects on radiative forcing, both in the shortwave and longwave spectrum, the coarse mode -- and these forcings -- should be accounted for in atmospheric models. Forcings based only on fine mode aerosols have the potential to be misleading. In this paper we describe examples of large coarse modes that occur in areas of large aerosol loading (Mexico City, Barnard et al., 2010) as well as small loadings (Sacramento, CA; Kassianov et al., 2012; and Reno, NV). We then demonstrate that: (1) the coarse mode can contribute significantly to radiative forcing, relative to the fine mode, and (2) neglecting the coarse mode may result in poor comparisons between measurements and models. Next we describe -- in general terms -- the limitations of instrumentation to measure the coarse mode. Finally, we suggest a new initiative aimed at examining coarse mode aerosol generation mechanisms; transport and deposition; chemical composition; visible and thermal IR refractive indices; morphology; microphysical behavior when deposited on snow and ice; and specific instrumentation needs. Barnard, J. C., J. D. Fast, G. Paredes-Miranda, W. P. Arnott, and A. Laskin, 2010: Technical Note: Evaluation of the WRF-Chem "Aerosol Chemical to Aerosol Optical Properties" Module using data from the MILAGRO campaign, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 7325-7340. Kassianov, E. I., M. S. Pekour, and J. C. Barnard, 2012: Aerosols in Central California: Unexpectedly large contribution of coarse mode to aerosol radiative forcing

  19. Inorganic Components of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, Anthony Stein

    The inorganic components comprise 15% to 50% of the mass of atmospheric aerosols. For about the past 10 years the mass of these components was predicted assuming thermodynamic equilibrium between the volatile aerosol -phase inorganic species NH_4NO _3 and NH_4Cl and their gas-phase counterparts NH_3, HNO_3, and HCl. In this thesis I examine this assumption and prove that (1) the time scales for equilibration between the gas and aerosol phases are often too long for equilibrium to hold, and (2) even when equilibrium holds, transport considerations often govern the size distribution of these aerosol components. Water can comprise a significant portion of atmospheric aerosols under conditions of high relative humidity, whereas under conditions of sufficiently low relative humidity atmospheric aerosols tend to be dry. The deliquescence point is the relative humidity where the aerosol goes from a solid dry phase to an aqueous or mixed solid-aqueous phase. In this thesis I derive the temperature dependence of the deliquescence point and prove that in multicomponent solutions the deliquescence point is lower than for corresponding single component solutions. These theories of the transport, thermodynamic, and deliquescent properties of atmospheric aerosols are integrated into an aerosol inorganics model, AIM. The predictions of AIM compare well to fundamental thermodynamic measurements. Comparison of the prediction of AIM to those of other aerosol equilibrium models shows substantial disagreement in the predicted water content at lower relative humidities. The disagreement is due the improved treatment in AIM of the deliquescence properties of multicomponent solutions. In the summer and fall of 1987 the California Air Resources Board conducted the Southern California Air Quality Study, SCAQS, during which atmospheric aerosols were measured in Los Angeles. The size and composition of the aerosol and the concentrations of their gas phase counterparts were measured. When the

  20. Aerosol Climate Interactions in Climate System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehl, J. T.

    2002-12-01

    Aerosols are widely recognized as an important process in Earth's climate system. Observations over the past decade have improved our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of aerosols. Recently, field observations have highlighted the pervasiveness of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere. These aerosols are of particular interest, since they alter the vertical distribution of shortwave radiative heating between the surface and atmosphere. Given this increased knowledge of aerosols from various field programs, interest is focusing on how to integrate this understanding into global climate models. These types of models provide the best tool available to comprehensively study the potential effects of aerosols on Earth's climate system. Results from climate system model simulations that include aerosol effects will be presented to illustrate key aerosol climate interactions. These simulations employ idealized and realistic distributions of absorbing aerosols. The idealized aerosol simulations provide insight into the role of aerosol shortwave absorption on the global hydrologic cycle. The realistic aerosol distributions provide insight into the local response of aerosol forcing in the Indian subcontinent region. Emphasis from these simulations will be on the hydrologic cycle, since water availability is of emerging global environmental concern. This presentation will also consider what more is needed to significantly improve our ability to model aerosol processes in climate system models. Uncertainty in aerosol climate interactions remains a major source of uncertainty in our ability to project future climate change. Focus will be on interactions between aerosols and various physical, chemical and biogeochemical aspects of the Earth system.

  1. International Cooperative for Aerosol Prediction Workshop on Aerosol Forecast Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedetti, Angela; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to reinforce the working partnership between centers who are actively involved in global aerosol forecasting, and to discuss issues related to forecast verification. Participants included representatives from operational centers with global aerosol forecasting requirements, a panel of experts on Numerical Weather Prediction and Air Quality forecast verification, data providers, and several observers from the research community. The presentations centered on a review of current NWP and AQ practices with subsequent discussion focused on the challenges in defining appropriate verification measures for the next generation of aerosol forecast systems.

