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1

Technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and gallium scanning in acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

SciTech Connect

In 11 non-smoking AIDS patients suspected of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), the results of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol clearances, gallium scans, and arterial blood gases were compared with those of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Nine patients had PCP. All had increased clearances five times higher than the normal (5.6 +/- 2.3% X min-1 vs 1.1 +/- 0.34% X min-1, N = 10, P less than 0.001), suggesting an increased alveolar permeability. Gallium scans were abnormal in six patients but normal or slightly abnormal in the three others. Four of these nine patients had normal chest x-rays. In two of these the gallium scan was abnormal, but in the two others, only the increased Tc-99m DTPA clearances showed evidence of lung disease. Two patients had normal BAL, with normal clearances and gallium scans. Four out of the nine patients with PCP were studied after treatment. Three recovered and had normal clearance and gallium scans. One still had PCP with increased clearance but normal gallium scan. Gallium scanning and Tc-99m DTPA clearance are useful for detecting lung disease in AIDS patients with suspected PCP and for prompting BAL when chest x-rays and PaO/sub 2/ levels are normal. Due to its high sensitivity, a normal Tc-99m DTPA clearance could avoid BAL.

Picard, C.; Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Cinotti, L.; Mayaud, C.; Revuz, J.

1987-07-01

2

Rapid clearance of inhaled aerosols of Technetium-99M DTPA in patients with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

Because infection with Pheumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) causes alteration of the type I epithelial cells as the primary event, the authors studied patients with PCP to determine if PCP causes rapid clearance of Tc-99m DTPA. Twenty normal non-smoking subjects and 7 non-smoking patients with histologically proven PCP were studied. Serial studies were obtained in three patients. Following a two-minute inhalation of 1.6 ..mu..m aerosol particles of Tc-99m DTPA in saline, the activity over three peripheral regions of interest (ROI) of each lung was monitored for the next 7 minutes. The rate of decline of activity over each ROI was expressed as per cent decline/min. In 7 patients with PCP, the average clearance was 7.5 +- 3.6% min., normal, 1.3 +- 0.6% min.(SD). Three patients studied from 5 to 38 days following therapy had improvement in the rate of clearance. This has been demonstrated to be persistent even after clinical recovery of the patient. The ability to quantitate injury to the pulmonary epithelium may directly reflect the ability of Pneumocystis carinii to invade the lung. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DTPA clearance may be a useful test to help diagnosis and monitor the activity of PCP infections.

Mason, G.R.; Duane, G.B.; Effros, R.M.; Mena, I.

1985-05-01

3

Waterpipe smoking effects on pulmonary permeability using technetium-99m DTPA inhalation scintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Although extensive work has been done on cigarette smoking and its effects on pulmonary function, there are limited number\\u000a of studies on water-pipe smoking. The effects of water-pipe smoking on health are not widely investigated. The aim of this\\u000a study was to determine the effects of water-pipe smoking on pulmonary permeability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Technetium-99m DTPA inhalation scintigraphy was performed on 14 water-pipe

Aysel Aydin; Goksel Kiter; Hatice Durak; Eyup Sabri Ucan; Gamze Capa Kaya; Emel Ceylan

2004-01-01

4

Comparison of methods for calculating glomerular filtration rate: Technetium-99m-DTPA scintigraphic analysis, protein-free and whole-plasma clearance of technetium-99m-DTPA and iodine-125-iothalamate clearance  

SciTech Connect

True glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured in normal volunteers and in patients with normal and impaired renal function by the iothalamate clearance (IC) method of Sigman. Within 24 hr, GFR was also determined by two other methods: technetium-99m- ({sup 99m}Tc) DTPA scintigraphic analysis (SA) utilizing a modification of the Gates computer program, and by measuring disappearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA from whole plasma (WPC) and from protein-free ultrafiltered plasma (PFPC). Determinations of GFR by IC and by PFPC methods were virtually identical (mean absolute error 5.36 ml/min, r = 0.99, p greater than 0.05). GFRs measured in protein-free, ultrafiltered plasma differed significantly from those obtained from whole plasma only in sicker patients and in those taking multiple medications (in whom alterations in protein-binding of DTPA may be seen). The SA method correlated less well with the iodine-125-({sup 125}I) IC method than did either the protein-free or whole-plasma clearance methods (mean absolute error 32.36 ml/min, r = 0.74, p less than 0.05). However, the SA method provided useful information with respect to differential (split) renal function.

Goates, J.J.; Morton, K.A.; Whooten, W.W.; Greenberg, H.E.; Datz, F.L.; Handy, J.E.; Scuderi, A.J.; Haakenstad, A.O.; Lynch, R.E. (Nuclear Medicine Service, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

1990-04-01

5

Technetium 99m radiolabeling of aerosolized drug particles from metered dose inhalers.  

PubMed

To assess mechanisms of bronchodilation and effectiveness of metered dose inhalers, it may be useful to determine sites of drug deposition in the lung. To establish suitable test aerosols, two brands of metered dose inhalers containing bronchodilator (Brethaire, Proventil) were radiolabeled with technetium ( 99mTc) and tested to determine if the distribution of radioisotope in the aerosol was representative of the distribution of agonist activity. Cascade impaction was used to determine the particle size distribution of the radioisotope and drug aerosols by assaying each state of the cascade using scintillation and HPLC techniques. Possible influences of the radiolabeling method and delivery techniques on the particle distribution were assessed by analyzing distributions from nonradiolabeled inhalers using HPLC. For these drugs, there was an excellent correlation between the distribution of radioactivity and the drug within the captured aerosol (Brethaire r = 0.994, Proventil r = 0.998, 20 - 200 consecutive puffs). Distributions were close to log-normal and differences in mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) between the radioisotope and agonist activities were not significant (Brethaire, MMAD +/- sigma g, radiolabel vs drug = 4.7 +/- 2.1 mum, vs 4.4 +/- 1.7 mum, and Proventil, 2.5 +/- 2.1 mum, vs 2.4 +/- 2.0 mum. Non-labeled inhalers produced similar drug distributions (Brethaire, 4.2 +/- 1.8 mum, and Proventil 2.0 +/- 1.9 mum). Pausing between actuations resulted in slightly smaller distributions (Brethaire, 3.6 +/- 1.8 mum, Proventil 1.8 +/- 1.8 mum, 20 puffs-60 sec pauses) but the differences were not significant. In addition, to search for multimodal distributions and assess the accuracy of the MMAD measurement via our cascade impactor (Delron), we also measured the distribution of the mass of material within the aerosols using a weight-sensitive cascade (California Measurements). Using the latter device (1 puff), the mass distributions of both aerosols were similar to the values obtained from the puffs with pauses (Brethaire 3.8 +/- 2.3 mum, Proventil 1.4 +/- 2.2 mum). Multi-modal distributions were not found. By all assessments, the distributions were nearly log-normal with drug activity well described by the radiolabel. PMID:10147689

Aug, C; Perry, R J; Smaldone, G C

1991-01-01

6

Technetium-99m DTPA dimethyl ester: a renal function imaging agent. Comparative studies in animals with technetium-99m mercaptoacetyl triglycine and 131I-ortho-iodohippurate.  

PubMed

The dimethyl ester of diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DMDTPA) (I) can be easily and efficiently labelled with 99mTc. This method can be readily adapted for kit formulations to produce a highly stable and very pure chelate, as shown by paper electrophoresis and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography experiments. In mice, this chelate was excreted unchanged in the urine, and the amount of renal excretion was much higher than that of 99mTc-DTPA and comparable with that of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyl triglycine (99mTc-MAG(3)) at two different time points. The renal excretion of co-injected 131I-ortho-iodohippurate (131I-OIH), however, was significantly greater than that of the 99mTc chelates. The renal clearance values of 99mTc-DMDTPA and 99mTc-MAG(3) were also similar and exceeded the corresponding value for 99mTc-DTPA, but were only half that of the 131I-OIH value in the rat. The renograms for 99mTc-DMDTPA and 99mTc-MAG(3) showed overall similarity in a dog model. The diethyl ester (III) and monoethyl ester (II) of DTPA, after labelling with 99mTc, produced the same chelate, as shown by analytical results and biological data, indicating that one of the ester groups in the DTPA diester is dealkylated during the chelation procedure. To confirm this, two more ligands, diethylene triamine 1,4,7,7-tetra-acetic acid (IV) and diethylene triamine 1,4,7-triacetic acid (V), were synthesized, resembling DTPA monoalkyl ester (II) and dialkyl ester (I, III), respectively, in the arrangement of the donor atoms. Ligand IV but not ligand V, on 99mTc chelation, can generate the specific pharmacophore for renal tubular transport that is also present in the ester chelates 99mTc-I, 99mTc-II and 99mTc-III, as shown by their decreased renal excretion in mice pretreated with a renal tubular transport inhibitor such as probenecid. PMID:12717078

Bhowal, K; Bhattacharyya, S; Majumdar, A; Giri, C; Vanaja, R; Ramamoorthy, N; Ganguly, S; Sarkar, B R; Banerjee, S; Chatterjee Debnath, M

2003-05-01

7

Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy.

Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.

1986-11-01

8

Impaired permeability in radiation-induced lung injury detected by technetium-99m-DTPA lung clearance  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the use of the {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA aerosol lung clearance method to investigate radiation-induced lung changes in eight patients undergoing radiotherapy for lung or breast carcinoma. The sensitivity of the method was compared with chest radiography for detecting radiation-induced changes in the lung, regional alterations within and outside the treatment ports, effect of irradiated lung volume, and dependence on time after radiotherapy. Serial DTPA lung clearance studies were performed before the first radiation treatment (baseline), then weekly during a 5- to 7-wk course, and up to 12 times post-therapy over periods of 56-574 days. The total activity deposited in the lungs for each study was {approx}150 {mu}Ci ({approx}5.6 MBq). DTPA clearance, expressed in terms of the biological half-time, t{sub 1/2}, was computed from the slopes of the least-squares fit regression lines of the time-activity curves for the first 10 min for irradiated and shielded lung regions. Major findings include: (a) significant and early DTPA t{sub 1/2} changes were observed in all patients during and after radiotherapy; (b) changes in DTPA t{sub 1/2} values were observed in both irradiated and shielded lung regions in all patients suggesting a radiation-induced systemic reaction; (c) changes in DTPA t{sub 1/2} values were correlated (p < 0.05) with the irradiated lung volumes; (d) significantly reduced DTPA t{sub 1/2} values were observed in three patients who subsequently presented with clinical symptoms and/or radiographic changes consistent with radiation pneumonitis (t{sub 1/2} fell to 19% {+-} 6% of baseline values, compared with 64% {+-} 17% in the remaining patients [p < 0.01]); (e) the onset of decreased DTPA t{sub 1/2} values in these three patients occurred 35-84 days before clinical symptoms and/or radiographic changes; and (f) DTPA t{sub 1/2} tended to approach baseline values with time after radiotherapy, suggesting a long-term recovery in lung injury.

Susskind, H.; Weber, D.A.; Lau, Yat Hong [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[University Hospital, Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [and others

1997-06-01

9

Scintigraphic monitoring of mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin aerosol  

SciTech Connect

A simple method for in vivo monitoring mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance is described. Eighteen healthy subjects and 13 patients with various chronic lung diseases were studied by this method. The principle of using an aerosol administration system similar to the system used for routine ventilation lung studies is stressed. Proximal large airway deposition of the radioaerosol was obtained by using relatively large particles (average diameter 2 microM) of (99mTc)MAA aerosol. Monitoring was performed by visual inspection of the tracheo-bronchial cinescintigraphic ascendence of the accumulated radioactive boli and by assessing their rate of clearance via automated computer analysis of the time-activity curves, following the movement of each bolus. The normal mean +/- s.d. clearance rate thus obtained was 4.7 +/- 1.3 mm/min. This rate appears to be more precise as compared with the range of results obtained by other radioisotopic methods. Significantly faster rates, mean 8.2 +/- 1.4 mm/min (p less than 0.001) were obtained in bronchiectatic patients while slower rates (2.8 mm/min) were seen in a patient with ciliary dyskinesia.

Zwas, S.T.; Katz, I.; Belfer, B.; Baum, G.L.; Aharonson, E.

1987-02-01

10

Measurement of glomerular filtration rate using technetium-99m-DTPA and the gamma camera: A comparison of methods  

SciTech Connect

A variety of methods has been proposed to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from renal uptake of Tc-99m-DTPA using a gamma camera. To compare alternative methods, the authors have calculated GFR in several different ways from measurements in 33 patients, and compared the results with an independent GFR measurement based on 8-point plasma clearance of Yb-169-DTPA. The best agreement was obtained using an algorithm that has not been described previously. This was a modification of a method used previously in which correction was made for overlap of kidneys by liver and spleen. The correlation coefficient was 0.958 and the residual standard deviation was 12.1 ml/min. This method required a single 20-min blood sample as well as the camera data. The best method not requiring a blood sample was significantly less accurate, with correlation coefficient 0.866 and residual standard deviation 21.1 ml/min. The accuracy of these methods was comparable to that reported for the creatinine clearance, the most commonly used estimate of GFR in current clinical practice.

Russell, C.D.; Bischoff, P.G.; Kontzen, F.; Rowell, K.L.; Yester, M.V.; Lloyd, L.K.; Tauxe, W.N.; Dubovsky, E.V.

1984-01-01

11

Absorbed radiation dose in adults from iodine-131 and iodine-123 orthoiodohippurate and technetium-99m DTPA renography  

SciTech Connect

A mathematic model for evaluation of absorbed dose in radionuclide renography has been developed and programmed for automatic calculation in the computer. Input data to the model are readily available from the results of the renography and, hence, the method described is suitable for individual dose determinations in adults. Apart from the situation with very considerable outflow obstructions (/sup 131/I)OIH single probe renography involves a 15-20 times smaller dose to radiation sensitive organs than (/sup 123/I)OIH gamma camera renography. Further, the latter examination results in a 2-10 times smaller dose than (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA gamma camera renography under normal outflow conditions. Absorbed renal dose is large, approximately 70 mGy, in the three renographies in the borderline case with total outflow obstructions. For comparison, i.v. pyelography, which is the x-ray examination often used instead of radionuclide renography, involves an absorbed dose to ovaries 10-1000 times larger than in radionuclide renography

Carlsen, O.

1988-03-01

12

Regional respiratory clearance of aerosolized \\/sup 99m\\/Tc-DTPA: posture and smoking effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 10 healthy nonsmokers and 8 healthy smokers, in both the upright and supine position, to investigate whether regional differences in respiratory clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid \\/sup 99m\\/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) existed and to assess the influence of posture and smoking on the regional RC-DTPA. RC-DTPA was assessed by the lung clearance rates (%\\/min) of aerosolized \\/sup 99m\\/Tc-DTPA (0.8

D. J. Dusser; B. D. Minty; M. A. Collignon; D. Hinge; L. G. Barritault; G. J. Huchon

1986-01-01

13

The Effect of Vincristine on the Biodistribution of Technetium99m DTPA, GHA, and DMSA in Balb\\/c Female Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Vincristine has been widely used in various chemotherapeutic protocols in oncology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of vincristine on the biodistri- bution of 99mTc-DMSA, 99mTc-GHA, and 99mTc-DTPA in Balb\\/c female mice. Methods: Vincristine (0.03 mg, 0.3 mL) was injected into female isogenic Balb\\/c mice (n 5 15), in 3 doses over an interval of

Deise Mara; M. Mattos; Maria Luisa Gomes; Rosimeire S. Freitas; Edson M. Boasquevisque; Valbert N. Cardoso; Emilio F. Paula; Mario Bernardo-Filho

14

Technetium-99m stannous citrate brain-tumor uptake in mice: concise communication.  

PubMed

The pharmacodynamics of technetium-99m stannous citrate were studies in Yale-Swiss mice bearing a sarcoma-like transplantable brain tumor, and the renal kinetics were determined in normal mice. Using a rating system based on tumor uptake and tumor-to-brain, tumor-to-blood, and tumor-to-skin ratios, the data obtained with this compound were compared with similar data obtained previously in the same model with Tc-99m Fe-(ascorbic acid), Tc-99m Fe-(ascorbic acid)-DTPA, Tc-99m Sn-DTPA, [99mTc] pertechnetate, and [99mTc] pertechnetate with perchlorate predose. Technetium-99m stannous citrate does not appear to achieve tumor localization by a mode different from these other Tc-99m-labeled compounds, nor does it show any potential advantage as a scanning agent in the tumor model. PMID:893790

Haynie, T P; Konikowski, T; Glenn, H J

1977-09-01

15

Radiolabelling of platelets with technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

A method for labelling of platelets with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) is presented. In principle, aminobenzoic acid and tartaric acid are used as reagents, allowing Tc-99m complexes of intermediate chemical stability to be formed. These complexes react rapidly with proteins, such as platelet proteins, when added. We have examined the isolation procedure for the platelets and the labelling procedure using residual aggregational ability and residual content of beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) as indicators of damage to the platelets. In its final version the method allowed a 32.6 +/- 2.7% (mean +/- SD) incorporation of Tc-99m into platelets which again showed a 66 +/- 15% residual aggregational ability, tested by 50 mumol/l of ADP, and a 79 +/- 17% residual content of beta-TG releasable by 10 IU/ml of thrombin. In a pilot clinical study involving 28 patients we found labelled autologous platelets useful in detecting lung embolism and deep vein thrombosis.

Sundrehagen, E.; Urdal, P.; Heggli, D.E.; Lindegaard, M.W.; Jacobsen, E. (Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway))

1990-03-01

16

Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8-18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 ?A with an energy window of 18?10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron-produced 99mTc has been extensively compared with relevant United States Pharmacopeia (USP) specifications for the existing 99Mo/99mTc production strategy. Additional quality testing, including biodistribution studies of [ 99mTc]pertechnetate and [99mTc]disofenin in both mice and rabbits was also evaluated. Using the strategies and results presented throughout this dissertation, this thesis concludes with the world's first cyclotron-based 99mTc patient images obtained as part of a Phase I Clinical Trial at the University of Alberta using [99m Tc]pertechnetate.

Gagnon, Katherine M.

17

A quantitative approach to technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer: a comparison with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop non-invasive regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements using technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET), the same graphical analysis as was described in our previous reports using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) was applied to time-activity data for the aortic arch and brain hemispheres after intravenous injection of99mTc-ECD. Hemispherical brain perfusion indices (BPI) for99mTc-ECD showed

Hiroshi Matsuda; Akira Yagishita; Shiro Tsuji; Kinichi Hisada

1995-01-01

18

Technetium99m (V) DMSA Uptake in Amyloidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

myboidosisis a group of diseases characterized by the deposition in one or more organs of one of several proteinaceous materials known as amyboid. The diag nosis is established by the demonstration of amyboid in appropriate tissue specimens. We have previously re ported the usefulness of technetium-99m(V) dimercap tosuccinic acid ((99mTc(V))DMSA) in the evaluation of

Hitoya Ohta; Keigo Endo; Tadashi Kanoh; Junji Konishi; Hajime Kotoura

1989-01-01

19

Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m  

ScienceCinema

Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m is a linear electron accelerator-based technology for producing medical imaging radioisotopes from a separation process that heats, vaporizes and condenses the desired radioisotope. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2013-05-28

20

Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m is a linear electron accelerator-based technology for producing medical imaging radioisotopes from a separation process that heats, vaporizes and condenses the desired radioisotope. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2010-01-01

21

Comparative evaluation of glutamate-sensitive radiopharmaceuticals: Technetium-99m-glutamic acid and technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-bis(glutamate) conjugate for tumor imaging.  

PubMed

Single-photon emission computed tomography has become a significant imaging modality with huge potential to visualize and provide information of anatomic dysfunctions that are predictive of future diseases. This imaging tool is complimented by radiopharmaceuticals/radiosubstrates that help in imaging specific physiological aspects of the human body. The present study was undertaken to explore the utility of technetium-99m (??(m)Tc)-labeled glutamate conjugates for tumor scintigraphy. As part of our efforts to further utilize the application of chelating agents, glutamic acid was conjugated with a multidentate ligand, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The DTPA-glutamate conjugate [DTPA-bis(Glu)] was well characterized by IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The biological activity of glutamic acid was compared with its DTPA conjugate by radiocomplexation with ??(m)Tc (labeling efficiency ?98%). In vivo studies of both the radiolabeled complexes ??(m)Tc-Glu and ??(m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Glu) were then carried out, followed by gamma scintigraphy in New Zealand albino rabbits. Improved serum stability of ??(m)Tc-labeled DTPA conjugate indicated that ??(m)Tc remained bound to the conjugate up to 24 hours. Blood clearance showed a relatively slow washout of the DTPA conjugate when compared with the labeled glutamate. Biodistribution characteristics of the conjugate in Balb/c mice revealed that DTPA conjugation of glutamic acid favors less accumulation in the liver and bone and rapid renal clearance. Tumor scintigraphy in mice showed increasing tumor accumulation, stable up to 4 hours. These preliminary studies show that ??(m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Glu) can be a useful radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic applications in single-photon emission computed tomography imaging. PMID:21204758

Kakkar, Dipti; Tiwari, Anjani K; Chuttani, Krishna; Kaul, Ankur; Singh, Harpal; Mishra, Anil K

2010-12-01

22

A quantitative approach to technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-invasive, simple method for the quantitative evaluation of brain perfusion is presented using intravenous radionuclide angiography with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO). Graphical analysis was employed for the evaluation of the unidirectional influx constant (ku of the tracer from the blood to the brain. The ku values were standardized to provide objective and comparable values, brain perfusion indices (BPI),

Hiroshi Matsuda; Shiro Tsuji; Noriyuki Shuke; Hisashi Sumiya; Norihisa Tonami; Kinichi Hisada

1992-01-01

23

Mechanism of renal concentration of technetium-99m glucoheptonate  

SciTech Connect

Seventy female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the mechanism of tubular localization and the effects of commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance on renal uptake and urinary excretion of technetium-99m glucoheptonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)GHA). The in-vivo protein binding and protein-free plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA also were quantitated. Kidney uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA averaged 11% of the injected dose in control animals. This varied slightly among groups but was significantly reduced by probenecid blockade and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) competition to 4 and 2, respectively. Technetium-99m DMSA was not affected in its renal accumulation by these maneuvers. The total plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA was lower than iodine-125( SVI)iothalamate but the clearance of the protein free supernate was higher, raising a possibility of some tubular secretion. Hepatic uptake was minimal in all groups averaging less than 1% injected dose. These data demonstrate that renal accumulation of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA is blocked by probenecid and PAH suggesting that it is actively concentrated in the proximal tubule by enzyme systems similar to those involved in PAH and hippuran transport. It appears that (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA uptake measures a different aspect of kidney function than (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA.

Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

1985-11-01

24

Technetium-99m NGA functional hepatic imaging: preliminary clinical experience  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin ( (Tc)NGA) is a radiolabeled ligand to hepatic binding protein, a receptor which resides at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. This receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical and its kinetic model provide a noninvasive method for the assessment of liver function. Eighteen patients were studied: seven with hepatoma, eight with liver metastases, four with cirrhosis, and one patient with acute fulminant non-A, non-B hepatitis. Technetium-99m NGA liver imaging provided anatomic information of diagnostic quality comparable to that obtained with other routine imaging modalities, including computed tomography, angiography, ultrasound, and (Tc)sulfur colloid scintigraphy. Kinetic modeling of dynamic (Tc)NGA data produced estimates of standardized hepatic blood flow, Q (hepatic blood flow divided by total blood volume), and hepatic binding protein concentration, (HBP). Significant rank correlation was obtained between (HBP) estimates and CTC scores. This correlation supports the hypothesis that (HBP) is a measure of functional hepatocyte mass. The combination of decreased Q and markedly reduced (HBP) may have prognostic significance; all three patients with this combination died of hepatic failure within 6 wk of imaging.

Stadalnik, R.C.; Vera, D.R.; Woodle, E.S.; Trudeau, W.L.; Porter, B.A.; Ward, R.E.; Krohn, K.A.; O'Grady, L.F.

1985-11-01

25

Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

1984-02-01

26

Technetium-99m antimony colloid for bone-marrow imaging  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m antimony colloid was prepared in our laboratory for bone-marrow imaging. Optimal production of colloid particles of size range 1 to 13 nm was achieved by the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone of mol. wt. 44,000. Electron microscopy was used to size the particles. Studies in rabbits showed exclusive concentration in the subendothelial dendritic phagocytes of the bone marrow. Pseudopods from these cells were found to traverse interendothelial junctions and concentrate colloid from the sinusoids. Imaging studies of bone marrow in rabbits showed the superiority of the Tc-99m antimony colloid over the much larger colloidal particle of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Tissue distribution studies in the rat confirmed that bone-marrow uptake of Tc-99m antimony colloid was greater than that of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, although blood clearance was much slower.

Martindale, A.A.; Papadimitriou, J.M.; Turner, J.H.

1980-11-01

27

Detection of esophageal ulcerations with technetium-99m albumin sucralfate  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m albumin-sucralfate ((/sup 99m/Tc)Su) can be used to demonstrate peptic ulcer disease in man and animals. We evaluated the usefulness of (/sup 99m/Tc)Su for detecting various grades of esophagitis. (/sup 99m/Tc)Su adhered to the distal esophagus for up to 3 hr in five of six patients with esophageal ulcers but adhered to only two of nine with lesser degrees of esophagitis. No adherence was seen in five patients without esophagitis. Thus, (/sup 99m/Tc)Su may not be useful for detecting any but the most severe grade of esophagitis. Based on these results, we speculate that the previously documented beneficial effects of sucralfate on mild to moderate esophagitis may be due to other mechanisms besides adherence to the ulcerated mucosa.

Goff, J.S.; Adcock, K.A.; Schmelter, R.

1986-07-01

28

Myocardial infarct imaging in patients with technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid. Superiority of technetium-99m pyrophosphate  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m DMSA) has been used successfully for imaging acute myocardial infarction in a canine model. The application in humans, however, has not been previously reported. In order to determine the feasibility of using this agent in clinical studies and to compare the agent to technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi), ten patients with proven myocardial infarction were studied. While imaging of transmural infarctions in humans was achieved using Tc-99m DMSA, scores for the Tc-99m DMSA images (1.8 +/- 0.96) were not as high as for Tc-99m PPi (2.5 +/- 0.45) (P less than 0.05). Discordance among four independent interpreters was greater for images obtained with Tc-99m DMSA. The superiority of Tc-99m PPi was evident whether images were obtained early (within 24 hours) or late (within five days). Although DMSA images were not obscured by rib uptake, they were less sensitive (63%) than Tc-99m PPi (97%). A potential advantage of Tc-99m DMSA in imaging acute myocardial infarction is that radiotracer concentration in the infarct occurs primarily in the early postinfarction period. The longer postinfarction that Tc-99m DMSA imaging was attempted, the lower the concentration of radiotracer. Thus, Tc-99m DMSA would not be expected to have the same persistence pattern as Tc-99m PPi into the remote postinfarction period. The persistent positivity of Tc-99m PPi has made it difficult to diagnose reinfarction.

Lyons, K.P.; Milne, N.; Karlsberg, R.P.; Olson, H.G.; Kuperus, J.

1987-07-01

29

Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin: preparation and preclinical studies  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin ((Tc) NGA), a labeled analog ligand to the hepatocyte-specific receptor, hepatic binding protein (HBP), was prepared and tested for labeling yield, stability, biodistribution, toxicity, and dosimetry. The ligand was synthesized by the covalent coupling of a carbohydrate bifunctional reagent, 2-imino-2-ethyloxymethyl-1-thiogalactose, to human serum albumin. Testing in mice and rabbits revealed the product to be nontoxic and apyrogenic. Biodistribution studies in rabbits demonstrated the liver as the single focus of tracer uptake. Dosimetry was based on kinetic studies in three baboons. Absorbed doses to liver, small intestine, urinary bladder wall, and uterus were 0.089, 0.28, 0.56, and 0.88 rad/mCi, respectively. Total body, lens of the eye, red marrow, ovaries, and testes were less than 0.06 rad/mCi. High liver specificity imparted by receptor binding combined with high labeling yield, stability, acceptable dosimetry, and safety provide (Tc)NGA with the attributes required for routine clinical assessment of hepatocyte function.

Vera, D.R.; Stadalnik, R.C.; Krohn, K.A.

1985-10-01

30

Technetium-99m production issues in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Nuclear Medicine developed when it was realised that a radioisotopic substitution of Iodine-131 for the stable Iodine-127 would follow the same metabolic pathway in the body enabling the thyroid to be imaged and the thyroid uptake measured. The Iodine could be complexed with pharmaceutical substrates to enable other organs to be imaged, but its use was limited and high gamma energy and beta emission restricted the activity of each radiopharmaceutical used, leading to long acquisition times and degraded images. As a pure gamma emitter of 140 keV and with a 6-h half-life, Technetium-99m is a better radionuclide and images a wider range of bodily organs. However, its short half-life also requires it to be eluted from its mother radionuclide, Mo-99, in a generator, delivered weekly from radiopharmaceutical companies who obtain the Mo-99 in liquid form from high-flux research reactors. All went well till around 2007, when the NRU Reactor in Canada was closed and all other reactors went down for various periods for unrelated problems, leading to widespread Mo-99 shortages. Although the reactors have since recovered, they are 48 to 57 years old, and it seems that few governments have made any future provision such as building replacement reactors. PMID:22557795

Green, Christopher H.

2012-01-01

31

Sustained Availability of Technetium-99m - Possible Paths Forward  

SciTech Connect

The availability of technetium-99m (99mTc) for single-photon imaging in diagnostic nuclear medicine is crucial, and current availability is based on the molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/99mTc generator fabricated from fission-based molybdenum (F 99Mo) produced by use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. The use of HEU targets is being phased out because of risks related to nuclear material proliferation, so alternative strategies for production of both 99Mo and 99mTc are being evaluated intensely. There are evidently no plans for replacement of the limited number of reactors that have primarily provided most of the 99Mo. The uninterrupted, dependable availability of 99mTc is a crucial issue. For these reasons, new options being pursued include both reactor- and accelerator-based strategies to sustain the continued availability of 99mTc without the use of HEU. In this paper the scientific and economic issues for transitioning from HEU to non-HEU are also discussed. In addition, the comparative advantages, disadvantages, technical challenges, present status, future prospects, security concerns, economic viability, and regulatory obstacles are reviewed. In addition, the international actions in progress towards evolving possible alternative strategies to produce 99Mo and/or 99mTc are analyzed. The breadth of technologies and new strategies under development to provide 99Mo and 99mTc reflects both the broad interest in and the importance of the pivotal role of 99mTc in diagnostic nuclear medicine.

Pillai, M R A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India; Dash, A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India; Knapp Jr, Russ F [ORNL

2013-01-01

32

The use of Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate imaging as an index of myocardial infarction  

E-print Network

THE USE OF TECHNETIUM-99m STANNOUS PYROPHOSPHATE IMAGING AS AN INDEX OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION A Thesis by JEFFREY CLAYTON SANFORD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1981 Major Subject: Veterinary Physiology THE USE OF TECHNETIUM-99m STANNOUS PYROPHOSPHATE IMAGING AS AN INDEX OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION A Thesis by JEFFREY CLAYTON SANFORD Approved as to style and content by...

Sanford, Jeffrey Clayton

1981-01-01

33

Intrahepatic, extramedullary hematopoiesis mimicking hemangioma on technetium-99m red blood cell SPECT examination.  

PubMed

Cavernous hemangiomas are the most common lesion of the liver. Because of the risk of hemorrhage inherent in percutaneous biopsy of such lesions, noninterventional modalities (such as CT, ultrasound, MRI and Technetium-99m red blood cell imaging) have been utilized for differentiating them from other lesions. The sensitivities and specificities of these techniques vary greatly. Technetium-99m red blood cell imaging with planar and SPECT imaging has been shown to have an overall sensitivity of 89%, a specificity of 100%, and an overall accuracy of 92%. Despite its high accuracy, rare false positives have been reported with Technetium-99m red blood cell imaging with SPECT. Review of the literature indicates four cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, one case of hepatic angiosarcoma, and one case of hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma as having an appearance identical to hemangioma with this modality. We present an additional false positive of a focal region of intrahepatic extramedullary hematopoiesis in a patient with Gaucher's disease as having an appearance on Technetium-99m red blood cell imaging with SPECT identical to that of hemangioma. PMID:7773882

Tamm, E P; Rabushka, L S; Fishman, E K; Hruban, R H; Diehl, A M; Klein, A

1995-01-01

34

Appropriate procedures for the safe handling and pathologic examination of technetium-99m-labelled specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

TECHNETIUM 99M MAY NOW BE USED TO IDENTIFY sentinel nodes for surgical excision in a growing number of cancer sites. The pathology specimens of these sentinel nodes and of any injected tumoural sites are radioactive. Consequently, specific clinical and laboratory procedures must be developed to handle these specimens safely. It is recommended that specimens containing the injection site should be

Terence J. Colgan; Diana Booth; Aaron Hendler; David McCready

2001-01-01

35

Scintimammography with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile: comparison with mammography and magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of scintimammography with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI; SMM) in the detection of primary breast cancer with that of mammography (MM) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifty-six patients with suspected lesions detected by palpation or MM were included in the study. Within the 4 weeks preceding excisional biopsy, MM and MRI

H. Palmedo; F. Grünwald; H. Bender; A. Schomburg; P. Mallmann; D. Krebs; H. J. Biersack

1996-01-01

36

Technetium 99m-MIBI-SPECT: A highly sensitive diagnostic tool for localization of parathyroid adenomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the value of technetium 99m-MIBI scintigraphy using the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) technique for preoperative localization of smaller (? 1 g) parathyroid adenomas. Methods: A total of 92 patients (34 men, 58 women; mean age, 60 ± 13 years) with an established diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism and nondiagnostic ultrasonography

Detlef Moka; Eberhard Voth; Markus Dietlein; Antonio Larena-Avellaneda; Harald Schicha

2000-01-01

37

Demonstration of reperfusion after thrombolysis with technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial imaging  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial perfusion imaging was employed in a patient undergoing thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction. Technetium-99m isonitrile does not demonstrate significant myocardial redistribution after intravenous injection. The imaging agent was administered in the emergency room, prior to the initiation of thrombolytic therapy. The initial area at risk for infarction was visualized on images obtained after the patient had been effectively treated. Imaging performed 5 days later, after repeat injection of (99mTc)isonitrile, showed a smaller myocardial perfusion defect indicating salvage of myocardium. Thus, this technique offers promise as a noninvasive means of assessing the area at risk, the success of reperfusion, and the presence of salvaged myocardium, early in the course of acute myocardial infarction.

Kayden, D.S.; Mattera, J.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Wackers, F.J.

1988-11-01

38

The use of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile breast scintigraphy to evaluate palpable breast masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight female patients (age range: 31–79 years) with breast masses underwent technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) breast scintigraphy in order to assess the value of this technique in the detection of breast carcinomas and in their differentiation from benign breast masses. The results showed that 27 of the 32 cases of breast carcinoma were detected by 99mTc-MIBI breast scintigraphy. In contrast, none

C. H. Kao; S. J. Wang; T. J. Liu

1994-01-01

39

Noninvasive measurements of regional cerebral blood flow using technetium-99m hexamethylprophylene amine oxime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously reported method for quantitative measurements of whole-brain or hemispheric-brain perfusion using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) radionuclide angiography is now further developed so that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can be measured. Lassen's correction algorithm is used for the linearization of a curve-linear relationship between the radioactivity in the brain and blood flow as seen with single-photon emission

Hiroshi Matsuda; Shiro Tsuji; Noriyuki Shuke; Hisashi Sumiya; Norihisa Tonami; Kinichi Hisada

1993-01-01

40

Scintimammography with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile: results of a prospective European multicentre trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of the trial was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of scintimmammography with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile\\u000a (99mTc-MIBI) in the detection of primary breast cancer and to verify its clinical usefulness. A total of 246 patients with a suspicious\\u000a breast mass or positive mammogram were included in this prospective European multicentre trial. At 5 min and 60 min (optional)\\u000a p.i. two lateral

H. Palmedo; H. J. Biersack; S. Lastoria; J. Maublant; E. Prats; H. E. Stegner; P. Bourgeois; R. Hustinx; A. J. W. Hilson; A. Bischof-Delaloye

1998-01-01

41

Prospective evaluation of delayed technetium-99m sestamibi SPECT scintigraphy for preoperative localization of primary hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Delayed technetium-99m sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans were prospectively analyzed in a large series of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Methods. Three hundred thirty-eight patients underwent sestamibi-SPECT and were explored. Prospective data included preoperative demographics, clinical, sestamibi, and operative findings, laboratory values, and pathologic and follow-up laboratory results from all patients. Results. Between 1994 and 2000, 287

A. Cahid Civelek; Elcin Ozalp; Patricia Donovan; Robert Udelsman

2002-01-01

42

Technical aspects of myocardial SPECT imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most reports to date using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi have used acquisition parameters that were optimized for thallium-201. To fully utilize the superior imaging characteristics of Tc-99m sestamibi, there is a need to optimize the technical aspects of SPECT imaging for this agent. Performance can be enhanced through the careful selection of optimal radiopharmaceutical

Ernest V. Garcia; C. David Cooke; Kenneth F. Van Train; Russell Folks; John Peifer; E. Gordon DePuey; Jamshid Maddahi; Naomi Alazraki; James Galt; Norberto Ezquerra

1990-01-01

43

Specific and stable labeling of antibodies with technetium-99m with a diamide dithiolate chelating agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m labeling of antibodies has been suboptimal because of low affinity adventitious binding, nonspecific labeling, and loss of immunoreactivity. The diamide dithiolate ligand system (NâSâ) forms highly stable, well-defined tetradentate complexes with Tc(V). Antibodies and their fragments have been labeled by conjugation of preformed {sup 99m}Tc-4,5-bis(thioacetamido)pentanoate active ester to protein amine groups to give a chemically known {sup 99m}Tc-NâSâ complex

A. R. Fritzberg; P. G. Abrams; P. L. Beaumier; S. Kasina; A. C. Morgan; T. N. Rao; J. M. Reno; J. A. Sanderson; A. Srinivasan; D. S. Wilbur; J. L. Vanderheyden

1988-01-01

44

Imaging of dopamine transporters in humans with technetium-99m TRODAT 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m TRODAT-1, a tropane derivative, has shown promise as a tracer for the imaging of dopamine transporters in preliminary studies in rats and baboons. The present report concerns the first study of the use of [99mTc]TRODAT 1 for the same purpose in humans. The specific uptake of [99mTc]TRODAT1 in dopamine transporter sites located in the basal ganglia area was confirmed:

Hank F. Kung; Hee-Joung Kim; Mei-Ping Kung; Sanath K. Meegalla; Karl Plössl; Hee-Kyung Lee

1996-01-01

45

Risk assessment using single-photon emission computed tomographic technetium-99m sestamibi imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This review summarizes the results of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tracer imaging in patients with stable symptoms, patients with acute coronary syndromes, patients undergoing major noncardiac surgery and patients with chest pain in the emergency department.Background. Previous studies have examined the prognostic value of stress thallium imaging in several subsets of patients with ischemic heart disease.

Sherif Iskander; Ami E Iskandrian

1998-01-01

46

Myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi SPECT in the evaluation of coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi is a new myocardial perfusion imaging agent that offers significant advantages over thallium-201 (Tl-201) for myocardial perfusion imaging. The results of the current clinical trials using acquisition and processing parameters similar to those for Tl-201 and a separate (2-day) injection protocol suggest that Tc-99m sestamibi and Tl-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provide similar information with

Jamshid Maddahi; Hosen Kiat; Kenneth F. Van Train; Florence Prigent; John Friedman; Ernest V. Garcia; Naomi Alazraki; E. Gordon DePuey; Ken Nichols; Daniel S. Berman

1990-01-01

47

Complexes of technetium-99m with tetrapeptides containing one alanyl and three glycyl moieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we have shown that tetrapeptides can be efficiently labelled with technetium-99m by direct labelling at alkaline pH. Tetrapeptides can be considered derivatives of mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) in which the mercaptoacetyl moiety is replaced by an amino acid residue. In view of the interesting biological properties of some C-methyl substituted derivatives of99mTc-MAG3, we have now synthesised and evaluated the complexes of99mTc

Hubert P. Vanbilloen; Michel J. De Roo; Alfons M. Verbruggenl

1996-01-01

48

Evaluation of technetium-99m-ciprofloxacin (Infecton) for detecting sites of inflammation in arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To study the frequency of technetium-99m-positive ciprofloxacin scans (Infecton scintigraphy) thought to be specific for bacterial DNA in patients with arthritis and to assess the clinical relevance of positive scans. Methods. Four groups of adults with arthritis were studied. Group 1: 53 patients with inflammatory arthritis, 36 with spondylarthropathy (SpA) and 17 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); group 2: five

T. Appelboom; P. Emery; L. Tant; N. Dumarey; A. Schoutens

2003-01-01

49

Iterative reconstruction: an improvement of technetium-99m MIBI SPET for the detection of parathyroid adenomas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The purpose of this study was to assess the value of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) single-photon emission\\u000a tomography (SPET) and an iterative reconstruction algorithm for the preoperative localisation of parathyroid adenomas (PTAs).\\u000a Seventy-two patients (26 male, 46 female, mean age 5816 years) with known primary hyperparathyroidism were examined preoperatively.\\u000a First, a thyroid examination was performed to detect possible MIBI-accumulating thyroid

Detlef Moka; Wolfgang Eschner; Eberhard Voth; Markus Dietlein; Antonio Larena-Avellaneda; Harald Schicha

2000-01-01

50

Efficacy of preoperative diagnostic imaging localization of technetium 99m-sestamibi scintigraphy in hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Until now, preoperative parathyroid imaging has been considered unnecessary because currently available techniques do not provide any better results than an expert surgeon. We conducted a multicenter prospective study evaluating the capability of technetium 99m sestamibi scintigraphy in the preoperative identification of pathologic glands.Methods. Ninety-three patients with hyperparathyroidism, seven of them reoperative cases, were studied. In addition, 20 age-matched

Assumpta Caixàs; Lluís Bernà; Antonio Hernández; Francisco Javier Tébar; Paz Madariaga; Onofre Vegazo; Angel Luís Bittini; Basilio Moreno; Eduardo Faure; Dolores Abós; Joan Piera; JoséMaría Rodríguez; Jordi Farrerons; Manuel Puig-Domingo

1997-01-01

51

Technetium-99m-alendronate: a new radiopharmaceutical for bone scanning.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to report the preparation of a new technetium-99m-radiopharmaceutical for bone scanning. The chelating agent for 99mTc is a new bisphosphonate, alendronate, 4-amino-1-hydroxy-butylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (ABP) used as a treatment for osteoporosis. ABP, because of its amino group, seems to be better suited to form a strong and stable complex with technetium-99m and therefore might be better than 99mTc-etidronate (HEDP) or 99mTc-medronate (MDP) for bone scanning. A sterile dry kit containing APB, a reducing agent and a stabilizer was prepared. The parameters studied were molar concentrations, pH, shelf life, labeling efficiency and radiochemical purity. The oven dried sterile kit was formulated with 5 mg ABP, 0.25 mg stannous fluoride and 0.025 mg gentisic acid at pH 2.5-3.5. The labeling efficiency with 20-1500 MBq of pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) was over 95% at room temperature and was stable for 5 h. Technetium-99m-alendronate was tested in two rabbits and it proved to be a promising new radiopharmaceutical for bone scanning. Work is underway to study 99mTc-ABP biodistribution in a statistically significant number of laboratory animals and, later on, to determine radiopharmacokinetic parameters in normal volunteers. PMID:8987181

Arteaga de Murphy, C; Meléndez-Alafort, L; Montoya-Molina, C; Sepúlveda-Méndez, J

1996-01-01

52

Evaluation of technetium-99m phosphate imaging for predicting skin ulcer healing  

SciTech Connect

We have developed criteria for radionuclide angiography to assess skin ulcer perfusion as an indicator of healing capacity. Twenty-six studies were performed on 21 consecutive patients with nonhealing ulcers of the lower leg; 20 mCi of technetium-99m phosphate was injected intravenously with immediate sequential scintillation camera imaging of the ulcer and surrounding area at 2 second intervals, followed by blood pool and delayed static images. Two radiologists without clinical bias graded the perfusion to the ulcer on the images as normal, increased, or reduced with respect to the opposite limb. Patients were either followed as outpatients for more than 10 days, as inpatients for at least 10 days, or both to determine whether ulcers showed clinical evidence of wound healing with optimal outpatient and in-hospital care. Of the 17 patients whose ulcers healed, imaging with technetium-99m phosphate predicted the outcome in 16. In nine patients the ulcers did not heal. This was correctly predicted by technetium-99m phosphate in eight of the patients. Overall, the sensitivity was 94 percent and the specificity was 89 percent. This technique appears to be a simple, reliable way to predict the microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing.

Lawrence, P.F.; Syverud, J.B.; Disbro, M.A.; Alazraki, N.

1983-12-01

53

Limited value of technetium 99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy in localization of lower gastrointestinal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of technetium 99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy in localizing the site of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The outcome of 203 patients undergoing technetium 99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy was reviewed, and the scan result was compared with the true site of bleeding. The true site of bleeding was determined by other methods including

J. M. Hunter; M. E. Pezim

1990-01-01

54

Effect of mitochondrial viability and metabolism on technetium-99m-sestamibi myocardial retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the mechanism of myocardial retention of technetium-99m-sestamibi.99mTc-sestamibi was injected intravenously into guinea pigs, and the myocardium was homogenized and fractionated by differential centrifugation. More than 90% of myocardial99mTc-sestamibi was localized within the mitochondrial fraction. Calcium was found to release99mTc-sestamibi from the mitochondrial fraction, with an IC50 of 2.54±0.98 mM. This effect was potentiated by NaCl, and inhibited

Paul Crane; Robert Laliberté; Stuart Heminway; Martin Thoolen; Cesare Orlandi

1993-01-01

55

Improved modification for in vitro labeling of red blood cells with Technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

The authors have tested a modification of Brookhaven method for in vitro labeling of red blood cells (RBCs) with technetium-99m by adding an initial centrifugation step and performing the labeling on packed RBCs. This results in reproducible, high labeling efficiencies (99.3% +/- 0.4%, n = 50) after 15 min of incubation. The use of packed RBCs also results in a higher concentration of labeled RBCs (smaller bolus for injection) and less radiation exposure to the technologist. This technique has proved useful for radionuclide angiography, venography, gastrointestinal bleeding studies, and red cell mass determinations. It is particularly advantageous for RBC labeling in patients receiving chemotherapy.

Gerson, B.; Ballinger, J.R.; Gulenchyn, K.Y.

1988-03-01

56

The technetium-99m-sulfur colloid angiogram in suspected gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic radionuclide angiography (5-sec. images) with technetium-99m-sulfur colloid proved to be helpful in 5 patients who presented with gastrointestinal bleeding. In 2, intermittently bleeding hypervascular lesions were seen on dynamic but not on static images; in 2 others, the dynamic images demonstrated hypervascular lesions better than the static scans; and in 1, the radionuclide angiogram localized colonic bleeding more accurately because of rapid peristalsis of extravasated tracer. The addition of the radionuclide angiogram to routine scintigraphy for gastrointestinal bleeding may be crucial for identification of hypervascular lesions and precise localization of bleeding sites.

Berger, R.B.; Zeman, R.K.; Gottschalk, A.

1983-05-01

57

Technical considerations in gastric ulcer localization using technetium-99m sucralfate  

SciTech Connect

After the completion and evaluation of 17 patients studies using technetium-99m-labeled sucralfate for the detection of ulcerated areas, the authors felt that the technical aspects of the studies should be evaluated. The factors for evaluation are: the time the patient is kept fasting; the time the patient is being imaged and rotated for various anatomic views; the technologist time and camera time that are involved in one study; and the cost factor of the testing procedure. Based on the findings of their small sample of patients, the sensitivity of the test is uncertain.

Garrett, S.G.; Wcislo, W.J.

1985-09-01

58

Evaluation of hemangiomas with technetium 99m-labeled RBCs: the perfusion-blood pool mismatch  

SciTech Connect

A case report is presented of a woman with a tumor mass in the nasopharynx. Early and delayed scintigraphy with Technetium 99m-labeled RBCs showed a large area of increased uptake which was later shown to be a hemangioma by contrast angiography. The perfusion-blood pool mismatch observed in hemangiomas is characteristic of these lesions and has not been described in any other abnormalities. The Tc-RBC using both early and delayed scintigraphy is a simple, noninvasive method for assessing the vascular characteristics of these tumors. (JMT)

Front, D. (Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel); Israel, O.; Joachims, H.; Brown, Y.; Eliachar, I.

1983-03-18

59

Sensitivity of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy in diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis  

SciTech Connect

To determine the value of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of amyloid heart disease this procedure was prospectively performed in 20 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven primary amyloidosis. Eleven patients had echocardiographic abnormalities compatible with amyloid cardiomyopathy, 9 of whom had congestive heart failure. Diffuse myocardial pyrophosphate uptake was of equal or greater intensity than that of the ribs in 9 of the 11 patients with echocardiograms suggestive of amyloidosis, but in only 2 of the 9 with normal echocardiograms, despite abnormal electrocardiograms (p less than 0.01). Increased wall thickness measured by M-mode echocardiography correlated with myocardial pyrophosphate uptake (r . 0.68, p less than 0.01). None of 10 control patients with nonamyloid, nonischemic heart disease had a strongly positive myocardial pyrophosphate uptake. Thus, myocardial technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scanning is a sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis in patients with congestive heart failure of obscure origin. It does not appear to be of value for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with known primary amyloidosis without echocardiographic abnormalities.

Falk, R.H.; Lee, V.W.; Rubinow, A.; Hood, W.B. Jr.; Cohen, A.S.

1983-03-01

60

Localization and stability of technetium-99m-Sn-pyrophosphate in rat neutrophils  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m has been suggested as an alternative radiolabel for white cells, and while its physical characteristics are nearly ideal, its stability and site of localization in this procedure are unclear. We examined these parameters by radiolabeling 10(8) neutrophils from rat peritoneum with 74 to 370 MBq technetium-99m-Sn-pyrophosphate. We found that the percentage of initial activity bound to neutrophils was quite variable, possibly because the radiolabel associated with several subfractions: 19.8 +/- 11.5% (mean +/- s.d.) with nuclei and plasma membranes, 25.6 +/- 3.9% with mitochondria, 26.6 +/- 9.8% with microsomes, and 29.2 +/- 6.9% with cytosol. Approximately 80-90% of the radioactivity associated with neutrophils was not bound to protein and only about one-half of the activity localized to cell membranes was removable over 4 hr by pepsin digestion. We concluded that the variable labeling efficiency was due to the radiolabel's rather loose association with several cellular subfractions rather than specific binding to a unique substrate.