  2. SAGE II aerosol data validation based on retrieved aerosol model size distribution from SAGE II aerosol measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M. T.; Russell, P. B.; Oberbeck, V. R.; Livingston, J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to aerosol correlative measurements experiments for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, conducted between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative measurements were taken with an impactor/laser probe, a dustsonde, and an airborne 36-cm lidar system. The primary aerosol quantities measured by the ground-based instruments are compared with those calculated from the aerosol size distributions from SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements. Good agreement is found between the two sets of measurements.

  3. AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network

    DOE Data Explorer

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) program is a federation of ground-based remote sensing aerosol networks established by NASA and LOA-PHOTONS (CNRS) and is greatly expanded by collaborators from national agencies, institutes, universities, individual scientists, and partners. The program provides a long-term, continuous and readily accessible public domain database of aerosol optical, mircrophysical and radiative properties for aerosol research and characterization, validation of satellite retrievals, and synergism with other databases. The network imposes standardization of instruments, calibration, processing and distribution. AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

  4. Distribution of pancreatic B cell imaging agent 99mTc-DTPA-NGN2 in the body and animal experimental research on pancreatic B cell functional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Xie, Ying; Tang, Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of the application of 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide as a nuclear medicine imaging agent for evaluating pancreatic B cell function. Methods: (1) Distribution of the experiment: Forty-two mice were selected and divided into seven groups. Each mice was injected with 3.7 MBq (100 μCi) of 99mTc-DTPA-NGN2 from the vena caudalis and was sacrificed by bloodletting at five minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour, two hours, four hours and six hours, respectively. Then, their tissues and organs such as the heart, liver, spleen, brain, kidneys, bones, small bowels, stomach and pancreas,and blood were collected, weighted, and their radioactivity was tested. Subsequently, the percentage injection dose rate (%ID/g) per gram of tissue was calculated. (2) Imaging experiment: Thirty-five mice were selected and divided into seven groups. Each was injected with 18.5 MBq (100 μCi) of 99mTc-DTPA-NGN2 from the vena caudalis and imaging were conducted at the same time as above. (3) Forty-eight Wistar rats were attained and randomly divided into four groups. The first group served as the healthy control group, while the second, third and fourth groups were diabetic model groups induced by intraperitoneally injecting STZ at different doses. Each group was injected with 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide from the vena caudalis, and radiological evaluations were conducted at 30 minutes, one hour, 1.5 hours and two hours, respectively. The data obtained were estimated using a correlation comparison with the levels of insulin and immunohistochemical count of beta cells. Results: The 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide demonstrated good imaging in the pancreases of mice and rats, and was positively correlated to the level of insulin and the number of pancreatic beta cells. Conclusion: Pancreatic beta cell imaging using 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide may be a method to evaluate pancreatic beta cell function. PMID:27186309

  5. Aerosol growth in Titan's ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Lavvas, Panayotis; Yelle, Roger V; Koskinen, Tommi; Bazin, Axel; Vuitton, Véronique; Vigren, Erik; Galand, Marina; Wellbrock, Anne; Coates, Andrew J; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Crary, Frank J; Snowden, Darci

    2013-02-19

    Photochemically produced aerosols are common among the atmospheres of our solar system and beyond. Observations and models have shown that photochemical aerosols have direct consequences on atmospheric properties as well as important astrobiological ramifications, but the mechanisms involved in their formation remain unclear. Here we show that the formation of aerosols in Titan's upper atmosphere is directly related to ion processes, and we provide a complete interpretation of observed mass spectra by the Cassini instruments from small to large masses. Because all planetary atmospheres possess ionospheres, we anticipate that the mechanisms identified here will be efficient in other environments as well, modulated by the chemical complexity of each atmosphere. PMID:23382231

  6. A fixed frequency aerosol albedometer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jonathan E; Barta, Nick; Policarpio, Danielle; Duvall, Richard

    2008-02-01

    A new method for the measurement of aerosol single scatter albedo (omega) at 532 nm was developed. The method employs cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for measurement of aerosol extinction coefficient (b(ext)) and an integrating sphere nephelometer for determination of aerosol scattering coefficient (b(scat)). A unique feature of this method is that the extinction and scattering measurements are conducted simultaneously, on the exact same sample volume. Limits of detection (3s) for the extinction and scattering channel were 0.61 Mm(-1) and 2.7 Mm(-1) respectively. PMID:18542299

  7. eDPS Aerosol Collection

    SciTech Connect

    Venzie, J.

    2015-10-13

    The eDPS Aerosol Collection project studies the fundamental physics of electrostatic aerosol collection for national security applications. The interpretation of aerosol data requires understanding and correcting for biases introduced from particle genesis through collection and analysis. The research and development undertaken in this project provides the basis for both the statistical correction of existing equipment and techniques; as well as, the development of new collectors and analytical techniques designed to minimize unwanted biases while improving the efficiency of locating and measuring individual particles of interest.

  8. Wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction coefficient for stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.

    1986-01-01

    A simple empirical formula for the wavelength dependence of the aerosol extinction coefficient is proposed. The relationship between the constants in the formula and the variable parameter in the aerosol size distribution is explicitly expressed. Good agreement is found between the extinction coefficients calculated from the proposed formula and that calculated from Mie theory. The proposed expression is shown to be better than the Angstroem formula commonly used by atmospheric scientists.

  9. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  10. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  11. Aerosol lidar ``M4``

    SciTech Connect

    Shelevoy, C.D.; Andreev, Y.M. |

    1994-12-31

    Small carrying aerosol lidar in which is used small copper vapor laser ``Malachite`` as source of sounding optical pulses is described. The advantages of metal vapor laser and photon counting mode in acquisition system of lidar gave ability to get record results: when lidar has dimensions (1 x .6 x .3 m) and weight (65 kg), it provides the sounding of air industrial pollutions at up to 20 km range in scanning sector 90{degree}. Power feed is less than 800 Wt. Lidar can be disposed as stationary so on the car, helicopter, light plane. Results of location of smoke tails and city smog in situ experiments are cited. Showed advantages of work of acquisition system in photon counting mode when dynamic range of a signal is up to six orders.

  12. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Robock, Alan

    2015-03-30

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5–10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  13. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  14. Stratospheric aerosols and climatic change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, B.; Pollack, J. B.; Summers, A.; Toon, O. B.; Sagan, C.; Van Camp, W.

    1976-01-01

    Generated primarily by volcanic explosions, a layer of submicron silicate particles and particles made of concentrated sulfuric acids solution is present in the stratosphere. Flights through the stratosphere may be a future source of stratospheric aerosols, since the effluent from supersonic transports contains sulfurous gases (which will be converted to H2SO4) while the exhaust from Space Shuttles contains tiny aluminum oxide particles. Global heat balance calculations have shown that the stratospheric aerosols have made important contributions to some climatic changes. In the present paper, accurate radiative transfer calculations of the globally-averaged surface temperature (T) are carried out to estimate the sensitivity of the climate to changes in the number of stratospheric aerosols. The results obtained for a specified model atmosphere, including a vertical profile of the aerosols, indicate that the climate is unlikely to be affected by supersonic transports and Space Shuttles, during the next decades.

  15. Wind Power Charged Aerosol Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, A.M.

    1980-07-01

    This describes experimental results on a Charged Aerosol Wind/Electric Power Generator, using Induction Electric Charging with a water jet issuing under water pressure from a small diameter (25-100 ..mu..m) orifice.

  16. Method for producing monodisperse aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  17. AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    SCHWARTZ, S.E.

    2005-09-01

    Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

  18. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Charlson, R J; Schwartz, S E; Hales, J M; Cess, R D; Coakley, J A; Hansen, J E; Hofmann, D J

    1992-01-24

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of shortwavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square meter, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes. PMID:17842894

  19. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlson, R. J.; Schwartz, S. E.; Hales, J. M.; Cess, R. D.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Hansen, J. E.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, in particular, has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short-wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square meter, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes.

  20. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  1. Step-down infusions of Gd-DTPA yield greater contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images of BBB damage in acute stroke than bolus injections.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Nagesh, Vijaya; Ewing, James R; Whitton, Polly A; Fenstermacher, Joseph D; Knight, Robert A

    2007-04-01

    A rat model of transient suture occlusion of one middle cerebral artery (MCA) was used to create a unilateral reperfused cerebral ischemic infarct with blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening. Opening of the BBB was visualized and quantitated by magnetic resonance (MR) contrast enhancement with a Look-Locker T(1)-weighted sequence either following an intravenous bolus injection (n=7) or during a step-down infusion (n=7) of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Blood levels of Gd-DTPA after either input were monitored via changes in sagittal sinus relaxation rate. Blood-to-brain influx constants (K(i)) were calculated by Patlak plots. On the basis of the MRI parameters and lesion size, the ischemic injury was determined to be similar in the two groups. The bolus injection input produced a sharp rise in blood levels of Gd-DTPA that declined quickly, whereas the step-down infusion led to a sharp rise that was maintained relatively constant for the period of imaging. Visual contrast enhancement and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios were better with the step-down method (S/N=1.8) than with bolus injection (S/N=1.3). The K(i) values were not significantly different between the two groups (P>.05) and were around 0.005 ml/(g min). The major reason for the better imaging of BBB opening by the step-down infusion was the higher amounts of Gd-DTPA in plasma and tissue during most of the experimental period. These results suggest that step-down MR contrast agent (MRCA) administration schedule may be more advantageous for detection and delineation of acute BBB injury than the usually used bolus injections. PMID:17371719

  2. CALIPSO Observations of Aerosol Properties Near Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Yang, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Clouds are surrounded by a transition zone of rapidly changing aerosol properties. Characterizing this zone is important for better understanding aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects as well as for improving satellite measurements of aerosol properties. We present a statistical analysis of a global dataset of CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) Lidar observations over oceans. The results show that the transition zone extends as far as 15 km away from clouds and it is ubiquitous over all oceans. The use of only high confidence level cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD) data confirms the findings. However, the results underline the need for caution to avoid biases in studies of satellite aerosol products, aerosol-cloud interactions, and aerosol direct radiative effects.