Schmelter, R.F.; Loo, C.Y.

1988-08-01

61

Influence of tobacco on the labelling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.  

PubMed

Technetium-99m-labelled red blood cells (RBC) have been used as radiopharmaceutical in nuclear medicine. The influence of drug interaction in this labelling process has been described along with the biological effects of tobacco on the labelling of blood elements with technetium-99m. The labelling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due to either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco by (i) oxidation of the stannous ion, (ii) possible damages caused in plasma membrane and/or (iii) possible chelating action on the stannous and/or pertechnetate ions. PMID:9646232

Vidal, M V; Gutfilen, B; da Fonseca, L M; Bernardo-Filho, M

1998-03-01

62

Is technetium-99 m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy valuable in the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis  

SciTech Connect

Amyloidosis is a systemic disease frequently involving the myocardium and leading to functional disturbances of the heart. Amyloidosis can mimic other cardiac diseases. A conclusive clinical diagnosis of cardiac involvement can only be made by a combination of different diagnostic methods. In 7 patients with myocardial amyloidosis we used a combined first-pass and static scintigraphy with technetium-99 m-pyrophosphate. There was only insignificant myocardial uptake of the tracer. The first-pass studies however revealed reduced systolic function in 4/7 patients and impaired diastolic function in 6/7 patients. Therefore, although cardiac amyloid could not be demonstrated in the static scintigraphy due to amyloid fibril amount and composition, myocardial functional abnormalities were seen in the first-pass study.

Hartmann, A.; Frenkel, J.; Hopf, R.; Baum, R.P.; Hoer, G.S.; Schneider, M.; Kaltenbach, M. (Frankfurt Univ. Medical Center (West Germany))

1990-01-01

63

Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis using hepatobiliary scan with technetium-99m PIPIDA  

SciTech Connect

Sixty patients were evaluated for acute abdominal pain using technetium-99m PIPIDA hepatobiliary imaging. The sensitivity of the test was 90.6 percent in all patients and the accuracy was 93.3 percent. In the evaluation of acutely ill patients with right upper quadrant pain, fever, nausea and vomiting, hepatobiliary imaging with PIPIDA is the preferred test for diagnosing acute cholecystitis. If the test is positive, disease of the gallbladder and probably acute cholecystitis are present. Early operation can proceed if desirable. If the test is negative and the bilirubin level is less than 5.0 mg/dl, acute cholecystitis is not present. In such cases conservative treatment is appropriate, and follow-up tests should be performed to evaluate the possibility of chronic cholecystitis. When the bilirubin level exceeds 5.0 mg/dl, the test is often indeterminate.

Bennett, M.T.; Sheldon, M.I.; dos Remedios, L.V.; Weber, P.M.

1981-09-01

64

Detection of bacterial endocarditis with technetium-99m-labeled antistaphylococcal antibody.  

PubMed

The reliable diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis is an important but difficult clinical problem. The potential ability of technetium-99m-labeled antistaphylococcal antibody to detect infective endocarditis was investigated in a rabbit model. Radiolabeling of the purified antibody was effected by a mild electrolytic procedure, with full retention of immunologic activity. Infective endocarditis was induced in rabbits by placing a catheter through the carotid artery into the left ventricle, followed by i.v. injection of Staphylococcus aureus. The labeled antistaphylococcal antibody was subsequently injected, and its clearance and distribution were studied in the infected rabbits and in normal controls. The ratio of radioactivity on the aortic valve to that in the surrounding heart tissue or blood pool was significantly higher for the infected animals (> 10:1) than for the normals, and should permit visualization of the infection site. This radiolabeled antibody technique may provide a feasible approach to detection of infective endocardial lesions. PMID:7400835

Huang, J T; Raiszadeh, M; Sakimura, I; Montgomerie, J Z; Harwig, J F

1980-08-01

65

A Tracer Dose of Technetium99m ^ Labeled Liposomes Can Estimate the Effect of Hyperthermia on Intratumoral Doxil Extravasation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: A noninvasive method to monitor intratumoral Doxil delivery in individual patients during targeted tumor therapy is important to predict treatment response. The purpose of this study was to determine if a small tracer dose of technetium-99m (99mTc) ^ labeled liposomes could be used to quantify the effect of local hyperthermia on intratumoral Doxil extravasation. Experimental Design: Experiments were carried

Miriam M. Kleiter; Daohai Yu; Lenore A. Mohammadian; Nelsen Niehaus; Ivan Spasojevic; Linda Sanders; Benjamin L. Viglianti; Pavel S. Yarmolenko; Marlene Hauck; Neil A. Petry; Terence Z. Wong; Donald E. Thrall

2006-01-01

66

Effect of DMSA loading on the renal handling of technetium-99m in rats  

SciTech Connect

The renal handling of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) was studied in rats treated with high doses of nonradioactive DMSA to inhibit the renal uptake mechanism(s). A static scan was obtained 1 hour after the intravenous (iv) injection of 99mTc DMSA and the radioactivity in kidneys and bladder was calculated as a percentage of the injected amount. Total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow were also determined. Preloading with DMSA caused a fall in the renal accumulation of 99mTc DMSA together with a small increase in the amount excreted into the urinary bladder. Despite a stable GFR, the total amount of 99mTc DMSA handled by the kidneys (i.e., renal plus bladder activity) was reduced. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that peritubular uptake and subsequent intracellular fixation are of importance in the renal accumulation of 99mTc DMSA. On the other hand, the radioactivity excreted into the urine probably stems from non-reabsorbed 99mTc DMSA initially filtered by the glomeruli.

Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

1986-01-01

67

Comprehensive radiolabeling, stability, and tissue distribution studies of technetium-99m single amino acid chelates (SAAC).  

PubMed

Technetium tricarbonyl chemistry has been a subject of interest in radiopharmaceutical development over the past decade. Despite the extensive work done on developing chelates for Tc(I), a rigorous investigation of the impact of changing donor groups and labeling conditions on radiochemical yields and/or distribution has been lacking. This information is crucially important if these platforms are going to be used to develop molecular imaging probes. Previous studies on the coordination chemistry of the {M(CO)(3)}(+) core have established alkylamine, aromatic nitrogen heterocycles, and carboxylate donors as effective chelating ligands. These observations led to the design of tridentate ligands derived from the amino acid lysine. Such amino acid analogues provide a tridentate donor set for chelation to the metal and an amino acid functionality for conjugation to biomolecules. We recently developed a family of single amino acid chelates (SAAC) that serve this function and can be readily incorporated into peptides via solid-phase synthesis techniques. As part of these continuing studies, we report here on the radiolabeling with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and stability of a series of SAAC analogues of lysine. The complexes studied include cationic, neutral, and anionic complexes. The results of tissue distribution studies with these novel complexes in normal rats demonstrate a range of distribution in kidney, liver, and intestines. PMID:19572702

Maresca, Kevin P; Hillier, Shawn M; Femia, Frank J; Zimmerman, Craig N; Levadala, Murali K; Banerjee, Sangeeta R; Hicks, Justin; Sundararajan, Chitra; Valliant, John; Zubieta, Jon; Eckelman, William C; Joyal, John L; Babich, John W

2009-08-19

68

Quantitative analysis of planar technetium-99m-sestamibi myocardial perfusion images using modified background subtraction  

SciTech Connect

Standard interpolative background subtraction, as used for thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl), may create artifacts when applied to planar technetium-99m-Sestamibi ({sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi) images, apparently because of the oversubtraction of relatively high extra-cardiac activity. A modified background subtraction algorithm was developed and compared to standard background subtraction in 16 patients who had both exercise-delayed {sup 201}Tl and exercise-rest {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi imaging. Furthermore, a new normal data base was generated. Normal {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi distribution was slightly different compared to {sup 201}Tl. Using standard background subtraction, mean defect reversibility was significantly underestimated by {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi compared to {sup 201}Tl (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus -1.8 +/- 8.4, p less than 0.05). Using the modified background subtraction, mean defect reversibility on {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images was comparable (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus 1.7 +/- 5.2, p = NS). We conclude, that for quantification of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images a new normal data base, as well as a modification of the interpolative background subtraction method should be employed to obtain quantitative results comparable to those with {sup 201}Tl.

Koster, K.; Wackers, F.J.; Mattera, J.A.; Fetterman, R.C. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-08-01

69

Simulation for the Production of Technetium-99m Using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) is employed to simulate the radioisotope production process that leads to the creation of Technetium-99m (Tc-99m). Tc-99m is a common metastable nuclear isomer used in nuclear medicine tests and is produced from the gamma decay of Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). Mo-99 is commonly produced from the fission of Uranium-235, a complicated process which is only performed at a limited number of facilities. Due to the age of these facilities, coupled with the critical importance of a steady flow of Mo-99, new methods of generating Mo-99 are being investigated. Current experiments demonstrate promising alternatives, one of which consists of the neutron activation of Molybdenum-98 (Mo-98), a naturally occurring element found in nature. Mo-98 has a small cross section (.13 barns), so investigations are also aimed at overcoming this natural obstacle for producing Tc-99m. The neutron activated Mo-98 becomes Mo-99 and subsequently decays into radioactive Tc-99m. The MCNP code is being used to examine the interactions between the particles in each of these situations, thus determining a theoretical threshold to maximize the reaction's efficiency. The simulation results will be applied to ongoing experiments at the PPPL, where the empirical data will be compared to predictions from the MCNP code.

Kaita, Courtney; Gentile, Charles; Zelenty, Jennifer

2010-11-01

70

Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine clearance: reference values for infants and children.  

PubMed

Six hundred and thirty-nine clearance studies performed in children aged 7 days to 19 years utilizing technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG 3) were retrospectively analysed. Standardized conditions for the investigation included: parenteral hydration (60 ml/hxm2 body surface) in addition to normal oral fluid intake, weight-related dose of 99mTc-MAG 3 (1 MBq/kg body weight, minimum 15 MBq) and calculation of clearance according to Bubeck et al. Of the 513 children, 169 included in this analysis could be classified as "normal" with regard to their renal function. Normal kidney function was judged by the following criteria: normal GFR for age, normal tubular function (absence of proteinuria and glucosuria), normal renal parenchyma (on ultrasonography, MAG 3 scan and intravenous pyelography), absence of significant obstruction and gross reflux (>grade I), no single kidney and no difference in split renal function >20%. Results showed increasing MAG 3 clearance values for infants during the first months of life, reaching the normal range for older children and adults between 7 and 12 months. PMID:8575477

Schofer, O; König, G; Bartels, U; Bockisch, A; Piepenburg, R; Beetz, R; Meyer, G; Hahn, K

1995-11-01

71

Trapping of technetium-99m albumin macroaggregate and other four radiopharmaceuticals by blood clots in vitro.  

PubMed

Radiopharmaceuticals are known to interact with the blood components (i.e. the red blood cells, serum proteins etc) but so far, there have been no data regarding their purely mechanical trapping in thrombi. The experiments presented in this communication provide evidence that the technetium-99m labeled albumin macroaggregate ((99m)Tc-MAA), apparently due to its particle size, can be almost quantitatively retained in the in vitro model described. These results can be extrapolated in vivo and offer a plausible explanation for either the "hot spot" artifact, occasionally seen in lung perfusion imaging or for the partial trapping of (99m)Tc-MAA by a thrombus at the tip of a subclavian catheter, as has been recently reported. Control experiments were also run using (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP), (99m)Tc(III)-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc(III)-DMSA), (99m)Tc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) and sodium pertechnetate (Na(99m)TcO(4)), in order to study the extent of trapping of these radiopharmaceuticals under identical incubation conditions. (99m)Tc-MDP and (99m)Tc(III)-DMSA exhibited the lowest blood clot uptake (partially non-specific and partially mechanical trapping), while in the case of (99m)Tc-MIBI and Na(99m)TcO(4), besides mechanical and non-specific clot-trapping, transport and retention inside the red blood cells was also observed. PMID:17450246

Zanglis, Antonios; Andreopoulos, Dimitrios; Baziotis, Nikolaos

2007-01-01

72

Evaluation of technetium-99m decay on Escherichia coli inactivation: effects of physical or chemical agents.  

PubMed Central

Technetium-99m (99mTc) has been used in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research to label molecular and cellular structures employed as radiotracers. Here, we have evaluated, on a DNA repair proficient Escherichia coli strain, the 99mTc decay inactivation and the influence of the (i) pre-treatment with metal ion chelators or of the (ii) treatment with a free radical scavenger on the protection of the cells against the lethal effect of the 99mTc. As SnCl2 is frequently used as a reducing agent in the 99mTc-labeling process, we have also studied the capability of SnCl2 to alter the biological effects induced by the 99mTc decay. As we are exposed to either chemical or physical agents in the nature, we have decided to study a possible influence of the ultraviolet solar radiation in the biological phenomena induced by the 99mTc decay. Our data point out (i) a very important role of the Auger and/or conversion electrons in the cytotoxicity induced by the 99mTc decay; (ii) SnCl2, the metal ion chelators and the free radical scavenger protect the cells against the lethal effect of the 99mTc; and (iii) near-UV does not alter the lethal effect of the 99mTc decay. PMID:9713950

Silva, C. R.; Valsa, J. O.; Caniné, M. S.; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

1998-01-01

73

Effect of ischemia and postischemic dysfunction on myocardial uptake of technetium-99m-labeled methoxyisobutyl isonitrile and thallium-201  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myocardial uptake of a new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial perfusion agent, methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI), and thallium-201 was correlated with microsphere flow in an open chest canine model of low coronary flow and postischemic dysfunction. Eighteen dogs were given an injection of thallium-201 (0.5 mCi) and Tc-99m MIBI (5 mCi) either after 40 min of partial left anterior descending artery occlusion

Albert J. Sinusas; Denny D. Watson; James M. Cannon Jr; George A. Beller

1989-01-01

74

High-resolution scintimammography improves the accuracy of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintimammography: use of a new dedicated gamma camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The main disadvantage of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) prone scintimammography is its limited sensitivity\\u000a for T1a and T1b cancers with a size of less than 1 cm. We have developed a high-resolution scintimammographic technique using\\u000a a gamma camera based on a new concept, namely a position-sensitive photo-multiplier tube. The field of view of this camera,\\u000a previously known as the SPEM

Francesco Scopinaro; Roberto Pani; Giuseppe De Vincentis; Alessandro Soluri; Rosanna Pellegrini; Lucio M. Porfiri

1999-01-01

75

Hexakis (2-methoxy isobutylisonitrile) technetium-99m and thallium-201 chloride: uptake and release in cultured myocardial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexakis (2-methoxy isobutylisonitrile) technetium-99m ((\\/sup 99m\\/Tc)MIBI), a new tracer of myocardial blood flow, was compared with ²°¹TI CI in cultures of myocardial cells of newborn rats. The kinetics of uptake and release of both tracers were assessed in basal conditions and in the presence of 5 mM cyanide, an inhibitor of the respiratory chain, 0.1 mM iodoacetate, an inhibitor of

Jean C. Maublant; P. Gachon; N. Moins

1988-01-01

76

Localization of parathyroid enlargement: experience with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile and thallium-201 scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI), like thallium-201, has recently been introduced as a myocardial perfusion agent and is now also showing very promising results in parathyroid scintigrapy. The results of 201Tl\\/99mTc-pertechnetate and 99mTc-MIBI\\/99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography are presented in a series of 43 patients operated on for hyperparathyroidism. All four imaging modalities were confirmed to be reliable, scintigraphy being

Onelio Geatti; Brahm Shapiro; Pier Giuseppe Orsolon; Gianni Proto; Ugo Paolo Guerra; Francesco Antonucci; Daniele Gasparini

1994-01-01

77

Adenosine technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion SPECT in women: Diagnostic efficacy in detection of coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to assess the diagnostic efficacy of adenosine technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in a consecutive series of female patients.Background. The utility of adenosine myocardial perfusion SPECT for the detection of coronary artery disease is not well defined in women because most studies have described a predominantly male population with a high

Aman M. Amanullah; Hosen Kiat; John D. Friedman; Daniel S. Berman

1996-01-01

78

Comparison of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintimammography in the detection of breast tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare, in breast cancer patients, the diagnostic accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and scintimammography (SMM) using technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI). A total of 20 patients (40 breasts with 22 lesions) were evaluated serially with MIBI and, on the following day, with FDG. For SMM, planar and single-photon emission tomography

H. Palmedo; H. Bender; F. Grünwald; P. Mallmann; P. Zamora; D. Krebs; H. J. Biersack

1997-01-01

79

Limited value of technetium 99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy in localization of lower gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of technetium 99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy in localizing the site of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The outcome of 203 patients undergoing technetium 99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy was reviewed, and the scan result was compared with the true site of bleeding. The true site of bleeding was determined by other methods including angiography and surgical pathology. Fifty-two scans (26%) were positive and indicated a specific site of bleeding. A definitive bleeding site was identified in 22 patients by other means and correlated with the technetium scan in only 9 cases. The nuclear scan was incorrect in the remaining 13 cases, implying a localization error of 25% (13 of 52). A subgroup of 19 patients with a positive scan underwent a surgical procedure directed by the nuclear scan. Eight of these 12 patients had incorrect surgical procedures based upon findings of more definitive tests, indicating a surgical error of 42% (8 of 19). We conclude that the technetium 99m-labeled red cell scan's ability to accurately localize the site of lower gastrointestinal bleeding is limited. Furthermore, performing a surgical procedure that relies exclusively on localization by red cell scintigraphy will produce an undesirable result in at least 42% of patients.

Hunter, J.M.; Pezim, M.E. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1990-05-01

80

Technetium-99m somatostatin analogues: effect of labelling methods and peptide sequence.  

PubMed

In this paper the preclinical evaluation of the somatostatin analogue RC160 labelled with technetium-99m using bifunctional chelators (BFCs) based on the hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and N(3)S system is described and a comparison made with [Tyr(3)]-octreotide (TOC). Conjugates of both peptides with HYNIC, and of RC160 with benzoyl-MAG(3) and an N(3)S-adipate derivative were prepared and radiolabelling performed at high specific activities using tricine, tricine/nicotinic acid and ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA) as co-ligands for HYNIC conjugates. All conjugates and (99m)Tc-labelled peptides showed preserved binding affinity for the somatostatin receptor (IC50, Kd<5 nM). The biodistribution was markedly dependent on the BFC and co-ligand used, with the amidothiol ligands showing a greater degree of hepatobiliary clearance, the HYNIC/tricine complex higher blood levels and the HYNIC/EDDA complex the highest level of renal excretion and lowest blood levels. All peptide conjugates showed receptor-mediated uptake in tumour xenografts, but tumour uptake was significantly lower for the (99m)Tc-RC160 derivatives compared with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr(3)]-octreotide (0.2%-3.5%ID/g vs 9.7%ID/g) and correlated well with the reduced internalisation rate for RC160 derivatives. Our results show that the selection of the labelling approach as well as the right choice of the peptide structure are crucial for labelling peptides with (99m)Tc to achieve complexes with favourable biodistribution. Despite the relatively low tumour uptake compared with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr(3)]-octreotide, (99m)Tc-RC160 could play a role in imaging tumours that do not bind octreotide derivatives. PMID:10436200

Decristoforo, C; Mather, S J

1999-08-01

81

Estimation of technetium 99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine plasma clearance by use of one single plasma sample.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that technetium 99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG-3) is a suitable replacement for iodine 131 or 123 hippurate in gamma-camera renography. Also, the determination of its clearance is of value, since it correlates well with that of hippurate and thus may be an indirect measure of renal plasma flow. In order to simplify the clearance method we developed formulas for the estimation of plasma clearance of MAG-3 based on a single plasma sample and compared them with the multiple sample method based on 7 plasma samples. The correlation to effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) (according to Tauxe's method, using iodine 123 hippurate), which ranged from 75 to 654 ml/min per 1.73 m2, was determined in these patients. Using the developed regression equations the error of estimate for the simplified clearance method was acceptably low (18-14 ml/min), when the single plasma sample was taken 44-64 min post-injection. Formulas for different sampling times at 44, 48, 52, 56, 60 and 64 min are given, and we recommend 60 min as optimal, with an error of estimate of 15.5 ml/min. The correlation between the MAG-3 clearances and ERPF was high (r = 0.90). Since normal values for MAG-3 clearance are not yet available, transformation to estimated ERPF values by the regression equation (ERPF = 1.86 x CMAG-3 + 4.6) could be of clinical value in order to compare it with the normal values for ERPF given in the literature. PMID:1826882

Müller-Suur, R; Magnusson, G; Bois-Svensson, I; Jansson, B

1991-01-01

82

Assessment of gastric motility using meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid  

SciTech Connect

During a 2 year period, 83 patients with gastric motility problems were evaluated using radionuclide imaging. The patients presented with epigastric distress, postprandial fullness, pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; signs and symptoms suggestive of either gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy, or both, demonstrated no mechanical obstruction. After oral administration of a 300 g meal labeled with 600 muCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid, a gastric emptying study consisting of serial images and data acquisition was performed. Of the patients studied, 52 had had peptic ulcer surgery, 17 were suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux, 8 were diabetic and suspected of having visceral enteropathy, and 6 had a history of irritable bowel syndrome. The normal mean gastric half emptying time was 77 +/- 16 minutes. Of the patients who had had gastric surgery, 90.4 percent had abnormal emptying: 69.2 percent had delayed gastric emptying and 21.2 percent had rapid gastric emptying time; 9.6 percent had normal emptying time. Of the gastroesophageal reflux group, all but two had normal gastric emptying time; 65 percent demonstrated gastroesophageal reflux within 15 minutes. Two of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome had prolonged emptying; the rest had normal emptying. All diabetic patients with gastroparesis had prolonged gastric emptying time, and all responded favorably to metoclopramide. Of the patients who previously had peptic ulcer surgery and had prolonged emptying time, 72 percent also responded favorably to metoclopramide. We conclude that radionuclide gastric imaging is a useful diagnostic test for the measurement of gastric emptying in patients with a variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders and may be helpful in assessing medical therapy and selecting those who may be candidates for surgery.

Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.

1983-12-01

83

Technetium-99m Bone Scan and Panoramic Radiography in Detection of Bone Invasion by Oral Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective: The correct extension of cancer in the bone usually remains undetected on static imaging which may lead to inadequate or over excision. The conventional radiography as well as other anatomical imaging modalities like computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging often fails to detect functional changes in the bone. However, bone scinitigraphy is highly sensitive in detecting earlier changes in the bone but lack anatomical definition. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of combining technetium-99m bone scan and panoramic radiography (Tc scan/PR) over using single diagnostic modality in detection of jaw bone invasion by oral carcinomas. The accuracy of these imaging modalities either alone or in combination were determined by comparing with the histopathological findings. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with biopsy-proven oral malignant tumors were randomly selected from Oral Medicine and Radiology department over a period of two years. All patients were investigated preoperatively by Tc scan and PR. Lewis – Jones’s designed diagnostic criterion was applied on Tc scan/PR to evaluate bone involvement by cancer. To test the accuracy of Tc scan, PR and Tc scan/PR, their results were compared with the histopathological findings of resected specimen. Results: Hybrid Tc scan/PR had higher specificity, accuracy and positive predictive value (83.3%, 94.7%, 92.8%) than Tc scan alone (50%, 84.2%, 81.2%) and higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (100%, 100%) than PR (69.2%, 55.5%). Conclusion: Combination of Tc scan and PR was more accurate in detecting jaw bone invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma than Tc scan and PR alone. PMID:24995244

John, Ani

2014-01-01

84

A study of technetium-99m wastage in selected private sector nuclear medicine imaging departments  

PubMed Central

Background South African nuclear medicine imaging departments have been fortunate in being able to receive an uninterrupted supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/technetium-99m (99mTc) generators. Nuclear medicine radiographers practising in private sector services in the northern Gauteng region indicated a possible problem with the quantities of wasted and unused 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals returned to the radiopharmaceutical supply laboratory. Daily radiopharmaceutical deliveries are a combination of ordered packages and standard packages. The purpose of the standard package is to accommodate emergency and after-hours nuclear medicine services. The purpose of the study was to interrogate the unconfirmed reports of 99mTc radiopharmaceutical wastage. Methods A descriptive quantitative research design was conducted in six private sector nuclear medicine imaging practices in the northern Gauteng region. Overt observations of the quantities of radiopharmaceutical supply, usage and wastage were conducted over 2 days in each of these practices. Results Ordered packages comprised 14% of the total 99mTc radiopharmaceutical deliveries to these six nuclear medicine imaging departments. It was identified that: (1) a total of 83.2% of ordered packages and 35.1% of standard packages of preprepared syringes were utilized; (2) a total of 36% of ordered packages and 22.6% of standard packages of bulk 99mTc were utilized; and (3) a total of 70.6% of the total quantity of radiopharmaceuticals was returned to the radiopharmaceutical laboratory. The total wastage represented 45.5% of the ordered packages and 75.8% of the standard packages. Conclusion Wastage of 74 GBq of 99mTc from six sites over 12 days should raise concerns for the nuclear medicine industry. A review of the system framework that supports communication between the radiopharmaceutical supplier/s and the nuclear medicine imaging practices is recommended. PMID:24089081

Bresser, Philippa; Teixeira, Nadia

2013-01-01

85

Technetium-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime granulocyte scintigraphy in Crohn's disease: diagnostic and clinical relevance.  

PubMed Central

Scintigraphy with autologous granulocytes labelled by technetium-99m hexamethyl, propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) was performed in 103 Crohn's disease patients and 52 healthy controls. In 31 patients endoscopic and histologic activity was compared with scan activity index. In the 98 patients with a positive scan, the extent of Crohn's disease, assessed by scintigraphy, was compared with that evaluated by small bowel x ray or colonoscopy with biopsies. In 48 patients, Crohn's disease activity index, activity index, simple index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein were correlated with the scan results. In 16 patients the five parameters and scan were repeated after treatment with methyl-prednisolone (10 cases), enteral nutrition (3), and 5-acetylsalicylic acid (3). The results showed that 99mTc-HMPAO granulocyte scan had a 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity to detect active inflammation; it correctly showed an abscess or a fistula in all the 24 cases found. The correlation between histological inflammatory activity and scan activity index was highly significant (r = 0.85; p < 0.01), less significant (r = 0.65; p < 0.01) between endoscopy and scan activity index. The evaluation for the extent of Crohn's disease by scan was completely correct in the small bowel (100%) and 93% correct in the large bowel. No correlation was seen between the three clinical activity parameters and scanning; in more than 80% of the cases in remission on the basis of a clinical or laboratory index, scintigraphy remained positive. Medical treatment was effective on the clinical indices but not on the active inflammation in the ileum, whereas it led to a negative scan in 5/11 cases in the large intestine. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-HMPAO granulocyte plays an important part in Crohn's disease for the diagnosis of complications, for activity and assessment of the extent, and for the treatment results evaluation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8244102

Sciarretta, G; Furno, A; Mazzoni, M; Basile, C; Malaguti, P

1993-01-01

86

On-site preparation of technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin for clinical application.  

PubMed

Technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin (Tc-99m HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical for clinical applications, such as cardiac function tests or protein-losing gastroenteropathy assessment. However, because of transfusion-induced infectious diseases, the safety of serum products is a serious concern. In this context, serum products acquired from patients themselves are the most ideal tracer. However, the development of rapid separation and easy clinical labeling methods is not yet well established. Under such situation, products from the same ethnic group or country are now recommended by the World Health Organization as an alternative preparation. This article describes the on-site preparation of Tc-99m HSA from locally supplied serum products. Different formulations were prepared and the labeling efficiency and stability were examined. Radio-labeling efficiencies were more than 90% in all preparation protocols, except for one that omitted the stannous solution. The most cost-effective protocol contained HSA 0.1 mg, treated with stannous fluoride 0.2 mg, and mixed with Tc-99m pertechnetate 30 mCi. A biodistribution study was performed in rats using a gamma camera immediately after intravenous administration of radiolabeled HSA. Tissue/organ uptake was obtained by measuring the radioactivity in organs after sacrificing the rats at timed intervals. The biologic half-life was about 32 min, determined from sequential venous blood collections. These data indicate that our preparation of Tc-99m HSA is useful and potentially applicable clinically. In addition, this on-site preparation provides the possibility of labeling a patient's own serum for subsequent clinical application. PMID:17409678

Wang, Yuh-Feng; Chuang, Mei-Hua; Chiu, Jainn-Shiun; Cham, Thau-Ming; Chung, Mei-Ing

2007-04-01

87

Use of a new tandem cation\\/anion exchange system with clinical-scale generators provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors describe the first application of a simple and inexpensive post elution tandem cation-anion exchange column system which is based on generator elution with salts of weak acids such as ammonium acetate instead of saline solution to provide very high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188 from clinical scale molybdenum-99\\/technetium-99m generator prepared from low specific

F. R. Jr. Knapp; A. L. Beets; S. Mirzadeh; S. Guhlke

1998-01-01

88

Complexes of technetium-99m with tetrapeptides containing one alanyl and three glycyl moieties.  

PubMed

Recently, we have shown that tetrapeptides can be efficiently labelled with technetium-99m by direct labelling at alkaline pH. Tetrapeptides can be considered derivatives of mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) in which the mercaptoacetyl moiety is replaced by an amino acid residue. In view of the interesting biological properties of some C-methyl substituted derivatives of 99mTc-MAG3, we have now synthesised and evaluated the complexes of 99mTc with tetrapeptides containing three glycyl (G) moieties and one D- or L-alanyl (A) moiety. In mice, 99mTc-L-GAGG, 99mTc-D-GGAG and 99mTc-L-GGAG showed a rapid and high renal excretion, comparable to that of 99mTc-MAG3. Renal handling was somewhat reduced for isomers d and l of 99mTc-AGGG and 99mTc-D-GAGG and markedly inferior for 99mTc-L-GGGA and 99mTc-D-GGGA. In the baboon, 99mTc-L-AGGG, 99mTc-D-AGGG and 99mTc-L-GAGG showed a comparable or even higher 1-h plasma clearance than 99mTc-MAG3. 99mTc-D-GAGG, 99mTc-L-GGAG and 99mTc-D-GGAG were characterised by a lower plasma clearance and the clearance of 99mTc-L-GGGA and 99mTc-D-GGGA was remarkably low. The three 99mTc-labelled tetrapeptides with the highest plasma clearance in a baboon were compared with 99mTc-MAG3 in a human volunteer. 99mTc-L-AGGG and 99mTc-L-GAGG had a roughly similar plasma clearance as 99mTc-MAG3. The clearance of 99mTc-D-AGGG was significantly lower and liver uptake was clearly visible with this compound. Left kidney renograms of 99mTc-L-AGGG and 99mTc-D-AGGG indicated moderate kidney accumulation. On the other hand, the renogram obtained after injection of 99mTc-L-GAGG had an excellent shape and the maximum kidney concentration was slightly higher than for 99mTc-MAG3. These results show the importance of the position of the methyl substituent on the 99mTc-tetrapeptide with respect to its biological behaviour. PMID:8586100

Vanbilloen, H P; De Roo, M J; Verbruggen, A M

1996-01-01

89

Sipple's syndrome with liver tumors examined by iodine-131 MIBG and technetium-99m(V)-DMSA  

SciTech Connect

This case report describes the localization and categorization of tumors using /sup 99m/Tc(V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid and (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine scans in a very uncommon case of medullary thyroid carcinoma associated with pheochromocytoma (Sipple's syndrome) and hepatocellular carcinoma. Technetium-99m(V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid showed accumulation only in medullary thyroid carcinoma, but (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine scans were positive in both medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. In advanced Sipple's syndrome, combined use of (/sup 99m/Tc(V))dimercaptosuccinic acid and (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine may be useful for the categorization of tumor mass lesions and planning appropriate therapy.

Ohta, H.; Endo, K.; Fujita, T.; Koizumi, M.; Konishi, J.; Maki, A.; Mori, K.; Ozawa, K.; Inoue, G.; Nakano, Y.

1988-06-01

90

Sequential technetium-99m sulfur colloid/indium-111 white blood cell imaging in macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m sulfur colloid (SC) and indium-111 labeled leukocyte (In-111 WBC) scintigraphy was performed on a 77-year-old female patient to rule out a left periprosthetic infection. Anterior Tc-99m SC and In-111 WBC images of the pelvis and femurs revealed no abnormal deposition of radiotracer about the Austin-Moore prosthesis. Absent radiotracer uptake, however, was demonstrated within the left hemipelvis. A left iliac bone marrow aspirate and biopsy revealed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate consistent with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia.

Fink-Bennett, D.; Balon, H.R.; Irwin, R. (William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (USA))

1990-06-01

91

Delayed positive gastrointestinal bleeding studies with technetium-99m-red blood cells: Utility of a second injection  

SciTech Connect

Two patients studied with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells (RBCs) for gastrointestinal bleeding had positive findings only on 24-hr delayed images, at which time the site of bleeding could not be ascertained. In each instance, when additional delayed images suggested that active bleeding was occurring, a second aliquot of RBCs was labeled and injected. Sites of active hemorrhage were identified following further imaging in both patients. When delayed GI bleeding images are positive, further views should be obtained to ascertain if the pattern of intraluminal activity changes. If renewed active hemorrhage is suspected, reinjection with a second dose of labeled RBCs may identify the bleeding site.

Jacobson, A.F. (Nuclear Medicine Service, Seattle, WA (USA))

1991-02-01

92

Work in progress. Gastrointestinal ulcerations: detection using a technetium-99m-labeled ulcer-avid agent  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m-labeled sucralfate, an ulcer-avid material, was shown in preliminary animal and human studies to be stable in vivo with good sensitivity. Eight experimentally produced discrete gastric ulcers in three rabbits were visualized using this material. Of seven human studies, four studies were true-positive and three were true-negative. It is suggested that Tc-99m-labeled sucralfate may prove to have significant clinical advantages for the evaluation of gastrointestinal ulcer disease and other diseases that are associated with loss of mucosal integrity. The method for labeling sucralfate with Tc-99m was developed by the authors.

Vasquez, T.E.; Bridges, R.L.; Braunstein, P.; Jansholt, A.L.; Meshkinpour, H.

1983-07-01

93

Myocardial clearance of technetium-99m-teboroxime in reperfused injured canine myocardium  

PubMed Central

Background Recent technical developments using solid-state technology have enabled rapid image acquisition with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and have led to a renewed interest in technetium-99m-teboroxime (Tc-99m-teboroxime) as a myocardial imaging agent. Tc-99m-teboroxime has demonstrated high myocardial extraction, linear myocardial uptake relative to flow even at high flow rates, rapid uptake and clearance kinetics, and differential clearance in the setting of ischemia. However, the myocardial clearance kinetics of Tc-99m-teboroxime in a model of myocardial injury has not been previously reported. Thus, the purposes of this study were to use a canine model of ischemia-reperfusion to (1) compare Tc-99m-teboroxime clearance kinetics in normal and ischemic-reperfused myocardium and (2) assess the utility of Tc-99m-teboroxime clearance kinetics in determining the severity of injury following ischemia-reperfusion. Methods Thirteen dogs underwent left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) occlusion for either 30 min (IR30, n?=?6) or 120 min (IR120, n?=?7), followed by reperfusion, and finally Tc-99m-teboroxime administration 120 min after reperfusion. Microsphere blood flows were determined at baseline, during occlusion, after reperfusion, and before euthanasia. Post-mortem, area at risk was determined using Evans blue dye, and viability was determined using triphenytetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The hearts were then subdivided into 24 pieces and Tc-99m activity was measured in a well counter. Results TTC-determined infarct area as a percentage of total left ventricular myocardium was 1.1%?±?0.3% for the IR30 group and 7.5%?±?2.9% for the IR120 group (p?

2014-01-01

94

Congenital lymphatic hypoplasia in unilateral lower limb with abnormal technetium-99m sulphur colloid uptake in both breasts  

PubMed Central

We present a patient with Meige like lymphedema (left lower limb hypoplasia) with asymptomatic minimal accumulation of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid in bilateral breasts. We attribute the possible pathology to accumulation of interstitial fluid in hypoplastic left lower limb leading to dilatation of the remaining outflow tracts and valvular incompetence. This may be causing reversal of flow from subcutaneous tissues into the dermal plexus involving the breast. Other possibilities include formation of spontaneous lymphovenous shunt or lymphatic intercommunication at lower trunk level as a result of increased pressure leading to minimal lymph accumulation in breasts. Later a mammogram was performed which was found to be normal. MR also confirmed no cisterna chyli abnormalities or aberrant lymphatic channels in lower thorax region that may be the explanation for the abnormal sulphur colloid uptake in both breasts. PMID:25400372

Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga

2014-01-01

95

Radionuclide imaging for breast cancer diagnosis and management: is technetium-99m tetrofosmin uptake related to the grade of malignancy?  

PubMed

There are different scoring systems available for determining the grade of breast cancer malignancy. Breast cancer tumors have been described for grades 1-3 using the modified Nottingham-Bloom-Richardson grading system. Determining the grade is very important for the clinicians to choose the best treatment options. Technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) and pentavalent (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc(V)-DMSA) scintigraphy have been used and are under evaluation for being prognostic factors for breast carcinoma. Radionuclide breast imaging not only visualizes the lesion site but also reflects specific biological and functional lesion features, including perfusion, proliferative potential, metabolic activity and receptor status. PMID:24997077

Silov, Güler; Ta?demir, Arzu; Ozdal, Ay?egül; Erdo?an, Zeynep; Ba?bu?, Esma Mehtap; Arslan, Ay?e Esra; Turhal, Ozgül

2014-01-01

96

Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells in the evaluation of hemangiomas of the liver in infants and children  

SciTech Connect

The vascular origin lesions of the liver (capillary hemangioma/infantile hemangioendothelioma) that present in infancy or early childhood often have a typical clinical picture of hepatomegaly and congestive heart failure. These lesions rarely present as asymptomatic hepatomegaly, simulating a primary hepatic malignancy. These lesions may also simulate a primary or secondary hepatic malignancy on cross-sectional imaging or angiography. Scintigraphic evaluations with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells offers an accurate method of identification of these lesions, and allows differentiation from other common primary or secondary hepatic masses in infancy or childhood. This scintigraphic method may also be used to follow these patients after medical, radiation, or embolization therapy. Experience with seven patients with these tumors is reported and compared with eight children with other primary or secondary liver tumors also evaluated by this method.

Miller, J.H.

1987-09-01

97

Sequential technetium-99m HMDP-gallium-67 citrate imaging for the evaluation of infection in the painful prosthesis  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the clinical utility of sequential technetium-99m HMDP-gallium-67 scanning in patients with painful orthopedic prosthesis, a retrospective review was made of 154 sequential scans performed in 130 patients. Criteria for a positive study included spatially incongruent gallium-technetium uptake or gallium uptake that was congruent but more intense than technetium. Images were interpreted as negative if gallium was congruent and less intense than technetium. Sixty-six patients underwent surgery (31 infected, 35 aseptic), and 64 were evaluated clinically (3 infected, 61 aseptic). The combined results of the surgical and nonsurgical patients yielded a sensitivity of 66%, a specificity of 81%, and an accuracy of 77%. In this series, the technetium-gallium scan combination has proven to be helpful but more recent techniques such as indium-111-labeled leukocytes may prove to be superior to sequential technetium-gallium imaging.

Merkel, K.D.; Brown, M.L.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.

1986-09-01

98

Thallium-201 versus technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging in detection and evaluation of patients with acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Thallium-201 myocardial imaging is of value in the early detection and evaluation of patients with suspected acute infarction. Thallium imaging may have a special value in characterizing patients with cardiogenic shock and in detecting patients at risk for subsequent infarction or death or death or both, before hospital discharge. Approximately 95 percent of pateints with transmural or nontransmural myocardial infarction can be detected with technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging if the imaging is performed 24 to 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Pyrophosphate imaging may have an important role in the evaluation of patients during the early follow-up period after hospital discharge from an episode of acute infarction. The finding of a persistently positive pyrophosphate image suggests a poor prognosis and is associated with a relatively large incidence of subsequent myocardial infarction and death.

Pitt, B.; Thrall, J.H.

1980-12-18

99

Using technetium-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal cortex scintigraphy to differentiate acute pyelonephritis from other causes of fever in patients with spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To differentiate acute pyelonephritis (APN) from fever due to other sources in patients with spinal cord injury by using technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal cortex scintigraphy (DMSA scan).Methods. A total of 24 patients with spinal cord injury were admitted with fever. DMSA scans were performed on all patients. The final determination of the cause of the fever was based

Chia-Hung Kao; Jih-Fang Hsieh; Shih-Chung Tsai; Yung-Jen Ho; Sheng-Ping Changlai; Shung-Shung Sun; Jong-Kang Lee

2000-01-01

100

Review of imaging techniques for the diagnosis of breast cancer: a new role of prone scintimammography using technetium-99m sestamibi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging techniques currently used for the diagnosis of breast cancer are reviewed and compared. Besides mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and thallium-201 scintimammography, a new role of technetium-99m sestamibi scintimammography is discussed. It is concluded that while mammography remains the procedure of choice in screening asymptomatic women for breast cancer, other imaging methods play an important role in

Iraj Khalkhali; Ismael Mena; Linda Diggles

1994-01-01

101

Reversible regional wall motion abnormalities on exercise technetium-99m–gated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography predict high-grade angiographic stenoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWe sought to determine the level of angiographic stenosis at which reversible regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) are present on exercise stress technetium-99m (Tc-99m)– gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), and whether assessments of stress and rest RWMA add incremental diagnostic information.

Louise Emmett; Robert M Iwanochko; Michael R Freeman; Alan Barolet; Douglas S Lee; Mansoor Husain

2002-01-01

102

The role of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate in myocardial imaging to recognize, localize and identify extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams to aid diagnostically in recognizing, localizing, and identifying extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients was evaluated. The present study is an extension of previous animal and patient evaluations that were recently performed utilizing this myocardial imaging agent.

Willerson, J. T.; Parkey, R. W.; Bonte, F. J.; Stokely, E. M.; Buja, E. M.

1975-01-01

103

Calculation of relative glomerular filtration rate and correlation with delayed technetium-99m DMSA imaging  

SciTech Connect

The relative renal uptake of Tc-99m DMSA was compared with the relative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in ten patients with serum creatinines ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 mg/dl. Relative GFR was based on the renal uptake of Tc-99m DTPA determined by two methods: 1) integrating the counts from 1 to 3 minutes postinjection and correcting for background. 2) Totalizing the individual renal counts in a single 15-second frame from 2:45 minutes to 3:00 minutes postinjection and correcting for background. The two methods of determining relative DTPA uptake showed excellent correlation, r = 0.98. Relative DMSA uptake determined at 24 hours post-injection using computer-assisted regions of interest showed excellent correlation with the relative GFR determined by either the integral or single-frame method, r = 0.98. The addition of background subtraction for the DMSA images at 24 hours did not improve the correlation.

Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.; Witztum, K.

1986-01-01

104

Technetium-99m (v) dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake in patients with head and neck squamous carcinoma: Experience in imaging  

SciTech Connect

A recently developed imaging agent, technetium-99m (v) dimercaptosuccinic acid (/sup 99m/Tc (v) DMSA), has been used to assess head and neck squamous carcinoma (SCC). We have prospectively studied 62 patients of whom 53 had a histologically proven head and neck SCC. The remaining nine had benign lesions. The results of planar imaging in patients with primary disease yielded an 85% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Planar imaging in patients with cervical lymphadenopathy revealed a 59% sensitivity. Nineteen patients also had single photon emission computed tomography imaging which improved the image quality, spatial resolution and sensitivity of the investigation. Twenty-seven patients were scanned before and after radiotherapy and, of these, 96% showed positive uptake in the salivary glands with no evidence of tumor recurrence. This study has shown /sup 99m/Tc (v) DMSA imaging provides a cheap and rapid method of investigating head and neck SCC and further studies are necessary to evaluate its role in the management of patients with this disease.

Watkinson, J.C.; Lazarus, C.R.; Mistry, R.; Shaheen, O.H.; Maisey, M.N.; Clarke, S.E.

1989-02-01

105

Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstom, M.A. (New England Medical Center, Boston, MA); Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

1982-09-01

106

Value of positive myocardial technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy in the noninvasive diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis  

SciTech Connect

Ten consecutive patients with tissue-proven amyloidosis, seven of whom presented with congestive heart failure, were found to exhibit intense diffuse uptake of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) on cardiac radionuclide imaging. The patients exhibited echocardiographic and systolic time interval abnormalities suggesting combined restrictive and congestive cardiomyopathic changes. On M-mode echocardiograms, there was symmetrically increased thickness of the interventricular septum and left ventricular (LV) posterior wall in diastole (10 of 10), decreased fractional shortening of the LV minor axis diameter in systole (eight of nine), and decreased percent thickening of the LV minor axis diameter in systole (eight of nine) and LV posterior wall (10 of 10) in systole. Three patients demonstrated enlarged LV end-diastolic diameter. All 10 patients had abnormal PEP/LVET and eight had shortened LVETI. When combined with noninvasive tests of LV performance, positive myocardial pyrophosphate (PYP) scanning provides a new and useful adjunct in the diagnosis of amyloid heart disease.

Wizenberg, T.A.; Muz, J.; Sohn, Y.H.; Samlowski, W.; Weissler, A.M.

1982-04-01

107

Early identification of amyloid heart disease by technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy: a study with familial amyloid polyneuropathy  

SciTech Connect

To determine whether technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scanning or two-dimensional echocardiography can detect amyloid heart disease in an earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy, 15 patients were examined. Although 10 of the 15 patients had no clinical evidence of congestive heart failure, as well as normal ventricular wall thickness and normal values for left ventricular systolic function, five (50%) of them showed mild or moderate myocardial uptake. On the other hand, none had characteristic highly refractile myocardial echoes on the two-dimensional echocardiographic images (p less than 0.01), and values for diastolic function were reduced in four of the five and normal in the remaining one. In 85 control subjects, diffuse positive pyrophosphate scans of the heart were found in four (5%) of them (three with dilated cardiomyopathy and one with sarcoidosis), and highly refractile granular sparkling echoes were observed in nine (11%) (five with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, three with aortic stenosis, and one with hypereosinophilic syndrome). We conclude that Tc-99m-PYP scanning is a more sensitive and specific method and may have the potential ability to detect amyloid heart disease in the earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy than two-dimensional echocardiography.

Hongo, M.; Hirayama, J.; Fujii, T.; Yamada, H.; Okubo, S.; Kusama, S.; Ikeda, S.

1987-03-01

108

Modulation of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein: Detection with technetium-99m-sestamibi in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) has been documented in nearly all forms of human cancers and increased levels of Pgp in some tumors correlate with poor response to treatment. Technetium-99m-sestamibi has recently been validated as a Pgp transport substrate. Pgp is also normally expressed along the biliary canalicular surface of hepatocytes and the luminal side of proximal tubule cells in the kidney, while not expressed in heart. Focused on these organs with known Pgp status, we present the findings on {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi showed normal, prompt clearance of the radiotracer from the liver and kidneys relative to the heart. After administration of the Pgp modulator, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi was selectively retained in the liver and kidneys. Hepatobiliary and renal clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi are Pgp-mediated, and inhibition of Pgp transport in these organs can be successfully imaged using {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in patients. Similar results might be expected with this and related radiopharmaceuticals for functional imaging of Pgp transport and modulation in tumors. 34 refs., 2 figs.

Luker, G.D.; Fracasso, P.M.; Dobkin, J.; Piwnica-Worms, D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1997-03-01

109

Usefulness of early positive technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scan in predicting reperfusion after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

To test the hypothesis that scans with technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PPi) are positive when performed early after successful thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 16 consecutive patients with AMI who received thrombolytic therapy within 5 hours after the onset of chest pain were studied. Patients were included if chest pain lasted for greater than 30 minutes, was unresponsive to sublingual nitroglycerin and was associated with at least 0.2 mV ST-segment elevation in at least 2 contiguous electrocardiographic leads. All patients received 1.5 million IU of streptokinase intravenously, a mean of 195 +/- 99 minutes after onset of chest pain. Tc-99m-PPi scans and coronary cineangiograms were recorded 491 +/- 156 minutes and 518 +/- 202 minutes, respectively, after the onset of symptoms. Effective reperfusion was present in 10 patients, 6 of whom had positive Tc-99m-PPi scans (sensitivity of 60% to detect reperfusion). Of the 6 patients without effective reperfusion, 3 had positive Tc-99m-PPi scans (specificity of 50%, p greater than 0.05). Analysis of the data using various definitions of effective reperfusion or artery patency yielded similar results. Thus, our findings indicate that early AMI scanning with Tc-99m-PPi does not accurately detect the presence or absence of reperfusion in patients with AMI after treatment with intravenous streptokinase. At this time, coronary cineangiography is the only reliable method to detect reperfusion promptly after thrombolytic therapy.

Manyari, D.E.; Thompson, C.R.; Duff, H.J.; Knudtson, M.L.; Kloiber, R.; Smith, E.R.; Belenkie, I.

1988-01-01

110

Quantification of inflammatory bowel disease activity using technetium-99m HMPAO labelled leucocyte single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT).  