  3. Early diagnosis and regional evaluation of radiation mucositis by newly developed TC-99M DTPA labelled agent

    SciTech Connect

    Tamamura, H.; Ohguchi, M.; Higashi, K.

    1994-05-01

    We have developed a new drug for treating acute radiation mucositis which consists of a steroid with potent localized anti-inflammatory effect, and sodium alginate with strong adherence to mucosal surface, and since then we have treated many patients with success. In the present study, we labelled this agent with Tc-99m DTPA, and administered to 10 healthy volunteers and 35 patients with acute radiation mucositis, and determined the values of mean transit time (MTT) and T1/2 from the dynamic phase and the time taken for the mixture to reach to cardia according to Talliefer`s method. Abnormal radionuclide (RN) accumulation in the esophagus was evaluated at 10 minutes after the administration and, the ratio of abnormal RN accumulation count were calculated. In the healthy volunteers, the MTT was 2.67 seconds, T1/2 14.0 seconds, and the time for the drug to reach the stomach 5.25 seconds. Even in the patients with acute radiation mucositis, these values were not significantly different from the healthy controls. However, the images taken at 10 minutes after the administration revealed abnormal RN accumulation corresponding to the irradiated region in all patients. The ratio of this abnormal RN accumulation to the total RN count in the esophagus was 52.48%, the pre-administration RN ratio was 6.45%. None of the healthy volunteers produced abnormal RN accumulation. The ratio of total RN count in the esophagus to pre-administration RN count was only 1.87% in the healthy volunteers, whereas 11.39% in the radiation mucositis group. When Tc-99m DTPA-labelled water was used similarly, the region of radiation esophagitis was not identified on scintigraphy. It was thus suggested that diagnosis of radiation mucositis could be made only with this new agent of high viscosity and very strong mucous adhesive property. Owing to its repeatability and simplicity, this new agent seemed to be useful to make the early diagnosis and regional evaluation of radiation mucositis possible.

  4. Orally Administered DTPA Di-ethyl Ester for Decorporation of 241Am in dogs: Assessment of Safety and Efficacy in an Inhalation-Contamination Model

    PubMed Central

    Huckle, James E.; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Pacyniak, Erik; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Agha, Bushra J.; Susick, Robert L.; Mumper, Russell J.; Jay, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Currently two injectable products of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for decorporation of 241Am, however, an oral product is considered more amenable in a mass casualty situation. The diethyl ester of DTPA, named C2E2, is being developed as an oral drug for treatment of internal radionuclide contamination. Materials and methods Single dose decorporation efficacy of C2E2 administered 24-hours post contamination was determined in beagle dogs using a 241Am nitrate inhalation contamination model. Single and multiple dose toxicity studies in beagle dogs were performed as part of an initial safety assessment program. In addition, the genotoxic potential of C2E2 was evaluated by the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation Ames test, mammalian cell chromosome aberration cytogenetic assay and an in vivo micronucleus test. Results Oral administration of C2E2 significantly increased 241Am elimination over untreated controls and significantly reduced the retention of 241Am in tissues, especially liver, kidney, lung and bone. Daily dosing of 200 mg/kg/day for 10 days was well tolerated in dogs. C2E2 was found to be neither mutagenic or clastogenic. Conclusions The di-ethyl ester of DTPA (C2E2) was shown to effectively enhance the elimination of 241Am after oral administration in a dog inhalation-contamination model and was well tolerated in toxicity studies. PMID:25912343