PubMed Central

Technetium-99m HMPAO labelled white cell bowel uptake was quantified in 23 patients with suspected colitis by means of the novel technique of single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) using a standard gamma-camera. Uptake in colon segments was quantified on transaxial images and expressed as a fraction of marrow uptake (SPECT score). Segmental histological disease activity was assessed at colonoscopy (20) or at surgery (3). Segmental histology score correlated with SPECT score r = 0.79 (p < 0.001). Overall SPECT score for all affected segments correlated with Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) r = 0.66, p = 0.001 and with laboratory activity indices; erythrocyte sedimentation rate r = 0.44, p = 0.03, C reactive protein r = 0.38, p = 0.05, and albumin r = -0.46, p = 0.03. Small bowel SPECT score in 13 patients correlated with CDAI r = 0.65, p < 0.01 but not with erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C reactive protein. Five patients with positive small bowel white cell uptake had normal C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Overall SPECT score for disease at all sites correlated with both CDAI and with laboratory indices of inflammation. 99mTc HMPAO SPECT provides non-invasive and accurate quantification of inflammatory bowel disease activity in both large and small bowel and may be useful in the objective evaluation of treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7883224

Weldon, M J; Masoomi, A M; Britten, A J; Gane, J; Finlayson, C J; Joseph, A E; Maxwell, J D

1995-01-01

111

Comparing whole body 18 F-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan to detect bone metastases in patients with breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. At present, bone metastases are usually assessed using conventional technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate whole-body bone scan, which has a high sensitivity but a poor specificity. However, positron emission tomography with 18F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET) can offer superior spatial resolution and improved specificity. We attempted to evaluate the usefulness of FDG-PET for detecting bone metastases in breast cancer and to compare FDG-PET results

S. N. Yang; J. A. Liang; F. J. Lin; C. H. Kao; C. C. Lin; C. C. Lee

2002-01-01

112

Left ventricular cavity-to-myocardium count ratio in exercise and resting technetium-99m-tetrofosmin SPECT: correlation with left ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the value of the cavity-to-myocardium count ratio (C\\/M ratio) calculated in exercise and resting technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images to identify patients with depressed exercise and resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We studied 60 patients with recent coronary artery diseases (CAD) undergoing first-pass ventriculography to calculate

P.-C. Li; S.-S. Sun; A. Kao; C.-C. Lin; C.-C. Lee

2002-01-01

113

Objective evidence of a high prevalence of renal damage in women with type 2 diabetes by technetium-99m DMSA renal cortex scan findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo compare control women with men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) for the prevalence and type of renal damage due to urinary tract infections (UTIs) using technetium-99m dimercapto-succinic acid (99mTc DMSA) renal scanning. Women with DM have UTIs more often than do women without DM. It is unknown, however, what the prevalence and type of renal damage

Hsi-Chin Wu; Wen-Shen Huang; Cheng-Chieh Lin; Cheng-Chun Lee; Albert Kao

2003-01-01

114

Sectorial Technetium99m-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphy for Monitoring the Effect of Extracorporeal Piezoelectric Lithotripsy for Calyceal Calculi on Regional Renal Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To apply a semiquantitative method for analysis of technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) renal scintigraphy for monitoring the effect of extracorporeal piezoelectric lithotripsy (EPL) in patients with calyceal stones on regional kidney function and to check whether EPL had caused any deleterious effect on the target calyceal renal parenchymal function. Patients and Methods: Forty patients (mean age 35 years) suffering from

A. Al-Tawheed; K. A. Al-Awadi; E. O. Kehinde; I. Loutfi; H. Abdul-Haleem; S. Al-Mohannadi

2003-01-01

115

The evaluation of acute pyelonephritis and renal scarring with technetium 99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy: evolving concepts and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Technetium 99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy has emerged as the imaging agent of choice for the detection and\\u000a evaluation of acute pyelonephritis and renal cortical scarring in children. Consequently, DMSA scintigraphy provides a unique\\u000a opportunity to study the progression of renal damage and functional loss from the initial insult of acute pyelonephritis to\\u000a the subsequent development of irreversible renal scarring.

H. Gil Rushton; Pediatr Nephrol

1997-01-01

116

Differentiation of single solid lesions in the lungs by means of single-photon emission tomography with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of technetium-99m methoxy-isobutylisonitrile (MIBI) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) of the chest in differentiating lung carcinomas of various histological types and benign lesions was assessed in 54 patients (47 males and 7 females aged 19–77 years) with single solid lung masses. Chest radiography had indicated that 46 of the lesions were malignant (8 small cell carcinomas, 14 epidermoid carcinomas,

Chia-Hung Kao; Shyh-Jen Wang; Wan-Yu Lin; Chung-Yuan Hsu; Shu-Quinn Liao; Shin-Hwa Yeh

1993-01-01

117

A Monte Carlo investigation of artifacts caused by liver uptake in single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion imaging with technetium 99m-labeled agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Significant hepatobiliary accumulation of technetium 99m-labeled cardiac perfusion agents has been shown to cause alterations\\u000a in the apparent localization of the agents in the cardiac walls. A Monte Carlo study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis\\u000a that the cardiac count changes are due to the inconsistencies in the projection data input to reconstruction, and that correction\\u000a of the causes of

Michael A. King; Weishi Xia; Daniel J. deVries; Tin-Su Pan; Benard J. Villegas; Seth Dahlberg; Benjamin M. W. Tsui; Michael H. Ljungberg; Hugh T. Morgan

1996-01-01

118

Comparison of technetium 99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile and thallium 201 for evaluation of coronary artery disease by planar and tomographic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare stress\\/rest technetium 99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (Tc-MIBI) with stress redistribution thallium 201(T1-201) myocardial perfusion imaging, 36 patients were studied by single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and planar methods. For SPECT, overall sensitivities for identification of patients with coronary artery disease were 93% (14\\/15) by Tc-MIBI and 80% (12\\/15) by TI-201 (p = NS). For planar methods, overall

H. Kiat; J. Maddahi; L. T. Roy; K. Van Train; J. Friedman; K. Resser; D. S. Berman

1989-01-01

119

Automatic Quantitation of Regional Myocardial Wall Motion and Thickening From Gated Technetium99m Sestamibi Myocardial Perfusion Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We developed an automatic quantitative algorithm for the measurement of regional myocardial wall motion and wall thickening from three-dimensional gated technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomographic images.Background. The algorithm measures the motion of the three-dimensional endocardial surface using a modification of the centerline method, as well as wall thickening using both geometry (gaussian fit) and partial volume

Guido Germano; Jacob Erel; Howard Lewin; Paul B. Kavanagh; Daniel S. Berman

1997-01-01

120

In vitro validation of a simple tomographic technique for estimation of percentage myocardium at risk using methoxyisobutyl isonitrile technetium 99m (sestamibi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of technetium 99m-labeled myocardial blood flow agents, there is a need for a simple technique for quantitation of infarcted or jeopardized myocardium (IM). This study provides an in vitro validation of a simple technique based upon the analysis of three short-axis slices through the heart following emission computed tomography. All acquisitions were performed using a static cardiac

Michael K. O'Connor; Thomas Hammell; Raymond J. Gibbons

1990-01-01

121

Sequential functional imaging with technetium-99m hexakis-2-meth oxyisobutylisonitrile and indium-111 octreotide: can we predict the response to chemotherapy in small cell lung cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) demonstrating uptake on functional indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy is presented. Technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy clearly delineated an absence of radionuclide uptake at the tumour site. This suggested the presence of multidrug resistance-mediated P glycoprotein (Pgp) on tumour cells, which recognizes certain chemotherapeutic agents as well as MIBI as a substrate and avoids radionuclide

J. L. Moretti; M. Caglar; C. Boaziz; N. Caillat-Vigneron; J. F. Morere

1995-01-01

122

An Automated Method for Preparation of [18F]Sodium Fluoride for Injection, USP to Address the Technetium-99m Isotope Shortage  

PubMed Central

The worldwide shortage of technetium-99m has created an immediate and urgent need for access to [18F]sodium fluoride for PET imaging of bone metastasis. In order to facilitate global availability of [18F]sodium fluoride for diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging procedures, a straightforward method for rapid production of [18F]sodium fluoride for injection, USP, using a modified GE Tracerlab FX-FN is presented. PMID:19762249

Hockley, Brian G.

2009-01-01

123

Use of a new tandem cation/anion exchange system with clinical-scale generators provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors describe the first application of a simple and inexpensive post elution tandem cation-anion exchange column system which is based on generator elution with salts of weak acids such as ammonium acetate instead of saline solution to provide very high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188 from clinical scale molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator prepared from low specific activity (n,y) molybdenum-99, and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators, respectively. Initial passage of the bolus through a strong cation exchange cartridge converts the ammonium acetate to acetic acid which is essentially not ionized at the acidic pH, allowing specific subsequent amine type (QMA SepPak{trademark}) anion exchange cartridge column trapping of the microscopic levels of the pertechnetate or perrhenate. Subsequent elution of the anion cartridge with a small volume (< 1 mL) of saline then provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m by concentration of the high eluant volumes obtained by elution of clinical-scale (1 Ci) generators. This new approach also works very effectively to obtain high specific volume solutions of rhenium-188 (> 500 mCi/mL) from the alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator.

Knapp, F.R. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Nuclear Medicine Group; Guhlke, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Nuclear Medicine Group]|[Univ. of Bonn (Germany). Clinic for Nuclear Medicine

1998-03-01

124

Detection of occult pericardial hemorrhage early after open-heart surgery using technetium-99m red blood cell radionuclide ventriculography  

SciTech Connect

Pericardial or mediastinal hemorrhage requiring reoperation occurs in 2% to 5% of patients, usually early (0 to 48 hours), after open-heart surgery. This hemorrhage may be occult, and resulting cardiac tamponade may easily be misinterpreted as ventricular dysfunction, common early postoperatively. In such cases, appropriate and timely intervention may not occur. Of 50 patients evaluated by technetium-99m red blood cell gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) because of early postoperative cardiogenic shock of uncertain etiology, 17 had unique scintigraphic images suggestive of intrathoracic hemorrhage. Of these 17, 5 had a generalized halo of abnormal radioactivity surrounding small hyperdynamic right and left ventricles, 11 had localized regions of intense blood pool activity outside the cardiac chambers (two with compression of single chambers), and one demonstrated marked radionuclide activity in the right hemithorax (2000 ml of blood at reoperation). Twelve patients had exploratory reoperation for control of hemorrhage as a direct result of the scintigraphic findings, three were successfully treated with fresh frozen plasma and platelet infusions along with medical interventions to optimize cardiac performance, and two patients died in cardiogenic shock (presumed tamponade) without reoperation. In the 12 reoperated patients, all were confirmed to have active pericardial bleeding. Scintigraphic localization of abnormal blood pools within the pericardium corresponded to the sites at which active bleeding was witnessed at reoperation. The abnormal bleeding was etiologically related to the tamponade state, with marked improvement in hemodynamics after reoperation. Nine additional patients were reoperated for presumed tamponade after RNV revealed an exaggerated halo of photon deficiency surrounding the cardiac chambers.

Bateman, T.M.; Czer, L.S.; Gray, R.J.; Kass, R.M.; Raymond, M.J.; Garcia, E.V.; Chaux, A.; Matloff, J.M.; Berman, D.S.

1984-11-01

125

Synthesis and evaluation of technetium-99m-labeled bioreductive pharmacophores conjugated with amino acids and peptides for tumor imaging.  

PubMed

Development of molecular imaging agents to target tumor has become a major trend in nuclear medicine. With the aim to develop new potential (99m) Tc-radiopharmaceuticals for targeting tumor, we have synthesized 5-nitroimidazolyl amino acids and RGD-coupled 2-nitroimidazoles. Technetium-99m radiolabeling with high radiochemical purity (>90%) was achieved for all the compounds. The radiolabeled complexes exhibited substantial in vitro stability in saline, serum, and histidine solution (10(-2)  m). Cell binding studies in EAC and B16F10 cell lines also revealed rapid and comparatively high cellular internalization. Among all the compounds studied, the binding of (99m) Tc(CO)3 -5 to B16F10 cells was moderately inhibited by the competitive peptide c[RGDfV], suggesting specificity of the radioligand toward ?v ?3 receptor. However, no significant displacement of bound radioligand was observed when the binding of the (99m) Tc-labeled complexes to above cells was challenged with excess competitive peptide. Fluorescent microscopy study provided direct evidence of intracellular localization of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein-labeled 2-nitroimidazolyl-RGD-peptide in ?v ?3 -positive B16F10 mouse melanoma cell line. The ligands caused only 8-13% of hemolysis toward rat erythrocytes at concentrations as high as 100 ?m. Imaging and biodistribution studies were performed in Swiss albino mice bearing induced tumor. (99m) Tc-1 and (99m) Tc(CO)3 -5 demonstrated a very favorable in vivo profile. Selective uptake and retention in tumor with encouraging tumor/muscle and tumor/blood ratio and significant cellular uptake of fluorescence-labeled-2-nitroimidazolyl RGD indicate the great potentiality of the pharmacophore for further evaluation as potential molecular imaging agent in cancer diagnosis. PMID:25243793

Baishya, Rinku; Nayak, Dipak K; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Sachdeva, Satbir S; Sarkar, Bharat R; Ganguly, Shantanu; Debnath, Mita C

2015-04-01

126

Significance of Technetium-99m Human Serum Albumin Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid Scintigraphy in Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

It is thought that a large amount of albumin leaking from the glomerulus in nephrotic syndrome (NS) is reabsorbed at the proximal tubule and catabolized. Therefore, it is possible the final quantity of urinary protein does not always reflect the amount of leakage of protein from the glomerulus. We experienced two cases without nephrotic range proteinuria thought to involve hypoproteinemia due to the same pathophysiology as NS. On these patients, we performed protein leakage scintigraphy with technetium-99m human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-HSAD) to exclude a diagnosis of protein-losing gastroenteropathy and observed diffuse positive accumulation in the kidneys with more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration. In healthy adults intravenously given 99mTc-HSAD, the same dynamics are observed as in albumin metabolism, and the organ radioactivity of the liver and kidneys after 24 hours is equal. Therefore, we thought it was possible that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration was a characteristic finding of NS. In order to confirm it, the subjects were divided into two groups: the NS group (n = 10) and the non-NS group (n = 7). We defined more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration as Dense Kidney (+). Furthermore, we designed regions of interest in the right and left kidneys and liver on anterior and posterior images, then calculated the kidney-liver ratio. Nine of the ten patients had Dense Kidney (+) in the NS group, compared to none in the non-NS group. And the kidney-liver ratio was significantly higher in the NS group than in the non-NS group on each view in the bilateral kidneys. In conclusion, our results suggest that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration is a characteristic finding of NS. PMID:25859658

Takashima, Tsuyoshi; Kishi, Tomoya; Onozawa, Koji; Rikitake, Shuichi; Miyazono, Motoaki; Otsuka, Takateru; Irie, Hiroyuki; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Ikeda, Yuji

2015-01-01

127

Scintigraphic assessment of bowel involvement and disease activity in Crohn's disease using technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine as leukocyte label  

SciTech Connect

Using a novel labeling technique with technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine, we studied 29 patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease. Technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine leukocyte scanning (99mTc scan) was prospectively compared with the results of independently performed radiologic, endoscopic, and histologic examinations, and with findings at surgery, to assess the clinical usefulness of this technique to localize inflammatory lesions. In addition, uptake of technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine in the bowel was graded by comparing it with the uptake in liver and bone marrow and correlating this with established parameters of disease activity. The viability of homologous labeled leukocytes was greater than 95%. Less than 5% of lymphocytes were found in the final preparation. It was found that 45% +/- 12% of the label was bound to granulocytes, and 98% of the unbound label was washed off before reinjection. The results of 99mTc scan revealed a good correlation with those of barium enema (r = 0.880, p less than 0.001), of endoscopy/surgery (r = 0.983, p less than 0.001), and of all combined reference methods (r = 0.981, p less than 0.001). Activity as determined by 99mTc scan was weakly correlated with the results of Crohn's disease activity index (r = 0.559, p less than 0.01), van Hees index (r = 0.606, p less than 0.01), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.456, p less than 0.05) in 24 patients with proven Crohn's disease. The correlation was improved when the 99mTc scan was compared with a combination of these activity parameters and C-reactive protein (r = 0.781, p less than 0.001). Extraintestinal manifestations (joints) and complications (cholecystitis) were also identified correctly by the 99mTc scan.

Schoelmerich, J.S.; Schmidt, E.; Schuemichen, C.B.; Billmann, P.; Schmidt, H.; Gerok, W.

1988-11-01

128

Post-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head predicted by preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid scan: an experimental and clinical study. [Rabbits; patients  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m antimony colloid was used to visualize the bone marrow of the head of the femur within twenty-four hours after interruption of the blood supply by subcapital osteotomy and section of the ligamentum teres in thirteen rabbits and within twenty-four hours after a subcapital fracture in thirty patients. Of the rabbits, all showed loss of marrow radioactivity over the affected femoral head. Bone-imaging with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate, in contrast, failed to demonstrate any abnormality in the avascular head of the femur for as long as forty-eight hours after osteotomy. This difference between the marrow scan and the bone scan was attributed to earlier loss of function in the marrow cells than in the osteocytes. The thirty patients who had a preoperative scan within twenty-four hours after sustaining a subcapital fracture were treated by internal fixation with a Richards screw and plate and were followed for as long as two years, or until the patient died or radiographs showed evidence of avascular necrosis. The preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid activity in the head of the fractured femur was normal in sixteen patients and absent in fourteen; two of the fourteen had no activity in either hip, which precluded assessment of the fractured hip in these patients. In fifteen of the sixteen hips, preservation of the uptake in the marrow of the head of the fractured femur preoperatively predicted normal healing. Late segmental collapse developed in the remaining hip. In eleven of the twelve patients who had loss of marrow activity in the femoral head preoperatively, avascular necrosis developed within two years.

Turner, J.H.

1983-07-01

129

In vivo detection of multidrug-resistant (MDR1) phenotype by technetium-99m sestamibi scan in untreated breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m sestamibi is a transport substrate recognised by the multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein (Pgp). To test whether99mTc-sestamibi efflux is enhanced in breast carcinomas overexpressing Pgp, we determined the efflux rates of99mTc-sestamibi and Pgp levels in tumours from 30 patients with untreated breast carcinoma. Patients were intravenously injected\\u000a with 740 MBq of99mTc-sestamibi and underwent a 15-min dynamic study followed by the acquisition of

Silvana Del Vecchio; Andrea Ciarmiello; Maria I. Potena; Maria V. Carriero; Ciro Mainolfil; Gerardo Botti; Renato Thomas; Maria Cerra; Giuseppe D'Aiuto; Takashi Tsuruo; Marco Salvatorel

1997-01-01

130

Dye and gamma probe-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients: using patent blue dye and technetium-99m-labeled human serum albumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a promising method for the diagnosis of the axillary nodal status. We examined the availability\\u000a of the SLN biopsy using two mapping procedures: the dye- and gamma probe-guided method, and preoperative lymphoscintigraphy\\u000a by gamma camera imaging.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We enrolled 48 patients with breast cancer. Technetium-99m-labeled human serum albumin was injected into the subdermal tissue\\u000a above

Koichiro Tsugawa; Masakuni Noguchi; Koichi Miwa; Etsuro Bando; Kunihiko Yokoyama; Ken-ichi Nakajima; Takatoshi Michigishi; Norihisa Tonami; Hiroshi Minato; Akitaka Nonomura

2000-01-01

131

A comparison of intercuff and single cuff techniques of intravenous regional anaesthesia using 0.5% prilocaine mixed with technetium 99m-labelled BRIDA.  

PubMed

Intravenous regional anaesthesia of the upper limb is a widely used technique first described by Bier in 1908. The exact site of action of injected local anaesthetic has not been determined. We have performed intravenous regional anaesthesia on volunteers using prilocaine mixed with technetium 99m-labelled 2,4,6 trimethyl-3-bromo iminodiacetic acid. Two different techniques of intravenous regional anaesthesia (the 'normal' cuff and the intercuff techniques) were combined with gamma camera tracking of the radiolabel to determine the site of local anaesthetic action. The onset of action was similar for both techniques. The local anaesthetic was mainly retained in the antecubital fossa in both techniques but in the 'normal' technique, the local anaesthetic subsequently showed some retrograde spread. This would suggest that the main site of action of local anaesthetic used for intravenous regional anaesthesia is the larger nerves in the vicinity of the antecubital fossa. PMID:9349063

Risdall, J E; Young, P C; Jones, D A; Hett, D A

1997-09-01

132

[Scintigraphic imaging of knee synovitis in osteoarthritis after intra-articular injection of technetium-99m pertechnetate in the unilateral knee].  

PubMed

A case of left knee synovitis scintigraphic imaging is presented in a 66-year-old patient with bilateral knee osteoarthritis and a right knee Baker's cyst, who had undergone a 74 MBq (99m)Tc-pertechnetate intra-articular injection in the right knee. The findings in this case were compared with the intravenously injected methylene disphosphonate technetium-99m ((99m)Tc-MDP) scintigraphic findings and could be interpreted as the result of (99m)Tc-pertechenate through blood communication from the right to the left knee. This case implies that (99m)Tc-pertechnetate may be useful in imaging the synovitis in multiple arthroses even up to 60 min after its administration, instead of the 5 min imaging after the injection of (99m)Tc-MDP. PMID:16617402

Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Markou, Pavlos; Iakovou, Ioannis

2006-01-01

133

Comparison of shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and technetium-99m-pertechnetate in a group of dogs with experimentally-induced chronic biliary cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

Portosystemic shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine (IMP) has been previously validated relative to portal vein macroaggregated albumin injections using an experimental model of cirrhosis. Transcolonic technetium-99m-pertechnetate (TcO4-) has been proposed as an alternative tracer to IMP to study portal circulation in cirrhotic patients. We compared shunt fraction estimates from paired transcolonic IMP and TcO4- studies performed on a group of dogs before and after common bile duct ligation surgery. Pertechnetate over-estimated shunt fraction in 6/7 postoperative studies relative to IMP. A good correlation between the two methods was demonstrated, however, the slope of the regression line was substantially less than 1.0 with TcO4- values reaching 100% at IMP shunt values of approximately 60%. This apparent inability to accurately assess high shunt flows may limit the quantitative aspects of TcO4- studies on patients with severe portosystemic shunting.

Koblik, P.D.; Hornof, W.J.; Yen, C.K.; Komtebedde, J.; Breznock, E.; Fisher, P. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1991-01-01

134

Pentavalent technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc-99m (V) DMSA] brain SPECT: does it have a place in predicting survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme?  

PubMed

Pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m (V) DMSA) is reported as a useful tool for detection of residual or recurrent gliomas. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). 40 patients [21 males and 19 females; mean age 48.6 ± 12.2 years] with GBM were included. Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT was done after surgery and before onset of radiation therapy or chemotherapy (Baseline study), at 4-6 weeks and at 6 months as a follow-up after therapy. The end point of the study was clinical follow-up for 2 years and/or death. 4-6 weeks after therapy, 40 and 60 % had negative and positive Tc-99m (V) DMSA for viable tumor tissues respectively (P = 0.09). At 6 months follow-up, 62.5 % of (V) DMSA negative patients and 12.5 % of the positive subjects were responders (P = 0.001). The median over-all survival (OS) of all patients was 12.3 month [range 5-24 month]. Patients with positive (V) DMSA had worse survival (8.87 month) compared to the negative ones (16.67 month) (P = 0.0001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT studies at 4-6 weeks and 6-months follow-up were independent prognostic factors for survival [OR 1.069; 95 % CI 1.417-2.174; P = 0.03 and OR 1.055; 95 % CI 0.821-1.186; P = 0.01 respectively]. Stratification of tumors into risk groups based on prognostic parameters may improve outcome by altering or intensifying treatment methods. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid brain SPECT may have an additional prognostic role in patients with GBM which needs further evaluation in larger future series. PMID:25349131

Amin, Amr; Mustafa, M; Abd El-Hadi, E; Monier, A; Badwey, A; Saad, E

2015-01-01

135

Association of Technetium99m MAG-3 renal scintigraphy with change in creatinine clearance following chemoradiation to the abdomen in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies  

PubMed Central

Background Information on differential renal function following abdominal chemoradiation is limited. This study evaluated the association between renal function as measured by biochemical endpoints and scintigraphy and dose volume parameters in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. Materials and methods Patients who received abdominal chemoradiation between 2002 and 2009 were identified for this study. Technetium99m MAG-3 scintigraphy and laboratory data were obtained prior to and after chemoradiation in 6 month intervals. Factors assessed included age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, and dose volume parameters. Renal function was assessed by biochemical endpoints and renal scintigraphy. Results Significant reductions in relative renal function of the primarily irradiated kidney and creatinine clearance were seen. Split renal function decreased from 49.75% pre-radiation to 47.74% and 41.28% at 6-12 months and >12 months post-radiation (P=0.0184). Creatinine clearance declined from 90.67ml/min pre-radiation to 82.23ml/min and 74.54ml/min at 6-12 months and >12 months post-radiation (P<0.0001). Univariate analysis of patients who had at least one post-radiation renogram showed the percent volumes of the primarily irradiated kidney receiving ? 25 Gy (V25) and 40 Gy (V40) were significantly associated with ?5% decrease in relative renal function (P=0.0387 and P=0.0438 respectively). Conclusion Decline in split renal function using Technetium99m MAG-3 scintigraphy correlates with decrease in creatinine clearance and radiation dose-volume parameters following abdominal chemoradiation. Change in split perfusion can be detected as early as 6 months post-radiation. Scintigraphy may provide early determination and quantification of subclinical renal injury prior to clinical evidence of nephropathy. PMID:22811800

May, Kilian Salerno; Khushalani, Nikhil I; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Wilding, Gregory E; Flaherty, Leayn; Malhotra, Harish K; Russo, Richard C; Warner, John C; Yap, Johnny C; Iyer, Renuka V; Nwogu, Chukwumere E; Yendamuri, Saikrishna S; Gibbs, John F; Nava, Hector R; Lamonica, Dominick; Thomas, Charles R

2010-01-01

136

Comparison of four technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for detection and localization of gastrointestinal bleeding in a sheep model  

SciTech Connect

Four Tc-99 radiopharmaceuticals, Tc-99m sulphur colloid, Tc-99m red blood cells (RBCs), Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), and Tc-99m DTPA, were studied in an experimental animal model for detection and localization of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding site in both the upper and lower abdomen. With Tc-99m sulphur colloid and Tc-99m RBCs, it was possible to detect and localize the GI bleeding site in the lower abdomen. With Tc-99m MAG3, it was possible to visualize the bleeding site in both the upper and lower abdomen. However, Tc-99m MAG3 is partially excreted by the liver into the bile, hence it will be difficult to use Tc-99m MAG3 to localize the GI bleeding site in the lower abdomen. With Tc-99m DTPA, it was possible to detect and localize the GI bleeding site simultaneously in both upper and lower abdomen. The overall background radioactivity was reduced considerably by diuresis with frusemide and catheterization of the urinary bladder.

Owunwanne, A.; Al-Wafai, I.; Vallgren, S.; Sadek, S.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Yacoub, T.

1988-01-01

137

Regional cerebral blood flow imaging: A quantitative comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT with C15O2 PET  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to compare technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). As investigation of dementia is likely to be one of the main uses of routine rCBF imaging, 18 demented patients were imaged with both techniques. The PET data were compared quantitatively with three versions of the SPECT data. These were, first, data normalized to the SPECT cerebellar uptake, second, data linearly corrected using the PET cerebellar value and, finally, data Lassen corrected for washout from the high flow areas. Both the linearly-corrected (r = 0.81) and the Lassen-corrected (r = 0.79) HMPAO SPECT data showed good correlation with the PET rCBF data. The relationship between the normalized HMPAO SPECT data and the PET data was nonlinear. It is not yet possible to obtain rCBF values in absolute units from HMPAO SPECT without knowledge of the true rCBF in one reference region for each patient.

Gemmell, H.G.; Evans, N.T.; Besson, J.A.; Roeda, D.; Davidson, J.; Dodd, M.G.; Sharp, P.F.; Smith, F.W.; Crawford, J.R.; Newton, R.H. (Aberdeen Bio-Medical Imaging Cyclotron Centre, Aberdeen (Scotland))

1990-10-01

138

p-Tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion: preparation, characterization and comparative evaluation of its decontamination efficacy against Technetium-99m, Iodine-131 and Thallium-201.  

PubMed

This study aimed to develop p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene o/w nanoemulsion for decontamination of radioisotopes from skin. Formulation was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), multi-photon confocal microscopy techniques and in vitro dissolution studies. In vivo evaluation of nano-emulsion was done using nuclear medicine technique. Stability studies and dermal toxicity studies were also carried out. Comparative decontamination efficacy (DE) studies were performed on synthetic human tissue equivalent material and Sprague Dawley rat against three commonly used medical radioisotopes, i.e., Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), Iodine-131 ((131)I) and Thallium-201 ((201)Tl). Decontamination was performed using cotton swabs soaked in nanoemulsion at different time intervals of contaminants exposure. Whole body imaging and static counts were recorded using gamma camera before and after each decontamination attempt data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). DE of the nanoemulsion loaded with p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene was observed to be 88±5%, 90±3% and 89±3% for (99m)Tc, (131)I and (201)Tl respectively. Dermal toxicity studies revealed no significant differences between treated and control animals. Skin histopathology slides with and without API (Active pharmaceutical ingredients) also found to be comparable. p-Tertbutylcalix[4]arene loaded nanoemulsion shows great promise for skin decontamination against broad ranges of radiological contaminants besides being stable and safe. PMID:24632037

Rana, Sudha; Sharma, Navneet; Ojha, Himanshu; Shivkumar, Hosakote Gurumalappa; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

2014-05-01

139

Comparing whole body 18F-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methylene diphosphate bone scan to detect bone metastases in patients with renal cell carcinomas - a preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Conventional technetium-99m methylene diphosphate whole body bone scan (bone scan) has a high sensitivity but a poor specificity to detect bone metastases. However, positron emission tomography with 18F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET) can offer superior spatial resolution and improved specificity. We have attempted to evaluate the usefulness of FDG-PET for detecting bone metastases in renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and to compare FDG-PET

H. C. Wu; R. F. Yen; Y. Y. Shen; C. H. Kao; C. C. Lin; C. C. Lee

2002-01-01

140

Fractional flow reserve, absolute and relative coronary blood flow velocity reserve in relation to the results of technetium-99m sestambi single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with two-vessel coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESWe sought to perform a direct comparison between perfusion scintigraphic results and intracoronary-derived hemodynamic variables (fractional flow reserve [FFR]; absolute and relative coronary flow velocity reserve [CFVR and rCFVR, respectively]) in patients with two-vessel disease.BACKGROUNDThere is limited information on the diagnostic accuracy of intracoronary-derived variables (CFVR, FFR and rCFVR) in patients with multivessel disease.METHODSDipyridamole technetium-99m sestambi (MIBI) single-photon emission computed

Steven A. J. Chamuleau; Martijn Meuwissen; Berthe L. F. van Eck-Smit; Karel T. Koch; Angelina de Jong; Robbert J. de Winter; Carl E. Schotborgh; Matthijs Bax; Hein J. Verberne; Jan G. P. Tijssen; Jan J. Piek

2001-01-01

141

Comparison of rest thallium-201 imaging and rest technetium-99m sestamibi imaging for assessment of myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease and severe left ventricular dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We prospectively compared myocardial uptake of thallium-201 (201Tl) at rest with rest technetium-99m (99mTc) sestamibi uptake in the same patients, using quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).Background. Because of only slightly delayed redistribution, 99mTc-sestamibi uptake at rest may be less than 201Tl uptake, thereby underestimating the extent of viability.Methods. Twenty patients (2.25 stenoses per patient) with a mean left

Gregory J. Kauffman; Timothy S. Boyne; Denny D. Watson; William H. Smith; George A. Beller

1996-01-01

142

Prevalence and prognostic value of perfusion defects detected by stress technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus and no known coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetics. Early diagnosis of CAD and identification of high-risk subgroups, followed by appropriate therapy, may therefore enhance survival. This study sought to determine the value of stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m sestamibi to detect perfusion defects and predict cardiac events in asymptomatic

Andrea De Lorenzo; Ronaldo S. L Lima; Aristarco G Siqueira-Filho; Mauricio R Pantoja

2002-01-01

143

Comparison of thallium-201 and technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile single-photon emission computed tomography for estimating the extent of myocardial ischemia and infarction in coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using thallium-201 (Tl-201) was compared with technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI) in 24 patients with coronary artery diseaes. Patients exercised to the same work load as each isotope was studied. Normal and hypoperfused left ventricular mass was determined with an automated method. Estimated total left ventricular mass was similar for both stress\\/redistribution Tl-201 and

Kenneth A. Narahara; Javier Villanueva-Meyer; Craig J. Thompson; Marianne Brizendine; Ismael Mena

1990-01-01

144

Use of technetium-99m isonitrile (RP30A) in assessing left ventricular perfusion and function at rest and during exercise in coronary artery disease, and comparison with coronary arteriography and exercise thallium-201 SPECT imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the results of stress and rest single-photon emission computed tomography imaging of myocardial perfusion using technetium-99m isonitrile (RP-30A) with the results of stress and redistribution tomographic thallium imaging and the results of coronary arteriography in 39 patients, 11 without and 28 with coronary artery disease (CAD). Each patient underwent 2 exercise studies at identical workload, heart rate

Abdulmassih S. Iskandrian; Jaekyeong Heo; Barbara Kong; Edward Lyons; Sally Marsch

1989-01-01

145

The role of technetium-99m sestamibi whole-body scans in diagnosing metastatic Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland after total thyroidectomy: a comparison with iodine-131 and thallium-201 whole-body scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-seven patients with Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland underwent total thyroidectomy and then technetium-99m sestamibi (2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile), iodine-131 and thallium-201 wholebody scans. Twenty-two of them had elevated human serum thyroglobulin (HTg) levels. Among these 22 patients, abnormal uptake of 131I was seen in four (18.1%), abnormal uptake of 201Tl chloride in 15 (68.1%), and abnormal 99mTc-sestamibi accumulation in 18

Tzu-Chen Yen; Hong-Dar Line; Chen-Hsen Lee; Shu-Liam Change; Shin-Hwa Yeh

1994-01-01

146

Presurgical identification of hibernating myocardium by combined use of technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile single photon emission tomography and fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography in patients with coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the possibility of identifying areas of hibernating myocardium by the combined assessment of perfusion and metabolism using single photon emission tomography (SPET) with technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) and positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG). Segmental wall motion, perfusion and 18F-FDG uptake were scored in 5 segments in 14 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), for a

G. Lucignani; G. Paolini; C. Landoni; M. Zuccari; G. Paganelli; L. Galli; G. Di Credico; G. Vanoli; C. Rossetti; M. A. Mariani; M. C. Gilardi; F. Colombo; A. Grossi; F. Fazio

1992-01-01

147

Change in Renal Function as Measured by Technetium99m MAG-3 Scintigraphy and Biochemical Endpoints Following Abdominal Chemoradiation for Gastrointestinal Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Background: Information on differential renal function following abdominal chemoradiation (CRT) as measured by renal scintigraphy (RS) is limited. This study was conducted to evaluate the association between renal function, as measured by biochemical endpoints and scintigraphy, and dose volume parameters in patients following abdominal CRT in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods: Patients who received abdominal RT with concurrent chemotherapy between 2002 and 2009 were identified to study the association of renal functional imaging with change in renal function following abdominal CRT. Technetium99m MAG-3 scintigraphy and laboratory data were obtained prior to CRT and after CRT in 6-month intervals. Factors assessed included age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, and dose volume parameters. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (CrCl) calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula, and renal perfusion measured using scintigraphy. Endpoints analyzed include relative renal function, biochemical endpoints, and dose volume parameters. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for the primarily irradiated kidney (PK) was calculated using a tolerance dose for 5% probability of complications at 5 years (TD 5/5) of 23 Gy and ?/? ratio = 2.5. The PK was defined as the kidney that received the greater mean kidney dose. Results: Of 136 patients evaluated, median age was 64 years. The majority of primary disease sites were pancreas and periampullary tumors (75.7%). Median follow up was 9.61 months. Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy, most with 5-fluorouracil-, capecitabine-, or gemcitabine-containing regimens, and had a baseline RS performed prior to CRT. Significant reductions in relative renal function of the PK and global renal function were seen following CRT. Changes in split renal function, creatinine, and CrCl are shown in the table below. Pre-CRT (n=136) 6–12 months post CRT (n=25) >12 months post CRT (n=8) P value Mean RS of PK (%) 49.75 (5.30) 47.74 (6.48) 41.28 (7.38) 0.0184 RS Ratio (PK/non PK) 1.01 (0.22) 0.94 (0.25) 0.73 (0.23) 0.0606 Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.87 (0.26) 0.94 (0.23) 1.05 (0.09) *<0.0001 CrCl (ml/min) 90.67 (33.43) 82.23 (30.97) 74.54 (23.00) *<0.0001 * P values obtained using log-transformed values. Univariate analysis did not show age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, or pre CRT CrCl, to be associated with decrease in split perfusion of the PK following CRT. Percent volumes of the PK receiving ? 25 Gy (V25) and 40 Gy (V40) were significantly associated with ?5% decrease in relative renal function of the PK in patients who had at least one post CRT renogram (P = .0387 and P = .0438 respectively). The difference in NTCP for the PK was significantly different between patients with <5% change in split renal function on RS versus those with ? 5% decrease (11.4 % vs. 24.2%, P = .0097). Conclusions: Decline in split renal function using Technetium99m MAG-3 scintigraphy correlates with decrease in CrCl and radiation dose-volume parameters following abdominal radiation with concurrent chemotherapy. Change in split perfusion can be detected as early as 6 months post CRT. Scintigraphy may provide early determination and quantification of subclinical renal injury prior to clinical evidence of nephropathy.

May, Kilian Salerno; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Malhotra, Harish K.; Russo, Richard C.; Flaherty, Leayn; Wilding, Gregory E.; Khushalani, Nikhil I.; Yang, Gary Y.

2010-01-01

148

Comparison of left ventricular function and infarct size in patients with and without persistently positive technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams after myocardial infarction: analysis of 357 patients  

SciTech Connect

One hundred nine patients with persistently positive technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PPi) myocardial scintigrams 6 months after acute myocardial infarction (MI) (Group A) and 185 patients without such persistently positive scintigrams (Group B) were compared with regard to enzymatically determined infarct size, early and late measurements of left ventricular (LV) function determined by radionuclide ventriculography, and preceding clinical course during the 6 months after MI. The CK-MB-determined infarct size index in Group A (17.4 +/- 10.6 g-Eq/m2) did not differ significantly from that in Group B (16.0 +/- 14.6 g-Eq/m2). Similarly, myocardial infarct areas in the 2 groups, determined by planimetry of acute Tc-99m-PPi scintigrams in those patients with well-localized 3+ or 4+ anterior pyrophosphate uptake, were not significantly different (35.7 +/- 13.4 vs 34.4 +/- 13.1 cm2, respectively). However, patients in Group A had significantly lower LV ejection fractions than those in Group B, both within 18 hours of the onset of MI (0.42 +/- 0.14 vs 0.49 +/- 0.14, p less than 0.01) and at 3 months after MI, both at rest (0.42 +/- 0.14 vs 0.51 +/- 0.14, p less than 0.01) and at maximal symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise (0.44 +/- 0.17 vs 0.51 +/- 0.17, p less than 0.01). Peak exercise levels achieved in the 2 groups were not significantly different. Furthermore, patients in Group A demonstrated a greater incidence of congestive heart failure during the initial hospital admission (41 vs 24%; p less than 0.01) and a greater requirement for digoxin (p less than 0.05) and furosemide (p less than 0.01) after discharge.

Croft, C.H.; Rude, R.E.; Lewis, S.E.; Parkey, R.W.; Poole, W.K.; Parker, C.; Fox, N.; Roberts, R.; Strauss, H.W.; Thomas, L.J.

1984-02-01

149

Construction of a novel chimera consisting of a chelator-containing Tat peptide conjugated to a morpholino antisense oligomer for technetium-99m labeling and accelerating cellular kinetics.  

PubMed

The attempt to target the limited copies of messenger RNA (mRNA) in vivo with radiolabeled nucleobase oligomers as antisense probes is challenging. Selecting an antisense molecule with superior properties, enhancing the cellular kinetics, and improving the radiolabeling chemistry would be the reasonable approach to accomplish this goal. The present study reports a method to construct a chimera of phosphorodiamidate morpholino nucleobase oligomer (MORF) covalently conjugated to a peptide containing a cell membrane transduction Tat peptide and an N(2)S(2) chelator for technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radiolabeling (N(2)S(2)-Tat-MORF). The radiolabeling properties and cellular kinetics of (99m)Tc-N(2)S(2)-Tat-MORF were measured. As hypothesized, the preparation of (99m)Tc-N(2)S(2)-Tat-MORF could be achieved by an instant one-step method with labeling efficiency greater than 95%, and the (99m)Tc-N(2)S(2)-Tat-MORF showed distinct properties in cell culture from those of a control, the same MORF sequence without Tat but with mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG(3)) as chelator for (99m)Tc ((99m)Tc-MAG(3)-MORF). (99m)Tc-N(2)S(2)-Tat-MORF achieved maximum accumulation of about 35% within 2 h, while (99m)Tc-MAG(3)-MORF showed lower and steadily increasing accumulations but of less than 1% in 24 h. These preliminary results demonstrated that the proposed chimera has properties for easy labeling, and (99m)Tc-N(2)S(2)-Tat-MORF prepared by this method possesses enhanced cellular kinetics and merits further investigation for in vivo mRNA targeting. PMID:16546682

Zhang, Yu-Min; Tung, Ching-Hsuan; He, Jiang; Liu, Ning; Yanachkov, Ivan; Liu, Guozheng; Rusckowski, Mary; Vanderheyden, Jean-Luc

2006-02-01

150

Comparison of SPECT using technetium-99m agents and thallium-201 and PET for the assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the applications of tomographic imaging with current and new tracers in assessing myocardial perfusion and viability. Multiple studies with thallium-201 (TI-201) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) have demonstrated high sensitivity, high rates of normalcy and high reproducibility. In assessing viability, fixed defects are frequently detected in viable zones in 4-hour studies with TI-201 imaging. Redistribution imaging performed 18 to 72 hours after injection or reinjection of TI-201 before 4-hour redistribution imaging has been shown to improve accuracy of viability assessment. TI-201 SPECT studies are limited by the suboptimal physical properties of TI-201, which result in variable image quality. The 2 new technetium-99m (Tc-99m) - labeled myocardial perfusion tracers offer the ability to inject much higher amounts of radioactivity, making it possible to assess ventricular function as well as myocardial perfusion from the same injection of radiotracer. Tc-99m sestamibi has very slow myocardial clearance, which allows for prolonged imaging time and results in image quality superior to that obtained with TI-201 and Tc-99m teboroxime. The combination of minimal redistribution of Tc-99m sestamibi and high count rates makes gated SPECT imaging feasible, and also permits assessment of patients with acute ischemic syndromes by uncoupling the time of injection from the time of imaging. The combination of high image quality and first-pass exercise capabilities may lead to a choice of this agent over TI-201 for assessment of chronic CAD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Van Train, K.F.; Friedman, J.; Garcia, E.V.; Maddahi, J. (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles CA (USA))

1990-10-16

151

Myocardial infarction determined by technetium-99m pyrophosphate single-photon tomography complicating elective coronary artery bypass grafting for angina pectoris  

SciTech Connect

The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicating coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has previously been based on concordance of electrocardiographic, enzymatic and scintigraphic criteria. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PPi) single-photon emission computed tomography now enables detection of AMI with high sensitivity and specificity. Using this technique, perioperative AMI was detected in 12 of 58 patients (21%) undergoing successful elective CABG for stable angina pectoris. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the predictive value of preoperative (New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction and use of beta blockers) and intraoperative (number of grafts constructed, use of internal mammary anastomoses, use of sequential saphenous vein grafts, smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber and aortic cross-clamp time) variables. Preoperative New York Association class (p = 0.04) and smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber (p = 0.03) were significant multivariate predictors of perioperative AMI. Only 1 perioperative patient with AMI (and 1 pyrophosphate-negative patient) developed new Q waves. Serum creatine kinase-MB was higher in patients with AMI by repeated measures analysis of variance (p = 0.0003). Five AMIs occurred in myocardial segments revascularized using sequential saphenous vein grafts, and 7 in segments perfused by significantly stenosed epicardial vessels with distal lumen diameter and perfusion territory considered too small to warrant CABG. At 6-month follow-up, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 0.61 to 0.65 in Tc-PPI-negative patients (p = 0.01), but not in perioperative patients with AMI.

Burns, R.J.; Gladstone, P.J.; Tremblay, P.C.; Feindel, C.M.; Salter, D.R.; Lipton, I.H.; Ogilvie, R.R.; David, T.E.

1989-06-15

152

Technetium-99m nitrido dithiocarbamate complex with lateral ester groups: A potential agent for cerebral perfusion. Direct labeling and kinetic results in baboons  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that technetium-99m-nitrido (TcN) complexes of ester derivatives of dithiocarbamate cross the brain-blood barrier and one term of this class, namely the complex formed with sarcosine methyl ester dithiocarbamate (TcN-PR13) is retained in the brain of Cynomolgus monkeys. However these compounds were obtained through an in situ esterification of preformed TcN dicarboxylic derivative. We have been able to synthesize one term of this class of ligands, the sarcosine methylester dithiocarbamate, by reacting sarcosine with thionyl chloride in methanol to give the sarcosine methyl ester, which was reacted with carbon disulfide and NaOH in methanol to give the sodium salt of the dithiocarbamate derivative which was isolated as an oil. The corresponding TcN complex was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 96% by a kit method. The complex was injected in baboons and its radioactive distribution compared to that obtained with Tc-HMPAO. Blood and plasma kinetics were calculated from arterial sampling whereas tissue kinetics (brain, lungs) were obtained by ROI`s analysis. The values of the half-life in the blood were comparable for the two tracers, although the absolute activity was about 20% lower for TcN-PR13. The brain uptake of TcN-PR13 was 10% lower than that observed for Tc-HMPAO, and remained stable during 2 hours. TcN-PR13 displayed lower lung uptake and faster clearance from this organ than Tc-HMPAO. Brain/Lung ratios were 1.11 and 1.65 at 30 and 60 min for TcN-PR13 compared to 0.93 and 0.99 at the same time for Tc-HMPAO.

Bottlaender, M.; Bourguignon, M.; Maziere, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot CEA Orsay, Yvette (France)] [and others

1994-05-01

153

Intraoperative sentinel node identification with Technetium-99m-labeled nanocolloid in patients with cancer of the uterine cervix: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of intraoperative lymphatic mapping in patients with cervical carcinoma. Patients with early-stage cervical cancer, scheduled to undergo a Wertheims radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, were eligible for the study. Technetium-99-m-labeled nanocolloid was injected intracervically at two locations around the tumor 3-6 hours before the operation. Images were recorded immediately and 2.5 hours later using a gamma camera. During the operation sentinel nodes (SLN) were identified using a handheld or laparoscopic gamma-detection probe (Navigator, Auto-Suture). After resection of the SLNs a standard pelvic (and para-aortic) lymphadenectomy was performed. The results of the histopathology of SLNs and non-SLNs were compared. The procedure was well tolerated by 24 of 25 patients. One or more SLN could be identified in 21 out of 25 patients. In one patient who was preoperatively irradiated, in two patients who had had a cone biopsy, and in one patient without previous interventions, no SLN could be detected. The mean time for identification was 5 minutes. In 16 patients, pathologic examination showed no metastatic disease in both SLNs and non-SLNs, whereas metastases were found in the SLN in five patients (in one case only SLN involved, four cases SLN and respectively 3, 11, 22 and 31 other positive nodes). This study shows that identification of SLNs in cancer of the uterine cervix is feasible with preoperatively administered 99mTc-labeled nanocolloid. To date, no false negative SLNs have been found, but expansion of the study is necessary to determine possible clinical application of this new technique. PMID:12657121

van Dam, P A; Hauspy, J; Vanderheyden, T; Sonnemans, H; Spaepen, A; Eggenstein, G; Dirix, L; Verkinderen, L

2003-01-01

154

Pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid [99m Tc-(V)DMSA] brain scintitomography--a plausible non-invasive depicter of glioblastoma proliferation and therapy response.  

PubMed

The biological behavior and prognosis of gliomas depend largely on cellular proliferation, resistance to chemotherapy, and metastatic potential. Proliferative propensity has significant implications on patient management but its assessment requires tissue sampling; the non-invasive estimation of brain tumor proliferation represents therefore a major goal. Pentavalent technetium-99 m dimercapto-succinic acid [99m Tc-(V)DMSA] is a tumor-seeking radiotracer displaying affinity for gliomas; its intracellular accumulation is directly linked to cell proliferation. We performed a tomographic 99m Tc-(V)DMSA brain scan in a 35-year-old male baring a recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, to depict its proliferative disposition. The patient had been diagnosed 14 months earlier and had been submitted to surgery, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and temozolomide-based chemotherapy. On clinical suspicion of recurrence 5 months later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a lesion at the site of preceded surgery, which was treated by imatinib mesylate. No improvement was ascertained the following months and radiographic assessment verified tumor progression. Scintitomography revealed avid radiotracer uptake in the entirety of the lesion (the distribution of radioactivity closely conforming to the morphological tumor boundaries), an indication that the neoplasm demonstrated no substantial proliferation decline in response to imatinib. The patient deceased a few weeks later. Mounting in vivo and in vitro evidence indicates that 99m Tc-(V)DMSA is a credible non-invasive proliferation depicter, its cellular accumulation linked closely to phosphate uptake and kinase pathway activation. A potential role in patient management, prognosis estimation, and therapy response monitoring could occur for this tracer. PMID:17554495

Tsiouris, Spyridon; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Chatzipanagiotou, Theodoros; Ptohis, Nikolaos; Papantoniou, Vassilios

2007-12-01

155

Quantitative assessment of overall inflammatory bowel disease activity using labelled leucocytes: a direct comparison between indium-111 and technetium-99m HMPAO methods.  

PubMed Central

The ideal imaging method in inflammatory bowel disease would reliably detect inflammation, identify the correct intestinal location, and assess the severity of the disease. The aim of this study was to compare scintigraphic methods of quantifying overall disease activity using both indium-111 (111In) and technetium-99M (99mTc) HMPAO labelled leucocyte scans. The four day faecal excretion of 111In was measured after 111In scintigraphy in 24 patients known to have inflammatory bowel disease. The same patients also underwent 99mTc HMPAO scanning. The scans were performed 10 days or less apart with no changes in treatment between scans. Bowel activity on the 99mTc HMPAO scans was assessed using a computer based method (scan score) and a visual grading method in a further 54 99mTc HMPAO. The results showed a close correlation between inflammatory activity defined by faecal 111In excretion and the scan score generated from the computer analysis of the 99mTc HMPAO image (Spearman rank correlation: rs = 0.78; p < 0.001). Accurate information to localise inflammatory activity could be obtained by simple visual assessment of both types of scan images, although image quality was superior with 99mTc HMPAO. Qualification of disease activity from 99mTc HMPAO images by visual grading was associated with a large variability, only 69% of scans had similar scores when graded by three observers. Computer generated image analysis was more reproducible. In conclusion, in inflammatory bowel disease 99mTc HMPAO scintigraphy and faecal 111In excretion correlated well. Either method can quantify and localise the inflammation. As 99mTc HMPAO scanning provides a quicker result, with a lower radiation dose, and avoids faecal collection, it may be the preferred method. Images Figure 2 PMID:8549945

Mansfield, J C; Giaffer, M H; Tindale, W B; Holdsworth, C D

1995-01-01

156

Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scan in evaluation of renal cortical scarring: Is it mandatory to do single photon emission computerized tomography?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Renal cortical scintigraphy with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is the method of choice to detect acute pyelonephritis and cortical scarring. Different acquisition methods have been used: Planar parallel-hole or pinhole collimation and single photon emission tomography (SPECT). This study compared planar parallel-hole cortical scintigraphy and dual-head SPECT for detection of cortical defects. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 190 consecutive patients with 380 kidneys and 200 DMSA scans referred to rule out renal cortical scarring. The diagnoses were 52 vesicoureteric reflux, 61 recurrent urinary tract infection, 39 hydronephrosis, 20 renal impairment, and 18 hypertension. All patients were imaged 3 h after injection of Tc-99m DMSA with SPECT and planar imaging (posterior, anterior, left, and right posterior oblique views). For each patient, planar and SPECT images were evaluated at different sittings, in random order. Each kidney was divided into three cortical segments (upper, middle and lower) and was scored as normal or reduced uptake. The linear correlation coefficient for the number of abnormal segments detected between planner and SPECT techniques was calculated. Results: From 200 DMSA scans, 100 scans were positive for scar in SPECT images, from which only 95 scans were positive for scar in planner imaging. Out of the five mismatched scans, three scans were for patients with renal impairment and high background activity and two scans were for very small scars. No significant difference was seen in the average number of abnormal segments detected by planar versus SPECT imaging (P = 0.31). The average correlation coefficient between was high (r = 0.91 – 0.92). Conclusions: Tc-99m DMSA renal cortical scanning using SPECT offers no statistically significant diagnostic advantage over multiple views planar imaging for detection of cortical defect. PMID:25589802

Saleh Farghaly, Hussein Rabie; Mohamed Sayed, Mohamed Hosny

2015-01-01

157

Attenuation of apoptosis by telmisartan in atherosclerotic plaques of apolipoprotein E-/- mice: evaluation using technetium 99m-annexin A5.  

PubMed

Technetium 99m (99mTc)-annexin A5, a marker of ongoing apoptosis, is supposed to be useful in the detection of metabolically active atheroma. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of 99mTc-annexin A5 for evaluating the therapeutic effects of an angiotensin II receptor type 1 blocker (ARB) (telmisartan) on atherosclerosis. Male apolipoprotein E-/- mice were divided into telmisartan-treated (3 mg/kg/d, n ?=? 10) and control (n ?=? 10) groups. After 16 to 21 weeks of treatment, 99mTc-annexin A5 was injected and cryostat sections of aortic tissues (n ?=? 10-12/aorta) were prepared. The 99mTc-annexin A5 accumulation level in the plaques was evaluated by autoradiography. Serial sections of the plaques were histologically examined to identify the lesion phenotypes (normal vessels, early lesions, atheromatous lesions, and fibrotic lesions), plaque size, macrophage infiltration levels, and lipid deposition levels. Telmisartan treatment significantly decreased the plaque size (0.05 ± 0.05 vs 0.11 ± 0.08, mm2), macrophage infiltration level (0.02 ± 0.02 vs 0.03 ± 0.02, mm2), lipid deposition level (0.01 ± 0.01 vs 0.02 ± 0.02, mm2), and 99mTc-annexin A5 accumulation level (1.30 ± 1.09 vs 2.15 ± 1.91, × 10-6/g). 99mTc-annexin A5 accumulation levels in the plaques positively correlated with macrophage infiltration (r ?=? .69, p < .05) and lipid deposition (r ?=? .66, p < .05) levels. Apoptosis imaging with 99mTc-annexin A5 may be useful for evaluating the therapeutic effects of ARBs on atherosclerosis. PMID:23763985

Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Songji; Kuge, Yuji; Strauss, H William; Blankenberg, Francis G; Tamaki, Nagara

2013-01-01

158

Technetium-99m generator system  

DOEpatents

A .sup.99 Mo/.sup.99m Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating .sup.99m Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of .sup.99m Tc includes the general steps of: a. providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; b. eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute .sup.99m Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted .sup.99m Tc on the ion-exchange column; and c. eluting the concentrated .sup.99m Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent.

Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Collins, Emory D. (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01

159

Technetium-99m generator system  

DOEpatents

A {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating {sup 99m}Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of {sup 99m}Tc includes the general steps of: (a) providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; (b) eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute {sup 99m}Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted {sup 99m}Tc on the ion-exchange column; and (c) eluting the concentrated {sup 99m}Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent. 1 fig.

Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Collins, E.D.

1998-06-30

160

Comparison of technetium 99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile and thallium 201 for evaluation of coronary artery disease by planar and tomographic methods  

SciTech Connect

To compare stress/rest technetium 99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (Tc-MIBI) with stress redistribution thallium 201(T1-201) myocardial perfusion imaging, 36 patients were studied by single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and planar methods. For SPECT, overall sensitivities for identification of patients with coronary artery disease were 93% (14/15) by Tc-MIBI and 80% (12/15) by TI-201 (p = NS). For planar methods, overall sensitivities were 73% (11/15) by both TI-201 and Tc-MIBI. Overall specificity was 75% (3/4 patients with normal coronary arteries) for both tracers with SPECT and Tc-MIBI by planar imaging and was 50% for planar TI-201 (p = NS). The normalcy rates for overall identification of coronary artery disease were determined in 17 patients with a low likelihood of disease. For SPECT, normalcy rates were 100% by Tc-MIBI and 77% by TI-201 (p = NS). For planar, they were 94% by Tc-MIBI and 88% by TI-201 (p = NS). Vessel sensitivities in the 35 stenosed coronary arteries (greater than or equal to 50% stenosis) for SPECT were 87% by Tc-MIBI and 77% by TI-201 (p = NS). For planar, the vessel sensitivities were 60% by Tc-MIBI and 54% by TI-201 (p = NS). For both tracers, the SPECT vessel sensitivities were significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than planar vessel sensitivities. The vessel specificities in 22 coronary vessels with less than 50% stenosis were 86% by SPECT Tc-MIBI and TI-201, 80% by planar Tc-MIBI and 73% by planar TI-201 (p = NS, SPECT vs planar, Tc-MIBI vs TI-201). Regarding myocardial segmental agreement, for the presence of stress defects the agreement was 91% for the 720 SPECT segments and 95% for the 540 planar segments. For severity of stress defects based on semiquantitative visual scoring, the exact agreement was 87% for SPECT and 80% for planar.

Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.; Roy, L.T.; Van Train, K.; Friedman, J.; Resser, K.; Berman, D.S.

1989-01-01

161

Measurement of Technetium-99m Sestamibi Signals in Rats Administered a Mitochondrial Uncoupler and in a Rat Model of Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Many methods have been used to assess mitochondrial function. Technetium-99m sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI), a lipophilic cation, is rapidly incorporated into myocardial cells by diffusion and mainly localizes to the mitochondria. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether measurement of 99mTc-MIBI signals in animal models could be used as a tool to quantify mitochondrial membrane potential at the organ level. Methods and Results We analyzed 99mTc-MIBI signals in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat hearts perfused with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), a mitochondrial uncoupler known to reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential. 99mTc-MIBI signals could be used to detect changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential with sensitivity comparable to that obtained by two-photon laser microscopy with the cationic probe tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE). We also measured 99mTc-MIBI signals in the hearts of SD rats administered CCCP (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle. 99mTc-MIBI signals decreased in rat hearts administered CCCP, and the ATP content, as measured by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, decreased simultaneously. Next, we administered 99mTc-MIBI to Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet, which leads to hypertension and heart failure. The 99mTc-MIBI signal per heart tissue weight was inversely correlated with heart weight, cardiac function, and the expression of atrial natriuretic factor, a marker of heart failure, and positively correlated with the accumulation of labeled fatty acid analog. The 99mTc-MIBI signal per liver tissue weight was lower than that per heart tissue weight. Conclusion Measurement of 99mTc-MIBI signals can be an effective tool for semiquantitative investigation of cardiac mitochondrial membrane potential in the SD rat model by using a chemical to decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential. The 99mTc-MIBI signal per heart tissue weight was inversely correlated with the severity of heart failure in the Dahl rat model. PMID:25594546

Kawamoto, Akira; Kato, Takao; Shioi, Tetsuo; Okuda, Junji; Kawashima, Tsuneaki; Tamaki, Yodo; Niizuma, Shinichiro; Tanada, Yohei; Takemura, Genzou; Narazaki, Michiko; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Kimura, Takeshi

2015-01-01

162

Diagnostic efficacy of technetium-99m pentavalent-dimercapto succinic acid versus gallium-67 citrate, imaging in patients with highly suspected acute bone and joint infections.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic efficacy of (99m)Tc(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc(V)DMSA) with the (67)Ga-citrare ((67)Ga-C) scintigraphy in patients with suspected bone and joint infection. Thirty one patients, 19 men and 12 women, aged 18-78 y with median age 56 y, with suspected acute bone infection, were enrolled in this study. Besides (67)Ga-C and (99m)Tc(V)DMSA scintigraphy, all patients underwent X-ray radiography and technetium-99m methylene disphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scan for supporting the initial diagnosis. The (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan was considered positive for acute bone and joint infection when all its four scintigraphic phases were positive. Final diagnosis was based on needle aspiration and/or biopsy findings. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were calculated. Our results have shown the following: Seventeen patients (17/31) had histologically confirmed acute bone and joint infections, while the remaining patients had no infection. (99m)Tc(V)DMSA diagnosed bone and joint infections in all positive (17/31) patients while (67)Ga-C in 16/31 patients. Discordant scintigraphic results were observed by (67)Ga-C in 2/31 cases: in one positive case of femur postoperative infection (false negative for (67)Ga-C) and in one case of clinicaly suspected infection in the femur while the patient had a preexisting fracture (false positive with (67)Ga-C). No false negative results were observed with (99m)Tc(V)DMSA. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were maximum for (99m)Tc(V)DMSA, while for (67)Ga-C were: 94.1%, 93%, 94.1%, 93%, and 93.5% respectively. It is concluded that considering the high sensitivity and specificity of (99m)Tc(V)DMSA in the detection of acute bone and joint infections, the lower radiation dose, the cost and the shorter time spent for the imaging procedure, as compared to (67)Ga-C, (99m)Tc(V)DMSA should be preferred to (67)Ga-C as a bone scan agent for the detection of acute bone and joint infections. PMID:16894413

Koukouraki, Sophia; Gaitanis, Ioannis; Hatjipaulou, Alexandros; Karkavitsas, Nikolaos

2006-01-01

163

Phase 1 study to identify tumour hypoxia in patients with head and neck cancer using technetium-99m BRU 59-21.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the safety and biodistribution of technetium-99m BRU 59-21, a novel radioactively labelled 2-nitro-imidazole hypoxic marker, in head and neck cancer patients and to correlate uptake with pimonidazole staining. (99m)Tc-BRU 59-21 was administered intravenously (mean dose 824 MBq, range 780-857 MBq) to ten head and neck cancer patients scheduled for primary surgery, and whole-body images and SPET scans were then obtained. Uptake of radioactivity in the regions of interest was determined and tumour to normal tissue ratios were calculated after correlative evaluation with MRI/CT. Twelve to 16 h before surgery (up to 2 weeks after the scan), patients received pimonidazole intravenously. Tumour sections were stained immunohistochemically for pimonidazole binding. No serious adverse events were reported. In five patients there were ten adverse events, which were mild in intensity and resolved completely without intervention. Uptake of (99m)Tc-BRU 59-21 was observed in eight of the ten primary tumours. Tumour to normal tissue ratios on the SPET scans for primary tumour and lymph nodes increased from 1.8 (range 0.9-2.7) to 2.1 (range 0.8-3.7) between 30 min and 3 h post injection. Tumour to normal tissue ratios in the primary tumour were significantly correlated with pimonidazole staining for SPET scans performed 30 min and 3 h post injection ( P=0.016 and P=0.037, respectively). When primary tumour and involved lymph nodes were considered in conjunction, correlation between the tumour to normal tissue ratio and pimonidazole staining was observed for early ( P<0.001) but not for late SPET scans ( P=0.076). However, late scans showed better tumour delineation than early scans. Administration of (99m)Tc-BRU 59-21 in head and neck cancer patients appears to be safe and feasible. Uptake and retention in tumour tissue was observed, suggestive of tumour hypoxia, and this was supported by correlations with staining for the hypoxic marker pimonidazole. PMID:12192567

Hoebers, Frank J P; Janssen, Hilde L K; Olmos, A Valdés; Sprong, Debbie; Nunn, Adrian D; Balm, Alfons J M; Hoefnagel, Cees A; Begg, Adrian C; Haustermans, Karin M G

2002-09-01

164

Radiation dose to technicians per nuclear medicine procedure: comparison between technetium-99m, gallium-67, and iodine-131 radiotracers and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the non-extremity gamma dose received by a technician while performing an ordinary nuclear medicine procedure or a static (i.e. without blood sampling) fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) study. The dose per patient was measured by means of a commercial electronic pocket Geiger Mueller dosimeter, worn in the upper left pocket of the overalls. This was previously tested by exposure to known point sources of technetium-99m, gallium-67, iodine-131 and fluorine-18 in the air. A further test was performed with 99mTc, 131I and 18F sources inserted in a water phantom to simulate the condition of high scattering degradation of the primary radiation due to the patient's tissues. Subsequently, the dose was measured by two technicians for a total of 314 clinical cases, covering the most common nuclear medicine procedures, including 44 static, two-level FDG PET studies with repositioning of the patient on the couch between the transmission and the emission scan and seven whole-body PET studies. The dose read by the dosimeter was corrected for environmental background and for detector efficiency measured with sources in the air. For a limited subset of cases, the time spent close to patients was also measured. Doses were then estimated by a crude non-absorbing point source approximation and by using experimental dose rates. A comparison between experimental and estimated doses, as well as with previously published data, completed the work. For most of the conventional procedures, the measured dose per procedure proved to be within the range 0.2-0.4 microSv, except for equilibrium angiocardioscintigraphy (1.0+/-0.5 microSv) and 99mTc-sestamibi single-photon emission tomography (1. 7+/-1.0 microSv). Comparison with data published in the last 20 years shows that our values are generally lower. The current more favourable working conditions are a result of technological improvements (for instance two-head gamma cameras capable of whole-body studies), and safer shielding and distance from patients. Two-level PET gave 11.5+/-4.4 microSv and whole-body PET 5.9+/-1.2 microSv. In a subset of patients these values could be subdivided into the separate contributions from each phase of the procedure. They were: 0.11+/-0.04 microSv for daily quality assurance, 2.9+/-3.0 microSv for two transmission scans, 0.3+/-0.1 microSv for syringe preparation, 2.8+/-1.8 microSv for injection and escorting the patient to the waiting room, 1.7+/-1.5 microSv for a whole-body emission scan, 7.7+/-5.2 microSv for two emission scans, and 0.8+/-0. 2 microSv for patient departure. The higher value from PET by comparison with conventional procedures is attributable to the higher specific gamma constant of 18F, as well as the longer time required for accurate positioning. PMID:9371871

Chiesa, C; De Sanctis, V; Crippa, F; Schiavini, M; Fraigola, C E; Bogni, A; Pascali, C; Decise, D; Marchesini, R; Bombardieri, E

1997-11-01

165

The role of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintigraphy in the planning of therapy and follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma after surgery.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) scan in planning post-surgical therapy and follow-up in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Four groups of DTC patients were considered: Group 1 comprised 122 patients with high serum thyroglobulin (s-Tg) levels and negative high-dose iodine-131 scan during follow-up who had previously undergone total thyroidectomy and 131I treatment. Group 2 consisted of 27 patients who had previously undergone total thyroidectomy and 131I treatment but were now considered disease-free; this group was considered as controls. Group 3 comprised 49 patients studied after total thyroidectomy but prior to 131I scan. Finally, group 4 consisted of 21 patients who had previously undergone partial thyroidectomy alone. MIBI scan, neck ultrasonography (US), and s-Tg measurements during suppressive hormonal therapy (SHT) were obtained in all patients. Neck and chest computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was also performed in group 1 patients. In group 1, MIBI scan and US were very sensitive in detecting cervical lymph node metastases (93.54% and 89.24%, respectively). Furthermore, MIBI scan and US played a complementary role in several patients, yielding a global sensitivity of 97.84%. In contrast, CT/MRI sensitivity for cervical lymph node metastases was very low (43.01%). MIBI scan also showed a higher sensitivity than CT/MRI in detecting mediastinal lymph node metastases (100% vs 57.89%). Regarding distant metastases, MIBI scan provided results similar to those of conventional imaging (CT, MRI, 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan). In group 2, no false-positive cases were observed with MIBI scan (100% specificity). In group 3, MIBI scan correctly identified all the 131I-positive metastatic foci, except in two patients with micronodular pulmonary metastases that were visualised with 131I scan. In contrast, both MIBI scan and US showed low sensitivity (46.15% and 61.53%, respectively) compared with 131I scan in detecting thyroid remnants. s-Tg was increased in all patients with distant metastases but only in 56% of those with lymph node metastases. Furthermore, s-Tg was increased in 21.42% of patients with thyroid remnants alone (false-positive results). In group 4, MIBI scan was the only examination capable of detecting at an early stage a mediastinal lymph node metastasis in one patient. We conclude that the integrated MIBI scan/neck US protocol: (a) can be proposed as a first-line diagnostic procedure in the follow-up of DTC patients with high s-Tg levels and negative high-dose 131I scan, and (b) may be helpful in the follow-up of DTC patients who undergo partial thyroidectomy alone. Moreover, the combined MIBI scan/neck US/s-Tg protocol appears to be highly sensitive in identifying patients with metastatic disease after total thyroidectomy and prior to 1311 scan; consequently, it may play a prognostic role in distinguishing high-risk from low-risk DTC patients. However, due to the low sensitivity of MIBI scan and neck US in detecting thyroid remnants, this diagnostic approach cannot be used as a predictor of 131I scan results. Lastly, because of the high sensitivity of MIBI scan and neck US in revealing both functioning and non-functioning metastases, this integrated protocol might be helpful in the follow-up of high-risk DTC patients, particularly for the early detection of lymph node metastases in patients with undetectable s-Tg during SHT. PMID:10805117

Rubello, D; Mazzarotto, R; Casara, D

2000-04-01

166

Quality control of Tc-99m DTPA for measurement of glomerular filtration: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

When technetium-99m DTPA is used to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the accuracy depends on the supplier of the radiopharmaceutical. The error in GFR is due to protein binding, as we have shown by direct measurement. In 19 patients, GFR measured with Tc-DTPA and corrected for protein binding agreed with that measured simultaneously using Yb-169 DTPA (correlation coefficient 0.991). Without correction, Tc-DTPA gave falsely low values in patients having good renal function, in whom unbound activity cleared rapidly while bound activity remained in the circulation. When Tc-DTPA is used to measure GFR, the in vivo protein binding should be measured and used to correct the data.

Russell, C.D. (Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham); Bischoff, P.G.; Rowell, K.L.; Kontzen, F.; Lloyd, L.K.; Tauxe, W.N.; Dubovsky, E.V.

1983-08-01

167

Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol from coal miners' lungs  

SciTech Connect

Alterations in regional epithelial permeability were assessed in 22 retired West Virginia coal miners' lungs by measuring the clearance of inhaled 0.5-..mu..m Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. Activity was measured in both lungs and in regions of interest placed over the lung periphery in the apical, middle, and basal portions of each lung. Clearance rates (T/sub 1/2/) for 5 nonsmokers, 8 ex-smokers, and 9 smokers were significantly faster than for comparable subjects measured elsewhere, who were not coal miners. Regional apex-to-base distributions of DTPA were measured as a function of clearance time and compared with regional ventilation and perfusion. Regional, as well as overall lung clearance curves of 8 smokers and 4 ex-smokers had two components, with overall T/sub 1/2/ of <7 min for the faster one. No correlations were found between T/sub 1/2/ and DLCO or with P(A-a)O/sub 2/. The results of our study suggest that measurement of DTPA clearance is a potentially useful noninvasive technique to assess lung injury in miners exposed to coal dust. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Susskind, H.; Brill, A.B.; Harold, W.H.

1985-07-01

168

Effects of sustained exercise on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized sup 99m Tc-DTPA  

SciTech Connect

The effects of intensive prolonged exercise on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized {sup 99m}Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary mechanics were studied in seven healthy nonsmoking volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA clearance and pulmonary mechanics (lung volumes and compliance) were assessed before and after 75 min of constant-load exercise performed on a treadmill, corresponding to 75% of maximal O{sub 2} uptake. Because both clearance measurements were made in similar conditions of pulmonary blood flow, respiratory rate, and tidal volume, changes in clearance rate can be assumed to represent changes of alveolar epithelial permeability. After exercise, total, apical, and basal clearance were significantly increased (P less than 0.01, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively) and the increases in total clearance and tidal volume observed during exercise were significantly correlated (P less than 0.05). In contrast, no significant change was found in pulmonary mechanics. These results show that prolonged intensive exercise induces an increase in epithelial permeability, which appears to be related to the mechanical effects of sustained increased ventilation. Because no change was evidenced in pulmonary volumes or in lung elasticity, our results suggest that this increase may result from alteration of the intercellular tight junctions rather than from a surfactant deficiency.

Lorino, A.M.; Meignan, M.; Bouissou, P.; Atlan, G. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale Unite 296, Creteil (France))

1989-11-01

169

Glioma residual or recurrence versus radiation necrosis: accuracy of pentavalent technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc-99m (V) DMSA] brain SPECT compared to proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS): initial results.  

PubMed

We compared pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m (V) DMSA) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) for the detection of residual or recurrent gliomas after surgery and radiotherapy. A total of 24 glioma patients, previously operated upon and treated with radiotherapy, were studied. SPECT was acquired 2-3 h post-administration of 555-740 MBq of Tc-99m (V) DMSA. Lesion to normal (L/N) delayed uptake ratio was calculated as: mean counts of tumor ROI (L)/mean counts of normal mirror symmetric ROI (N). (1)H-MRS was performed using a 1.5-T scanner equipped with a spectroscopy package. SPECT and (1)H-MRS results were compared with pathology or follow-up neuroimaging studies. SPECT and (1)H-MRS showed concordant residue or recurrence in 9/24 (37.5%) patients. Both were true negative in 6/24 (25%) patients. SPECT and (1)H-MRS disagreed in 9 recurrences [7/9 (77.8%) and 2/9 (22.2%) were true positive by SPECT and (1)H-MRS, respectively]. Sensitivity of SPECT and (1)H-MRS in detecting recurrence was 88.8 and 61.1% with accuracies of 91.6 and 70.8%, respectively. A positive association between the delayed L/N ratio and tumor grade was found; the higher the grade, the higher is the L/N ratio (r = 0.62, P = 0.001). Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT is more accurate compared to (1)H-MRS for the detection of tumor residual tissues or recurrence in glioma patients with previous radiotherapy. It allows early and non-invasive differentiation of residual tumor or recurrence from irradiation necrosis. PMID:21912937

Amin, Amr; Moustafa, Hosna; Ahmed, Ebaa; El-Toukhy, Mohamed

2012-02-01

170

Clinical value of technetium-99m-labeled octreotide scintigraphy in local recurrent or metastatic medullary thyroid cancers: a comparison of lesions with 18F-FDG-PET and MIBI images  

PubMed Central

Aim Various studies have been conducted for determining the most optimal method for the early diagnosis of local recurrent or distant metastatic thyroid cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labeled octreotide derivatives in the detection of recurrence or distant metastases in medullary thyroid cancer patients and to compare the lesions with those detected using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-PET and Tc-99m MIBI studies in the same patient group. Patients and methods Sixteen medullary thyroid cancer patients [two male and 14 female; mean age 52.0±14.1 years (range 13–72 years)] were included in this study. All patients underwent a whole-body scan 1 and 4 h after injection with octreotide derivatives and single photon emission computed tomography images were taken of the sites suspicious for metastasis. The lesions seen in Tc-99m HYNIC octreotide studies were compared with those seen in 18F-FDG-PET and Tc-99m MIBI studies. Results Among the Tc-99m-labeled octreotide scintigraphy studies, nine were evaluated as true positive (56.2%) and one was evaluated as false positive (6.2%); six were false negative (37.5%). In 16 patients, the total number of lesions seen on octreotide scintigraphy was 21. Thirteen of the 16 patients underwent 18F-FDG-PET imaging. Of the 13 patients studied, 10 showed true-positive (76.9%) and three showed false-negative (23.1%) results. The total number of lesions seen on 18F-FDG-PET was 23. The Tc-99m MIBI study yielded positive results in seven of 16 patients (43.7%) and negative results in nine patients (56.3%). The total number of lesions on Tc-99m MIBI was 12. Conclusion The Tc-99m-labeled somatostatin receptor scintigraphy analogs HYNIC-tyrosine octreotide and HYNIC-TATE are useful imaging alternatives in somatostatin receptor-expressing thyroid cancers. Radiolabeling using these analogs is easy and they are readily available for routine use. PMID:24121313

Kabasakal, Levent; Ocak, Meltem; Maecke, Helmut; Uslu, Lebriz; Halaç, Metin; Asa, Sertac; Sager, Günes; Önsel, Çetin; Kanmaz, Bedii

2013-01-01

171

Quantitative comparison of yttrium-90 (90Y)-microspheres and technetium-99m (99mTc)-macroaggregated albumin SPECT images for planning 90Y therapy of liver cancer.  

PubMed

Yttrium-90 ((90)Y)-microspheres administered via the hepatic artery has been used for the treatment of unresectable primary or metastatic cancer in the liver. Prior to (90)Y therapy, however, the (90)Y administered activity and the percent shunting to lungs must be determined, most commonly by gamma camera imaging of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-macroaggregated albumin (MAA). The purpose of the current study was to identify and evaluate an objective measure of the correlation of (90)Y and MAA activity distributions and thus assess the reliability of MAA imaging for evaluation of (90)Y administered activity and tumor and liver radiation doses. The MAA study consisted of two acquisitions. After administration of 185 MBq of MAA, a partial-body or so-called breakthrough scan was performed in order to determine the percent shunting to lungs. Immediately after a breakthrough scan, a combined single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/transmission computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to image MAA distribution in order to derived the prescribed (90)Y administered activity based on tumor and liver dosimetry. (90)Y SPECT/CT was performed 2-4 weeks later and activities used were in the range of 777-2,442 MBq. In order to compare (90)Y and MAA SPECT images, first the respective CT image sets were registered using a transform based on normalized mutual information. The transform thus derived was used to align the 90Y and MAA SPECT image sets, and the Spearman's (rho) rank correlation as well as image distance (L2-norm) between the registered SPECT images were then calculated. The Spearman's rank correlation values ranged from 0.451 to 0.818 and the L2 distances from 0.626 to 2.889. Based on visual inspection, the registration of the (90)Y and MAA SPECT images appeared reasonably accurate. The regression coefficient (r) between visual scoring and the Spearman's rank correlation was 0.65 and between visual scoring and L2 distance 0.61. The Spearman's rank correlation thus appears to be more reliable than the image distance for assessing the correlation of the (90)Y and MAA images. PMID:20441235

Knesaurek, Karin; Machac, Josef; Muzinic, M; DaCosta, Michael; Zhang, Zhuangyu; Heiba, Sherif

2010-06-01

172

Influence of early (F+0) intravenous furosemide injection on the split renal function using 99mTc-DTPA renography.  

PubMed

In busy nuclear medicine departments, the F+0 protocol for diuretic renography is routinely used to shorten the acquisition time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the F+0 protocol on the split renal function (SRF) during a dynamic renal scan using technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) compared with that using the standard technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-DMSA). A total of 102 patients referred for a dynamic renal scan for varied etiologies were divided into two groups: the F+0 group, comprising 53 patients who were injected with furosemide just before Tc-DTPA injection, and the F+10 group, comprising 49 patients who were injected with the diuretic at the 10th minute after radiotracer injection. All patients were also subjected to a static cortical Tc-DMSA scan with geometric quantification of SRF. A highly significant statistical difference (P<0.001) was obtained on comparing the mean value of the difference in SRF calculated using DTPA and DMSA between the F+0 and F+10 groups, being 5.0±2.6 and 1.5±0.6%, respectively. All 49 patients in the F+10 group had a difference in split function of 5% or less, whereas 17/53 patients representing 32.1% of the F+0 group had a difference in SRF of greater than 5%. Early (F+0) furosemide injection before administration of Tc-DTPA has a significant influence on the estimation of SRF of the diseased kidney (either obstructed or functionally impaired) when compared with furosemide injection after standard Tc-DMSA administration. Care should be taken during interpretation of the scan findings when accurate split function is required. PMID:23376860

Kandeel, Ahmed A; Elhossainy, Salwa A; Elsayed, Nahla D

2013-04-01

173

Quantitative comparison of regional distributions of inhaled Tc-99m DTPA aerosol and Kr-81m gas in coal miners' lungs  

SciTech Connect

Regional distributions of deposited Tc-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetate aerosol (DPTA) and of Kr-81m were compared in the upright lungs of 22 coal miners with nonembolic pulmonary disease. Pixel-by-pixel distributions of Kr-81m and DPTA corrected for lung volume, as well as DTPA/Kr-81m ratios, were determined by computer analysis in each lung and plotted against lung position. DTPA was preferentially deposited in the basal regions of 36/44 lungs. In the same lungs, Kr-81m was preferentially distributed in the apical regions of 18 lungs, bilaterally in six subjects. Similar DTPA and Kr-81m regional distributions throughout both lungs were obtained in only 11 (50%) subjects. No significant correlations were found between regional particle deposition and pulmonary function measurements. The effects of gravity-related lung pressure gradients and ventilation-related particle residence time on the deposition of DTPA may limit its usefulness when quantitative information is required to evaluate subtle changes in ventilation in nonembolic pulmonary patients and for basic studies of ventilation and perfusion.

Susskind, H.; Brill, A.B.; Harold, W.H.

1986-01-01

174

Technetium-99m DMSA imaging and the obstructed kidney  

SciTech Connect

Although several authors have claimed that the function of an obstructed kidney could be overestimated on Tc-99m DMSA imaging, the clinical importance of such an overestimation has not been well documented. Partial obstruction of one ureter was created in a rat, and a relative Tc-99m DMSA uptake was obtained 4 hours after intravenous injection. By puncture of the isolated obstructed kidney, it was shown that the function of that kidney was overestimated by at least 17%.

Piepsz, A.; Ham, H.R.; Roland, J.H.; Froideville, J.L.; Kinthaert, J.; Hall, M.; Verboven, M.; Collier, F.

1986-06-01

175

Evaluation of whiplash injuries by technetium 99m isotope scanning.  

PubMed Central

Despite the frequency with which whiplash injuries present to accident and emergency (A&E) departments, there lacks an objective investigation to define the severity of the initial injury or the morbidity that may ensue. Following reports on the effectiveness of isotope bone scanning for soft tissue and ligament injuries a study was undertaken of isotope scanning of whiplash injuries. The objectives of the study were to isolate the anatomic site of the injury and to quantify the severity of the injury with relation to the concentration of isotope uptake and subsequent morbidity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8216594

Barton, D; Allen, M; Finlay, D; Belton, I

1993-01-01

176

Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

Dewanjee, M.K.

1990-08-01

177

Technetium99m-MIBI Scintimammography for Suspicious Breast Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluatethe diagnosticaccuracyof scintimammographywith @rc-MIBI in patients with suspected primary breastcanceras monitoredby SPECTor planarimaging. Methods Patients with a suspect lesion detected by palpation or mammographywere enteredin the study. Excisionalbiopsy was performed on all patients and a mammographywas performed within three weeks prior to scintigraphy. @@Jl patients received intra venously 740 MBq @“Tc-MlBI in the

Holger Palmedo; Axel Schomburg; Frank GrUnwald; Peter Mallmann; Dieter Krebs; Hans-Jurgen Biersack

178

Technetium-99m biliary imaging in pediatric surgical problems  

SciTech Connect

The results of scintigraphic imaging of the hepatobiliary system with 99mTc-PIPIDA (IDA derivative p-isopropylacetanilidoiminodiacetic acid) in forty children are reported. 99mTc-PIPIDA imaging is a noninvasive, rapid, safe examination that provides both functional and anatomical information about the hepatobiliary system. Although interpretation is limited by elevated direct serum bilirubin, this agent allows diagnostic information to be obtained with direct serum bilirubin levels up to 8 mg/dl.

Sty, J.R.; Glicklich, M.; Babbitt, D.P.; Starshak, R.J.

1981-10-01

179

Technetium 99m scan in acute scrotal lesions  

SciTech Connect

Scrotal scintigraphy is nearly 100 per cent accurate in identifying testicular torsion and can distinguish that condition, which requires an operation, from torsion of testicular appendages, which often can be treated nonoperatively. The technique is 90 per cent accurate in distinguishing epididymo-orchitis, epididymitis, and testicular abscess and is valuable in the follow-up of testicular torsion or inflammation. It can screen patients for varicocele, identifying possible candidates for spermatic venography and embolization. However, it has nothing to offer in the differential diagnosis of painless testicular masses.

Eshghi, M.; Silver, L.; Smith, A.D.

1987-12-01

180

Suprarenal abscess in the neonate. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging  

SciTech Connect

Although suprarenal abscess in a newborn is rare, a prompt diagnosis is essential for proper patient management. The findings obtained with Tc-99m glucoheptonate renal imaging in a newborn with a right adrenal abscess are reported. A radionuclide renal imaging sequence over a 15-hour period demonstrated a rim sign which can be used to suggest the diagnosis. Radionuclide and ultrasound imaging of neonatal adrenal masses is discussed.

Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.; Hodgson, N.B.

1986-01-01

181

Colonic varices demonstrated by technetium-99m red cell scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Colonic varices is a rare condition, generally associated with portal hypertension, which normally presents as acute, severe, gastrointestinal blood loss. A case is presented in which the varicosities were observed serendipitously in a patient with a pancreatic tumor, in whom the bleeding was not variceal but due to two small unrelated gastric hemangiomas. The literature is reviewed and scintigraphic features described.

Brill, D.R.

1987-03-01

182

Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell imaging  

SciTech Connect

Red blood cells labeled with 99mTc constitute a suitable intravascular agent for imaging of vascular abnormalities. Hemangiomas are characterized by low perfusion and a high blood pool. This ''perfusion blood-pool mismatch,'' not encountered in other lesions, may help in the specific diagnosis of this tumor. This is particularly so in cavernous hemangiomas of the liver where three-phase 99mTc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy should precede liver biopsy. Red cell scintigraphy also is useful for establishing the vascular nature of hemangiomas of the head and neck and the skin and for diagnosis of venous occlusion. Heat-damaged red blood cells provide a specific spleen imaging agent. This should be used when patients with suspected splenic pathology have equivocal colloid scintigraphy.

Front, D.; Israel, O.; Groshar, D.; Weininger, J.

1984-07-01

183

Splenic uptake of both technetium-99m diphosphonate and technetium-99m sulfur colloid in sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia  

SciTech Connect

A 19-year-old black woman with sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia had experienced more than 100 hospital admissions for sickle cell crisis and aseptic necrosis of both femoral heads. Her spleen was enlarged threefold and accumulated both radiocolloid and bone-seeking agent on two occasions, demonstrating an exception to the rule in sickle cell anemia that spleens that take up bone-seeking agents demonstrate functional asplenia. In the context of fever, left upper quadrant pain, and splenomegaly, the pattern of calcification in the patient's spleen as revealed in ultrasound and CT studies suggested possible abscess and led to unnecessary splenectomy. The nuclear medicine studies did not support this diagnosis. Nuclear medicine physicians should not be misled by splenic findings of sickle cell thalassemia (and possibly of other heterozygous sickle cell disorders) that differ from those of the more familiar homozygous sickle cell anemia.

Heck, L.L.; Brittin, G.M. (Methodist Hospital of Indiana, IN (USA))

1989-08-01

184

Splenic uptake of both technetium-99m diphosphonate and technetium-99m sulfur colloid in sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 19-year-old black woman with sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia had experienced more than 100 hospital admissions for sickle cell crisis and aseptic necrosis of both femoral heads. Her spleen was enlarged threefold and accumulated both radiocolloid and bone-seeking agent on two occasions, demonstrating an exception to the rule in sickle cell anemia that spleens that take up bone-seeking agents

L. L. Heck; G. M. Brittin

1989-01-01

185

Quantitative comparison of the regional distributions of inhaled Tc-99m DTPA aerosol and Kr-81m Gas in coal miners' lungs  

SciTech Connect

The authors compared the regional distribution of deposited Tc-99m DTPA aerosol (D) with that of Kr-81m (K) in the upright lungs of 22 coal miners with non-embolic pulmonary disease. Pixel-by-pixel distribution of K and D, as well as K/D ratios, were determined by computer analysis in each lung and presented as digitized posterior images. The lungs were also divided into 6.5-mm horizontal slices between apex and base. Values of the mean K and D counts and K/D ratio were plotted as functions of slice position. Good peripheral lung penetration was obtained for all subjects, while hot spots in the central airways were found in only one lung of a subject who smoked and had airway obstruction. Assessment of ventilation by visual evaluation of the respective images was comparable for both K and D. However, computer analysis showed that D was preferentially deposited in the basal regions of 38/44 lungs. K was preferentially distributed in the apical regions of 28/44 lungs. Increased bilateral D deposition in the basal regions was accompanied by a reduction in the apical regions of 10 subjects and in one lung of another 7 subjects. No relationship was found between aerosol deposition and ventilation/perfusion or pulmonary function measurements. In previous studies they have reported rapid aerosol clearance in coal miners. Although accurate clinical information has been obtained with D in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, the effect of gravity on the deposition of D may limit its usefulness when quantitative information is required to evaluate subtle changes in ventilation in non-embolic pulmonary patients and for basic studies of ventilation and perfusion.

Susskind, H.; Brill, A.B.; Harold, W.H.

1985-05-01

186

Determination of net ionic charge on Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m EDTA by a column ion-exchange method.  

PubMed

The net charge on a stable complex ion is conveniently measured at tracer levels by studies of ion-exchange equilibrium. Previous applications to radiopharmaceuticals have used a batch equilibrium method, but such measurements are affected by any radiochemical impurities present. Since technetium pharmaceuticals are often heterogeneous, it is of value to have a technique that is directly applicable to a mixture of different species. Such a method is presented here: a column method to determine the net charge on the technetium-99m complex of diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), and also on the principal component in a mixture of species formed by reducing pertechnetate in the presence of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA). The net charge was calculated from the effect of eluent concentration on retention time. The net charge on Tc-DTPA was found to be -2 at both pH 4.6 and 7.0. The net charge on the Tc-EDTA complex, measured at pH 7.0 only, was also -2. PMID:6770055

Russell, C D; Crittenden, R C; Cash, A G

1980-04-01

187

Direct lung delivery of a dry powder formulation of DTPA with improved aerosolization properties: Effect on lung and systemic decorporation of plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

DTPA, an actinide chelating agent, has demonstrated its ability to complex plutonium (Pu) and to facilitate its urinary excretion after internal contamination. This process, known as decorporation is crucial to diminish the burden of Pu in the body. The ability to deliver a chelating agent directly to the alveolar region may increase its local concentration as compared to systemic delivery

C. Gervelas; A.-L. Serandour; S. Geiger; G. Grillon; P. Fritsch; C. Taulelle; B. Le Gall; H. Benech; J.-R. Deverre; E. Fattal; N. Tsapis

2007-01-01

188

Comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO and technetium-99m-ECD cerebral SPECT images in Alzheimer`s disease  

SciTech Connect

SPECT has shown increasing promise as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer`s disease (AD). Recently, a new SPECT brain perfusion agent, {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) has emerged with purported advantages in image quality over the established tracer, {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in discriminating patients with AD form control subjects. 51 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Dyck, C.H. van; Lin, C.H.; Smith, E.O. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

1996-11-01

189

Production of Molybdenum-99 by (n, ) activation and direct separation of Technetium-99m without column generator fabrication: A viable strategy for enhanced availability of technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

Fission-produced 99Mo (F 99Mo) is traditionally used for fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc adsorption-type column generators. In this paper, several emerging strategies that are being pursued or have been suggested to overcome the continuing shortages of F 99Mo are discussed. To provide an alternative source of 99Mo, the principal focus of this analysis is a detailed discussion of the advantages and strategies for enhanced production of low-specific-activity 99Mo (LSA 99Mo) by direct activation of molybdenum targets in nuclear reactors. In order to enhance the availability of 99Mo, development of an increased network of reactors for production of LSA 99Mo is described, as well as utilization of currently unused reactors. The time spent in manufacturing of 99Mo/99mTc column generators is responsible for the loss of more than 50% of F99Mo produced. Hence, the authors propose a paradigm shift in the use of 99Mo by recovering clinical-grade 99mTc from 99Mo solution as an alternative to use of 99Mo/99mTc column generators, thereby avoiding substantial decreased availability of 99Mo from radioactive decay. Implementation of the suggested strategies would be expected to increase availability of 99mTc to the clinical user community by several folds. Additional important advantages of the use of LSA 99Mo include precluding the need for fission product waste management and phasing out the need for high- and low-enriched uranium as target materials for medical radioisotope production.

Knapp Jr, Russ F [ORNL; Pillai, M R A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India

2012-01-01

190

Comparison of technetium-99m sulfur colloid and in vitro labeled technetium-99m RBCs in the detection of gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven paired Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC) and Tc-99m RBC studies were evaluated for the detection of GI bleeding. The only two positive Tc-99m SC studies had positive early Tc-99m RBC studies as well. There were 15 other positive Tc-99m RBC studies (three during the first hour) and these were associated with normal Tc-99m SC scans. Approximately 70% of the positive Tc-99m RBC studies occurred after 1 hour. Tc-99m RBCs should be the initial test in patients with GI bleeding.

Siddiqui, A.R.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Wellman, H.N.; Mock, B.H.

1985-08-01

191

DTPA (Diethylenetriamine pentaacetate)  

MedlinePLUS

... a blood disease called hemochromatosis. Ca-DTPA (and Zn-DTPA) bind to important minerals that the body needs (zinc, magnesium, and manganese). As a ... Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232- ...

192

Supplemental Material Supplemental methods  

E-print Network

Photoshop using regions similar to those shown in Supplemental figure 1. Technetium experiments. Technetium-99m experiments were done by labeling Suc-e9-xPLG(MeC)Ax-r9-k(DTPA) (MeC = methylcysteine) peptide with technetium-99m and injecting the probe intravenously into animals (n=3). Organs were counted using a gamma

Tsien, Roger Y.

193

Failure to visualize acutely injured kidneys with technetium-99m DMSA does not preclude recoverable function  

SciTech Connect

A 35-yr-old patient developed severe acute tubular necrosis requiring hemodialysis. A (99mTc)dimercaptosuccinic acid scan of the kidneys showed no renal uptake at 4 or 24 hr, but the patient subsequently recovered normal renal function as judged by a normal serum creatinine. Based on this case report and a review of the literature, one cannot assume irreversible loss of function in patients with acute renal failure, based on the absence of radiopharmaceutical uptake by the kidneys.

Taylor, A. Jr.; Akiya, F.; Gregory, M.C.

1986-03-01

194

Images of liposarcoma using technetium-99m bleomycin and technetium (V)-99m DMSA  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of Tc-99m bleomycin (BLM) and Tc(V)-99m DMSA are compared with that of Ga-67 citrate, which is currently the most widely used agent. In four patients with lipomatous tumors, the clinical significance of tumor imaging with each of these three agents is discussed and compared. Results indicate that both Tc-99m BLM and Tc(V)-99m DMSA are superior in detecting the extension or localization of liposarcomas.

Ohta, H.; Shane, F.I.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.; Horiuchi, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Ishii, M.

1986-12-01

195

Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake in long-term catheterized kidney. Comparison with renal function  

SciTech Connect

We studied 23 long-term catheterized kidneys in 14 patients. The uptake of /sup 99m/Tc acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DMSA) was measured at one- and two-hour intervals after injection, and the uptake was corrected for variations in renal depth. These values were compared with inulin, creatinine, and para-amino hippurate (PAH) clearances which were measured in each kidney by collecting urine through long-term catheterization. Correlation coefficient was obtained between PAH clearance corrected for the body surface area and the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA. The correlation coefficients between the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA and the clearance values are not significantly different from those between the one-hour uptake and the clearance values. Corrections of the uptake for variations in renal depth did not improve the correlation coefficients. The results show that /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA is an excellent method to estimate the renal plasma flow and the one-hour uptake without correction for renal depth is clinically sufficient to evaluate the split renal function.

Higashihara, E.; Tokuda, H.; Kishi, H.; Niijima, T.; Okada, Y.; Nishikawa, J.; Iio, M.

1988-04-01

196

Quantitation of renal uptake of technetium-99m DMSA using SPECT  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) methodology based on calibration with kidney phantoms has been applied for the assessment of renal uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in 25 normals; 16 patients with a single normal kidney; 30 patients with unilateral nephropathy; and 17 patients with bilateral nephropathy. An excellent correlation (r = 0.99, s.e.e. = 152) was found between SPECT measured concentration and actual concentration in kidney phantoms. Kidney uptake at 6 hr after injection in normals was 20.0% +/- 4.6% for the left and 20.8% +/- 4.4% for the right. Patients with unilateral nephropathy had a statistically significant (p less than 0.001) low uptake in the diseased kidney (7.0% +/- 4.7%), but the contralateral kidney uptake did not differ from the normal group (20.0% +/- 7.0%). The method was especially useful in patients with bilateral nephropathy. Significantly (p less than 0.001) decreased uptake was found in both kidneys (5.1% +/- 3.4% for the left and 6.7% +/- 4.2% for the right). The total kidney uptake (right and left) in this group showed to be inversely correlated (r = 0.83) with serum creatinine. The uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in single normal kidney was higher (p less than 0.001) than in a normal kidney (34.7% +/- 11.9%), however, it was lower than the total absolute uptake (RT + LT = 41.5% +/- 8.8%) in the normal group. The results indicate that SPECT is a reliable and reproducible technique to quantitate absolute kidney uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA.

Groshar, D.; Frankel, A.; Iosilevsky, G.; Israel, O.; Moskovitz, B.; Levin, D.R.; Front, D.

1989-02-01

197

Renal handling of technetium-99m DMSA: Evidence for glomerular filtration and peritubular uptake  

SciTech Connect

The finding of an enhanced excretion of (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in patients with tubular reabsorption disorders prompted us to investigate the role of filtration in the renal handling of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA. Our studies in human serum indicated that binding to serum proteins was approximately 90%. Chromatography of human urine and studies in rats showed that the complex was excreted unaltered into the urine. Renal extraction of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in a human volunteer was 5.8%. Continuous infusion of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in 13 individuals with normal renal function gave the following results (mean +/- s.d.): plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA 34 +/- 4 ml/min, urinary clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA 12 +/- 3 ml/min. The calculated filtered load of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA closely resembled the urinary clearance, whereas the plasma clearance was about three times faster. This indicates that peritubular uptake accounts for approximately 65% and filtration for approximately 35% of the renal handling of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA.

de Lange, M.J.; Piers, D.A.; Kosterink, J.G.; van Luijk, W.H.; Meijer, S.; de Zeeuw, D.; van der Hem, G.K.

1989-07-01

198

Quantitation of renal uptake of technetium-99m DMSA using SPECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) methodology based on calibration with kidney phantoms has been applied for the assessment of renal uptake of (\\/sup 99m\\/Tc)DMSA in 25 normals; 16 patients with a single normal kidney; 30 patients with unilateral nephropathy; and 17 patients with bilateral nephropathy. An excellent correlation (r = 0.99, s.e.e. = 152) was found between SPECT

David Groshar; Alex Frankel; Galina Iosilevsky; Ora Israel; Boaz Moskovitz; Dan R. Levin; Dov Front

1989-01-01

199

Differentiating histologic malignancy of primary brain tumors: Pentavalent Technetium-99m-DMSA  

SciTech Connect

This study assessed pentavalent {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA uptake in primary brain tumors and evaluated the relationship between retention and histologic malignancy. SPECT images of the brain were obtained at 30 min and 3 hr after intravenous administration of approximately 555 MBq {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA in patients with brain tumors. Sixty studies were performed in 57 patients and 63 lesions were demonstrated: 11 glioblastomas, 13 anaplastic astrocytomas (Grade 3), 11 astrocytomas (Grade 2), 18 meningiomas and 10 schwannomas. Uptake ratios, retention ratio and retention index were calculated and compared with tumor histology and malignancy grade. Approximately 95% of both benign and malignant primary brain tumors were demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA SPECT images. False negative was noted in three cases. The early uptake ratios were closely related to the tumor vascularity but had no statistically significant difference in the tumor vascularity but had no statistically significant difference in the tumor histology or histologic malignancy. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Hirano, Tsuneo; Otake, Hidenori; Shibasaki, Takashi [Gunma Univ. (Japan)] [and others

1997-01-01

200

Imaging of experimental myocardial infarction with technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the use of Tc-99m-labeled 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid(Tc-99m DMSA) to scintigraph acute myocardial infaction after coronary occlusion in dogs. Optimal images were obtained 5 hr after injection of radiotracer, with consistent delineation 48 hr after occlusion. Delivery of tracer was dependent on blood flow. Uptake of tracer correlated to extent of infarction as determined by the myocardial depletion of creatine kinase. Myocardial Tc-99m DMSA was protein-bound.

Karlsberg, R.P.; Milne, N.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.

1981-03-01

201

New technetium-99m generator technologies utilizing polyethylene glycol-based aqueous biphasic systems  

SciTech Connect

Two new schemes for TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}/MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} separations from OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} media using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) have been developed. The two most important salt solutions in current {sup 99m}Tc-generator technologies, OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, also salt out PEG to form ABS. In liquid/liquid PEG- ABS, pertechnetate can be separated from molybdate with separation factors as high as 10,000. Stripping is accomplished by reduction of the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and back extraction into a salt solution. the strip solution can be the salt of an imaging agent (e.g., Na{sub 4}HEDPA) and thus may, under the appropriate conditions, be injected directly into the human body. {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} can also be concentrated from a dilute load solution of {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} in NaOH using an aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic technique (ABEC). A rinse with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} assures that all {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} is removed from the column and this is confirmed by a rapid drop in {sup 99}Mo activity by the fourth free column volume (fcv) of rinse. The {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} is then eluted with water. This chromatographic separation affords 94% of the {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} activity in 5 fcv, with the y spectrum showing less than 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of the original {sup 99}Mo activity.