  5. Non-invasive evaluation of antiangiogenic effect in a mouse tumor model by DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA cystamine copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xueming; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Emerson, Lyska; Hoffman, John; Parker, Dennis L.; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of polydisulfide-based biodegradable macromolecular Gd(III) complexes, Gd-DTPA cystamine copolymers (GDCC), for assessing tumor microvascular characteristics and monitoring antiangiogenesis therapy was investigated in a mouse model using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). The mice bearing human colon tumor xenografts were intraperitoneally injected with an antiangiogenesis agent Avastin® three times in a week at a dose of 200 µg/mouse. DCE-MRI with GDCC of 40 KDa (GDCC-40) was performed before and at 36 hours after the first treatment with Avastin® and at the end of treatment (7 days). Gd(DTPA-BMA) was used as a low molecular weight control. The tumor vascular parameters, endothelial transfer coefficient Ktrans and factional plasma volume fPV, were calculated from the DCE-MRI data with a two-compartment model. The Ktrans and fPV in tumor periphery estimated by DCE-MRI with GDCC-40 before and after the antiangiogenesis treatment correlated well to tumor growth before and after the treatment in the tumor model. In contrast, the parameters estimated by Gd(DTPA-BMA) did not show significant correlation to the therapeutic efficacy. This study demonstrates that DCE-MRI with the biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agent can provide effective assessment of the antiangiogenic efficacy of Avastin® in the animal tumor model based on measured vascular parameters in tumor periphery. PMID:19958031

  6. Gd-DTPA-Dopamine-Bisphytanyl Amphiphile: Synthesis, Characterisation and Relaxation Parameters of the Nanoassemblies and Their Potential as MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek; Willis, Scott A; Waddington, Lynne J; Stait-Gardner, Tim; de Campo, Liliana; Hwang, Dennis W; Kirby, Nigel; Price, William S; Moghaddam, Minoo J

    2015-09-28

    Here, a new amphiphilic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, a Gd(III)-chelated diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated to two branched alkyl chains via a dopamine spacer, Gd-DTPA-dopamine-bisphytanyl (Gd-DTPA-Dop-Phy), which is readily capable of self-assembling into liposomal nanoassemblies upon dispersion in an aqueous solution, is reported. In vitro relaxivities of the dispersions were found to be much higher than Magnevist, a commercially available contrast agent, at 0.47 T but comparable at 9.40 T. Analysis of variable temperature (17)O NMR transverse relaxation measurements revealed the water exchange of the nanoassemblies to be faster than that previously reported for paramagnetic liposomes. Molecular reorientation dynamics were probed by (1)H NMRD profiles using a classical inner and outer sphere relaxation model and a Lipari-Szabo "model-free" approach. High payloads of Gd(III) ions in the liposomal nanoassemblies made solely from the Gd-DTPA-Dop-Phy amphiphiles, in combination with slow molecular reorientation and fast water exchange makes this novel amphiphile a suitable candidate to be investigated as an advanced MRI contrast agent. PMID:26376329

  7. Quantitative imaging of the tissue contrast agent [Gd(DTPA)]²⁻ in articular cartilage by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sussulini, Alessandra; Wiener, Edzard; Marnitz, Tim; Wu, Bei; Müller, Berit; Hamm, Bernd; Sabine Becker, J

    2013-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is an emerging analytical technique in the generation of quantitative images of MR contrast agent distribution in thin tissue sections of articular cartilage. An analytical protocol is described that includes sample preparation by cryo-cutting of tissue sections, mass spectrometric measurements by LA-ICP-MS and quantification of gadolinium images by one-point calibration, standard addition method (employing matrix-matched laboratory standards) and isotope dilution analysis using highly enriched stable Gd-155 isotope (abundance 92 vs 14.8% in the [Gd(DTPA)]²⁻ contrast agent). The tissue contrast agent concentrations of [Gd(DTPA)]²⁻ in cartilage measured in this work are in agreement with findings obtained by magnetic resonance imaging and other analytical methodologies. The LA-ICP-MS imaging data also confirm the observation that the spatial distribution of [Gd(DTPA)]²⁻ in the near-equilibrium state is highly inhomogeneous across cartilage thickness with the highest concentration measured in superficial cartilage and a strong decrease toward the subchondral bone. In the present work, it is shown for the first time that LA-ICP-MS can be applied to validate the results from quantitative gadolinium-enhanced MRI technique of articular cartilage. PMID:23281293

  8. Holistic aerosol evaluation using synthesized aerosol aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson-Parris, Duncan; Reddington, Carly; Schutgens, Nick; Stier, Philip; Carslaw, Ken; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James; Coe, Hugh

    2016-04-01

    Despite ongoing efforts there are still large uncertainties in aerosol concentrations and loadings across many commonly used GCMs. This in turn leads to large uncertainties in the contributions of the direct and indirect aerosol forcing on climate. However, constraining these fields using earth observation data, although providing global coverage, is problematic for many reasons, including the large uncertainties in retrieving aerosol loadings. Additionally, the inability to retrieve aerosols in or around cloudy scenes leads to further sampling biases (Gryspeerdt 2015). Many in-situ studies have used regional datasets to attempt to evaluate the model uncertainties, but these are unable to provide an assessment of the models ability to represent aerosols properties on a global scale. Within the Global Aerosol Synthesis and Science Project (GASSP) we have assembled the largest collection of quality controlled, in-situ aircraft observations ever synthesized to a consistent format. This provides a global set of in-situ measurements of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and Black Carbon (BC), amongst others. In particular, the large number of vertical profiles provided by this aircraft data allows us to investigate the vertical structure of aerosols across a wide range of regions and environments. These vertical distributions are particularly valuable when investigating the dominant processes above or below clouds where remote sensing data is not available. Here we present initial process-based assessments of the BC lifetimes and vertical distributions of CCN in the HadGEM-UKCA and ECHAM-HAM models using this data. We use point-by-point based comparisons to avoid the sampling issues associated with comparing spatio-temporal aggregations.