Rogers, R.D.; Bond, A.H.; Zhang, Jianhua [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Horwitz, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-12-31

202

Distribution of technetium-99m-labeled multilamellar liposomes in patients with Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled multilamellar liposomes composed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) at a molar ratio of 7:3, administered intravenously, was studied in ten patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD). Whole-body imaging techniques were used, and for each organ an uptake index was calculated as the percent photographic density (PD) relative to the PD of the liver. Results were compared to those in a group of six patients with other malignancies. Patients with HD had a significantly higher uptake by bone marrow and lungs than patients with other malignancies. Among patients with HD, the uptake by bone marrow and lungs were higher in those with constitutional symptoms and with liver involvement. These results suggest that patients with HD have a different pattern of distribution of multilamellar liposomes which may be related to a combination of nonspecific stimulation of the reticuloendothelial system and tumor uptake. It does not appear that liposomal /sup 99m/Tc is capable of adequately imaging HD for clinical diagnosis.

Perez-Soler, R.; Lopez-Berestein, G.; Kasi, L.P.; Cabanillas, F.; Jahns, M.; Glenn, H.; Hersh, E.M.; Haynie, T.

1985-07-01

203

Comparison of Iodine 123-lomazenil SPECT and Technetium99m-HMPAO-SPECT in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to elucidate a central type of benzodiaz- epine (Bz) receptor distribution in patients with Alzheimer's disease using SPECT with (123l)iomazenil(IMZ). Methods: Eight patients with probable Alzheimer's disease were studied. Benzodiazepine receptor imaging was performed 15 min (early) and 180 min (de layed) after intravenous administration of 167 MBq IMZ, sequen tially, using hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)SPECT

Kazuki Fukuchi; Kazuo Hashikawa; Yujiro Seike; Hiroshi Moriwaki; Naohiko Oku; Manko Ishida; Masahiro Fujita

204

Gallbladder visualization during technetium-99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy for gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Localization of radionuclide activity in the gallbladder was seen on delayed views following injection of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells for gastrointestinal bleeding in five patients. The mechanism for this unusual finding probably relates to labeling of heme, the biochemical precursor of bilirubin. All patients had had prior transfusions. All but one had severe renal impairment, probably an important predisposing factor.

Brill, D.R.

1985-12-01

205

Technetium-99m BIDA biliary scintigraphy in the evaluation of the jaundiced patient  

SciTech Connect

Biliary scintigraphy using 99mTc p-butyl acetanilidiminodiacetic acid (BIDA) was performed as part of the diagnostic evaluation on 96 patients with jaundice (serum bilirubin greater than 2 mg/dl) to assess its value in this group of patients. The results of scintigraphy revealed no obstruction to the flow of the scintigraphic agent into the duodenum in 54 patients, delayed appearance of the agent (normal upper limit 60 min) in the duodenum indicating partial obstruction in 22 patients, and complete obstruction of the duct demonstrated by absence of agent in the duodenum in 20 patients. The findings were correlated with the final diagnosis and the overall results show accuracy of 92.7%, sensitivity of 97.3%, and specificity of 89.8%. Biliary scintigraphy was thus found to be useful in differentiating nonobstructive, partially obstructive, and completely obstructive causes of jaundice.

Lee, A.W.; Ram, M.D.; Shih, W.J.; Murphy, K.

1986-09-01

206

In vivo hybridization of technetium-99m-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization of a radiolabeled single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide with its single-stranded complement in vivo has not yet been convincingly demonstrated. A contributing factor may be unfavorable in vivo properties of the phosphodiester and phosphorothioate DNAs. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers have been reported to possess in vivo properties more suitable for radiopharmaceutical applications. We have radiolabeled an amine-derivatized 15-base PNA oligomer

G. Mardirossian; K. Lei; M. Rusckowski

1997-01-01

207

Hepatic hemangiomas: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging and technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed to evaluate and compare the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radionuclide blood-pool scanning in the detection of hepatic hemangiomas. All patients had known hemangiomas which were first detected on either ultrasound or computed tomography. Sixteen patients with a total of 23 lesions were investigated. Eleven patients had both MRI and blood-pool scans performed. In

Richard K. J. Brown; Antoinette Gomes; William King; Elizabeth Pusey; Juan Lois; Leonard Goldstein; Ronald W. Busuttil; Randall A. Hawkins

1987-01-01

208

The utility of technetium 99m pertechnetate scintigraphy in the evaluation of patients with Meckel's diverticulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of technetium (Tc) 99m pertechnetate scintigraphy in the diagnostic workup of the pediatric patient with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and a suspected Meckel's diverticulum.Methods: The charts of 235 consecutive patients evaluated with a Meckel's scan (n = 165) or with the discharge diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum (n = 70) between

Fresca Swaniker; Oliver Soldes; Ronald B Hirschl

1999-01-01

209

Location of parathyroid adenomas by thallium-201 and technetium-99m subtraction scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary parathyroid adenomas were correctly located before surgery in 20 out of 21 cases by using 201mT1 and 99mTc in a subtraction technique. The technique was not useful in identifying hyperplastic parathyroid glands. The technique is recommended as a useful procedure before surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism.

A E Young; J I Gaunt; D N Croft; R E Collins; C P Wells; A J Coakley

1983-01-01

210

Synthesis and characterization of rhenium and technetium-99m labeled insulin.  

PubMed

A (99m)Tc-labeled insulin analogue was synthesized through a direct labeling method in which the [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)](+) core was combined with a protected insulin derivative (9) bearing a M(I) chelate linked to the first amino acid of the B-chain (B1). Regioselective labeling was achieved by careful control over the pH and the reaction time. Following a TFA-anisole mediated deprotection step (decay-corrected yield of 30 +/- 11%, n = 4), the identity of the final (99m)Tc-labeled product was confirmed by HPLC. Displacement of (125)I-insulin from the insulin receptor (IR) by the Re analogue 6 was similar to that of native insulin (17.8 nM vs 11.7 nM, respectively). The extent of autophosphorylation and Akt activation, as indicated by production of phospho-Akt (pAkt), showed no statistical difference between 6 and native insulin in both assays. These results support the use of the reported (99m)Tc-insulin derivative as a tracer for studying insulin biochemistry in vivo. PMID:20235598

Sundararajan, Chitra; Besanger, Travis R; Labiris, Renee; Guenther, Katharina J; Strack, Thomas; Garafalo, Robert; Kawabata, Thomas T; Finco-Kent, Deborah; Zubieta, Jon; Babich, John W; Valliant, John F

2010-03-25

211

Technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy in children with urinary tract infections.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of abnormal dimercaptosuccinic acid-Tc-99m ((99m)Tc-DMSA) renal scintigraphy findings in children with culture proved urinary tract infection (UTI) with or without vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). (99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy was performed in 343 children with culture documented UTI (247 girls and 96 boys) aged from three months to 14 years (middle age of 4.82 years). The children studied were all those submitted for renal scintiscan to the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade during a five-year period (2000-2004). Micturating cystoureterography (MCU) performed in all patients before (99m)Tc-DMSA scan, revealed VUR in 213 children, while in 130 children VUR was not detected by MCU. In 15 of the 213 children the grade of VUR was I, in 88 was II, in 57 was III, in 33 was IV and 20 children had grade V of VUR. Findings of (99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy were classified as: normal, equivocal and abnormal. Statistical analysis was performed using c(2)test. In all patients abnormal findings were detected in 38% (131/343), normal in 51% (174/343) and equivocal findings in 11% (38/343). In children with UTI and VUR the incidence of abnormal findings was 53% (112/213), of normal 37% (80/213) and of equivocal findings 10% (21/213). In children with UTI without VUR the incidence of abnormal findings was 15% (19/130), of normal findings 72% (94/130), and of equivocal findings 13% (17/130). The incidence of abnormal findings was significantly higher in children with UTI and VUR than in those with UTI without VUR (P<0.001). In children with VUR grades I, II, III, IV and V abnormal findings were 33%, 32%, 60%, 79% and 95% respectively. The incidence of abnormal findings was higher in children with VUR grades IV and V, than in grade I and II (P<0.001). Our results suggest that (99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in children can discriminate between grade I-II and IV-V of VUR and also that in children with UTI and VUR abnormal findings in the scintiscan were more than three times higher than in children with UTI alone. PMID:16617390

Ajdinovi?, Boris; Jaukovi?, Ljiljana; Krsti?, Zoran; Dopuda, Marija

2006-01-01

212

Abdominal varices mimicking an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage during technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Abdominal varices consisting of a caput medusae and dilated mesenteric veins resulted in pooling of Tc-99m tagged red blood cells (RBC) within these dilated vessels in a 57-year-old man with severe Laennec's cirrhosis. The atypical radiotracer localization within the abdomen mimicked an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Clinical suspicion and careful evaluation of scintigraphic gastrointestinal bleeding studies will avoid false-positive interpretations.

Moreno, A.J.; Byrd, B.F.; Berger, D.E.; Turnbull, G.L.

1985-04-01

213

Technetium 99m diphosphonate uptake and intraosseous hemodynamics during venous congestion in bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous congestion in bone is a common early feature of inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases. An experimental study was performed of the relationship between the scintigraphic appearance of joints and the intraosseous hemodynamics during venous congestion caused by obstruction of the osseous venous drainage by increased intra-articular pressure. Intra-articular pressure was raised to 75% of mean arterial pressure in one

Ebbe Stender Hansen; Vibeke E. Hjortdal; Dorthe Kjølseth; Shu-Zeng He; Kristian Høy; Kjeld Søballe; Cody Bringer

1991-01-01

214

Quantitation of thrombogenicity of hemodialyzer with technetium-99m and indium-111 labeled platelets.  

PubMed

The platelet thrombogenicity of a hemodialyzer was quantified with 99mTc- and 111In-labeled platelets. The platelets collected from blood of Beagle dogs, Yorkshire pigs and human volunteers were labeled with 111In-tropolone (detergent-free) and 99mTc-HMPAO. Hemodialysis was performed with a hollow-fiber dialyzer (HFD) in a flow-loop, the temperature of which was maintained at 37 degrees C, with flow-rates of 7, 150 and 270 mL/min; after dialysis, the HFD radioactivity was measured with an ionization chamber and imaged with a gamma-camera. The radioactivity of samples of hollow-fibers taken from the top, middle and bottom of the dialyzer was determined with a gamma-counter. The mean values of hemodialyzer-adherent platelet radioactivity were calculated for both radionuclides. The canine platelets were found to be more thrombogenic than porcine and human platelets. The adhesivity of porcine platelets to the biomaterial (cellulose-acetate) of the dialyzer approximated that of human platelets. The 99mTc label underestimated the thrombus formation (P < 0.01). The dynamic processes of thrombosis and embolization from the hemodialyzer resulted in the large standard deviations around the mean values of the adherent thrombus. In spite of this limitation of the dynamic pathology, the quantitation of comparative thrombogenicity with 111In- and 99mTc-labeled platelets suggests that both radionuclides could be used for measurement of device-induced thrombogenicity and may provide an estimation of prosthesis-induced thrombogenicity of human platelets from animal studies. PMID:8358343

Dewanjee, M K; Kapadvanjwala, M; Ruzius, K; Serafini, A N; Zilleruelo, G E; Sfakianakis, G N

1993-07-01

215

Technetium-99m red blood cell labeling in patients treated with doxorubicin  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide angiography is useful in monitoring cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin, but in vivo RBC labeling in these patients is believed to be poorer than that in general patients. The left ventricle-to-background activity ratio (R) was not significantly lower in patients treated with doxorubicin (3.24 +/- 1.15, N = 13) than in control patients (3.89 +/- 1.60, N = 14). With both modified in vivo and in vitro labeling, R was significantly improved in patients treated with doxorubicin (4.37 +/- 0.91, N = 8, and 4.37 +/- 1.22, N = 13, respectively). However, with the modified in vivo method, labeling efficiency remained a function of hematocrit, whereas the in vitro method removed this dependency. Both modified in vivo and in vitro labeling result in improved image quality over in vivo labeling in patients treated with doxorubicin, and the choice of method can be based on other factors.

Ballinger, J.R.; Gerson, B.; Gulenchyn, K.Y.; Ruddy, T.D.; Davies, R.A.

1988-03-01

216

Detection of an ileal cavernous hemangioma by technetium-99m red blood cell imaging  

SciTech Connect

Patients with arteriovenous malformations of the bowel may have multiple symptoms secondary to chronic blood loss. A case of ileal cavernous hemangioma detected by Tc-99m labeled red blood cell imaging in the absence of active gastrointestinal bleeding is presented.

Holloway, H.; Johnson, J.; Sandler, M.

1988-01-01

217

Technetium-99m labeled red blood cells in the evaluation of hemangiosarcoma  

SciTech Connect

Imaging with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells (RBC) is increasingly being used in the detection of acute gastro-intestinal bleeding, especially in patients with intermittent bleeding. A patient is presented in whom the labeled RBC scan was helpful in the incidental discovery of a previously unsuspected probable angiosarcoma of the right femur and adjacent soft tissues of the right hip due to the blood pool or blush effect of the labeled cells. The labeled RBC scan also identified extravasation due to active gastrointestinal bleeding from a previously unknown angiosarcoma of the ascending colon. Thus, the Tc-99m labeled RBC scan was useful in simultaneously detecting extravasation and blood pool effect at two remote tumor sites in the same patient.

Joseph, U.A.; Jhingran, S.G.

1987-11-01

218

Cold hematoma visualized by technetium-99m labeled red blood cells  

SciTech Connect

A 64-yr-old male was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain associated with vomiting. Upon examination, the patients Hgb was 7.8 with a WBC count of 13.3 band cells of 7 and a recticulocyte count of 3.4, no evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient's prior history revealed involvement in an automobile accident approx. 10 days prior to this admission. At that time, he suffered multiple contusions and abrasions with a fracture to his left clavicle. Apparently there were no episodes of abdominal pain or vomiting prior to the onset of illness perceived on the day of admission. A liver/spleen scan was done. Four millicuries of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid were intravenously injected using a bolus injection technique while obtaining multiple dynamic images. The flow study was unremarkable, demonstrating no abnormalities to the great vessels and good perfusion to both organs. Static images of the liver and spleen revealed a straightening or flatness to the lateral border of the spleen with a small diminished area of tracer sulfur colloid localization at the posterolateral aspect of that organ. This finding raised the suspicion that a small subcapsular hematoma had developed at the mid-posterolateral aspect of the spleen. Twenty-four hours after hospital admission, 4 units of packed RBCs were transfused into the patient. Although there was at this time still no evidence of abnormal bleeding, it was felt that because of the strong symptomatic correlation for internal bleeding, a radionuclide bleeding site study should be ordered and immediately performed.

Beanblossom, M.

1986-09-01

219

Scintigraphic detection of intrapulmonary bleeding using technetium-99m sulfur colloid: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide imaging has been successfully used clinically to determine sites of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, but its use in hemoptysis has not been studied. A dog model of intrapulmonary hemorrhage was devised. Utilizing technetium sulfur colloid, at doses of 4 and 15 mCi, bleeding rates of 0.1--0.2 cc/min were detected. In some dogs, however, significantly higher bleeding into a large bronchus, which causes a diffuse distribution of the radionuclide.

Barry, J.; Alazraki, N.P.; Heaphy, J.H.

1981-09-01

220

Gallbladder visualization during technetium-99m RBC blood pool imaging. Case report and literature review  

SciTech Connect

Gallbladder visualization occurred after a Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) cardiac gated blood pool scan. To date, seven cases of gallbladder visualization after the intravenous injection of Tc-99m RBCs have been reported. In the previous six patients the gallbladder was visualized incidentally during a search for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. All of the patients were anemic, six of seven had chronic renal failure, and five of seven had received multiple blood transfusions. When interpreting GI bleeding scans in patients with anemia and renal failure, awareness of the possibility of gallbladder visualization in the delayed images is important to avoid false-positive results. 3 references.

Kotlyarov, E.V.; Mattay, V.S.; Reba, R.C.

1988-07-01

221

Technetium-99m RBC bleeding images in normal subjects: Confusion with gastrointestinal bleeding sites  

SciTech Connect

The normal appearance of a gastrointestinal bleeding study using labeled red blood cells has been discussed frequently, but the actual appearance is not well known. In this atlas article, the authors report on unusual findings in non-bleeding subjects and have tabulated the visualization of various structures. Vascular structures other than the aorta and inferior vena cava were seen in 42 of 48 patients. One or both kidneys were seen in 10 (21%) of 48 patients. The urinary bladder was seen in 23 (48%) of 48 patients, although gastric activity caused by free pertechnetate was never observed.

Boyd, C.M.; Williamson, M.R.

1989-03-01

222

Technetium-99m labeled RBC imaging in gastrointestinal bleeding from gastric leiomyoma  

SciTech Connect

Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging is becoming increasingly useful in detecting gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding sites. A patient is presented who had massive GI bleeding from an unsuspected gastric leiomyoma in whom a Tc-99m sulfur colloid GI bleed image was negative. The Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging done on the day after sulfur colloid imaging revealed increased gastric activity due to active bleeding from an intragastric leiomyoma. Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging helped in early detection of the bleeding site resulting in its successful treatment. This experience also reinforces the assertion that Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging may be more helpful than Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging in patients with upper GI or intermittent bleeding.

Joseph, U.A.; Jhingran, S.G.

1988-01-01

223

The uterine doughnut: Potential pitfall for technetium-99m gastrointestinal bleeding study  

SciTech Connect

A case of intense uterine hyperemia secondary to recent pregnancy, the so-called uterine doughnut sign, is presented as a potential pitfall in the evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding. Delayed imaging helped in evaluating the lack of serial change in appearance and the failure of progression of the scintigraphic abnormality.

Swayne, L.C. (Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (USA))

1989-10-01

224

Demonstration of hematobilia using technetium-99m labeled red blood cells  

SciTech Connect

A 75-year-old woman, who presented with obstructive jaundice, was shown by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography to have a markedly dilated biliary system and stones within the common bile duct. The stones were removed percutaneously using the transduodenal approach, and an internal drainage catheter was placed. Following the procedure, the patient experienced gastrointestinal bleeding manifested by melanotic stools. Blood-tinged bile was withdrawn from the biliary drainage catheter, leading to the suspicion that the bleeding might be originating from the biliary tract. A Tc-99m red blood cell (Tc-99m RBC) scan was performed to try to designate the biliary tract as the site of bleeding, and to determine if there were any other bleeding sites present. The study demonstrated bleeding from the biliary tract, which was confirmed by angiography and endoscopy. The technique for the detection of gastrointestinal bleeding using Tc-99m RBCs is well described. This case suggests that when doing studies to localize occult bleeding, the liver should be included in the field-of-view to exclude bleeding from the liver.

Lee, S.M.; Lee, R.G.; Clouse, M.E.; Hill, T.C.

1986-01-01

225

Localization of an Ectopic Parathyroid Adenoma by Double-Phase Technetium99m-SestamibiScintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-phase planar scintigraphy using @Tc-MIBI has been introduced as a means to detect and localize parathyroid ade nomas. Focal uptake on both early and delayed imagingis typical of these entities. We report a patient with persistent hy percalcemia following subtotal parathyroidectomy, who was foundscintigraphically to have an ectopicparathyroidadenoma. Followinginitial detection within the mediastinum using planar scintigraphy,the adenoma was more preciselylocalizedusing

Joseph Caravaiho; Antonio G. Balingit; E. Rivera-RodrIguez; Craig D. Shriver; Maureen K. Koops

226

Imaging of glutathione localization in brain with technetium-99M meso-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown decreasing [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake in accordance with glutathione (GSH) content in diethyl, maleate (DEM) treated mice brain. In order to elucidate the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO in brain and to visualize the regional localization of GSH in the brain with [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO, the relationship between the tissue GSH content and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO was

T. Sasaki; H. Toyama; K. Oda

1995-01-01

227

Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins  

SciTech Connect

Plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL) are a major source of cholesterol for adrenal cortical steroid hormones synthesis. To test whether LDL labelled with Tc-99m could be used to assess adrenal cortical function, the authors prepared Tc-99m-LDL by dithionite reduction of Tc0/sub 4//sup -/ in the presence of LDL. About 80% of the Tc-LDL bonds were covalent. Purified Tc-99m-LDL was injected intravenously into 16 rabbits (4 t 8mCi/rabbit). External imaging was carried out 16 to 18 hrs later, at which time the adrenals were visualized clearly; the animals were sacrificed, the organs dissected out, weighed, and counted. The biodistribution demonstrated that 0.8l +- 0.19% of the injected radioactivity was taken up per gm of whole adrenal gland. This compared with an uptake of 0.19 +- 0.02% per gm by liver, 0.22 +- 0.04% per gm by spleen, and 0.11 +- 0.02% per gm by kidney. To verify that they were indeed imaging the adrenals, additional rabbits were tested with dexamethasone. First they were injected with Tc-99m-LDL; 28 hrs later the adrenals were again well visualized. Then the rabbits were given dexamethasone for 5 days to suppress adrenal cortical function. The adequacy of suppression was monitored by serum cortisol measurements. When Tc-99m-LDL was injected again, the adrenals could not be seen 18 hrs later. Counts of the adrenals from the suppressed rabbits were at background levels. These data indicate that Tc-99m-LDL is a useful radiopharmaceutical for evaluating adrenal cortical function.

Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Kovach, M.B.; Strauss, H.W.

1984-01-01

228

Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

1986-04-01

229

Technetium-99m colloidal bismuth subcitrate: A novel method for the evaluation of peptic ulcer disease  

SciTech Connect

The therapeutic agent colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) selectively binds to peptic ulcers. The authors have developed a method for labeling this agent with Tc-99m. Chromatographic quality control studies of the agent on silica gel coated strips (ITLC-SG) showed that more than 97% of Tc-99m was bound to CBS. During in-vitro stability testing, the radio-label was stable for a minimum of 6 hours. The chromatographic findings are in agreement with the in-vivo distribution of the agent which showed no significant radioactivity in thyroid, kidneys, liver, or bladder. The resulting Tc-99m-CBS solution is administered orally in drinking water. Preliminary animal studies have been conducted on 5 adult 3 kg New Zealand rabbits sedated with 50 mg Ketamine I.M. The rabbits were intubated with I.V. tubing advanced to the stomach. They were given a gastric erosive suspension of 600-1000 mg/kg of pulverized ASA in 10 cc tap water. Four hours later they were given 3-4 mCi of the radiotracer in a 5 cc volume of water. Serial in-vivo images were obtained for 2 hours which included thyroid, abdomen, and urinary bladder. Next the stomachs were excised, opened along the greater curvature, imaged, vigorously washed and reimaged. All 5 rabbits showed avid localized binding of radiotracer which remained fixed even with vigorous washing. Areas of normal appearing mucosa were relatively devoid of radiotracer. This new compound may have significant clinical usefulness in the detection of peptic ulcer disease. In addition, such a non-invasive technique, carrying none of the risks or discomfort of endoscopy could also find application in the evaluation of the response to therapy.

Vasquez, T.E.; Lyons, K.P.; Raiszadeh, M.; Fardi, M.; Snider, P.

1984-01-01

230

Technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scans in children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy were investigated by technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate bone scanning. Eight of 12 scans demonstrated abnormal findings, four showing diffusely decreased uptake and four diffusely increased uptake of the radionuclide in the affected site. Three scans showed normal findings initially, as did one previously abnormal scan when repeated in the asymptomatic patient 6 months later. Diffusely

R. M. Laxer; R. C. Allen; P. N. Malleson; R. T. Morrison; R. E. Petty

1985-01-01

231

Atypical appearance of an hepatic hemangioma with technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Three-phase 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy is an established technique for distinguishing hemangiomas from other focal liver lesions. The most widely recognized feature is the perfusion to blood-pool mismatch characterized by decreased or normal arterial perfusion, with lesion activity which progressively increases over 1-2 hr. Although increased arterial vascularity of hemangiomas has been described, such cases either involved small portions of the lesion only or occurred in lesions not conclusively proven to be hemangiomas. We report a case of an angiography proven hemangioma with increased arterial vascularity involving a significant portion of the lesion as well as intense early blood-pool activity similar to that seen on delayed imaging. This case emphasizes the diverse appearance of hepatic hemangiomas using 99mTc blood cell scintigraphy.

Larcos, G.; Farlow, D.C.; Gruenewald, S.M.; Antico, V.F. (Westmead Hospital, NSW (Australia))

1989-11-01

232

Hepatic hemangiomas: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging and technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to evaluate and compare the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radionuclide blood-pool scanning in the detection of hepatic hemangiomas. All patients had known hemangiomas which were first detected on either ultrasound or computed tomography. Sixteen patients with a total of 23 lesions were investigated. Eleven patients had both MRI and blood-pool scans performed. In the group studied by both modalities, 18 lesions were detected ranging in size from 1 to 11 cm. All lesions were detected by both techniques. However, two of the 18 lesions had an atypical appearance on MRI. Our experience to date indicates that the anatomic location and specific diagnosis of hemangiomas can be made with a high degree of certainty when both MRI and blood-pool scanning techniques are utilized.

Brown, R.K.; Gomes, A.; King, W.; Pusey, E.; Lois, J.; Goldstein, L.; Busuttil, R.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

1987-11-01

233

Pressurised aerosol deposition in the human lung with and without an "open" spacer device.  

PubMed Central

A radiotracer technique has been used to assess aerosol delivery from a pressurised metered dose inhaler, used both with and without a 10 cm cylindrical spacer attachment (Syncroner), which has an open section in its upper surface. The radionuclide technetium-99m (99mTc) was added to sodium cromoglycate in a canister (Intal inhaler; 1 mg/puff); in vitro studies with a multistage liquid impinger showed that the radiolabel acted as a marker for the presence of drug over a wide range of particle sizes. Ten healthy volunteers were studied after they had inhaled from (1) a metered dose inhaler alone (slow inhaled flow rate, about 25 l/min); (2) metered dose inhaler plus spacer (slow flow rate); and (3) metered dose inhaler plus spacer (fast inhaled flow rate, about 100 l/min). Inhalation was coordinated with firing the spray and was followed by 10 seconds' breath holding. With the metered dose inhaler alone a mean 11.0% (SEM 1.4%) of the dose reached the lungs, compared with significantly higher doses for slow (16.1% (2.2%] and fast (13.3% (1.7%] inhalations through the spacer. The distribution pattern within the lungs was significantly more peripheral after slow inhalation. Oropharyngeal deposition was halved by the spacer. The open spacer should teach patients good coordination and delivers more aerosol to the lungs than a correctly used metered dose inhaler. Images PMID:2588205

Newman, S P; Clark, A R; Talaee, N; Clarke, S W

1989-01-01

234

Aerosols  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... is needed for monitoring air quality and for understanding climate change. During the last weeks of March 2003, widespread aerosol ... MISR Team. Text acknowledgment: Clare Averill (Acro Service Corporation/Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Other formats available ...

2013-04-17

235

Respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the relationships between the respiratory epithelial clearance of micronic aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) and pulmonary function, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE), and lymphocytic alveolitis in patients with sarcoidosis, RC-DTPA was measured in 49 nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 38 normal nonsmokers. Pulmonary involvement was evaluated on chest roentgenograms (type O = normal, type I = hilar adenopathies, type II = hilar adenopathies associated with parenchymal shadows, type III = parenchymal shadows without adenopathy) and by pulmonary function tests. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme was determined, and a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for alveolar lymphocyte differential counting (Ly%). RC-DTPA was increased (greater than or equal to 1.96%/min) in 12 of 31 patients with type II or III involvement but was normal in all 18 patients with type O or I involvement (p = 0.002). Patients with increased RC-DTPA had low FVC, TLC, FEV1, and resting Pao2 (p less than 0.05); resting and exercise AaPo2 were increased (p less than 0.05), but RC-DTPA correlated negatively with FEV1 (p less than 0.01), Pao2 at rest (p less than 0.005), and DLCO (p less than 0.05) and positively with resting and exercise AaPO2 (p less than 0.01). In patients with increased RC-DTPA (42 +/- 17%), Ly% did not differ from Ly% in patients with normal RC-DTPA (34 +/- 16%). SACE was increased in patients with increased RC-DTPA (56 +/- 26 U/ml versus 38 +/- 16 U/ml; p = 0.007) and correlated positively with RC-DTPA (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Dusser, D.J.; Collignon, M.A.; Stanislas-Leguern, G.; Barritault, L.G.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J.

1986-09-01

236

Pentavalent technetium-99m (V)-DMSA uptake in a pheochromocytoma in a patient with Sipple's syndrome  

SciTech Connect

This case report describes {sup 99m}Tc(V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) accumulation in a pheochromocytoma in a patient with Sipple's syndrome. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA demonstrated uptake in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT). Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed the bilateral pheochromocytomas but did not demonstrate uptake in the MCT.

Adams, B.K.; Fataar, A.; Byrne, M.J.; Levitt, N.S.; Matley, P.J. (Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa))

1990-01-01

237

Thallium-201/technetium-99m-RP-30A disparity in the course of myocardial infarction after attempted reperfusion  

SciTech Connect

Recent reports have established that /sup 201/Tl may be taken up in areas of recent myocardial infarction after myocardial blood flow is re-established. In addition, there is accelerated /sup 201/Tl washout from these regions producing a pattern of reverse redistribution. We present a case in which these phenomena may have contributed to a disparity of findings between a /sup 201/Tl stress imaging study and a repeat stress imaging study performed with a (/sup 99m/Tc) isonitrile (/sup 99m/Tc-RP-30A).

Tatum, J.L.; Rehr, R.B.; DiSciascio, G.; Romhilt, D.W.; Fratkin, M.J.

1988-07-01

238

Radionuclide imaging of the spleen with heat denatured technetium-99m RBC when the splenic reticuloendothelial system seems impaired  

SciTech Connect

Imaging of the spleen of 10 patients who had been hematologically diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia (SCA) was studied with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid and heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs. In all ten patients, there was faint or nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid. However, with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs, nine spleens were well visualized, and the uptake was homogenous. One spleen had two patchy areas of uptake. The results indicate that when splenic phagocytic function is impaired as reflected by nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid, it is still possible to image such a spleen with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs

Owunwanne, A.; Halkar, R.; Al-Rasheed, A.; Abubacker, K.C.; Abdel-Dayem, H.

1988-03-01

239

Evaluation of technetium-99m-triamide-mercaptide complexes designed to identify properties favoring renal tubular transport  

SciTech Connect

To aid in the design of an improved {sup 99m}Tc-labeled renal agent, several new [{sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 3})]{sup 2{minus}} analogs were synthesized to determine the effects of varying the position and chemical form of the terminal charged group on renal clearance. Clearance, extraction efficiency and plasma protein binding were measured in six Sprague-Dawley rats per complex for ortho, meta and para isomers of [{sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2{minus}}ABA)]{sup 2{minus}}, with MAG{sub 2{minus}} = mercaptoacetylglycylglycyl- and ABA = aminobenzoate; [{sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2{minus}}pASA)]{sup 2{minus}}, with pASA = p-aminosalicylate; [{sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2{minus}}AMS)]{sup 3{minus}}, with AMP = aminomethylphosphonate. For agents with relatively poor clearances, hepatobiliary excretion was evaluated by using a camera-based method. The clearances of the ortho, meta and para isomers of [{sup 22m}TcO(MAG{sub 2{minus}}ABA)]{sup 2{minus}} were 17%, 20% and 59% of those of OIH, respectively. The clearances of [{sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2{minus}}pASA)]{sup 2{minus}}, [{sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2{minus}}AMS)]{sup 2{minus}} and [{sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2{minus}}AMP)]{sup 3{minus}} were 32%, 46% and 39% those of OIH, respectively. Optimal tubular transport appears to require a terminal anionic group; a planar carboxylate is preferred over nonplanar -SO{sup {minus}}{sub 3} or -PO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} substituents, suggesting that the smaller size and/or planar shape of the carboxylate group are probably more important than the total charge or charge distribution. Optimal transport also appears to depend on the oxo-carboxylate conformation (syn or anti) and the oxo-carboxylate distance, although these relationships can be modulated by steric interactions. These structure-distribution relationships are important factors to consider in the future design of renal radiopharmaceuticals. 25 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Hansen, L.; Marzilli, L.G.; Eshima, D. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)]|[Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1994-07-01

240

Technetium99m DISIDA hepatobiliary agent in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: relationship between detectability and tumor differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was aimed to assess the usefulness of biliary agents scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to ascertain the relationship between the uptake of these agents and the degree of HCC differentiation. Forty-four patients with this hepatic cancer were included in the study. Liver scans were performed 20 min and 3 hr after the administration

Xavier Calvet; Francesca Pons; J. Bruix; C. Bru; F. Lomena; R. Herranz; M. Brugera; R. Faus; J. Rodes

1988-01-01

241

Synthesis and biological evaluation of technetium-99m-labeled deoxyglucose derivatives as imaging agents for tumor.  

PubMed

Three deoxyglucose (DG) derivatives, S-DG, MAG(3)-DG and MAMA-BA-DG, were synthesized and labeled successfully with high labeling yields and high radio-chemical purities. Biodistribution in tumor-bearing mice demonstrated that these three new (99m)Tc-deoxyglucose derivatives showed accumulation in tumor and high tumor-to-muscle ratios. Among them, the (99m)Tc-MAG(3)-DG showed the best characteristics as a potential tumor marker for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). PMID:16931003

Chen, Xiangji; Li, Liang; Liu, Fei; Liu, Boli

2006-11-01

242

Synthesis and biological characterization of novel 2-quinolinecarboxamide ligands of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors bearing technetium-99m or rhenium.  

PubMed

Potential receptor imaging agents based on Tc-99m for the in vivo visualization of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) have been designed on the basis of the information provided by the previously published structure-affinity relationship studies, which suggested the existence of tolerance to voluminous substituents in the receptor area interacting with 3-position of the quinoline nucleus of 2-quinolinecarboxamides 5. In the first step of the investigation, the stereoelectronic features of the above-indicated receptor area were also probed by means of 4-phenyl-3-[(1-piperazinyl)methyl]-2-quinolinecarboxamide derivatives bearing different substituents on the terminal piperazine nitrogen atom (compounds 6a-f). The structure-affinity relationship data confirmed the existence of a tolerance to bulky lipophilic substituents and stimulated the design of bifunctional ligands based on the 4-phenyl-3-[(1-piperazinyl)methyl]-2-quinolinecarboxamide moiety (compounds 6h,j,k,m). The submicromolar PBR affinity of rhenium complexes 6j,m suggests that the presence of their metal-ligand moieties with encaged rhenium is fairly compatible with the interaction with the PBR binding site. Thus, in order to obtain information on the in vivo behavior of these bifunctional ligands, (99m)Tc-labeled compounds 6h,k were synthesized and evaluated in preliminary biodistribution and single photon emission tomography (SPET) studies. The results suggest that both tracers do not present a clear preferential distribution in tissues rich in PBR, probably because of their molecular dimensions, which may hamper both the intracellular diffusion toward PBR and the interaction with the binding site. PMID:18510350

Cappelli, Andrea; Mancini, Alessandra; Sudati, Francesco; Valenti, Salvatore; Anzini, Maurizio; Belloli, Sara; Moresco, Rosa Maria; Matarrese, Mario; Vaghi, Mauro; Fabro, Andrea; Fazio, Ferruccio; Vomero, Salvatore

2008-06-01

243

Technetium99m--Sestamibi Prone Scintimammographyto Detect PrimaryBreast Cancer and Axillary Lymph Node Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thepurposeof this studywasto evaluate prOSpeCth\\/e@y the sensitivityand specificityof scintimammography in the detec tion of both pilmary breast cancer and axillary lymph node involvement.Methods: Sixty-fiveconsecutivewomen referred for a suspiciousbreastlesionon clinicalexaminationand\\/orwith abnormal mammographiessugges@ve of malignancieswere studied with scintimammographyusing planar prone imaging (witha chestpositioningdevicewith semicircularlateralaperture on the imagingtable)performed15 mmpostinjectionof 25-30 mCi °@1c-sestamibi. Threeplanar @ews, right and left lateral proneand anteriorsupinethoracicviews,wereobtained(8-10 minMew).The entire breastand

Raymond Taitlefer; Raymond Lambert; Sophie Turpin

1995-01-01

244

Tracer kinetic modeling approaches for the quantification of hepatic function with technetium-99m DISIDA and scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Serial scintigraphic images following injection of ({sup 99m}Tc)iminodiacetic acid compounds such as ({sup 99m}Tc)diisopropyl-iminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) provide qualitative information about liver function. We have investigated approaches for quantitatively describing liver function in terms of the kinetics of DISIDA extraction and excretion by the liver. Several compartmental model configurations were evaluated. A three-compartment model (blood, hepatic parenchyma, intrahepatic bile) was found to fit the data best and was used in conjunction with dynamic image data to obtain estimates of rate constants for liver extraction and excretion of DISIDA, and mean residence time (MRT) of DISIDA in the liver. A noncompartmental approach based on a parametric deconvolution technique was also used to estimate the noncompartmental mean residence time (MRTnc). To assess limitations of the noncompartmental approach, computer simulations were performed using the three-compartment model to generate time-activity curves followed by analysis of these curves by the noncompartmental method. The effect of plasma total bilirubin level on DISIDA uptake and MRT was also investigated. These techniques are readily adaptable to standard nuclear medicine computing facilities, and could be used in the clinical setting to numerically describe serial DISIDA studies (especially in liver transplant patients) efficiently and noninvasively.

Gambhir, S.S.; Hawkins, R.A.; Huang, S.C.; Hall, T.R.; Busuttil, R.W.; Phelps, M.E. (Univ. of California, Los Angles (USA))

1989-09-01

245

Technetium-99m and rhenium-188 complexes with one and two pendant bisphosphonate groups for imaging arterial calcification.  

PubMed

The first (99m)Tc and (188)Re complexes containing two pendant bisphosphonate groups have been synthesised, based on the mononuclear M(v) nitride core with two dithiocarbamate ligands each with a pendant bisphosphonate. The structural identity of the (99)Tc and stable rhenium analogues as uncharged, mononuclear nitridobis(dithiocarbamate) complexes was determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The (99m)Tc complex showed greater affinity for synthetic and biological hydroxyapatite, and greater stability in biological media, than the well-known but poorly-characterised and inhomogeneous bone imaging agent (99m)Tc-MDP. It gave excellent SPECT images of both bone calcification (mice and rats) and vascular calcification (rat model), but the improved stability and the availability of two pendant bisphosphonate groups conferred no dramatic advantage in imaging over the conventional (99m)Tc-MDP agent in which the bisphosphonate group is bound directly to Tc. The (188)Re complex also showed preferential uptake in bone. These tracers and the biological model of vascular calcification offer the opportunity to study the biological interpretation and clinical potential of radionuclide imaging of vascular calcification and to deliver radionuclide therapy to bone metastases. PMID:25559039

Bordoloi, Jayanta Kumar; Berry, David; Khan, Irfan Ullah; Sunassee, Kavitha; de Rosales, Rafael Torres Martin; Shanahan, Catherine; Blower, Philip J

2015-03-01

246

Assessment of “microvascular no-reflow phenomenon” using technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin scintigraphy in patients with acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of this study was the scintigraphic evaluation of clinical no-reflow phenomenon.Background. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the relationship of the severity of reduction of microvascular reflow to the ischemia time or to the secondary extension of myocardial necrosis is poorly understood, and we accordingly conducted a scintigraphic evaluation of clinical no-reflow phenomenon.Methods. The group studied consisted

Makoto Kondo; Akira Nakano; Daiki Saito; Yukio Shimono

1998-01-01

247

Technetium99m-MIBI in Primary and Recurrent Head and Neck Tumors: Contribution of Bone SPECT Image Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weprospecth,ehj investigated 200patientswiththeclinicalsusp Cionfor head and neck tumors. The finaldiegnoses were 94 primary and 56 (37 confirmed, 19 excluded) recurrent squamous cell carci nomas (SCC5),3 primary and 7 (4 confirmed, 3 excluded) recurrent adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs),6 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 10 distant metastases, 6 other malignancies, 10 inflammatory and 8 other nonmalignant conditions. Methods Bone (600 MBq @rc 3,3-diphosphono-i ,2-propane dicarboxylic

Thomas Leitha; Christoph Glaser; Martha Pruckmayer; Michael Rasse; Werner Millesi; Susanna Lang; Christian Nasel; Werner Backfrieder; Franz Kainberger

248

The preparation and biodistribution of a technetium-99m triaminodithiol complex designed to reflect regional cerebral blood flow  

SciTech Connect

Recently, interest in the development of radiotracers for brain imaging has increased. Technetium complexes of diaminodithiol (DADT) ligands have been shown to be stable, neutral, lipid soluble, and shown to cross the blood:brain barrier. A new ligand, N-Piperidinylethyl-DADT has been synthesized which forms two complexes with Tc-99m when stannous chloride is used as a reducing agent for Tc-99m pertechnetate. Biodistribution studies of both complexes in mice showed one to have a 2.2% of the injected dose of the tracer in the brain at 5 minutes post intravenous injection with 0.53% of the dose remaining in the brain at 30 minutes post injection. Brain-to-blood ratios at these times were 5.3 and 3.0 respectively. Imaging studies were conducted in a monkey and a baboon in which rapid uptake of the tracer in the brain was observed and clear brain images were obtained. Time activity curves showed peak uptake in the brain at approximately 5 to 7 minutes post intravenous injection followed by a plateau of about 11 minutes. The half-lives for clearance of the tracer from the brains of the monkey and baboon were found to be 63 and 58 minutes respectively. This preliminary evaluation suggests that this tracer shows promise for brain imaging in humans.

Lever, S.Z.; Burns, H.D.; Kervitsky, T.M.; Goldfarb, H.W.; Woo, D.V.; Wong, D.F.; Epps, L.A.; Kramer, A.V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

1985-05-01

249

Use of technetium-99m-HM-PAO in the assessment of patients with dementia and other neuropsychiatric conditions  

SciTech Connect

One hundred fourteen patients suffering from neuropsychiatric conditions have been studied using 99mTc-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Ninety-one patients had a firm clinical diagnosis while 23 were examined without knowledge of the clinical diagnosis. Of the 91 patients, 51 were suffering from dementia, 25 multi-infarct type and 26 Alzheimer's disease. In 19 of the Alzheimer's patients, a characteristic pattern of decreased perfusion in the parieto-occipital regions was demonstrated while those with multi-infarct type showed varying degrees of irregular uptake in the cerebral cortex. These appearances are similar to those shown with positron emission tomography (PET) and we believe that HM-PAO will provide a widely available method for identifying patients with Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-nine patients were suffering from diseases involving the basal ganglia. Fifteen patients with Parkinson's disease showed no significant abnormality in basal ganglia uptake, while 7 or 8 patients with Huntington's disease who had full examinations showed decreased uptake in the caudate nuclei. Similarly, four of six patients with other basal ganglia diseases showed impaired uptake by basal ganglia, and it is concluded that HM-PAO may be useful for the diagnosis and management of this type of patient. Twenty-three patients received HM-PAO imaging as part of their diagnostic work-up; in 19 of them, detailed follow-up was obtained, which indicated that in 7 cases the result of the HM-PAO scan altered the clinical diagnosis and in 9 cases resulted in a change in management. In the remaining 13 cases, the study was found to be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

Smith, F.W.; Besson, J.A.; Gemmell, H.G.; Sharp, P.F.

1988-12-01

250

Evaluation of extremity pain in children using technetium-99m MDP bone scan: A general hospital experience  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three-phase bone scan in detection of significant pathology i.e., osteomyelitis (OM), septic joint, cellulitis, etc., in children with symptoms of extremity pain. A total of 100 consecutive patients (age 9 days - 16 yrs, 63 boys and 37 girls) were studied. The authors reviewed their scans, x-rays and hospital records. The final diagnoses were based on the findings of needle aspiration, surgical drainage, biopsy, culture, and on the therapeutic response. In 87%, sufficiently long clinical follow-up was available to confirm the final diagnoses. In the remaining 13%, the symptoms resolved quickly and follow-up was not felt necessary. The scan was essential in pinpointing the lesions in pts with referred or nonlocalizing extremity pain. The +ve and -ve predictive values of the scan and OM were 89% and 96% respectively. One spiral fracture was misinterpreted as diffuse OM. One ''Subacute epiphyseal OM'' was not detected. In two cases, cellulitis and septic joint obscured underlying OM. Prior antibotic therapy resulted in one equivocal scan. Although less sensitive (29%) in early OM, radiographs play an important complimentary role. Bone scans detected underlying pathology for extremity pain in 61% of all pts studied.

Park, H.M.; Rothschild, P.A.; Kernek, C.B.

1984-01-01

251

Sentinel Lymph Node Identification with Technetium99m-Labeled Nanocolloid in Squamous Cell Cancer of the Vulva  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with early-stage squamous cell cancer of the vulva, inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy is performed primarily as a diag nostic procedure. The morbidity of this procedure, however, is not negligible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of minimally invasive detection of the sentinel inguinofemoral lymph node (SILN) and to investigate whether the histopathology of the SILNs is

Joanne A. de Hullu; Edwina Doting; Do A. Piers; Harrie Hollema; Jan G. Aalders; Schraffordt Koops; Henk Boonstra

252

Technetium-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary agent in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: relationship between detectability and tumor differentiation  

SciTech Connect

The present investigation was aimed to assess the usefulness of biliary agents scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to ascertain the relationship between the uptake of these agents and the degree of HCC differentiation. Forty-four patients with this hepatic cancer were included in the study. Liver scans were performed 20 min and 3 hr after the administration of 99mTc diisopropyliminodiacetic acid (DISIDA). DISIDA scintigraphy could not be assessed in six cases. In 16 (42%) out of the remaining 38 patients, the tumor exhibited equal or greater radioactivity uptake than the surrounding liver. In six out of these 16 patients, tumor uptake was apparent in the early and delayed hepatic scans, while in the other ten subjects radioactivity uptake by the HCC could only be detected in the 3-hr delayed scans. In the remaining 22 patients, HCC appeared as a cold area. Tumor location by this technique did not differ from that observed by 99mTc-sulfur colloid scan or ultrasound. DISIDA uptake was significantly related to tumor differentiation: 70% of those well differentiated tumors exhibited DISIDA uptake, whereas it was found in only 30% of those moderately differentiated and in none of those poorly differentiated (p less than 0.05). These results show that DISIDA scintigraphy can be useful in the diagnosis of HCC. Since its sensitivity is related to the degree of tumor differentiation, it may be indicated when aspiration cytology is unable to distinguish between well differentiated HCC and reactive changes due to hepatic cirrhosis.

Calvet, X.; Pons, F.; Bruix, J.; Bru, C.; Lomena, F.; Herranz, R.; Brugera, M.; Faus, R.; Rodes, J.

1988-12-01

253

Diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis with technetium 99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine whether /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid planar biliary scintigraphy combined with single photon emission computed tomography could detect sclerosing cholangitis and provide additional information regarding the extent and severity of disease. Thirteen patients with sclerosing cholangitis and 13 normal control subjects were studied. Scintigraphic results were also compared with previously reported studies of patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction and with primary biliary cirrhosis. The planar scintigraphy in patients with sclerosing cholangitis showed beading or bandlike constrictions of the biliary tract corresponding to lesions seen on cholangiography, and the image pattern was distinctly different from images obtained from patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction or primary biliary cirrhosis. The single photon emission computed tomography images of the liver in patients with sclerosing cholangitis demonstrated multiple focal areas of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid retention, representing bile stasis in intrahepatic bile ducts. Compared to controls, the mean hepatic clearance half-time of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid was markedly delayed in patients with sclerosing cholangitis (6-10 times normal). Individual patients with sclerosing cholangitis had wider variation in isotope clearance half-time from three regions of the liver than patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction, consistent with regional difference in disease severity and variable impairment of bile flow. In 4 patients with sclerosing cholangitis with incomplete filling of the right and left hepatic ducts at cholangiography, planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy provided evidence of significant intrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis.

Rodman, C.A.; Keeffe, E.B.; Lieberman, D.A.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Gilbert, S.; Eklem, M.J.

1987-03-01

254

Global Xenon-133 Emission Inventory Caused by Medical Isotope Production and Derived from the Worldwide Technetium-99m Demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from medical isotope production are the most important source of background for atmospheric radioxenon measurements, which are an essential part of nuclear explosion monitoring. This article presents a new approach for estimating the global annual radioxenon emission inventory caused by medical isotope production using the amount of Tc-99m applications in hospitals as the basis. Tc-99m is the most commonly used isotope in radiology and dominates the medical isotope production. This paper presents the first estimate of the global production of Tc-99m. Depending on the production and transport scenario, global xenon emissions of 11-45 PBq/year can be derived from the global isotope demand. The lower end of this estimate is in good agreement with other estimations which are making use of reported releases and realistic process simulations. This proves the validity of the complementary assessment method proposed in this paper. It may be of relevance for future emission scenarios and for estimating the contribution to the global source term from countries and operators that do not make sufficient radioxenon release information available. It depends on sound data on medical treatments with radio-pharmaceuticals and on technical information on the production process of the supplier. This might help in understanding the apparent underestimation of the global emission inventory that has been found by atmospheric transport modelling.

Kalinowski, Martin B.; Grosch, Martina; Hebel, Simon

2014-03-01

255

Filling out phenomenon with technetium-99m HM-PAO brain SPECT at the site of mild cerebral ischemia  

SciTech Connect

Although the distribution of (/sup 99m/Tc)hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) in the brain is said to be in a flow-related manner without temporal change, we present cases with leakage of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO (filling out phenomenon) in the delayed image of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and clarify its clinical significance. The filling out phenomenon was observed in seven out of 21 cases of cerebrovascular disease and four cases of arteriovenous malformation. The leakage of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO was also confirmed by visual and semiquantitative analysis. In the pharmacokinetics of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO in the blood, the percent dose of plasma fraction at 4 hr was reduced to 54% of activity at 30 min. The percent dose of brain blood could be predicted as 3.36%/1 at 30 min and 2.35%/1 at 4 hr after correction with the hematocrit of the brain. The filling out phenomenon of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO was attributed to a significant reduction of blood activity of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO in the plasma. Since the initial image might mask reduced rCBF with an increase of rCBV, the late image would have an advantage in accurately evaluating rCBF from the clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc) HM-PAO bound to the plasma. Therefore, the filling out phenomenon of (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO in late images of brain SPECT could show the area of mild cerebral ischemia accompanying cerebral vascular reserve.

Hayashida, K.; Nishimura, T.; Imakita, S.; Uehara, T.

1989-05-01

256

Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease  

SciTech Connect

The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

1989-02-01

257

Hemobilia associated with hepatic artery aneurysms: scintigraphic detection with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells  

SciTech Connect

Biliary tract bleeding is an unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Rupture of hepatic artery aneurysms is one of the least common etiologies of hemobilia. Both cholescintigraphy and (/sup 99m/Tc)red blood cell scintigraphy are useful in the diagnosis of this rare disorder. The combination of focal obstruction on cholescintigraphy and intermittent visualization of the major bile ducts on red blood cell scintigraphy should suggest the diagnosis of hemobilia and prompt an angiogram to determine the cause.

Jackson, D.E. Jr.; Floyd, J.L.; Levesque, P.H.

1986-04-01

258

Appearance of a large mesenteric varix on a technetium-99m red blood cell gastrointestinal bleeding study  

SciTech Connect

Detection of gastrointestinal bleeding using Tc-99m labeled RBCs has proven to be clinically useful although false-positive images associated with abnormal vascularity remain problematic. The scintigraphic appearance of a large mesenteric varix is presented, and its potential confusion with gastrointestinal bleeding is discussed. Correlative CT and angiographic images are presented.

Mountz, J.M.; Ripley, S.D.; Gross, M.D.; Richmond, B.

1986-04-01

259

Accuracy of technetium-99m SPECT-CT hybrid images in predicting the precise intraoperative anatomical location of parathyroid adenomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study evaluated the accuracy of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)- CT imaging for the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas. Methods. This study included both a quantitative and quali- tative accuracy measure. The quantitative measure was the dis- tance between the location of the adenoma on the SPECT-CT scan and the location of the adenoma intraoperatively. Qualita- tively,

Luke Harris; John Yoo; Albert Driedger; Kevin Fung; Jason Franklin; Daryl Gray; Ronald Holliday

2008-01-01

260

Indium-111-antimyosin antibody imaging for detecting different stages of myocardial infarction: Comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic value of {sup 111}In-antimyosin (AM) imaging for identifying myocardial infarction was evaluated in comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate (PPi) imaging. Twenty-four patients with various stages of myocardial infarction, ranging from three days to nine months after the onset of infarction, underwent both AM and PPi scans. Of 26 infarct lesions AM scan identified 22 (85%), while PPi scans detected 10 (38%) (p less than 0.01). When less than a week had passed since the onset both scans demonstrated all infarct lesions. For seven subacute lesions studied within one to two weeks of onset, AM scans detected (100%), while PPi scans identified only 2 (29%). Furthermore, AM scans showed discrete myocardial uptake in 7 (64%) of those studied more than two weeks after onset. The intensity of AM uptake in the infarcts studied more than seven days after onset was less than that in acute infarcts studied within seven days of onset (p less than 0.05). These preliminary data indicate that the abnormal myocardial uptake of AM persists beyond the first two weeks when PPi no longer accumulates. Thus, AM scans can be considered to provide a sensitive diagnosis of subacute as well as acute myocardial necrosis.

Tamaki, N.; Yamada, T.; Matsumori, A.; Yoshida, A.; Fujita, T.; Ohtani, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Endo, K.; Konishi, J. (Kyoto Univ. Faculty of Medicine (Japan))

1990-02-01

261

Assessment of skin ulcer healing capability by technetium-99m phosphate angiogram and blood-pool images  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of radionuclide angiography and blood-pool imaging using (/sup 99m/Tc)-phosphate to assess skin ulcer perfusion as an indicator of healing capacity was determined in 50 studies performed on 45 patients with nonhealing ulcers of the lower extremities. Two nuclear medicine physicians without clinical bias, graded the perfusion of the ulcer on the images as normal, increased or reduced with respect to the opposite limb. Patients were followed closely with aggressive local wound care for at least 14 days. Of the 31 ulcers which healed, the radionuclide study correctly predicted 30; of the 19 ulcers which did not heal, 14 were correctly predicted. Eight patients had osteomyelitis; four of those healed and four did not. The radionuclide study predicted healing in seven. This technique is a simple, reliable way to predict the microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing. Specificity is diminished in the presence of osteomyelitis.

Alazraki, N.; Dries, D.; Lawrence, P.; Morton, K.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.

1985-06-01

262

Technetium-99m labeled red blood cells for the detection and localization of cavernous hemangiomas of the bone  

SciTech Connect

Labeled red blood cells (RBCs) have already been proven useful in the detection and localization of many vascular abnormalities. One such abnormality is that of a cavernous hemangioma. Cavernous hemangiomas have a distinct circulation and have been found in many areas of the body. The ability to utilize this unique circulation is important to consider when choosing a diagnostic exam. This paper reports a case demonstrating the usefulness of labeled red blood cells for the detection and localization of cavernous hemangioma of the bone. A 31-yr-old female present with a history of persistent generalized headaches for many years. About 1 yr prior to the exam, she noticed that her headaches had become more localized to the right side of her head. Physical examination revealed a palpable lump developing on the right side of her head which was sensitive to the touch. The patient was then scheduled for a CT scan to be followed by both a bone scan and a /sup 99m/Tc blood-pool scan. A flow study using 15 mCi /sup 99m/Tc labeled RBCs was performed in the right lateral position at 1.5 sec/frame for 32 frames. Immediate blood-pool images 30-min, and 1-hr delayed images were recorded.

Lenane, P.

1986-09-01

263

Environmental Fate of EDTA and DTPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a EDTA can be extremely persistent in WWTP and also in natural waters; DTPA seems more biodegradable. However, the biodegradability\\u000a of DTPA might be of negligible significance as EDTA is reported to be one of its decomposition products. EDTA, and in some\\u000a cases also DTPA, are generally found in the receiving waters of many industrial areas, thus being classified as one

Mika SillanpiHi

264

Role of nuclear medicine in clinical urology and nephrology  

SciTech Connect

The application of radionuclide studies to nephrologic and urologic practice has reached a measurable degree of maturity during the past several years. In spite of this, the utilization of these techniques in many institutions in the United States continues to be far less frequent than one would expect from the clinical advantages. The aim of this editorial is to try to place the role of nuclear medicine in urology and nephrology in perspective. At the present time, in spite of the large number of renal agents that have been developed, there is no practical ideal radiopharmaceutical that can serve as a universal agent. Arbitrarily, one may reduce the chief armamentarium to only four radiopharmaceuticals; technetium-99m DTPA, I-131 OIH (orthoiodohippurate), technetium-99m glucoheptonate and technetium-99m DMSA. These agents are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages.

Blaufox, M.D.; Fine, E.; Lee, H.B.; Scharf, S.

1984-05-01

265

Comparison of Thyroid Blood Flow and Uptake Indices Using Technetium-99m Pertechnetate in Patients with Graves’ Disease and Euthyroid Subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate parameters of early blood flow (EBF) including duration of EBF, perfusion index (PI), uptake indexes 1 and 2 (UI1 and UI2) derived from dynamic thyroid scintigraphy in patients with Graves’ disease (GD), and euthyroid (EI). Maximum instant uptake and maximum uptake of the thyroid gland were also assessed. Methods: A total of 50 patients with GD and EI were included in this study. Each patient underwent two dynamic scans of 1-minute (20 images at 3 seconds) and 20-minute (20 images at 1 minute) with 99mTcO4. The time-activity curve of a 1-minute scan was employed to derive EBF parameters; likewise, the time-activity curve of a 20-minute scan was used to determine maximum instant uptake, and the gradient of the curve from the 10th to 20th minute was used to assess maximum uptake. Results: Values of EBF duration, PI, UI1, UI2, and maximum instant uptake were significantly lower in patients with GD than in those with EI (p<0.05). The calculated gradient of the second half of the curves for all of the patients ranged from 0 to 0.88 and was significantly higher in patients with GD than in those with EI. Conclusion: Lower values of PI, UI1, UI2 and durations of EBF, along with faster maximum instant uptake in patients with GD in comparison to EI are indicators of a heightened desire for hyper-functioning thyroid glands of patients with GD to absorb 99mTcO4. Additionally, because of the uprising gradient at the end of the 20-minute time-activity curve, a maximum thyroid uptake of 99mTcO4 was achieved at more than 20 minutes after the radiopharmaceutical injection. PMID:25541933

Javadi, Hamid; Pashazadeh, Ali Mahmoud; Mogharrabi, Mehdi; Nabipour, Iraj; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammadreza; Assadi, Majid

2014-01-01

266

Technetium99m-DMSA Renal Cortical Scintigraphy to Detect Experimental Acute Pyelonephritis in Piglets: Comparison of Planar (Pinhole) and SPECT Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to directly compare the sensitivity and specificity of SPECT and pinhole imaging for the detection of acute pyelonephritis using histology as the standard of reference. Methods: Bilateralvesicoureteralreflux of infected urine was in duced in 16 piglets (32 kidneys) by unroofing the intravesical ureter and subsequently instilling a broth culture of £coli into the bladder.

Massoud Majd; H. Gil Rushton; Roma Chandra; Mary P. Andrich; Chris P. Tardif; Fariborz Rashti

267

Abnormal lung and liver uptake of gallium-67 and technetium-99m MDP in hypercalcemia of lymphoma with metastatic pulmonary calcification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal pulmonary uptake of Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m MDP and reversible liver uptake of Tc-99m MDP was seen in a patient with hypercalcemia of lymphoma and biopsy-proven metastatic pulmonary calcification. Abnormal lung uptake of Tc-99m MDP may confirm the diagnosis of pulmonary calcification, lessening the need for invasive procedures to evaluate pathologic lung uptake of Ga-67 citrate.

WILLIAM T. SULLIVAN; JOSEPH A. ORZEL; KURT D. REED; JEFFREY H. BOWER

1986-01-01

268

Novel polar single amino acid chelates for technetium-99m tricarbonyl-based radiopharmaceuticals with enhanced renal clearance: application to octreotide.  

PubMed

Single amino acid chelate (SAAC) systems for the incorporation of the M(CO)(3) moiety (M = Tc/Re) have been successfully incorporated into novel synthetic strategies for radiopharmaceuticals and evaluated in a variety of biological applications. However, the lipophilicity of the first generation Tc(CO)(3)-dipyridyl complexes has resulted in substantial hepatobiliary uptake when either examined as lysine derivatives or integrated into biologically active small molecules and peptides. Here we designed, synthesized, and evaluated novel SAAC systems that have been chemically modified to promote overall Tc(CO)(3)L(3) complex hydrophilicity with the intent of enhancing renal clearance. A series of lysine derived SAAC systems containing functionalized polar imidazole rings and/or carboxylic acids were synthesized via reductive alkylation of the epsilon amino group of lysine. The SAAC systems were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc, purified, and evaluated for radiochemical stability, lipophilicity, and tissue distribution in rats. The log P values of the (99m)Tc complexes were determined experimentally and ranged from -0.91 to -2.33. The resulting complexes were stable (>90%) for at least 24 h. Tissue distribution in normal rats of the lead (99m)Tc complexes demonstrated decreased liver (<1 %ID/g) and gastrointestinal clearance (<1.5%ID/g) and increased kidney clearance (>15 %ID/g) at 2 h after injection compared to the dipyridyl lysine complex (DpK). One of the new SAAC ligands, [(99m)Tc]bis-carboxymethylimidazole lysine, was conjugated to the N-terminus of Tyr-3 octreotide and evaluated for localization in nude mice bearing AR42J xenografts to examine tissue distribution, tumor uptake and retention, clearance, and route of excretion for comparison to (111)In-DOTA-Tyr-3-octreotide and (99m)Tc-DpK-Tyr-3-octreotide. (99m)Tc-bis-(carboxymethylimidazole)-lysine-Tyr-3-octreotide exhibited significantly less liver uptake and gastrointestinal clearance compared to (99m)Tc-DpK-Tyr-3-octreotide while maintaining tumor uptake in the same mouse model. These novel chelators demonstrate that lipophilicity can be controlled and organ distribution significantly altered, opening up broad application of these novel SAAC systems for radiopharmaceutical design. PMID:20402463

Maresca, Kevin P; Marquis, John C; Hillier, Shawn M; Lu, Genliang; Femia, Frank J; Zimmerman, Craig N; Eckelman, William C; Joyal, John L; Babich, John W

2010-06-16

269

Radiotracers for low density lipoprotein biodistribution studies in vivo: technetium-99m low density lipoprotein versus radioiodinated low density lipoprotein preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to characterize the in vivo behavior of (99mTc) low density lipoprotein (LDL), biodistribution studies were performed in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits. In normal rabbits, 24 hr after the injection of (99mTc)LDL, 99mTc activity accumulated mainly in adrenal glands, spleen, liver, and kidney. In HC rabbits, however, there was a marked reduction of 99mTc activity in these

Shankar Vallabhajosula; Michael Paidi; Juan Jose Badimon; Ngoc-Anh Le; Stanley J. Goldsmith; Valentin Fuster; Henry N. Ginsberg

1988-01-01

270

Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate by fractured and osteoporotic bone after a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/. [Rats  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/ on uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP by fractured and osteoporotic bone, respectively, was compared with D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by normal bone in rats. At 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively, after femoral fracture, basal uptake was significantly increased at the fracture site by 336.8, 276.1, and 183.5%, respectively, over the contralateral control site. D/sub 3/-treated rats had lower uptakes than untreated controls at all three fracture sites and at 12 of 15 normal bone sites but analysis of variance showed the uptake differences were not significant. Cortisone-induced osteoporosis caused a significant decrease in basal uptake. The decrease occurred in all nine bone areas studied. D/sub 3/ caused a significant increase in uptake by these osteoporotic bones, but a significant decrease in uptake by the same bones in normal controls. Thus, D/sub 3/ had an effect on uptake by the bone lesion, osteoporosis, that differed from D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by fracture or normal bone.

Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.; Zielezny, M.

1985-04-01

271

Synthesis, radiolabeling and in vitro and in vivo characterization of a technetium-99m-labeled alpha-M2 peptide as a tumor imaging agent.  

PubMed

In an effort to develop a peptide-based radiopharmaceutical for the detection of breast cancer, we have prepared an analog of alphaM2 peptide, modified to incorporate an N3S chelate system. Mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG)(3)-derivatized alphaM2 peptide was prepared by solid-phase synthesis and radiolabeled with (99m)Tc by an exchange method. In vitro cell-binding on human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, indicated the affinity and specificity of (99m)Tc-MAG(3)-alphaM2 toward breast cancer cells. Additionally, the radiolabeled peptide showed rapid internalization into human breast cancer cells. In vivo biodistribution in mice showed that the radiolabeled peptide cleared rapidly from the blood and most non-target tissues and was excreted significantly via the kidneys. Uptake of (99m)Tc-MAG(3)-alphaM2 in the tumor was moderate. The radiochemical and in vitro and in vivo characterization indicates that the radiolabeled peptide has certain favorable properties and it might be a useful radiopharmaceutical for the detection of breast cancer in vivo. PMID:15175018

Okarvi, S M

2004-06-01

272

Detection of occult infection following total joint arthroplasty using sequential technetium-99m HDP bone scintigraphy and indium-111 WBC imaging  

SciTech Connect

Preoperative exclusion or confirmation of periprosthetic infection is essential for correct surgical management of patients with suspected infected joint prostheses. The sensitivity and specificity of (/sup 111/In)WBC imaging in the diagnosis of infected total joint prostheses was examined in 28 patients and compared with sequential (/sup 99m/Tc)HDP/(/sup 111/In)WBC scintigraphy and aspiration arthrography. The sensitivity of preoperative aspiration cultures was 12%, with a specificity of 81% and an accuracy of 58%. The sensitivity of (/sup 111/In)WBC imaging alone was 100%, with a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 65%. When correlated with the bone scintigraphy and read as sequential (/sup 99m/Tc)HDP/(/sup 111/In)WBC imaging, the sensitivity was 88%, specificity 95%, and accuracy 93%. This study demonstrates that (/sup 111/In)WBC imaging is an extremely sensitive imaging modality for the detection of occult infection of joint prostheses. It also demonstrates the necessity of correlating (/sup 111/In)WBC images with (/sup 99m/Tc)HDP skeletal scintigraphy in the detection of occult periprosthetic infection.

Johnson, J.A.; Christie, M.J.; Sandler, M.P.; Parks, P.F. Jr.; Homra, L.; Kaye, J.J.

1988-08-01

273

Urinary excretion of tubular proteins and the technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) absolute renal uptake in partial ureteral obstruction in rats: a functional evaluation of hydronephrotic kidneys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate tubular proteinuria in rats with unilateral (UPO) and bilateral (BPO)\\u000a partial ureteral obstruction with the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan as the gold standard for measuring renal tubular\\u000a damage. We studied 70 female Wistar rats: 28 animals with UPO, 28 animals with BPO, 7 sham-operated animals, and 7 controls.\\u000a All animals with

K. Everaert; C. Van de Wiele; J. Delanghe; H. Vander Eecken; J. P. Van Haelst; J. Van de Voorde; R. A. Dierckx; W. Oosterlinck

1999-01-01

274

Simulating technetium-99m cerebral perfusion studies with a three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom: Collimator and filter selection in SPECT neuroimaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of a collimator and the selection of a filter can affect the quality of clinical SPECT images of the brain. The\\u000a compromises that 4 different collimators make between spatial resolution and sensitivity were studied by imaging a three-dimensional\\u000a Hoffman brain phantom. The planar data were acquired with each collimator on a three-headed SPECT system and were reconstructed\\u000a with

Hee-Joung Kim; Joel S. Karp; P. David Mozley; Seoung-Oh Yang; Dae Hyuk Moon; Hank F. Kung; Hee Kyung Lee; Abass Alavi

1996-01-01

275

Evaluation of left ventricular wall motion, volumes, and ejection fraction by gated myocardial tomography with technetium 99m-labeled tetrofosmin: A comparison with cine magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Whether left ventricular function can be assessed accurately by gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in\\u000a patients with myocardial infarction and severe perfusion defects is not well known.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  Twenty-five patients with an acute myocardial infarction underwent 99mTc-labeled tetrofosmin (99mTc-tetrofosmin) gated SPECT and cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Wall motion was assessed in 13 left ventricular segments\\u000a using

Periyanan Vaduganathan; Zuo-Xiang He; G. Wesley Vick III; John J. Mahmarian; Mario S. Verani

1999-01-01

276

Computer-assisted superimposition of magnetic resonance and high-resolution technetium-99m-HMPAO and thallium-201 SPECT images of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for registering three-dimensional CT, MR, and PET data sets that require no special patient immobilization or other precise positioning measures was adapted to high-resolution SPECT and MRI and was applied in 14 subjects (five normal volunteers, four patients with dementia (Alzheimer's disease), two patients with recurrent glioblastoma, and three patients with focal lesions (stroke, arachnoid cyst and head

B. Leonard Holman; Robert E. Zimmerman; Keith A. Johnson; Paulo A. Carvalho; Richard B. Schwartz; Jay S. Loeffler; Eben Alexander; Charles A. Pelizzari; George T. Y. Chen

1991-01-01

277

Sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer: experience with 180 consecutive patients: efficacy of filtered Technetium 99m sulphur colloid with overnight migration time 1 1 No competing interests declared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Axillary node status remains the most important prognostic indicator of survival in breast cancer patients. Only 25% to 35% of patients having standard level I\\/II axillary dissection have involved nodes, yet all accept the potential for morbidity after the operation. This study was conducted to assess whether status of the sentinel node(s) was an accurate predictor of the presence

David J Winchester; Stephen F Sener; David P Winchester; Reid M Perlman; Robert A Goldschmidt; Gary Motykie; Carole H Martz; Sarah L Rabbitt; David Brenin; Margaret A Stull; Jeanette M Moulthrop

1999-01-01

278

Attenuation correction by simultaneous emission-transmission myocardial single-photon emission tomography using a technetium-99m-labelled radiotracer: impact on diagnostic accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irregular photon attenuation may limit the diagnostic accuracy of myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The aim of this study was to quantify the potential benefit of attenuation correction by simultaneous emission and transmission imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) of vessels supplying the inferoposterior wall segments. In 25 male patients with ₞% stenoses of the right coronary

Regine Kluge; Bernhard Sattler; Anita Seese; Wolfram H. Knapp

1997-01-01

279

Ventilation\\/perfusion ratios and simultaneous dual-radionuclide single-photon emission tomography with krypton-81m and technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   To date, there has been neither a good method to clarify the three-dimensional distribution of pulmonary ventilation\\/perfusion\\u000a (V.A\\/Q.) ratios, nor a convenient way to assess V.A\\/Q. inequality. The purpose of this study was to develop a functional image of pulmonary V.A\\/Q. ratios based on data acquired with simultaneous dual-radionuclide single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and to assess\\u000a V.A\\/Q. unevenness through

Y. Sando; T. Inoue; R. Nagai; K. Endo

1997-01-01

280

Computer-assisted superimposition of magnetic resonance and high-resolution technetium-99m-HMPAO and thallium-201 SPECT images of the brain  

SciTech Connect

A method for registering three-dimensional CT, MR, and PET data sets that require no special patient immobilization or other precise positioning measures was adapted to high-resolution SPECT and MRI and was applied in 14 subjects (five normal volunteers, four patients with dementia (Alzheimer's disease), two patients with recurrent glioblastoma, and three patients with focal lesions (stroke, arachnoid cyst and head trauma)). T2-weighted axial magnetic resonance images and transaxial 99mTc-HMPAO and 201Tl images acquired with an annular gamma camera were merged using an objective registration (translation, rotation and rescaling) program. In the normal subjects and patients with dementia and focal lesions, focal areas of high uptake corresponded to gray matter structures. Focal lesions observed on MRI corresponded to perfusion defects on SPECT. In the patients who had undergone surgical resection of glioblastoma followed by interstitial brachytherapy, increased 201Tl corresponding to recurrent tumor could be localized from the superimposed images. The method was evaluated by measuring the residuals in all subjects and translational errors due to superimposition of deep structures in the 12 subjects with normal thalamic anatomy and 99mTc-HMPAO uptake. This method for superimposing magnetic resonance and high-resolution SPECT images of the brain is a useful technique for correlating regional function with brain anatomy.

Holman, B.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Johnson, K.A.; Carvalho, P.A.; Schwartz, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Chen, G.T. (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

1991-08-01

281

Technetium-99m-Labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-Conjugated Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Hybrid Peptides for Human Melanoma Imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine whether 99mTc-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) hybrid peptide targeting both melanocortin-1 (MC1) and ?v?3 integrin receptors was superior in melanoma targeting to 99mTc-labeled ?-MSH or RGD peptide targeting only the MC1 or ?v?3 integrin receptor. Methods RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH, RAD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Lys- (Arg11)CCMSHscramble were designed to target both MC1 and ?v?3 integrin receptors, MC1 receptor only and ?v?3 integrin receptor only, respectively. The MC1 or ?v?3 integrin receptor binding affinities of three peptides were determined in M21 human melanoma cells. The melanoma targeting properties of 99mTc-labeled RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH, RAD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSHscramble were determined in M21 human melanoma-xenografted nude mice. Meanwhile, the melanoma uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH was blocked with various non-radiolabeled peptides in M21 melanoma xenografts. Results RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH displayed 2.0 and 403 nM binding affinities to both MC1 and ?v?3 integrin receptors, whereas RAD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH or RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSHscramble lost their ?v?3 integrin receptor binding affinity by greater than 248-fold or MC1 receptor binding affinity by more than 100-fold, respectively. The melanoma uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH was 2.49 and 2.24 times (p<0.05) the melanoma uptakes of 99mTc-RAD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH and 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSHscramble at 2 h post-injection, respectively. Either RGD or (Arg11)CCMSH peptide co-injection could block 42% and 57% of the tumor uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH, whereas the co-injection of RGD+ (Arg11)CCMSH peptide mixture could block 66% of the tumor uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH. Conclusions Targeting both MC1 and ?v?3 integrin receptors enhanced the melanoma uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH in M21 human melanoma xenografts. Flank M21 human melanoma tumors were clearly visualized by SPECT/CT imaging using 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH as an imaging probe, highlighting its potential use as a dual-receptor-targeting imaging probe for human melanoma detection. PMID:21055617

Yang, Jianquan; Guo, Haixun; Miao, Yubin

2010-01-01

282

Assessment of the Effects of Access Count in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy on Renal Functions by Technetium-99m-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphy  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the effects of percutaneous nephrolithotomy on renal functions by using DMSA scintigraphy while considering access counts. Material and Methods. A total of 37 patients who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy were included. Preoperative DMSA scans were performed a day before the surgery, whereas postoperative scans were randomized by evaluating them before (n = 25) and after (n = 12) the 6th postoperative month. Twenty-six of 37 cases underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy with a single access site and 11 with multiple access sites. Results. There were no significant changes of total renal functions in the whole study group (P = 0.054). In the single access group, total functions were significantly elevated (P = 0.03) In the multiple access group, while treated site functions were significantly decreased (P = 0.01), total functions did not change significantly (P = 0.42). There was an insignificant decrease in those evaluated before the 6th postoperative month (P = 0.27) and an insignificant increase in the others (P = 0.11). Conclusion. We could not find a superiority of single access over multiple accesses. There is a temporary functional loss in the treated site. PMID:23738147

Demirta?, Abdullah; Caniklio?lu, Mehmet; Kula, Mustafa; Ak?nsal, Emre Can; Ergül, Mehmet Ali; Baydilli, Numan; Ekemekçio?lu, O?uz

2013-01-01

283

Radiation dose to technicians per nuclear medicine procedure: comparison between technetium-99m, gallium-67, and iodine-131 radiotracers and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to determine the non-extremity gamma dose received by a technician while performing an ordinary\\u000a nuclear medicine procedure or a static (i.e. without blood sampling) fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission\\u000a tomography (PET) study. The dose per patient was measured by means of a commercial electronic pocket Geiger Mueller dosimeter,\\u000a worn in the upper left

C. Chiesa; V. De Sanctis; F. Crippa; M. Schiavini; C. E. Fraigola; A. Bogni; C. Pascali; D. Decise; R. Marchesini; E. Bombardieri

1997-01-01

284

Technetium-99m-labeled platelets: comparison of labeling with a new lipid-soluble Sn(II)-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide and 99mTc-HMPAO.  

PubMed

Platelets pretinned with a neutral Sn(II)-2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (SN-MPO) were labeled with 99mTc and compared to those labeled with 99mTc-HMPAO. The conditions of labeling platelets, e.g. concentrations of platelets and Sn(II)-MPO, 99mTc in ACD-saline or ACD-plasma media, pH and incubation time, were optimized using canine platelets. Moderate labeling efficiency was obtained with 20 micrograms of tin(II) chloride and 30 min incubation with Sn-MPO and pertechnetate. The viability of labeled platelets was determined by platelet recovery and platelet survival times in Beagle dogs. The labeling efficiency with platelets from 43 mL of blood was 62.8 +/- 7.6%. The platelet recovery was 35.7 +/- 5.0% and exponential survival time was 34.6 +/- 3.1 h compared to 43.3 +2- 12.0% and 29.5 +/- 3.3 h for 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled platelets. These values were significantly (P less than 0.01) lower than 111In-labeled platelets. Biodistribution in dogs indicates lower retention in blood, spleen and liver after some initial 99mTc excretion in urine. The platelet deposition with 99mTc platelets (Sn-MPO method) on polyurethane angio-catheters was similar to 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled platelets. This study indicates that the platelets could be successfully labeled with pertechnetate in a cost-effective manner for the evaluation of thromboembolic complications. PMID:1917515

Dewanjee, M K; Robinson, R P; Hellman, R L; Ganz, W I; Serafini, A N; Sfakianakis, G N

1991-01-01

285

Bleeding rates necessary for detecting acute gastrointestinal bleeding with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells in an experimental model  

SciTech Connect

Proponents of (/sup 99m/Tc)sulfur colloid for GI bleeding studies argue that, although labeled red blood cells are useful for intermittent bleeding, they are not capable of detecting low bleeding rates. Studies of dogs with experimental GI bleeding have indicated bleeding rates of 0.05 ml/min can be detected with (/sup 99m/Tc)sulfur colloid. Since similar data in the dog model were unavailable for /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells, we undertook this study. To simulate lower GI bleeding, catheters were inserted into the bowel lumen. Each dog's blood was labeled with /sup 99m/Tc using an in vitro technique. Venous blood was then withdrawn and re-infused into the lumen of the bowel using a Harvard pump. Fourteen dogs were studied, ten receiving a bleeding rate from 4.6-0.02 ml/min in the descending colon and four with proximal jejunal bleeds of 0.20-0.02 ml/min. Bleeding rates of 4.6-0.2 ml/min were detected within 10 min in the colon and bleeding rates as low as 0.04 ml/min were seen by 55 min. Slower bleeding rates were not detected. Similar findings were noted for proximal jejunal bleeds. Based on the time of appearance, a minimum volume of approximately 2-3 ml labeled blood was necessary to detect bleeding. We conclude that /sup 99m/Tc-labeled RBCs are sensitive for low bleeding rates in the dog model. The rates are comparable to those described for (/sup 99m/Tc)sulfur colloid in this experimental setting. The time of appearance of activity is related to the bleeding rate.

Thorne, D.A.; Datz, F.L.; Remley, K.; Christian, P.E.

1987-04-01

286

Nearly total absence of pulmonary perfusion with corresponding technetium-99m MDP and gallium-67 uptake in a patient with mediastinal neuroblastoma  

SciTech Connect

A case of unilateral nearly total hypoperfusion of the left lung in a 13-month-old girl is presented. The combination of the lung hypoperfusion and accumulation of the Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate in the same area suggested the preoperative diagnosis of mediastinal neuroblastoma. Explorative thoracotomy revealed the presence of a neuroblastoma compressing the left lung pedicle. The described scintigraphic appearance in the pediatric age group is suggested as typical of mediastinal neuroblastoma. This pathology should be included in the following gamuts in nuclear medicine: unilateral decrease or absent lung perfusion, unilateral diffuse chest uptake of Ga-67 citrate, and unilateral pulmonary uptake in bone scintigraphy.

Garty, I.; Koren, A.; Moguilner, G.; Dharan, M.; Siplovitch, L.

1985-08-01

287

Tetraamine-derived bifunctional chelators for technetium-99m labelling: synthesis, bioconjugation and evaluation as targeted SPECT imaging probes for GRP-receptor-positive tumours.  

PubMed

Owing to its optimal nuclear properties, ready availability, low cost and favourable dosimetry, (99m)Tc continues to be the ideal radioisotope for medical-imaging applications. Bifunctional chelators based on a tetraamine framework exhibit facile complexation with Tc(V)O(2) to form monocationic species with high in vivo stability and significant hydrophilicity, which leads to favourable pharmacokinetics. The synthesis of a series of 1,4,8,11-tetraazaundecane derivatives (01-06) containing different functional groups at the 6-position for the conjugation of biomolecules and subsequent labelling with (99m)Tc is described herein. The chelator 01 was used as a starting material for the facile synthesis of chelators functionalised with OH (02), N(3) (04) and O-succinyl ester (05) groups. A straightforward and easy synthesis of carboxyl-functionalised tetraamine-based chelator 06 was achieved by using inexpensive and commercially available starting materials. Conjugation of 06 to a potent bombesin-antagonist peptide and subsequent labelling with (99m)Tc afforded the radiotracer (99m)Tc-N4-BB-ANT, with radiolabelling yields of >97% at a specific activity of 37 GBq micromol(-1). An IC(50) value of (3.7+/-1.3) nM was obtained, which confirmed the high affinity of the conjugate to the gastrin-releasing-peptide receptor (GRPr). Immunofluorescence and calcium mobilisation assays confirmed the strong antagonist properties of the conjugate. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of (99m)Tc-N4-BB-ANT showed high and specific uptake in PC3 xenografts and in other GRPr-positive organs. The tumour uptake was (22.5+/-2.6)% injected activity per gram (% IA g(-1)) at 1 h post injection (p.i.). and increased to (29.9+/-4.0)% IA g(-1) at 4 h p.i. The SPECT/computed tomography (CT) images showed high tumour uptake, clear background and negligible radioactivity in the abdomen. The promising preclinical results of (99m)Tc-N4-BB-ANT warrant its potential candidature for clinical translation. PMID:20066690

Abiraj, Keelara; Mansi, Rosalba; Tamma, Maria-Luisa; Forrer, Flavio; Cescato, Renzo; Reubi, Jean Claude; Akyel, Kayhan G; Maecke, Helmut R

2010-02-15

288

Myocardial distribution of indium-111-antimyosin Fab in acute inferior and right ventricular infarction: comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

In a postmortem study of a 69-yr-old female patient who had suffered 2 yr previously a non-Q-wave anterior infarction and who had sustained just seven days earlier a left inferior and right ventricular infarction, the distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab was compared to the results of {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination. Indium-111-antimyosin Fab imaging could not be performed because of cardiogenic shock. However, postmortem gamma scintillation counting revealed increased activities of antimyosin Fab in the inferoapical and right ventricular infarcted regions in which {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate positive imagings were observed; in contrast, a histologically confirmed old subendocardial anterior infarction had no definite activity. Thus, the myocardial distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab corresponded well to the results of {sup 99}mTc scintigrams and histologic examinations in a human heart, suggesting that this technique could be useful in vivo for detecting several-day-old myocardial infarction of the right ventricle as well as the left ventricle. Tissue from the 2-yr-old infarction was not identified by this technique.

Nakata, T.; Sakakibara, T.; Noto, T.; Shoji, T.; Tsuda, T.; Kubota, M.; Hattori, A.; Iimura, O. (Sapporo Medical College, (Japan))

1991-05-01

289

Peritumoural versus subareolar administration of technetium-99m nanocolloid for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer: preliminary results of a prospective intra-individual comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scintigraphic detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) in early-stage breast cancer is a widely accepted diagnostic method. However, which radiotracer administration mode should be used is still controversial. This prospective study aimed to intra-individually compare the detection rates obtained after peritumoural versus subareolar injection with regard to SN number and localisation. Fifty-one women (age, 32-76 years) with breast cancer

Sofiane Maza; Ray Valencia; Lilli Geworski; Andreas Zander; Hans Guski; Klaus J. Winzer; Dieter L. Munz

2003-01-01

290

Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of lung radiation fibrosis  

SciTech Connect

Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) enhancement of radiation-induced apical pulmonary fibrosis was observed in two patients previously treated for breast cancer. In one case the fibrosis was biopsied twice, with no change in its CT appearance over 3 years. Gadolinium-DTPA may enhance benign apical fibrosis after radiation therapy and should not, in and of itself, be used as evidence of recurrent malignancy.

Werthmuller, W.C.; Schiebler, M.L.; Whaley, R.A.; Mauro, M.A.; McCartney, W.H. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

1989-11-01

291

Tolerance data of Gd-DTPA: a review.  

PubMed

Gd-DTPA is the first paramagnetic contrast agent approved for clinical use in cranial and spinal MRI in the F.R.G., U.S.A., Japan and several other countries. After submission 13,439 patients were enrolled in standardized protocolled clinical trials. The observed adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after i.v. injection of Gd-DTPA were comparable to those after administration of iodinated non-ionic roentgen contrast media (CM). However, the overall incidence of ADRs after intravenous injection of 0.1 or 0.2 mmol/kg body weight Gd-DTPA was found to be even lower. Adverse events were observed in only 1.46% of the patients - or 1.14% if localized warmth is excluded. None of them was critical. There was no correlation between patient age and the incidence of ADRs. In patients with a known history of allergy the incidence of ADRs was increased by a factor 3-4, which is still lower than the incidence reported after intravenous administration of iodinated non-ionic roentgen CM to patients without known allergy. Good renal tolerance was seen in all patients, irrespective of pre-existing renal impairment. Fast bolus injections of Gd-DTPA were tolerated without added risk. The favorable safety profile is also reflected in the post marketing surveillance reports since Gd-DTPA became available as a commercial drug. PMID:1889423

Niendorf, H P; Dinger, J C; Haustein, J; Cornelius, I; Alhassan, A; Clauss, W

1991-01-01

292

Respiratory clearance of aerosolized radioactive solutes of varying molecular weight  

SciTech Connect

To determine the influence of varying molecular weight (mol wt) on respiratory clearance of aerosolized solutes, we studied eight radiopharmaceuticals, each administered to four dogs: sodium /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate (TcO4), /sup 99m/Tc glucoheptonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)GH), 51Cr-ethylenedinitrotetraacetate ((51Cr)EDTA), /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ((99mTc) DTPA), /sup 111/In diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ((/sup 111/In)DTPA), /sup 67/Ga desferoxaminemesylate ((/sup 67/Ga)DFOM), /sup 99m/Tc dextran ((/sup 99m/Tc)DX) and /sup 111/In transferrin ((/sup 111/In)TF). After aerosolization (0.8 m MMD, 2.4 GSD), clearance was determined for 30 min and then corrected by intravenous injection for nonairspace radioactivity. In-TF clearance (0.11 +/- 0.10%/min) was lower than TcO4 (6.32 +/- 0.62%/min), (/sup 99m/Tc)GH (1.50 +/- 0.37%/min), (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA (2.38 +/- 1.02%/min), (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA (3.51 +/- 0.40%/min), (/sup 111/In)DTPA (2.35 +/- 0.42%/min), (/sup 67/Ga) DFOM (1.99 +/- 0.49%/min) and (/sup 99m/Tc)DX (1.81 +/- 0.75%/min) clearances (p less than 0.001). TcO4 clearance was higher than others (p less than 0.001). Technetium binding to DX was unsatisfactory; aerosolization caused unbinding from DTPA. We conclude that respiratory clearance of large mol wt solutes within 30 min is negligible and, that clearance of molecules between 347-5099 daltons differs greatly, suggesting that binding and/or intrapulmonary retention affect transfer.

Huchon, G.J.; Montgomery, A.B.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

1987-05-01

293

USTUR WHOLE BODY CASE 0269: DEMONSTRATING EFFECTIVENESS OF I.V. CA-DTPA FOR PU  

SciTech Connect

This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol ‘mist.’ Chelation treatment with i.v. Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2½ years with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation), and continuing for 37 years. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 years after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive dataset has been applied to derive ‘chelation-enhanced’ transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys, and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modeling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as effective as promptly administered Ca-EDTA.

James, Anthony C.; Sasser , Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Carbaugh, Eugene H.

2008-01-28

294

Straightforward thiol-mediated protein labelling with DTPA: Synthesis of a highly active 111In-annexin A5-DTPA tracer  

PubMed Central

Background Annexin A5 (anxA5) has been found useful for molecular imaging of apoptosis and other biological processes. Methods Here, we report an optimised two-step synthesis of annexin A5-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) (anxA5-DTPA) for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with a single purification step. The use of a recombinant annexin A5 (cys-anxA5) with a single thiol group allowed regionally specific coupling, without affecting the binding domain of cys-anxA5. Results The metal complexing capacity of anxA5-DTPA was investigated by labelling with 111In3+ and Eu3+. Binding of modified anxA5-DTPA to apoptotic cells was tested in competition experiments with a fluorescent anxA5 derivative (anxA5-FITC) using flow cytometry and compared with that of wildtype anxA5 or non-binding anxA5-DTPA (M1234-anxA5-DTPA). The binding affinity to apoptotic cells of the anxA5-DTPA conjugate does not differ from that of wildtype anxA5. Conclusions This two-step synthesis of annexin A5-DTPA resulted in biologically active anxA5-DTPA, which can be labelled with radionuclides for use in SPECT and PET imaging. PMID:22541756

2012-01-01

295

Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of negatively charged ¹¹¹In-DTPA-octreotide derivatives.  

PubMed

Our previous studies indicated that (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((111)In-DTPA)-octreotide derivatives with an additional negative charge by replacing N-terminal d-phenylalanine (d-Phe) with an acidic amino acid such as l-aspartic acid (Asp) or its derivative exhibited low renal radioactivity levels when compared with (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide. On the basis of the findings, we designed, synthesized and evaluated two Asp-modified (111)In-DTPA-conjugated octreotide derivatives, (111)In-DTPA-Asp(1)-octreotide and (111)In-DTPA-Asp(0)-D-Phe(1)-octreotide. While (111)In-DTPA-Asp(1)-octreotide showed negligible AR42J cell uptake, (111)In-DTPA-Asp(0)-D-Phe(1)-octreotide exhibited AR42J cell uptake similar to that of (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide. When administered to AR42J tumor-bearing mice, (111)In-DTPA-Asp(0)-D-Phe(1)-octreotide exhibited renal radioactivity levels significantly lower than did (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide at 1 and 3 h post-injection. No significant differences were observed in tumor accumulation between (111)In-DTPA-Asp(0)-D-Phe(1)-octreotide and (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide after 1 and 3h injection. The findings in this study suggested that an interposition of an Asp at an appropriate position in (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide would constitute a useful strategy to develop (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide derivatives of low renal radioactivity levels while preserving tumor accumulation. PMID:24457092

Oshima, Nobuhiro; Akizawa, Hiromichi; Zhao, Songji; Zhao, Yan; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Kitamura, Yoji; Arano, Yasushi; Kuge, Yuji; Ohkura, Kazue

2014-02-15

296

10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (0.15 microcurie of molybdenum-99 per millicurie of technetium-99m); or (2) More than...licensee that uses molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generators for...

2013-01-01

297

10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (0.15 microcurie of molybdenum-99 per millicurie of technetium-99m); or (2) More than...licensee that uses molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generators for...

2014-01-01

298

10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (0.15 microcurie of molybdenum-99 per millicurie of technetium-99m); or (2) More than...licensee that uses molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generators for...

2012-01-01

299

Organic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN.

Penner, J.E.

1994-01-01

300

Species-dependent effective concentration of DTPA in plasma for chelation of 241Am  

PubMed Central

Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a chelating agent that is used to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides, such as americium, from contaminated individuals. Its primary site of action is in the blood, where it competes with various biological ligands, including transferrin and albumin, for the binding of radioactive metals. To evaluate the chelation potential of DTPA under these conditions, the competitive binding of 241Am between DTPA and plasma proteins was studied in rat, beagle and human plasma in vitro. Following incubation of DTPA and 241Am in plasma, the 241Am-bound ligands were fractionated by ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography, and each fraction was assayed for 241Am content by gamma scintillation counting. Dose-response curves of DTPA for 241Am binding were established, and these models were used to calculate the 90% maximal effective concentration, or EC90, of DTPA in each plasma system. The EC90 were determined to be 31.4, 15.9 and 10.0 ?M in rat, beagle and human plasma, respectively. These values correspond to plasma concentrations of DTPA that maximize 241Am chelation while minimizing excess DTPA. Based on the pharmacokinetic profile of DTPA in humans, after a standard 30 ?mol kg?1 intravenous bolus injection, the plasma concentration of DTPA remains above EC90 for approximately 5.6 h. Likewise, the effective duration of DTPA in rat and beagle were determined to be 0.67 and 1.7 h, respectively. These results suggest that species differences must be considered when translating DTPA efficacy data from animals to humans and offer further insights into improving the current DTPA treatment regimen. PMID:23799506

Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Jay, Michael; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

301

Spectroscopic studies on interaction of BSA and Eu(III) complexes with H5ph-dtpa and H5dtpa ligands.  

PubMed

An novel aromatic aminopolycarboxylic acid ligand, N-(2-N,N-Dicarboxymethylaminophenyl) ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (H5ph-dtpa), was synthesized by improving experimental method and its corresponding Eu(III) complex, Na2[Eu(III)(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]·6H2O, was successfully prepared through heat-refluxing method. As a comparison, the Eu(III) complex with diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N',N?-pentaacetic acid (H5dtpa) ligand, Na2[Eu(III)(dtpa)(H2O)]·6H2O, was also prepared by the same method. And then, the interaction between prepared Eu(III) complexes ([Eu(III)(dtpa)(H2O)](2)(-) and [Eu(III)(ph-dtpa)(H2O)](2)(-)) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution were studied by the combination of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. In addition, the binding sites of Eu(III) complexes ([Eu(III)(dtpa)(H2O)](2)(-) and [Eu(III)(ph-dtpa)(H2O)](2)(-)) to BSA molecules were also estimated by synchronous fluorescence. Moreover, the theoretical and experimental results show that the Van der Waals, hydrogen bond and ?-? stacking interactions are the mainly impulse to the reaction. The binding distances (r) between Eu(III) complexes ([Eu(III)(dtpa)(H2O)](2)(-) and [Eu(III)(ph-dtpa)(H2O)](2)(-)) and BSA were obtained according to Förster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. Also, the determined UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the conformation of BSA could be changed in the presence of Eu(III) complexes. The obtained results can help understand the action mode between rare earth metal complexes of aminopolycarboxylic acid ligands with BSA and they are also expected to provide important information of designs of new inspired drugs. PMID:25617848

Kong, Deyong; Qin, Cui; Fan, Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Jun

2015-04-01

302

Liquid hyper-absorption as a cause of increased DTPA clearance in the cystic fibrosis airway  

PubMed Central

Background Airway liquid hyper-absorption is a key pathophysiological link between the genetic mutations of cystic fibrosis (CF) and the development of lung disease. Here we consider whether the clearance of radiolabeled diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) might be used to detect changes in airway liquid absorption. Methods Tc99m-DTPA was added to the apical (luminal) surface of primary human bronchial epithelial cell cultures from CF and non-CF lungs. Liquid absorption rates were assessed using an optical method and compared to DTPA absorption rates. Measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were made to determine the effect of epithelial permeability. DTPA absorption was assessed after stimuli known to influence liquid absorption (volume addition and osmotic gradients) and in cultures containing different proportions of CF and non-CF cells. Results DTPA absorption rate was increased in CF cultures matching previous in vivo studies in individuals with CF. DTPA and liquid absorption rates were proportional. There was no relationship between TER and DTPA absorption rate when measured in individual cultures. Apical volume addition increased both DTPA and liquid absorption rates. DTPA absorption increased in a dose-dependent manner after basolateral mannitol addition was used to create transepithelial osmotic gradients favoring liquid absorption. Conversely, apical mannitol (a candidate therapy) slowed DTPA absorption in CF cultures. Conclusions These results imply that DTPA absorption is directly related to liquid absorption, consistent with increased rates of airway surface liquid absorption in the CF airway, and that modification of liquid absorption from osmotic therapies might be detectable through DTPA absorption measurements in vivo. Trial registration none PMID:23446051

2013-01-01

303

Incidental DTPA and DMSA uptake during renal scanning in unknown bone metastases.  

PubMed

We report a patient with DTPA and DMSA uptake on unsuspected bone metastases. He had severe pain due to grade 3 hydronephrosis of his left kidney. When Tc-99m DTPA and DMSA renal scanning were performed for preoperative evaluation, abnormal radiopharmaceutical uptake on the iliac area was noted. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastases to bone were subsequently defined. This patient is a very demonstrative case in respect of having all DTPA, DMSA and HDP uptakes in bone metastases. The type of the tumor has to be added to the list of extrarenal uptake of DTPA and DMSA as a rare cause. PMID:16878710

Balci, Tansel Ansal; Ciftci, Ismail; Karaoglu, Aziz

2006-06-01

304

Comparison between radioactive aerosol, technegas and krypton for ventilation imaging in healthy calves.  

PubMed

The use of lung scintigraphy in calves necessitates the validation of a ventilation (V) imaging agent compatible with clinical applications. This study aimed at defining the value of an inhaled radioactive aerosol (99mTc-DTPA) and a 'pseudogas' (Technegas) in the assessment of regional V in healthy conscious calves by comparing 99mTc-DTPA and Technegas deposition (D) images to V(V) images obtained from the steady-state inhalation of the short half-life krypton 81 (81mKr) gas. Images were compared by analysis of radioactivity distribution in computer-generated regions of interest within the right lung and D to V ratio images were generated in order to highlight areas of mismatching between 99mTc-DTPA or Technegas and 81mKr distributions. Results of this analysis showed that the 99mTc-DTPA aerosol droplets were unable to reach the lung parenchyma because of significant particle impaction in the major conducting airways. Better definition of the ventilated lung was obtained when using Technegas because of minimal deposition in conducting airways. Furthermore, the Technegas and 81mKr distribution patterns were highly equivalent. PMID:10950132

Coghe, J; Votion, D; Lekeux, P

2000-07-01

305

Tropospheric Aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m, PM2.5=0.3 ?g m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m, PM10=1.1 ?g m-3; estimated coefficient of light scattering by particulate matter, ?ep, at 570 nm=12 Mm-1). (b) High aerosol concentration (PM2.5=43.9 ?g m-3; PM10=83.4 ?g m-3; estimated ?ep at 570 nm=245 Mm-1) (reproduced by permission of National Park Service, 2002). Although comprising only a small fraction of the mass of Earth's atmosphere, aerosol particles are highly important constituents of the atmosphere. Special interest has focused on aerosols in the troposphere, the lowest part of the atmosphere, extending from the land or ocean surface typically to ˜8 km at high latitudes, ˜12 km in mid-latitudes, and ˜16 km at low latitudes. That interest arises in large part because of the importance of aerosol particles in geophysical processes, human health impairment through inhalation, environmental effects through deposition, visibility degradation, and influences on atmospheric radiation and climate.Anthropogenic aerosols are thought to exert a substantial influence on Earth's climate, and the need to quantify this influence has sparked much of the current interest in and research on tropospheric aerosols. The principal mechanisms by which aerosols influence the Earth radiation budget are scattering and absorbing solar radiation (the so-called "direct effects") and modifying clouds and precipitation, thereby affecting both radiation and hydrology (the so-called "indirect effects"). Light scattering by aerosols increases the brightness of the planet, producing a cooling influence. Light-absorbing aerosols such as black carbon exert a warming influence. Aerosols increase the reflectivity of clouds, another cooling influence. These radiative influences are quantified as forcings, where a forcing is a perturbation to the energy balance of the atmosphere-Earth system, expressed in units of watts per square meter, W m-2. A warming influence is denoted a positive forcing, and a cooling influence, negative. The radiative direct and indirect forcings by anthropogenic aerosols are thought to be of comparable magnitude to the posi

Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

2003-12-01

306

Comparison of the predictive value of Exercise-Induced ST depression versus exercise technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging for detection of coronary artery disease in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scant knowledge exists regarding the significance of either additional ST depression in the presence of baseline depression or new stress-induced ST depression in patients with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Accordingly, the purpose of this investigation is to determine whether the appearance and\\/or severity of ST abnormalities during exercise stress testing can accurately predict the prevalence of ischemic burden as measured

Dharmesh Patel; Timir S. Baman; George A. Beller

2004-01-01

307

Functional assessment with electrocardiographic gated single-photon emission computed tomography improves the ability of technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging to predict myocardial viability in patients undergoing revascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the use of electrocardiographic (ECG) gated single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging for the prediction of viability in patients undergoing revascularization, who have coronary disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Fifty patients underwent technectium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi ECG gated SPECT imaging preoperatively at rest and 1 week after revascularization, whereas 36 (72%) also underwent imaging 6 weeks

Michael G Levine; Carol C McGill; Alan W Ahlberg; Michael P White; Satyendra Giri; Babar Shareef; David Waters; Gary V Heller

1999-01-01

308

Predictive and prognostic values of transient ischemic dilatation of left ventricular cavity for coronary artery disease and impact of various managements on clinical outcome using technetium-99m sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Transient ischemic dilatation (TID) of LV cavity during stress gated myocardial perfusion imaging (GMPI) is known as a predictor\\u000a of severe CAD and signifies worse prognosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To assess predictive and prognostic value of TID of LV cavity using GMPI and clinical outcome in patients treated conservatively\\u000a or with revascularization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  189 patients out of 2689 were recruited (M:F 127\\/62, mean age

Maseeh uz Zaman; Nosheen Fatima; Abdus Samad; Mohammad Ishaq; Asif Wali; Kawish Rehman; Javeria Bano

309

F-18-2-Fluoro-2Deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Compared to Technetium99m Hexakis-2-Methoxyisobutyl Isonitrile Single Photon Emission Chest Tomography in the Diagnosis of Indeterminate Lung Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:18FDG-PET plays a significant role in diagnosing malignancy of lung lesions but remains an expensive test available at a limited number of sites in Italy. Objective: We prospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of 99mTc-MIBI- SPECT and 18FDG-PET in patients with indeterminate lung lesions to demonstrate that 99mTc-MIBI-SPECT may be considered as a valid alternative when 18FDG-PET is not available. Methods:

Mario Santini; Alfonso Fiorelli; Giovanni Vicidomini; Paolo Laperuta; Luigi Busiello; Pier Francesco Rambaldi; Luigi Mansi; Antonio Rotondo

2010-01-01

310

Global Aerosols  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... sizes and from multiple sources, including biomass burning, mineral dust, sea salt and regional industrial pollution. A color scale is ... desert source region. Deserts are the main sources of mineral dust, and MISR obtains aerosol optical depth at visible wavelengths ...