  9. Test-Aerosol Generator For Calibrating Particle Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogan, Paul A.; Adams, Alois J.; Schwindt, Christian J.; Hodge, Timothy R.; Mallow, Tim J.; Duong, Anh A.; Bukauskas, Vyto V.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus generates clean, stable aerosol stream for use in testing and calibrating laser-based aerosol-particle counter. Size and concentration of aerosol particles controlled to ensure accurate calibration. Cheap, widely available medical nebulizers used to generate aerosols.

  10. Satellite Retrieval of Aerosol Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, G.; Robles Gonzalez, C.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Decae, R.

    SATELLITE RETRIEVAL of AEROSOL PROPERTIES G. de Leeuw, C. Robles Gonzalez, J. Kusmierczyk-Michulec and R. Decae TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory, The Hague, The Netherlands; deleeuw@fel.tno.nl Methods to retrieve aerosol properties over land and over sea were explored. The dual view offered by the ATSR-2 aboard ERS-2 was used by Veefkind et al., 1998. The retrieved AOD (aerosol optical depth) values compare favourably with collocated sun photometer measurements, with an accuracy of 0.06 +/- 0.05 in AOD. An algorithm developed for GOME on ERS-2 takes advantage of the low surface reflection in the UV (Veefkind et al., 2000). AOD values retrieved from ATSR-2 and GOME data over western Europe are consistent. The results were used to produce a map of mean AOD values over Europe for one month (Robles-Gonzalez et al., 2000). The ATSR-2 is al- gorithm is now extended with other aerosol types with the aim to apply it over the In- dian Ocean. A new algorithm is being developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to be launched in 2003 on the NASA EOS-AURA satellite. It is expected that, based on the different scattering and absorption properties of various aerosol types, five major aerosol classes can be distinguished. The experience with the retrieval of aerosol properties by using several wavelength bands is used to develop an algorithm for Sciamachy to retrieve aerosol properties both over land and over the ocean which takes advantage of the wavelengths from the UV to the IR. The variation of the AOD with wavelength is described by the Angstrom parameter. The AOD and the Angstrom parameter together yield information on the aerosol size distribution, integrated over the column. Analysis of sunphotometer data indicates a relation between the Angstrom parameter and the mass ratio of certain aerosols (black carbon, organic carbon and sea salt) to the total particulate matter. This relation has been further explored and was applied to satellite data over land to

  11. Hydrogen bonding at the aerosol interface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.X.; Aiello, D.; Aker, P.M. )

    1995-01-12

    Morphology-dependent stimulated Raman scattering (MDSRS) has been used to monitor the degree of hydrogen bonding in water aerosols generated by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG). The results show that aerosols created by a VOAG suffer extensive structural disruption and that the disruption is most pronounced at the aerosol surface. Laboratory aerosols prepared in this way do not appropriately mimic those found in the atmosphere, and the mass accommodation coefficients measured using such aerosols should not be used in global climate modeling calculations. 25 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Study of Aerosol Chemical Composition Based on Aerosol Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Austin; Aryal, Rudra

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the variation of aerosol absorption optical properties obtained from the CIMEL Sun-Photometer measurements over three years (2012-2014) at three AERONET sites GSFC; MD Science_Center and Tudor Hill, Bermuda. These sites were chosen based on the availability of data and locations that can receive different types of aerosols from land and ocean. These absorption properties, mainly the aerosol absorption angstrom exponent, were analyzed to examine the corresponding aerosol chemical composition. We observed that the retrieved absorption angstrom exponents over the two sites, GSFC and MD Science Center, are near 1 (the theoretical value for black carbon) and with low single scattering albedo values during summer seasons indicating presence of black carbon. Strong variability of aerosol absorption properties were observed over Tudor Hill and will be analyzed based on the air mass embedded from ocean side and land side. We will also present the seasonal variability of these properties based on long-range air mass sources at these three sites. Brent Holben, NASA GSFC, AERONET, Jon Rodriguez.

  13. AERONET - Aerosol Climatology From Megalopolis Aerosol Source Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.; Artaxo, P.; Leyva, A.; Lu, D.; Sano, I.; Singh, R. P.; Quel, E.; Tanre, D.; Zibordi, G.

    2002-05-01

    AERONET is a globally distributed network of ~170 identical sun and sky scanning spectral radiometers expanded by federation with collaborating investigators that contribute to the AERONET public domain data-base. We will detail the current distribution and plans for expanded collaboration. Recent products available through the project database are important for assessment of human health as well as climate forcing issues. We will illustrate a summary of aerosol optical properties measured in Indian, East Asian, North American, South American and European megalopolis source regions. We will present monthly mean fine and coarse particle aerosol optical depth, particle size distributions and single scattering albedos. Each region represents a population in excess of 10 million inhabitants within a 200 km radius of the observation site that dictate the anthropogenic aerosol sources contributing to significantly diverse aerosol properties as a function of economic development and seasonally dependent meteorological processes. The diversity of the measured optical properties of urban aerosols illustrates the need for long-term regional monitoring that contribute to comparative assessments for health and climate change investigations.

  14. Modeling the Absorbing Aerosol Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Joyce; Zhang, Sophia

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme to model the absorbing aerosol index and improve the biomass carbon inventories by optimizing the difference between TOMS aerosol index (AI) and modeled AI with an inverse model. Two absorbing aerosol types are considered, including biomass carbon and mineral dust. A priori biomass carbon source was generated by Liousse et al [1996]. Mineral dust emission is parameterized according to surface wind and soil moisture using the method developed by Ginoux [2000]. In this initial study, the coupled CCM1 and GRANTOUR model was used to determine the aerosol spatial and temporal distribution. With modeled aerosol concentrations and optical properties, we calculate the radiance at the top of the atmosphere at 340 nm and 380 nm with a radiative transfer model. The contrast of radiance at these two wavelengths will be used to calculate AI. Then we compare the modeled AI with TOMS AI. This paper reports our initial modeling for AI and its comparison with TOMS Nimbus 7 AI. For our follow-on project we will model the global AI with aerosol spatial and temporal distribution recomputed from the IMPACT model and DAO GEOS-1 meteorology fields. Then we will build an inverse model, which applies a Bayesian inverse technique to optimize the agreement of between model and observational data. The inverse model will tune the biomass burning source strength to reduce the difference between modelled AI and TOMS AI. Further simulations with a posteriori biomass carbon sources from the inverse model will be carried out. Results will be compared to available observations such as surface concentration and aerosol optical depth.

  15. MODIS Retrieval of Dust Aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier

    2003-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) currently aboard both the Terra and Aqua satellites produces a suite of products designed to characterize global aerosol distribution, optical thickness and particle size. Never before has a space-borne instrument been able to provide such detailed information, operationally, on a nearly global basis every day. The three years of Terra-MODIS data have been validated by comparing with co-located AERONET observations of aerosol optical thickness and derivations of aerosol size parameters. Some 8000 comparison points located at 133 AERONET sites around the globe show that the MODIS aerosol optical thickness retrievals are accurate to within the pre-launch expectations. However, the validation in regions dominated by desert dust is less accurate than in regions dominated by fine mode aerosol or background marine sea salt. The discrepancy is most apparent in retrievals of aerosol size parameters over ocean. In dust situations, the MODIS algorithm tends to under predict particle size because the reflectances at top of atmosphere measured by MODIS exhibit the stronger spectral signature expected by smaller particles. This pattern is consistent with the angular and spectral signature of non-spherical particles. All possible aerosol models in the MODIS Look-Up Tables were constructed from Mie theory, assuming a spherical shape. Using a combination of MODIS and AERONET observations, in regimes dominated by desert dust, we construct phase functions, empirically, with no assumption of particle shape. These new phase functions are introduced into the MODIS algorithm, in lieu of the original options for large dust-like particles. The results will be analyzed and examined.

  16. YAG aerosol lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Global Atmospheric Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Mission, using the NASA DC-8 aircraft platform, is designed to provide the magnitude and statistical distribution of atmospheric backscatter cross section at lidar operating wavelengths. This is a fundamental parameter required for the Doppler lidar proposed to be used on a spacecraft platform for global wind field measurements. The prime measurements will be made by a CO2 lidar instrument in the 9 to 10 micron range. These measurements will be complemented with the Goddard YAG Aerosol Lidar (YAL) data in two wavelengths, 0.532 and 1.06 micron, in the visible and near-infrared. The YAL, is being designed to utilize as much existing hardware, as feasible, to minimize cost and reduce implementation time. The laser, energy monitor, telescope and detector package will be mounted on an optical breadboard. The optical breadboard is mounted through isolation mounts between two low boy racks. The detector package will utilize a photomultiplier tube for the 0.532 micron channel and a silicon avalanche photo detector (APD) for the 1.06 micron channel.

  17. The biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 117m}Sn DTPA with special emphasis on active marrow absorbed doses

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, J.; Atkins, H.