2013-04-19

311

Preparation of (111)In-DTPA morpholino oligomer for low abdominal accumulation.  

PubMed

An ability to quantitate the beta cell mass by noninvasive nuclear imaging will be very useful in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetes. However, to be successful, radioactivity from the pancreas must not be obscured by the background radioactivity in the abdomen. Pretargeting offers the promise of achieving high target organ to normal tissue ratios. In preparation for pancreas imaging studies by pretargeting using morpholino oligomers (MORF/cMORF), it was necessary to develop a simple and efficient method to radiolabel the cMORF effector. Because we have shown that labeling the cMORF with (111)In via DTPA reduces excretion into the intestines compared to labeling with (99m)Tc via MAG(3), the conjugation of DTPA to cMORF was investigated for (111)In labeling. The amine-derivatized cMORF was conjugated with DTPA using 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) as an alternative to the conventional cyclic anhydride. The conjugation efficiency (represented by the number of DTPA groups attached per cMORF) was investigated by changing the EDC, DTPA, and cMORF molar ratios. Different open columns were considered for the purification of DTPA-cMORF. Before conjugation, each cMORF molecule was confirmed to have an amine by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) assay using the omega-amino butyric acid as positive standard and the non-amine derivatized cMORF as negative standard. The average number of DTPA groups per cMORF was 0.15-0.20 following the conjugation over a cMORF/DTPA molar ratio of 0.5-5 and over a cMORF/EDC molar ratio of 20-60. The conjugation efficiency was lower than expected probably due to steric hindrance. A 1 x 50cm P-4 column using ammonium acetate as eluting buffer provided an adequate separation of DTPA-cMORF from free DTPA. The (111)In labeling efficiency by transchelation from acetate exceeded 95%, thus avoiding the need for postlabeling purification. Despite the lower than expected conjugation efficiency in which no more than one-fifth of the cMORF were DTPA-derivatized, a specific radioactivity of at least 300microCi/microg or 1.90Ci/micromol of cMORF was achieved. In conclusion, a protocol is described for (111)In-DTPA-cMORF that provides the high specific activity favorable to beta cell imaging because of the low mass fraction of beta cells in pancreas (1-2%) and obviates the need for postlabeling purification. PMID:20359901

Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; Rusckowski, Mary; Greiner, Dale; Hnatowich, Donald

2010-09-01

312

Efficacy of different DTPA treatment schedules for removal of 234Th from simulated wounds in rats.  

PubMed

The translocation of 234Th from a simulated wound site and the efficacy of DTPA administration, as a function of the thorium compound injected as well as the DTPA treatment schedule, have been investigated in rats. Much more 234Th injected as citrate was translocated from the injection site than after administration as nitrate, whereas the distribution pattern of 234Th translocated to the various tissues was nearly identical for both 234Th compounds. Combined local and systematic treatment with DTPA was equally or more effective than each of the treatments alone in reducing the retention of 234Th at the injection site and in the organs. PMID:6607231

Peter-Witt, E; Volf, V

1984-01-01

313

Palliation of bone pain with Sn-117m(4+)DTPA  

SciTech Connect

Sn-117m(4+)DTPA prepared at Brookhaven National Laboratory has favorable physical and biological characteristics for use as a palliative agent to relieve pain from osseous metastases. The short range of the emitted conversion electrons permits large bone radiation doses without excessive radiation to the bone marrow. An accompanying 158.6 keV gamma is useful for monitoring the distribution. The T1/2 of 13.6 days provides an adequate shelf life. A previous study in humans has demonstrated favorable dosimetry with a bone surface dose of approximately 57.9 mGy/MBq and a bone surface to marrow ratio of 10:1. This study was instituted to find a dose level which was effective and to monitor effects on bone marrow. Sn-117m was administered to 14 patients. Administered activity ranged between 66 and 573 MBq or 1.2-5.8 MBq/kg body weight. At the lower dose levels (<3.1 MBq/kg, n=7), 1 obtained good relief of pain, 1 partial relief, and 1 no relief. The remaining 4 were not evaluated because of the need for further treatment of soft tissue disease or because of intervening death. The 7 patients treated at the higher dose level (4.8-5.8 MBq/kg) included patients with prostate (3), breast (3) and unknown (1) primary cancers. All patients experienced relief of pain, 5 excellent and 2 partial. No marrow suppression was observed as a result of Sn-117m therapy. Initial observations indicate that Sn-117m DTPA is effective in palliation of pain from osseous metastases without producing bone marrow suppression. Further studies at a higher dose level are planned.

Atkins, L.F.; Mausner, L.F.; Meinken, G.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-05-01

314

An evaluation of Technegas as a ventilation agent compared with krypton-81 m in the scintigraphic diagnosis of pulmonary embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ventilation agent that provides good quality lung images, which is cheap, easy to use and non-toxic, with a low radiation dose, has long been sought. Technegas, an ultrafine aerosol of technetium-99m-labelled carbon, was developed with these qualities in mind. We have studied Technegas in a clinical setting to evaluate some of these qualities. Twenty-five patients referred with a diagnosis

Gary Cook; Susan E. M. Clarke

1992-01-01

315

External monitoring of kidney transplant function using Tc99m(Sn)DTPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of an external counting technique to provide daily monitoring of kidney transplant function by measuring the renal clearance of Tc-99m(Sn)DTPA. During the first few weeks following transplant, 15 patients had their renal clearance of Tc-99m DTPA measured daily over periods of 5-24 hr. Clearance rates were compared with daily plasma

W. F. Sampson; M. A. Macleod; D. Warren

1981-01-01

316

External monitoring of kidney transplant function using Tc99m(Sn)DTPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of an external counting technique to provide daily monitoring of kidney transplant function by measuring the renal clearance of Tc-99m(SN)DTPA. During the first few weeks following transplant, 15 patients had their renal clearance of Tc-99m DTPA measured daily over periods of 5 to 24 h. Clearance rates were compared with

W. F. D. Sampson; M. A. Macleod; D. Warren

1981-01-01

317

Gadolinium-DTPA in rheumatoid arthritis and related diseases: first results with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-four joints (19 knees, 15 wrists) of 31 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and related disorders were examined prior to and following intravenous administration of Gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol\\/kg body weight). T1-weighted spin-echo sequences and the gradient-echo technique FLASH were applied. FLASH scanning was used for the registration of the time-dependent changes of signal intensity following Gd-DTPA. Synovial proliferations exhibited a

Maximilian F. Reiser; Georg P. Bongartz; Rainer Erlemann; Mathias Schneider; Thomas Pauly; Harald Sittek; Peter E. Peters

1989-01-01

318

Selenium Aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the atmospheric concentrations and size distributions of particulate selenium (Se), aerosols were collected by air filtration and impactor sampling at the Kap Arkona coastal weather station on the Island of Rugen.Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was used to determine Se and numerous other elements as well.The dependence of the Se concentration on the wind direction and the results

Baltic Sea

319

Pulmonary clearance of three aerosolized solutes in oleic acid-induced lung injury  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effects of oleic acid (OA) on pulmonary clearance of three aerosolized radioactive solutes: /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA), /sup 67/Ga-desferoxamine (/sup 67/Ga-DFOM), and /sup 111/In-transferrin (/sup 111/In-TF). Either 0.09 ml/kg OA or an equivalent volume of 0.9% NaCl (controls) was administered intravenously to 48 anesthetized, paralyzed dogs. Each animal received one aerosolized solute either 60 min after (protocol A) or 30 min before (protocol B) the infusion of OA or NaCl. In protocol A clearances of all three solutes were similar in OA and control animals. In contrast, in protocol B clearances of all three solutes increased significantly during OA infusion; during the next 60 min clearances of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 67/Ga-DFOM returned to control values but 111In-TF remained increased. We conclude that 1) in OA-induced permeability edema pulmonary clearance of aerosolized solutes is increased when the aerosol is delivered 30 min before but not 60 min after injury, and 2) increased clearance persists only for large molecules, presumably because smaller molecules cross injured epithelium quickly and completely. These phenomena are best explained by a nonhomogeneous distribution of OA-induced injury.

Huchon, G.J.; Montgomery, A.B.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

1988-03-01

320

Synthesis and evaluation of novel polysaccharide-Gd-DTPA compounds as contrast agent for MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macromolecular conjugates of two kinds of natural polysaccharides, that from Panax quinquefolium linn (PQPS) and Ganoderma applanatum pat (GAPS), with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) have been synthesized and characterized by means of FTIR, elementary analysis and ICP-AES. Their stability was investigated by competition study with Ca 2+, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and DTPA. Polysaccharide-bound complexes exhibit T1 relaxivities of 1.5-1.7 times that of Gd-DTPA in D 2O at 25°C and 9.4 T. MR imaging of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats showed remarkable enhancement in rat liver and kidney after i.v. injection of these two complexes: liver parenchyma 60.9±5.6%, 57.8±7.4% at 65-85 min; kidney 144.9±14.5%, 199.9±25.4% at 10-30 min for PQPS-Gd-DTPA, GAPS-Gd-DTPA at gadolinium dose of 0.083 and 0.082 mmol/kg, respectively. Our preliminary in vivo and in vitro study indicates that the two kinds of polysaccharide-bound complexes are potential tissue-specific contrast agents for MRI.

Sun, Guoying; Feng, Jianghua; Jing, Fengying; Pei, Fengkui; Liu, Maili

2003-09-01

321

Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to sup 99m Tc-DTPA  

SciTech Connect

Respiratory epithelial clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of {sup 113m}In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy.

Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J. (Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France))

1990-02-01

322

Facile Synthesis of Gd-DO3A-EA Conjugated with DTPA: A Novel Calcium Dependent MR Contrast Agent  

E-print Network

Facile Synthesis of Gd-DO3A-EA Conjugated with DTPA: A Novel Calcium Dependent MR Contrast Agent-(2-aminoethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraaza- cyclododec-1-yl}-acetic acid] coupled to DTPA-bis-anhydride via a flexible a possibility for use as extracellular calcium sensitive CA. References: (1). Zhang, S., et. al (1999) Angew

323

The iron(III)-catalyzed oxidation of DTPA in an aqueous solution / longy Steven Harry Christiansen  

E-print Network

in aqueous solutions. A. E. Martell, R. J. Motekaitis and coworkers reported that EDTA is unstable at high temperature (200 and 260 C at pH 9. 5) in aqueous solutions ( ). In a deoxygenated system, this ligand undergoes homolytic cleavage of a C-N bond... Time (minutes) Figure 9: A typical HPLC chromatogram obtained for the iron(III) complex of the decomposition product and DTPA. 130 ~ ~ FeDTPA L Decomp. Product L I 100 0 m 0 Q Cu 0 e cC o CL 10I ( g04 Bof j , . -"'L 4 t 4 1 0 100...

Christiansen, Steven Harry

1988-01-01

324

Decorporation of systemically distributed americium by a novel orally administered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) formulation in beagle dogs.  

PubMed

Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological accidents and terrorists attacks. Radioactive americium is a significant component of nuclear fallout. Removal of large radioactive materials, such as 241Am, from exposed persons is a subject of significant interest due to the hazards they pose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-related efficacy of daily doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating Am administered intravenously as a soluble citrate complex to male and female beagle dogs. In addition, the efficacy of the NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating 241Am was directly compared to intravenously administered saline and DTPA. Animals received a single IV administration of 241Am(III)-citrate on Day 0. One day after radionuclide administration, one of four different doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules [1, 2, or 6 capsules d(-1) (30 mg, 60 mg, or 180 mg DTPA) or 2 capsules BID], IV Zn-DTPA (5 mg kg(-1) pentetate zinc trisodium) as a positive control, or IV saline as a placebo were administered. NanoDTPA™ Capsules, IV Zn-DTPA, or IV saline was administered on study days 1-14. Animals were euthanized on day 21. A full necropsy was conducted, and liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and trachea, tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN), muscle samples (right and left quadriceps), gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach plus esophagus, upper and lower intestine), gonads, two femurs, lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4), and all other soft tissue remains were collected. Urinary and fecal excretion profiles were increased approximately 10-fold compared to those for untreated animals. Tissue contents were decreased compared to untreated controls. In particular, liver content was decreased by approximately eightfold compared to untreated animals. The results from this study further demonstrate that oral NanoDTPA™ Capsules are equally efficient compared to IV Zn-DTPA in decorporation of actinides. PMID:25627942

Wilson, James P; Cobb, Ronald R; Dungan, Nathanael W; Matthews, Laura L; Eppler, Bärbel; Aiello, Kenneth V; Curtis, Shiro; Boger, Teannetta; Guilmette, Raymond A; Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Talton, James D

2015-03-01

325

Kidney scintigraphy after ACE inhibition in the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension  

SciTech Connect

Suppression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition may induce renal failure in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis. Recent scintigraphic studies with the glomerular tracer technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (99m-Tc DTPA) indicate that in patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be markedly reduced in the affected kidney after inhibition of ACE. This finding reflects the important role of the RAS in maintaining GFR (by increasing postglomerular resistance) in states of low renal perfusion pressure. Preliminary observations suggest that this scintigraphic test might be useful in the detection of renovascular hypertension.

Ghione, S.; Fommei, E.; Palombo, C.; Giaconi, S.; Mantovanelli, A.; Ragazzini, A.; Palla, L.

1986-01-01

326

Limited value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the imaging of neuroendocrine tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Scintigraphy using [111In-DTPA-d-Phe1]-pentetreotide or pentavalent technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid [99mTc(V)-DMSA] has been shown to localize well-differentiated and slowly growing neuroendocrine tumours, whereas increased fluorodeoxyglucose\\u000a (FDG) uptake is associated with malignancy. The aim of this study was to compare the value of fluorine-18 FDG positron emission\\u000a tomography (PET) with that of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SS-R) and dual-radionuclide scintigraphy [SS-R and 99mTc(V)-DMSA = DNS] in

Stefan Adams; Richard Baum; Thomas Rink; Petra-Maria Schumm-Dräger; Klaus-Henning Usadel; Gustav Hör

1997-01-01

327

Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

2012-01-01

328

Heavy metal uptake and leaching from polluted soil using permeable barrier in DTPA-assisted phytoextraction.  

PubMed

Application of sewage sludge (SS) in agriculture is an alternative technique of disposing this waste. But unreasonable application of SS leads to excessive accumulation of heavy metals in soils. A column experiment was conducted to test the availability of heavy metals to Lolium perenne grown in SS-treated soils following diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) application at rates of 0, 10 and 20 mmol kg(-1) soil. In order to prevent metal leaching in DTPA-assisted phytoextraction process, a horizontal permeable barrier was placed below the treated soil, and its effectiveness was also assessed. Results showed that DTPA addition significantly increased metal uptake by L. perenne shoots and metal leaching. Permeable barriers increased metal concentrations in plant shoots and effectively decreased metal leaching from the treated soil. Heavy metals in SS-treated soils could be gradually removed by harvesting L. perenne many times in 1 year and adding low dosage of DTPA days before each harvest. PMID:25354438

Zhao, Shulan; Shen, Zhiping; Duo, Lian

2015-04-01

329

Gadolinium-DTPA as a contrast agent in MRI: initial clinical experience in 20 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 20 patients before and after intravenous administration of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Twelve of the patients had clinical and histologic diagnoses of cerebral tumor, six had hepatic tumors, one had hepatic cysts, and one had transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Contrast enhancement was seen with all tumors, but not with the hepatic

D. H. Carr; J. Brown; G. M. Bydder; R. E. Steiner; H.-J. Weinmann; U. Speck; A. S. Hall; I. R. Young

1984-01-01

330

Gadolinium-DTPA in the Evaluation of Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gadolinium-DTPA was used in MR imaging of the spine to determine the ability of a contrast agent to increase the detection and characterization of disease In the intradural extramedullary space. Although MR imaging, especially with recent technological im- provements, has been shown to be at least competitive with, and often superior to, myelography and postmyelography CT in the study of

Gordon Sze; Andrea Abramson; George Krol; Robert D. Zimmerman; Michael D. F. Deck

331

Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal infectious processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess whether gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides diagnostic information beyond that given by nonenhanced imaging in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infectious processes and whether it can be used for differentiating infectious from noninfectious inflammatory lesions. Magnetic resonance images performed with and without intravenous gadolinium-DTPA in 34 cases in which musculoskeletal infection had

Katharine L. Hopkins; King C. P. Li; Gabrielle Bergman

1995-01-01

332

Biodistribution of Ru-97-labeled DTPA, DMSA and transferrin. [Diagnostic potential  

SciTech Connect

Ruthenium-97 is being produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The favorable physical properties of Ru-97 and chemical reactivity of ruthenium offer a potential for using this isotope to label compounds useful for delayed scanning. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and Transferrin (TF) were labeled with Ru-97-chloride. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA, injected intravenously, showed similar organ distribution, kinetics, and more than 80% excretion by 0.5 h. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA injected into the cisterna magna of dogs showed similar kinetics in brain, blood, and urinary bladder. The energy deposited by 1 mCi In-111-DTPA is twice that from 1 mCi Ru-97-DTPA. High quality camera images of the CSF space in the dog were obtained with both isotopes. Ru-97-DMSA was prepared with and without the addition of SnCl/sub 2/.2H/sub 2/O. Tin-free DMSA was rapidly excreted via the kidneys, whereas for maximum cortical deposition, the tin-containing preparation was superior. This compound is suitable for delayed imaging of both normal and impaired kidneys. Tissue distribution studies were performed in abscess-bearing rats with Ru-97-transferrin. Although blood levels were higher than with Ga-67-citrate, the abscess had twice as much Ru-97-TF as Ga-67-citrate and the Ru-97 muscle activity was one-third that of Ga-67. Imaging of abscess-bearing rabbits with Ru-97-TF visualized the abscesses as early as 1/2 hr after injection. Since the initial images visualize the abscess so clearly and since the TF portion of the compound binds to the abscess, Tc-99m-TF is being studied for the same purpose. Ru-97-labeled compounds are a promising replacement for In-111 and possibly also for Ga-67 compounds with the advantages of lower radiation dose and high quality image. (ERB)

Som, P; Oster, Z H; Fairchild, R G; Atkins, H L; Brill, A B; Gil, M C; Srivastava, S C; Meinken, G E; Goldman, A G; Richards, P

1980-01-01

333

Aerosol gels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)

2010-01-01

334

Aerosols Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure the aerosol optical thickness of the atmosphere (how much of the sun's light is scattered or absorbed by particles suspended in the air). Students point a GLOBE sun photometer at the sun and record the largest voltage reading they obtain on a digital voltmeter connected to the photometer. Students observe sky conditions near the sun, perform the Cloud, Optional Barometric Pressure (optional) and Relative Humidity Protocols, and measure current air temperature. Intended outcomes are that students will understand the concept that the atmosphere prevents all of the sun's light from reaching Earth's surface and they learn what causes hazy skies. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

335

Comparison of the Relative Renal Function Calculated with 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children.  

PubMed

The aim was to compare the relative renal functions measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) in children with renal diseases. Relative renal function of 128 children who applied to three hospitals from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean value measured with 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA were 51.58 ± 14.95 and 51.96 ± 14.99 for the right kidney, 47.87 ± 15.27 and 47.94 ± 15.17 for the left kidney, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the relative renal functions (r = 0.963, P < 0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, the mean difference between two methods was 0.7 and the correlation limits were between 10.1 and-10.8. As a result, although 99mTc-DMSA is accepted as the most reliable method for the determination of relative renal function, 99mTc-DTPA can be another choice for the calculation of relative renal function without a complementary DMSA scan particularly in pediatric patients who require renogram curve and GFR calculations. PMID:25538484

Çelik, Tanju; Yalçin, Hülya; Günay, Emel Ceylan; Özen, Aynur; Özer, Cahit

2014-09-01

336

Comparison of the Relative Renal Function Calculated with 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children  

PubMed Central

The aim was to compare the relative renal functions measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) in children with renal diseases. Relative renal function of 128 children who applied to three hospitals from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean value measured with 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA were 51.58 ± 14.95 and 51.96 ± 14.99 for the right kidney, 47.87 ± 15.27 and 47.94 ± 15.17 for the left kidney, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the relative renal functions (r = 0.963, P < 0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, the mean difference between two methods was 0.7 and the correlation limits were between 10.1 and-10.8. As a result, although 99mTc-DMSA is accepted as the most reliable method for the determination of relative renal function, 99mTc-DTPA can be another choice for the calculation of relative renal function without a complementary DMSA scan particularly in pediatric patients who require renogram curve and GFR calculations. PMID:25538484

Çelik, Tanju; Yalçin, Hülya; Günay, Emel Ceylan; Özen, Aynur; Özer, Cahit

2014-01-01

337

Bronchial and alveolar absorption of inhaled 99mTc-DTPA  

SciTech Connect

The clearance rate of 99mTc-DTPA deposited in the lung by inhalation has been used as an index to measure lung epithelial permeability. To determine if differences exist between alveolar and bronchial absorption of 99mTc-DTPA we measured regional clearance rates in 4 beagle dogs for 30 min after preferential bronchial and alveolar deposition. Alveolar deposition was maximized by inhalation for 2 min of small 99mTc-DTPA particles (activity median aerodynamic diameter, AMAD = 0.5 micron; geometric standard deviation, GSD = 1.6) with deep slow ventilation (VT = 350 ml; f = 9 min-1), and bronchial deposition was increased by inhalation of large particles (AMAD = 4.1 microns, GSD = 2.3) with rapid shallow ventilation (VT = 50 ml; f = 65 min-1). Respective clearance rates from basal regions, which represent mainly alveolar absorption, were: for small particles, 2.29% min-1; for large particles, 1.57% min-1 (p = 0.10). Apical regions, which contain relatively more bronchial surface than do the basal regions, showed the following clearance rates: for small particles, 1.76% min-1; for large particles, 1.31% min-1 (p less than 0.05). These results indicate that in vivo alveolar absorption of 99mTc-DTPA is more rapid than bronchial absorption. Control or verification of the site of deposition of the tracer in the lung is of importance for the interpretation of the results of the 99mTc-DTPA lung permeability assay.

Oberdoerster, G.U.; Utell, M.J.; Morrow, P.E.; Hyde, R.W.; Weber, D.A.

1986-11-01

338

Species-Dependent Chelation of 241Am by DTPA Di-Ethyl Ester.  

PubMed

Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an FDA-approved chelating agent for enhancing the elimination of transuranic elements such as americium from the body. Early access to therapy minimizes deposition of these radionuclides in tissues such as the bone. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, DTPA is administered as an IV injection, delaying access. Therefore, a diethyl-ester analog of DTPA, named C2E2, was synthesized as a means to increase oral absorption. As a hexadentate ligand, it was hypothesized that C2E2 was capable of binding americium directly. Therefore, the protonation constants and americium stability constant for C2E2 were determined by potentiometric titration and a solvent extraction method, respectively. C2E2 was shown to bind americium with a log K of 19.6. The concentrations of C2E2, its metabolite C2E1, and DTPA required to achieve effective binding in rat, beagle, and human plasma were studied in vitro. Dose response curves for each ligand were established, and the 50% maximal effective concentrations were determined for each species. As expected, higher concentrations of C2E2 were required to achieve the same degree of binding as DTPA. The results indicated that chelation in beagle plasma is more representative of the human response than rats. Finally, the pharmacokinetics of C2E2 were investigated in beagles, and the data was fit to a two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, along with first-order absorption. Based on the in vitro data, a 100 mg kg dose of C2E2 can be expected to have an effective duration of action of 3.8 h in beagles. PMID:25706138

Huckle, James E; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

2015-04-01

339

Detection of pleural effusions and increased lung water by Tc-99m DTPA imaging  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to report a systematic observation of uptake or retention of Tc-99m DTPA in pleural effusions and other abnormal states of increased lung water. 24 patients who underwent renal imaging with 10 mCi Tc-99m DTPA were included. Imaging was performed with a large field of view camera for 0-03 minutes after injection and delayed images acquired 2-4 hours later. The images encompassed the mid and lower thorax as well as kidneys. 15 patients showed, at 0-5 minutes, cold areas at lung bases that later showed relatively increased activity at 2-4 hours (hot on delayed images). 14 of these 15 patients showed pleural effusions on chest x-ray. Small bilateral effusions were more clearly demonstrated by scan than by x-ray in 8 of 15 patients. One patient with pneumonia showed an immediate hot area in the infected lobe, and two with pulmonary edema and congestive failure showed diffuse lung retention of Tc-99m on delayed images. Among 9 patients who did not demonstrate abnormal cold or hot areas in their lungs on DTPA images, none had clinical or x-ray evidence of pleural effusion, pneumonia, or congestive failure (100% negative predictive value). Differences in rate constants for diffusion into vs. out of pleural fluid provide a plausible explanation for the observed retention of tracer in effusions, as seen on delayed images. This study indicates that imaging with Tc-99m DTPA provides information of diagnostic value in the detection of pleural effusions. Futhermore, the data suggests that DTPA imaging may also be useful as a simple, cost-effective method to detect other conditions in which regional lung water is abnormally increased.

Glass, E.C.; Karelitz, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.

1985-05-01

340

Aerosol mobility size spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

2007-11-20

341

Alveolar epithelial permeability in baboons: histamine and capsaicin.  

PubMed Central

1. We investigated if changes in alveolar epithelial permeability could be initiated by various doses of the irritant capsaicin through stimulation of pulmonary afferent nerves either directly, or indirectly through the release of an intermediate cell mediator, and whether mediation of permeability involved histamine H1 and/or H2 receptors. 2. Alveolar epithelial permeability was indicated by the clearance of peripherally deposited 99mTc-DTPA (technetium-99m-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate) aerosol in baboons. Aerosol challenge experiments were performed twice with histamine (32 mg/ml), once each with capsaicin (10(-6), 10(-5), 10(-4) and 10(-3) M), and once each with histamine (32 mg/ml) preceded by H1 (terfenadine) and H2 (ranitidine) antagonists alone and combined. 3. Mean half-time for 99mTc-DTPA clearance was 66 +/- 4 min. After histamine, it decreased to 41 +/- 5 min (P < 0.05), and after capsaicin it was 70 +/- 5 min (combined doses). Pretreatment with the H1 and H2 antagonists, either separately or in combination, did not consistently inhibit increases in 99mTc-DTPA permeability. 4. Capsaicin caused tachypnoea only at 10(-3) M (P < 0.05). Inhibition of histamine-induced tachypnoea required both antagonists (P < 0.05) suggesting the existence of a population of peripheral sensory neurons possessing H1 and H2 receptors. Changes in permeability were unrelated to the changes in respiratory frequency. Thus, neither the mechanisms that stimulate respiratory frequency, nor the respiratory frequency per se, were responsible for increased alveolar epithelial permeability. 5. Capsaicin did not change epithelial permeability at doses that cause capsaicin-sensitive C fibre stimulation as delineated by increases in respiratory frequency. Nor does C fibre stimulation, induced by mediators released from pulmonary cells activated by low doses of capsaicin, increase epithelial permeability. These data suggest that in the primate, histamine increases epithelial permeability to small solutes by a mechanism independent of the activation of capsaicin-sensitive C fibres and capsaicin-initiated release of cell mediators. 6. These findings do not support a role for C fibre activation in regulating epithelial permeability of small solutes. PMID:1432713

Yeates, D B; Hameister, W M

1992-01-01

342

Lung inflammation in coal miners assessed by uptake of 67Ga-citrate and clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate aerosol  

SciTech Connect

The authors compared the diffuse lung uptake of 67Ga-citrate, an index of inflammatory lung activity, with the lung clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) aerosol, an index of pulmonary epithelial permeability, in a group of 19 West Virginia coal miners whose pulmonary status was compatible with coal worker's pneumoconiosis. 99mTc-DTPA clearance alone and 67Ga-citrate uptake alone were measured in nine and five additional subjects, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine if increased 99mTc-DTPA lung clearance was caused by inflammation at the lung epithelial surfaces. Subjects inhaled approximately 150 microCi (approximately 5.6 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, and quantitative gamma camera images of the lungs were acquired at 1-min increments for 25 min. Regions of interest (ROI) were selected to include (1) both lungs; (2) each individual lung; and (3) the upper, middle, and lower thirds of each lung. 99mTc-DTPA clearance was determined from the slopes of the respective time-activity plots for the different ROI. Each subject was intravenously administered 50 miCroCk (1.9 MBq)/kg 67Ga-citrate 48 to 72 h before imaging the body between neck and pelvis. The extent of 67Ga-citrate lung uptake was expressed as the gallium index (GI). Mean radioaerosol clearance half-time (T1/2) for the six nonsmoking coal miners (60.6 +/- 16.0 min) was significantly shorter (p less than 0.001) than for the nonsmoking control group (123.8 +/- 28.7 min). T1/2 for the 12 smoking miners (18.4 +/- 10.2 min) was shorter than for the smoking control group (33.1 +/- 17.8 min), but the difference did not attain statistical significance.

Susskind, H.; Rom, W.N. (Clinical Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States))

1992-07-01

343

AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

344

AEROSOL CHARACTERISTICS AND VISIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes progress in measuring the optical properties of aerosols and in relating aerosol characteristics to visibility reduction made in the author's laboratory during the period 1965-1971. An instrument, the integrating nephelometer, which measures the scattering ...

345

MODAL AEROSOL DYNAMICS MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report described by this Project Summary presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also review...

346

Value of MRCP using oral Gd-DTPA as negative contrast materials in diagnosis of atypical juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo investigate value of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using oral diluted gadolinium (Gd)-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) as negative contrast materials in diagnosis of juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum with atypical imaging features.

Jingshan Gong; Hong Zhao; Te Liu; Rennan Ling; Jianmin Xu

2009-01-01

347

Solid aerosol generator  

DOEpatents

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

Prescott, Donald S. (Shelley, ID); Schober, Robert K. (Midwest City, OK); Beller, John (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01

348

Improved solid aerosol generator  

DOEpatents

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

1988-07-19

349

MODAL AEROSOL DYNAMICS MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Modal Aerosol Dynamics (MAD) model is a computationally efficient model for solving the General Dynamics Equation of Aerosols (GDE) (Friedlander, 1977). The simplifying assumption in the model is that aerosol size distributions can be approximated by overlapping modes, each r...

350

Preclinical evaluation of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the 111In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X (111In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the 111In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the 111In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer. PMID:24982817

Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl AK; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

2014-01-01

351

Aerosol penetration ratio: a new index of ventilation  

SciTech Connect

Superimposition of nuclear medicine scintigrams and standard radiographs provides a unique opportunity for merging functional information intrinsic to nuclear medicine images with the high resolution anatomic detail of radiographs. A newly developed image processing system allows the merging of two separate films of greatly varying sizes to form a single composite image. Subsequent quantitative analysis of the composite image may be performed. Using the superimposition technique, (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol ventilation scans (4.5 X 4.5 cm) were superimposed upon chest radiographs (35.6 X 43.2 cm) in 17 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Subsequent quantification of the area of nuclear scan ventilation and the radiographic lung area was then performed. A new quantitative radiologic index of ventilation, the aerosol penetration ratio (APR), was defined. Linear correlation of aerosol penetration ratio with residual volume (RV) as percent of total lung capacity (TLC) measured by body plethysmography was good. We conclude that the APR has validity as a physiologic parameter which localized regional excessive residual volume and correlates well with RV/TLC, the gold standard pulmonary function index of obstructive airway disease.

Sirr, S.A.; Elliott, G.R.; Regelmann, W.E.; Juenemann, P.J.; Morin, R.L.; Boudreau, R.J.; Warwick, W.J.; Loken, M.K.

1986-08-01

352

Particle size influences aerosol deposition in guinea pigs during bronchoconstriction  

SciTech Connect

The role of two factors determining the deposition of aerosols in the respiratory tract was investigated: the particle size and the nature of the airflow in the airways. An aerosol of Tc99 m-DTPA was generated, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of either 3 ..mu..m (Bird nebulizer) or 0.5 ..mu..m (Jouan nebulizer). The vehicle was either saline (S) or histamine (H) at a concentration which was previously shown to induce a 50% decrease of specific airway conductance. Spontaneously breathing guinea pigs were exposed during 2 minutes to the aerosol, then killed and the radioactivity in the pharynx, the trachea, the large bronchi and the remaining parenchyma was measured. Results are evaluated as the percentage of total radioactivity in the respiratory tract (mean +/- SEM). Analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference in the pattern of deposition for large particles (3 ..mu..m) during bronchoconstriction: the more proximal deposition can be ascribed to inertial impaction. Particle size should be clearly defined during histamine challenge in experimental animals.

Praud, J.P.; Macquin-Mavier, I.; Wirquin, V.; Meignan, M.; Harf, A.

1986-03-01

353

Magnetic nanoparticles modified with DTPA-AMC-rare earth for fluorescent and magnetic resonance dual mode imaging.  

PubMed

In the present study, we report new water-soluble cell fluorescence imaging and contrast agents that are based on DTPA-AMC(7-amino-4-methyl coumarin)-Eu(3+) and DTPA-AMC(7-amino-4-methyl coumarin)-Gd(3+) compounds conjugated to Fe(3)O(4) NPs via a PEG-NH(2) linker. The novel Fe(3)O(4) NP-conjugates present two main advantages for cell fluorescence labelling: water solubility and targeting ability. The in vitro experiments demonstrate that water-soluble Fe(3)O(4) NPs-DBI-PEG-NH-DTPA-AMC(7-amino-4-methyl coumarin)-Eu(3+) has excellent cell permeating activity. Moreover, the relaxation rate test of Fe(3)O(4) NPs-DBI-PEG-NH-DTPA-AMC(7-amino-4-methyl coumarin)-Gd(3+) shows a higher T1 relaxation effect than traditional DTPA-Gd(3+) MRI agents. According to in vivo liver MRI experiments, better contrast of the liver was achieved after addition of Fe(3)O(4) NPs-DBI-PEG-NH-DTPA-AMC(7-amino-4-methyl coumarin)-Gd(3+). The results will provide a significant guide for researchers exploring the biomedical applications of superparamagnetic Fe(3)O(4) NPs. PMID:22699422

Liu, Zengchen; Li, Bo; Wang, Baodui; Yang, Zhengyin; Wang, Qin; Li, Tianrong; Qin, Dongdong; Li, Yong; Wang, Mingfang; Yan, Mihui

2012-07-28

354

Combining diffusion-weighted MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI improves the detection of colorectal liver metastases  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and a combination of both techniques for the detection of colorectal hepatic metastases. Methods 72 patients with suspected colorectal liver metastases underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI and DW-MRI. Images were retrospectively reviewed with unenhanced T1 and T2 weighted images as Gd-EOB-DTPA image set, DW-MRI image set and combined image set by two independent radiologists. Each lesion detected was scored for size, location and likelihood of metastasis, and compared with surgery and follow-up imaging. Diagnostic accuracy was compared using receiver operating characteristics and interobserver agreement by kappa statistics. Results 417 lesions (310 metastases, 107 benign) were found in 72 patients. For both readers, diagnostic accuracy using the combined image set was higher [area under the curve (Az) = 0.96, 0.97] than Gd-EOB-DTPA image set (Az = 0.86, 0.89) or DW-MRI image set (Az = 0.93, 0.92). Using combined image set improved identification of liver metastases compared with Gd-EOB-DTPA image set (p<0.001) or DW-MRI image set (p<0.001). There was very good interobserver agreement for lesion classification (? = 0.81–0.88). Conclusions Combining DW-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 weighted MRI significantly improved the detection of colorectal liver metastases. PMID:22167501

Koh, D-M; Collins, D J; Wallace, T; Chau, I; Riddell, A M

2012-01-01

355

Aerosol algorithm evaluation within aerosol-CCI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of aerosol retrievals from space are difficult. Even data from dedicated satellite sensors face contaminations which limit the accuracy of aerosol retrieval products. Issues are the identification of complete cloud-free scenes, the need to assume aerosol compositional features in an underdetermined solution space and the requirement to characterize the background at high accuracy. Usually the development of aerosol is a slow process, requiring continuous feedback from evaluations. To demonstrate maturity, these evaluations need to cover different regions and seasons and many different aerosol properties, because aerosol composition is quite diverse and highly variable in space and time, as atmospheric aerosol lifetimes are only a few days. Three years ago the ESA Climate Change Initiative started to support aerosol retrieval efforts in order to develop aerosol retrieval products for the climate community from underutilized ESA satellite sensors. The initial focus was on retrievals of AOD (a measure for the atmospheric column amount) and of Angstrom (a proxy for aerosol size) from the ATSR and MERIS sensors on ENVISAT. The goal was to offer retrieval products that are comparable or better in accuracy than commonly used NASA products of MODIS or MISR. Fortunately, accurate reference data of ground based sun-/sky-photometry networks exist. Thus, retrieval assessments could and were conducted independently by different evaluation groups. Here, results of these evaluations for the year 2008 are summarized. The capability of these newly developed retrievals is analyzed and quantified in scores. These scores allowed a ranking of competing efforts and also allow skill comparisons of these new retrievals against existing and commonly used retrievals.

Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael; Griesfeller, Jan

356

External monitoring of kidney transplant function using Tc-99m(Sn)DTPA  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of an external counting technique to provide daily monitoring of kidney transplant function by measuring the renal clearance of Tc-99m(SN)DTPA. During the first few weeks following transplant, 15 patients had their renal clearance of Tc-99m DTPA measured daily over periods of 5 to 24 h. Clearance rates were compared with daily plasma creatinine levels, and the effects of diurnal variation, drug treatment, and physical activity noted. The resuls show tht any significant fall in clearance rate of chelate, indicating a rejection episode, preceded a rise in plasma creatinine levels by at least 24 hr. It is considered that this noninvasive, low-dose, easy-to-perform technique is of considerable value in extended daily monitoring of renal function and is superior to standard daily or twice-weekly renography for the early detection of transplant rejection.

Sampson, W.F.D.; Macleod, M.A.; Warren, D.

1981-05-01

357

Characterization of Microcirculation in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions by Dynamic Texture Parameter Analysis (DTPA)  

PubMed Central

Objective Texture analysis is an alternative method to quantitatively assess MR-images. In this study, we introduce dynamic texture parameter analysis (DTPA), a novel technique to investigate the temporal evolution of texture parameters using dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced (DSCE) imaging. Here, we aim to introduce the method and its application on enhancing lesions (EL), non-enhancing lesions (NEL) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods We investigated 18 patients with MS and clinical isolated syndrome (CIS), according to the 2010 McDonald's criteria using DSCE imaging at different field strengths (1.5 and 3 Tesla). Tissues of interest (TOIs) were defined within 27 EL, 29 NEL and 37 NAWM areas after normalization and eight histogram-based texture parameter maps (TPMs) were computed. TPMs quantify the heterogeneity of the TOI. For every TOI, the average, variance, skewness, kurtosis and variance-of-the-variance statistical parameters were calculated. These TOI parameters were further analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by multiple Wilcoxon sum rank testing corrected for multiple comparisons. Results Tissue- and time-dependent differences were observed in the dynamics of computed texture parameters. Sixteen parameters discriminated between EL, NEL and NAWM (pAVG?=?0.0005). Significant differences in the DTPA texture maps were found during inflow (52 parameters), outflow (40 parameters) and reperfusion (62 parameters). The strongest discriminators among the TPMs were observed in the variance-related parameters, while skewness and kurtosis TPMs were in general less sensitive to detect differences between the tissues. Conclusion DTPA of DSCE image time series revealed characteristic time responses for ELs, NELs and NAWM. This may be further used for a refined quantitative grading of MS lesions during their evolution from acute to chronic state. DTPA discriminates lesions beyond features of enhancement or T2-hypersignal, on a numeric scale allowing for a more subtle grading of MS-lesions. PMID:23874432

Heldner, Mirjam Rahel; Kellner-Weldon, Frauke; Kottke, Raimund; Ozdoba, Christoph; Weisstanner, Christian; Kamm, Christian Philipp; Wiest, Roland

2013-01-01

358

Synthesis and characterization of a novel chemically designed (Globo)3-DTPA-KLH antigen.  

PubMed

In recent years, many experiments have been conducted for the production and evaluation of anticancer glycoconjugated vaccines in developed countries and many achievements have been accomplished with Globo H derivatives. In the current experiment, a new chemically designed triplicate version of (Globo H)3-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-KLH antigen was synthesized and characterized. Immunization with (Globo H)3-DTPA-KLH, a hexasaccharide that is a member of a family of antigenic carbohydrates that are highly expressed in various types of cancers conjugated with DTPA and KLH protein, induced a high level of antibody titer along with an elevated level of IL-4 in mice. Treatment of tumors with the collected sera from immunized mice decreased the tumor size in nude mice as well. None of the immunized mice illustrated any sign of tumor growth after injection of MCF-7 cells compared to the control animals. These findings, based on the newly presented structure of the Globo H antigen, lend exciting and promising evidence for clinical advancement in the development of a therapeutic vaccine in the future. PMID:25565775

Hajmohammadi, Mehdi; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Ghorbani, Masoud; Shafiee Ardestani, Mehdi; Teimourian, Shahram; Asgari, Vahid; Ahangari Cohan, Reza; Hajmohammadi, Mostafa; Hajmohammadi, Akram; Behzadi, Ramezan; Rajab Nezhad, Saied; Namvar Asl, Nabiollah

2015-01-01

359

Synthesis and characterization of a novel chemically designed (Globo)3–DTPA–KLH antigen  

PubMed Central

In recent years, many experiments have been conducted for the production and evaluation of anticancer glycoconjugated vaccines in developed countries and many achievements have been accomplished with Globo H derivatives. In the current experiment, a new chemically designed triplicate version of (Globo H)3–diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)–KLH antigen was synthesized and characterized. Immunization with (Globo H)3-DTPA-KLH, a hexasaccharide that is a member of a family of antigenic carbohydrates that are highly expressed in various types of cancers conjugated with DTPA and KLH protein, induced a high level of antibody titer along with an elevated level of IL-4 in mice. Treatment of tumors with the collected sera from immunized mice decreased the tumor size in nude mice as well. None of the immunized mice illustrated any sign of tumor growth after injection of MCF-7 cells compared to the control animals. These findings, based on the newly presented structure of the Globo H antigen, lend exciting and promising evidence for clinical advancement in the development of a therapeutic vaccine in the future. PMID:25565775

Hajmohammadi, Mehdi; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Ghorbani, Masoud; Shafiee Ardestani, Mehdi; Teimourian, Shahram; Asgari, Vahid; Ahangari Cohan, Reza; Hajmohammadi, Mostafa; Hajmohammadi, Akram; Behzadi, Ramezan; Rajab Nezhad, Saied; Namvar Asl, Nabiollah

2015-01-01

360

Tc-99m DTPA scans in renal allograft rejection and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

Renal allograft dysfunction arising from rejection or cyclosporine (CsA) nephrotoxicity can currently only be distinguished reliably by allograft biopsy. We have assessed Technetium (Tc)-99m diethylamine pentacetic acid (DTPA) scanning in 30 CsA-treated patients with allograft dysfunction. Scintigrams were performed during 20 biopsy-proved episodes of rejection and during 14 episodes of CsA nephrotoxicity. These results were compared with the scintigrams of 15 allografts showing stable function. Quantitative indices expressing allograft perfusion (flow index) and function (uptake index) derived from the DTPA scintigrams showed no significant differences between the groups of patients with rejection, CsA nephrotoxicity, or stable or improving function. Similarly, the flow and uptake indices of individual allografts obtained during periods of stable or improving function and then during episodes of dysfunction due to rejection or CsA nephrotoxicity did not significantly change. We conclude that Tc-99m DTPA scintigrams are of limited value in the management of allograft dysfunction in patients immunosuppressed with CsA.

Gedroyc, W.; Taube, D.; Fogleman, I.; Neild, G.; Cameron, S.; Maisey, M.

1986-11-01

361

Assessment of alveolar epithelial permeability in Behçet’s disease with 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Behçet’s disease (BD) is a multisystem disorder characterized by vasculitis, and consists of a triad of recurrent ulcers of\\u000a the oral and genital mucosa with relapsing uveitis. The prevalance of pulmonary involvement varies in the range of 1–10% in\\u000a various studies and its complications are severe and life threatening. In this study, we investigated the changes of pulmonary\\u000a epithelial permeability

Fikriye G. Gumuser; Timur Pirildar; Dilek Batok; Ays?n Sakar; Ebru Ruksen; Elvan Sayit

2008-01-01

362

Acceleration of natural-abundance solid-state MAS NMR measurements on bone by paramagnetic relaxation from gadolinium-DTPA.  

PubMed

Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA=Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the (1)H T1 values were calculated from data collected by (1)H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the (1)H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the (13)C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from (13)C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using (1)H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans. PMID:24881032

Mroue, Kamal H; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H; Morris, Michael D; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2014-07-01

363

Acceleration of natural-abundance solid-state MAS NMR measurements on bone by paramagnetic relaxation from gadolinium-DTPA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA = Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the 1H T1 values were calculated from data collected by 1H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the 1H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10 mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the 13C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from 13C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using 1H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans.

Mroue, Kamal H.; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2014-07-01

364

Securing the Sustainability of Global Medical Nuclear Supply Chains  

E-print Network

of Medical Nuclear Supply Chains #12;Background and Motivation Technetium, 99mTc, which is a decay product medical procedures are performed in the United States using Technetium-99m. Over 100,000 hospitals

Nagurney, Anna

365

Securing the Sustainability of Global Medical Nuclear Supply Chains  

E-print Network

use radioisotopes (World Nuclear Association (2011)). Technetium, 99mTc, which is a decay product medical procedures are performed in the United States using Technetium-99m. In 2008, 18.5 million doses

Nagurney, Anna

366

Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Design: A Tractable Network Model and Computational Approach  

E-print Network

,000 nuclear medical procedures are performed in the United States using Technetium-99m, a radioisotope are then used to create an image of that site or organ (Berger, Goldsmith, and Lewis (2004)). Technetium, 99m Tc

Nagurney, Anna

367

Ris Ris-M-GUD Title and authors)  

E-print Network

? Acknowledgenents 18 References 19 #12;#12;- 5 - INTRODUCTION Technetium-99m is one of the most versatile of biological interest. 99 Technetium-99m is a decay product of Ho, which is usually obtained either

368

10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (a) For each measured elution of technetium-99m, the ratio of the measures...molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (or microcuries of molybdenum per millicurie of technetium), the time and date of the...

2014-01-01

369

10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) For each measured elution of technetium-99m, the ratio of the measures...molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (or microcuries of molybdenum per millicurie of technetium), the time and date of the...

2013-01-01

370

10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) For each measured elution of technetium-99m, the ratio of the measures...molybdenum-99 per megabecquerel of technetium-99m (or microcuries of molybdenum per millicurie of technetium), the time and date of the...

2012-01-01

371

Improved kinetic stability of DTPA- dGlu as compared with conventional monofunctional DTPA in chelating indium and yttrium: preclinical and initial clinical evaluation of radiometal labelled minigastrin derivatives.  

PubMed

The development of monofunctional DTPA derivatives has been a major breakthrough in the labelling of proteins or peptides with a variety of radiometals. Although this methodology is simple and useful for indium-111 labelling, the stability of these conjugates is too low for most therapeutic nuclides. Cyclic chelators, such as DOTA, have shown excellent kinetic stability with a variety of radiometals, but the labelling procedure is more difficult, requiring ultra-pure reagents and a heating step that sometimes endangers the biomolecule's integrity. The aim of this work was twofold: (a) to develop a novel, open chain chelator which can be easily labelled with various radiometals, displaying higher kinetic stability than monofunctional DTPA, and (b) to evaluate this chelator in vitro and in vivo when conjugated to a CCK-B receptor ligand as a detection modality for receptor-(over-)expressing tumours. DTPA derivatives of Leu(1)- and dGlu(1)-minigastrin were synthesised. All conjugates could be labelled with (111)In or (88/90)Y at high specific activities (8.5-44.4 GBq/micro mol) and with high radiochemical purity. Serum stability testing was performed, and the labelled conjugates were compared concerning their stability against DTPA challenge. The biodistribution of the radiolabelled Leu(1)- and dGlu(1)-minigastrin derivatives was studied in tumour-bearing nude mice, in one healthy human volunteer and in three patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. The transchelation of all tested radiometals to serum proteins was significantly slower with the DTPA-Glu conjugates as compared with their Leu analogues (e.g. transchelation t(1/2) of DTPA- dGlu(1)-minigastrin vs its Leu(1) analogue at 37 degrees C in human serum for (111)In: 239 h vs 91 h; for (90)Y: 130 h vs 53 h). In animals, all labelled CCK-B receptor ligands showed fast and specific uptake in CCK-B-receptor-positive tissues, such as the stomach and tumour, as well as a fast renal clearance pattern. However, DTPA-Leu(1)-minigastrin showed higher background activity in the whole body and those organs known to accumulate the respective free radiometal (e.g. (88)Y-DTPA-Leu(1)-minigastrin had bone uptake of 22%ID/g as compared to only 1.2%ID/g with its dGlu(1) analogue). In humans, fast tumour and stomach uptake was observed for both (111)In-labelled compounds, but DTPA- dGlu(1)-minigastrin lacked the liver, spleen and bone marrow uptake observed with its Leu(1) analogue. In conclusion, anionic amino acid derivatives of DTPA may display improved metabolic stability as compared with monofunctional DTPA conjugates. DTPA- dGlu(1)-minigastrin is preferred to "monofunctional" DTPA-Leu(1)-minigastrin for diagnostic application with (111)In for the in vivo detection of CCK-B receptor-expressing tissues. PMID:12768330

Béhé, Martin; Becker, Wolfgang; Gotthardt, Martin; Angerstein, Christa; Behr, Thomas M

2003-08-01

372

Overview of Aerosol Distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols (smoke, pollution, dust or sea salt particles, small enough to be suspended in the air), their evolution, composition, variability in space and time and interaction with clouds and precipitation is still lacking despite decades of research. Understanding the global aerosol system is fundamental for progress in climate change and hydrological cycle research. While a single instrument was used to demonstrate 50 years ago that the global CO2 levels are rising, posing threat of global warming, we need an array of satellites and field measurements coupled with chemical transport models to understand the global aerosol system. This complexity of the aerosol problem results from their short lifetime (1 week) and variable chemical composition. A new generation of satellites provides exciting opportunities to measure the global distribution of aerosols, distinguishing natural from anthropogenic aerosol and measuring their interaction with clouds and climate. I shall discuss these topics and application of the data to air quality monitoring.