    1999-01-01

    {sup 117m}Sn(4+) DTPA is a new radiopharmaceutical for the palliation of pain associated with metastatic bone cancer. Recently, the Phase 2 clinical trials involving 47 patients were completed. These patients received administered activities in the range 6.7--10.6 MBq/kg of body mass. Frequent collections of urine were acquired over the first several hours postadministration and daily cumulative collections were obtained for the next 4--10 days. Anterior/posterior gamma camera images were obtained frequently over the initial 10 days. Radiation dose estimates were calculated for 8 of these patients. Each patient`s biodistribution data were mathematically simulated using a multicompartmental model. The model consisted of the following compartments: central, bone, kidney, other tissues, and cumulative urine. The measured cumulative urine data were used as references for the cumulative urine excretion compartment. The total-body compartment (sum of the bone surfaces, central, kidney, and other tissues compartments) was reference to all activity not excreted in the urine.

  18. 99mTc-DTPA and /sup 131/I-hippuran findings in liver transplant recipients treated with cyclosporin A

    SciTech Connect

    Klintmalm, G.B.; Klingensmith, W.C.; Iwatsuki, S.; Schroeter, G.P.; Starzl, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of cyclosporin A (CyA), an immunosuppressive agent that is potentially nephrotoxic, on the kidneys of 9 liver transplant recipients were studied with serial 99mTc-DTPA and 131I-hippuran scans. In addition, renal function was determined by measuring serum creatinine levels during the second postoperative week in the 9 unselected CyA-treated patients and, retrospectively, in a control group of 29 liver transplant recipients who had not been treated with CyA and who were selected because they had survived for at least 3 months postoperatively. The early postoperative creatinine level was significantly greater in the CyA group. Eight of the 9 CyA patients showed imaging abnormalities in all preoperative and postoperative studies. Five of the 8 patients showed a pattern similar to that of acute tubular necrosis (relatively preserved perfusion) in at least one study. Lowering the dosage of CyA permitted the continuation of therapy, and all 9 patients are alive after 8 to 14 months.

  19. Localization of neuroendocrine tumours with [111In] DTPA-octreotide scintigraphy (Octreoscan): a comparative study with CT and MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Shi, W; Johnston, C F; Buchanan, K D; Ferguson, W R; Laird, J D; Crothers, J G; McIlrath, E M

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of neuroendocrine tumours express somatostatin receptors, and can be visualized by radiolabelled somatostatin analogue scintigraphy. To investigate the value of [111In]-octreotide scintigraphy (Octreoscan), 48 patients (37 with proven carcinoid, pancreatic endocrine and medullary carcinoma of thyroid tumours, 11 with neuroendocrine syndromes multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN-I) and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) were examined with 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide. Scintigrams were obtained at 24 and 48 h, and the results were compared with CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-five of 48 patients had positive [111In]-octreotide scintigraphy (23/25 (92%) carcinoids, 8/9 (89%) PETs, 4/11 (36%) MEN-I & ZES). Of the 42 lesions located by conventional imaging techniques, 37 (88%) were also identified by Octreoscan. Unexpected lesions (40 sites), not detected by CT or MR imaging were found in 24/48 (50%) patients. [111In]-octreotide scintigraphy has a higher sensitivity for tumour detection, and is superior to MR imaging and CT scanning in the identification of previously unsuspected extraliver and lymph node metastases. It may also be helpful for the localization of clinically suspected tumours in patients with MEN-I and ZES. PMID:9666953

  20. Intraoperative detection of somatostatin-receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumours using indium-111-labelled DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide.

    PubMed Central

    Wangberg, B.; Forssell-Aronsson, E.; Tisell, L. E.; Nilsson, O.; Fjalling, M.; Ahlman, H.

    1996-01-01

    After injection of 111In-labelled DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide, intraoperative tumour localisation was performed using a scintillation detector in 23 patients with neuroendocrine tumours. Count rates from suspect tumour lesions and adjacent normal tissue were expressed as a ratio before (Rin situ) and after (Rex vivo) excision. 111In activity concentration ratios of tumour tissue to blood (T/B) were determined in a gamma counter. In patients with midgut carcinoids, (all scintigraphy positive), false Rin situ recordings were found in 4/29 macroscopically identified tumours. T/B ratios were all high (27-650). In patients with medullary thyroid carcinomas (eight out of ten scintigraphy positive), misleading Rin situ results were found in 4/37 macroscopically identified tumours. T/B ratios were lower (3-39) than those seen in midgut carcinoids. Two out of four patients with endocrine pancreatic tumours had positive scintigraphy, reliable intraoperative measurements and very high T/B ratios (910-1500). One patient with a gastric carcinoid had correct measurements in situ and ex vivo with high T/B ratios (71-210). In situ measurements added little information to preoperative scintigraphy and surgical findings using the present detection system. Rex vivo measurements were more reliable. The very high T/B ratios seen in midgut carcinoids and some endocrine pancreatic tumours would be favourable for future radiation therapy via somatostatin receptors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8611378