Kaufman, Yoram

2005-01-01

373

Thermoluminescent aerosol analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for detecting and measuring trace amounts of aerosols when reacted with ozone in a gaseous environment was examined. A sample aerosol was exposed to a fixed ozone concentration for a fixed period of time, and a fluorescer was added to the exposed sample. The sample was heated in a 30 C/minute linear temperature profile to 200 C. The trace peak was measured and recorded as a function of the test aerosol and the recorded thermoluminescence trace peak of the fluorescer is specific to the aerosol being tested.

Rogowski, R. S.; Long, E. R., Jr. (inventors)

1977-01-01

374

Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): formulation design and optimization studies.  

PubMed

The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and ?-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and ?-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone. PMID:24047113

Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

2014-11-01

375

Hydrothermally synthesized PEGylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles incorporating Gd-DTPA for contrast enhanced MRI diagnosis of solid tumors.  

PubMed

Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles with calcium phosphate (CaP) core and PEGylated shell were developed to incorporate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (III) (Gd-DTPA) for noninvasive diagnosis of solid tumors. A two-step preparation method was applied to elaborate hybrid nanoparticles with a z-average hydrodynamic diameter about 80nm, neutral surface ?-potential and high colloidal stability in physiological environments by self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartic acid) block copolymer, Gd-DTPA, and CaP in aqueous solution, followed with hydrothermal treatment. Incorporation into the hybrid nanoparticles allowed Gd-DTPA to show significant enhanced retention ratio in blood circulation, leading to high accumulation in tumor positions due to enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Moreover, Gd-DTPA revealed above 6 times increase of relaxivity in the nanoparticle system compared to free form, and eventually, selective and elevated contrast enhancements in the tumor positions were observed. These results indicate the high potential of Gd-DTPA-loaded PEGylated CaP nanoparticles as a novel contrast agent for noninvasive cancer diagnosis. PMID:24211705

Mi, Peng; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Cabral, Horacio; Kumagai, Michiaki; Nomoto, Takahiro; Aoki, Ichio; Terada, Yasuko; Kishimura, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

2014-01-28

376

Effects of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent Gd-DTPA on Plant Growth and Root Imaging in Rice  

PubMed Central

Although paramagnetic contrast agents have a wide range of applications in medical studies involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), these agents are seldom used to enhance MRI images of plant root systems. To extend the application of MRI contrast agents to plant research and to develop related techniques to study root systems, we examined the applicability of the MRI contrast agent Gd-DTPA to the imaging of rice roots. Specifically, we examined the biological effects of various concentrations of Gd-DTPA on rice growth and MRI images. Analysis of electrical conductivity and plant height demonstrated that 5 mmol Gd-DTPA had little impact on rice in the short-term. The results of signal intensity and spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) analysis suggested that 5 mmol Gd-DTPA was the appropriate concentration for enhancing MRI signals. In addition, examination of the long-term effects of Gd-DTPA on plant height showed that levels of this compound up to 5 mmol had little impact on rice growth and (to some extent) increased the biomass of rice. PMID:24945975

Liu, Binmei; Wang, Qi; Ni, Xiaoyu; Dong, Yaling; Zhong, Kai; Wu, Yuejin

2014-01-01

377

The Role of Equilibrium and Kinetic Properties in the Dissociation of Gd[DTPA-bis(methylamide)] (Omniscan) at near to Physiological Conditions.  

PubMed

[Gd(DTPA-BMA)] is the principal constituent of Omniscan, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. In body fluids, endogenous ions (Zn(2+) , Cu(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) may displace the Gd(3+) . To assess the extent of displacement at equilibrium, the stability constants of DTPA-BMA(3-) complexes of Gd(3+) , Ca(2+) , Zn(2+) , and Cu(2+) have been determined at 37?°C in 0.15?M NaCl. The order of these stability constants is as follows: GdL?CuL>ZnL?CaL. Applying a simplified blood plasma model, the extent of dissociation of Omniscan (0.35?mM [Gd(DTPA-BMA)]) was found to be 17?% by the formation of Gd(PO4 ), [Zn(DTPA-BMA)](-) (2.4?%), [Cu(DTPA-BMA)](-) (0.2?%), and [Ca(DTPA-BMA)](-) (17.7?%). By capillary electrophoresis, the formation of [Ca(DTPA-BMA)](-) has been detected in human serum spiked with [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] (2.0?mM) at pH?7.4. Transmetallation reactions between [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] and Cu(2+) at 37?°C in the presence of citrate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions occur by dissociation of the complex assisted by the endogenous ligands. At physiological concentrations of citrate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions, the half-life of dissociation of [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] was calculated to be 9.3?h at pH?7.4. Considering the rates of distribution and dissociation of [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] in the extracellular space of the body, an open two-compartment model has been developed, which allows prediction of the extent of dissociation of the Gd(III) complex in body fluids depending on the rate of elimination of the contrast agent. PMID:25678406

Baranyai, Zsolt; Brücher, Ern?; Uggeri, Fulvio; Maiocchi, Alessandro; Tóth, Imre; Andrási, Melinda; Gáspár, Attila; Zékány, László; Aime, Silvio

2015-03-16

378

Evaluation of CSF shunt patency by means of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of 192 cerebrospinal fluid shunts was performed using 1 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA which was injected into the shunt tubing. This was found to be a safe, simple method of evaluating shunt patency. No complications were noted with this procedure, nor was there any documented case of infection related to the injection of the isotope. The sensitivity of the test for evaluation of patency was 97%, specificity 90%, and accuracy 93%. Various patterns of tracer clearance are noted and discussed. The role on this test as an aid in making management decisions is detailed.

Graham, P.; Howman-Giles, R.; Johnston, I.; Besser, M.

1982-08-01

379

Definitive diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid leak into the pleural space using 111In-DTPA cisternography.  

PubMed

A 58-year-old woman with a calcified disk extrusion causing severe spinal stenosis underwent T8 to T9 diskectomy and spinal fusion. A postoperative pseudomeningocele was treated with lumbar drain and fibrin glue. Performed for persistent right pleural effusion, CT myelogram failed to show communication between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and pleural space--even on 2-hour delayed images. Subsequent 111In-DTPA cisternogram clearly demonstrated CSF leakage into the right pleural space at 2 hours, and surgical repair yielded good results. Radionuclide cisternography is a highly useful method to detect CSF leak, especially when it is occult on CT yet suspected clinically. PMID:25243944

Howard, Brandon A; Gray, Linda; Isaacs, Robert E; Borges-Neto, Salvador

2015-03-01

380

Simultaneous determination of DTPA, EDTA, and NTA by UV-visible spectrometry and HPLC.  

PubMed

In this study, UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for simultaneous analysis of chelating agents diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), as their metal chelates in dishwashing detergents, natural waters, and pulp mill water. The total amounts of the chelating agents in dishwashing detergents were verified by potentiometric titration with Fe(III) solution. Nickel(II) chelates were determined by UV-Vis and iron(III)chelates by HPLC and titration. Recoveries of DTPA, EDTA, and NTA from a standard mixture of analytes by UV-Vis were 107+/-7, 101+/-12 and 94+/-13%, respectively, and the recovery of the total amount of complexing agents was 99+/-4%. The limits of detection for DTPA, EDTA, and NTA were 667, 324, and 739 micromol L(-1), respectively. In HPLC measurements the optimized mobile phase contained 0.03 mol L(-1) sodium acetate, 0.002 mol L(-1) tetrabutylammonium bromide, and 5% methanol at pH 3.15 and the detection was by UV-Vis detection at 254 nm. All three complexing agents could be separated from each other in a simultaneous analysis in less than 5 min. The limits of detection were 0.34, 0.27, and 0.62 micromol L(-1) for DTPA, EDTA, and NTA, respectively. The total amounts of the analytes measured in the dishwashing detergents by the three techniques were found to be highly comparable (ANOVA: F=0.04, P=0.96). R(2) values were 0.99 for EDTA, 0.99 for NTA, and 0.99 for all the results when UV-Vis and HPLC determinations were compared using regression lines. The UV-Vis and HPLC methods were proved to be viable also for analyses of natural and pulp mill waters. The absence of matrix interferences was verified by the standard addition technique. PMID:15971044

Laine, Pirita; Matilainen, Rose

2005-08-01

381

isobutyl isonitrile. J Nucl Med 1992;33:50>511. 17. Cuocolo A, Maurea S, Pace L, Nicolai E, Nappi A, Imbriaco M, Trimarco B,  

E-print Network

, Imbriaco M, Trimarco B, Salvatore M. Resting technetium-99m metboxyisobutylisonitrile cardiac imaging planar technetium-99m isonitrile imaging in acute myccardial infarction: efficacy for noninvasive, Fazzini PF. Rest technetium-99m sestamibi tomography in combination with short-term administration

Boppart, Stephen

382

Portable Aerosol Contaminant Extractor  

DOEpatents

A compact, portable, aerosol contaminant extractor having ionization and collection sections through which ambient air may be drawn at a nominal rate so that aerosol particles ionized in the ionization section may be collected on charged plate in the collection section, the charged plate being readily removed for analyses of the particles collected thereon.

Carlson, Duane C. (N. Augusta, SC); DeGange, John J. (Aiken, SC); Cable-Dunlap, Paula (Waynesville, NC)

2005-11-15

383

ACID AEROSOLS ISSUE PAPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been made to focus on the eva...

384

Tropical Atlantic Aerosols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use real satellite data to determine 1) where the greatest concentrations of aerosols are located during the course of a year in the tropical Atlantic region and 2) their source of origin. This is an inquiry-style lesson where students pull real aerosol data and attempt to identify trends among data sets.

Rex Roettger

385

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

386

HOUSTON AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

An intensive field study of ambient aerosols was conducted in Houston between September 14 and October 14, 1978. Measurements at 12 sites were made using (1) two relocatable monitoring systems instrumented for aerosol and gaseous pollutants, (2) a network of high volume samplers ...

387

WIDE RANGE AEROSOL CLASSIFIER  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project was to design, construct, calibrate, and field test a mobile ambient particulate matter sampler (Wide Range Aerosol Classifier) to collect size-classified samples of large aerosol particles. The sampler design was based on a similar stationary sampling...

388

Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

SciTech Connect

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of volcanic aerosol is over 30% faster than one would obtain without this correction. At background, the aerosol size distribution is found to remain remarkably constant between the tropopause and an altitude of approx.25 km, with a sudden transition to a distribution dominated by smaller particles above this altitude. The observations, in some respects, compare favorably with equilibrium one-dimensional stratospheric aerosol models and thus to some extent support the concept of relatively inert tropospheric sulfurous gases, such as carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide, as the main background stratospheric aerosol sulfur source. Models which incorporate sulfur chemistry are apparently not able to predict the observed variation of particle size with altitude. The 2-year background period is not long enough in itself to establish long-term trends. The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in May 1980 has considerably disrupted the background stratospheric aerosol which will probably not recover for several years. A comparison of the 1978--79 observations with Junge's original measurements made some 20 years earlier, also during a period void of volcanic perturbations, does not preclude a long-term increase in the background stratospheric aerosol level.

Hofmann, D.J.; Rosen, J.M.

1981-01-01

389

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

2008-01-15

390

Enhancement characteristics of liver metastases, hepatocellular carcinomas, and hemangiomas with Gd-EOB-DTPA: preliminary results with dynamic MR imaging.  

PubMed

Our objective was to study Gd-EOB-DTPA for the characterization of focal liver lesions by means of dynamic MR imaging. A double-blind and randomized dose-ranging phase-2 clinical trial was performed in 31 patients (liver metastases n = 23, hepatocellular carcinoma n = 4, and hemangioma n = 4) at a field strength of 1.0 Tesla. Gd-EOB-DTPA (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) was administered as an IV bolus (12.5, 25, or 50 micromol/kg body weight) with dynamic T1-weighted MRI during the distribution and cellular uptake of the contrast agent at multiple time points up to 45 min post contrast. Dynamic changes in tumor signal intensity, tumor-liver contrast, enhancement patterns, side effects, and adverse events were evaluated. Monitoring of vital signs revealed no significant changes during bolus injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Liver metastases demonstrated an inhomogeneous uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA during the distribution phase with a washout effect on delayed images > 3 min and highest tumor-liver contrast 20 and 45 min post contrast. Hepatocellular carcinomas showed prolonged enhancement as compared with metastases and hemangiomas. Hemangiomas exhibited an early peripheral-nodular enhancement with subsequent partial or complete filling, persisting enhancement < 10 min following injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA, and delayed washout as compared with liver metastases. Initial clinical experience suggests that Gd-EOB-DTPA as a bolus injectable hepatobiliary MR contrast agent may offer useful features for the characterization of focal liver lesions. PMID:9038130

Reimer, P; Rummeny, E J; Daldrup, H E; Hesse, T; Balzer, T; Tombach, B; Peters, P E

1997-01-01

391

MRI-based estimation of liver function: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 relaxometry of 3T vs. the MELD score  

PubMed Central

Gd-EOB-DTPA is a hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agent. Due to its hepatocyte-specific uptake and paramagnetic properties, functioning areas of the liver exhibit shortening of the T1 relaxation time. We report the potential use of T1 relaxometry of the liver with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating the liver function as expressed by the MELD score. 3 T MRI relaxometry was performed before and 20?min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. A strong correlation between changes in the T1 relaxometry and the extent of liver disease, expressed by the MELD score, was documented. Reduced liver function correlates with decreased Gd-EOB-DTPA accumulation in the hepatocytes during the hepatobiliary phase. MRI-based T1 relaxometry with Gd-EOB-DTPA may be a useful method for assessing overall and segmental liver function. PMID:25001391

Haimerl, Michael; Verloh, Niklas; Fellner, Claudia; Zeman, Florian; Teufel, Andreas; Feigl, Stefan Fichtner-; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

2014-01-01

392

Radiative Effects of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

Valero, Francisco P. J.

1996-01-01

393

Influence of complexans (EDTA, DTPA) on the toxicity of Cadmium to fish at chronic levels  

SciTech Connect

There are a few reports on the effects of the complexing agents, as heavy metal pollution-inhibiting agents, to the aquatic animals. SPRAGUE(1968) reported on the influence of NTA on the zinc-and copper poisoning to brook trout. NISHIKAWA and TABATA(1969) conducted some experiments on eliminations of the toxicity of waste water from copper mines with EDTA using water fleas and dace. However, this in an area which has not so far as been clarifies in investigations on metal complexan toxicity and accumulation. In the previous paper, the effects of complexans(EDTA,NTA, and DTPA) on the metal-toxicity(Cd,Cu,Zn and Pb) at lethal levels and of complexan(EDTA) on the removing cadmium from the Cd-polluted fish were reported. This reports is examination of influence of complexans (EDTA and DTPA) on the metal toxicity and on the metal accumulation in viscera, gills and other parts of the fish exposing cadmium at low concentrations, long term(3 months). Vertebrae deformed fish induced by cadmium were observed with eye. The vertebrae of the fish were then examined by x-ray photography.

Muramoto, S.

1981-05-01

394

External monitoring of kidney transplant function using Tc-99m(Sn)DTPA  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of an external counting technique to provide daily monitoring of kidney transplant function by measuring the renal clearance of Tc-99m(Sn)DTPA. During the first few weeks following transplant, 15 patients had their renal clearance of Tc-99m DTPA measured daily over periods of 5-24 hr. Clearance rates were compared with daily plasma creatinine levels, and the effects of diurnal variation, drug treatment, and physical activity noted. The results show that any significant fall in clearance rate of chelate, indicating a rejection episode, preceded a rise in plasma creatinine levels by at least 24 hr. One episode of transplant failure presented as a sudden deterioration in clearance rate of chelate; in the others the change was more gradual but was still apparent within hours. It is considered that this noninvasive, low-dose, easy-to-perform technique is of considerable value in extended daily monitoring of renal function and is superior to standard daily or twice-weekly renography for the early detection of transplant rejection.

Sampson, W.F.; Macleod, M.A.; Warren, D.

1981-05-01

395

Simultaneous determination of DTPA, EDTA, and NTA by capillary electrophoresis after complexation with copper.  

PubMed

We present a method for simultaneous determination of the aminopolycarboxylic acids DTPA, EDTA and NTA in dishwashing detergents, paper mill waters, and natural waters by capillary electrophoresis (CE). The complexing agents were examined as their copper(II) complexes and separated by conventional CE with reversed polarity of the applied voltage. The optimum separation conditions were established by varying the pH and phosphate and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) concentrations in the run buffer. The separations were carried out in a fused-silica capillary (61 cmx75 microm i.d.) filled with phosphate buffer (80 mmol L(-1), TTAB concentration 0.5 mmol L(-1), pH 7.1, voltage -20 kV) using direct UV detection at 191 and 254 nm. With this CE method all the peaks in the electropherograms were properly separated, the calibration plots gave good correlation coefficients and all three complexing agents could be detected in less than 4 min. Linear calibration plots were obtained for CuDTPA, CuEDTA and CuNTA; limits of detection were 0.03 mmol L(-1) for all complexing agents and recoveries for all tested samples were within the range 104+/-7%. Results obtained from dishwashing detergent samples were found to be reliable and comparable with those from HPLC (R2=0.989) and UV-Vis (R(2)=0.985) methods. PMID:15729546

Laamanen, Pirkko-Leena; Mali, Antti; Matilainen, Rose

2005-03-01

396

Aerosol mass spectrometer measurements of organic aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic species are known to be ubiquitous and comprise a significant component of ambient aerosols. Identifying the sources, chemical compositions, and loadings of particulate organics remains a difficult, yet important problem as organic components may affect the formation, hygroscopicity, growth, reactivity, and radiative effects of ambient particles. Unraveling this complexity inherently must rely on chemical information (such as off-line filter

D. Worsnop; M. Canagaratna; J. Jayne; H. Boudries; T. Onasch; J. Jimenez; J. Slowik; H. Coe

2003-01-01

397

Atmospheric aerosol measurement problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present knowledge of the atmospheric aerosols is summarized briefly with respect to geographical distribution, time variations, optical properties, chemical nature, and natural and artificial sources. The measurement techniques for determining aerosol properties are summarized with the limitations and results from each. The problems resulting from variations in refractive index, shape, composition, volatile constituents, relative humidity and time from collection until measurement are described. Needed measurements on atmospheric aerosols are outlined with some of the latest methods for obtaining them, including the needs and goals of some world-wide programs.

Harris, F. S., Jr.

1978-01-01

398

MAG3 renal scintigraphy: improved ability to make anatomical diagnoses in neonates.  

PubMed

Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) is the most recently introduced renal radiopharmaceutical in Australia and is established as the agent of choice for use in diuresis renography, particularly in neonates and infants. It provides superior anatomical information compared to previously used agents. Three cases are reported in which MAG3 diuresis renography was performed in neonates, who were found to have hydronephrosis detected antenatally. In two neonates, a previously unrecognized horseshoe kidney was demonstrated and in case 3 there were scan features characteristic of a ureterocele. It is highly unlikely that these abnormalities would have been delineated with 99mTc dimethyltriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) study, as confirmed in case 1, because of the relatively poor uptake of DTPA when compared to MAG3. PMID:7695524

Rossleigh, M A; Farnsworth, R H; Kainer, G; Rosenberg, A R

1995-02-01

399

Is DTPA a good competing chelating agent for Th(IV) in human serum and suitable in targeted alpha therapy?  

PubMed

The interaction between thorium and human serum components was studied using difference ultraviolet spectroscopy (DUS), ultrafiltration and high-pressure-anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with external inductively conducted plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Experimental data are compared with modelling results based on the law of mass action. Human serum transferrin (HSTF) interacts strongly with Th(IV), forming a ternary complex including two synergistic carbonate anions. This complex governs Th(IV) speciation under blood serum conditions. Considering the generally used Langmuir-type model, values of 10(33.5) and 10(32.5) were obtained for strong and weak sites, respectively. We showed that trace amounts of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) cannot complex Th(IV) in the blood serum at equilibrium. Unexpectedly this effect is not related to the competition with HSTF but is due to the strong competition with major divalent metal ions for DTPA. However, Th-DTPA complex was shown to be stable for a few hours when it is formed before addition in the biological medium; this is related to the high kinetic stability of the complex. This makes DTPA a potential chelating agent for synthesis of (226)Th-labelled biomolecules for application in targeted alpha therapy. PMID:22388013

Le Du, Alicia; Sabatié-Gogova, Andrea; Morgenstern, Alfred; Montavon, Gilles

2012-04-01

400

IS DTPA A GOOD COMPETING CHELATING AGENT FOR Th(IV) IN HUMAN SERUM AND SUITABLE IN TARGETED ALPHA THERAPY ?  

E-print Network

serum transferrin (HSTf) interacts strongly with Th(IV), forming a ternary complex including two for application in targeted alpha therapy. KEYWORDS thorium; targeted alpha therapy, speciation, transferrin, DTPA(IV) was the iron-binding site of transferrin (HSTf). Similar behaviour was reported for different actinides (IV

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

401

Effect of cobalt treatments on dry matter production of wheat and DTPA extractable cobalt content in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different concentrations of cobalt added to two soil types, a sandy and a sandy loam soil, was studied on growth performance and tissue cobalt concentration of wheat plants. DTPA?extractable cobalt was significantly higher in the sandy soil than in the sandy loam soil. Plants grown in the sandy soil accumulated significantly higher amount of cobalt in comparison

N. C. Aery; B. L. Jagetiya

2000-01-01

402

Pneumocystis pneumonia increases the clearance rate of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood  

SciTech Connect

Despite no radiographic change, a patient with Pneumocystis pneumonia showed increased clearance of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood. Gas transfer for carbon monoxide was also reduced, but improved with treatment. This was paralleled by serial increase in the t1/2 LB.

Jones, D.K.; Higenbottam, T.W.

1985-10-01

403

99m T c-DTPA Study to Validate an Experimental Model of Ureteral Obstruction in Rabbits: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Objective. To create a ureteral obstruction experimental model that can be proved through 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy and histopathological studies, without causing total renal function loss. Materials and Methods. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were submitted to a surgical experiment to create a model of unilateral obstruction to urinary flow. Surgery procedure provided unilateral ureteral obstruction (left kidney) to urinary flow and posteriorly was evaluated by 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy and histopathological study. 99mTc-DTPA renal study was performed to detect and quantify signs of obstruction and to evaluate renal function. Statistical analysis was performed through the Student t-test with a significance level of P<0.05. Results. Nine of the ten rabbits presented left renal unit obstruction and one nonobstructive on the 99mTc-DTPA and histopathological studies. All the right renal units, which were not submitted to surgical procedure, were nonobstructed by the studies. There was a general agreement between scintigraphy and histopathological results in both groups. Conclusion. The experimental model promoted the creation of ureteral obstruction in rabbits, confirmed by nuclear medicine scintigraphy and histopathology, and could be used in further studies to better understand urinary obstruction. PMID:24489538

de Lima, Marcelo Lopes; Bertti, Rodolfo; Moro, Juliano César; Coltro Neto, Fábio; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Fregonesi, Adriano; de Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes; Ramos, Celso Darío

2013-01-01

404

Decorporation of thorium-228 from the rat by 3,4,3-LIHOPO and DTPA after simulated wound contamination.  

PubMed

1. With DTPA as a comparison, the siderophore analogue 3,4,3-LIHOPO has been examined for its ability to remove 228Th nitrate from the rat after subcutaneous (sc) and intramuscular (im) injection to simulate wound contamination. The commencement of treatment was delayed 30 min, 6 h or 1 d and the animals killed at 7 d. 2. In all cases 3,4,3-LIHOPO was appreciably more effective than DTPA although the efficacy of treatment and the relative effectiveness of the ligands decreased rapidly with their delay in administration. 3. Optimum removal with both ligands occurred when initial local administration at 30 min after exposure was followed by repeated intraperitoneal injection at 6 h, 1, 2 and 3 d. Under these conditions the body content of 228Th was reduced to 20% of controls after sc injection and 15% after im injection. The corresponding values using repeated DTPA administration were 80% and 54%. 4. It is concluded that 3,4,3-LIHOPO represents, potentially, a considerable advance on DTPA, the current agent of choice for the treatment of wounds contaminated by 228Th. PMID:7779440

Stradling, G N; Gray, S A; Pearce, M J; Wilson, I; Moody, J C; Burgada, R; Durbin, P W; Raymond, K N

1995-02-01

405

Tracking World Aerosol Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Worldwide patterns and sources of aerosols are analyzed and evaluated for potential hazards to aircraft safety. Using aerosol index maps created from data gathered by the TOMS instrument, student groups will analyze and compare aerosol data from either eight consecutive or eight random days. Each group will graph the data, rank the hazard level of their study area and analyze the patterns and probable causes of those aerosols. Directions and materials are included for classes with computer access and for those without computer access. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. Note that this is the last of three investigations found in the Grades 5-8 Module 1 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the three investigations in Module 1, while related, can be done independently.

406

Aerosol lenses propagation model.  

PubMed

We propose a model based on the properties of cascading lenses modulation transfer function (MTF) to reproduce the irradiance of a screen illuminated through a dense aerosol cloud. In this model, the aerosol cloud is broken into multiple thin layers considered as individual lenses. The screen irradiance generated by these individual layers is equivalent to the point-spread function (PSF) of each aerosol lens. Taking the Fourier transform of the PSF as a MTF, we cascade the lenses MTF to find the cloud MTF. The screen irradiance is found with the Fourier transform of this MTF. We show the derivation of the model and we compare the results with the Undique Monte Carlo simulator for four aerosols at three optical depths. The model is in agreement with the Monte Carlo for all the cases tested. PMID:21886230

Tremblay, Grégoire; Roy, Gilles

2011-09-01

407

Palaeoclimate: Aerosols and rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumental records have hinted that aerosol emissions may be shifting rainfall over Central America southwards. A 450-year-long precipitation reconstruction indicates that this shift began shortly after the Industrial Revolution.

Partin, Jud

2015-03-01

408

Stratospheric aerosol layer detection.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The earth's daytime horizon was scanned on several occasions between 1963 and 1968. The limb was observed at six wavelengths in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum with a narrow field of view instrument on the X-15 aircraft. The inversion of such horizon observations to yield atmospheric density and the concentrations of ozone and aerosol extinctions is discussed. The most significant features of the X-15 data are effects attributed to stratospheric aerosols. Observations of both the 20-km aerosol layer and a layer at approximately 50 km are inferred from the data. Both layers apparently possess considerable variability. It is pointed out that the existence of substantial aerosol concentrations above 30 km is an important limitation of the nadir technique of determining ozone concentrations in which the earth's radiance is observed at ultraviolet wavelengths from a satellite.

Cunnold, D. M.; Gray, C. R.; Merritt, D. C.

1973-01-01

409

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Reperfused Myocardial Infarction: Intraindividual Comparison of ECIII-60 and Gd-DTPA in a Swine Model  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To compare a necrosis-avid contrast agent (NACA) bis-Gd-DTPA-pamoic acid derivative (ECIII-60) after intracoronary delivery with an extracellular agent Gd-DTPA after intravenous injection on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a swine model of acute reperfused myocardial infarction (MI). Methods. Eight pigs underwent 90 min of transcatheter coronary balloon occlusion and 60 min of reperfusion. After intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA at a dose of 0.2 mmol/kg, all pigs were scanned with T1-weighted MRI until the delayed enhancement of MI disappeared. Then they were intracoronarily infused with ECIII-60 at 0.0025 mmol/kg and imaged for 5 hr. Signal intensity, infarct-over-normal contrast ratio and relative infarct size were quantified, compared, and correlated with the results of postmortem MRI and triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) histochemical staining. Results. A contrast ratio over 3.0 was induced by both Gd-DTPA and ECIII-60. However, while the delayed enhancement with Gd-DTPA virtually vanished in 1 hr, ECIII-60 at an 80x smaller dose depicted the MI accurately over 5 hr as proven by ex vivo MRI and TTC staining. Conclusion. Both Gd-DTPA and ECIII-60 strongly enhanced acute MI. Comparing with fading contrast in a narrow time window with intravenous Gd-DTPA, intracoronary ECIII-60 persistently demarcated the acute MI, indicating a potential method for postprocedural assessment of myocardial viability after coronary interventions.

Jin Jiyang; Teng Gaojun [Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Department of Radiology (China); Feng Yi; Wu Yanping [Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Department of Cardiology (China); Jin Qindi [Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Department of Radiology (China); Wang Yu [Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Department of Cardiology (China); Wang Zhen [Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Department of Anaesthesiology (China); Lu Qin [Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Department of Radiology (China); Jiang Yibo [Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Department of Cardiology (China); Wang Shengqi; Chen Feng [Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Department of Radiology (China); Marchal, Guy; Ni Yicheng [University Hospitals, University of Leuven, Department of Radiology (Belgium)], E-mail: yicheng.ni@med.kuleuven.ac.be

2007-04-15

410

Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MR Guidance in Thermal Ablation of Liver Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the potency of Gd-EOB-DTPA to support hepatic catheter placement in laser ablation procedures by quantifying time-dependent delineation effects for instrumentation and target tumor within liver parenchyma. Monitoring potential influence on online MR thermometry during the ablation procedure is a secondary aim. Materials and Methods 30 cases of MR-guided laser ablation were performed after i.v. bolus injection of gadoxetic acid (0.025 mmol/Kg Gd-EOB-DTPA; Bayer Healthcare, Berlin, Germany). T1-weighted GRE sequences were used for applicator guidance (FLASH 3D) in the catheter placement phase and for therapy monitoring (FLASH 2D) in the therapy phase. SNR and consecutive CNR values were measured for elements of interest plotted over time both for catheter placement and therapy phase and compared with a non-contrast control group of 19 earlier cases. Statistical analysis was realized using the paired Wilcoxon test. Results Sustainable signal elevation of liver parenchyma in the contrast-enhanced group was sufficient to silhouette both target tumor and applicator against the liver. Differences in time dependent CNR alteration were highly significant between contrast-enhanced and non-contrast interventions for parenchyma and target on the one hand (p?=?0.020) and parenchyma and instrument on the other hand (p?=?0.002). Effects lasted for the whole procedure (monitoring up to 60 min) and were specific for the contrast-enhanced group. Contrasting maxima were seen after median 30 (applicator) and 38 (tumor) minutes, in the potential core time of a multineedle procedure. Contrast influence on T1 thermometry for real-time monitoring of thermal impact was not significant (p?=?0.068–0.715). Conclusion Results strongly support anticipated promotive effects of Gd-EOB-DTPA for MR-guided percutaneous liver interventions by proving and quantifying the delineating effects for therapy-relevant elements in the procedure. Time benefit, cost effectiveness and oncologic outcome of the described beneficiary effects will have to be part of further investigations. PMID:25541950

Rosenberg, Christian; Jahn, Andrea; Pickartz, Tilman; Wahnschaffe, Ulrich; Patrzyk, Maciej; Hosten, Norbert

2014-01-01

411

Aerosol migration near chernobyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne particles from a polluted area can pose a long-term health hazard to residents nearby. However, the long-term prediction of aerosol migration has never been successful. We show in the present paper that a recently proposed model (Hatano and Hatano, 1997, Atmospheric Environment31, 2297–2303) successfully reproduces data of the aerosol concentration measured near Chernobyl over a decade. The time dependence

Y. Hatano; N. Hatano; H. Amano; T. Ueno; A. K. Sukhoruchkin; S. V. Kazakov

1998-01-01

412

Added value of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced Hepatobiliary phase MR imaging in evaluation of focal solid hepatic lesions  

PubMed Central

Background Correct characterization of focal solid hepatic lesions has always been a challenge and is of great diagnostic and therapeutic relevance. The purpose of this study was to determine the added value of hepatobiliary phase images in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiating focal solid hepatic lesions. Methods In this retrospective trial 84 consecutive patients underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR examinations. MRI was conducted for 64 patients with malignant focal hepatic lesions (34 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 30 metastases) and for 20 patients with benign hepatic lesions (14 focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), 3 adenoma, 3 hemangioma). Five radiologists independently reviewed three sets of MR images by means of a 5-point confidence scale from score 1 (definitely benign) to score 5 (definitely malignant): set 1: unenhanced images; set 2: unenhanced and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced dynamic images; set 3: hepatobiliary phase images in addition to set 2. Accuracy was assessed by the alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) and the index of diagnostic performance was calculated. Results Diagnostic accuracy was significantly improved by the addition of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced dynamic images: Az in set 1 was 0.708 and 0.833 in set 2 (P?=?0.0002). The addition of hepatobiliary phase images increased the Az value to 0.941 in set 3 (set 3 vs set 2, P?DTPA-enhanced dynamic MRI improve the differentiation of focal solid hepatic lesions. PMID:24289722

2013-01-01

413

In Situ Aerosol Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An affordable technology designed to facilitate extensive global atmospheric aerosol measurements has been developed. This lightweight instrument is compatible with newly developed platforms such as tethered balloons, blimps, kites, and even disposable instruments such as dropsondes. This technology is based on detection of light scattered by aerosol particles where an optical layout is used to enhance the performance of the laboratory prototype instrument, which allows detection of smaller aerosol particles and improves the accuracy of aerosol particle size measurement. It has been determined that using focused illumination geometry without any apertures is advantageous over using the originally proposed collimated beam/slit geometry (that is supposed to produce uniform illumination over the beam cross-section). The illumination source is used more efficiently, which allows detection of smaller aerosol particles. Second, the obtained integral scattered light intensity measured for the particle can be corrected for the beam intensity profile inhomogeneity based on the measured beam intensity profile and measured particle location. The particle location (coordinates) in the illuminated sample volume is determined based on the information contained in the image frame. The procedure considerably improves the accuracy of determination of the aerosol particle size.

Vakhtin, Andrei; Krasnoperov, Lev

2011-01-01

414

RACORO aerosol data processing  

SciTech Connect

The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

Elisabeth Andrews

2011-10-31

415

Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents new albumin-shelled Gd-DTPA microbubbles (MBs) that can concurrently serve as a dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound (US) imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and detect intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during focused ultrasound brain drug delivery. Perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were prepared with a mean diameter of 2320 nm and concentration of 2.903×109 MBs ml-1 using albumin-(Gd-DTPA) and by sonication with perfluorocarbon (C3F8) gas. The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were then centrifuged and the procedure was repeated until the free Gd3+ ions were eliminated (which were detected by the xylenol orange sodium salt solution). The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were also characterized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by US and MR imaging. Focused US was used with the albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs to induce disruption of the BBB in 18 rats. BBB disruption was confirmed with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence MR imaging. Heavy T2*-weighted 3D fast low-angle shot sequence MR imaging was used to detect ICH. In vitro US imaging experiments showed that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can significantly enhance the US contrast in T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. The r1 and r2 relaxivities for Gd-DTPA were 7.69 and 21.35 s-1mM-1, respectively, indicating that the MBs represent a positive contrast agent in T1-weighted images. In vivo MR imaging experiments on 18 rats showed that focused US combined with albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can be used to both induce disruption of the BBB and detect ICH. To compare the signal intensity change between pure BBB opening and BBB opening accompanying ICH, albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MB imaging can provide a ratio of 5.14 with significant difference (p = 0.026), whereas Gd-DTPA imaging only provides a ratio of 2.13 and without significant difference (p = 0.108). The results indicate that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs have potential as a US/MR dual-modality contrast agent for BBB opening and differentiating focused-US-induced BBB opening from ICH, and can monitor the focused ultrasound brain drug delivery process.

Liao, Ai-Ho; Liu, Hao-Li; Su, Chia-Hao; Hua, Mu-Yi; Yang, Hung-Wei; Weng, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Po-Hung; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wu, Shih-Yen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Li, Pai-Chi

2012-05-01

416

Brain MR in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: findings and enhancement with Gd-DTPA.  

PubMed

The brains of eight patient with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) were studied with magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). One scan was normal and a spectrum of abnormalities was seen in the others. Five patients had absence of the posterior pituitary bright spot, and four with evidence of pituitary dysfunction had a lesion in the region of the hypothalamus. An orbital extraconal mass was noted in one child with exopthalmus. This decreased in a follow-up study after Vinblastine therapy. The cerebellum was abnormal in two patients; the area of the dentate nuclei exhibited abnormal signal in one asymptomatic child and the MRI of another boy with a ten year history of progressive cerebellar dysfunction showed cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Three of the five patients with deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were studied both before and after the administration of intravenous Gadolinium-DTPA. In all three, after administration of the contrast agent, there was enhancement of involved areas. PMID:2392358

Rosenfield, N S; Abrahams, J; Komp, D

1990-01-01

417

Primed Infusion with Delayed Equilibrium of Gd.DTPA for Enhanced Imaging of Small Pulmonary Metastases  

PubMed Central

Objectives To use primed infusions of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent Gd.DTPA (Magnevist), to achieve an equilibrium between blood and tissue (eqMRI). This may increase tumor Gd concentrations as a novel cancer imaging methodology for the enhancement of small tumor nodules within the low signal-to-noise background of the lung. Methods A primed infusion with a delay before equilibrium (eqMRI) of the Gd(III) chelator Gd.DTPA, via the intraperitoneal route, was used to evaluate gadolinium tumor enhancement as a function of a bolus injection, which is applied routinely in the clinic, compared to gadolinium maintained at equilibrium. A double gated (respiration and cardiac) spin-echo sequence at 9.4T was used to evaluate whole lungs pre contrast and then at 15 (representative of bolus enhancement), 25 and 35 minutes (representative of eqMRI). This was carried out in two lung metastasis models representative of high and low tumor cell seeding. Lungs containing discrete tumor nodes where inflation fixed and taken for haematoxylin and eosin staining as well as CD34 staining for correlation to MRI. Results We demonstrate that sustained Gd enhancement, afforded by Gd equilibrium, increases the detection of pulmonary metastases compared to bolus enhancement and those tumors which enhance at equilibrium are sub-millimetre in size (<0.7 mm2) with a similar morphology to early bronchoalveolar cell carcinomas. Conclusion As Gd-chelates are routinely used in the clinic for detecting tumors by MRI, this methodology is readily transferable to the clinic and advances MRI as a methodology for the detection of small pulmonary tumors. PMID:23382996

Kalber, Tammy L.; Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E.; Siow, Bernard M.; Sage, Elizabeth; Price, Anthony N.; Ordidge, Katherine L.; Walker-Samuel, Simon

2013-01-01

418

Tin-117m(4+)-DTPA for palliation of pain from osseous metastases: A pilot study  

SciTech Connect

The physical and biological attributes of {sup 117m}Sn(4+)-DTPA indicate that it should be an effective agent for palliative therapy of painful bony metastatic disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not this agent could effectively reduce pain while sparing the hemopoietic marrow from adverse effects. Fifteen patients (10 males and 5 females) with painful bony metastases from various primary cancers were included in the study. Seven patients received 1.22 to 3.11 MBq/kg of {sub 117m}Sn intravenously (Group 1) and eight patients received 4.85 to 5.77 MBq/kg (Group 2). All but one were treated as outpatients and followed for a minimum of 2 mo. In the first group, pain relief was nonassessable in four patients because of death or additional treatment of soft-tissue disease by another modality. One patient had no relief of pain, one had complete relief of pain and one had transient relief of pain. No myelotoxicity was observed. For Group 2, three patients achieved complete relief of pain, two good relief, two partial relief and one began to experience pain relief when he suffered a pathological fracture 2 mo most-treatment. None of these patients had myelotoxicity. Tin-117m(4+)-DTPA can reduce pain from metastatic disease to bone without inducing adverse reactions related to bone marrow. Further studies are needed to assess tolerance levels for the bone marrow and to evaluate response rates and duration of effect. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Atkins, H.L.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Dept. of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northport, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-05-01

419

SURVIVAL OF BACTERIA DURING AEROSOLIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

One form of commercial application of microorganisms, including genetically engineered microorganisms is as an aerosol. To study the effect of aerosol-induced stress on bacterial survival, nonrecombinant spontaneous antibiotic-resistant mutants of four organisms, Enterobacter clo...

420

Summer Aerosols over Greece  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strong synoptic winds usually help to disperse pollutants over the skies of Greece and the Aegean Sea during winter months, and in late summer relatively strong northerly winds typically prevent significant aerosol influx from the south. During the summer of 2002, the northerly Etesian winds were exceptionally weak, allowing Sahara dust from the south to reach the Aegean region. This resulted in elevated aerosol levels, particularly in the month of July. The abundance of aerosol over Greece and the Aegean Sea on four dates during the summer of 2002 are illustrated by these images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR).

In the natural-color images (the left-hand panel of each pair), it is apparent that aerosol particles are more abundant over the region on the two dates in July than in either June or August. These natural-color views were acquired by MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera. The top and bottom views depict overlapping parts of mainland Greece and the Aegean, with the bottom panels covering a region to the west of the top panels. Data from each of the four dates have been processed identically, and relative brightness variations between the views are preserved.

MISR retrieves information on aerosol amount and particle properties by using the changes in scene brightness and contrast at nine widely-spaced view angles and four spectral bands. The right-hand panel of each image pair is a map of retrieved aerosol amount, parameterized by a quantity called aerosol optical depth. A color scale is used to represent this quantity. Higher amounts of aerosol within the total column of the atmosphere are indicated by green, yellow or orange pixels, and clearer skies are indicated by purple and blue pixels. Dark gray pixels indicate places where clouds or other factors precluded an aerosol retrieval.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 13325, 13558, 13660 and 14126. The panels utilize data from blocks 59 to 62 within World Reference System-2 paths 182 and 183.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2003-01-01

421

Biological aerosol background characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

2011-05-01

422

Antibacterial activity of synthetic curcumin derivatives: 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) and EF24-dimer linked via diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (EF2DTPA).  

PubMed

Curcumin is well known for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, since systemic absorption and bioavailability of curcumin from gastrointestinal tract is considerably poor, synthetic curcuminoids are being developed as better alternatives. Two curcumin derivatives: 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) and EF24-dimer linked via diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (EF2DTPA), were included in this study. We investigated the antibacterial activity of EF24 and EF2DTPA against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. We also studied the effects of EF24 and EF2DTPA on uptake and localization of pHrodo-labeled E. coli in the acidic compartments (phagolysosomes) of dendritic cells (DCs) under in vitro conditions. Our results demonstrate that treatment with EF24 and EF2DTPA directly suppresses the bacterial growth. However, these compounds do not affect the bacterial uptake or localization in the DCs. PMID:24532443

Vilekar, Prachi; King, Catherine; Lagisetty, Pallavi; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Awasthi, Shanjana

2014-04-01

423

Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short-wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting

R. J. Charlson; S. E. Schwartz; J. M. Hales; R. D. Cess; J. A. Coakley Jr.; J. E. Hansen; D. J. Hofmann

1992-01-01

424

Therapeutic aerosols in children.  

PubMed Central

The use and variety of drugs administered to children as inhaled aerosols is increasing, but little is known about how much drug reaches the lung and how it is distributed there in different age groups. In this article the reasons for measuring aerosol deposition in children are discussed and the potential methods for doing this described. Of the methods available, only the use of radiolabelled aerosols gives accurate information on total lung deposition and distribution. The potential risk of the radiation exposure required for these measurements varies with the age of the child but seems to be small. Properly designed studies are expected to clarify the factors affecting lung deposition in children and identify methods of inhalation associated with efficient and predictable delivery of the drug. Measurements of radioaerosol deposition may therefore be justified in children when this information is expected to lead to improvements in the effectiveness or safety of their treatment. Images p246-a PMID:8369692

Thomas, S H; Batchelor, S; O'Doherty, M J

1993-01-01

425

Aerosol Quality Monitor (AQUAM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) developed at NESDIS generates three products from AVHRR, operationally: clear sky radiances in all bands, and sea surface temperature (SST) derived from clear-sky brightness temperatures (BT) in Ch3B (centered at 3.7 ?m), Ch4 (11 ?m) and Ch5 (12 ?m), and aerosol optical depths (AOD) derived from clear-sky reflectances in Ch1 (0.63), Ch2 (0.83) and Ch3A (1.61 ?m). An integral part of ACSPO is the fast Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM), which calculates first-guess clear-sky BTs using global NCEP forecast atmospheric and Reynolds SST fields. Simulated BTs are employed in ACSPO for improved cloud screening, physical (RTM-based) SST inversions, and to monitor and validate satellite BTs. The model minus observation biases are monitored online in near-real time using the Monitoring IR Clear-sky radiances over Oceans for SST (MICROS; http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/sod/sst/micros/). A persistent positive M-O bias is observed in MICROS, partly attributed to missing aerosol in CRTM input, causing "M" to be warmer than "O". It is thus necessary to include aerosols in CRTM and quantify their effects on AVHRR BTs and SSTs. However, sensitivity of thermal bands to aerosol is only minimal, and use of solar reflectance bands is preferable to evaluate the accuracy of CRTM modeling, with global aerosol fields as input (from e.g. Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport, GOCART, or Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System, NAAPS). Once available, the corresponding M-O biases in solar reflectance bands will be added to MICROS. Also, adding CRTM simulated reflectances in ACSPO would greatly improve cloud detection, help validate CRTM in the solar reflectance bands, and assist aerosol retrievals. Running CRTM with global aerosol as input is very challenging, computationally. While CRTM is being optimized to handle such global scattering computations, a near-real time web-based Aerosol Quality Monitor (AQUAM; http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/sod/sst/aquam/) was set up, to check AVHRR (and later, VIIRS) AOD retrievals for self-consistency, and check them for cross-consistency with MOD04_L2 and MYD04_L2 from well-calibrated MODIS sensor. Also, adding in-situ AOD data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is currently under way. Finally, GOCART and NAAPS data will be added to AQUAM, and satellite, AERONET, and model AODs will all be checked for cross-consistency. Next step will be comparison of CRTM simulations (with GOCART or NAAPS input) with top-of-atmosphere sensor reflectances. Once consistency in solar reflectance bands is achieved, we will check the effect of aerosols on the thermal bands and correct its effect on SST.

Liang, X.; Ignatov, A.

2011-12-01

426

Consumer aerosol products council: CFC myths still shake aerosol industry  

SciTech Connect

A recent Roper poll found that 55% of respondents believe CFC propellants are allowed in aerosol products. Another 31% did not know if CFCs can be used in aerosol products. In all, 86% of those polled answered incorrectly. To combat the public's misconceptions, the aerosol industry formed the Consumer Aerosol Products Council (CAPCO; Washington, DC). The council is made up of manufacturers, fillers and marketers of aerosol products. CAPCO's mandate from the aerosol industry is to educate the American public with the facts about CFCs, aerosols and the environment. To meet this directive, CAPCO has taken several approaches, including: informing and responding to the media; creating an educational video for use in schools and communities; and encouraging member companies to offer council materials and resources to their employees, customers and community groups.

Minogue, D. (Consumer Aerosol Products Council, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-01-01

427

Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.  

PubMed

Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log ?(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log ?(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log ?(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log ?(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log ?(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal. PMID:22738207

Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

2012-07-16

428

Photo-cured PMMA/PEI core/shell nanoparticles surface-modified with Gd-DTPA for T1 MR imaging.  

PubMed

Herein, we introduced amine-functionalized core-shell nanoparticles (Polymethyl methacrylate/Polyethyleneimine; PMMA/PEI) with surface primary amines (3.15×10(5) groups/particle) and uniform size distribution (150-200nm) that were prepared by one-step photo-induced emulsion polymerization. Further PEI-surface was modified with diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and introduced with Gd(III). The modified particles possessing DTPA can entrap a high content of Gd(III) ions of over 5.5×10(4)Gd/particle with stable chelation (no release of free Gd) at least 7h. The Gd-DTPA-conjugated core-shell nanoparticles (PMMA/PEI-DTPA-Gd NPs) enhanced the MRI intensity more than Primovist (a commercial hepatic contrast agent). Moreover, the PMMA/PEI-DTPA-Gd NPs showed non-cytotoxicity up to 250?M in normal liver cells. Thus, in vitro data suggested the PMMA/PEI-DTPA-Gd NPs is promising delivery system as a superior MRI contrast agent, especially for hepatic lesion targeted MR imaging. PMID:24267331

Ratanajanchai, Montri; Lee, Don Haeng; Sunintaboon, Panya; Yang, Su-Geun

2014-02-01

429

Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using /sup 111/In-DTPA ventriculography  

SciTech Connect

Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by /sup 111/In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 111/In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that /sup 111/In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizing these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis.

Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.; Thompson, G.; Camargo, E.E.

1982-11-01

430

Geometrical Optics of Dense Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Assembling a free-standing, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rare ed than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed fi eld, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the nite particle density reduces the eff ective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing. __________________________________________________

Hay, Michael J.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

2013-04-24

431

Randomised double blind trial of the safety and efficacy of two gadolinium complexes (Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main difference between macrocyclic Gd-DOTA and linear Gd-DTPA complexes is the greater stability of the former which theoretically might reduce biological interactions in man. To evaluate the clinical relevance of this property, 300 unselected neurological patients were included in a randomised double-blind comparison involving five European centres, focused mainly on the tolerance of these two contrast media. Clinical tolerance

P. Brugiores; A. Gaston; H. R. Degryse; P. M. Parizel; A. M. de Schepper; I. Berry; C. Manelfe; F. Le Bras; C. Marsauit; W. Wichmann; A. Valavanis

1994-01-01

432

Quantitative Evaluation of Enhancement Patterns in Focal Solid Liver Lesions with Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective was to investigate the dynamic enhancement patterns in focal solid liver lesions after the administration of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl di