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Clinical experience with technetium-99m DTPA aerosol with perfusion scintigraphy in suspected pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the clinical value of radioaerosol imaging, 156 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) were studied. In 25 patients, a preperfusion xenon-133 (Xe-133) study was compared with a postperfusion study using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. It was found that they were of equal value most of the time (56%), but that the aerosol study was more often helpful. Because of this, and the technical ease of using six standard views with radioaerosol, the series was completed using perfusion scintigraphy followed by radioaerosol images. In 19 patients the perfusion scintigraphy with Tc-99 macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) was normal or nearly normal and no aerosol study was required. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol images were satisfactory when the count rate was at least twice and preferably three times that of the previous perfusion study. There were 17 studies (11%) classified as intermediate. There were 26 patients classified as high probability for PE, and angiographic or autopsy correlation was available in 14. All of the 14 proved to have PE. In the 113 patients classified as low probability, there were ten with angiographic or autopsy correlation. In the ten, there was one patient with a small pulmonary embolus found at autopsy. Clinical follow-up for over two months confirmed the absence of PE in the remainder of this group. Aerosol studies have proven technically easier to perform and a satisfactory substitute for xenon imaging in suspected PE.

Selby, J.B.; Gardner, J.J.



Technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and gallium scanning in acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

SciTech Connect

In 11 non-smoking AIDS patients suspected of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), the results of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol clearances, gallium scans, and arterial blood gases were compared with those of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Nine patients had PCP. All had increased clearances five times higher than the normal (5.6 +/- 2.3% X min-1 vs 1.1 +/- 0.34% X min-1, N = 10, P less than 0.001), suggesting an increased alveolar permeability. Gallium scans were abnormal in six patients but normal or slightly abnormal in the three others. Four of these nine patients had normal chest x-rays. In two of these the gallium scan was abnormal, but in the two others, only the increased Tc-99m DTPA clearances showed evidence of lung disease. Two patients had normal BAL, with normal clearances and gallium scans. Four out of the nine patients with PCP were studied after treatment. Three recovered and had normal clearance and gallium scans. One still had PCP with increased clearance but normal gallium scan. Gallium scanning and Tc-99m DTPA clearance are useful for detecting lung disease in AIDS patients with suspected PCP and for prompting BAL when chest x-rays and PaO/sub 2/ levels are normal. Due to its high sensitivity, a normal Tc-99m DTPA clearance could avoid BAL.

Picard, C.; Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Cinotti, L.; Mayaud, C.; Revuz, J.



Rapid clearance of inhaled aerosols of Technetium-99M DTPA in patients with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

Because infection with Pheumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) causes alteration of the type I epithelial cells as the primary event, the authors studied patients with PCP to determine if PCP causes rapid clearance of Tc-99m DTPA. Twenty normal non-smoking subjects and 7 non-smoking patients with histologically proven PCP were studied. Serial studies were obtained in three patients. Following a two-minute inhalation of 1.6 aerosol particles of Tc-99m DTPA in saline, the activity over three peripheral regions of interest (ROI) of each lung was monitored for the next 7 minutes. The rate of decline of activity over each ROI was expressed as per cent decline/min. In 7 patients with PCP, the average clearance was 7.5 +- 3.6% min., normal, 1.3 +- 0.6% min.(SD). Three patients studied from 5 to 38 days following therapy had improvement in the rate of clearance. This has been demonstrated to be persistent even after clinical recovery of the patient. The ability to quantitate injury to the pulmonary epithelium may directly reflect the ability of Pneumocystis carinii to invade the lung. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DTPA clearance may be a useful test to help diagnosis and monitor the activity of PCP infections.

Mason, G.R.; Duane, G.B.; Effros, R.M.; Mena, I.



Regional comparison of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and radioactive gas ventilation (xenon and krypton) studies in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

The regional distribution of (99mTc)DTPA aerosol was compared with that of /sup 133/Xe (n = 30) and krypton (n = 24) in a group of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. All patients had an aerosol study using a recently available commercial generator system, a ventilation study with one of the gases, and perfusion imaging. Regional information was assessed visually on xenon, krypton, and aerosol studies independently by considering each lung as three equal-sized zones. In addition, gas ventilation findings peripheral to regions of aerosol turbulence (hot spots) were evaluated. Only 64% of the zones were in complete agreement on xenon and aerosol. Most of the discordance between xenon and aerosol was accounted for by minor degrees of /sup 133/Xe washout retention in zones that appeared normal in the aerosol study. An agreement rate of 85% was noted between 81mKr and aerosol regionally. The regions of discordance between aerosol and gas studies, however, usually were associated with unimpressive perfusion defects that did not change the scintigraphic probability for pulmonary embolism in any patient. Regarding zones of aerosol hyperdeposition, 76% had associated washout abnormalities on xenon; however, there was no correlation between the presence of these abnormalities or perfusion abnormalities. The results confirm the high sensitivity of /sup 133/Xe washout imaging, but suggest that radioaerosol imaging will detect most parenchymal abnormalities associated with perfusion defects of significance.

Ramanna, L.; Alderson, P.O.; Waxman, A.D.; Berman, D.S.; Brachman, M.B.; Kroop, S.A.; Goldsmith, M.; Tanasescu, D.E.



Pulmonary clearance of technetium 99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid aerosol in patients with amiodarone pneumonitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amiodarone pneumonitis is a serious complication that may lead to fatal lung fibrosis. In an attempt to diagnose this condition as early as possible, the technetium-99m-labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) aerosol washout rates of 10 non-smoking normal volunteers (group 1), 10 non-smoking patients on a long-term amiodarone regimen with dilated cardiomyopathy but no congestive heart failure (group II) and

Mario Terra-Filho; Francisco S. Vargas; J. Claudio Meneguetti; Jose Soares Jr; Alberto Cukier; Lisete R. Teixeira; Edwaldo E. Camargo



Reverse Mismatched Ventilation-Perfusion Pulmonary Imaging with Accumulation of Technetium99m-DTPA in a Mucous Plug in a Main Bronchus: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of reverse mismatched ventilation-perfu- sion on pulmonary scintigraphy is a fairly common occur- rence. We present a patient who was experiencing decreas- ing oxygen saturation and had a reverse mismatched ventilation-perfusion imaging pattern associated with radio- tracer retention in a main bronchus. Technetium-99m-DTPA aerosol lung imaging showed tracer retention in the trachea and right main bronchus, absent ventilation

Wei-Jen Shih; Benedek Bognar


Estudo com radioaerossol de DTPA tecnecio-99m em pacientes portadores de pneumopatia por amiodarona. (Study with radio aerosol of DTPA technetium-99 m in individuals with pulmonary disease by amiodarone).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to evaluate the role of the clearance of 99 m Technetium chelated to diethylenetriamine-penta-acetate (99 m Tc-DTPA) in amiodarone induced pulmonary disease, 40 individuals were studied in four groups. After spirometry, where a volume-time curve ...

M. Terra Filho



Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy.

Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.



Exercise increases the lung clearance of inhaled technetium-99m DTPA  

SciTech Connect

The regional lung clearance of a deposited aerosol of (/sup 99m/Tc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was successively computed at rest and at exercise in seven nonsmoking volunteers in upright posture. The subjects were seated on a bicycle with their backs against a gamma camera. At rest there was a gradient of clearance from the apex to the base of the lung, the apical clearance being significantly higher. At exercise this regional gradient was enhanced by a large and significant increase of the apical clearances (3.40 +/- 0.63% min-1 s.d. compared with 1.82 +/- 0.75% min-1 s.d. at rest, n = 7, p less than 0.01). By contrast the changes of the basal clearances were slight and unsignificant (1.46 +/- 0.71% min-1 s.d. compared with 1.40 +/- 0.82% min-1 s.d.). This increase of the apical lung clearance could be attributed primarily to the increase of apical blood flow induced by exercise and to the subsequent increase of the permeability surface area product.

Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Leveau, J.; Katz, A.; Cinotti, L.; Madelaine, G.; Galle, P.



Scintigraphic monitoring of mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin aerosol  

SciTech Connect

A simple method for in vivo monitoring mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance is described. Eighteen healthy subjects and 13 patients with various chronic lung diseases were studied by this method. The principle of using an aerosol administration system similar to the system used for routine ventilation lung studies is stressed. Proximal large airway deposition of the radioaerosol was obtained by using relatively large particles (average diameter 2 microM) of (99mTc)MAA aerosol. Monitoring was performed by visual inspection of the tracheo-bronchial cinescintigraphic ascendence of the accumulated radioactive boli and by assessing their rate of clearance via automated computer analysis of the time-activity curves, following the movement of each bolus. The normal mean +/- s.d. clearance rate thus obtained was 4.7 +/- 1.3 mm/min. This rate appears to be more precise as compared with the range of results obtained by other radioisotopic methods. Significantly faster rates, mean 8.2 +/- 1.4 mm/min (p less than 0.001) were obtained in bronchiectatic patients while slower rates (2.8 mm/min) were seen in a patient with ciliary dyskinesia.

Zwas, S.T.; Katz, I.; Belfer, B.; Baum, G.L.; Aharonson, E.



Effect of pattern of aerosol inhalation on clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid from the lungs of normal humans.  


The clearance rate of inhaled aerosols of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) from the lungs provides a rapid, clinically useful, noninvasive index of pulmonary epithelial permeability. In order to identify a method that minimizes intrasubject and intersubject variability and thereby provides a reliable means to identify patients with abnormal values, we administered a submicronic aerosol of 99mTc-DTPA to 10 healthy, nonsmoking male subjects with either tidal breathing (Vtidal) or multiple vital capacity maneuvers (VVC). Subjects then spontaneously breathed room air while counting continued for 30 min. Monoexponential clearance rates over 7, 15, and 30 min were compared with a two-compartment, biexponential analysis over 30 min. Intrasubject reproducibility was evaluated by repeating clearance 2 to 156 days later. Monoexponential clearance following VVC at 30 min equaled 1.36 +/- 0.55%/min compared with 0.83 +/- 0.25%/min for Vtidal (p less than 0.025). VVC inhalations resulted in a larger fast compartment of 16 +/- 12% compared with 3 +/- 2% with tidal breathing (p less than 0.01). The least intrasubject variability with coefficient of variation (CV) of +/- 18% was obtained with monoexponential analyses after Vtidal during 15 min of scanning and with either breathing maneuver over 30 min. Monoexponential clearance for 30 min with Vtidal gave the least scatter between subjects, with CV of +/- 30%. These data show that simple tidal inhalations of 99mTc-DTPA followed by a monoexponential analysis of the 30-min time-activity curve from both lungs minimize the degree of variability between and among subjects and provide a predicted normal value of clearance of 0.83 +/- 0.25%/min. The development of a more rapid curvilinear clearance followed by delivery VVC suggests that several deep breaths transiently increase epithelial permeability or reduce the volume of liquid in the alveolar subphase in some regions. Resting for 20 min prior to inhaling the aerosol of 99mTc-DTPA is recommended to avoid alterations in clearance rates from deep breathing. PMID:1586055

Smith, R J; Hyde, R W; Waldman, D L; Freund, G G; Weber, D A; Utell, M J; Morrow, P E



Detection of diffuse glomerular lesions in rats: II. Comparison of indium-111 cationic small macromolecules with technetium-99m DTPA  

SciTech Connect

Dextrans with average molecular weights of 5000, 10,000, and 17,500 and inulin were rendered cationic by amination with 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide. After limited coupling with DTPA cyclic dianhydride, they were labeled with 111In. A good correlation was found between their early renal uptake quantitated by camera-computer techniques and their renal clearance from multiple plasma samples in rats with glomerular damage induced by puromycin aminonucleoside and controls. However, there was poor correlation between the early renal uptake of these agents and the clearance of simultaneously injected (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA. The 2-hr organ distribution and urinary excretion of these agents were compared with the corresponding values of DTPA. The differences in clearance between rats with glomerular damage and controls were greater with aminated dextran (mol wt 5000) than with DTPA, confirming previous work with infusions of nonradioactive charged dextrans and neutral inulin. The cationic dextrans appear to reflect the presence or absence of the normal anionic charge of the glomerular membrane as well as changes in filtration rate. Aminated inulin did not differentiate between controls and rats with glomerular disease any better than DTPA, probably because the number of amino groups conjugated was insufficient to produce the charge effect.

McAfee, J.G.; Thomas, F.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.D.; Lyons, B.; Roskopf, M.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Whaley, D.



Chromium-51-EDTA and technetium-99m-DTPA excretion for assessment of small bowel Crohn's disease  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, 4 patients with radiologically documented Crohn's disease were given 100 of Cr-51-EDTA and 5 mCi of Tc-99m-DTPA together orally in 10ml of water, and urine was collected during the following 24 hr period. Sequential imaging of the stomach and the GI tract was done with a LFOV gamma camera at 10 min intervals until the activity cleared the small bowel. The images failed to show any localization of the activity in any disease process and no extraintestinal accumulation site was observed scintigraphically. Mean 24 hr urinary excretion for Tc-99m-DTPA was 4.8 +- 2.6% comparable to that of Cr-51-EDTA in these patients. This study suggests that a comparable oral dose of Tc-99m-DTPA could be substituted for Cr-51-EDTA as a far more readily available agent for documenting small bowel Crohn's disease by quantitative assessment of its urinary excretion.

O'Morain, C.; Chervu, L.; Milstein, D.M.; Das, K.M.



Localization of neurofibromas by scanning with technetium-99m diethylene triamine-pentacetic acid (Tc-99 DTPA)  

SciTech Connect

Tc-99m DTPA is commonly utilized to evaluate renal function. Reports of a uterine myoma and a soft tissue sarcoma accumulating this radiopharmaceutical have also appeared in the literature. The authors have observed the affinity for plexiform as well as well circumscribed soft tissue tumors of neurofibromatosis for Tc-99m DTPA. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, twenty-eight sites of abnormal soft tissue localization of the isotope were documented by clinical and radiographic (predominantly CT) correlation. The best visualization of the tumors occurred 1 to 3 hours post-injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Multiple images (150,000 to 500,000 counts) of areas suspected of having neurofibromatous involvement were obtained. Several unsuspected lesions were recognized. Similar images obtained in sixteen control patients showed no similar soft tissue localization. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-centimeter subcutaneous neurofibroma. The mechanism for selectivity of neurofibroma for Tc-99m DTPA does not appear to be related to hypervascularity or necrosis. Time activity curves of several lesions demonstrate gradual increase in their activity pointing to cellular uptake or stasis within the tumor as possible explanations. The significance of this observation relates to easy mapping of lesions with minimal radiation. Important implications of this discovery include sequential evaluation of tumor growth and detection of unsuspected lesions.

Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.; MacEwen, G.D.



Introduction to Technetium-99m Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role played by technetium-99m generators in diagnostic medicine, their physical and chemical fundamentals, and their main technical characteristics are discussed. This report is intended as a general introduction to a group of reports which summarize ...

S. Abrashkin



Reproducibility of technetium-99m ethylenedicysteine clearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   It has been shown that technetium-99m ethylenedicysteine (99mTc-EC) clearance displays a strong correlation with orthoiodohippurate clearance and that it is possible to estimate effective\\u000a renal plasma flow from 99mTc-EC clearance. However, in routine practice, when monitoring renal function of patients by clearance determinations it is\\u000a imperative to test the reproducibility of the clearance technique in order to decide whether

Levent Kabasakal; Metin Halaç; Ebru Alkan; Nihat Özçelik; I. lhami Uslu



Parathyroid scintigraphy: comparison of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile and technetium-99m tetrofosmin studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the preliminary results of a prospective study demonstrating tetrofosmin uptake in surgically and histologically proven parathyroid adenomas. In ten patients with primary chronic hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid imaging was performed using (1) technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) and (2)99mTc-1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane (tetrofosmin) within a time interval of 3–5 days. Both tracers correctly identified the parathyroid adenomas by focal prolonged tracer retention. On visual inspection

R. M. Aigner; G. F. Fueger; R. Nicoletti



Radiolabelling of platelets with technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

A method for labelling of platelets with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) is presented. In principle, aminobenzoic acid and tartaric acid are used as reagents, allowing Tc-99m complexes of intermediate chemical stability to be formed. These complexes react rapidly with proteins, such as platelet proteins, when added. We have examined the isolation procedure for the platelets and the labelling procedure using residual aggregational ability and residual content of beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) as indicators of damage to the platelets. In its final version the method allowed a 32.6 +/- 2.7% (mean +/- SD) incorporation of Tc-99m into platelets which again showed a 66 +/- 15% residual aggregational ability, tested by 50 mumol/l of ADP, and a 79 +/- 17% residual content of beta-TG releasable by 10 IU/ml of thrombin. In a pilot clinical study involving 28 patients we found labelled autologous platelets useful in detecting lung embolism and deep vein thrombosis.

Sundrehagen, E.; Urdal, P.; Heggli, D.E.; Lindegaard, M.W.; Jacobsen, E. (Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway))



False-positive technetium-99m DMSA renal imaging in two cases of malrotated kidney.  


Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m DMSA) has been used as a renal imaging agent of choice. A few false-positive cases of Tc-99m DMSA imaging have been reported. The authors have experienced false-positive Tc-99m DMSA imagings in two cases of a malrotated kidney, and this finding previously has not been reported in the literature. The possibility of its nuclear imaging diagnosis with Tc-99m DTPA is also discussed. PMID:2992862

Ueno, K; Rikimaru, S; Miyagi, T; Mohri, S



Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8–18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 ?A with an energy window of 18?10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron-produced 99mTc has been extensively compared with relevant United States Pharmacopeia (USP) specifications for the existing 99Mo/99mTc production strategy. Additional quality testing, including biodistribution studies of [ 99mTc]pertechnetate and [99mTc]disofenin in both mice and rabbits was also evaluated. Using the strategies and results presented throughout this dissertation, this thesis concludes with the world's first cyclotron-based 99mTc patient images obtained as part of a Phase I Clinical Trial at the University of Alberta using [99m Tc]pertechnetate.

Gagnon, Katherine M.


Technetium99m-tetrofosmin uptake in malignant lung tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m-tetrofosmin is a new myocardial imaging agent which has yielded promising results compared to thallium-201. The tumour-seeking properties of the routinely used cardiac radiopharmaceuticals201Tl and99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile are well known. Here we report the results of a pilot study demonstrating99mTc-tetrofosmin uptake in malignant lung tumours. Five patients with bronchial carcinoma, each in different stages of chemo- or radiotherapy, were imaged. Dynamic and

Tarik Ba?o?lu; Murathan ?ahin; Candan Co?kun; Aynur Koparan; Irem Bernay; Levent Erkan



Value of technetium-99m diethyltriamine pentaaceticacid radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy for the stage of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Amiodarone is a potent antiarrhythmic agent that is limited in clinical use by its adverse effects, including potentially life threatening amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT). The alteration of technetium-99m diethyltriaminepentaaceticacid (Tc-99m DTPA) radioaerosol lung clearance in AIPT was experimentally investigated. Methods: Eighteen white New Zealand rabbits (initial weight 4.1±0.2 kg) were divided into two groups. AIPT group (n=13) was administered

Gulay Durmus-Altun; Armagan Altun; Yavuz Sami Salihoglu; Semsi Altaner; Sakir Berkada; Gulay Ozbay



Myocardial redistribution of technetium-99m-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (SESTAMIBI)  

SciTech Connect

To determine whether technetium-99m-hexakis-2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (SESTAMIBI) remains fixed in the myocardium following its initial uptake or undergoes time-related redistribution, anesthetized dogs underwent occlusion of the anterior descending coronary artery for 6 min, followed by 3-hr reperfusion. Technetium-99m-SESTAMIBI and thallium-201 (201Tl) were injected intravenously after 1 min occlusion and regional myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres. Tomographic imaging of Tc-SESTAMIBI revealed a perfusion defect with slight but definite filling in over 2 hr. Quantitative analysis indicated a significant rise in the nadir and decrease in the width of the defect in circumferential profile curves. After 3-hr of reperfusion, Tc-SESTAMIBI activity in the previously ischemic area was always greater than the activity of microspheres injected during coronary occlusion (mean normalized values, 0.32 versus 0.11, p less than 0.0001). Our results indicate that following transient ischemia and reperfusion, Tc-SESTAMIBI clearly undergoes myocardial redistribution, although more slowly and less completely than {sup 201}Tl.

Li, Q.S.; Solot, G.; Frank, T.L.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Becker, L.C. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA))



Simultaneous technetium-99m MIBI angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging  

SciTech Connect

Resting first-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRNA) was performed with the myocardial perfusion agent technetium-99m MIBI. In 27 patients, it was compared with technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid FPRNA. A significant correlation was present in left (r = 0.93, p less than 0.001) as well as right (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) ventricular ejection fraction measured with both radiopharmaceuticals. In 13 patients, MIBI derived segmental wall motion was compared with contrast ventriculography. A high correlation was present (p less than 0.001), and qualitative agreement was found in 38/52 segments. In 19 patients with myocardial infarction a significant correlation was present between MIBI segmental wall motion and perfusion scores (p less than 0.001). In ten patients with a history of myocardial infarction, 18 myocardial segments demonstrated diseased coronary vessels and impaired wall motion at contrast angiography. These segments were all identified by the MIBI wall motion and perfusion study. We conclude that MIBI is a promising agent for simultaneous evaluation of cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at rest.

Baillet, G.Y.; Mena, I.G.; Kuperus, J.H.; Robertson, J.M.; French, W.J.



Technetium99m tetrofosmin and technetium-99m sestamibi imaging of multiple metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 79-year-old male with follicular thyroid carcinoma metastasizing to the lung, bone and lymph nodes was subjected to whole-body scintigraphy using technetium-99m tetrofosmin and99mTc-sestamibi. Both agents delineated the metastatic lesions and the two image qualities were comparable. We believe that99mTc-tetrofosmin and99mTc-sestamibi images may be helpful in localizing metastatic foci and substitute for thallium-201 in the follow-up of patients with differentiated

Shigeru Kosuda; Hisaaki Yokoyama; Michiaki Katayama; Tokuzo Yokokawa; Shoichi Kusano; Osamu Yamamoto



Regional respiratory clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA: posture and smoking effects  

SciTech Connect

We studied 10 healthy nonsmokers and 8 healthy smokers, in both the upright and supine position, to investigate whether regional differences in respiratory clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) existed and to assess the influence of posture and smoking on the regional RC-DTPA. RC-DTPA was assessed by the lung clearance rates (%/min) of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (0.8 micron MMD; 2.4 GSD), using data corrected for recirculating radioactivity, in the upper (zone 1), middle (zone 2), and lower (zone 3) posterior lung fields. In nonsmokers, RC-DTPA in zone 1 was faster than in zone 2 or 3 in both the upright (P less than 0.001) and supine positions (P less than 0.0). No effect was produced by changes in posture on the regional RC-DTPA. In smokers, RC-DTPA was increased in all zones compared with the nonsmokers (P = 0.004), with a further increase in RC-DTP in zone 1 in the upright posture compared with the other regions (P less than 0.001). We conclude that in nonsmokers regional RC-DTPA is faster in zone 1 than in other zones, and this is not related to recirculation of radioactivity; posture does not modify the regional RC-DTPA of nonsmokers; smoking increases RC-DTPA in all zones and more in zone 1 in the upright posture.

Dusser, D.J.; Minty, B.D.; Collignon, M.A.; Hinge, D.; Barritault, L.G.; Huchon, G.J.



Detection of esophageal ulcerations with technetium-99m albumin sucralfate  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m albumin-sucralfate ((/sup 99m/Tc)Su) can be used to demonstrate peptic ulcer disease in man and animals. We evaluated the usefulness of (/sup 99m/Tc)Su for detecting various grades of esophagitis. (/sup 99m/Tc)Su adhered to the distal esophagus for up to 3 hr in five of six patients with esophageal ulcers but adhered to only two of nine with lesser degrees of esophagitis. No adherence was seen in five patients without esophagitis. Thus, (/sup 99m/Tc)Su may not be useful for detecting any but the most severe grade of esophagitis. Based on these results, we speculate that the previously documented beneficial effects of sucralfate on mild to moderate esophagitis may be due to other mechanisms besides adherence to the ulcerated mucosa.

Goff, J.S.; Adcock, K.A.; Schmelter, R.



Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.



Myocardial infarct imaging in patients with technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid. Superiority of technetium-99m pyrophosphate.  


Technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m DMSA) has been used successfully for imaging acute myocardial infarction in a canine model. The application in humans, however, has not been previously reported. In order to determine the feasibility of using this agent in clinical studies and to compare the agent to technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi), ten patients with proven myocardial infarction were studied. While imaging of transmural infarctions in humans was achieved using Tc-99m DMSA, scores for the Tc-99m DMSA images (1.8 +/- 0.96) were not as high as for Tc-99m PPi (2.5 +/- 0.45) (P less than 0.05). Discordance among four independent interpreters was greater for images obtained with Tc-99m DMSA. The superiority of Tc-99m PPi was evident whether images were obtained early (within 24 hours) or late (within five days). Although DMSA images were not obscured by rib uptake, they were less sensitive (63%) than Tc-99m PPi (97%). A potential advantage of Tc-99m DMSA in imaging acute myocardial infarction is that radiotracer concentration in the infarct occurs primarily in the early postinfarction period. The longer postinfarction that Tc-99m DMSA imaging was attempted, the lower the concentration of radiotracer. Thus, Tc-99m DMSA would not be expected to have the same persistence pattern as Tc-99m PPi into the remote postinfarction period. The persistent positivity of Tc-99m PPi has made it difficult to diagnose reinfarction. PMID:3038447

Lyons, K P; Milne, N; Karlsberg, R P; Olson, H G; Kuperus, J



Myocardial infarct imaging in patients with technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid. Superiority of technetium-99m pyrophosphate  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m DMSA) has been used successfully for imaging acute myocardial infarction in a canine model. The application in humans, however, has not been previously reported. In order to determine the feasibility of using this agent in clinical studies and to compare the agent to technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi), ten patients with proven myocardial infarction were studied. While imaging of transmural infarctions in humans was achieved using Tc-99m DMSA, scores for the Tc-99m DMSA images (1.8 +/- 0.96) were not as high as for Tc-99m PPi (2.5 +/- 0.45) (P less than 0.05). Discordance among four independent interpreters was greater for images obtained with Tc-99m DMSA. The superiority of Tc-99m PPi was evident whether images were obtained early (within 24 hours) or late (within five days). Although DMSA images were not obscured by rib uptake, they were less sensitive (63%) than Tc-99m PPi (97%). A potential advantage of Tc-99m DMSA in imaging acute myocardial infarction is that radiotracer concentration in the infarct occurs primarily in the early postinfarction period. The longer postinfarction that Tc-99m DMSA imaging was attempted, the lower the concentration of radiotracer. Thus, Tc-99m DMSA would not be expected to have the same persistence pattern as Tc-99m PPi into the remote postinfarction period. The persistent positivity of Tc-99m PPi has made it difficult to diagnose reinfarction.

Lyons, K.P.; Milne, N.; Karlsberg, R.P.; Olson, H.G.; Kuperus, J.



Technetium-99m production issues in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Nuclear Medicine developed when it was realised that a radioisotopic substitution of Iodine-131 for the stable Iodine-127 would follow the same metabolic pathway in the body enabling the thyroid to be imaged and the thyroid uptake measured. The Iodine could be complexed with pharmaceutical substrates to enable other organs to be imaged, but its use was limited and high gamma energy and beta emission restricted the activity of each radiopharmaceutical used, leading to long acquisition times and degraded images. As a pure gamma emitter of 140 keV and with a 6-h half-life, Technetium-99m is a better radionuclide and images a wider range of bodily organs. However, its short half-life also requires it to be eluted from its mother radionuclide, Mo-99, in a generator, delivered weekly from radiopharmaceutical companies who obtain the Mo-99 in liquid form from high-flux research reactors. All went well till around 2007, when the NRU Reactor in Canada was closed and all other reactors went down for various periods for unrelated problems, leading to widespread Mo-99 shortages. Although the reactors have since recovered, they are 48 to 57 years old, and it seems that few governments have made any future provision such as building replacement reactors.

Green, Christopher H.



Technetium-99m production issues in the United Kingdom.  


Nuclear Medicine developed when it was realised that a radioisotopic substitution of Iodine-131 for the stable Iodine-127 would follow the same metabolic pathway in the body enabling the thyroid to be imaged and the thyroid uptake measured. The Iodine could be complexed with pharmaceutical substrates to enable other organs to be imaged, but its use was limited and high gamma energy and beta emission restricted the activity of each radiopharmaceutical used, leading to long acquisition times and degraded images. As a pure gamma emitter of 140 keV and with a 6-h half-life, Technetium-99m is a better radionuclide and images a wider range of bodily organs. However, its short half-life also requires it to be eluted from its mother radionuclide, Mo-99, in a generator, delivered weekly from radiopharmaceutical companies who obtain the Mo-99 in liquid form from high-flux research reactors. All went well till around 2007, when the NRU Reactor in Canada was closed and all other reactors went down for various periods for unrelated problems, leading to widespread Mo-99 shortages. Although the reactors have since recovered, they are 48 to 57 years old, and it seems that few governments have made any future provision such as building replacement reactors. PMID:22557795

Green, Christopher H



Contribution of Technetium 99M-Labelled Pyrophosphate Bone Scintigraphy in Infectious Spondylodiscitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work examines the contribution of technetium 99m(sup(99m)Tc)-labelled pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy in infectious spondylodiscitis and attempts to define its importance in the diagnosis of lesions and their subsequent supervision in patients under ...

M. T. Capdepont



Development of Novel Technetium-99m-Labeled Steroids as Estrogen- Responsive Breast Cancer Imaging Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was the preparation and evaluation of new technetium-99m labeled compounds via utilization of their rhenium surrogates. An initial series of rhenium tricarbonyl complexes of estradiol were prepared using Stille coupling methods at...

R. N. Hanson



Studies on Quality Control of Technetium-99M Labelling Kits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various experiments for the quality control of Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals such as Tc-99m-phytate, Tc-99m-MDP, Tc-99m-Tin Colloid, Tc-99m-DISIDA, Tc-99m-DTPA,Tc-99m-DMSA, Tc-99m-Gulcoheptonate, TC-99m-Pyrophosphate, Tc-99m-HSA, and Tc-99m-HAM wer...

J. R. Kim K. B. Park O. D. Awh



Direct comparison of technetium 99m-sestamibi and technetium 99m-tetrofosmin cardiac single photon emission computed tomography in patients with coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Technetium 99m-labeled sestamibi and tetrofosmin tomography have shown high diagnostic accuracy in the detection of coronary\\u000a artery disease (CAD). However, few data are available comparing sestamibi and tetrofosmin imaging in the same patients. The\\u000a aim of the study was to determine the image quality of the two tracers and to compare the results of exercise sestamibi and\\u000a tetrofosmin tomography in

Wanda Acampa; Alberto Cuocolo; Pasquale Sullo; Andrea Varrone; Emanuele Nicolai; Leonardo Pace; Mario Petretta; Marco Salvatore



Comparison of the accumulation and efflux kinetics of technetium-99m sestamibi and technetium-99m tetrofosmin in an MRP-expressing tumour cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential clinical use of technetium-99m labeled sestamibi (Tc-MIBI) and tetrofosmin (Tc-Tfos) to image tumours is currently being evaluated. In this study, the accumulation and efflux of Tc-MIBI and Tc-Tfos in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-1 were examined in the presence or absence of various inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (PGP) and\\/or multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) activity [GG918, PSC833, verapamil

Keita Utsunomiya; James R. Ballinger; Micheline Piquette-Miller; Andrew M. Rauth; Wendy Tang; Zi-Fen Su; Masanori Ichise



A comparative study of technetium-99m sestamibi and technetium-99m tetrofosmin single-photon tomography in the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intention of this prospective study was to compare the diagnostic potential of technetium-99m sestamibi (MIBI) and a novel radiotracer, 99mTc-Tetrofosmin (Tetro), for the assessment of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the differentiation of residual disease from post-therapy changes. A total of 38 patients underwent MIBI and Tetro single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging at initial presentation (n=22) or following therapy

Lale Kostakoglu; Enis Özyar; Figen B. Demirkazik; Mutlu Hayran; Lale Atahan; Coxkun F. Bekdik



Scintimammography with technetium-99m tetrofosmin in the diagnosis of breast cancer and lymph node metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible role of scintimammography (SMM) with technetium-99m tetrofosmin in breast cancer. Thirty-three patients with breast disease and ten normal controls were included in the study. Planar scintigraphic images in supine anterior, prone lateral and lateral views, with the patient lying in lateral recumbency, were acquired. A qualitative analysis evaluating both breasts

Luigi Mansi; Pier Francesco Rambaldil; Eugenio Procaccini; Fernando Di Gregorio; Adelina Laprovitera; Biagio Pecori; Walter Del Vecchio



Evaluation of thyroid nodules with technetium-99m tetrofosmin dual-phase scintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m tetrofosmin, a lipophilic cationic complex molecule, was introduced for myocardial imaging. In some biodistribution studies it has also been reported to accumulate in the thyroid gland. Our objectives were to determine which thyroid nodules retain tetrofosmin and whether preoperative evaluation of malignancy is possible. Tetrofosmin scintigraphy was performed in 57 patients with a cold thyroid nodule on previously performed

Ewald Kresnik; Hans-Jürgen Gallowitsch; Peter Mikosch; Mario Molnar; Wolfgang Pipam; Iris Gomez; Peter Lind



Study of the auditory tube by ventilation scintigraphy with technetium-99m  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two essential regulating mechanisms of the middle ear pressure are the trans-mucosal gas exchange in the middle ear and the ventilation function of the eustachian tube (ET). The physiological mechanism of these both functions is not yet clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the ET pressure equilibrium function by ventilation scintigraphy with technetium-99m.

Andrei P. Timoshenko; Christian Denis; Francis Dubois; Christian Martin; Jean-Michel Prades



The value of technetium99m pyrophosphate scanning in the diagnosis of myocardial contusion  

SciTech Connect

Twelve patients who sustained significant blunt chest trauma and had abnormal electrocardiographic changes unrelated to hypotension, hypoxia, or pre-existing myocardial disease were studied prospectively during a one-year period. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK)/MB isoenzyme concentrations: Group A (six patients) had normal CPK/MB isoenzymes (less than 8 IU), and Group B (six patients) had elevated CPK/MB isoenzymes (greater than 8 IU). All patients underwent cardiac scanning with technetium99m pyrophosphate. All studies were interpreted as normal. These data suggest that technetium99m pyrophosphate scanning is not a reliable adjunctive test to confirm myocardial contusion in patients with significant blunt trauma of the chest. However, the diagnosis of myocardial contusion in such patients can be established by the presence of abnormal electrocardiographic changes associated with an elevation of the serum CPK/MB isoenzyme concentration.

Rodriguez, A.; Shatney, C.



Extracranial metastatic glioblastoma: Appearance on thallium-201-chloride/technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT images  

SciTech Connect

Sequential thallium-201-chloride and technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained in a patient with extracranial metastatic glioblastoma multiforme. Thallium-201 uptake was high (three times the scalp background) in all pathologically confirmed extracranial metastases and moderate (1.6 times scalp background) intracranially, where most biopsy specimens showed gliosis with scattered atypical astrocytes. Technetium-99m-HMPAO uptake was decreased intracranially in the right frontal and parietal lobes which had been irradiated. It was also decreased in one well-encapsulated scalp lesion and high in another scalp mass with less defined borders. Possible mechanisms of tumor uptake of these agents are reviewed.

Carvalho, P.A.; Schwartz, R.B.; Alexander, E. III; Loeffler, J.S.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Nagel, J.S.; Holman, B.L. (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))



Demonstration of reperfusion after thrombolysis with technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial imaging  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial perfusion imaging was employed in a patient undergoing thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction. Technetium-99m isonitrile does not demonstrate significant myocardial redistribution after intravenous injection. The imaging agent was administered in the emergency room, prior to the initiation of thrombolytic therapy. The initial area at risk for infarction was visualized on images obtained after the patient had been effectively treated. Imaging performed 5 days later, after repeat injection of (99mTc)isonitrile, showed a smaller myocardial perfusion defect indicating salvage of myocardium. Thus, this technique offers promise as a noninvasive means of assessing the area at risk, the success of reperfusion, and the presence of salvaged myocardium, early in the course of acute myocardial infarction.

Kayden, D.S.; Mattera, J.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Wackers, F.J.



Technetium99m-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Neonates with Hypoglycemic Encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

propylene amine oxime(HMPAO)SPECTand, for comparison, MRI.Duringthe acute stage, both 99@Tc-HMPAO SPECT and MRIreveal abnormal ities in the posterior cerebrum. Technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT reveals further areas of insult, for example the frontal lobes. The degree of hypoperfusion correlates with the clinical severity of hypoglycemia during the neonatal period and subsequent neurolog ical sequelae. Follow-up with HMPAOSPECT several months after insult demonstrates persistent

Nan-Tsing Chiu; Chao-Ching Huang; Ying-Chao Chang; Wei-Jen Yao; Chin-Yin Yu


Technetium99m HM-PAO-SPECT study of regional cerebral perfusion in early Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional cerebral perfusion was evaluated by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((\\/sup 99m\\/Tc)HM-PAO) in sixteen patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in early clinical phase and in 16 healthy elderly controls. In all patients transmission computed tomography (TCT) and\\/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show focal brain abnormalities. Relative to normal subjects, AD patients showed

Daniela Perani; V. Di Piero; G. Vallar; S. Cappa; C. Messa; G. Bottini; A. Berti; D. Passafiume; G. Scarlato; P. Gerundini



Technical aspects of myocardial SPECT imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most reports to date using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi have used acquisition parameters that were optimized for thallium-201. To fully utilize the superior imaging characteristics of Tc-99m sestamibi, there is a need to optimize the technical aspects of SPECT imaging for this agent. Performance can be enhanced through the careful selection of optimal radiopharmaceutical

Ernest V. Garcia; C. David Cooke; Kenneth F. Van Train; Russell Folks; John Peifer; E. Gordon DePuey; Jamshid Maddahi; Naomi Alazraki; James Galt; Norberto Ezquerra



Sensitivity of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy in diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the value of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of amyloid heart disease this procedure was prospectively performed in 20 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven primary amyloidosis. Eleven patients had echocardiographic abnormalities compatible with amyloid cardiomyopathy, 9 of whom had congestive heart failure. Diffuse myocardial pyrophosphate uptake was of equal or greater intensity than that of the ribs in

Rodney H. Falk; Victor W. Lee; Alan Rubinow; William B. Hood Jr.; Alan S. Cohen



Risk assessment using single-photon emission computed tomographic technetium-99m sestamibi imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This review summarizes the results of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tracer imaging in patients with stable symptoms, patients with acute coronary syndromes, patients undergoing major noncardiac surgery and patients with chest pain in the emergency department.Background. Previous studies have examined the prognostic value of stress thallium imaging in several subsets of patients with ischemic heart disease.

Sherif Iskander; Ami E Iskandrian



A comparative technetium 99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPET study in different types of dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional cerebral perfusion was evaluated by single photon emission computed tomography (SPET) using technetium 99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) as a tracer, in 13 control subjects and 44 age-matched patients suffering from dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT, n=19), presumed Pick's disease (n=5), idiopathic Parkinson's disease with dementia (DPD, n=15) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, n=5). HMPAO uptake was measured

M. O. Habert; U. Spampinato; J. L. Mast; M. L. Piketty; M. C. Bourdel; J. Recondo; P. Rondot; S. Askienazy



Technetium99m-Labelled Sulesomab (LeukoScan) in the Evaluation of Soft Tissue Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To perform a retrospective review of all patients receiving technetium-99m (99mTc)-labelled sulesomab over a 4-year period to determine if soft tissue infections can be accurately identified. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the results of 124 99mTc-sulesomab studies performed over a 4-year period. Of these, 34 were performed for undiagnosed fever in which soft tissue infection was suspected to be

Anne-Marie Quigley; Gopinath Gnanasegaran; John R. Buscombe; Andrew J. W. Hilson



Hyperthermia increases accumulation of technetium-99m-labeled liposomes in feline sarcomas.  


The effect of hyperthermia on the accumulation of technetium-99m-labeled liposomes was studied in feline sarcomas. Each cat received two separate injections of liposomes. The first was used to quantify the amount of technetium-99m-labeled liposomes within the tumor under normothermic conditions. The second injection was made at the beginning of a 60-min hyperthermia procedure. Planar scintigraphy was used to measure the activity of technetium-99m-labeled liposomes within the tumor at predetermined times up to 18 h after injection. Regions of interest were drawn for the tumor, lungs, liver, kidney, and aorta. Counts in the regions of interest were decay corrected. Counts/pixel in the tumor under normothermic and hyperthermic conditions were normalized to aorta counts/pixel. A total of 16 cats were eligible for the study. In two of the 16 cats, incomplete count data precluded analysis. In the remaining 14 cats, hyperthermia resulted in a significant increase in liposome accumulation in the tumor (P = 0.001). Tumor volume ranged from 1.2 to 236.2 cm3, and thermal dose ranged from 2.0 to 243.3 CEM43CT90 (equivalent time that the 10th percentile temperature was equal to 43 degrees C). There was not a relationship between either tumor volume or hyperthermia dose on the magnitude of increased liposome accumulation, suggesting that this method has application across a range of tumor volumes and degrees of heatibility. PMID:10999769

Matteucci, M L; Anyarambhatla, G; Rosner, G; Azuma, C; Fisher, P E; Dewhirst, M W; Needham, D; Thrall, D E



Exploring a technique for reducing the influence of scattered rays from surrounding organs to the heart during myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with technetium-99m sestamibi and technetium-99m tetrofosmin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have devised a new position (Monzen position) which can suppress the influence of scattered rays from surrounding organs\\u000a (liver, etc.) when conducting myocardial imaging. Unlike the conventional techniques, which require a waiting period of 30-60\\u000a minutes before imaging can be started after the infusion of technetium-99m sestamibi or technetium-99m tetrofosmin, this position\\u000a allows single-photon emission tomography to be started

Hajime Monzen; Makoto Hirata; Akira Nakanishi; Makoto Ogasawara; Takatoshi Suzuki; Rumio Yuki; Masatake Hara; Tamie Sato; Hisashi Shimoyama; Kunihiko Hirose; Futoshi Tadehara



Visualization of uveal amelanotic melanoma with technetium-99m(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid.  


The possibility of using technetium-99m(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid, Tc-99m DMSA, in the evaluation of uveal amelanotic melanoma was assessed in this study. Both planar and SPECT images clearly demonstrated the tumor. Following confirmation of our results by contemporaneous ultrasonography and MRI the patient was treated with Iodine-125 brachytherapy. In combination with other diagnostic tests, Tc-99m(V) DMSA scintigraphy may play a role in the detection of uveal melanoma and its possible systemic metastases. PMID:9212896

Kiratli, P O; Kiratli, H; Ercan, M T; Kostako?lu, L



The technetium-99m-sulfur colloid angiogram in suspected gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic radionuclide angiography (5-sec. images) with technetium-99m-sulfur colloid proved to be helpful in 5 patients who presented with gastrointestinal bleeding. In 2, intermittently bleeding hypervascular lesions were seen on dynamic but not on static images; in 2 others, the dynamic images demonstrated hypervascular lesions better than the static scans; and in 1, the radionuclide angiogram localized colonic bleeding more accurately because of rapid peristalsis of extravasated tracer. The addition of the radionuclide angiogram to routine scintigraphy for gastrointestinal bleeding may be crucial for identification of hypervascular lesions and precise localization of bleeding sites.

Berger, R.B.; Zeman, R.K.; Gottschalk, A.



Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.

Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.



Technical considerations in gastric ulcer localization using technetium-99m sucralfate  

SciTech Connect

After the completion and evaluation of 17 patients studies using technetium-99m-labeled sucralfate for the detection of ulcerated areas, the authors felt that the technical aspects of the studies should be evaluated. The factors for evaluation are: the time the patient is kept fasting; the time the patient is being imaged and rotated for various anatomic views; the technologist time and camera time that are involved in one study; and the cost factor of the testing procedure. Based on the findings of their small sample of patients, the sensitivity of the test is uncertain.

Garrett, S.G.; Wcislo, W.J.



Technetium-99m HM-PAO-SPECT study of regional cerebral perfusion in early Alzheimer's disease  

SciTech Connect

Regional cerebral perfusion was evaluated by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO) in sixteen patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in early clinical phase and in 16 healthy elderly controls. In all patients transmission computed tomography (TCT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show focal brain abnormalities. Relative to normal subjects, AD patients showed significant reductions in cortical/cerebellar activity ratio: cortical perfusion was globally depressed with the largest reductions in frontal and posterior temporo-parietal cortices. Asymmetries of relative perfusion between cerebral hemispheres were also demonstrated when language was affected or visuospatial functions were unevenly impaired. In patients with early AD, SPECT provides functional information to be compared with clinical and psychometric data.

Perani, D.; Di Piero, V.; Vallar, G.; Cappa, S.; Messa, C.; Bottini, G.; Berti, A.; Passafiume, D.; Scarlato, G.; Gerundini, P.



Delayed skin rash following administration of technetium-99m diphosphonate: A case report  

SciTech Connect

The authors report a case of a 48-yr-old woman who developed a delayed skin rash following intravenous (i.v.) administration of technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-HDP). The rash was characterized by skin biopsy, and it was concluded that the reaction was due to the diphosphonate compound. The rash resolved spontaneously without treatment. With most {sup 99m}Tc-based agents, adverse reactions are considered rare and are usually allergic in nature, but the delayed nature of this reaction is more common with diphosphonate compounds than with other radiopharmaceuticals. If a repeat examination is required, alternative agents (such as {sup 99m}Tc-pyrosphosphate) or any other diagnostic modality (magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered. An intradermal skin test may be helpful to determine the safest alternative bone agent.

Hart, B.; Sorenson, J.F.; Eisenberg, B.; Glactz, G.; Owens, D.; Hladik, W.B. III.; Curry, M.C. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (USA))



Technetium-99m phytate as a bone-marrow imaging agent: biodistribution studies in animals: concise communication.  


Technetium-99m phytate has been suggested as a bone-marrow imaging agent. This article compares the biodistribution of Tc-99m labeled "bone marrow" phytate, sulfur colloid, and diphosphonate in young rats and rabbits. Autoclaved bone marrow phytate revealed significant long-base depositon, but 96% of this activity was associated with compact bone and only 4% with bone marrow. This distribution is similar to that of diphosphonate, but significantly different from that of sulfur colloid. Technetium-99m-phytate is not recommended as a bone-marrow imaging agent. PMID:859038

Hamilton, R G; Alderson, P O; Mclntyre, P A



Effect of reperfusion and hyperemia on the myocardial distribution of technetium-99m t-butylisonitrile  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m t-butylisonitrile ((/sup 99m/Tc)TBI) is a promising new radiotracer for myocardial imaging. Its myocardial uptake is sufficiently high in humans to permit planar, tomographic, and gated images of excellent technical quality. We studied the behavior of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI in the dog at rest and under conditions of hyperemia and reperfusion in order to determine the relationship between (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI myocardial concentration and blood flow. After permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, the correlation between the relative myocardial concentration of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI and regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) measured with radiolabeled microspheres was excellent. In a dog model of transient hyperemia, the concentration of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI was directly related to blood flow but underestimated the degree of hyperemia. Technetium-99m TBI redistributed into transiently ischemic myocardium. The myocardial concentrations of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI and thallium-201(/sup 201/TI) in transiently ischemic myocardium were similar at 10 and 30 min following reperfusion and were significantly higher than blood flow prior to reperfusion. When (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI was injected into the left anterior descending artery, the washout was slow, falling to 78% of initial activity at 120 min after injection. In conclusion, (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI reflects regional myocardial blood flow accurately in ischemic and normal resting myocardium and underestimates blood flow at high flows. The rate of myocardial redistribution after reperfusion is similar for (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI and /sup 201/TI.

Holman, B.L.; Campbell, C.A.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Kloner, R.A.



Technetium99m sestamibi and tetrofosmin myocardial single-photon emission tomography: Can we use the same reference data base?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare technetium-99m labelled tetrofosmin and sestamibi myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with one common sestamibi reference file for bull's eye imaging, with quantitation of the extent and severity of perfusion defects. Twenty patients suspected or known to have coronary artery disease participated in the study. Patients first underwent routine sestamibi myocardial SPET

Alice Widding; Birger Hesse; Niels Gadsbøll



Technetium 99m pyrophosphate quantitation of skeletal muscle ischemia and reperfusion injury  

SciTech Connect

The study of ischemia and reperfusion injury in the extremity has been hampered by lack of an accurate method of measuring skeletal muscle injury. We used a bilateral isolated in vivo canine gracilis muscle model in 15 anesthetized dogs. The experimental muscles had 4, 6, or 8 hours of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion. The contralateral gracilis muscle served as a control. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP), an agent which localizes in injured muscle cells, was used to quantitate canine skeletal muscle damage. After 6 hours of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion, there was a significant increase of 215% of 99mTc-PYP uptake in the experimental vs the control muscle. Experimental muscle uptake was 8% greater than control after 4 hours and 405% more after 8 hours of ischemia and reperfusion. Segmental distribution of 99mTc-PYP uptake showed localization to be greatest in the middle of the muscle at the entry site of the gracilis artery. Electron microscopic evaluation also documented this area to have undergone the most severe injury. Distal portions of the muscle did not show increased damage. Our results show that 99mTc-PYP effectively quantitates skeletal muscle ischemia and reperfusion injury. The pattern of 99mTc-PYP uptake suggests that considerable injury is caused during reperfusion.

Blebea, J.; Kerr, J.C.; Franco, C.D.; Padberg, F.T. Jr.; Hobson, R.W. 2d.



Extrahepatic uptake of technetium-99m-phytate: a prognostic index in patients with cirrhosis.  


We examined the usefulness of technetium-99m-phytate (99mTc-phytate) hepatic scintigraphy in the evaluation of hepatic function, and the assessment of prognosis in patients with cirrhosis. Ninety-four patients with biopsy-documented cirrhosis had, at the time of entry into the study, a scintigraphy with 99mTc-phytate complexed with calcium in vivo. Extrahepatic uptake (EHU) of 99mTc-phytate on scintigraphy was graded from 0 (absent EHU) to 5 (important EHU) according to the relative distribution of the radiotracer between the liver, the spleen and the bone marrow. The severity of liver disease was also assessed according to the index of Child and Turcotte as modified by Pugh et al. Mean follow-up was 2 yr. EHU was correlated to the Pugh score (r = 0.73) and to survival. Survival at 2 yr was 97% for an EHU equal or inferior to 2.5, 62% for grades 3-4.5, and 31% for grade 5. In conclusion, hepatic imaging with 99mTc-phytate, in addition to its diagnostic value, also contains valuable prognostic information in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:2324819

Picard, D; Infante-Rivard, C; Villeneuve, J P; Chartrand, R; Picard, M; Carrier, L



Technetium-99m tetrofosmin scintigraphy in the diagnosis of breast cancer.  


The routine mammogram remains the procedure of choice for screening asymptomatic women for breast cancer. However, it accounts for an elevated percentage of misdiagnosed breast nodules particularly in younger women with dense breast tissue or fibrocystic disease. New radiopharmaceuticals including labelled monoclonal antibodies, thalium-201 and technetium-99m sestamibi are under investigation as possible solutions to this issue. 99mTc-tetrofosmin (Myoview), like 99mTc-sestamibi, is a lipophilic, cationic myocardial imaging agent. Mitochondrial membrane potential appears to play a significant role in the uptake and/or retention of 99mTc-tetrofosmin. Twenty-seven female patients with suspected breast cancer were included in the study. Twenty mCi of 99mTc-tetrofosmin were administered intravenously. Imaging was begun 10 min post-injection. In twenty-three patients, breast cancer was detected using 99mTc-tetrofosmin scintigraphy. Two carcinomas were missed. In two patients, both breast scintigraphy and intraoperative biopsies were negative. Our preliminary results suggest that this product may have a role in the differentiation of benign from malignant lesions, and were encouraging in terms of its potential usefulness as a marker of malignancy. PMID:8783646

Vieira, M R; Weinholtz, J H



Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m.  


Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with (99m)Tc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with (99m)Tc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with (99m)Tc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with (99m)Tc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract. PMID:16691636

Abreu, P R C; Almeida, M C; Bernardo, R M; Bernardo, L C; Brito, L C; Garcia, E A C; Fonseca, A S; Bernardo-Filho, M



Comparison of technetium-99m and iodine-123 imaging of thyroid nodules: Correlation with pathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Three hundred and sixteen patients with solitary or dominant thyroid nodules were imaged both with technetium-99m- (99mTc) pertechnetate and iodine-123 ({sup 123}I). The images were preferred, but differences were small and in 27%-58% of the cases there was no difference in quality between the two radionuclides. Discrepancies between {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I images were found in 5%-8% of cases, twice as often in multinodular goiters as in single nodules. Cytologic/histologic examination was performed on all nodules but no correlation was found between the pathology and the type of discrepancy. Twelve carcinomas were found (4%) but none in nodules showing a discrepancy. There was great variation among the observers about the preference for radionuclides and about the existence or type of discrepancies. The slightly better overall quality of {sup 123}I scans is probably not of diagnostic significance and does not justify the routine use of {sup 123}I instead of {sup 99m}Tc. Routine reimaging of {sup 99m}Tc hot nodules with radioiodine for cancer detection does not appear to be necessary.

Kusic, Z.; Becker, D.V.; Saenger, E.L.; Paras, P.; Gartside, P.; Wessler, T.; Spaventi, S. (University Hospital Dr. M. Stojanovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))



A neutral lipophilic technetium-99m complex for regional cerebral blood flow imaging  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m-DMG-2MP (Chloro(bis(2,3-butanedionedioxime(1-)-0)(2,3- butanedionedioximato (2-)-N,N{prime},N{double prime},N{prime}{double prime},N{double prime}{double prime},N{prime}{double prime}{double prime}) (2-methylpropyl borato (2-))technetium)), also known as SQ 32097 is a member of a family of neutral lipophilic compounds generally known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime complexes (BATOs). After i.v. administration, the concentration of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in various regions of the brain appears to be proportional to blood flow. In rats, 1.1% ID was in the brain at 5 min postinjection when the blood contained less than 3% ID. Over 24 hr excretion was 59% in the feces and 23% in the urine. The activity in monkey brain at 5 min was 2.8% ID and it cleared with a t1/2 of 86 min. Autoradiographs of monkey brain sections showed excellent regional detail with a gray/white ratio of 3.6 at 10 min. The distribution of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in the monkey brain corresponds to the known cytoarchitectural pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism. The properties of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP make it a potentially useful agent for cerebral perfusion imaging in man.

Narra, R.K.; Nunn, A.D.; Kuczynski, B.L.; DiRocco, R.J.; Feld, T.; Silva, D.A.; Eckelman, W.C. (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, NJ (USA))



Myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi SPECT in the evaluation of coronary artery disease  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi is a new myocardial perfusion imaging agent that offers significant advantages over thallium-201 (Tl-201) for myocardial perfusion imaging. The results of the current clinical trials using acquisition and processing parameters similar to those for Tl-201 and a separate (2-day) injection protocol suggest that Tc-99m sestamibi and Tl-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provide similar information with respect to detection of myocardial perfusion defects, assessment of the pattern of defect reversibility, overall detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) and detection of disease in individual coronary arteries. Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT appears to be superior to Tc-99m sestamibi planar imaging because the former provides a higher defect contrast and is more accurate for detection of disease in individual coronary arteries. Research is currently under way addressing optimization of acquisition and processing of Tc-99m sestamibi studies and development of quantitative algorithms for detection and localization of CAD and sizing of transmural and nontransmural myocardial perfusion defects. It is expected that with the implementation of the final results of these new developments, further significant improvement in image quality will be attained, which in turn will further increase the confidence in image interpretation. Development of algorithms for analysis of end-diastolic myocardial images may allow better evaluation of small and nontransmural myocardial defects. Furthermore, gated studies may provide valuable information with respect to regional myocardial wall motion and wall thickening. With the implementation of algorithms for attenuation and scatter correction, the overall specificity of Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT should improve significantly. 32 references.

Maddahi, J.; Kiat, H.; Van Train, K.F.; Prigent, F.; Friedman, J.; Garcia, E.V.; Alazraki, N.; DePuey, E.G.; Nichols, K.; Berman, D.S. (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (USA))



Assessment of gastric motility using meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid  

SciTech Connect

During a 2 year period, 83 patients with gastric motility problems were evaluated using radionuclide imaging. The patients presented with epigastric distress, postprandial fullness, pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; signs and symptoms suggestive of either gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy, or both, demonstrated no mechanical obstruction. After oral administration of a 300 g meal labeled with 600 muCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid, a gastric emptying study consisting of serial images and data acquisition was performed. Of the patients studied, 52 had had peptic ulcer surgery, 17 were suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux, 8 were diabetic and suspected of having visceral enteropathy, and 6 had a history of irritable bowel syndrome. The normal mean gastric half emptying time was 77 +/- 16 minutes. Of the patients who had had gastric surgery, 90.4 percent had abnormal emptying: 69.2 percent had delayed gastric emptying and 21.2 percent had rapid gastric emptying time; 9.6 percent had normal emptying time. Of the gastroesophageal reflux group, all but two had normal gastric emptying time; 65 percent demonstrated gastroesophageal reflux within 15 minutes. Two of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome had prolonged emptying; the rest had normal emptying. All diabetic patients with gastroparesis had prolonged gastric emptying time, and all responded favorably to metoclopramide. Of the patients who previously had peptic ulcer surgery and had prolonged emptying time, 72 percent also responded favorably to metoclopramide. We conclude that radionuclide gastric imaging is a useful diagnostic test for the measurement of gastric emptying in patients with a variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders and may be helpful in assessing medical therapy and selecting those who may be candidates for surgery.

Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.



Use of technetium-99m HMPAO scintigraphy for the detection of amiodarone lung toxicity in a rabbit model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amiodarone (AD) is a very effective anti-arrhythmic drug, but its use is often associated with serious pulmonary complications such as pneumonitis and interstitial pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the amount of amiodarone intake (and the related development of lung toxicity) and the lung uptake of technetium-99m labelled D,L-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). Eighteen

G. Çapa Kaya; R. Bekis; F. Kirimca; T. Ertay; A. Kargi; A. Gure; H. Durak



Efficacy and Significance of Sentinel Lymph Node Identification with Technetium99m-labeled Tin Colloids for Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is thought to reflect the metastatic status of the remaining axillary lymph nodes in patients\\u000a with breast cancer. We used technetium-99m-labeled tin colloids to identify SLN. The efficacy and significance of SLN identification\\u000a using this method were investigated in terms of number, size, location, and tumor metastasis. The efficacy of the emulsion\\u000a charcoal injection method

Kazuhiko Sato; Hoshio Hiraide; Minoru Uematsu; Kuniyoshi Tamaki; Hirofumi Ishikawa; Tamio Yamasaki; Seiichi Tamai; Shoichi Kusano; Hidetaka Mochizuki



Nitrate administration to enhance the detection of myocardial viability by technetium-99m tetrofosmin single-photon emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison was performed between technetium-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion tomography at baseline and after nitrate administration, using a 2-day protocol, and rest-reinjection thallium-201 single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies in order to assess whether nitrates enhance the detection of viable myocardium with 99mTc-tetrofosmin. Fifteen patients with coronary artery disease, previous myocardial infarction and a left ventricular ejection fraction 201Tl rest-injection and

Albert Flotats; Ignasi Carrió; Montserrat Estorch; Lluís Bernà; Ana M. Catafau; Carina Marí; Manel Ballester



Quantitative exercise technetium-99m tetrofosmin myocardial tomography for the identification and localization of coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative 1-day exercise-rest technetium-99m tetrofosmin tomography in the identification of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and in the detection of individual stenosed coronary vessels. Sixty-one patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary angiography and 13 normal volunteers were studied. All patients were submitted to two i.v. injections of99mTc-tetrofosmin,

Pasquale Sullo; Alberto Cuocolo; Emanuele Nicolai; Stefania Cardei; Antonio Nappi; Fiorenzo Squame; Eugenio M. Covelli; Leonardo Pace; Marco Salvatore



Localization of parathyroid enlargement: experience with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile and thallium-201 scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI), like thallium-201, has recently been introduced as a myocardial perfusion agent and is now also showing very promising results in parathyroid scintigrapy. The results of 201Tl\\/99mTc-pertechnetate and 99mTc-MIBI\\/99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy, ultrasonography and computed tomography are presented in a series of 43 patients operated on for hyperparathyroidism. All four imaging modalities were confirmed to be reliable, scintigraphy being

Onelio Geatti; Brahm Shapiro; Pier Giuseppe Orsolon; Gianni Proto; Ugo Paolo Guerra; Francesco Antonucci; Daniele Gasparini



Assessment of tissue viability after frostbite injury by technetium-99m-sestamibi scintigraphy in an experimental rabbit model  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Frostbite causes injury to the tissue by direct ice-crystal formation at the cellular level with cellular dehydration and\\u000a microvascular occlusion. Muscle that initially appears viable on reperfusion may subsequently become necrotic because of microcirculatory\\u000a collapse. Since muscle is a sensitive tissue in frostbite injury, we used technetium-99m-sestamibi limb scintigraphy to assess\\u000a tissue viability in an experimental rabbit model. Twelve

Ismet Sarikaya; A. Cemal Aygit; Latife Candan; Ali Sarikaya; Murat Türkyilmaz; ?akir Berkarda



Clinical implications of the technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphic doughnut pattern in patients with acute myocardial infarcts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-five patients with acute myocardial infarcts had technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (\\/sup 99m\\/Tc-PYP) myocardial scintigrams with radionuclide uptake localized to the anterior or lateral wall of the left ventricle in a pattern resembling a doughnut (intense peripheral uptake and relatively less central uptake). Sixty-seven percent of these patients developed left ventricular failure with infarction. Twenty-six patients with acute anterior or lateral

R. E. Rude; R. W. Parkey; F. J. Bonte; S. E. Lewis; D. Twieg; L. M. Buja; J. T. Willerson



Clinical role of technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography in evaluating pretreated patients with brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main problems regarding the follow-up of patients with brain tumours treated with radiotherapy is the distinction between radiation necrosis and tumour relapse. In many cases computed tomography (CT) scan is unable to distinguish between the two. We assessed the usefulness of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with technetium-99m-sestamibi in cases where CT scan was not conclusive. The

Lorenzo Maffioli; Massimo Gasparini; Arturo Chiti; Alberto Gramaglia; Valeria Mongioj; Annalisa Pozzi; Emilio Bombardieri



Technetium 99m—Q12 kinetics in perfused rat myocardium: Effects of hypoxia and low flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium 99m—Q12 is a new cationic myocardial perfusion imaging agent that produces excellent images in human beings. The purpose of this study was to examine the separate effects of hypoxia and low flow on myocardial clearance kinetics. After a 1 mCi bolus injection, myocardial 99mTc-Q12 clearance was monitored for 1 hour by using an Nal detector in 24 isolated perfused

Robert D. Okada; Kiem N. Nguyen; Michael Lauinger; Iantha L. Allton; Gerald Johnson



Efficiency of labelling of red blood cells with technetium-99m after dipyridamole infusion for thallium-201 stress testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies have suggested that dipyridamole may inhibit red blood cell labelling with technetium-99m. To evaluate whether this effect is clinically relevant to the performance of radionuclide ventriculography after dipyridamole-thallium stress testing, in vitro red blood cell labelling was compared immediately before and after thallium-201 stress scintigraphy combined with either dipyridamole infusion (30 patients) or exercise stress (20 patients). Modified

Rodney J. Hicks; Peter Eu; L. Barry Arkles



Technetium-99m labelling of the anti-tumour antibody PR1A3 by photoactivation.  


Irradiation of antibody with ultraviolet light leads to reduction of disulphide bonds. Thus irradiation can be used to generate free thiols prior to direct labelling of antibody with technetium-99m, and has a potential advantage over methods using chemical reducing agents such as mercaptoethanol or tin, in that no purification step is needed to remove excess reducing agent. We have used the photoactivation method developed by Sykes et al. to label the anti-tumour antibody PR1A3 with 99mTc. The antibody was irradiated at 300 nm using a Rayonet photochemical reactor with eight RMR3000 lamps. In a typical experiment, the antibody solution was injected into a nitrogen-filled borosilicate glass vial and purged with nitrogen. A degassed solution containing stannous fluoride and methylene diphosphonate was then added to the antibody and the vial was irradiated. Following the irradiation, [99mTc]pertechnetate was injected into the vial and the reaction mixture was incubated for 30 min at room temperature before being analysed by size-exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography and instant thin-layer chromatography. Labelling yields greater than 95% were obtained using antibody concentrations ranging from 0.5mg/ml to 5mg/ml. Irradiation times as short as 5 min and tin to antibody ratios in the range between 11 and 32 microg tin per mg antibody gave high labelling yields. Labelling yields greater than 95% were obtained after storage of the photoactivated antibody at -70 degrees C for several weeks. The stability of the 99mTc-labelled photoactivated PR1A3 was similar to that of 99mTc-labelled mercaptoethanol-reduced PR1A3. The mean immunoreactive fraction was 77% for the photoactivation-labelled PR1A3, compared to 93% for PR1A3 labelled by mercaptoethanol reduction. Biodistribution studies were carried out using 99mTc-photoactivation-labelled PR1A3 or PR1A3 labelled by mercaptoethanol reduction in Balb/c mice and in nude mice with MKN-45 human tumour xenografts. There was no significant difference in tumour uptake between the mice that received photoactivated PR1A3 and those that received mercaptoethanol-reduced PR1A3. There was also no significant difference in uptake in most organs in Balb/c mice; however, the photoactivated antibody cleared more rapidly from the blood, and whole-body clearance was also faster for the photoactivated PR1A3. In conclusion, the photoactivation technique provides a very convenient "one-pot" method for labelling antibodies with 99mTc. PMID:8925853

Stalteri, M A; Mather, S J



Significance of technetium-99m/thallium-201 overlap on simultaneous dual emission computed tomography in acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

To examine the significance of technetium-99m pyrophosphate/thallium-201 scintigraphic overlap as an indicator of identifying early coronary reperfusion (less than or equal to 3 hours), 32 patients, in whom coronary recanalization was attempted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), underwent myocardial imaging 3 days after the onset of AMI. The imaging was performed by simultaneous dual emission computed tomography, which allows simultaneous recording of technetium-99m pyrophosphate and thallium-201 images and comparison between both images in the same slice. The patients were separated into 3 groups: 9 patients in whom reperfusion was successful and showed scintigraphic overlap (group A), 12 with successful recanalization but no overlap (group B) and 11 with neither coronary reflow nor overlap (group C). No patient in whom reperfusion failed showed scintigraphic overlap (p less than 0.05). Groups A and B were comparable in age, infarct vessel, collateral circulation, residual coronary stenosis and cumulative release of creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme. However, compared with group B, group A had a shorter interval between onset of AMi and reflow (2.5 +/- 0.8 vs 4.8 +/- 1.3 hours, p less than 0.001). The presence of scintigraphic overlap identified early coronary reflow with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 91%, positive predictive accuracy of 89% and negative predictive accuracy of 83%. Thus, technetium-99m/thallium-201 overlap on dual emission computed tomography can be used as an index of documenting early recanalization and might reflect the presence of salvaged myocardium adjacent to the necrotic tissue.

Hashimoto, T.; Kambara, H.; Fudo, T.; Tamaki, S.; Takatsu, Y.; Hattori, R.; Tokunaga, S.; Kawai, C.



Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in patients with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis: a prospective study  

SciTech Connect

We have compared technetium-99m (99mTc) red blood cell (RBC) venography to serial impedance plethysmography (IPG) in 110 consecutive patients with a first episode of clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). IPG was performed at Day 0 and, if abnormal, contrast venography was also performed to rule out a falsely positive result. Patients with an initially normal IPG had the test repeated at Days 1, 3, 5 to 7, and 10 to 14. Contrast venography was not performed and anticoagulant treatment was withheld in all patients who remained normal during repeated IPG testing. Technetium-99m RBC venography was performed at Day 0 in patients with an initially abnormal IPG and during the period of serial IPG testing in those with an initially normal IPG. The sensitivity of (99mTc)RBC venography for proximal DVT was 0.68, with 95% confidence limits (CL) from 0.48 to 0.89. Specificity was 0.88 (95% CL from 0.81 to 0.95). When the findings of (99mTc)RBC venography for the entire lower extremity were compared to the reference method, the sensitivity increased to 0.90 (95% CL from 0.82 to 0.97) but the specificity decreased to 0.56 (95% CL from 0.51 to 0.62). Technetium-99m RBC venography is a sensitive but less specific method for detecting DVT of the entire lower extremity. An abnormal (99mTc)RBC venogram, particularly in the calf region, should always be confirmed by another diagnostic method.

Leclerc, J.R.; Wolfson, C.; Arzoumanian, A.; Blake, G.P.; Rosenthall, L.



Delayed positive gastrointestinal bleeding studies with technetium-99m-red blood cells: Utility of a second injection  

SciTech Connect

Two patients studied with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells (RBCs) for gastrointestinal bleeding had positive findings only on 24-hr delayed images, at which time the site of bleeding could not be ascertained. In each instance, when additional delayed images suggested that active bleeding was occurring, a second aliquot of RBCs was labeled and injected. Sites of active hemorrhage were identified following further imaging in both patients. When delayed GI bleeding images are positive, further views should be obtained to ascertain if the pattern of intraluminal activity changes. If renewed active hemorrhage is suspected, reinjection with a second dose of labeled RBCs may identify the bleeding site.

Jacobson, A.F. (Nuclear Medicine Service, Seattle, WA (USA))



Work in progress. Gastrointestinal ulcerations: detection using a technetium-99m-labeled ulcer-avid agent  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m-labeled sucralfate, an ulcer-avid material, was shown in preliminary animal and human studies to be stable in vivo with good sensitivity. Eight experimentally produced discrete gastric ulcers in three rabbits were visualized using this material. Of seven human studies, four studies were true-positive and three were true-negative. It is suggested that Tc-99m-labeled sucralfate may prove to have significant clinical advantages for the evaluation of gastrointestinal ulcer disease and other diseases that are associated with loss of mucosal integrity. The method for labeling sucralfate with Tc-99m was developed by the authors.

Vasquez, T.E.; Bridges, R.L.; Braunstein, P.; Jansholt, A.L.; Meshkinpour, H.



Combined assessment of regional perfusion and wall motion in patients with coronary artery disease with technetium 99m tetrofosmin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Technetium 99m tetrofosmin is a new99mTc-labeled myocardial perfusion agent that can be labeled easily and provides excellent myocardial perfusion images. In addition,\\u000a bolus administration of the tracer allows first-pass radionuclide ventriculography.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  This study examined the diagnostic value of combined assessment of regional perfusion by tetrofosmin tomography and wall motion\\u000a by first-pass radionuclide ventriculography both at rest and during

Norio Takahashi; Nagara Tamaki; Eiji Tadamura; Masahide Kawamoto; Tatsuo Torizuka; Yoshiharu Yonekura; Kazumi Okuda; Ryuji Nohara; Shigetake Sasayama; Junji Konishi



Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells in the evaluation of hemangiomas of the liver in infants and children  

SciTech Connect

The vascular origin lesions of the liver (capillary hemangioma/infantile hemangioendothelioma) that present in infancy or early childhood often have a typical clinical picture of hepatomegaly and congestive heart failure. These lesions rarely present as asymptomatic hepatomegaly, simulating a primary hepatic malignancy. These lesions may also simulate a primary or secondary hepatic malignancy on cross-sectional imaging or angiography. Scintigraphic evaluations with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells offers an accurate method of identification of these lesions, and allows differentiation from other common primary or secondary hepatic masses in infancy or childhood. This scintigraphic method may also be used to follow these patients after medical, radiation, or embolization therapy. Experience with seven patients with these tumors is reported and compared with eight children with other primary or secondary liver tumors also evaluated by this method.

Miller, J.H.



Thallium-201 versus technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging in detection and evaluation of patients with acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Thallium-201 myocardial imaging is of value in the early detection and evaluation of patients with suspected acute infarction. Thallium imaging may have a special value in characterizing patients with cardiogenic shock and in detecting patients at risk for subsequent infarction or death or death or both, before hospital discharge. Approximately 95 percent of pateints with transmural or nontransmural myocardial infarction can be detected with technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging if the imaging is performed 24 to 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Pyrophosphate imaging may have an important role in the evaluation of patients during the early follow-up period after hospital discharge from an episode of acute infarction. The finding of a persistently positive pyrophosphate image suggests a poor prognosis and is associated with a relatively large incidence of subsequent myocardial infarction and death.

Pitt, B.; Thrall, J.H.



Sequential technetium-99m HMDP-gallium-67 citrate imaging for the evaluation of infection in the painful prosthesis  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the clinical utility of sequential technetium-99m HMDP-gallium-67 scanning in patients with painful orthopedic prosthesis, a retrospective review was made of 154 sequential scans performed in 130 patients. Criteria for a positive study included spatially incongruent gallium-technetium uptake or gallium uptake that was congruent but more intense than technetium. Images were interpreted as negative if gallium was congruent and less intense than technetium. Sixty-six patients underwent surgery (31 infected, 35 aseptic), and 64 were evaluated clinically (3 infected, 61 aseptic). The combined results of the surgical and nonsurgical patients yielded a sensitivity of 66%, a specificity of 81%, and an accuracy of 77%. In this series, the technetium-gallium scan combination has proven to be helpful but more recent techniques such as indium-111-labeled leukocytes may prove to be superior to sequential technetium-gallium imaging.

Merkel, K.D.; Brown, M.L.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.



Poor labeling of technetium-99m RCBs (red blood cells) in vivo associated with source of normal saline used for Sn-PYP (stannous pyrophosphate) reconstitution  

SciTech Connect

This letter to the editor describes a situation in which abnormal biodistribution of technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells was observed in about half of the authors' patients. The labeling procedure was reviewed, and causes for poor red blood cell (RBC) labeling with technetium-99m were grouped into two categories: patient-related and product-related. Since the problem observed was undoubtedly product-related, they requested repeat quality control testing by the manufacturer. The problem of poor RBC labeling was associated with the normal saline used for reconstitution of the stannous pyrophosphate (Sn-PYP).

Porto, J.A.; Preslar, J.S.



Early estimation of acute myocardial infarct size soon after coronary reperfusion using emission computed tomography with technetium-99m pyrophosphate  

SciTech Connect

Early appearance of positive findings on a technetium-99m pyrophosphate scan has been shown to be associated with the presence of a reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Early technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging was performed by emission computed tomography to evaluate reperfusion and to test the feasibility of estimating infarct size soon after coronary reperfusion based on acute positive tomographic findings. Twenty-seven patients with transmural AMI who were treated with intracoronary urokinase infusion followed by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty underwent pyrophosphate imaging 8.7 +/- 2.1 hours after the onset of AMI. None of the 8 patients in whom reperfusion was unsuccessful had acute positive findings. Of 19 patients in whom reperfusion was successful, 17 had acute positive findings (p less than 0.001). In these 17, tomographic infarct volumes were determined from reconstructed transaxial images. The threshold for areas of increased pyrophosphate uptake within the infarct was set at 60% of peak activity by the computerized edge-detection algorithm. The total number of pixels in all transaxial sections showing increased tracer uptake were added and multiplied by a size factor and 1.05 g/cm3 muscle to determine infarct volume. The correlations of tomographic infarct volumes with peak serum creatine kinase (CK) levels (r = 0.82) and with cumulative release of CK-MB isoenzyme (r = 0.89) were good. Moreover, the time to positive imaging was significantly shorter than that to peak CK level (8.5 +/- 2.3 vs 10.4 +/- 2.2 hours, p less than 0.005).

Hashimoto, T.; Kambara, H.; Fudo, T.; Tamaki, S.; Nohara, R.; Takatsu, Y.; Hattori, R.; Tokunaga, S.; Kawai, C.



Calculation of relative glomerular filtration rate and correlation with delayed technetium-99m DMSA imaging.  


The relative renal uptake of Tc-99m DMSA was compared with the relative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in ten patients with serum creatinines ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 mg/dl. Relative GFR was based on the renal uptake of Tc-99m DTPA determined by two methods: 1) integrating the counts from 1 to 3 minutes postinjection and correcting for background. 2) Totalizing the individual renal counts in a single 15-second frame from 2:45 minutes to 3:00 minutes postinjection and correcting for background. The two methods of determining relative DTPA uptake showed excellent correlation, r = 0.98. Relative DMSA uptake determined at 24 hours post-injection using computer-assisted regions of interest showed excellent correlation with the relative GFR determined by either the integral or single-frame method, r = 0.98. The addition of background subtraction for the DMSA images at 24 hours did not improve the correlation. PMID:3002699

Taylor, A; Kipper, M; Witztum, K



Altered distribution of technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate associated with antimicrobial therapy  

SciTech Connect

Three patients underwent brain scanning for evaluation of central nervous system disease and were simultaneously treated for infectious diseases unrelated to the central nervous process. All revealed intense vascular pooling on their brain images. The imaging studies had been performed following the administration of Tc-99m pertechnetate. None of the patients had prior nuclear medicine examinations to suggest the causal effect of stannous ion as a source of interference. All of the patients were on combination antimicrobial drugs: two on sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, and one on isoniazid and ethambutol. One patient revealed 75% Tc-99m red cell tagging. Another patient's repeat brain scan with Tc-99m DTPA revealed normal distribution. Our findings suggest that patients on antimicrobial combination drug regimens who require brain scans should be imaged routinely with agents other than Tc-99m.

Castronuovo, J.J.; Chervu, L.R.; Milstein, D.M.



Altered distribution of technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate associated with antimicrobial therapy.  


Three patients underwent brain scanning for evaluation of central nervous system disease and were simultaneously treated for infectious diseases unrelated to the central nervous process. All revealed intense vascular pooling on their brain images. The imaging studies had been performed following the administration of Tc-99m pertechnetate. None of the patients had prior nuclear medicine examinations to suggest the causal effect of stannous ion as a source of interference. All of the patients were on combination antimicrobial drugs: two on sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, and one on isoniazid and ethambutol. One patient revealed 75% Tc-99m red cell tagging. Another patient's repeat brain scan with Tc-99m DTPA revealed normal distribution. Our findings suggest that patients on antimicrobial combination drug regimens who require brain scans should be imaged routinely with agents other than Tc-99m. PMID:3000683

Castronuovo, J J; Chervu, L R; Milstein, D M



Technetium99m tetrofosmin imaging in thyroid diseases: comparison with Tc99m-pertechnetate, thallium-201 and Tc99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m tetrofosmin is a lipophilic phosphine used for myocardial perfusion imaging. Biodistribution studies have shown significant thyroid uptake of tetrofosmin and preliminary reports have suggested that tetrofosmin imaging may be of value in patients with thyroid cancer. In this study, tetrofosmin whole-body scintigraphy was performed in 35 patients with evidence of thyroid diseases. All patients underwent laboratory evaluation of thyroid

Michele Klain; Simone Maurea; Alberto Cuocolo; Annamaria Colao; Luisi Marzano; Gaetano Lombardi; Marco Salvatore



Effocacu and Significance of Sentinel Lymph Node Identification with Technetium-99m-labeled Tin Colloids for Breast Cancer.  


PURPOSE: The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is thought to reflect the metastatic status of the remaining axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer. We used technetium-99m-labeled tin colloids to identify SLN. The efficacy and significance of SLN identification using this method were investigated in terms of number, size, location, and tumor metastasis. The efficacy of the emulsion charcoalinjection method for the intraoperative visible identification of SLN was also evaluated. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with invasive breast cancer were studied. Underultrasonographic guidance, technetium-99m-labeled tin colloid particles (3 ml) were injected into 3 sites around the tumor within 3 mm of the margin or into the wall of the excisional biopsy cavity 2 hours before surgery. At surgery, just before the incision, an emulsion of charcoal particles (2.5 ml) was injected into 3 sites of the breast parenchyma surrounding the tumor. All patients underwent mastectomy with axillary dissection to the infraclavicular region. The radioactivity of each dissected lymph node was measured. All axillary specimens were processed in individual blocks for permanent section histopathologic evaluation with H & E. RESULTS: SLN were defined as lymph nodes with 100, 000 or more counts per minute (cpm) in radioactivity after injection of labeled tin colloids. In all 25 patients, SLN were identified (mean, 1.9 SLN/patient; range,1-4). Since the mean uptake in SLN was 383 124 cpm, but only 884 cpm in non-SLN nodes, discrimination between SLN and non-SLN nodes was easy. Clearly visible lymph nodes with charcoalstaining accounted for 83.3% of all SLN, although 21.3% of non-SLN also stained. SLN were located only in the axillary region, but there were no other specific features in the location or size of SLN. The SLN were metastatic in 10 of the 25 patients: in 4, the SLN were the only metastatic nodes whereas in the remaining 6 patients, other axillary nodes were also positive. Fifteen patients with no metastasis in SLN had no tumor involvement in any other lymph nodes. There were no skip metastases. CONCLUSION: SLN identified with labeled tin colloids have clinical value in predicting the metastatic status of the remaining axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer. PMID:11091680

Sato; Hiraide; Uematsu; Tamaki; Ishikawa; Yamasaki; Tamai; Kusano; Mochizuki



Distribution of injected technetium(99m)-labeled mesenchymal stem cells in horses with naturally occurring tendinopathy.  


This study aimed to investigate immediate cell survival and distribution following different administration routes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into naturally occurring tendon injuries. Ten million MSCs, labeled with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime, were implanted into 13 horses with naturally occurring tendon or ligament injuries intra-lesionally, intravenously and by regional perfusion, and traced for up to 48?h using planar gamma scintigraphy. Labeling efficiencies varied between 1.8% and 18.5% (mean 9.3%). Cells were retained in the damaged area after intra-lesional administration but only 24% of cells were still present within the tendon after 24?h. After intravenous injection, cells largely distributed to the lung fields, with no detectable cells in the tendon lesions. Significant labeling of the tendon lesions was observed in 11/12 horses following regional perfusion but at a lower level to intra-lesional injection. The highest cell numbers were retained after intra-lesional injection, although with considerable cell loss, while regional perfusion may be a viable alternative for MSC delivery. Cells did not "home" to damaged tendon in large numbers after intravenous administration. Cells were detected in the lungs most frequently after intravascular administration, although with no adverse effects. Low cell retention has important implications for designing effective clinical therapies for human clinical use. PMID:23508674

Becerra, Patricia; Valdés Vázquez, Miguel A; Dudhia, Jayesh; Fiske-Jackson, Andrew R; Neves, Francisco; Hartman, Neil G; Smith, Roger K W



High-risk angina patient. Identification by clinical features, hospital course, electrocardiography and technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated 193 consecutive unstable angina patients by clinical features, hospital course and electrocardiography. All patients were managed medically. Of the 193 patients, 150 (78%) had a technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) myocardial scintigram after hospitalization. Of these, 49 (33%) had positive scintigrams. At a follow-up of 24.9 +/- 10.8 months after hospitalization, 16 of 49 patients (33%) with positive scintigrams died from cardiac causes, compared with six of 101 patients (6%) with negative scintigrams (p less than 0.001). Of 49 patients with positive scintigrams, 11 (22%) had had nonfatal myocardial infarction at follow-up, compared with seven of 101 patients (7%) with negative scintigrams (p less than 0.01). Age, duration of clinical coronary artery disease, continuing angina during hospitalization, ischemic ECG, cardiomegaly and a history of heart failure also correlated with cardiac death at follow-up. Ischemic ECG and a history of angina with a crescendo pattern also correlated with nonfatal infarction at follow-up. Patients with continuing angina, an ischemic ECG and a positive scintigram constituted a high-risk unstable angina subgroup with a survival rate of 58% at 6 months, 47% at 12 months and 42% at 24 and 36 months. We conclude that the assessment of clinical features, hospital course, ECG and Tc-PYP scintigraphy may be useful in identifying high-risk unstable angina patients.

Olson, H.G.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.; Stinson, P.J.; Kuperus, J.; Waters, H.J.



High-risk angina patient: identification by clinical features, hospital course, electrocardiography, and technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated 193 consecutive unstable angina patients by clinical features, hospital course and electrocardiography. All patients were managed medically. Of the 193 patients, 150 (78%) had a technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) myocardial scintigram after hospitalization. Of these, 49 (33%) had positive scintigrams. At a follow-up of 24.9 +- 10.8 months after hospitalization, 16 of 49 patients (33%) with positive scintigrams died from cardiac causes, compared with six of 101 patients (6%) with negative scintigrams (p < 0.001). Of 49 patients with positive scintigrams, 11 (22%) had had nonfatal myocardial infarction at follow-up, compared with seven of 101 patients (7%) with negative scintigrams (p < 0.01). Age, duration of clinical coronary artery disease, continuing angina during hospitalization, ischemic ECG, cardiomegaly and a history of heart failure also correlated with cardiac death at follow-up. Ischemic ECG and a history of angina with a crescendo pattern also correlated with nonfatal infarction at follow-up. Patients with continuing angina, an ischemic ECG and a positive scintigram constituted a high-risk unstable angina subgroup, with a survival rate of 58% at 6 months, 47% at 12 months and 42% at 24 and 36 months. We conclude that the assessment of clinical features, hospital course, ECG and Tc-PYP scintigraphy may be useful in identifying high-risk unstable angina patients.

Olson, H.G. (Univ. of California, Irvine); Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.; Stinson, P.J.; Kuperus, J.; Waters, H.J.



Usefulness of early positive technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scan in predicting reperfusion after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

To test the hypothesis that scans with technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PPi) are positive when performed early after successful thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 16 consecutive patients with AMI who received thrombolytic therapy within 5 hours after the onset of chest pain were studied. Patients were included if chest pain lasted for greater than 30 minutes, was unresponsive to sublingual nitroglycerin and was associated with at least 0.2 mV ST-segment elevation in at least 2 contiguous electrocardiographic leads. All patients received 1.5 million IU of streptokinase intravenously, a mean of 195 +/- 99 minutes after onset of chest pain. Tc-99m-PPi scans and coronary cineangiograms were recorded 491 +/- 156 minutes and 518 +/- 202 minutes, respectively, after the onset of symptoms. Effective reperfusion was present in 10 patients, 6 of whom had positive Tc-99m-PPi scans (sensitivity of 60% to detect reperfusion). Of the 6 patients without effective reperfusion, 3 had positive Tc-99m-PPi scans (specificity of 50%, p greater than 0.05). Analysis of the data using various definitions of effective reperfusion or artery patency yielded similar results. Thus, our findings indicate that early AMI scanning with Tc-99m-PPi does not accurately detect the presence or absence of reperfusion in patients with AMI after treatment with intravenous streptokinase. At this time, coronary cineangiography is the only reliable method to detect reperfusion promptly after thrombolytic therapy.

Manyari, D.E.; Thompson, C.R.; Duff, H.J.; Knudtson, M.L.; Kloiber, R.; Smith, E.R.; Belenkie, I.



Thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction: Assessment of efficacy by myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi has been used to evaluate the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy. Improved image quality due to the higher photon energy of Tc-99m and the increased allowable doses of this radiopharmaceutical along with its lack of redistribution makes Tc-99m sestamibi an acceptable imaging agent for such studies. This imaging agent was used for serial quantitative planar and tomographic imaging to assess the initial risk area of infarction, its change over time and the relation to infarct-related artery patency in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction. Twenty-three of 30 patients were treated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 4 hours after onset of acute chest pain. Seven patients were treated in the conventional manner and did not receive thrombolytic therapy. The initial area at risk varied greatly both in patients treated with rt-PA and in those who received conventional therapy. Patients with successful thrombolysis and patient infarct arteries had a significantly greater reduction of Tc-99m sestamibi defect size than patients who had persistent coronary occlusion. Serial imaging with Tc-99m sestamibi could find important application in future clinical research evaluating the efficacy of new thrombolytic agents. Direct measurements of the amount of hypoperfused myocardium before and after thrombolysis could provide rapid and unequivocal results using fewer patients and avoiding the use of mortality as an end point. This approach has not yet been widely tested in the clinical arena.

Wackers, F.J. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))



Dynamic SPECT with technetium-99m HM-PAO in meningiomas--a comparison with iodine-123 IMP  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO) has recently been introduced as an alternative to N-isopropyl-p-/sup 123/I-iodoamphetamine ((/sup 123/I)IMP) for measurement of regional cerebral blood flow. This study compares dynamic SPECT studies using the two tracers in seven patients with meningiomas. Regions of interest were placed over the lesion and contralateral homologous presumed normal area. The counting-rate ratio for the lesion to the contralateral homologous area (L/N ratio) was then calculated in the first image. L/N ratios of ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were lower than those of ((/sup 123/I)IMP) SPECT, particularly in hypervascular meningiomas. Furthermore, time-activity curves showed that the washout of ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO) in the tumors was very slow or incomplete, preventing an accurate assessment of vascularity of meningiomas with ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO), as is generally possible with ((/sup 123/I)IMP).

Nakano, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Jinnouchi, S.; Hoshi, H.; Watanabe, K.



Technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in experimental viral perimyocarditis: sequential study of myocardial uptake and pathologic correlates  

SciTech Connect

The myocardial uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) in perimyocarditis induced by coxsackievirus B3 in BALB/c mice was studied. /sup 99m/Tc-PYP uptake ratio, measured by the ratio of counts/min per gram for the heart to counts/min per gram for the skull, began to increase 5 days after virus inoculation when myocardial necroosis was evident. On the seventh day after the inoculation, /sup 99m/Tc-PYP ratio reached a maximum. Histologically, fine, dystrophic calcification appeared in the necrotic fibers. /sup 99m/Tc-PYP uptake was in proportion to the extent of the myocardial lesions. Thereafter, cellular infiltrations increased with time and were most severe on the fourteenth day, but /sup 99m/Tc-PYP ratio had begun to fade. On the twenty-eighth day, perimyocardial fibrosis increased and calcification was still present, but /sup 99m/Tc-PYP ratio had decreased. Myocardial uptake with severe pathologic lesions was visualized on a whole-body image on the seventh day after inoculation with the virus. The findings may provide a basis upon which /sup 99m/Tc-PYP imaging may be applied to viral perimyocarditis in humans.

Matsumori, A.; Kadota, K.; Kawai, C.



Comparison of technetium-99m-HM-PAO leukocytes with indium-111-oxine leukocytes for localizing intraabdominal sepsis  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m-HM-PAO (({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO) leukocyte and indium-111-oxine (111In-oxine) leukocyte scanning were carried out simultaneously in 41 patients at 4 hr and 24 hr after reinjection to determine whether the 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc scan could replace the 24-hr {sup 111}In scan for detecting intraabdominal sepsis. Abdominal infection was confirmed in 12 cases. The 4-hr {sup 99}Tc-leukocyte scan, the 4-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan, and the 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan yielded a sensitivity of 100%, 67%, and 100%, respectively, and a specificity of 62%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The 24-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scan also produced a sensitivity of 100%, but it was falsely positive in all 29 cases without infection due to physiologic bowel uptake. False-positive 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scans were also produced by physiologic bowel uptake in seven cases all of whom had true-negative 4-hr and 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans. Because of the high incidence of false-positive 4-hr ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO leukocyte scans, it was concluded that they could not replace 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans for detecting intraabdominal sepsis, and that serial {sup 99m}Tc leukocyte scans starting earlier than 4 hr after reinjection must be evaluated.

Mountford, P.J.; Kettle, A.G.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Coakley, A.J. (Kent and Canterbury Hospital (England))



Dobutamine stress echocardiography versus quantitative technetium-99m sestamibi SPECT for detecting residual stenosis and multivessel disease after myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To compare the relative accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and quantitative technetium-99m sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (mibi SPECT) for detecting infarct related artery stenosis and multivessel disease early after acute myocardial infarction.?DESIGN—Prospective study.?SETTING—University hospital.?METHODS—75 patients underwent simultaneous DSE and mibi SPECT at (mean (SD)) 5 (2) days after a first acute myocardial infarct. Quantitative coronary angiography was performed in all patients after imaging studies.?RESULTS—Significant stenosis (> 50%) of the infarct related artery was detected in 69 patients. Residual ischaemia was identified by DSE in 55 patients and by quantitative mibi SPECT in 49. The sensitivity of DSE and mibi SPECT for detecting significant infarct related artery stenosis was 78% and 70%, respectively, with a specificity of 83% for both tests. The combination of DSE and mibi SPECT did not change the specificity (83%) but increased the sensitivity to 94%. Mibi SPECT was more sensitive than DSE for detecting mild stenosis (73% v 9%; p = 0.008). The sensitivity of DSE for detecting moderate or severe stenosis was greater than mibi SPECT (97% v 74%; p = 0.007). Wall motion abnormalities with DSE and transient perfusion defects with mibi SPECT outside the infarction zone were sensitive (80% v 67%; NS) and highly specific (95% v 93%; NS) for multivessel disease.?CONCLUSIONS—DSE and mibi SPECT have equivalent accuracy for detecting residual infarct related artery stenosis of ? 50% and multivessel disease early after acute myocardial infarction. DSE is more predictive of moderate or severe infarct related artery stenosis. Combined imaging only improves the detection of mild stenosis.???Keywords: myocardial infarction; dobutamine echocardiography; single photon emission computed tomography; SPECT; myocardial ischaemia

Lancellotti, P; Benoit, T; Rigo, P; Pierard, L



Quantification of myocardial injury produced by temporary coronary artery occlusion and reflow with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate  

SciTech Connect

Previously, technetium-99m-stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PPi) has been used to localize and estimate the size of myocardial infarcts in animals after permanent coronary artery occlusion. This study tested the hypothesis that /sup 99m/Tc-PPi accurately sizes myocardial infarctions produced by temporary coronary artery occlusion and reflow in dogs. Three groups of dogs were studied: group A underwent 3 hr of occlusion followed by 2 hr of reperfusion, with /sup 99m/Tc-PPi injected 10 min after reflow (n = 10); group B underwent 3 hr of occlusion followed by 2 hr of reperfusion, with /sup 99m/Tc-PPi injected 90 min after reflow (n = 11); and group C underwent 3 hr of occlusion followed by reflow with /sup 99m/Tc-PPi injected at 10 min and again at 48 hr after reflow (n = 5). Myocardial slices from group A and B dogs were imaged in vitro. Group C dogs were imaged with single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) in vivo, and myocardial slices were imaged in vitro at the conclusion of the study. The extent of myocardial infarction was defined with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and coronary blood flow was estimated with radioactive microspheres. In addition, transmural myocardial tissue samples were taken from the center of the myocardial infarction, the lateral portion of the myocardial infarction, the normal myocardium adjacent to the lateral aspect of the infarcts, and from the normal myocardium and counted for /sup 99m/Tc-PPi activity. A significant correlation was found between infarct size determined by areas of increased /sup 99m/Tc-PPi uptake and that estimated from TTC staining for both group A (r = .89) and group B animals (r = .98).

Jansen, D.E.; Corbett, J.R.; Buja, L.M.; Hansen, C.; Ugolini, V.; Parkey, R.W.; Willerson, J.T.



Detection of occult pericardial hemorrhage early after open-heart surgery using technetium-99m red blood cell radionuclide ventriculography  

SciTech Connect

Pericardial or mediastinal hemorrhage requiring reoperation occurs in 2% to 5% of patients, usually early (0 to 48 hours), after open-heart surgery. This hemorrhage may be occult, and resulting cardiac tamponade may easily be misinterpreted as ventricular dysfunction, common early postoperatively. In such cases, appropriate and timely intervention may not occur. Of 50 patients evaluated by technetium-99m red blood cell gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) because of early postoperative cardiogenic shock of uncertain etiology, 17 had unique scintigraphic images suggestive of intrathoracic hemorrhage. Of these 17, 5 had a generalized halo of abnormal radioactivity surrounding small hyperdynamic right and left ventricles, 11 had localized regions of intense blood pool activity outside the cardiac chambers (two with compression of single chambers), and one demonstrated marked radionuclide activity in the right hemithorax (2000 ml of blood at reoperation). Twelve patients had exploratory reoperation for control of hemorrhage as a direct result of the scintigraphic findings, three were successfully treated with fresh frozen plasma and platelet infusions along with medical interventions to optimize cardiac performance, and two patients died in cardiogenic shock (presumed tamponade) without reoperation. In the 12 reoperated patients, all were confirmed to have active pericardial bleeding. Scintigraphic localization of abnormal blood pools within the pericardium corresponded to the sites at which active bleeding was witnessed at reoperation. The abnormal bleeding was etiologically related to the tamponade state, with marked improvement in hemodynamics after reoperation. Nine additional patients were reoperated for presumed tamponade after RNV revealed an exaggerated halo of photon deficiency surrounding the cardiac chambers.

Bateman, T.M.; Czer, L.S.; Gray, R.J.; Kass, R.M.; Raymond, M.J.; Garcia, E.V.; Chaux, A.; Matloff, J.M.; Berman, D.S.



Labelling of leucocytes with colloidal technetium-99m-SnF2: an investigation of the labelling process by autoradiography.  


Autoradiography of smears and frozen sections of labelled cell suspensions was used to study the distribution of radioactivity in and among blood cells labelled in either whole blood or leucocyte-rich plasma (LRP) with technetium-99m-SnF2 colloid. The tracer proved selective for neutrophils: the labelling probability (relative to that for erythrocytes) for each cell type in LRP (mean of five samples) was: neutrophils, 9.4; lymphocytes, 3.7; monocytes, 3.0; eosinophils 1.4; erythrocytes, 1.0. When labelling was carried out in whole blood (five samples), 74.5% +/- 8.3% of the cell-bound radioactivity was bound to erythrocytes, 13.6% +/- 6.5% to neutrophils, and 11.9% +/- 2.1% to lymphocytes, whereas in LRP (in which the leucocytes were only slightly outnumbered by erythrocytes), 76.5% +/- 14.9% of radioactivity was neutrophil bound. Labelled cells in smear autoradiographs exhibited two distinct silver grain patterns, "diffuse", consistent with an intracellular radioactive particle (in neutrophils), and "focal", consistent with a cell surface-adhering particle in direct contact with the emulsion (in other leucocyte types and erythrocytes). The phagocytic inhibitor cytochalasin B neither reduced the proportion of labelled neutrophils nor altered the labelling pattern. Neutrophils were able to scavenge radioactivity from the surface of erythrocytes. It is concluded that neutrophils bind 99mTc-SnF2 intracellularly by phagocytosis, with high affinity; other cells become labelled at the cell surface reversibly and with lower affinity. This selectivity is high enough to permit predominantly leucocyte labelling in LRP but not in whole blood. PMID:7758495

Puncher, M R; Blower, P J



Evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function using technetium-99m sestamibi ECG-gated single-photon emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We evaluated a method for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) function with technetium-99m sestamibi ECG-gated single-photon\\u000a emission tomography (GSPET). GSPET was performed at rest in 21 patients. Images were reconstructed to obtain end-diastolic\\u000a (ED) and end-systolic (ES) images. Endocardial and epicardial edges of the left ventricle for the ED and ES images were defined\\u000a using the gradient images

Kuang-Tao A. Yang; Hon-Der Chen



An Automated Method for Preparation of [18F]Sodium Fluoride for Injection, USP to Address the Technetium-99m Isotope Shortage  

PubMed Central

The worldwide shortage of technetium-99m has created an immediate and urgent need for access to [18F]sodium fluoride for PET imaging of bone metastasis. In order to facilitate global availability of [18F]sodium fluoride for diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging procedures, a straightforward method for rapid production of [18F]sodium fluoride for injection, USP, using a modified GE Tracerlab FX-FN is presented.

Hockley, Brian G.



An automated method for preparation of [(18)F]sodium fluoride for injection, USP to address the technetium-99m isotope shortage.  


The worldwide shortage of technetium-99m has created an immediate and urgent need for access to [(18)F]sodium fluoride for PET imaging of bone metastasis. In order to facilitate global availability of [(18)F]sodium fluoride for diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging procedures, a straightforward method for rapid production of [(18)F]sodium fluoride for injection, USP, using a modified GE Tracerlab FX-FN is presented. PMID:19762249

Hockley, Brian G; Scott, Peter J H



Left ventricular cavity-to-myocardium count ratio in exercise and resting technetium-99m-tetrofosmin SPECT: correlation with left ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the value of the cavity-to-myocardium count ratio (C\\/M ratio) calculated in exercise and resting technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images to identify patients with depressed exercise and resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We studied 60 patients with recent coronary artery diseases (CAD) undergoing first-pass ventriculography to calculate

P.-C. Li; S.-S. Sun; A. Kao; C.-C. Lin; C.-C. Lee



Incremental value of exercise technetium-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography for the prediction of cardiac events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a useful alternative to thallium-201 scintigraphy for the assessment of myocardial perfusion. This study assessed the incremental value of exercise Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT for the prediction of cardiac events in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Exercise Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT imaging was performed in 655 consecutive patients. Follow-up was

Arend F. L. Schinkel; Abdou Elhendy; Ron T. van Domburg; Jeroen J. Bax; Eleni C. Vourvouri; Manos Bountioukos; Vittoria Rizzello; Eustachio Agricola; Roelf Valkema; Jos R. T. C. Roelandt; Don Poldermans



Comparison of Technetium99m Tetrofosmin and Thallium201 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomographic Imaging for Detection of Myocardial Perfusion Defects in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We compared dipyridamole technetium-99m (Tc- 99m) tetrofosmin and thallium-201 (Tl-201) single-photon emis- sion computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging with respect to the detection rate of perfusion abnormalities in 26 patients with angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD). Background. Experimental studies have shown that myocardial extraction of Tc-99m tetrofosmin is lower than that of Tl-201 at high flow rates, resulting in less



Comparison of Technetium99m Tetrofosmin and Thallium201 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomographic Imaging for Detection of Myocardial Perfusion Defects in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We compared dipyridamole technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin and thallium-201 (Tl-201) single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging with respect to the detection rate of perfusion abnormalities in 26 patients with angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD).Background. Experimental studies have shown that myocardial extraction of Tc-99m tetrofosmin is lower than that of Tl-201 at high flow rates, resulting in less severe defects with

Hany Shanoudy; Paolo Raggi; George A Beller; Adel Soliman; E. Gifford Ammermann; Robert J Kastner; Denny D Watson



Incremental prognostic value of technetium-99m-tetrofosmin exercise myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting outcomes in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-tetrofosmin is a radio isotope that has been shown to be an accurate alternative to thallium-201 for detecting coronary artery disease. However, its prognostic value is less well determined. To this end, 459 consecutive patients (mean age 58 ± 10 years) with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent exercise single-photon emission tomography Tc-99m-tetrofosmin scintigraphy. Follow-up, defined as the

Alfredo R Galassi; Salvatore Azzarelli; Andrea Tomaselli; Rodi Giosofatto; Antonella Ragusa; Salvatore Musumeci; Corrado Tamburino; Giuseppe Giuffrida



Imaging of brain tumors in AIDS patients by means of dual-isotope thallium-201 and technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Our aim was to evaluate the use of dual-isotope thallium-201 (Tl) and technetium-99m sestamibi (sestamibi) simultaneous acquisition\\u000a in brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) for the differentiation between brain lymphoma and benign central nervous\\u000a system (CNS) lesions in AIDS patients. Thirty-six consecutive patients with enhancing mass lesions on magnetic resonance (MR)\\u000a imaging were included in the study. SPET of the

Rosinda C. De La Peña; Leena Ketonen; Javier Villanueva-Meyer



Prognosis in patients with spontaneous chest pain, a nondiagnostic electrocardiogram, normal cardiac enzymes, and no evidence of severe resting ischemia by quantitative technetium 99m sestamibi tomographic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There are limited data addressing the outcome of patients with normal or near normal myocardial perfusion during chest pain\\u000a at rest. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognosis of patients with spontaneous chest pain, a normal or nondiagnostic\\u000a electrocardiogram, no enzymatic evidence of myocardial infarction, and no evidence of severe resting ischemia by quantitative\\u000a technetium 99m (99mTc)

Todd D. Miller; Timothy F. Christian; Mona R. Hopfenspirger; David O. Hodge; Mary F. Hauser; Raymond J. Gibbons



Automatic Quantitation of Regional Myocardial Wall Motion and Thickening From Gated Technetium99m Sestamibi Myocardial Perfusion Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We developed an automatic quantitative algorithm for the measurement of regional myocardial wall motion and wall thickening from three-dimensional gated technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomographic images.Background. The algorithm measures the motion of the three-dimensional endocardial surface using a modification of the centerline method, as well as wall thickening using both geometry (gaussian fit) and partial volume

Guido Germano; Jacob Erel; Howard Lewin; Paul B. Kavanagh; Daniel S. Berman



Influence of technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime injection time on single-photon emission tomography perfusion changes in epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   By digitally computing perfusion changes from ictal or postictal (peri-ictal) injections referenced to those acquired interictally,\\u000a an enhanced method for localizing the epileptogenic area is reported. Computer-based image processing methods for quantifying\\u000a regional percent change in the brain are applied to a group of 19 epilepsy patients after the injection of technetium-99m\\u000a hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) and after acquiring

I. G. Zubal; M. V. Spanaki; J. MacMullan; M. Corsi; J. P. Seibyl; S. S. Spencer



Biodistribution, dosimetry, and clinical evaluation of technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer in normal subjects and in patients with chronic cerebral infarction  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) has high initial cerebral uptake with slow clearance in nonhuman primates suggesting ideal characteristics for single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) imaging. We evaluated the biodistribution, dosimetry and scintigraphic pattern of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD in normal subjects and the accuracy of SPECT imaging in patients with chronic cerebral infarction. Sixteen normal subjects were injected with approximately 10 mCi of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD. Anterior and posterior single-pass whole-body images were obtained at multiple times after injection. Blood clearance of the radiotracer was rapid, falling to 10.0 +/- 6.6% and 4.9 +/- 1.1% of the injected dose at 2 and 60 min, respectively. Brain uptake was 6.4 +/- 2.1% of the injected dose 5 min after injection. The critical organ was the urinary bladder. Technetium-99m ECD SPECT was performed with a rotating gamma camera in ten of the 16 normal subjects and 34 patients with clinical and CT evidence of chronic stroke. Thirty-three of the thirty-four patients had focal (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD abnormalities on SPECT (97.1%) based on visual inspection of the SPECT images. In summary, we obtained high quality SPECT images as a result of the optimal physical and biologic characteristics of the tracer. Technetium-99m ECD SPECT shows promise for the evaluation of patients with stroke.

Holman, B.L.; Hellman, R.S.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Mena, I.G.; Leveille, J.; Gherardi, P.G.; Moretti, J.L.; Bischof-Delaloye, A.; Hill, T.C.; Rigo, P.M.



Non-invasive assessment of the presence and severity of cardiac amyloidosis. A study in familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy by cross sectional echocardiography and technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve patients with familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy were examined both by cross sectional echocardiography and by technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy to assess involvement of the heart non-invasively. All 12 patients had echocardiographic abnormalities. The most prominent findings were highly refractile myocardial echoes, thickened heart valves, and increased thickness of the heart walls. Four patients had abnormal myocardial uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate.

P Eriksson; C Backman; P Bjerle; A Eriksson; S Holm; B O Olofsson



Successful application of technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy in the detection of ectopic adrenocorticotropin-producing bronchial carcinoid lung tumor: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction The diagnostic efficacy of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy labeling with 111 indium in the localization of tumors has been assessed in a limited number of patients with contradictory outcomes. Here, we describe the case of a patient with an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing bronchial carcinoid tumor diagnosed preoperatively using technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy. Case presentation A 29-year-old Asian man presented to our hospital with the typical clinical features of Cushing's syndrome, which he had had for a duration of 18 months. The results of a biochemical evaluation revealed he had adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome. The results of a spiral abdominal computed tomography scan showed he had bilateral adrenal hypertrophy. A magnetic resonance image of the patient's brain showed he had a normal hypophysis. Whole body technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy was performed to check for the presence of an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing tumor. The scan results showed a small focal increase in uptake in the lower lobe of our patient's right lung, just above his diaphragm. A spiral chest computed tomography scan also revealed a small non-specific lesion in the same region. A transthoracic biopsy was then performed. Pathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor, of the adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing type. After surgical removal, the patient's symptoms resolved and significant clinical improvement was achieved. Conclusions This case report shows that technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy can effectively detect an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing bronchial carcinoid.



Post-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head predicted by preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid scan: an experimental and clinical study. [Rabbits; patients  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m antimony colloid was used to visualize the bone marrow of the head of the femur within twenty-four hours after interruption of the blood supply by subcapital osteotomy and section of the ligamentum teres in thirteen rabbits and within twenty-four hours after a subcapital fracture in thirty patients. Of the rabbits, all showed loss of marrow radioactivity over the affected femoral head. Bone-imaging with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate, in contrast, failed to demonstrate any abnormality in the avascular head of the femur for as long as forty-eight hours after osteotomy. This difference between the marrow scan and the bone scan was attributed to earlier loss of function in the marrow cells than in the osteocytes. The thirty patients who had a preoperative scan within twenty-four hours after sustaining a subcapital fracture were treated by internal fixation with a Richards screw and plate and were followed for as long as two years, or until the patient died or radiographs showed evidence of avascular necrosis. The preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid activity in the head of the fractured femur was normal in sixteen patients and absent in fourteen; two of the fourteen had no activity in either hip, which precluded assessment of the fractured hip in these patients. In fifteen of the sixteen hips, preservation of the uptake in the marrow of the head of the fractured femur preoperatively predicted normal healing. Late segmental collapse developed in the remaining hip. In eleven of the twelve patients who had loss of marrow activity in the femoral head preoperatively, avascular necrosis developed within two years.

Turner, J.H.



Sites and mechanisms of localization of technetium-99m phosphorus radiopharmaceuticals in acute myocardial infarcts and other tissues.  


This study was performed to elucidate the localization at the cellular level of technetium-99m phosphorus ((99m)Tc-P) radiopharmaceuticals in acute myocardial infarcts and the mechanisms responsible for (99m)Tc-P uptake in acute myocardial infarcts and other tissues. In 20 dogs with proximal left anterior descending coronary arterial ligation for 1-3 days, elevated calcium levels were measured at all sites of increased (99m)Tc-P uptake (acute myocardial infarcts, necrotic thoracotomy muscle, lactating breast, and normal bone); however, a consistent linear relationship between (99m)Tc-P and calcium levels was not observed. A strong correlation (r = 0.95 and 0.99, n = 2 dogs) was demonstrated between levels of (3)H-diphosphonate and (99m)Tc-P in infarcted myocardium. Autoradiographic studies with (3)H-diphosphonate revealed extensive labeling in the infarct periphery which contained necrotic muscle cells with features of severe calcium overloading, including widespread hypercontraction as well as more selective formation of mitochondrial calcific deposits. Autoradiography also demonstrated labeling of a small population of damaged border zone muscle cells which exhibited prominent accumulation of lipid droplets and focal, early mitochondrial calcification. Cell fractionation studies revealed major localization of both (99m)Tc-P and calcium in the soluble supernate and membrane-debris fractions of infarcted myocardium and less than 2% of total (99m)Tc-P and calcium in the mitochondrial fractions; however, electron microscopic examination showed that mitochondria with calcific deposits were not preserved in the mitochondrial fractions. In vitro studies evaluating the role of serum protein binding on tissue uptake of (99m)Tc-P agents demonstrated that, in spite of significant complexing with serum proteins, serum (99m)Tc-P activity retained the ability to adsorp to calcium hydroxyapatite and amorphous calcium phosphate. In vivo studies showed that concentration of human serum albumin (labeled with iodine-131) in infarcted myocardium reached a maximum of only 3.8 times normal after a circulation time of 96 h, whereas (99m)Tc-P uptake was at least 10 times normal after a circulation time as short as 1 h. It is concluded that: (a) (99m)Tc-P uptake in acutely infarcted myocardium, and possibly other types of soft tissue damage, is limited to necrotic and severely injured cells; (b) concentration of (99m)Tc-P results from selective adsorption of (99m)Tc-P with various forms of tissue calcium stores, including amorphous calcium phosphate, crystalline hydroxyapatite, and calcium complexed with myofibrils and other macromolecules, possibly supplemented by calcium-independent complexing with organic macromolecules; and (c) lack of a linear relationship between (99m)Tc-P and tissue calcium levels mainly results from local differences in composition and physicochemical properties of tissue calcium stores and from local variations in levels of blood flow for delivery of (99m)Tc-P agents. PMID:893676

Buja, L M; Tofe, A J; Kulkarni, P V; Mukherjee, A; Parkey, R W; Francis, M D; Bonte, F J; Willerson, J T



Prognostication of Recovery in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke Through the Use of Brain SPECT With Technetium99m—Labeled Metronidazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—We hypothesized that technetium-99m-ethylene dicysteine-metronidazole (99mTc-EC-MN) localizes to brain tissue that is hypoxic but viable. This study prospectively evaluated the relationship between neurological outcome and uptake of 99mTc-EC-MN in peri-infarcted regions of the brain. Methods—Eight patients with acute ischemic stroke in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery underwent 99m Tc-EC-MN and 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain

Ho-Chun Song; Hee-Seung Bom; Ki Hyun Cho; Byeong Chae Kim; Jeong-Jin Seo; Chang-Guhn Kim; David J. Yang; E. Edmund Kim



Clinical utility of technetium-99m methoxisobutylisonitrile imaging in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison with thallium-201 and iodine-131 Na scintigraphy, and serum thyroglobulin quantitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) has been used to image thyroid carcinoma. A prospective study was performed to compare the efficacy of99mTc-MIBI to thallium-201 (201T1) scintigraphy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The clinical utility of all radionuclide imaging modalities, i.e.,99mTc-MIBI,201Tl, and iodine-131 Na (131I-Na), as well as serum thyroglobulin estimation, was evaluated. Thirty-four post-thyroidectomy patients (age range: 26–76 years) underwent

Simin Dadparvar; Anita Chevres; Mark Tulchinsky; Lalitha Krishna-Badrinath; Angabeen S. Khan; Walter J. Slizofski



Myocardial single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging with technetium 99m tetrofosmin: Stress-rest imaging with same-day and separate-day rest imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Technetium 99m tetrofosmin is a new ethylene diphosphine ligand for myocardial perfusion imaging and has unique properties.\\u000a We have compared stress-rest single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging with99mTc tetrofosmin with same-day and separate-day rest imaging to detect myocardial perfusion defects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  Myocardial SPECT imaging was performed in 22 patients with coronary artery disease who had undergone planar thallium 201

Bangalore Sridhara; Heinz Sochor; Pierre Rigo; Simon Braat; Roland Itti; David Martinez-Duncker; Paul Cload; Avijit Lahiri



Prognostic value and quality of life in patients with normal rest thallium-201\\/stress technetium 99m-tetrofosmin dual-isotope myocardial SPECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The prognostic value of normal dual-isotope single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), with technetium 99m-tetrofosmin\\u000a for the stress images, is not well known. Furthermore, thallium-201 cross talk in the Tc-99m window may reduce the defect\\u000a severity of the Tc-99m images.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  In a consecutive series of 610 patients, 246 patients with normal rest and stress SPECT images by means

Reginald G. E. J. Groutars; J. Fred Verzijlbergen; Alinda J. Muller; Carl A. P. L. Ascoop; Monique M. C. Tiel-van Buul; Aeilco H. Zwinderman; Norbert M. van Hemel; Ernst E. van der Wall



Using the integral spleen method of radiorenogram analysis and a baboon model to compare the diagnostic usefulness of technetium-99m-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid to that of various technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycene formulations and iodine-123-hippuran  

SciTech Connect

In light of the high price of commercially available mercaptoacetyltriglycene (MAG3) it was decided to attempt a local MAG3-formation and to test this against diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), /sup 123/I-Hippuran, and commercial MAG3 for diagnostic radiorenographic capabilities also in conjunction with furosemide and captopril. A baboon model (n = 6) was used, and the parameters evaluated were obtained by the integral spleen method of radiorenogram analysis. Although the images and parameters pointed to /sup 123/I-Hippuran and commercial MAG3 as the ideal renal scanning agents and to DTPA as the least so, with the local product an acceptable alternative, the differences were not significant enough to warrant either the purchase of the commercial product or the extensive development of the local product. Inexpensive /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA in conjunction with modern computer techniques will probably supply most of the answers.

Dormehl, I.C.; Van Wyk, A.; Pilloy, W.; Maree, M.; Knoesen, O.; De Winter, R.; Jacobs, L.; Hoppe, H.C.



Technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile: Human biodistribution, dosimetry, safety, and preliminary comparison to thallium-201 for myocardial perfusion imaging  

SciTech Connect

The biodistribution, dosimetry, and safety of a new myocardial imaging agent, /sup 99m/Tc-hexakis-2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (HEXAMIBI), was evaluated in 17 normal volunteers at rest and exercise (Phase I studies). Technetium-99m HEXAMIBI clears rapidly from the blood with good myocardial uptake and favorable myocardial-to-background ratios for myocardial imaging. Dosimetry allows for administration of up to 30 mCi (1, 110 Bq) of (/sup 99m/Tc)HEXAMIBI. The myocardial images were of good quality and appeared less granular with sharper myocardial walls compared to /sup 201/T1 images. The clinical efficacy of (/sup 99m/Tc)HEXAMIBI planar stress and rest imaging was evaluated in a multicenter Phase II clinical trial involving 38 patients. Of 36 patients with significant coronary artery disease, 35 patients (97%) had abnormal /sup 201/T1 stress images, and 32 (89%) had abnormal (/sup 99m/Tc)HEXAMIBI stress images (P = N.S.). Technetium-99m HEXAMIBI images correlated in 31/35 patients (86%) who had either scar or ischemia on /sup 201/T1 images. By segmental myocardial analysis, exact concordance was obtained in 463/570 myocardial segments (81%). This multicenter Phase I and II study indicates that planar (/sup 99m/Tc)HEXAMIBI stress imaging is safe and compares well with /sup 201/T1 stress imaging for detection of coronary artery disease.

Wackers, F.J.; Berman, D.S.; Maddahi, J.; Watson, D.D.; Beller, G.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Boucher, C.A.; Picard, M.; Holman, B.L.; Fridrich, R.



Thallium-201/technetium-99m pyrophosphate overlap in patients with acute myocardial infarction after thrombolysis: prediction of depressed wall motion despite thallium uptake  

SciTech Connect

Intracoronary thallium-201/technetium-99m pyrophosphate planar scintigraphy was performed in 60 patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing intracoronary thrombolysis to predict salvage of myocardium immediately after thrombolysis. In eight patients a significant overlap of new thallium uptake and technetium pyrophosphate accumulation was found after thrombolysis. Intravenous planar thallium scintigraphy revealed thallium uptake in the region of overlap in all patients; circumferential profile analysis showed no difference in the thallium scintigrams before and after technetium injections. Both findings indicate that overlap is not the result of scattering of technetium into the thallium window. Emission computed tomography revealed thallium/technetium pyrophosphate uptake in identical slices and regions. Regional wall motion in the area of overlap remained depressed in all patients, in contrast to patients with similar thallium uptake without overlap. These data suggest that thallium/technetium pyrophosphate overlap reflects the close proximity of viable and necrotic myocardial cells and predicts depressed wall motion after thrombolysis.

Schofer, J.; Spielmann, R.P.; Broemel, T.B.; Bleifeld, W.; Mathey, D.G.



Comparison of shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and technetium-99m-pertechnetate in a group of dogs with experimentally-induced chronic biliary cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

Portosystemic shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine (IMP) has been previously validated relative to portal vein macroaggregated albumin injections using an experimental model of cirrhosis. Transcolonic technetium-99m-pertechnetate (TcO4-) has been proposed as an alternative tracer to IMP to study portal circulation in cirrhotic patients. We compared shunt fraction estimates from paired transcolonic IMP and TcO4- studies performed on a group of dogs before and after common bile duct ligation surgery. Pertechnetate over-estimated shunt fraction in 6/7 postoperative studies relative to IMP. A good correlation between the two methods was demonstrated, however, the slope of the regression line was substantially less than 1.0 with TcO4- values reaching 100% at IMP shunt values of approximately 60%. This apparent inability to accurately assess high shunt flows may limit the quantitative aspects of TcO4- studies on patients with severe portosystemic shunting.

Koblik, P.D.; Hornof, W.J.; Yen, C.K.; Komtebedde, J.; Breznock, E.; Fisher, P. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))



Association of Technetium99m MAG-3 renal scintigraphy with change in creatinine clearance following chemoradiation to the abdomen in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies  

PubMed Central

Background Information on differential renal function following abdominal chemoradiation is limited. This study evaluated the association between renal function as measured by biochemical endpoints and scintigraphy and dose volume parameters in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. Materials and methods Patients who received abdominal chemoradiation between 2002 and 2009 were identified for this study. Technetium99m MAG-3 scintigraphy and laboratory data were obtained prior to and after chemoradiation in 6 month intervals. Factors assessed included age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, and dose volume parameters. Renal function was assessed by biochemical endpoints and renal scintigraphy. Results Significant reductions in relative renal function of the primarily irradiated kidney and creatinine clearance were seen. Split renal function decreased from 49.75% pre-radiation to 47.74% and 41.28% at 6-12 months and >12 months post-radiation (P=0.0184). Creatinine clearance declined from 90.67ml/min pre-radiation to 82.23ml/min and 74.54ml/min at 6-12 months and >12 months post-radiation (P<0.0001). Univariate analysis of patients who had at least one post-radiation renogram showed the percent volumes of the primarily irradiated kidney receiving ? 25 Gy (V25) and 40 Gy (V40) were significantly associated with ?5% decrease in relative renal function (P=0.0387 and P=0.0438 respectively). Conclusion Decline in split renal function using Technetium99m MAG-3 scintigraphy correlates with decrease in creatinine clearance and radiation dose-volume parameters following abdominal chemoradiation. Change in split perfusion can be detected as early as 6 months post-radiation. Scintigraphy may provide early determination and quantification of subclinical renal injury prior to clinical evidence of nephropathy.

May, Kilian Salerno; Khushalani, Nikhil I; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Wilding, Gregory E; Flaherty, Leayn; Malhotra, Harish K; Russo, Richard C; Warner, John C; Yap, Johnny C; Iyer, Renuka V; Nwogu, Chukwumere E; Yendamuri, Saikrishna S; Gibbs, John F; Nava, Hector R; Lamonica, Dominick; Thomas, Charles R



Comparison of four technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for detection and localization of gastrointestinal bleeding in a sheep model  

SciTech Connect

Four Tc-99 radiopharmaceuticals, Tc-99m sulphur colloid, Tc-99m red blood cells (RBCs), Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), and Tc-99m DTPA, were studied in an experimental animal model for detection and localization of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding site in both the upper and lower abdomen. With Tc-99m sulphur colloid and Tc-99m RBCs, it was possible to detect and localize the GI bleeding site in the lower abdomen. With Tc-99m MAG3, it was possible to visualize the bleeding site in both the upper and lower abdomen. However, Tc-99m MAG3 is partially excreted by the liver into the bile, hence it will be difficult to use Tc-99m MAG3 to localize the GI bleeding site in the lower abdomen. With Tc-99m DTPA, it was possible to detect and localize the GI bleeding site simultaneously in both upper and lower abdomen. The overall background radioactivity was reduced considerably by diuresis with frusemide and catheterization of the urinary bladder.

Owunwanne, A.; Al-Wafai, I.; Vallgren, S.; Sadek, S.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Yacoub, T.



Hydrated clearance of gadolinium-DTPA as a measurement of glomerular filtration rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrated clearance of gadolinium-DTPA as a measurement of glomerular filtration rate. Technetium (99mTc)-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) hydrated clearance studies are accurate for determining GFR but require special facilities for handling and measuring samples. We investigated the potential of a non-radioactive paramagnetic analog, Gadolinium (Gd)-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), an approved NMR contrast agent, as a glomerular filtration marker. Instead

Peter L Choyke; Howard A Austin; Joseph A Frank; Mary E Girton; Richard L Diggs; Andrew J Dwyer; LaGrieta Miller; Robert Nussenblatt; Henry McFarland; Theodore Simon



Native renal function after combined liver-kidney transplant for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome: initial report on the use of postoperative Technetium-99 m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine scans.  


Type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is characterized by rapid deterioration of renal function. We sought to assess native kidney function after combined kidney-liver transplant (CLKTx) performed for type 1 HRS. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional, single-center study. All patients with Type 1 HRS who received a CLKTx at the University of California, San Francisco from 1997 to 2007 were screened for enrollment. Patients with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ?30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were eligible. Twenty-three patients were identified and consented to receive a Technetium-99 m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) nuclear scan to measure the native kidney contribution to overall renal function. Only 4 of the 23 subjects (17.4%) demonstrated native renal function that consisted of a contribution ?50% of total renal function. Several factors and comorbidities such as age, gender, race, duration of HRS, need for and duration of renal replacement therapy, need for pressors, urine sodium, proteinuria, and use of octreotide/midodrine were analyzed and not found to be significant in predicting native renal function. The assessment of post-transplant native renal function following CLKTx may allow for improved accuracy in identifying the patients in need of CLKTx, and thus allow for greater optimization of dual-organ allocation strategies in patients with concomitant liver and renal failure. PMID:23384317

Vagefi, Parsia A; Qian, Jesse J; Carlson, David M; Aparici, Carina Mari; Hirose, Ryutaro; Vincenti, Flavio; Wojciechowski, David



Synthesis, characterization and bioevaluation of technetium-99m labeled N-(2-Hydroxybenzyl)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose as a tumor imaging agent.  


N-(2-Hydroxybenzyl)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose (NHADG) was synthesized by conjugation of salicylaldehyde to glucosamine. The obtained compound was well characterized via different analytical techniques. Labeling of the synthesized compound with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) in pertechnetate form ((99m)Tc O4-) was carried out via chelation reaction in the presence of stannous chloride dihydrate. Maximum radiochemical yield of (99m)Tc-NHADG complex (99%) was obtained by using 1 mg NHADG, 200 ?g SnCl2.2H2O, at pH 9.5 and reaction time of 15 min. The radiochemical purity of the (99m)Tc-NHADG complex was measured by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) and paper chromatography (PC), without any notable decomposition at room temperature over a period of 4h. The biological evaluation results show that the (99m)Tc labeled NHADG conjugate is able to specifically target mammary carcinoma in mice models, thus highlighting its potential as an effective (99m)Tc labeled glucose-derived agent for tumor imaging. PMID:23455207

Nadeem, Qaisar; Khan, Irfanullah; Javed, Muhammad; Mahmood, Zaid; Dar, Ume-Kalsoom; Ali, Muhammad; Hyder, Syed Waqar; Murad, Sohail



Evaluation of inferior mesenteric vein blood flow circulation with per-rectal administration of thallium-201 and technetium-99m pertechnetate  

SciTech Connect

We administered both per-rectal thallium-201 (201Tl) and technetium-99m pertechnetate (99mTc) to patients with liver diseases in order to understand the abnormalities of inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) blood flow circulation. As 201Tl heart-to-liver uptake ratio (H:L), reflecting the degree of portal-systemic shuntings (PSS), increased, the visualization of IMV in general became poor on 99mTc scintigrams. 201Tl H:L in the group with no visualization of IMV on 99mTc scintigrams was significantly higher than in the group with clear visualization of IMV (p less than 0.001). However, there were patients who showed IMV visualization among those with high 201Tl H:L. In these patients, it was considered that IMV blood flowed in the normograde direction, escaping mainly through PSS at the upper part of the portal system, and resulting in elevated H:L. In the patients without IMV visualization, IMV blood flowed in the retrograde direction, escaping mainly through collaterals at the lower part of IMV. Inferior vena cava (IVC) was visualized on 99mTc scintigrams in some patients without IMV visualization, indicating the presence of collaterals from the distal part of IMV to IVC. Per-rectal studies using these two radiotracers can afford us useful informations on the abnormalities of IMV blood flow hemodynamics in patients with liver diseases.

Tonami, N.; Nakajima, K.; Yokoyama, K.; Kinuya, S.; Oskaie, S.D.; Matsunari, I.; Taki, J.; Seto, M.; Michigishi, T.; Aburano, T. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))



Comparative study of regional cerebral blood flow images by SPECT using xenon-133, iodine-123 IMP, and technetium-99m HM-PAO  

SciTech Connect

Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using /sup 133/Xe, N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I)iodoamphetamine ((/sup 123/I)IMP) and (/sup 99m/Tc) hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO) in 24 patients with cerebrovascular diseases. The greatest advantage of /sup 133/Xe SPECT was to be able to provide absolute rCBF values without arterial sampling. However, its image quality was very poor. Iodine-123 IMP SPECT provided rCBF images of higher quality and it had good correlation to /sup 133/Xe SPECT. Iodine-123 IMP SPECT provided the best images to detect mild ischemic lesions. It could detect obstructive or stenotic changes of large cerebral arteries very well except for a moderate stenosis of internal carotid artery. Technetium-99m HM-PAO SPECT also provided very good rCBF images and it had good correlation to /sup 133/Xe SPECT. However, the count-density ratios for the ischemic lesions to the contralateral presumed normal areas of (/sup 99m/Tc) HM-PAO SPECT were significantly higher than those of (/sup 123/I)IMP SPECT.

Nakano, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Jinnouchi, S.; Hoshi, H.; Watanabe, K.



Measurement of infarct size in acute canine myocardial infarction by single-photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m pyrophosphate  

SciTech Connect

The location and extent of myocardial infarction (MI) are important predictors of patient course. The current study tests the hypothesis that MI size could be measured accurately using rotating gamma camera single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and technetium-99m pyrophosphate (PPi) and that the accuracy of these measurements was independent of MI location and transmural or nontransmural distribution. SPECT was performed in 38 dogs 48 hours after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (14 dogs) or left circumflex coronary artery (LC) (24 dogs) at the mid-level or below. The boundary of PPi uptake in each slice was marked automatically using an algorithm that combined a directional derivative and a threshold, and required continuity of the boundary in 3 dimensions. The total number of volume elements that showed abnormal tracer uptake were summed, corrected to absolute volume, and multiplied by the specific weight of cardiac muscle. Scintigraphic MI weight was compared with pathologic MI weight. There was an excellent correlation between scintigraphic and pathologic MI weight. The poorer correlation for nontransmural compared with transmural MIs is most likely a function of size alone.

Lewis, S.E.; Devous, M.D. Sr.; Corbett, J.R.; Izquierdo, C.; Nicod, P.; Wolfe, C.L.; Parkey, R.W.; Buja, L.M.; Willerson, J.T.



Evaluation of the in vitro effect of a Lantana camara extract on the labeling of blood constituents of rats with technetium-99m.  


Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have been used in nuclear medicine procedures and drugs are capable to interfere on this labeling. Lantana camara (lantana) has medicinal properties and it has been used in folk medicine. The aim is to verify the effect of a lantana extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc. Blood of rats was incubated with extract, stannous chloride and 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) were separated. The % of radioactivity (%ATI) in these samples was calculated. Samples of labeled BC were washed and the %ATI maintained (%ATI-M) in the BC was determined. The results showed that lantana extract decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the IF-P from 70.24 +/- 2.59 to 11.95 +/- 3.07. This effect was not observed in the BC and IF-BC. The BC-%ATI-M was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in all concentrations tested when the BC was washed. This fact was not observed in the control. Substances present on the extract should have redoxi action decreasing the concentration of the stannous ion and this condition could justify the effect on the IF-P. The results about the BC-%ATI-M should indicate a possible effect on the transport of ions through the erythrocyte membrane. PMID:18390001

Maiworm, A I; Santos-Filho, S D; Presta, G A; Giani, T S; Paoli, S; Bernardo-Filho, M



Change in Renal Function as Measured by Technetium99m MAG-3 Scintigraphy and Biochemical Endpoints Following Abdominal Chemoradiation for Gastrointestinal Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Background: Information on differential renal function following abdominal chemoradiation (CRT) as measured by renal scintigraphy (RS) is limited. This study was conducted to evaluate the association between renal function, as measured by biochemical endpoints and scintigraphy, and dose volume parameters in patients following abdominal CRT in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods: Patients who received abdominal RT with concurrent chemotherapy between 2002 and 2009 were identified to study the association of renal functional imaging with change in renal function following abdominal CRT. Technetium99m MAG-3 scintigraphy and laboratory data were obtained prior to CRT and after CRT in 6-month intervals. Factors assessed included age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, and dose volume parameters. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (CrCl) calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula, and renal perfusion measured using scintigraphy. Endpoints analyzed include relative renal function, biochemical endpoints, and dose volume parameters. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for the primarily irradiated kidney (PK) was calculated using a tolerance dose for 5% probability of complications at 5 years (TD 5/5) of 23 Gy and ?/? ratio = 2.5. The PK was defined as the kidney that received the greater mean kidney dose. Results: Of 136 patients evaluated, median age was 64 years. The majority of primary disease sites were pancreas and periampullary tumors (75.7%). Median follow up was 9.61 months. Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy, most with 5-fluorouracil-, capecitabine-, or gemcitabine-containing regimens, and had a baseline RS performed prior to CRT. Significant reductions in relative renal function of the PK and global renal function were seen following CRT. Changes in split renal function, creatinine, and CrCl are shown in the table below. Pre-CRT (n=136) 6–12 months post CRT (n=25) >12 months post CRT (n=8) P value Mean RS of PK (%) 49.75 (5.30) 47.74 (6.48) 41.28 (7.38) 0.0184 RS Ratio (PK/non PK) 1.01 (0.22) 0.94 (0.25) 0.73 (0.23) 0.0606 Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.87 (0.26) 0.94 (0.23) 1.05 (0.09) *<0.0001 CrCl (ml/min) 90.67 (33.43) 82.23 (30.97) 74.54 (23.00) *<0.0001 * P values obtained using log-transformed values. Univariate analysis did not show age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, or pre CRT CrCl, to be associated with decrease in split perfusion of the PK following CRT. Percent volumes of the PK receiving ? 25 Gy (V25) and 40 Gy (V40) were significantly associated with ?5% decrease in relative renal function of the PK in patients who had at least one post CRT renogram (P = .0387 and P = .0438 respectively). The difference in NTCP for the PK was significantly different between patients with <5% change in split renal function on RS versus those with ? 5% decrease (11.4 % vs. 24.2%, P = .0097). Conclusions: Decline in split renal function using Technetium99m MAG-3 scintigraphy correlates with decrease in CrCl and radiation dose-volume parameters following abdominal radiation with concurrent chemotherapy. Change in split perfusion can be detected as early as 6 months post CRT. Scintigraphy may provide early determination and quantification of subclinical renal injury prior to clinical evidence of nephropathy.

May, Kilian Salerno; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Malhotra, Harish K.; Russo, Richard C.; Flaherty, Leayn; Wilding, Gregory E.; Khushalani, Nikhil I.; Yang, Gary Y.



Technetium-99m generator system  


A {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating {sup 99m}Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of {sup 99m}Tc includes the general steps of: (a) providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; (b) eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute {sup 99m}Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted {sup 99m}Tc on the ion-exchange column; and (c) eluting the concentrated {sup 99m}Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent. 1 fig.

Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Collins, E.D.



Effect of metabolic alterations on the accumulation of technetium-99m-labeled d, l-HMPAO in slices of rat cerebral cortex  

SciTech Connect

It is widely recognized that the distribution of technetium-99m-labeled d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) in the brain is determined by the regional blood flow. However, other factors may affect this process including the metabolism of the brain tissue. To examine this possibility we studied the effects of metabolic alterations on {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO uptake in rat brain cortex slices, with concurrent measurement of oxygen consumption (QO{sub 2}). {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO uptake was determined by incubating slices of rat cerebral cortex at 37{degrees}C in Krebs-Ringer phosphate glucose medium containing {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO with and without test substances. Differential gradients for {sup 99m}Tc activity between the tissue and the suspending medium (T/M ratio) were derived from the equation T/M[{sup 99m}Tc] = counts per gram of tissue/counts per milliliter of medium. The QO{sub 2} of the brain slices was measured using a biological oxygen monitor equipped with a polarographic oxygen probe. Inhibitors affecting oxidative phosphorylation caused parallel suppression of the T/M ratio and QO{sub 2}. Agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation increased the QO{sub 2} and decreased the T/M ratio. Incubation of slices at 22{degrees}C depressed the T/M ratio and QO{sub 2}. The presence of inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation in the incubation medium increased the release of {sup 99m}Tc activity from slices that had been prelabeled with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO. These findings suggest that the altered metabolic status of the brain tissue modulates the kinetics and net accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO at the cellular level by either depressing uptake, increasing back-diffusion, or both. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Ahn, C.S.; Tow, D.E.; Yu, C.C.; Greene, R.W. [Virginia Medical Center, Brockton, VA (United States)]|[Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)



Effect of a chayotte (Sechium edule) extract on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m: in vitro and in vivo studies.  


Sechium edule (chayotte) is used as food or as medication in popular medicine. The labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m (99mTc) has been altered by drugs (synthetic and natural). Some authors have reported biological effects concerning the chayotte. We have evaluated the influence of chayotte extracts (macerated and infusion) on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. In vitro study, blood was incubated with the extracts, (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100% v/v). In in vivo study, the animals were treated with the extracts (100% v/v), as drinking water (15 and 60 days) and samples of blood were withdrawn. The blood samples were incubated with stannous chloride and with 99mTc. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) separated. There was a (p < 0.05) decrease in the radioactivity in BC, IF-BC and IF-P with the infusion (100%) and a slight decrease in the uptake of 99mTc by BC and a strong decrease in the fixation in IF-P with the macerated when the extracts were administrated in vivo (15 days). In 60 days, there was a decrease in BC (98.77 to 53.53%), in IF-BC (90.36 to 21.20%) and in IF-P (77.20 to 11.01%). In vitro study no alterations on the labeling of blood elements were found, however, we have found alterations on the fixation of 99mTc in the in vivo study, probably, due to the metabolization of chayotte capable to induce the generation of active metabolites. PMID:12619970

Feliciano, Gláucio Diré; Lima, Elaine Alves Correia; Pereira, Mario José dos Santos; de Oliveira, Márcia Betânia Nunes; Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; de Mattos, Deise Mara Machado; Levi Jales, Roberto; Bernardo-Filho, Mario



Myocardial infarction determined by technetium-99m pyrophosphate single-photon tomography complicating elective coronary artery bypass grafting for angina pectoris  

SciTech Connect

The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicating coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has previously been based on concordance of electrocardiographic, enzymatic and scintigraphic criteria. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PPi) single-photon emission computed tomography now enables detection of AMI with high sensitivity and specificity. Using this technique, perioperative AMI was detected in 12 of 58 patients (21%) undergoing successful elective CABG for stable angina pectoris. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the predictive value of preoperative (New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction and use of beta blockers) and intraoperative (number of grafts constructed, use of internal mammary anastomoses, use of sequential saphenous vein grafts, smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber and aortic cross-clamp time) variables. Preoperative New York Association class (p = 0.04) and smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber (p = 0.03) were significant multivariate predictors of perioperative AMI. Only 1 perioperative patient with AMI (and 1 pyrophosphate-negative patient) developed new Q waves. Serum creatine kinase-MB was higher in patients with AMI by repeated measures analysis of variance (p = 0.0003). Five AMIs occurred in myocardial segments revascularized using sequential saphenous vein grafts, and 7 in segments perfused by significantly stenosed epicardial vessels with distal lumen diameter and perfusion territory considered too small to warrant CABG. At 6-month follow-up, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 0.61 to 0.65 in Tc-PPI-negative patients (p = 0.01), but not in perioperative patients with AMI.

Burns, R.J.; Gladstone, P.J.; Tremblay, P.C.; Feindel, C.M.; Salter, D.R.; Lipton, I.H.; Ogilvie, R.R.; David, T.E.



Detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities: standard dual-source coronary computed tomography angiography versus rest/stress technetium-99m single-photo emission CT.  


We compared coronary dual-source computed tomography angiography (corDSCTA) with technetium-99m single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent both gated myocardial perfusion SPECT and corDSCTA, the latter during a single arterial-phase injection of contrast agent. The perfusion defects visualised by corDSCTA correlated with the findings of rest/stress SPECT. Abnormal findings on stress SPECT, which were due to either ischaemia or infarct, were found in 24 patients. In comparison to SPECT at rest, corDSCTA detected perfusion defects with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 78%, respectively. Compared to SPECT at stress, the sensitivity and specificity values of corDSCTA were 83.3% and 90.3%, respectively. On corDSCTA , the average attenuation values of perfusion defects that corresponded to chronic infarcts (-8.5+/-22.2 HU) were significantly lower (p = 0.002) than those of non-infarct-related perfusion defects (43.1+/-17.5 HU). Using rest/stress SPECT is the gold standard for the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia, corDSCTA was able to diagnose ischaemic disease (defined as the presence of high-grade stenotic CAD (>or=50% luminal narrowing)) with a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 89%, respectively, in patients with no known history of myocardial infarction (n = 4). Thus, corDSCTA may serve as a diagnostic tool for the detection of perfusion abnormalities (first) visualised by SPECT. There appears to be a limited correlation between coronary stenotic disease and SPECT findings. PMID:20413446

Cheng, W; Zeng, M; Arellano, C; Mafori, W; Goldin, J; Krishnam, M; Ruehm, S G



Technetium-99m-labeled white blood cells: a new method to define the local and systemic role of leukocytes in acute experimental pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: We developed a new method to quantitate leukocyte accumulation in tissues and used it to examine the time course and severity of acute experimental pancreatitis. BACKGROUND: Leukocyte activation and infiltration are believed to be critical steps in the progression from mild to severe pancreatitis and responsible for many of its systemic complications. METHODS: Pancreatitis of graded severity was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with a combination of caerulein and controlled intraductal infusion. Technetium-99m (99mTc)-labeled leukocytes were quantified in pancreas, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney and compared with myeloperoxidase activity. The severity of pancreatitis was ascertained by wet/dry weight ratio, plasma amylase, and trypsinogen activation peptide in the pancreas. The time course of leukocyte accumulation was determined over 24 hours. RESULTS: Pancreatic leukocyte infiltration correlated well with tissue myeloperoxidase concentrations. In mild pancreatitis, leukocytes accumulated only in the pancreas. Moderate and severe pancreatitis were characterized by much greater leukocyte infiltration in the pancreas than in mild disease (p < 0.01), and increased 99mTc radioactivity was detectable in the lung as early as 3 hours. 99mTc radioactivity correlated directly with the three levels of pancreatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Mild pancreatitis is characterized by low-level leukocyte activation and accumulation in the pancreas without recruitment of other organs; marked leukocyte accumulation was found in the pancreas and in the lung in more severe grades of pancreatitis. These findings provide a basis for the pathophysiologic production of cytokines and oxygen free radicals, which potentiate organ injury in severe pancreatitis. This study validates a new tool to study local and systemic effects of leukocytes in pancreatitis as well as new therapeutic hypotheses.

Werner, J; Dragotakes, S C; Fernandez-del Castillo, C; Rivera, J A; Ou, J; Rattner, D W; Fischman, A J; Warshaw, A L



Technetium-99m nitrido dithiocarbamate complex with lateral ester groups: A potential agent for cerebral perfusion. Direct labeling and kinetic results in baboons  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that technetium-99m-nitrido (TcN) complexes of ester derivatives of dithiocarbamate cross the brain-blood barrier and one term of this class, namely the complex formed with sarcosine methyl ester dithiocarbamate (TcN-PR13) is retained in the brain of Cynomolgus monkeys. However these compounds were obtained through an in situ esterification of preformed TcN dicarboxylic derivative. We have been able to synthesize one term of this class of ligands, the sarcosine methylester dithiocarbamate, by reacting sarcosine with thionyl chloride in methanol to give the sarcosine methyl ester, which was reacted with carbon disulfide and NaOH in methanol to give the sodium salt of the dithiocarbamate derivative which was isolated as an oil. The corresponding TcN complex was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 96% by a kit method. The complex was injected in baboons and its radioactive distribution compared to that obtained with Tc-HMPAO. Blood and plasma kinetics were calculated from arterial sampling whereas tissue kinetics (brain, lungs) were obtained by ROI`s analysis. The values of the half-life in the blood were comparable for the two tracers, although the absolute activity was about 20% lower for TcN-PR13. The brain uptake of TcN-PR13 was 10% lower than that observed for Tc-HMPAO, and remained stable during 2 hours. TcN-PR13 displayed lower lung uptake and faster clearance from this organ than Tc-HMPAO. Brain/Lung ratios were 1.11 and 1.65 at 30 and 60 min for TcN-PR13 compared to 0.93 and 0.99 at the same time for Tc-HMPAO.

Bottlaender, M.; Bourguignon, M.; Maziere, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot CEA Orsay, Yvette (France)] [and others



Comparison of late outcome in patients with versus without angina pectoris having reversible perfusion abnormalities during dobutamine stress technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography.  


The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of reversible perfusion abnormalities in patients without angina during dobutamine stress technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study comprised 224 patients (age 60 +/- 11 years, 144 men) with completely or partially reversible perfusion abnormalities during dobutamine stress sestamibi SPECT. Follow-up end points were hard cardiac events (cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction). Angina occurred in 93 patients (42%) during the dobutamine stress test (symptomatic ischemia group). The 131 patients without dobutamine-induced angina represented the silent ischemia group. There was no significant difference between patients with and without angina with regard to summed stress perfusion score (5.3 +/- 2.5 vs 5.2 +/- 2.2, p = 0.9) or summed ischemic score (3.1 +/- 1.7 vs 3.2 +/- 1.4, p = 0.7). During a median follow-up of 7.2 years, cardiac death occurred in 14 patients (15%) with and in 21 patients (16%) without angina. Nonfatal myocardial infarction occurred in 8 patients (9%) with and in 13 patients (10%) without angina. In a multivariate analysis model of clinical and perfusion data, independent predictors of cardiac events were age (hazard ratio 1.02, confidence intervals [CI] 1.01 to 1.05 per year increment), diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio 1.9, CI 1.2 to 3.4), and ischemic perfusion score (hazard ratio 2.1, CI 1.3 to 3.8). Patients with silent ischemia defined as reversible perfusion abnormalities without associated angina during dobutamine stress sestamibi SPECT imaging had similar incidences of ischemia and similar cardiac event rates compared with patients with symptomatic ischemia. Therefore, the absence of angina in association with reversible perfusion abnormalities should not be interpreted as a sign of a more benign prognosis. PMID:12565080

Elhendy, Abdou; Schinkel, Arend F L; van Domburg, Ron T; Bax, Jeroen J; Poldermans, Don



Comparison of left ventricular function and infarct size in patients with and without persistently positive technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams after myocardial infarction: analysis of 357 patients  

SciTech Connect

One hundred nine patients with persistently positive technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PPi) myocardial scintigrams 6 months after acute myocardial infarction (MI) (Group A) and 185 patients without such persistently positive scintigrams (Group B) were compared with regard to enzymatically determined infarct size, early and late measurements of left ventricular (LV) function determined by radionuclide ventriculography, and preceding clinical course during the 6 months after MI. The CK-MB-determined infarct size index in Group A (17.4 +/- 10.6 g-Eq/m2) did not differ significantly from that in Group B (16.0 +/- 14.6 g-Eq/m2). Similarly, myocardial infarct areas in the 2 groups, determined by planimetry of acute Tc-99m-PPi scintigrams in those patients with well-localized 3+ or 4+ anterior pyrophosphate uptake, were not significantly different (35.7 +/- 13.4 vs 34.4 +/- 13.1 cm2, respectively). However, patients in Group A had significantly lower LV ejection fractions than those in Group B, both within 18 hours of the onset of MI (0.42 +/- 0.14 vs 0.49 +/- 0.14, p less than 0.01) and at 3 months after MI, both at rest (0.42 +/- 0.14 vs 0.51 +/- 0.14, p less than 0.01) and at maximal symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise (0.44 +/- 0.17 vs 0.51 +/- 0.17, p less than 0.01). Peak exercise levels achieved in the 2 groups were not significantly different. Furthermore, patients in Group A demonstrated a greater incidence of congestive heart failure during the initial hospital admission (41 vs 24%; p less than 0.01) and a greater requirement for digoxin (p less than 0.05) and furosemide (p less than 0.01) after discharge.

Croft, C.H.; Rude, R.E.; Lewis, S.E.; Parkey, R.W.; Poole, W.K.; Parker, C.; Fox, N.; Roberts, R.; Strauss, H.W.; Thomas, L.J.



Technetium-99m tetrofosmin rest/stress myocardial SPET with a same-day 2-hour protocol: comparison with coronary angiography. A Spanish-Portuguese multicentre clinical trial.  


Technetium-99m tetrofosmin (Myoview) has unique properties for myocardial perfusion imaging very early after injection of the tracer. We used a very short same-day rest/stress protocol, to be performed within 2 h and evaluated its diagnostic accuracy. The study included 144 patients from seven Spanish and four Portuguese centres with a diagnosis of uncomplicated coronary artery disease (CAD); 78 patients (54%) had no history of prior myocardial infarction. Patients were injected with /=50%) was achieved with a sensitivity of 64% for the left anterior descending artery, 49% for the left circumflex artery and 86% for the right coronary artery, and an accuracy of 71%, 72% and 73% respectively. Concordance of SPET and CA was 62% for single-vessel disease and 68% for multivessel disease. In conclusion, this Spanish-Portuguese multicentre clinical trial confirmed, in a considerable number of patients who underwent coronary angiography, the feasibility of 99mTc tetrofosmin (Myoview) rest/stress myocardial SPET using a very short protocol (2 h). PMID:8662097

Montz, R; Perez-Castejón, M J; Jurado, J A; Martín-Comín, J; Esplugues, E; Salgado, L; Ventosa, A; Cantinho, G; Sá, E P; Fonseca, A T; Vieira, M R



Detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities: standard dual-source coronary computed tomography angiography versus rest/stress technetium-99m single-photo emission CT  

PubMed Central

We compared coronary dual-source computed tomography angiography (corDSCTA) with technetium-99m single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent both gated myocardial perfusion SPECT and corDSCTA, the latter during a single arterial-phase injection of contrast agent. The perfusion defects visualised by corDSCTA correlated with the findings of rest/stress SPECT. Abnormal findings on stress SPECT, which were due to either ischaemia or infarct, were found in 24 patients. In comparison to SPECT at rest, corDSCTA detected perfusion defects with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 78%, respectively. Compared to SPECT at stress, the sensitivity and specificity values of corDSCTA were 83.3% and 90.3%, respectively. On corDSCTA , the average attenuation values of perfusion defects that corresponded to chronic infarcts (?8.5±22.2 HU) were significantly lower (p = 0.002) than those of non-infarct-related perfusion defects (43.1±17.5 HU). Using rest/stress SPECT is the gold standard for the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia, corDSCTA was able to diagnose ischaemic disease (defined as the presence of high-grade stenotic CAD (?50% luminal narrowing)) with a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 89%, respectively, in patients with no known history of myocardial infarction (n = 4). Thus, corDSCTA may serve as a diagnostic tool for the detection of perfusion abnormalities (first) visualised by SPECT. There appears to be a limited correlation between coronary stenotic disease and SPECT findings.

Cheng, W; Zeng, M; Arellano, C; Mafori, W; Goldin, J; Krishnam, M; Ruehm, S G



Contribution of phagocytic cells and bacteria to the accumulation of technetium-99m labelled polyclonal human immunoglobulin at sites of inflammation.  


The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of phagocytic cells and bacteria to the accumulation of technetium-99m labelled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) at sites of inflammation. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with Staphylococcus aureus (SA animals), with heat-inactivated newborn calf serum (NBCS, to mimic a non-bacterial inflammation) or with physiological saline (controls); 1 h thereafter they received HIG. At various intervals after the administration of HIG the mice were killed, and the percentages of radioactivity in the peritoneal effluent and attached to the cellular and bacterial fraction thereof were established. Furthermore, the total number of cells and that of bacteria in the fluid were quantitated. The percentage of activity in the effluent in the SA animals was (P < 0.02) higher than those in the NBCS-injected animals and controls from 4 h onwards. In all groups of mice this percentage was highest at 4 h and decreased (P < 0.01) afterwards. The percentage of cell-bound activity and the total number of cells remained fairly constant or increased with time in the SA animals (P < 0.01). The bacteria-bound activity remained rather constant throughout the experiment and ranged between 4% and 6%. In the SA-infected animals the percentage of cell-bound activity was correlated with the total number of cells (macrophages but especially neutrophils) but even more strongly with the number of cell-associated bacteria. In the NBCS-injected animals a correlation was demonstrated between the cell-bound activity and the total number of cells (only neutrophils).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7498225

Calame, W; Welling, M; Feitsma, H I; Goedemans, W T; Pauwels, E K



Quantitative assessment of overall inflammatory bowel disease activity using labelled leucocytes: a direct comparison between indium-111 and technetium-99m HMPAO methods.  

PubMed Central

The ideal imaging method in inflammatory bowel disease would reliably detect inflammation, identify the correct intestinal location, and assess the severity of the disease. The aim of this study was to compare scintigraphic methods of quantifying overall disease activity using both indium-111 (111In) and technetium-99M (99mTc) HMPAO labelled leucocyte scans. The four day faecal excretion of 111In was measured after 111In scintigraphy in 24 patients known to have inflammatory bowel disease. The same patients also underwent 99mTc HMPAO scanning. The scans were performed 10 days or less apart with no changes in treatment between scans. Bowel activity on the 99mTc HMPAO scans was assessed using a computer based method (scan score) and a visual grading method in a further 54 99mTc HMPAO. The results showed a close correlation between inflammatory activity defined by faecal 111In excretion and the scan score generated from the computer analysis of the 99mTc HMPAO image (Spearman rank correlation: rs = 0.78; p < 0.001). Accurate information to localise inflammatory activity could be obtained by simple visual assessment of both types of scan images, although image quality was superior with 99mTc HMPAO. Qualification of disease activity from 99mTc HMPAO images by visual grading was associated with a large variability, only 69% of scans had similar scores when graded by three observers. Computer generated image analysis was more reproducible. In conclusion, in inflammatory bowel disease 99mTc HMPAO scintigraphy and faecal 111In excretion correlated well. Either method can quantify and localise the inflammation. As 99mTc HMPAO scanning provides a quicker result, with a lower radiation dose, and avoids faecal collection, it may be the preferred method. Images Figure 2

Mansfield, J C; Giaffer, M H; Tindale, W B; Holdsworth, C D



Quantitative angiographic measurements of isolated left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis correlation with exercise echocardiography and technetium-99m 2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile single-photon emission computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to assess the value of quantitative coronary arteriography in predicting an ischemic response at exercise echocardiography and technetium-99m 2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (mibi) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with single-vessel disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery.Background. The relation between severity of coronary stenosis and ischemic response to exercise echocardiography and perfusion scintigraphy in

Mariarosaria Arnese; Alessandro Salustri; Paolo M. Fioretti; Jan H. Cornel; Eric Boersma; Ambroos E. M. Reijs; Pim J. de Feyter; Jos R. T. C. Roelandt



Dobutamine stress echocardiography and technetium-99m-tetrofosmin\\/fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose single-photon emission computed tomography and influence of resting ejection fraction to assess myocardial viability in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and healed myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different techniques—dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography (DSE) and dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition (technetium-99-m-tetrofosmin\\/fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose) single-photon emission computed tomography (DISA-SPECT)—for assessment of viable myocardium. One hundred ten patients (mean age 55 ± 9 years) with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (mean LV ejection fraction 27 ± 13%) underwent both DISA-SPECT and DSE. A 16-segment scoring model

Riccardo Rambaldi; Don Poldermans; Jeroen J Bax; Eric Boersma; Roelf Valkema; Abdou Elhendy; Wim B Vletter; Paolo M Fioretti; Jos R. T. C Roelandt; Eric P Krenning



Effect of extract of medicinal plants on the labeling of blood elements with Technetium99m and on the morphology of red blood cells: I—a study with Paullinia cupana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs can alter the labeling and the morphology of red blood cells. As Paullinia cupana is used in popular medicine, we evaluated its influence on the labeling process using technetium-99m (Tc-99m). Blood was incubated with P. cupana, stannous chloride and Tc-99m. Samples were centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated and precipitated with trichloroacetic acid. Soluble (SF)

J. F de Oliveira; A. S Ávila; A. C. S Braga; M. B. N de Oliveira; E. M Boasquevisque; R. L Jales; V. N Cardoso; M Bernardo-Filho



Reduced uptake of the proliferation-seeking radiotracer technetium-99m-labelled pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid in a 47-year-old woman with severe breast epithelial hyperplasia taking ibuprofen: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have reported a risk reduction in the progression of benign breast disease to breast carcinoma through COX-2 pathways. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of severe epithelial hyperplasia in a 47-year-old woman with increased breast density submitted to scintimammography by the proliferation-imaging tracer Technetium-99m-labelled pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid, before and after an oral ibuprofen treatment for 4 weeks.

Vassilios J Papantoniou; Evangelia K Sotiropoulou; Pipitsa N Valsamaki; Angeliki G Tsaroucha; Maria G Sotiropoulou; Nikolaos D Ptohis; Aikaterini J Stipsanelli; Konstantinos E Dimitrakakis; Spyridon G Marinopoulos; Spyridon T Tsiouris; Aris J Antsaklis



Application of Technetium99m-Labeled Human Serum Albumin Scan to Assist Surgical Treatment of Protein-Losing Enteropathy in Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome: Report of A Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is a rare form of nonhereditary gastrointestinal polyposis associated with ectodermal change and protein-losing enteropathy. Here we report a 63-year-old male presenting with diffuse gastrointestinal polyposis, onychodystrophy, cutaneous pigmentation, alopecia, diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia and lower leg edema. Technetium-99m-labeled human serum albumin scan confirmed the patient to have protein-losing enteropathy, which originated from the transverse and descending colon. Subtotal colectomy

Kuo-Chih Tseng; Bor-Shyang Sheu; Jenq-Chang Lee; Hong-Ming Tsai; Nan-Tsing Chiu; Yuan-Chang Dai



Simultaneous assessment of left ventricular wall motion and myocardial perfusion with technetium-99m-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile at stress and rest in patients with angina: Comparison with thallium-201 SPECT  

SciTech Connect

The newly developed technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) isonitriles can be used for the simultaneous evaluation of ventricular function and myocardial perfusion. We compared technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (({sup 99m}Tc) MIBI) derived first-pass left ventricular wall motion at stress and rest with simultaneous myocardial perfusion defined by ({sup 99m}Tc)MIBI SPECT. These results were then compared with {sup 201}TI SPECT. We examined 28 patients with coronary artery disease; 25 had a previous myocardial infarction. We found concordance between segmental wall motion and myocardial perfusion imaging in defining normal, ischemic, and infarcted myocardium in 68% and 69% of segments using ({sup 99m}Tc)MIBI and {sup 201}TI respectively. The best agreement between wall motion and myocardial perfusion was seen in the inferior wall, while most of the discrepancies were found at the apex. Agreement between ({sup 99m}Tc)MIBI and {sup 201}TI SPECT myocardial perfusion was seen in 93% of segments. Technetium-99m-MIBI appears to be an ideal radiopharmaceutical for the simultaneous evaluation of ventricular function and myocardial perfusion during stress and at rest.

Villanueva-Meyer, J.; Mena, I.; Narahara, K.A. (UCLA School of Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance (USA))



Assessment of whole body MRI and sestamibi technetium-99m bone marrow scan in prediction of multiple myeloma disease progression and outcome: a prospective comparative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aims primarily to determine whether whole body MRI (WB-MRI) and Sestamibi Technetium-99m-bone marrow (MIBI) scans in the same patients produce the same estimate of disease load and location, and secondly, to study possible association between the bone disease detected by these scans and the effect on disease outcome and survival. Bone disease occurs in about 90% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. There are no data comparing the new diagnostic modalities with WB-MRI and MIBI in MM. Design A prospective comparative study between WB-MRI and MIBI scans in assessing bone disease and outcome of MM. Participants and methods Sixty-two consecutive patients with confirmed MM underwent simultaneous WB-MRI (both axial T1 and turbo spin echo short tau inversion recovery (STIR)) and MIBI scans at a single institution from January 2010 to January 2011, and their survival status was determined in January 2012. The median age was 62?years (range 37–88) with a male-to-female ratio of 33?:?29. Results In vertebrae and long bones, MRI scan detected more disease compared with MIBI scan (p<0.001) but there was less difference in the skull (p=0.09). In the ribcage, the MIBI scan detected more lytic lesions of the ribs compared with MRI scan (p<0.001). Thirteen of the 62 patients died during the 24-month follow-up. Increased disease detected in all bones by both scans was associated with increased mortality risk (MIBI p=0.001; MRI-STIR p=0.044; but not MRI-T1 p=0.44). In all combined bone groups, the mean MIBI scan results provided a better prediction of mortality than MRI scan over the follow-up period (MRI-T1 vs MIBI p=0.019; MRI-STIR vs MIBI p=0.047). Conclusions Although WB-MRI detected more MM bone disease, MIBI scan predicted overall disease outcome and mortality better than MRI scan. Further studies to define optimum use of these imaging techniques are warranted. Trial registration number The study was registered prospectively in the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at under No: ACTRN12609000761268.

Khalafallah, Alhossain A; Snarski, Andrew; Heng, Robert; Hughes, Ryan; Renu, Shamsunnaher; Arm, Jameen; Dutchke, Richard; Robertson, Iain K; To, Luen B



Left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, and regional wall motion calculated with gated technetium-99m tetrofosmin SPECT in reperfused acute myocardial infarction at super-acute phase: Comparison with left ventriculography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Noninvasive assessment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) requires information about both myocardial perfusion and left\\u000a ventricular (LV) function. The automated quantification of electrocardiographic-gated myocardial scintigraphy with technetium-99m\\u000a tetrofosmin (QGS) can provide this information.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  Coronary arteriography, QGS, and left ventriculography (LVG) were performed in 229 patients with reperfused AMI within 2 days\\u000a after onset. All infarcted vascular territories (229

Mitsunori Abe; Yukio Kazatani; Hiroshi Fukuda; Hironari Tatsuno; Hirokazu Habara; Hiroyuki Shinbata



Effect of increased surface tension and assisted ventilation on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were performed to determine the effects of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and high-frequency oscillation (HFO) on the clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) from lungs with altered surface tension properties. A submicronic aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized, tracheotomized rabbits before and 1 h after the administration of the aerosolized detergent dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (OT). Rabbits were ventilated by one of four methods: 1) spontaneous breathing; 2) CMV at 12 cmH2O mean airway pressure (MAP); 3) HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP; 4) HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP. Administration of OT resulted in decreased arterial PO2 (PaO2), increased lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, and abnormal lung pressure-volume relationships, compatible with increased surface tension. /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance was accelerated after OT in all groups. The post-OT rate of clearance (k) was significantly faster (P less than 0.05) in the CMV at 12 cmH2O MAP (k = 7.57 +/- 0.71%/min (SE)) and HFO at 16 cmH2O MAP (k = 6.92 +/- 0.61%/min) groups than in the spontaneously breathing (k = 4.32 +/- 0.55%/min) and HFO at 12 cmH2O MAP (4.68 +/- 0.63%/min) groups. The clearance curves were biexponential in the former two groups. We conclude that pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA is accelerated in high surface tension pulmonary edema, and this effect is enhanced by both conventional ventilation and HFO at high mean airway pressure.

Jefferies, A.L.; Kawano, T.; Mori, S.; Burger, R.



Measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA aerosol  

SciTech Connect

The rate at which inhaled aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) leaves the lung by diffusion into the vascular space can be measured with a gamma camera or simple probe. In normal humans, /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clears from the lung with a half time of about 80 minutes. Many acute and chronic conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary epithelium cause an increased clearance rate. Thus cigarette smoking, alveolitis from a variety of causes, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) in the infant have all been shown to be associated with rapid pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. Rapid clearance is also promoted by increased lung volume and decreased surfactant activity. Although the mechanism of increased clearance in pathological states is not known, the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA lung-clearance technique has great potential clinically, particularly in patients at risk from ARDS and HMD and in the diagnosis and follow-up of alveolitis. 58 references.

Coates, G.; O'Brodovich, H.



Comparison of early myocardial technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake to early peaking of creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB as indicators of early reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

The value of technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scintigraphy as an indicator of reperfusion 2.8 to 8 hours after the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction was compared with the value of early peak creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB release within 16 hours after the onset of symptoms. In 29 patients who received thrombolytic therapy, recanalization was seen (group 1) and in 7 it was not (group 2). In 23 patients (79%) in group 1 scintigraphic findings were positive and in all 7 in group 2 they were negative. In 15 patients (52%) in group 1 and 1 patient (14%) in group 2, CK reached its peak level within 16 hours. In 20 patients (69%) in group 1 and 3 (43%) in group 2 the CK-MB level reached a peak within 16 hours. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy of positive results of early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy in predicting the reperfusion were 79%, 100% and 83%. These values are significantly higher than or similar to those of early peaking of CK and CK-MB release. In contrast to measurements of enzyme release, reperfusion data for Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy are available immediately after thrombolytic therapy. Therefore, early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy (3 to 8 hours after onset of symptoms) is valuable as a noninvasive technique for early diagnosis of reperfusion.

Kondo, M.; Yuzuki, Y.; Arai, H.; Shimizu, K.; Morikawa, M.; Shimono, Y.



Comparison of Technetium99m-MDP, Technetium 99m-WBC and Technetium99m-HIG in  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared three radionuclide techniques in distinguishing musculoskeletal infection from noninfectious inflammation. Methods: Thirty-fiveorthopedicpatientswith suspectedmusculo skeletal infection were examined using three radionuclide tech niques in sequence: triphasic bone scintigraphy, \\

Franco Palermo; Franco Boccaletto; Adolfo Paolin; Antonio Carniato; Paolo Zoli; Fernando Giusto; Sisto Turra


Information for Healthcare Professionals - [Technetium (99m ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... events, including cardiac arrest, hypoxia, dyspnea and hypotension, and required resuscitation with fluids, vasopressors, and oxygen. ... More results from


Validation of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction more than 48 hours old when serum creatine kinase-MB has returned to normal  

SciTech Connect

Determination of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes is the current method of choice for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) greater than 48 hours old. However, other causes of enzyme elevation make the availability of an alternate method of diagnosis worthwhile. Accordingly, serial technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigrams were obtained in 61 patients with transmural AMI and in 46 patients with subendocardial AMI. Imaging was performed in all 107 patients at the time creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) was present 37 +/- 18 hours (range 12 to 72) after the onset of AMI, and at the time CK-MB was absent 106 +/- 34 hours (range 48 to 168) after the onset of AMI. At the time CK-MB was absent, the sensitivity using either a regional or a diffuse positive scintigram was 95% (58 of 61 patients) for transmural AMI and 65% (30 of 46 patients) for subendocardial AMI. The sensitivity using a regional positive scintigram was 82% (50 of 61 patients) for transmural AMI and 37% (17 of 46 patients) for subendocardial AMI. The sensitivity using a high-grade regional positive scintigram was 36% (22 of 61 patients) for transmural AMI and 11% (5 of 46 patients) for subendocardial AMI. The specificity was 70% (143 of 204 patients) for either a regional or a diffuse abnormality, 92% (187 of 204 patients) for a regional abnormality, and 100% (204 of 204 patients) for a high-grade regional abnormality. Thus, pyrophosphate scintigraphy is useful in confirming the diagnosis of AMI, particularly transmural, greater than 48 hours old and when CK-MB has returned to normal. A positive scintigram with a high-grade regional abnormality is specific for a recent AMI and may be contributory in establishing the diagnoses when LDH isoenzymes are inconclusive.

Olson, H.G.; Lyons, K.P.; Butman, S.; Piters, K.M.



Presurgical identification of hibernating myocardium by combined use of technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile single photon emission tomography and fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in patients with coronary artery disease.  


We tested the possibility of identifying areas of hibernating myocardium by the combined assessment of perfusion and metabolism using single photon emission tomography (SPET) with technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) and positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG). Segmental wall motion, perfusion and 18F-FDG uptake were scored in 5 segments in 14 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), for a total number of 70 segments. Each subject underwent the following studies prior to and following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): first-pass radionuclide angiography, electrocardiography gated planar perfusion scintigraphy and SPET perfusion scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI and, after 16 h fasting, 18F-FDG/PET metabolic scintigraphy. Wall motion impairment was either decreased or completely reversed by CABG in 95% of the asynergic segments which exhibited 18F-FDG uptake, whereas it was unmodified in 80% of the asynergic segments with no 18F-FDG uptake. A stepwise multiple logistic analysis was carried out on the asynergic segments to estimate the postoperative probability of wall motion improvement on the basis of the preoperative regional perfusion and metabolic scores. The segments with the highest probability (96%) of functional recovery from preoperative asynergy after revascularization were those with a marked 18F-FDG uptake prior to CABG. High probabilities of functional recovery were also estimated for the segments presenting with moderate and low 18F-FDG uptake (92% and 79%, respectively). A low probability of functional recovery (13%) was estimated in the segments with no 18F-FDG uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1451704

Lucignani, G; Paolini, G; Landoni, C; Zuccari, M; Paganelli, G; Galli, L; Di Credico, G; Vanoli, G; Rossetti, C; Mariani, M A



The preparation of 99mTc-DTPA-LSA and its instant lyophilized kit for hepatic receptor imaging.  


Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid neolactosyl human serum albumin (DTPA-LSA) was prepared and labeled with technetium-99m. The labeling conditions of (99m)Tc-DTPA-LSA were optimized, and lyophilized kit was developed for instant preparing of (99m)Tc-DTPA-LSA. (99m)Tc-DTPA-LSA showed high liver uptake in normal mice (>96% ID/g at 5min after injection), and it could be blocked significantly by pre-injecting free neogalactosylalbumin (NGA). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) study was performed in normal Japanese White rabbits and SPECT images with high quality were obtained at 15, 30, 60, and 120min after injection of the radiotracer. The promising biological properties of (99m)Tc-DTPA-LSA combined with the development of reliable and instant lyophilized DTPA-LSA kit afford the opportunity of hepatic receptor imaging for routine clinical assessment of hepatic function. PMID:23314059

Yang, Wenjiang; Zhao, Zuoquan; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Xianzhong



Application of SPET using technetium-99m sestamibi in brain tumours and comparison with expression of the MDR1 gene: is it possible to predict the response to chemotherapy in patients with gliomas by means of 99m Tc-sestamibi SPET?  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Technetium-99m sestamibi (MIBI) is thought to be passively taken up by metabolically active tumour cells and effluxed from\\u000a them by P-glycoprotein (Pgp). This 170-kDa membrane-bound protein, encoded by the MDR-1 gene, acts as an energy-dependent\\u000a efflux pump for several antineoplastic agents, resulting in multidrug resistance. For this reason, it is of interest whether\\u000a the tumour’s response to chemotherapy can

Kiyotaka Yokogami; Hirokazu Kawano; Takuzou Moriyama; Hisao Uehara; Tetsurou Sameshima; Takamitsu Oku; Tomokazu Goya; Shinichiro Wakisaka; Shigeki Nagamachi; Seishi Jinnouchi; Shouzou Tamura



{sup 99m}Tc DTPA aerosol clearances in the assessment of radiation injury top the lung  

SciTech Connect

In a prospective study, 36 patients with inoperable lung Ca. (sq. cells-24, adeno-5, largecell-2, unknown-5) underwent pre and post radiation {sup 99m}Tc DTPA aerosol clearance studies. The aim was to evaluate the value of aerosol clearance in the prediction of radiation injury to the regions other than the radiation field. Aerosol study was done using a commercially available nebulizer, dynamic images were obtained (30 sec/frame) in the posterior projection for a duration of 45 min. ROIs were drawn on upper, mid and lower zones on either lung, and time activity curves were generated. Using a linear fit, clearance half time (t{sub 1/2}) was calculated, for all six curves. The difference between pre and post radiation (t{sub 1/2}) was compared to the clinical follow up of each patient and a difference of more than 15 minutes was considered positive. Of the 36 patients 12 had a t{sub 1/2} difference of more than 15 minutes. Of these 5 patients had radiation pulmonlitis and the remaining 7 had respiratory failure due to infection and uremia. 24 patients had a t{sub 1/2} difference of less than 15 minutes and their clinical follow-up did not reveal any evidence of pulmonary radiation injury during this period. The results indicate that the clearance of Tc-99m DTPA aerosols is effective for excluding radiation pulmonlitis.

Halkar, R.K.; Raghab, A.; Higazi, E. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait)] [and others



Predictive performance of eGFR equations in South Africans of African and Indian ancestry compared with 99m Tc-DTPA imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  South African guidelines for early detection and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) recommend using the Cockcroft–Gault\\u000a (CG) or Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations for calculating estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)\\u000a with the correction factor, 1.212, included for MDRD-eGFR in black patients. We compared eGFR against technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic\\u000a acid (99mTc-DTPA) imaging.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using clinical records, we retrospectively recorded demographic,

Nomandla D. Madala; Ntombifikile Nkwanyana; Thozama Dubula; Indiran P. Naiker


Comparison of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol with radioactive gas ventilation imaging in patients (pts) with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE)  

SciTech Connect

The utility of Tc-99m labeled DTPA aerosol (A) as a ventilation agent was compared to that of Xe-133 (Xe) or Kr-81m (Kr) gases in a series of 100 pts (age range 20-83, 53% women) undergoing ventilation-perfusion (V-P) imaging for suspected PE. The majority of pts had A and Xe studies in conjunction with P scans; 26 had A and Kr studies. All A studies were comprised of multiple 100K ct views performed prior to P scanning. Conventional Xe or Kr studies were then performed in conjunction with a multiview P scan. The studies were later reviewed by four independent readers who evaluated 100 V-P studies (100 A-P pairs, 100 gas-P pairs) and the accompanying chest radiographs and determined the probability of PE as none, low, high, or nondiagnostic (NDX). The A scans showed central hot spots in 27% of pts, but poor peripheral penetration in only 5%. Prominent lower lobe deposition was seen in 19 of the 66 pts who inhaled A upright, but in none who inhaled in the supine position. The A-P and gas-P scans were either both diagnostic or both NDX 82% of the time. There were 77% agreement between probability categories for A-P and Kr-P studies, and 74% agreement with Xe-P. These results were better than the inter-observer agreement for gas-P studies alone. Angiography revealed that 3 A-P studies were true negatives, 3 were true positives (pos), and one was a false pos (also pos by gas-P). The results suggest that commercially available DTPA aerosols provide comparable results to gas-P studies in pts with suspected PE.

Alderson, P.O.; Kroop, S.A.; Biello, D.R.; Siegel, B.A.; Gottschalk, A.; Hoffer, P.B.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.



Deposition and expression of aerosolized rAAV vectors in the lungs of Rhesus macaques.  


The goals of these experiments were to efficiently deliver aerosolized adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to the lungs of Rhesus macaques and to measure gene transfer and expression. To determine optimal lung deposition, we compared four techniques of delivering aerosolized saline admixed with the radioisotope (99m)technetium ((99m)Tc) nebulized through a mouthpiece (Neb Oral), a laryngeal airway mask (Neb LMA), or an endotracheal tube (Neb ETT), or bronchoscopically delivered by Microsprayer (PennCentury). Total lung deposition fraction, as indicated by gamma scintigraphy, averaged 0.5% (Neb Oral), 1.2% (Neb LMA), 1.8+/-0.4% (Neb ETT), and 62.3+/-11.3% (Microsprayer). Because microspraying was the most efficient method of delivery, we used it to administer saline with (99m)Tc-labeled diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) admixed with 9 x 10(11) infectious units (i.u.) of AAV serotype 2 (rAAV2) vector encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP; rAAV2-GFP). Initial total and regional lung depositions were quantified by scintigraphy. We analyzed the tissue three weeks later for vector-specific DNA transduction and RNA expression. Radioisotope was detected in all lung regions, reflecting an average dose of 1.33 x 10(10)+/-9.5 x 10(9) i.u. per region. Regional data indicated an increase in expression when the dose exceeded 3 x 10(9) i.u. (P=0.030). We conclude that expression of rAAV2-GFP in lungs appears to be related to depositing a regional threshold dose greater than 3 x 10(9) i.u., easily achieved by bronchoscopic microspraying. PMID:12387250

Beck, Suzanne E; Laube, Beth L; Barberena, Carolina I; Fischer, Anne C; Adams, Robert J; Chesnut, Kye; Flotte, Terence R; Guggino, William B



Evaluation of residual functional lung volume on Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scintigraphy in primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome).  


Kartagener syndrome is diagnosed as sinusitis, bronchitis (bronchiectasis), and situs inversus by the clinical features. It is a subclass of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) disease. A 12-year-old girl who had frequent upper and lower airway infections since birth, which was confirmed as Kartagener syndrome by HRCT imaging. We present the residual functional lung volume and mucociliary clearance findings seen on Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scintigraphy. PMID:19033804

Chen, Yu-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chuan; Lai, Yung-Chuang; Lu, Chia-Ying; Dai, Zen-Kong



Suprarenal abscess in the neonate. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging  

SciTech Connect

Although suprarenal abscess in a newborn is rare, a prompt diagnosis is essential for proper patient management. The findings obtained with Tc-99m glucoheptonate renal imaging in a newborn with a right adrenal abscess are reported. A radionuclide renal imaging sequence over a 15-hour period demonstrated a rim sign which can be used to suggest the diagnosis. Radionuclide and ultrasound imaging of neonatal adrenal masses is discussed.

Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.; Hodgson, N.B.



Technetium-99m DMSA imaging and the obstructed kidney.  


Although several authors have claimed that the function of an obstructed kidney could be overestimated on Tc-99m DMSA imaging, the clinical importance of such an overestimation has not been well documented. Partial obstruction of one ureter was created in a rat, and a relative Tc-99m DMSA uptake was obtained 4 hours after intravenous injection. By puncture of the isolated obstructed kidney, it was shown that the function of that kidney was overestimated by at least 17%. PMID:3013481

Piepsz, A; Ham, H R; Roland, J H; Froideville, J L; Kinthaert, J; Hall, M; Verboven, M; Collier, F



Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

Dewanjee, M.K.



Technetium-99m haemaccel: A new lymphoscintigraphic agent  

SciTech Connect

Haemaccel, a denatured gelatin polymer with average molecular weight of 35,000, was labeled with Tc-99m and evaluated in rats and rabbits. The labeling efficiency was consistently higher than 85%. Tc-99m haemaccel (200 microCi in 0.05 ml) was injected intradermally into the hind footpads of rats lightly anaesthetized with diethyl ether vapour. Using a gamma camera, static images of the anterior view were obtained at various time intervals after injection. The images obtained demonstrated good localization of Tc-99m haemaccel in regional lymph nodes. In rats, about 3% of the injected dose was trapped in the node, and 48% remained at the injection site at 4 h after injection. In rabbits, good-quality images of lymph nodes and lymphatic channels of the hind legs were obtained within 15 min after intradermal injection of Tc-99m haemaccel. Tc-99m haemaccel showed fast migration from the injection site, good accumulation in the lymph nodes, and good visualization of lymphatic channels. Hence, it has a potential application in lymphoscintigraphy.

Sadek, S.; Owunwanne, A.; Yacoub, T.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M. (Kuwait Univ., Safat)



Hepatic uptake of technetium-99m diphosphonate in thalassemia major  

SciTech Connect

Two cases of thalassemia major are presented in which bone scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse hepatic uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate. Although abnormal splenic and renal uptake of Tc-99m phosphates has been reported in patients with thalassemia major, hepatic uptake has not been reported previously. This scintigraphic finding is presumably due to increased iron deposition in the liver, resulting from increased iron turnover and retention in these patients and from multiple previous blood transfusions.

Levy, H.M.; Smith, R.



Septal infarction demonstrated on technetium-99m PYP SPECT  

SciTech Connect

The case of a 62-year-old man with an acute myocardial infarction detected by planar Tc-99m PYP imaging is presented. The use of SPECT imaging provided more information with regard to infarct localization by demonstrating uptake by the septum, a finding not apparent on the conventional planar images.

Intenzo, C.M.; Koh, Y.B.; Madsen, M.T.; Park, C.H.



Leukocyte labeling with technetium-99m tin colloids  

SciTech Connect

Triple density gradients of metrizamide in plasma (MP) were used to characterize label distribution in human leukocyte preparations incubated with /sup 99m/Tc tin colloids. Less than 50% of the cell-associated radioactivity was specifically bound to leukocytes when heparinized blood was rotated with stannous fluoride colloid ((Tc)SFC). Labeling efficiency in leukocyte rich plasma (LRP) averaged 44%, of which greater than 90% was specifically bound to leukocytes. MP-gradient analysis also revealed that leukocyte labeling did not occur with stannous chloride colloid, nor when citrate was present during rotation with (Tc)SFC. When citrate was added after labeling to solubilize unbound (Tc)SFC, radiocolloid was removed from the leukocytes, indicating that the mechanism of (Tc)SFC labeling is adherence rather than phagocytosis. Technetium-labeled neutrophils exhibited normal in vitro chemotaxis and no lung uptake in vivo. Technetium-labeled mononuclear leukocytes, on the other hand, exhibited prolonged lung transit in vivo. Neither (Tc)SFC cell preparation showed signs of in vivo reoxidation to pertechnetate.

Mock, B.H.; English, D.



Preparation of L-asparagine complex of technetium-99m  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods were experimented to obtain complex of L-asparagine with99mTc. The VII state of Tc was reduced with direct reduction by SnCl2 and complex compound could not be obtained. For this reason, ligand exchange with99mTc-gluconate complex was tried and 20% yield was obtained.99mTc-pyrophosphate complex was carred out as second ligand exchanger and 50% yield was obtained in this experiment. Optimum

F. Yurt; P. Ünak



Labeling of Penicillamine di sulfide with technetium-99m  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex forming conditions of Penicillamine di sulfide with 99mTc have been specified. Labeling of penicillamine di sulfide with 99mTc by direct reduction with SnCl2 did not give favorable good results while the 99mTc complex of penicillamine can be easily obtained. Ligand exchange reaction with 99mTc-gluconate was attempted and a 95% labeling efficiency was obtained. Radiopharmaceutical potential of 99mTc-PADS (99mTc-Penicillamine di

Perihan Ünak; Mehtap Tunç; Yusuf Duman



Technetium 99m scan in acute scrotal lesions  

SciTech Connect

Scrotal scintigraphy is nearly 100 per cent accurate in identifying testicular torsion and can distinguish that condition, which requires an operation, from torsion of testicular appendages, which often can be treated nonoperatively. The technique is 90 per cent accurate in distinguishing epididymo-orchitis, epididymitis, and testicular abscess and is valuable in the follow-up of testicular torsion or inflammation. It can screen patients for varicocele, identifying possible candidates for spermatic venography and embolization. However, it has nothing to offer in the differential diagnosis of painless testicular masses.

Eshghi, M.; Silver, L.; Smith, A.D.



Technetium99m MDP vs technetium-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate. A clinical comparison in various pathologic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of Tc-99m MDP vs Tc-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) was evaluated in 20 patients with various skeletal bone diseases. Each patient was investigated twice, with an interval of three days between studies and using the same protocol, hence each case served as its own control. The results were: In a subjective interpretation by five independent and experienced investigators, the




Comparison of technetium 99m-phytate and technetium 99m-sulphur colloid in primary bone tumours.  


Eleven patients with proven primary bone tumour (five Ewing sarcomas, six osteosarcomas) and two cases of metastatic bone involvement (primary other than bone) were investigated with 99mTc-phytate and 99mTc-sulphur colloid to compare the behaviour of the two radiopharmaceuticals at the tumour site. After intravenous administration of the respective radiopharmaceutical, imaging of the tumour site and its contralateral part was carried out at 15 min and 1 h intervals. The data were stored in our computer. Bone scanning was also carried out in all patients. 99mTc-phytate uptake was observed at the tumour site in ten cases. The 99mTc-sulphur colloid study revealed sparse or no significant uptake in eight cases. In two patients, with osteosarcoma 99mTc-sulphur colloid investigation showed uptake at the primary tumour site. However, the distribution pattern is different from that of 99mTc-phytate. No significant uptake of either 99mTc-phytate or 99mTc-sulphur colloid was observed in the two patients with metastatic skeletal disease. It may be concluded that the unusual accumulation of 99mTc-phytate at the tumour site is not due to any generalized reticuloendothelial phenomenon and that the radiopharmaceutical itself is responsible for this. PMID:2209654

Rao, P N; Murthy, S N; Muddukrishna, S N; Devaru, S; Radhakrishnan, E R; Bhargava, M K



Technetium99m-Tetrofosmin in Dipyridamole Stress Myocardial SPECT Imaging: Intraindividual Comparison with Technetium99m-Sestamibi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrofosminis a new @“Tc-labeIed myocardialperfusionimag ingagent.Biodistnbutionstudiessuggestmorefavorableheart to-adjacentorganbiokineticsthan for @Tc-sestamibi after in jection duringexercise.The aim of this work was to determine intraindividually whethertetrofosminis moresuitablethan sea tamibi for pharmacologicalstress testing in a 1-day protocol. Methods:Thirtysubjects underwent twosimilar1-day,restand dipyndamolestress imagingprotocols:one usingtetrofosmin, the other usingsestamibi.SPECTwas performed60 mmafter tracer administration.Myocardialimageswere analyzedboth visuallyand quantitatively.Results: Heart-to-liveractivityratios measuredon the anteriorSPECTprojectionsweresignificantly higherfor tetrofosminthan for sestamibiin the rest and stress

Patrick Flamen; Mel Bossuyt; Philippe R. Franken


Splenic uptake of both technetium-99m diphosphonate and technetium-99m sulfur colloid in sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia  

SciTech Connect

A 19-year-old black woman with sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia had experienced more than 100 hospital admissions for sickle cell crisis and aseptic necrosis of both femoral heads. Her spleen was enlarged threefold and accumulated both radiocolloid and bone-seeking agent on two occasions, demonstrating an exception to the rule in sickle cell anemia that spleens that take up bone-seeking agents demonstrate functional asplenia. In the context of fever, left upper quadrant pain, and splenomegaly, the pattern of calcification in the patient's spleen as revealed in ultrasound and CT studies suggested possible abscess and led to unnecessary splenectomy. The nuclear medicine studies did not support this diagnosis. Nuclear medicine physicians should not be misled by splenic findings of sickle cell thalassemia (and possibly of other heterozygous sickle cell disorders) that differ from those of the more familiar homozygous sickle cell anemia.

Heck, L.L.; Brittin, G.M. (Methodist Hospital of Indiana, IN (USA))



Technetium-99m MDP vs technetium-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate. A clinical comparison in various pathologic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The performance of Tc-99m MDP vs Tc-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) was evaluated in 20 patients with various skeletal bone diseases. Each patient was investigated twice, with an interval of three days between studies and using the same protocol, hence each case served as its own control. The results were: In a subjective interpretation by five independent and experienced investigators, the difference between agents was small, yet in favor of MDP. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the pooled results in 74.4% of all cases shows a higher bone lesion to normal bone ratio (BL/NB), and in 79.3% of all cases, a better bone lesion to soft tissue ratio (BL/ST) with Tc-99m MDP. When considering pathology types separately, the BL/NB ratio of Tc-99m MDP was 17.7% higher than the one of Tc-99m DPD in metastases, 9.5% higher in rheumatoid arthritis, 2.8% higher in metabolic diseases, and 24% higher in bone fractures. Student's paired t test on the pooled BL/NB ratios shows a difference of 15.5% for Tc-99m MDP, significant at P = 0.00155. The overall results of our study favor Tc-99m MDP.

Godart, G.; Durez, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Abramovici, J.; Robience, Y.



Effect of raised thoracic pressure and volume on 99mTc-DTPA clearance in humans  

SciTech Connect

Although positive airway pressure is often used to treat acute pulmonary edema, the effects on epithelial solute flux are not well known. We measured independently the effect of 1) positive pressure and 2) voluntary hyperinflation on the clearance of inhaled technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in six nonsmokers and six smokers. Lung volumes were monitored by inductance plethysmography. Each subject was studied in four situations: 1) low end-expiratory volume (LO-), 2) low volume plus 9 cmH2O continuous positive airway pressure (LO+), 3) high end-expiratory volume (HI-), and 4) high volume plus continuous positive airway pressure (HI+). The clearance half time of 99mTc-DTPA for the nonsmokers decreased from 64.8 +/- 7.0 min (mean +/- SE) at LO- to 23.2 +/- 5.3 min at HI- (P less than 0.05). Positive pressure had no synergistic effect. The mean clearance half time for the smokers was faster than nonsmokers at base line but unaffected by similar changes in thoracic volume and pressure. We conclude that, in nonsmokers, positive airway pressure increases /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance primarily through an increase in lung volume and that smokers are immune to these effects.

Nolop, K.B.; Maxwell, D.L.; Royston, D.; Hughes, J.M.



Failure of aerosolised 99mTc DTPA clearance to predict outcome in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The rate of clearance of technetium-99m labelled diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (99mTc DTPA) was measured in 32 patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome to determine if a more rapid clearance rate, possibly reflecting a more severe abnormality of pulmonary function, was associated with a reduced likelihood of recovery from pulmonary failure. Although the mean rate of clearance from lung to blood (T1/2LB) of 99mTc DTPA was more rapid in the patients (T1/2LB = 29 (SEM 3.2) min than in 42 normal subjects (T1/2LB = 59 (1.8)min), there was no difference between the clearance rate in the 18 patients who recovered from respiratory failure (T1/2LB = 31 (5) min) and the 14 who died (T1/2LB = 27 (4) min). Additionally, not all patients studied had abnormally rapid clearance rates. In 12 of the 32 patients the T1/2 fell within the range for normal individuals; this was found more commonly in patients who were predisposed to develop adult respiratory distress syndrome by pancreatitis or massive blood transfusion. These data suggest that a single measurement of 99mTc DTPA clearance in patients with established respiratory failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome is of no value in assessing the likelihood of recovery from this condition.

Royston, D; Braude, S; Nolop, K B



Assessment of Left Ventricular Volume Using ECG-Gated SPECT with Technetium99m-MIBI and Technetium99m-Tetrofosmin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated ECG-gated SPECT (g-SPECT)in the measurement of absolute left ventricular (LV) volume by comparing it with left ventriculography (LVG) and with cine-MRI. Methods: Projection data from 31 patients were acquired with a three-headed SPECT system in 12 min using a 64 x 64 matrix with 1.5 zoom (1 pixel = 4.27 mm). The R-R interval from simultaneously acquired EGGwas

Teruhito Mochizuki; Hiroaki Tanaka; Ken Hamamoto; W. Newlon Tauxe


Reduced variability of interpretation and improved image quality with a technetium 99m myocardial perfusion agent: Comparison of thallium 201 and technetium 99m-labeled tetrofosmin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The purpose of this study was to determine the relative image quality and interobserver variability among four readers for201Tl and99mTc-labeled tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion images.99mTc-labeled perfusion agents, with near-optimal physical characteristics for gamma camera imaging, may allow for superior image\\u000a quality and improved consistency of interpretation. However, most studies to date have demonstrated only similarity in the\\u000a diagnostic accuracy between technetium

Robert C. Hendel; Michele A. Parker; Frans J. Th. Wackers; Pierre Rigo; Avijit Lahiri; Barry L. Zaret



Comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO and technetium-99m-ECD cerebral SPECT images in Alzheimer`s disease  

SciTech Connect

SPECT has shown increasing promise as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer`s disease (AD). Recently, a new SPECT brain perfusion agent, {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) has emerged with purported advantages in image quality over the established tracer, {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in discriminating patients with AD form control subjects. 51 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Dyck, C.H. van; Lin, C.H.; Smith, E.O. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others



Technetium 99m diphosphonate uptake and intraosseous hemodynamics during venous congestion in bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous congestion in bone is a common early feature of inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases. An experimental study was performed of the relationship between the scintigraphic appearance of joints and the intraosseous hemodynamics during venous congestion caused by obstruction of the osseous venous drainage by increased intra-articular pressure. Intra-articular pressure was raised to 75% of mean arterial pressure in one

Ebbe Stender Hansen; Vibeke E. Hjortdal; Dorthe Kjølseth; Shu-Zeng He; Kristian Høy; Kjeld Søballe; Cody Bringer



Calf muscle arteriovenous malformations detected by technetium-99m erythrocyte venography  

SciTech Connect

Two cases of calf muscle arteriovenous malformation in young women, presenting clinically as deep venous thrombosis, were initially detected by Tc-99m erythrocyte venography and later confirmed by arteriography. The role of this technique in the investigation of venous thrombosis is discussed, emphasizing the importance of the lateral calf view.

O'Donnell, C.; Andrews, J.



Technetium-99m RBC bleeding images in normal subjects: Confusion with gastrointestinal bleeding sites  

SciTech Connect

The normal appearance of a gastrointestinal bleeding study using labeled red blood cells has been discussed frequently, but the actual appearance is not well known. In this atlas article, the authors report on unusual findings in non-bleeding subjects and have tabulated the visualization of various structures. Vascular structures other than the aorta and inferior vena cava were seen in 42 of 48 patients. One or both kidneys were seen in 10 (21%) of 48 patients. The urinary bladder was seen in 23 (48%) of 48 patients, although gastric activity caused by free pertechnetate was never observed.

Boyd, C.M.; Williamson, M.R.



Imaging of glutathione localization in brain with technetium-99M meso-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown decreasing [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake in accordance with glutathione (GSH) content in diethyl, maleate (DEM) treated mice brain. In order to elucidate the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO in brain and to visualize the regional localization of GSH in the brain with [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO, the relationship between the tissue GSH content and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO was studied in rats and rabbits. Increasing pre-load of DEM (550 mg/kg body weight), an agent to reduce GSH content by glutathione transferase, led to a decrease in GSH (control 1.972{plus_minus}0.017 vs DEM 1.138{plus_minus}0.106 mM) and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO to half of the control in the rat brain (control 0.281{plus_minus}0.024 vs DEM 0.153 {plus_minus} 0.009 % dose/g). On the other hand, the DEM did not decrease GSH or the uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO in the rabbit brain, in which glutathione transferase activity is very low. These results were also demonstrated by images with pin-hole collimated gamma camera. The uptake of [Tc-99m] meso showed variations in the regional distribution, but the d,l-isomer was uniform. [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake was well correlated with GSH content in mice brain regions (r=0.800, p<0.02), whereas [Tc-99m]d,l-HM-PAO was not (r=0.017, p>0.5). Both [Tc-99m] mesa HM-PAO uptake and GSH content were especially high at cerebellum (Uptake: 2.598{plus_minus}0.256 % dose/g. GSH: 2.372{plus_minus}0.107 mM) as compared to other areas (Uptake;cerebral cortex 1.797{plus_minus}0.100 brain stem 1.607 {plus_minus}0.112 % dose/g. GSH: cerebral cortex 1.635{plus_minus}0.142 brain stem 1.478{plus_minus}0.141 mM).

Sasaki, T.; Toyama, H.; Oda, K. [Tokyo Metrolpolitan Inst. of Gerontology (Japan)] [and others



Limitations of technetium 99m sestamibi scintigraphic localization for primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiglandular disease.  


Successful surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism requires the localization and excision of the parathyroid tissue responsible for excessive parathyroid hormone secretion while ensuring that the patient will have sufficient endogenous parathyroid hormone production to maintain eucalcemia. In selecting patients with primary hyperparathyroidism for unilateral parathyroidectomy the surgeon should be able to diagnose multiglandular disease either preoperatively or intraoperatively. We performed a retrospective review of 123 patients who underwent surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism to determine the potential feasibility of selecting patients for minimally invasive surgery based on preoperative imaging studies. All patients were studied preoperatively with 99m technetium-sestamibi scintigraphy. High-resolution ultrasonography was performed in 119 of these patients. All patients except one underwent bilateral cervical exploration. A patient with an intrathoracic adenoma was successfully diagnosed by scintigraphy thereby allowing treatment by a limited thoracotomy. One hundred eight patients had solitary adenomas and 15 had multiglandular disease. In none of the patients with bilateral multiglandular disease were all abnormal glands localized preoperatively. Patients in our study with primary hyperparathyroidism and multiglandular disease were underdiagnosed by preoperative imaging. A minimally invasive approach based solely on preoperative imaging studies may result in treatment failure in patients with multiglandular involvement. PMID:12641362

Katz, Steven C; Wang, Grace J; Kramer, Elissa L; Roses, Daniel F



Imaging of experimental myocardial infarction with technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the use of Tc-99m-labeled 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid(Tc-99m DMSA) to scintigraph acute myocardial infaction after coronary occlusion in dogs. Optimal images were obtained 5 hr after injection of radiotracer, with consistent delineation 48 hr after occlusion. Delivery of tracer was dependent on blood flow. Uptake of tracer correlated to extent of infarction as determined by the myocardial depletion of creatine kinase. Myocardial Tc-99m DMSA was protein-bound.

Karlsberg, R.P.; Milne, N.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.



Extensive gastric varices demonstrated by technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

An alcohol abuse patient complicated by chronic pancreatitis had splenic vein thrombosis leading to gastric varices and underwent abdominal Tc-99m red blood cell scintigraphy. First pass study, sequential images up to 1 hour, and a 2.5 hour image showed abnormal radioactivity in the left side of the abdomen and midabdomen. In 24 hour images, the high level of activity in the left side persisted; in addition, there was accumulation of radioactivity in the cecum, ascending, transverse colon, the splenic flexure, and descending colon. A splenectomy was performed and during the surgical procedure, a large dilated vein in the greater omentum was noted. It is reemphasized that delayed imaging up to 24 hours is important when the results of earlier images are equivocal or negative.

Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; Loh, F.G.; Pulmano, C.



The uterine doughnut: Potential pitfall for technetium-99m gastrointestinal bleeding study  

SciTech Connect

A case of intense uterine hyperemia secondary to recent pregnancy, the so-called uterine doughnut sign, is presented as a potential pitfall in the evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding. Delayed imaging helped in evaluating the lack of serial change in appearance and the failure of progression of the scintigraphic abnormality.

Swayne, L.C. (Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (USA))



Technetium-99m colloidal bismuth subcitrate: A novel method for the evaluation of peptic ulcer disease  

SciTech Connect

The therapeutic agent colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) selectively binds to peptic ulcers. The authors have developed a method for labeling this agent with Tc-99m. Chromatographic quality control studies of the agent on silica gel coated strips (ITLC-SG) showed that more than 97% of Tc-99m was bound to CBS. During in-vitro stability testing, the radio-label was stable for a minimum of 6 hours. The chromatographic findings are in agreement with the in-vivo distribution of the agent which showed no significant radioactivity in thyroid, kidneys, liver, or bladder. The resulting Tc-99m-CBS solution is administered orally in drinking water. Preliminary animal studies have been conducted on 5 adult 3 kg New Zealand rabbits sedated with 50 mg Ketamine I.M. The rabbits were intubated with I.V. tubing advanced to the stomach. They were given a gastric erosive suspension of 600-1000 mg/kg of pulverized ASA in 10 cc tap water. Four hours later they were given 3-4 mCi of the radiotracer in a 5 cc volume of water. Serial in-vivo images were obtained for 2 hours which included thyroid, abdomen, and urinary bladder. Next the stomachs were excised, opened along the greater curvature, imaged, vigorously washed and reimaged. All 5 rabbits showed avid localized binding of radiotracer which remained fixed even with vigorous washing. Areas of normal appearing mucosa were relatively devoid of radiotracer. This new compound may have significant clinical usefulness in the detection of peptic ulcer disease. In addition, such a non-invasive technique, carrying none of the risks or discomfort of endoscopy could also find application in the evaluation of the response to therapy.

Vasquez, T.E.; Lyons, K.P.; Raiszadeh, M.; Fardi, M.; Snider, P.



Quantitative planar imaging with technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile: Comparison of uptake patterns with thallium-201  

SciTech Connect

To compare the myocardial uptake pattern of 99mTc-labeled methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (( 99mTc) MIBI) and 201TI, planar scintigraphy were performed in both patients with documented coronary artery disease and subjects with a low likelihood of disease. Quantitative analysis was employed using a standard interpolative background subtraction algorithm and a new algorithm modified to better accommodate for the differences in extracardiac activity seen with (99mTc)MIBI rest images. Among patients with coronary artery disease, the standard algorithm yielded no significant difference in relative defect magnitude between (99mTc)MIBI and 201TI on stress scintigrams (p = 0.48), although the magnitude of (99mTc)MIBI defects was greater on resting images (p = 0.02). When the modified algorithm was employed, defect magnitude was similar for both stress (p = 0.91) and rest (p = 0.20) images. Normal segmental uptake ratios derived from a comparison of contralateral segments (e.g., septal:posterolateral) in the low likelihood patients were similar for both (99mTc)MIBI and 201TI. Thus, modification of the standard interpolative background subtraction algorithm is necessary for quantitative planar (99mTc)MIBI perfusion imaging. When appropriate background subtraction is employed, myocardial uptake and quantitative defect magnitude of (99mTc)MIBI and 201TI planar images are similar.

Sinusas, A.J.; Beller, G.A.; Smith, W.H.; Vinson, E.L.; Brookeman, V.; Watson, D.D. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))



Myocardial uptake and kinetic properties of technetium-99m-Q3 in dogs  

SciTech Connect

We postulated that {sup 99m}Tc-Q3, a cationic imaging agent, produces myocardial activity related to myocardial blood flow during myocardial ischemia and pharmacologic coronary artery vasodilation, and shows little or no myocardial redistribution over 4 hr after intravenous injection. In six Group 1 dogs, the chest was opened, the left circumflex coronary artery was acutely ligated, and dipyridamole (0.32, 0.56 or 0.84 mg/kg) was infused into the right atrium, followed by 10 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-Q3. Myocardial blood flow was measured by radiolabeled microspheres. The animals were euthanized and 357 myocardial samples were assayed in a well counter for {sup 99m}Tc activity. One week later, radiolabeled microsphere activity was counted and myocardial blood flow calculated. In nine Group 2 dogs, a variable occluder was placed around the left circumflex coronary artery and an ischemic level of circumflex blood flow was maintained constant over 4 hr as measured by an ultrasonic flow meter. Dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg) was then infused into the right atrium followed by 10mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-Q3. Gamma camera images were acquired at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min following k{sup 99m}Tc-Q3 injection. Microsphere blood flow and endocardial biopsies (n - 6 dogs) were performed at 30, 60, 120 and 240 min following {sup 99m}TcQ3 injection. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Gerson, M.C.; Millard, R.W.; McGoron, A.J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others



In vitro properties and in vivo behavior of technetium-99m labeled fibrinogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibrinogen was labeled with Tc-99m by two methods and thein vitro stability andin vivo behavior in mice were studied. The Tc-99m labeling was performed by mixing an unreduced fibrinogen (UnFib) or a reduced fibrinogen\\u000a (ReFib) with Tc-99m pertechnetate in the presence of stannous chloride. In both of them, chelation with Tc-99m resulted in\\u000a a single radiochemical product. For thein vitro

Yoshiharu Karube; Sanae Ito; Kentaro Katsuno; Jiro Takata



Early and Delayed Technetium99m-Tetrofosmin Myocardial SPECT Compared in Normal Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

mean anterior-to-inferior ratio in the anterior planar projection im ages over time, suggesting that the reduced activity in the early SPECT images reflected an artifactual effect. Conclusion: Our data indicate that it would be best to perform late imaging in patients with suspected coronary artery disease using 99mTc-tetrofosmin.

Ichiro Matsunari; Yoshinobu Tanishima; Junichi Taki; Kouichi Ono; Hiroko Nishide; Susumu Fujino; Munetaka Matoba; Kcnji Ichiyanagi; Norihisa Tonami


Technetium99m-Tetrofosmin for Parathyroid Scintigraphy: Comparison to Thallium Technetium Scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of 99rnTc-tetrofosminfor the detection of parathyroid lesions was investigated prospectively in patients with hyperpara- thyroidism referred for surgical treatment. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with primary and 18 with tertiary hyperparathyroidism were studied. Twelve patients had undergone one or more previous neck explorations. Static imaging with 201TIwas performed first, imme diately followed by a 30-min \\

Dimitris J. Apostolopoulos; Evangelia Houstoulaki; Costas Giannakenas; Theodore Alexandrides; John Spiliotis


Technetium-99m-tetrofosmin as a new radiopharmaceutical for myocardial perfusion imaging.  


A new cationic complex, [99mTc(tetrofosmin)2O2]+, where tetrofosmin is the ether functionalized diphosphine ligand 1,2-bis[bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino]ethane, has been synthesized and evaluated for potential use in myocardial perfusion imaging. The structure of the complex has been determined by x-ray crystallography of the 99Tc analog. In comparison with previously reported 99mTc complexes of alkyl-phosphines, the tetrofosmin species shows substantially increased clearance from nontarget tissue, especially blood and liver. A freeze-dried kit formulation has been developed. The kit provides a product of high radiochemical purity up to 8 hr after reconstitution at room temperature. PMID:8429340

Kelly, J D; Forster, A M; Higley, B; Archer, C M; Booker, F S; Canning, L R; Chiu, K W; Edwards, B; Gill, H K; McPartlin, M



Technetium99m HMPAO brain SPECT in autistic children and their families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to investigate perfusion patterns in autistic children (AC) and their families. Ten AC (9 boys, 1 girl; mean age: 6.9±1.7 years) with autistic disorder defined by DSM-III-R criteria, five age-matched children (3 boys, 2 girls) as a control group, and the immediate family members of eight AC (8 mothers, 8 fathers, 7 siblings; mean ages:

Berna Degirmenci; Süha Miral; Gamze Capa Kaya; Leyla ?yilikçi; Gulhan Arslan; Ay?en Baykara; ?smail Evren; Hatice Durak



Erythromycin hepatotoxicity. A rare cause of a false-positive technetium-99m DISIDA study  

SciTech Connect

An unusual cause of a cholescintigraphic, false-positive, erythromycin-induced hepatotoxicity is presented. This occurred in the presence of preservation of hepatic uptake and the normal appearance of gut activity. Serial scintigraphy and serum chemistries documented underlying gallbladder normalcy.

Swayne, L.C.; Kolc, J.



Decreased bone uptake of technetium-99m polyphosphate in thalassemia major  

SciTech Connect

Bone scans were performed with Tc-99m stannous polyphosphate on four patients with thalassemia major. Three of the scans show generalized decrease in skeletal uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, associated with renal enlargement and markedly increased renal radioactivity. The skeletal findings are consistent with the known bone abnormalities in thalassemia major, which are secondary to the extensive marrow hyperplasia and include loss of trabeculae and cortical thinning with consequent loss of bone mass. The increased renal uptake is probably due in part to the increased renal excretion (secondary to the poor bone uptake) and in part to the tubular dilatation and renal enlargement associated with thalassemia major. In addition, the presence of excessive amounts of iron in these patients may play a role in both the skeletal and renal findings.

Valdez, V.A.; Jacobstein, J.G.



Technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy for the detection of acute myocardial infarction. How useful is it  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the contribution of Tc-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy (TPS) on the overall management of patients suspected of having acute myocardial infarction (AMI), hospital records of 58 consecutive patients who underwent TPS, were evaluated in depth. The results indicate that TPS was essential for the diagnosis of AMI in 16% of the patients. TPS was most rewarding in perioperative patients and in patients with borderline or uninterpretable electrocardiographic and enzyme changes. Also, in some cases, TPS was able to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of AMI prior to the confirmation by serial electrocardiograms (ECG) and serial enzyme changes. TPS was less rewarding in patients with clinically low index of suspicion for AMI. It may also be confusing in patients with high clinical likelihood of AMI and a history of prior myocardial infarction because of the possibility of persistently positive TPS in some of these patients. Considering the limitations of ECGs, the cardiac enzymes, and atypical clinical presentations in the patient population we evaluated, TPS appears to be fairly accurate when the scintigraphic findings are compared with the final diagnosis at the time of discharge from the hospital.

Desai, A.G.; Berger, B.C.; Shin, Y.W.; Park, C.H.; Madsen, M.T.



Cationic technetium-99m complexes of N-substituted pyridoxal derivatives as renal function agents  

SciTech Connect

New cationic technetium-chelating agents containing a pyridinium group have been synthesized and evaluated as potential renal radiopharmaceuticals. The pyridinium compounds used in the study are N-methyl pyridoxal chloride, N-ethyl pyridoxal chloride, N-propyl pyridoxal chloride, 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-4-formylpyridinium chloride, 1-methyl-2-formyl-3-hydroxpyridinium chloride and the Schiff`s bases of N-methyl pyridoxal chloride with amino acid, amino acid ester and amino acid amide. Complexes of these chelating agents with {sup 22m}Tc were prepared using a Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} or a SnCl{sub 2} solution as a reducing agent. The purity of the {sup 99m}Tc complexes was determined by paper electrophoresis in 0.1 Mtris buffer. Electrophoresis indicates slightly positive-charged species. The log P values of these complexes showed a hydrophilic nature. Urinary excretion of the {sup 99m}Tc N-alkylated pyridoxal derivatives, {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG3) and {sup 131}I-o-iodohippurate were determined in mice and rats at different time intervals. In a rat model, the pyridoxal-derived {sup 99m}Tc complexes are rapidly excreted in urine and provide clear renal scintigrams. Hepatobiliary excretion was negligible, reducing scan interference from the intestines. Total clearances were lower than that of {sup 131}I-hippurate and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3. The rate of urinary clearance of the new tracers was not significantly faster than {sup 99m}Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the inhibitor N{sup 1}-methylnicotinamide had only a minimal effect on the renal behavior. Though the new tracers have cationic properties, the pyridinium group did not contribute largely to the excretion of active transport. 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Karube, Yoshiharu; Iwamoto, Koji; Takata, Jiro [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan)



Cyclic minigastrin analogues for gastrin receptor scintigraphy with technetium-99m: preclinical evaluation.  


Two cyclized minigastrin analogues for gastrin receptor scintigraphy were synthesized and derivatized with HYNIC at the N-terminus for labeling with 99mTc. Radiolabeling efficiency, stability, cell internalization, and receptor binding on CCK-2 receptor expressing AR42J cells were studied and the biodistribution evaluated in tumor bearing nude mice, including NanoSPECT/CT imaging. Metabolites in urine, liver, and kidneys were analyzed by radio-HPLC. Radiolabeled cyclic MG showed high stability in vitro and receptor mediated uptake in AR42J cells. In the animal tumor model, fast renal clearance and low nonspecific uptake in most organs were observed. A tumor uptake >3% was calculated ex vivo 1 h p.i. for both 99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-cyclo-MG1 and 99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-cyclo-MG2. In an imaging study with 99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-cyclo-MG1, the tumor was clearly visualized. The metabolite analysis indicated rapid enzymatic degradation in vivo. PMID:19591486

von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Sallegger, Werner; Helbok, Anna; Ocak, Meltem; King, Robert; Mather, Stephen J; Decristoforo, Clemens



Results of Quality Control Studies of Technetium 99M Labelled Radiopharmaceuticals Prepared from Kits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results of quality control studies of Tc 99m labelled normal serum albumin and macro-aggregated albumin radiopharmaceuticals prepared from commercially available kits. It includes all analyses performed since the inception of th...

J. R. McLean L. J. Rockwell W. J. Welsh



New method for granulocyte labeling with technetium-99m: preliminary results in abscess detection  

SciTech Connect

A new method for /sup 99m/Tc-labeling of granulocytes for clinical routine use has been developed. The labeling is simple to perform by means of a kit of radiopharmaceutical quality, utilizing dihydroxy-benzoic acid. Pretinning techniques are avoided. The technique has been applied clinically in 15 patients with indications of intra-abdominal abscess. In six patients, (/sup 99m/Tc)granulocyte scintigraphy at 3 hr and/or 24 hr after i.v. administration, correctly depicted the abscess, as verified by subsequent surgery. In the remaining patients, who were negative at surgery or recovered without operation, all scans were negative.

Sundrehagen, E.; Bengtsson, A.M.; Bremer, P.O.; Jacobsson, H.; von Krusenstierna, S.; Larsson, S.A.; Schnell, P.O.; Svenberg, T.; Appelgren, P.S.



Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in upper extremity deep venous thrombosis  

SciTech Connect

The efficacy of Tc-99m RBC venography has been demonstrated with respect to the study of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. A case is presented where Tc-99m RBC venography was used to study the upper as well as lower extremities in a patient with upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) who was found to have pulmonary embolism.

Silverstein, A.M.; Turbiner, E.H.



Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.



Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins  

SciTech Connect

Plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL) are a major source of cholesterol for adrenal cortical steroid hormones synthesis. To test whether LDL labelled with Tc-99m could be used to assess adrenal cortical function, the authors prepared Tc-99m-LDL by dithionite reduction of Tc0/sub 4//sup -/ in the presence of LDL. About 80% of the Tc-LDL bonds were covalent. Purified Tc-99m-LDL was injected intravenously into 16 rabbits (4 t 8mCi/rabbit). External imaging was carried out 16 to 18 hrs later, at which time the adrenals were visualized clearly; the animals were sacrificed, the organs dissected out, weighed, and counted. The biodistribution demonstrated that 0.8l +- 0.19% of the injected radioactivity was taken up per gm of whole adrenal gland. This compared with an uptake of 0.19 +- 0.02% per gm by liver, 0.22 +- 0.04% per gm by spleen, and 0.11 +- 0.02% per gm by kidney. To verify that they were indeed imaging the adrenals, additional rabbits were tested with dexamethasone. First they were injected with Tc-99m-LDL; 28 hrs later the adrenals were again well visualized. Then the rabbits were given dexamethasone for 5 days to suppress adrenal cortical function. The adequacy of suppression was monitored by serum cortisol measurements. When Tc-99m-LDL was injected again, the adrenals could not be seen 18 hrs later. Counts of the adrenals from the suppressed rabbits were at background levels. These data indicate that Tc-99m-LDL is a useful radiopharmaceutical for evaluating adrenal cortical function.

Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Kovach, M.B.; Strauss, H.W.



Exaggerated role of prone technique in breast cancer imaging with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile  

Microsoft Academic Search

culated that in psoriatic patients the history of the disease, with altered bone metabolism as a consequence of triggering factors, demonstrates chronological and qualitative differences as compared with the development of disease in non-psoriatic patients with arthropathic involvement. This could be the reason for the high correlation of late skin and bone involvement in psoriatic patients, which primarily are not

Cumali Aktolun; Iraj Khalkhali



Scintigraphic Disagreement in the Study of Thyroid Nodules Using Technetium 99M and Iodine 131.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

116 patients with thyroid nodules, iso or hyperfixing, heterogeneous or scintigraphically indistinct after administration of pertechnetate 99mTc, were systematically re-examined with iodine 131. The results of this study are as follows: 1) 99mTc, while it...

C. A. Planchon



Cold hematoma visualized by technetium-99m labeled red blood cells  

SciTech Connect

A 64-yr-old male was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain associated with vomiting. Upon examination, the patients Hgb was 7.8 with a WBC count of 13.3 band cells of 7 and a recticulocyte count of 3.4, no evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient's prior history revealed involvement in an automobile accident approx. 10 days prior to this admission. At that time, he suffered multiple contusions and abrasions with a fracture to his left clavicle. Apparently there were no episodes of abdominal pain or vomiting prior to the onset of illness perceived on the day of admission. A liver/spleen scan was done. Four millicuries of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid were intravenously injected using a bolus injection technique while obtaining multiple dynamic images. The flow study was unremarkable, demonstrating no abnormalities to the great vessels and good perfusion to both organs. Static images of the liver and spleen revealed a straightening or flatness to the lateral border of the spleen with a small diminished area of tracer sulfur colloid localization at the posterolateral aspect of that organ. This finding raised the suspicion that a small subcapsular hematoma had developed at the mid-posterolateral aspect of the spleen. Twenty-four hours after hospital admission, 4 units of packed RBCs were transfused into the patient. Although there was at this time still no evidence of abnormal bleeding, it was felt that because of the strong symptomatic correlation for internal bleeding, a radionuclide bleeding site study should be ordered and immediately performed.

Beanblossom, M.



Technetium-99m-exametazine: Pitfalls in preparation and quality control  

SciTech Connect

The Food and Drug Administration recently approved the drug exametazine (Cretec or hexamethylenepropylene-amineoxime) for use in preparation of a {sup 99m}Tc-chelate suitable for human use. This radiopharmaceutical is indicated for detection of altered regional cerebral perfusion in patients with stoke. Unlike the majority of radiopharmaceuticals containing stannous ion (Sn{sup 2+}), which can be prepared by addition of varying volumes and activities of ({sup 99m}Tc)pertechnetate, successful preparation of {sup 99m}Tc-exametazime requires careful control of both volume and activity. The necessity for careful control of the final chemical concentration and radioconcentration is based on the minimal amount of Sn{sup 2+} ion present.

Karesh, S.M. (Loyola Univ. of Medical Center, Maywood, IL (USA))



Gated Technetium99m-Tetrofosmin SPECT and Cine MRI to Assess Left Ventricular Contraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the value of ECG-gated 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT in the assessment of resting left ventricular (LV)function by comparison with cine MRI. Methods: Twenty-eight patients were recruited prospectively from those referred for routine myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Eight had three-vessel coronary artery dis ease, two had two-vessel disease, five had single-vessel disease and thirteen had not previously undergone coronary angiography. Twelve

Mark G. Gunning; Constantinos Anagnostopoulos; Glyn Davies; Sandy M. Forbat; Peter J. Ell; S. Richard Underwood



Technetium-99m MDP imaging of acute radiation-induced inflammation  

SciTech Connect

Tc-99m MDP three-phase bone imaging demonstrated the acute hyperemic inflammatory soft tissue phase of radiation injury to the hand in a patient receiving radiation therapy to bone lesions of multiple myeloma.

Ferris, J.V.; Ziessman, H.A.



Technetium99m-GSA clearance in mice under long-term dietary restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is widely acknowledged to prolong lifespan in laboratory animals. Evidence suggests\\u000a that DR retards age-related decline in protein turnover of most organs. However, there has been no report about hepatic serum\\u000a glycoprotein catabolism under DR. In the current study, we evaluate the hepatic uptake of asialoglycoprotein in ICR mice with\\u000a DR by measuring the plasma

Katsuyasu Kouda; Hirao Kohno; Harunobu Nakamura; Sang K. Ha-Kawa; Yoshiaki Sonoda; Masayuki Iki



Determination of complex forming conditions of 8-hydroxyquinoline with technetium-99m  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex forming conditions of 8-hydroxyquinoline with99mTc have been specified.99mTcO4\\u000a– has been reduced by SnCl2 to a lower oxidation level. Labeling yields have been determined by ITLC (Instant Thin Layer Chromatography). Various parameters, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, ligand to SnCl2 ratio, which can affect the labeling yields, have been determined. Optimum conditions are 4–7 for pH; 15–20°C (room)

P. Ünak; M. Yegane



Sorption Behavior of Carrier-Free Technetium99m on Zinc Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption behavior of Tc on zinc dust was studied as a function of pH. Optimum conditions have been found for the preconcentration of traces of Tc by zinc. The influence of surface-active substances and of complexing agents on the sorption of trace amounts of Tc on zinc dust has been also studied.

A. Mushtaq



Sorption behavior of carrier-free technetium-99m on zinc dust  

SciTech Connect

The sorption behavior of [sup 99m]Tc on zinc dust was studied as a function of pH. Optimum conditions have been found for the preconcentration of traces of Tc by zinc. The influence of surface-active substances and of complexing agents on the sorption of trace amounts of Tc on zinc dust has been also studied. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Mushtaq, A. (Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan))



Myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m SQ30217: Comparison with thallium-201 and coronary anatomy  

SciTech Connect

Myocardial perfusion in ten normal volunteers and 20 patients with coronary artery disease documented by recent coronary arteriography was studied with 99mTc-labeled SQ30217 and /sup 201/TI. Plantar /sup 201/TI imaging followed standard treadmill exercise and planar SQ30217 imaging followed upright bicycle exercise, performed to angina, or the same double product achieved on the treadmill test. Upright anterior, 30 degrees left anterior oblique, and 60 degrees left anterior oblique images were obtained for 3, 6, and 9 min, respectively, starting 2 min after injection of 15 mCi of 99mTc SQ30217. A second 15-mCi dose was injected at rest approximately 2 hr later, and the same imaging protocol was followed. No adverse reactions or laboratory abnormalities attributable to SQ30217 were observed. All scans on the normal volunteers were interpreted as normal. Qualitative readings of both tests were equally sensitive for detecting patients with coronary disease (SQ30217 - 16/20, TI - 17/20, p = NS) and identifying abnormal vessels (SQ30217 - 19/45, TI - 21/45, p = NS). Both agents were falsely positive in 1/15 vessels. Ten vascular regions showed persistent abnormalities on resting SQ30217 scans; eight of these were distal to stenoses of at least 90% and three were also abnormal on thallium redistribution images. Hepatic uptake of SQ30217 obscured inferoapical segments in some views in 14/20 patients but did not interfere with abnormal vessel identification.

Seldin, D.W.; Johnson, L.L.; Blood, D.K.; Muschel, M.J.; Smith, K.F.; Wall, R.M.; Cannon, P.J.



Use of scintiangiography with technetium 99m in the diagnosis of traumatic pseudoaneurysm  

SciTech Connect

Pseudoaneurysm formation is a known complication of peripheral arterial access procedures. Although standard contrast angiography has been considered the diagnostic study of choice to identify pseudoaneurysms, isotope angiography has been described as an alternative method. In this study, we examined the role of /sup 99m/Tc-tagged red blood cell scans in the diagnosis of traumatic pseudoaneurysm. Forty patients underwent scans; 25 scans were reported as abnormal and 15 as normal. There were no false-negative results; one scan had false-positive results (2.5%). The presence of pseudoaneurysm among the patients with abnormal scans was verified at operation in 23 of 25 patients. The one false-positive test was verified by ultrasound. All patients with normal scans were followed up for verification. Follow-up time ranged from 2 to 28 months. Radionuclide vascular flow study appears to give information similar to that of conventional angiography. With a series false-positive rate of 2.5%, the examination has a high specificity. The /sup 99m/Tc-tagged red blood cell scan is a viable alternative to conventional angiography for the diagnosis of traumatic pseudoaneurysms and is associated with less radiation and morbidity

Hayek, M.E.; Ludwig, M.A.; Fischer, K.; Sisler, C.



Location of parathyroid adenomas by thallium-201 and technetium-99m subtraction scanning.  

PubMed Central

Solitary parathyroid adenomas were correctly located before surgery in 20 out of 21 cases by using 201mT1 and 99mTc in a subtraction technique. The technique was not useful in identifying hyperplastic parathyroid glands. The technique is recommended as a useful procedure before surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3

Young, A E; Gaunt, J I; Croft, D N; Collins, R E; Wells, C P; Coakley, A J



Diagnosis of Sternal Wound Infection by Technetium99m-Leukocyte Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

An imaging study is needed that can detect sternal wound infections and distinguish between superficial and deep ster- nal wound infection when a clinical diagnosis is uncertain and a decision regarding surgical intervention must be made. We retrospectively reviewed the 99mTc-leukocyte scans of 29 patients referred to rule out stemat wound infection. The presence or absence of deep or superficial

Jeffrey A. Cooper; Sarah L. Elmendorf; John P. Teixeira; Ilk Brian; Eric D. Foster


Acute myocardial infarction followed by technetium-99m-sestamibi SPECT imaging and pathologic correlation.  


A 79-yr-old man received thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction after injection with 99mTc-sestamibi and died shortly thereafter. Postmortem in situ SPECT imaging of the heart was performed. The heart was then removed and sectioned into short-axis slices, which were placed directly on the SPECT camera face for imaging, and examined by routine gross and microscopic pathologic methods. Pathologic findings were consistent with a small acute inferoseptal myocardial infarction, as demonstrated on both SPECT imaging of the intact heart and imaging of the heart slices. This case report provides further evidence of the validity of SPECT sestamibi imaging for the determination of myocardium at risk during acute myocardial infarction. PMID:9430455

Hurrell, D G; Edwards, W D; O'Conner, M K; Gibbons, R J



Feasibility study of accelerator based production of molybdenum-99/technetium-99m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stability of supply in the medical radioisotope market is now of overriding importance. One of the most commonly used radioisotopes is 99mTc, which is produced from 99Mo decay. 99Mo has been produced in nuclear reactors before, however these reactors are aging and have been not reliable lately and there is a great need to find an alternative for the production. In the current project, photo-neutron production of 99Mo/ 99mTc was investigated. An electron linear accelerator at the Idaho Accelerator Center was used to study the feasibility of 99mTc production using bremsstrahlung photon beams from the accelerator. The kinematic recoil process that occurs with every photo nuclear reaction was exploited. With the emission of a neutron in a photo nuclear reaction, the parent nucleus recoils in order to conserve momentum. This recoil can be used to separate 99Mo from 100Mo, at which point one has a very pure and very high specific activity source of 99Mo. We verified the photo-neutron production rates for 99Mo. Also, the kinematic recoil process was modeled and separation efficiencies were measured experimentally. We concluded that it is feasible to produce high 99Mo activities, however nano-particles of molybdenum have to be used and a clean nano-particle separation method has to be achieved.

Tchelidze, Lali


Lung clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA in patients with acute lung injury and pulmonary edema  

SciTech Connect

Several acute and chronic conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary epithelium increased the rate of absorption or clearance into the circulation of small solutes deposited in the alveoli. Technetium 99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid can be deposited in the lungs as a submicronic aerosol and its rate of clearance measured with a gamma camera or simple probe. This clearance technique is currently being used to evaluate patients who have developed pulmonary edema and also to detect those patients from a high risk group who are likely to develop adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Its role in the evaluation of patients with pulmonary edema is still under active investigation. It is clear that a single measurement in patients who smoke is not useful, but repeated measurements may provide important information. The lung clearance measurement is very sensitive to changes in epithelial integrity but is not specific for ARDS. It may be most useful in combination with other predictive tests or when the clearance rate is normal. 54 references.

Coates, G.; O'Brodovich, H.; Dolovich, M.



Tc-/sup 99m/-DTPA aerosol and radioactive gases compared as adjuncts to perfusion scintigraphy in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the clinical utility of improved methods for radioaerosol inhalation imaging, we obtained preperfusion radioaerosol images in 107 patients (mean age . 62 years), who were referred for evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). For each patient, we compared six-view aerosol images with accompanying perfusion scans and chest radiographs and with Xenon-133 (Xe-133) or Krypton-81m (Kr-81m) studies. Four observers at four different institutions independently evaluated aerosol-perfusion and gas-perfusion pairs, classifying the probability of PE as low, high, or indeterminate. The radioaerosol images were good to excellent in quality; excessive central deposition of activity was infrequent and did not interfere with image interpretation. The aerosol-perfusion studies showed 86% agreement with Xe-133 perfusion interpretations (n . 299) and 80% agreement with Kr-81m perfusion interpretations (n . 99). These rates of agreement were comparable with those of intraobserver agreement for gas-to-gas and aerosol-to-aerosol comparisons, and higher than interobserver agreement rates. In a limited number (n . 9) of angiographically documented cases, aerosol-perfusion and gas-perfusion studies provided accurate and equivalent diagnoses. The results suggest that radioaerosol inhalation studies, performed with improved nebulizers, are diagnostically equivalent to ventilation imaging as an adjunct to perfusion scintigraphy in evaluating patients with suspected PE.

Alderson, P.O.; Biello, D.R.; Gottschalk, A.; Hoffer, P.B.; Kroop, S.A.; Lee, M.E.; Ramanna, L.; Siegel, B.A.; Waxman, A.D.



Regional comparison of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol (A) with radioactive gas ventilation (V) studies in pts with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE)  

SciTech Connect

The regional V on Tc-99m DTPA and Xenon-133 (Xe) (30 pts) and Krypton (Kr) (24 pts) was evaluated in a group of pts with zero (13%) , low (30%), indeterminate (37%) and high (20%) probability (prob) for PE. All pts had a 100K-6 view. A study prior to Perfusion (P) imaging and 8 view 500K study. Xe studies were done prior to A in posterior projection with 4 minutes (min) of rebreathing and 5 min of washout (WO). Kr studies were performed in a standard manner in conjunction with multiview P study. Of 180 zones, 125 were in agreement on Xe and A; 47 of 51 discordant Xe zones demonstrated only WO abnormalities. In 13 of 51 of discordant zones, P was nl. In 31 zones, P was patchy (<25% of a zone) and did not affect the final prob of PE. In conclusion, while Xe is most sensitive in detecting airway abnormalities, for the purposes of assessing PE, the regional diagnostic information on A studies is equivalent to Xe and Kr.

Ramanna, L.; Alderson, P.O.; Berman, D.S.; Brachman, M.B.; Goldsmith, M.; Kroop, S.; Seu, M.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Waxman, A.D.



Tc-99m-DTPA aerosol and radioactive gases compared as adjuncts to perfusion scintigraphy in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the clinical utility of improved methods for radioaerosol inhalation imaging, we obtained preperfusion radioaerosol images in 107 patients (mean age = 62 years), who were referred for evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). For each patient, we compared six-view aerosol images with accompanying perfusion scans and chest radiographs and with Xenon-133 (Xe-133) or Krypton-81 m (Kr-81m) studies. Four observers at four different institutions independently evaluated aerosol-perfusion and gas-perfusion pairs, classifying the probability of PE as low, high, or indeterminate. The results suggest that radioaerosol inhalation studies, performed with improved nebulizers, are diagnostically equivalent to ventilation imaging as an adjunct to perfusion scintigraphy in evaluating patients with suspected PE.

Alderson, P.O.; Biello, D.R.; Gottschalk, A.; Hoffer, P.B.; Kroop, S.A.; Lee, M.E.; Ramanna, L.; Siegel, B.A.; Waxman, A.D.



Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome: scintigraphic appearance of kidneys.  


We report a 7-year-old child with Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome, an autosomal recessive syndrome, with impaired renal function detected by means of technetium-99m diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA), technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m DMSA) scintigraphy, and ultrasonography. The altered renal morphology and decreased renal functions are documented. PMID:9212899

Kiratli, P O; Erba?, B; Bekdik, F C



Distribution and clearance of radioactive aerosol on the nasal mucosa.  


The distribution and clearance of aerosolized radioactive technetium 99m pertechnate in physiologic buffered saline was analyzed in four human adult asymptomatic volunteers following delivery into one nostril in the same manner as for nasal challenge testing (i.e., 0.1 ml via a 251 DeVilbiss atomizer powered by a compressor delivering 0.10 +/- 0.01 gm/spray). For comparison, squeeze bottles and spray bottles from commercial sources, a 114 and a 127 DeVilbiss atomizer, and a pipette were employed. Lateral imagery via minicomputer processing was used to determine both distribution and clearance of the radiotracer. The counts after 1 minute were lower following pipette delivery than with the other devices. None yielded discernable , wide-spread distribution of aerosol throughout the nasal cavity. Following delivery from the 251 atomizer, mean clearance at 17 minutes was 60.0%. Similar clearance rates were obtained with the other spraying methods except for lower values with the squeeze bottle. Analysis of six hour clearance studies by linear regression showed a relatively rapid initial phase, which is probably due largely to mucociliary clearance, and a prolonged late phase related to the very slow disappearance of residual material located far anteriorly in the nose. Achieving good initial retention and rapid clearance of material deposited anteriorly in the nose are desirable attributes of devices employed for administering materials intranasally. PMID:6328631

McLean, J A; Bacon, J R; Mathews, K P; Thrall, J H; Banas, J M; Hedden, J; Bayne, N K




PubMed Central

We and others have recently reported that prions can be transmitted to mice via aerosols. These reports spurred a lively public discussion on the possible public-health threats represented by prion-containing aerosols. Here we offer our view on the context in which these findings should be placed. On the one hand, the fact that nebulized prions can transmit disease cannot be taken to signify that prions are airborne under natural circumstances. On the other hand, it appears important to underscore the fact that aerosols can originate very easily in a broad variety of experimental and natural environmental conditions. Aerosols are a virtually unavoidable consequence of the handling of fluids; complete prevention of the generation of aerosols is very difficult. While prions have never been found to be transmissible via aerosols under natural conditions, it appears prudent to strive to minimize exposure to potentially prion-infected aerosols whenever the latter may arise—for example in scientific and diagnostic laboratories handling brain matter, cerebrospinal fluids, and other potentially contaminated materials, as well as abattoirs. Equally important is that prion biosafety training be focused on the control of, and protection from, prion-infected aerosols.



21 CFR 310.503 - Requirements regarding certain radioactive drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Do Iodinated human serum albumin Blood... Brain tumor localization...pentaacetic acid (DTPA) Brain imaging; kidney... Technetium 99m Human serum albumin microspheres... Brain imaging. Do ...aggregated albumin (human) Lung...



21 CFR 310.503 - Requirements regarding certain radioactive drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Do Iodinated human serum albumin Blood... Brain tumor localization...pentaacetic acid (DTPA) Brain imaging; kidney... Technetium 99m Human serum albumin microspheres... Brain imaging. Do ...aggregated albumin (human) Lung...



Appearance of a large mesenteric varix on a technetium-99m red blood cell gastrointestinal bleeding study  

SciTech Connect

Detection of gastrointestinal bleeding using Tc-99m labeled RBCs has proven to be clinically useful although false-positive images associated with abnormal vascularity remain problematic. The scintigraphic appearance of a large mesenteric varix is presented, and its potential confusion with gastrointestinal bleeding is discussed. Correlative CT and angiographic images are presented.

Mountz, J.M.; Ripley, S.D.; Gross, M.D.; Richmond, B.



Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease  

SciTech Connect

The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.



Technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in experimental viral perimyocarditis: sequential study of myocardial uptake and pathologic correlates  

SciTech Connect

Lethally irradiated (9 Gy) CBA/RiJ (H-2/sup q/) of 10 to 14 weeks of age were transplanted with 10g C57BL/Rij (H-2/sup b/) bone marrow cells in mice. Other groups of mice ceived the same number of bone marrow cells, to which graded numbers of spleen cells were added to contaminate the graft with post-thymic immunocompetent lymphocytes. The physical parameters of x-radiation were 300 kV, 10 ma, half value layer, 3.0 mm Cu, dose rate 0.35 Gy/min; focus target distance 70 cm, maximum back scatter (Philips-Muller x-ray machine). The recipient mice were either concentional germ free, or harboring a so-called colonization resistant flora (CRF). The CRF is a mouse-derived anaerobic flora that gives a protective effect against colonizations with exogenous microorganism which might play a role in the development of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). The results of the experiments showed that, if the number of spleen cells that are added to the bone marrow is increased, the resulting mortality attributable to GVHD occurs correspondingly earlier. It was concluded from this data that GVHD can be completely prevented by depleting the graft of immunocompetent lymphocytes if bone marrow from a MHC-identical sibling donor is used.

Heidt, P.J.; Wagemaker, G.; Knaan-Shanzer, S.; Van Bekkum, D.W.



Assessment of antioxidative ability in brain: Imaging of glutathione localization with technetium-99M meso-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime  

SciTech Connect

An oxidative stress is postulated to be important in tissue injury after ischemia and reperfusion, inflammation, aging and various disease. Glutathione (GSH), one of the major antioxidants in the brain, is presumed to be responsible for the metabolism and retention of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO. In order to visualize the regional localization of GSH in the brain, the relationship between the concentrations of tissue GSH and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO and [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO was studied in mice. Increasing load of diethyl maleate (DEM), a reducing agent of GSH and several other thiols, before [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO injection, led to a dose dependent decrease of GSH and [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO. At the highest dose of loaded DEM, the uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO in the brain was decreased to 20-30% of the control. In contrast, pretreatment with DEM did little affect the [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO uptake. To elucidate the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO in brain, we studied the in vitro interactions of [Tc-99m] meso-HMPAO and [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO with GSH, ascorbate and cysteine by measuring octanol-extractable radioactivity, which is remaining intact [Tc-99m] HM-PAO, as a function of incubation period. The disappearance raw of [Tc-99m] meso-HMPAO and [TC-99m] d,l-HM-PAO were 0.18 and 0.96%/min, respectively. Either meso or d,l-isomer did not interact with ascorbate or cysteine. This result suggested that the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] meso- and d,l-isomers in brain was related to their specific interaction with GSH, and did not related to non-specific interaction with various thiols or other reducing agents. This extremely high reaction rate of [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO with GSH could explain the capability of a small amount of GSH to trap [Tc-99m] d,l-HM-PAO in maximum DEM loading. These results indicated that [Tc-99m] meso-HMPAO would be suitable to image the concentration of GSH in the brain, as opposed d,l-isomer that images blood flow.

Sasaki, T.; Toyama, H.; Oda, K. [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others



Design, preparation, and biodistribution of a technetium-99m triaminedithiol complex to assess regional cerebral blood flow  

SciTech Connect

A new ligand (N-piperidinylethyl-DADT, 5) has been prepared which forms two complexes with /sup 99m/Tc when stannous chloride is used as a reducing agent for (/sup 99m/Tc) pertechnetate. Biodistribution studies of one of the complexes in mice showed that 2.2% of the injected dose of the tracer was in the brain at 5 min postintravenous injection with 0.53% of the dose remaining in the brain at 30 min postinjection. Brain-to-blood ratios at these times were 5.3 and 3.0, respectively. Biodistribution studies of the other complex showed similar behavior with a slightly lower initial uptake by and faster clearance from the brain. Imaging studies of the more promising of the two complexes were conducted in a monkey and a baboon. In both cases, rapid uptake of the tracer in the brain was observed and clear brain images were obtained. Time-activity curves showed peak uptake in the brain at approximately 5 to 7 min postintravenous injection followed by a plateau of about 11 min. The half-lives for clearance of the tracer from the brains of the monkey and baboon were found to be 63 and 58 min, respectively. These results suggest that this tracer may be useful for brain imaging in humans.

Lever, S.Z.; Burns, H.D.; Kervitsky, T.M.; Goldfarb, H.W.; Woo, D.V.; Wong, D.F.; Epps, L.A.; Kramer, A.V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.



The preparation and biodistribution of a technetium-99m triaminodithiol complex designed to reflect regional cerebral blood flow  

SciTech Connect

Recently, interest in the development of radiotracers for brain imaging has increased. Technetium complexes of diaminodithiol (DADT) ligands have been shown to be stable, neutral, lipid soluble, and shown to cross the blood:brain barrier. A new ligand, N-Piperidinylethyl-DADT has been synthesized which forms two complexes with Tc-99m when stannous chloride is used as a reducing agent for Tc-99m pertechnetate. Biodistribution studies of both complexes in mice showed one to have a 2.2% of the injected dose of the tracer in the brain at 5 minutes post intravenous injection with 0.53% of the dose remaining in the brain at 30 minutes post injection. Brain-to-blood ratios at these times were 5.3 and 3.0 respectively. Imaging studies were conducted in a monkey and a baboon in which rapid uptake of the tracer in the brain was observed and clear brain images were obtained. Time activity curves showed peak uptake in the brain at approximately 5 to 7 minutes post intravenous injection followed by a plateau of about 11 minutes. The half-lives for clearance of the tracer from the brains of the monkey and baboon were found to be 63 and 58 minutes respectively. This preliminary evaluation suggests that this tracer shows promise for brain imaging in humans.

Lever, S.Z.; Burns, H.D.; Kervitsky, T.M.; Goldfarb, H.W.; Woo, D.V.; Wong, D.F.; Epps, L.A.; Kramer, A.V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.



Effects of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m  

Microsoft Academic Search

99m Tc foi realizada. Plasma (P) e células sangüíneas (CS) foram separadas permitindo o isolamento das frações solúvel (SF-P\\/SF-CS) e insolúvel (IF-P\\/IF-CS) por precipitação e centrifugação. A radioatividade nos constituintes sangüíneos (P, CS, IF-P, SF-P, IF-CS e SF-CS) foi determinada e a porcentagem de radioatividade (%ATI), calculada. O extrato de tomate usado, nas maiores concentrações (2,00 e 4,00g\\/mL), reduziu signifi

Severo de Paoli; Aline P. M. Dias; Priscila V. S. Z. Capriles; Tadeu E. M. M. Costa; Adenilson S. Fonseca; Mario Bernardo-Filho



Effects of aging on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime in healthy humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some brain functions decline at a linear rate throughout adulthood. Others remain relatively stable until very late in the life cycle. This study characterized the effects of aging on the regional cerebral distribution of hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) in healthy human volunteers. The sample consisted of 26 men and 18 women with a mean age of 41.6ᆢ.9 years (range: 19-73).

P. David Mozley; Ahmed M. Sadek; Abass Alavi; Ruben C. Gur; Larry R. Muenz; Barry J. Bunow; Hee-Joung Kim; Mark H. Stecker; Paul Jolles; Andrew Newberg



New Method for Easy Labeling of Beta2-Agonists in the Metered Dose Inhaler with Technetium 99 m  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actual deposition pattern of micronized drugs from metered dose inhalers (MDI) is incompletely known because there are no methods available to label the drugs (?2-agonists) with ?-emitters. Indirect measurements of the distribution of the drug in man differed greatly due to the method used. Our method uses the better solubility of 99mTcO-4 in the ?2-agonist-micronized drug in relation to

Dieter Köhler; Wolfgang Fleischer; Heinrich Matthys



Technetium-99m red blood cell blood-pool imaging in functional asplenia due to leukemic infiltration  

SciTech Connect

Tc-99m labeled RBC blood-pool and Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging were performed in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in blast crisis. Functional asplenia was demonstrated on the sulfur colloid study despite intact organ perfusion as demonstrated by blood-pool imaging. Tc-99m RBC blood-pool imaging appears to be an ideal noninvasive technique to document intact spleen perfusion in functional asplenia.

Yoo, J.H.; Orzel, J.A.; Bagnall, J.W.; Weiland, F.L.



Pentavalent technetium-99m (V)-DMSA uptake in a pheochromocytoma in a patient with Sipple's syndrome  

SciTech Connect

This case report describes {sup 99m}Tc(V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) accumulation in a pheochromocytoma in a patient with Sipple's syndrome. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA demonstrated uptake in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT). Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed the bilateral pheochromocytomas but did not demonstrate uptake in the MCT.

Adams, B.K.; Fataar, A.; Byrne, M.J.; Levitt, N.S.; Matley, P.J. (Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa))



Compartmental analysis of technetium-99m-teboroxime kinetics employing fast dynamic SPECT at rest and stress  

SciTech Connect

The authors have examined the feasibility of compartmental analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime kinetics in measuring physiological changes in response to adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation. To evaluate the effect of tracer recirculation on {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime kinetics in the myocardium, they also compared compartmental analysis with washout analysis (monoexponertial fitting), which does not account for this effect. Eight healthy male volunteers were imaged using fast dynamic SPECT protocols (5 sec per tomographic image) at rest and during adenosine infusion. A two-compartment model was used and compartmental parameters K1 and k2 (characterizing the diffusion of {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime from the blood to the myocardium and from the myocardium to the blood, respectively) were fitted from myocardial time-activity curves and left ventricular input functions. Both K1 and washout estimates for the whole left ventricular myocardium changed significantly in response to coronary vasodilation. Mean stress-to-rest (S/R) ratios were almost two times higher for K1 (S/R = 2.7 {plus_minus} 1.1) than for washout estimates (S/R = 1.5 {plus_minus} 0.3). Estimation of K1 for all local regions, except the septal wall, is feasible because variations in K1 estimates for all local regions, except the septum during stress, are comparable with those for the global region. The authors conclude that quantitative compartmental analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime kinetics provides a sensitive indicator for changes in response to adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation. 39 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Chiao, P.C.; Ficaro, E.P.; Dayaniki, F. [Univ. of Michigan Medica Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others



Assessment of “microvascular no-reflow phenomenon” using technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin scintigraphy in patients with acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of this study was the scintigraphic evaluation of clinical no-reflow phenomenon.Background. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the relationship of the severity of reduction of microvascular reflow to the ischemia time or to the secondary extension of myocardial necrosis is poorly understood, and we accordingly conducted a scintigraphic evaluation of clinical no-reflow phenomenon.Methods. The group studied consisted

Makoto Kondo; Akira Nakano; Daiki Saito; Yukio Shimono



Effects of aging on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime in healthy humans.  


Some brain functions decline at a linear rate throughout adulthood. Others remain relatively stable until very late in the life cycle. This study characterized the effects of aging on the regional cerebral distribution of hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) in healthy human volunteers. The sample consisted of 26 men and 18 women with a mean age of 41.6+/-14.9 years (range: 19-73). Their past medical histories, physical examinations, and laboratory screening tests were normal. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans of the brain were performed with a standardized acquisition and processing protocol on a triple-headed camera equipped with fan beam collimators. A 3-D restorative filter and a correction for uniform attenuation were applied before the images were reinterpolated in planes parallel to the line connecting the frontal and occipital poles. Mean counts per pixel were measured in multiple regions of interest (ROIs) within each hemisphere by custom fitting a set of templates to the images. The mean activity in each ROI was compared with the mean activity per pixel in the whole brain. Regression analyses were used to relate the activity ratios to age with both linear and nonlinear models. The relative concentration of radioactivity decreased significantly with age in most, but not all, gray matter structures. It increased in the white matter regions. The nonlinear model of aging fit the data significantly better than a straight line did. Most of the changes with age occurred during young adulthood. No further changes were detectable after the onset of middle age. The median breakpoint age at which the rate of change became negligible was 36.6 years. Aging significantly affects the relative uptake of HMPAO in healthy humans. It decreases in many gray matter regions and increases in most white matter regions. However, the changes do not appear to be linear. Most seem to occur during young adulthood before people reach their late thirties. The distribution then appears to remain relatively stable throughout middle age. PMID:9211761

Mozley, P D; Sadek, A M; Alavi, A; Gur, R C; Muenz, L R; Bunow, B J; Kim, H J; Stecker, M H; Jolles, P; Newberg, A



In vivo kinetics of canine leukocytes labeled with technetium-99m HM-PAO and indium-111 tropolonate  

SciTech Connect

Two weeks after the introduction of osteomyelitis in three dogs, autologous leukocytes were dual-labeled with both (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO and (/sup 111/In)tropolonate, and reinjected. Blood sampling and imaging were then performed. Two weeks later, the same dogs received simultaneous injections of singly-labeled (/sup 99m/Tc)WBC and (/sup 111/In)WBC for comparison. For both studies, blood samples were drawn over 6 hr to determine the respective blood clearance half-time (TB) and % recovery (%R0) of cell-bound radioactivity. There were no significant differences in the average TB results of the /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 111/In groups, either within or between the dual- and singly-labeled studies. The %R0 of singly-labeled (/sup 99m/Tc)WBC was about half that of the other groups (p less than 0.01); however, this difference was attributed to the dissimilar radiochemical purity of the (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO reagents. Region of interest analysis of the 6 and 24 hr images revealed no significant differences between either cell label in the relative or absolute in vivo uptake at known sites of osteomyelitis, noninfected surgery, and normal bone marrow.

Mock, B.H.; Schauwecker, D.S.; English, D.; Young, K.A.; Wellman, H.N.



Planar and tomographic imaging with technetium 99m-labeled tetrofosmin: Correlation with thallium 201 and coronary angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the results of planar and single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging with tetrofosmin\\u000a with those of201Tl and coronary angiography. In three normal volunteers the images were normal by both201Tl and tetrofosmin (planar and SPECT). In 23 patients with coronary artery disease, the images were abnormal in 20 patients\\u000a by SPECT tetrofosmin, in 19 by planar tetrofosmin, in

Jaekyeong Heo; Virginia Cave; Valerie Wasserleben; Abdulmassih S. Iskandrian



Quantitative Rest Technetium99m Tetrofosmin Imaging in Predicting Functional Recovery After Revascularization: Comparison With Rest–Redistribution Thallium201  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study was undertaken to 1) compare the regional myocardial tracer distributions between rest technetium (Tc)-99m tetrofosmin and rest–redistribution thallium (Tl)-201 images in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction; and 2) assess the comparative values of these agents for predicting functional recovery after revascularization.Background. Tc-99m tetrofosmin is a new myocardial perfusion imaging agent, but its role

Ichiro Matsunari; Susumu Fujino; Junichi Taki; Junji Senma; Takahiko Aoyama; Takanobu Wakasugi; Jun-ichi Hirai; Takashi Saga; Shinichiro Yamamoto; Norihisa Tonami



Assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function using ECG-gated technetium-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion SPECT.  


Because left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is frequently the earliest indicator of LV dysfunction in patients with heart failure, the estimation of LV diastolic function is very important. On the other hand, electrocardiography (ECG)-gated technetium (Tc) -99m tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been reported to be a useful method for evaluation of LV function. The objective of this study was to examine the usefulness of ECG-gated Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT in terms of estimation of cardiac diastolic function. Consecutive 145 patients underwent an ECG-gated Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT to estimate systolic and diastolic LV function, and were compared with those evaluated by ultrasound echocardiography (UCG). LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume, and LV ejection fraction values obtained by quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) showed significant positive linear correlations with those obtained by UCG. All 145 patients were classified into 3 groups according to diastolic function estimated by UCG. The first-third mean filling rate (1/3 MFR) and peak filling rate (PFR) that revealed the LV diastolic function of the group B (normal systolic function and mild diastolic dysfunction) patients (1.01 ± 0.35, 1.85 ± 0.57) were both significantly lower than those of the group A (normal systolic and diastolic function) patients (1.43 ± 0.37, 2.43 ± 0.56). The 1/3 MFR and PFR of the group C (moderate ~ severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction) patients (0.47 ± 0.34, 0.92 ± 0.62) were also significantly lower than those of the group A and B patients. QGS may be a useful method for the evaluation of cardiac systolic and diastolic function, especially in patients with normal systolic function and diastolic dysfunction. PMID:23924933

Mizunobu, Mayumi; Sakai, Jun; Sasao, Hisataka; Murai, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Hidetoshi



Technetium-99m ECD: a new brain imaging agent: in vivo kinetics and biodistribution studies in normal human subjects  

SciTech Connect

Lipophilic neutral /sup 99m/Tc complexes of diaminedithiol (DADT) ligands cross the brain-blood barrier. A new derivative of DADT family, /sup 99m/Tc ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) showed high brain uptake in nonhuman primates. We report here the in vivo kinetics and biodistribution results in 16 normal human subjects. Dynamic images of brain obtained for 10 min following an i.v. administration of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD showed that the maximum /sup 99m/Tc brain activity reached within 1 min and remained near that level for the next 10 min. The blood clearance of the tracer was very rapid and the activity remaining in blood after 5 min was less than 10%. Within 2 hr 50% of /sup 99m/Tc activity was excreted in urine. Anterior and posterior total-body images were obtained at 5, 30, 60 min, 2, 4, 24, and 48 hr using a moving table at 20 cm/min. Percent injected dose was calculated for different organs and tissues. The brain uptake was 6.5 +/- 1.9% at 5 min postinjection and remained relatively constant over several hours. Two-compartment analysis of brain time-activity curve showed that 40% of brain activity washed out faster (T 1/2 = 1.3 hr) while the remaining 60% had a slower clearance rate (T 1/2 = 42.3 hr). Some of the tracer was excreted through the hepatobiliary system. Lung uptake and retention of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD was negligible. Radiation dosimetry is favorable for the administration of up to 20-40 mCi of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD. These results show that (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD is rapidly extracted and retained by the brain providing favorable conditions for single photon emission computed tomography imaging.

Vallabhajosula, S.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Picard, M.; Stritzke, P.; Mena, I.; Hellman, R.S.; Tikofsky, R.S.; Stabin, M.G.; Morgan, R.A.; Goldsmith, S.J.



Indium-111-antimyosin antibody imaging for detecting different stages of myocardial infarction: Comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic value of {sup 111}In-antimyosin (AM) imaging for identifying myocardial infarction was evaluated in comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate (PPi) imaging. Twenty-four patients with various stages of myocardial infarction, ranging from three days to nine months after the onset of infarction, underwent both AM and PPi scans. Of 26 infarct lesions AM scan identified 22 (85%), while PPi scans detected 10 (38%) (p less than 0.01). When less than a week had passed since the onset both scans demonstrated all infarct lesions. For seven subacute lesions studied within one to two weeks of onset, AM scans detected (100%), while PPi scans identified only 2 (29%). Furthermore, AM scans showed discrete myocardial uptake in 7 (64%) of those studied more than two weeks after onset. The intensity of AM uptake in the infarcts studied more than seven days after onset was less than that in acute infarcts studied within seven days of onset (p less than 0.05). These preliminary data indicate that the abnormal myocardial uptake of AM persists beyond the first two weeks when PPi no longer accumulates. Thus, AM scans can be considered to provide a sensitive diagnosis of subacute as well as acute myocardial necrosis.

Tamaki, N.; Yamada, T.; Matsumori, A.; Yoshida, A.; Fujita, T.; Ohtani, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Endo, K.; Konishi, J. (Kyoto Univ. Faculty of Medicine (Japan))



Effect of plasmapheresis on the liver uptake of ApoB-lipoproteins labeled with technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

To study liver low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor activity before and after plasmapheresis, ({sup 99m}Tc) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was used. Autologous VLDL was labeled, sterilized by filtration, and administered intravenously to patients under a gamma camera. The uptake of lipoproteins in the liver was measured by scintiscanning. Liver activity curves were generated for each patient. The liver activity in patients with the heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and in patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis (SA) without hereditary deficit of LDL receptors was reduced as compared to healthy people. Plasmapheresis enhanced the liver uptake of the {sup 99m}Tc-labeled lipoproteins in atherosclerotic patients. Thus, labeled metabolites could presumably be of use in assessing the effect of plasmapheresis on liver function.

Anisimova, O.Ju.; Konovalov, G.A.; Agapov, I.I.; Fuki, I.V.; Sergienko, V.B.; Repin, V.S.; Kukharchuk, V.V. (USSR Cardiology Research Center, Moscow (USSR))



Uptake Mechanism of Technetium99m-d, 1- HMPAO in Cell Cultures of the Dissociated Postnatal Rat Cerebellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation and retention mechanisms of ~mTc-d,1- hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (9~Tc-d,I-HMPAO) were investigated in cultures of the dissociated rat cerebellum. Our experiments indicate a linear dependency of the uptake on incubation time and on the concentration of the radioligand. Upon chloroform extraction and distribution between the li- pophilic and the hydrophilic phases, we located 69.1% of the retained radioactivity in the

Erhard Suess; Sigismund Huck; Hans Reither; Peter Angelberger


Technetium99m human immunoglobulin scintigraphy in patients with adhesive capsulitis: A correlative study with bone scintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesive capsulitis (AC) is a disorder that is characterized by shoulder pain and progressive limitation of both active and\\u000a passive shoulder motion. Although the underlying pathological mechanisms of the disease are not well understood, the inflammatory\\u000a reactions depending on the stage have been demonstrated histologically. The purpose of the study is to investigate the inflammatory\\u000a changes that can be demonstrated

Özlem ?enocak; Berna De?irmenci; Özhan Özdo?an; Elif Akalin; Gülhan Arslan; Burcu Kaner; Cengiz Ta?ci; Özlen Peker



A Reverse Perfusion Pattern During Technetium99m Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Does Not Predict Flow Limiting Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:A reverse redistribution pattern during myocardial perfusion imaging is most widely described using thallium (Tl-201), when stress images exhibit greater perfusion than rest. Technetium (Tc-99 m) radiopharmaceuticals may also yield a reverse perfusion (RP) pattern, but its significance is uncertain. This study tested the hypothesis that RP correlates with the presence and location of flow limiting coronary stenosis(es). Method:We reviewed

E. J. Smith; A. Hussain; M. Manoharan; H. J. Testa; N. P. Curzen



Identification of Coronary Thrombus With a IIb\\/IIIa Platelet Inhibitor Radiopharmaceutical, Technetium99m DMP444 A Canine Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—A diagnostic test that could distinguish between stable and unstable coronary atherosclerotic plaques would be useful. We tested the ability of a new glycoprotein IIb\\/IIIa platelet inhibitor DMP-444, labeled with technetium (Tc)-99 m, to identify platelet-rich thrombus by nuclear imaging in a canine model. Methods and Results—Combinations of a flow-limiting stenosis and 0 to 15 minutes of endothelial electrical stimulation

Joseph Mitchel; David Waters; Tianjie Lai; Michael White; Tod Alberghini; Ahmad Salloum; David Knibbs; Dadong Li; Gary V. Heller



Uptake mechanism of technetium-99m-d, 1-HMPAO in cell cultures of the dissociated postnatal rat cerebellum.  


The accumulation and retention mechanisms of 99mTc-d, 1-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-d, 1-HMPAO) were investigated in cultures of the dissociated rat cerebellum. Our experiments indicate a linear dependency of the uptake on incubation time and on the concentration of the radioligand. Upon chloroform extraction and distribution between the lipophilic and the hydrophilic phases, we located 69.1% of the retained radioactivity in the hydrophilic phase, 24.1% in a bound state and 6.8% in the lipophilic phase. The water-soluble, unbound radioactive contents of the cultures were identified as 99mTcO4- by HPLC analysis. Treatment of cultures with diethyl maleate (DEM) inhibited the accumulation of radioactivity along with a reduction of the GSH contents of the cultures. However, even in the absence of GSH, significant amounts of radioactivity were accumulated. DEM reduced the radioactive contents of cultures predominantly by diminishing the aqueous phase of the chloroform-extracted material. By contrast, the metabolic state, manipulated by treating the cultures with oligomycin B or 2,4-dinitrophenol, had no significant effect on the accumulation of radioactivity. Our experiments suggest two major mechanisms for the retention of radioactivity following the exposure of neuronal tissue to 99mTc-d, 1-HMPAO: Conversion of the lipophilic complex to the hydrophilic product, 99mTcO4-, and binding to non-diffusible cell components. PMID:1730973

Suess, E; Huck, S; Reither, H; Hörtnagl, H; Angelberger, P



Technetium-99m DADS complexes as renal function and imaging agents. II. Biological comparison with iodine-131 hippuran  

SciTech Connect

To find a /sub 99m/Tc agent with a high renal extraction efficiency similar to (/sup 131/)hippuran, 21 analogs of DADS were labeled and evaluated. Preliminary screening by serial gamma camera imaging in rabbits showed that most analogs had a higher liver uptake and/or slower renal clearance, than hippuran. Three agents (P-DADS, AP-DADS, and CAP-DADS), exhibiting a relatively rapid blood clearance and lower liver uptake in the rabbit, were studied in greater detail in comparison with hippuran and CO/sub 2/-DADS-A, the best analog to date. In the rat, the plasma clearance of the four DADS analogs was slower that that of hippuran. In the dog, there was marked hepatic retention of the four DADS compounds. In volunteers, serial posterior images obtained with these (/sup 99m/Tc)DADS complexes showed significant hepatic as well as renal activity. The 1-hr plasma clearance and urinary excretion were much lower than with simultaneously injected hippuran. Although these /sup 99m/Tc agents are satisfactory for imaging the kidneys, they closely mimic the biodistribution of hippuran only in the rabbit, and not in the rate, dog, or man.

McAfee, J.G.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.F.; Roskopf, M.; Lyons, B.; Ritter, C.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Palladino, E.; Thomas, F.D.



Mismatch between iodine-123 IMP and technetium-99m HM-PAO brain perfusion imaging in a patient with meningioma  

SciTech Connect

The discrepancy between three methods for cerebral perfusion imagings in the case of a man with meningioma is presented. Imaging with N-isopropyl-P-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP) showed no activity in the tumor. Imaging with Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) and the local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) image with Xe-133 inhalation showed high tumor activity. IMP is a more accurate method for imaging the brain tissue blood flow.

Hoshi, H.; Jinnouchi, S.; Watanabe, K.; Nakano, S.; Kinoshita, K.



Technetium-99m d,l-HM-PAO: a new radiopharmaceutical for SPECT imaging of regional cerebral blood perfusion  

SciTech Connect

Following investigation of a large number of new ligands based upon propylene amine oxime (PnAO) the d,l-diastereoisomer of hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) was selected as the preferred ligand for 99mTc as a tracer for cerebral perfusion imaging. The neutral, lipophilic 99mTc complex of d,l-HM-PAO was formed in high yield by stannous reduction of 99Mo/99mTc generator eluate using a kit formulation of the ligand. Two minutes following i.v. administration of this complex in rats, 2.25% of the injected dose appears in the brain. Little washout of the tracer is observed up to 24 hr postinjection. By qualitative autoradiographic comparison with iodoantipyrine this new radiopharmaceutical displays blood flow dependent brain uptake with little redistribution of the tracer over time. The lipophilic 99mTc complex converts slowly in vitro to a secondary complex. This conversion process may account for the ability of (99mTc)d,l-HM-PAO to be retained within the brain without redistribution.

Neirinckx, R.D.; Canning, L.R.; Piper, I.M.; Nowotnik, D.P.; Pickett, R.D.; Holmes, R.A.; Volkert, W.A.; Forster, A.M.; Weisner, P.S.; Marriott, J.A.



Significance of single ventilation/perfusion mismatches in krypton-81m/technetium-99m lung scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

The significance of a single area of ventilation/perfusion (V/P) mismatch in lung scans performed on patients suspected of pulmonary embolism (PE) was evaluated. Ten of 20 patients with this scan finding were found to have PE. An intermediate probability of PE was found with segmental (71%) or subsegmental (45%) single V/P mismatches. Seven of 16 patients with a single V/P mismatch and without a matching radiographic opacity had PE. Three of the four patients who had a V/P mismatch and a matching radiographic opacity were found to have PE. Multiview ventilation imaging with 81mKr was found to have advantages for the evaluation of single V/P mismatches. Based on the data available at this time, a single V/P mismatch suggests an intermediate probability of PE.

Rosen, J.M.; Palestro, C.J.; Markowitz, D.; Alderson, P.O.



Relation of biochemical, cytologic, and morphologic parameters to the result of gammagraphy with technetium 99m sestamibi in primary hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze the possible relation of biochemical, cytologic, and morphologic parameters to the results of parathyroid gammagraphy with Tc 99m sestamibi in primary hyperparathyroidism. We studied 46 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who were undergoing surgery. All the patients were given a preoperative parathyroid gammagraphy with Tc 99m sestamibi and a complete preoperative biochemical

Antonio Piñero; José M. Rodriguez; Sergio Ortiz; Teresa Soria; Juan Bermejo; Maria A. Claver; Manuel Canteras; Pascual Parrilla



Detection of a local staphylococcal infection in mice with technetium-99m-labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate both the ability of 99mTc-labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) to localize an infection and the modes of action involved in this process. Mice, infected with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 in a thigh muscle, received HIG intravenously. Scintigrams were made 1, 4, and 24 hr later; subsequently the mice were killed and the activity in several organs and thighs was determined. The radiopharmaceutical demonstrated a time-dependent accumulation at the site of infection. It was found that vascular permeability or Fc binding alone could not account for the mode of action of HIG. Neither the origin of Ig (human versus murine) nor the total amount of protein (0.01-1.0 mg Ig per mouse) affected the target-to-background (T/B) ratios. Ratios were not different for leukocytopenic animals. A correlation (p less than 0.001) was demonstrated between the number of bacteria at the site of infection and the T/B ratio. This was also found after antibiotic treatment (p less than 0.02).

Calame, W.; Feitsma, H.I.; Ensing, G.J.; Goedemans, W.T.; Camps, J.A.; van Furth, R.; Pauwels, E.K. (University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands))



Estimation of brain perfusion using Va value as initial distribution volume in radionuclide angiography with technetium-99m HMPAO  

SciTech Connect

Matsuda reported a non-invasive, simple method for the quantitative measurements of brain perfusion using radionuclide angiography with Tc-99m. HMPAO and showed graphical analysis of the ratio of brain activity to aortic arch activity gave two parameters, which are the slope of the fitted line (Ku:unidirectional influx constant) and its intercept with the yards (Vn:initial volume of distribution). Brain perfusion index (BPI),which is a connected Ku value, showed good correlation with cerebral blood flow determined with Xe-133 SPECT. The aim of our study is to elucidate the clinical significance of another parameter, Vn value, determined inpatients with cerebral vessel disease. Eighty-nine cases were studied and classified into three groups on the basis of clinical history and images of CT and/or MR: Group A, normal, 36 cases; Group B, infarction, 44 cases; Group C, subarachnoid hemorrhage, 9 cases. The average age of each group were not different statistically (63.3, 67.4 and 59.8, respectively). The average BPI values for group B and C were significantly lower than that of group A(7.7, 6. 8 and 9.5, respectively ). On the other hand, Vn for group C(0.23) was significantly lower than that for group A(0.45); however that for group B(0.49) was not. These findings indicate that cerebral blood flow in both infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage decrease but their circumstances near vessels differ from the aspect of initial volume of tracer distribution. This might help to understand or diagnose cerebral vessel diseases.

Kawamoto, M.; Ikegami, T. [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan)] [and others



Hemobilia associated with hepatic artery aneurysms: scintigraphic detection with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells  

SciTech Connect

Biliary tract bleeding is an unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Rupture of hepatic artery aneurysms is one of the least common etiologies of hemobilia. Both cholescintigraphy and (/sup 99m/Tc)red blood cell scintigraphy are useful in the diagnosis of this rare disorder. The combination of focal obstruction on cholescintigraphy and intermittent visualization of the major bile ducts on red blood cell scintigraphy should suggest the diagnosis of hemobilia and prompt an angiogram to determine the cause.

Jackson, D.E. Jr.; Floyd, J.L.; Levesque, P.H.



Assessing Coronary Artery Disease with Thallium201 Rest and Technetium99m-Sestamibi Stress Testing at Two Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In this study we assessed the specific location(s) of cardiac wall abnormalities in a population of patients referred for coronary artery disease and compared gender differences in the interpretation of nuclear medicine rest\\/ stress results. Methods: The study group consisted of 846 patients referred to 2 nuclear medicine outpatient cardiology centers for assessment between November 1998 and April 1999.

Art Meyers; Jim Ballow; Lee Topham; Rusty Rainer; Chuck Field


Respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the relationships between the respiratory epithelial clearance of micronic aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) and pulmonary function, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE), and lymphocytic alveolitis in patients with sarcoidosis, RC-DTPA was measured in 49 nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 38 normal nonsmokers. Pulmonary involvement was evaluated on chest roentgenograms (type O = normal, type I = hilar adenopathies, type II = hilar adenopathies associated with parenchymal shadows, type III = parenchymal shadows without adenopathy) and by pulmonary function tests. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme was determined, and a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for alveolar lymphocyte differential counting (Ly%). RC-DTPA was increased (greater than or equal to 1.96%/min) in 12 of 31 patients with type II or III involvement but was normal in all 18 patients with type O or I involvement (p = 0.002). Patients with increased RC-DTPA had low FVC, TLC, FEV1, and resting Pao2 (p less than 0.05); resting and exercise AaPo2 were increased (p less than 0.05), but RC-DTPA correlated negatively with FEV1 (p less than 0.01), Pao2 at rest (p less than 0.005), and DLCO (p less than 0.05) and positively with resting and exercise AaPO2 (p less than 0.01). In patients with increased RC-DTPA (42 +/- 17%), Ly% did not differ from Ly% in patients with normal RC-DTPA (34 +/- 16%). SACE was increased in patients with increased RC-DTPA (56 +/- 26 U/ml versus 38 +/- 16 U/ml; p = 0.007) and correlated positively with RC-DTPA (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Dusser, D.J.; Collignon, M.A.; Stanislas-Leguern, G.; Barritault, L.G.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J.



Questions and Answers on Calcium-DTPA and Zinc-DTPA ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Questions and Answers on Calcium-DTPA and Zinc-DTPA (Updated). 1. What is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announcing today? ... More results from


Environmental Fate of EDTA and DTPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a EDTA can be extremely persistent in WWTP and also in natural waters; DTPA seems more biodegradable. However, the biodegradability\\u000a of DTPA might be of negligible significance as EDTA is reported to be one of its decomposition products. EDTA, and in some\\u000a cases also DTPA, are generally found in the receiving waters of many industrial areas, thus being classified as one

Mika SillanpiHi



Microsoft Academic Search

This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol mist. Chelation treatment with i.v. Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2½ years with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of

Anthony C. James; Lyle B. Sasser; Dorothy B. Stuit; Samuel E. Glover; Eugene H. Carbaugh



Radiolabeled, nonspecific, polyclonal human immunoglobulin in the detection of focal inflammation by scintigraphy: Comparison with gallium-67 citrate and technetium-99m-labeled albumin  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of nonspecific polyclonal human immunoglobulin (IgG) radiolabeled with /sup 125/I or /sup 111/In was compared to that of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate and (/sup 99m/Tc)albumin in rats with deep thigh inflammation due to Escherichia coli infection. Serial scintigrams were acquired at 1, 3, 24, and in some cases, 48 hr after injection. As early as 3 hr postinjection, (/sup 111/In)IgG showed greater accumulation at the lesion than (/sup 99m/Tc)HSA (p less than 0.01). Both (/sup 125/I)IgG and (/sup 111/In)IgG showed greater accumulation than (/sup 67/Ga)citrate (p less than 0.01). At 24 hr, IgG image definition increased, while HSA image definition decreased, and the intensity of accumulation of both IgG preparations was greater than that of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate or (/sup 99m/Tc)HSA (p less than 0.01). At all imaging times, (/sup 67/Ga)citrate accumulation was surprisingly low. In inflammation produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, or turpentine, (/sup 111/In)IgG accumulation was similar to the results obtained with Escherichia coli. These studies suggest that focal sites of inflammation can be detected with radiolabeled nonspecific human polyclonal IgG.

Rubin, R.H.; Fischman, A.J.; Needleman, M.; Wilkinson, R.; Callahan, R.J.; Khaw, B.A.; Hansen, W.P.; Kramer, P.B.; Strauss, H.W.



Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate by fractured and osteoporotic bone after a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/. [Rats  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/ on uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP by fractured and osteoporotic bone, respectively, was compared with D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by normal bone in rats. At 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively, after femoral fracture, basal uptake was significantly increased at the fracture site by 336.8, 276.1, and 183.5%, respectively, over the contralateral control site. D/sub 3/-treated rats had lower uptakes than untreated controls at all three fracture sites and at 12 of 15 normal bone sites but analysis of variance showed the uptake differences were not significant. Cortisone-induced osteoporosis caused a significant decrease in basal uptake. The decrease occurred in all nine bone areas studied. D/sub 3/ caused a significant increase in uptake by these osteoporotic bones, but a significant decrease in uptake by the same bones in normal controls. Thus, D/sub 3/ had an effect on uptake by the bone lesion, osteoporosis, that differed from D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by fracture or normal bone.

Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.; Zielezny, M.



Poor accumulation of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in sarcoidosis and other diffuse infiltrative lung diseases as compared with gallium-67 citrate  

SciTech Connect

Forty-two patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases were imaged with Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m glucoheptonate (GH). Twenty patients had sarcoidosis, six had fibrosis, six had tuberculosis, nine had lung infiltration, and one had pleural empyema. The main difference between Ga-67 and Tc-99m GH was the much greater uptake of Ga-67 in sarcoidosis than that of Tc-99m GH. Fifteen patients with sarcoidosis had positive Ga-67 scans but only six had positive Tc-99m GH scans. The results in other diffuse infiltrative lung diseases were almost equal with Ga-67 and Tc-99m GH. Although Tc-99m GH is less expensive and simpler to use, it is not an adequate substitute for Ga-67 in diffuse infiltrative lung diseases.

Vorne, M.; Sahlstroem, K.A.; Alanko, K.



Estimation of attenuation maps from scatter and photopeak window single photon-emission computed tomographic images of technetium 99m-labeled sestamibi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In single photon-emission computed tomographic imaging of the chest, nonuniform attenuation correction requires use of a patient-specific\\u000a attenuation map. The aim of this study was to determine whether an estimate of the regions of the lungs and nonpulmonary tissues\\u000a of the chest could be obtained by segmenting the photopeak and Compton scatter window images in a phantom and in patients

Tin-Su Pan; Michael A. King; Der-Shan Luo; Seth T. Dahlberg; Bernard J. Villegas



Technetium-99m ciprofloxacin imaging in the diagnosis of postsurgical bony infection and evaluation of the response to antibiotic therapy: A case report.  


The use of radiolabelled antibiotics is fast emerging as a promising diagnostic test for the detection of infective lesions, because of their specific binding to the bacterial component. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that has been used as a radiolabelled antibiotic in both the diagnosis of infections in rabbits and in clinical trials on humans. The diagnosis of skeletal microbial infections remains a challenge, especially in orthopaedic patients with implants. We present a case report of a patient with undiagnosed and unrelenting pain in the lower third of the left leg, which had persisted for 6 months. A novel scintigraphy, which was developed in-house using a 99mTC ciprofloxacin single vial kit, was used for diagnosing the active bacterial infection. A 99mTC methylene diphosphonate bone scan was also performed to locate precisely the site of the lesion. Gradually increasing concentrations of both the radiotracers confirmed the presence of active bacterial infection in the distal third of the left tibia. Follow-up scanning after antibiotic therapy showed the disappearance of the pooling of 99mTC ciprofloxacin, indicating a good response. Therefore, 99mTC ciprofloxacin has good diagnostic and prognostic applications in deep-seated covert skeletal microbial infections. However, the persistence of a focal concentration detected by the 99mTC methylene diphosphonate scan was attributed to the inflammatory and not the infective pathology. PMID:16131686

Singh, B; Mittal, B R; Bhattacharya, A; Aggarwal, A; Nagi, O N; Singh, A K



Ventilation\\/perfusion ratios and simultaneous dual-radionuclide single-photon emission tomography with krypton-81m and technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   To date, there has been neither a good method to clarify the three-dimensional distribution of pulmonary ventilation\\/perfusion\\u000a (V.A\\/Q.) ratios, nor a convenient way to assess V.A\\/Q. inequality. The purpose of this study was to develop a functional image of pulmonary V.A\\/Q. ratios based on data acquired with simultaneous dual-radionuclide single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and to assess\\u000a V.A\\/Q. unevenness through

Y. Sando; T. Inoue; R. Nagai; K. Endo



Evaluation of left ventricular wall motion, volumes, and ejection fraction by gated myocardial tomography with technetium 99m-labeled tetrofosmin: A comparison with cine magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Whether left ventricular function can be assessed accurately by gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in\\u000a patients with myocardial infarction and severe perfusion defects is not well known.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  Twenty-five patients with an acute myocardial infarction underwent 99mTc-labeled tetrofosmin (99mTc-tetrofosmin) gated SPECT and cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Wall motion was assessed in 13 left ventricular segments\\u000a using

Periyanan Vaduganathan; Zuo-Xiang He; G. Wesley Vick III; John J. Mahmarian; Mario S. Verani



Gating provides improved accuracy for differentiating artifacts from true lesions in equivocal fixed defects on technetium 99m tetrofosmin perfusion SPECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Because equivocal fixed perfusion defects on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) often cause a diagnostic dilemma\\u000a in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), we used receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to\\u000a evaluate the degree of increased accuracy provided by adding gated images for interpretation of such cases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and results  One hundred five (29%) of 365 consecutive patients undergoing

Joon Young Choi; Kyung Han Lee; Sun Jung Kim; Sang Eun Kim; Byung-Tae Kim; Sang Hoon Lee; Won Ro Lee



Comparison of defect size between thallium-201 and technetium-99m tetrofosmin myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defect size on exercise-rest technetium (Tc)-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging was compared with that on exercise-reinjection thallium-201 imaging in 20 patients with 1 -vessel coronary artery disease, in each patient, exercise-reinjection thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and exercise-rest Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT imaging were performed. For visual analysis of the obtained SPECT images, the left ventricular myocardium was divided into

Ichiro Matsunari; Susumu Fujino; Junichi Taki; Junji Senma; Takahiko Aoyama; Takanobu Wakasugi; Jun-ichi Hirai; Takashi Saga; Norihisa Tonami; Kinichi Hisada



Technetium 99m-labeled tetrofosmin myocardial tomography in patients with coronary artery disease: Comparison between adenosine and dynamic exercise stress testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Pharmacologic coronary vasodilation with adenosine, combined with myocardial scintigraphy, is a useful test for the diagnosis\\u000a of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients unable to exercise. It has been demonstrated recently that exercise 99mTc-labeled tetrofosmin cardiac imaging can be used for the detection of CAD. However, no data are available comparing 99mTc-labeled tetrofosmin adenosine and exercise tests in the same

Alberto Cuocolo; Emanuele Nicolai; Andrea Soricelli; Leonardo Pace; Antonio Nappi; Pasquale Sullo; Stefania Cardei; Luigi Argenziano; Peter J. Ell; Marco Salvatore



Recurrent follicular carcinoma-oxyphilic cell type (Hürthle cell carcinoma) of the thyroid, imaging with iodine-131 and technetium-99m tetrofosmin before and after radiotherapy.  


A 68-year-old male with recurrence of malignant follicular carcinoma-oxyphilic cell type of the thyroid after surgery underwent whole body scintigraphy with 131I-sodium iodide and 99Tcm-tetrofosmin (Myoview). 131I scanning demonstrated local uptake most likely to be in the normal remnant, but 99Tcm-Myoview images delineated recurrence of the carcinoma in the neck, with more extensive involvement. We believe that a combination of 131I and 99Tcm-tetrofosmin imaging may be useful to assess the extent of disease in patients with recurrent Hürthle cell type carcinoma of the thyroid. PMID:9534706

Bomanji, J B; Gacinovic, S; Gaze, M N; Costa, D C; Ell, P J



Myocardial distribution of indium-111-antimyosin Fab in acute inferior and right ventricular infarction: comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

In a postmortem study of a 69-yr-old female patient who had suffered 2 yr previously a non-Q-wave anterior infarction and who had sustained just seven days earlier a left inferior and right ventricular infarction, the distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab was compared to the results of {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination. Indium-111-antimyosin Fab imaging could not be performed because of cardiogenic shock. However, postmortem gamma scintillation counting revealed increased activities of antimyosin Fab in the inferoapical and right ventricular infarcted regions in which {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate positive imagings were observed; in contrast, a histologically confirmed old subendocardial anterior infarction had no definite activity. Thus, the myocardial distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab corresponded well to the results of {sup 99}mTc scintigrams and histologic examinations in a human heart, suggesting that this technique could be useful in vivo for detecting several-day-old myocardial infarction of the right ventricle as well as the left ventricle. Tissue from the 2-yr-old infarction was not identified by this technique.

Nakata, T.; Sakakibara, T.; Noto, T.; Shoji, T.; Tsuda, T.; Kubota, M.; Hattori, A.; Iimura, O. (Sapporo Medical College, (Japan))



Changes of arterial blood flow patterns during infusion chemotherapy, as monitored by intra-arterially injected technetium 99m macroaggregated albumin.  


Arterial catheter tip position and arterial flow was monitored by intra-arterial infusion of 99Tcm macroaggregated albumin in patients treated by intra-arterial chemotherapy. Variations in arterial flow pattern as monitored by macroaggregated albumin perfusion studies were encountered in 16 patients without apparent change in the catheter position as monitored by arteriographic and/or radiographic examinations. Possible mechanisms causing changes in arterial flow pattern include: (a) development of collateral circulation, (b) arterial spasm, (c) progressive arteritis causing thrombi with or without associated spasm, and (d) laminar flow. It is important to recognise that changes in perfusion patterns are not always accompanied by change in the position of the arterial catheter. PMID:6230133

Bledin, A G; Kim, E E; Chuang, V P; Wallace, S; Haynie, T P



Human Polyclonal Immunoglobulin Labelled with Technetium99m via NHS-MAG 3: A Comparison of Radiochemical Behavior and Biological Efficacy with Other Labelling Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiochemical behavior, biological distribution, and localization in infection sites in mice of a human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) labelled with 99mTc by a novel MAG3-labelling method. The resulting [99mTc]MAG3-HIG was compared with [99mTc]HIG preparations radiolabelled directly via 2-mercaptoethanol (2-Me) or stannous ion (Sn) reduction and indirectly via 2-iminothiolane (2-Im) conjugation. All preparations

L Gano; L Patr??cio; E Marques; G Cantinho; H Pena; T Martins; D. J Hnatowich



Stable one-step technetium-99m labeling of His-tagged recombinant proteins with a novel Tc(I)–carbonyl complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a technetium labeling technology based on a new organometallic chemistry, which involves simple mixing of the novel reagent, a 99m Tc(I)–carbonyl compound, with a His-tagged recombinant protein. This method obviates the labeling of unpaired engineered cysteines, which frequently create problems in large-scale expression and storage of disulfide-containing proteins. In this study, we labeled antibody single-chain Fv fragments

Robert Waibel; Roger Alberto; Jörg Willuda; Ricarda Finnern; Roger Schibli; Albert Stichelberger; André Egli; Ulrich Abram; Jean-Pierre Mach; P. August Schubiger; Andreas Plückthun



False-positive defects in technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial single-photon emission tomography in healthy athletes with left ventricular hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Exercise ECG and myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) are fundamental in the non-invasive evaluation of patients\\u000a suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of physiological\\u000a left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on myocardial sestamibi SPET in healthy young and old athletes. Eighteen young male elite\\u000a athletes (ten rowers, five power\\/weight

Peter Bartram; Jens Toft; Birgitte Hanel; Samir Ali; Finn Gustafsson; Jann Mortensen; Birger Hesse



Anti-carcinoembryonic antigen immunoscintigraphy (technetium-99m-monoclonal antibody BW 431/26) and serum CEA levels in patients with suspected primary and recurrent colorectal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

This study comprises a total of 141 patients with suspected primary and recurrent colorectal carcinomas, in whom immunoscintigraphy with 99mTc-Mab BW 431/26 was performed. Whole-body scans were done 5.5 hr and SPECT imaging of the abdominal region was done at 6 and 24 hr postinjection of 1100 MBq 99mTc-labeled Mab (1 mg). In the course of primary tumor identification (n = 65), sensitivity of anti-CEA immunoscintigraphy was 95%, specificity 91%. In the diagnosis of early recurrences (n = 76), immunoscintigraphy was the method of choice to clarify the problem (sensitivity 94%; specificity 86%). Overall sensitivity of immunoscintigraphy in patients with suspected colorectal carcinomas and early recurrences was 95%, specificity 88%. Human anti-mouse antibodies were found in 29% (80% predominantly anti-isotypic, 20% predominantly anti-idiotypic). In contrast to anti-CEA immunoscintigraphy, the results of serum CEA levels were rather disappointing. Only 18 out of the 43 surgically verified primary colorectal carcinomas and 17 out of 32 patients with recurrences showed elevated serum CEA levels. In our clinical experience with this 99mTc-labeled anti-CEA antibody, immunoscintigraphy can play an important role in the identification of early colorectal recurrences and in postoperative colorectal cancer patients it should be performed in cases with unclear transmission computed tomography.

Lind, P.; Lechner, P.; Arian-Schad, K.; Klimpfinger, M.; Cesnik, H.; Kammerhuber, F.; Eber, O. (Internal Department/Nuclear Medicine, Barmherzige Brueder Eggenberg Hospital, Graz (Austria))



Attenuation correction by simultaneous emission-transmission myocardial single-photon emission tomography using a technetium-99m-labelled radiotracer: impact on diagnostic accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irregular photon attenuation may limit the diagnostic accuracy of myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The aim of this study was to quantify the potential benefit of attenuation correction by simultaneous emission and transmission imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) of vessels supplying the inferoposterior wall segments. In 25 male patients with ₞% stenoses of the right coronary

Regine Kluge; Bernhard Sattler; Anita Seese; Wolfram H. Knapp



Septal Perfusion and Wall Thickening in Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block Assessed by Technetium99m-Sestamibi Gated Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Septal hypoperfusion is often observed in patients with complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) in myocardial perfusion imaging. Abnormal wall motion in the septal region may potentially cause artifactual perfusion abnormalities. To assess the effect of abnormal wall thickening on myocardial perfusion images, ECG-gated sesta- mibi SPECT was performed on 12 patients with LBBB and 10 normal subjects used as

Hideki Sugihara; Nagara Tamaki; Masato Nozawa; Tomoko Ohmura; Yasuhiko Inamoto; Yoshimitsu Taniguchi; Etsuo Aoki; Kenichi Mitsunami; Masahiko Kinoshita


Reduction of infracardiac intestinal activity by a small amount of soda water in technetium-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with adenosine stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In technetium (Tc)-99m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), intestinal activity often interferes with the assessment of myocardial\\u000a perfusion of the inferior wall. We examined whether a small amount of soda water prevents intestinal activity and improves\\u000a image quality of the inferior wall in Tc-99m tetrofosmin MPI.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  Ninety-five patients referred for 1-day rest\\/stress Tc-99m tetrofosmin MPI were assigned to one

Masatake Hara; Hajime Monzen; Rie Futai; Koichi Inagaki; Hisashi Shimoyama; Masaru Morikawa; Nobuyoshi Tomioka; Takashi Konishi; Yutaka Watanabe; Rumio Yuki; Hisato Kobayashi; Kunihiko Hirose



Myocardial distribution of indium-111-antimyosin Fab in acute inferior and right ventricular infarction: comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a postmortem study of a 69-yr-old female patient who had suffered 2 yr previously a non-Q-wave anterior infarction and who had sustained just seven days earlier a left inferior and right ventricular infarction, the distribution of ¹¹¹In-antimyosin Fab was compared to the results of ⁹⁹mTc-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination. Indium-111-antimyosin Fab imaging could not be performed because of cardiogenic

T. Nakata; T. Sakakibara; T. Noto; T. Shoji; T. Tsuda; M. Kubota; A. Hattori; O. Iimura



Limitations of Dobutamine for Enhancing Flow Heterogeneity in the Presence of Single Coronary Stenosis: Implications for Technetium99m- Sestamibi Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dobutamine is used as an alternative to exercise in conjunction with 99mTc-sestamibiSPECT perfusion imaging for detection of coronary artery disease. However, the use of quantitative dobutamine 99mTc- sestamibi SPECT imaging for enhanced detection of coronary stenosis has not been established. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of dobutamine stress on regional myocardial blood flow and relative

Joseph C. Wu; James J. Yun; Eliot N. Heller; Donald P. Dione; Paul DeMan; Yi-hwa Liu; Barry L. Zaret


Radiation dose to technicians per nuclear medicine procedure: comparison between technetium-99m, gallium-67, and iodine-131 radiotracers and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to determine the non-extremity gamma dose received by a technician while performing an ordinary\\u000a nuclear medicine procedure or a static (i.e. without blood sampling) fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission\\u000a tomography (PET) study. The dose per patient was measured by means of a commercial electronic pocket Geiger Mueller dosimeter,\\u000a worn in the upper left

C. Chiesa; V. De Sanctis; F. Crippa; M. Schiavini; C. E. Fraigola; A. Bogni; C. Pascali; D. Decise; R. Marchesini; E. Bombardieri



Acid-citrate-dextrose compared with heparin in the preparation of in vivo/in vitro technetium-99m red blood cells  

SciTech Connect

Red blood cells labeled in vivo/in vitro with Tc-99m (Tc-99m RBC) were prepared in a series of 21 patients and two normal volunteers. In each subject both heparin and acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) solutions were used to label tandem blood samples. The immediate preinjection binding efficiency (BE) was then determined. In each of the 23 studies, the ACD preparation yielded superior BE. The average BE was 93.47% (+/- 3.78) with ACD and 87.23% (+/- 4.29) with heparin. With the ACD method the effect of carrier Tc-99 may be as great as a 24% reduction in BE observed when initial eluates from long-ingrowth-time generators were used. Improved image quality with minimal renal and urinary-bladder activity results with ACD labeling. It is concluded that the use of ACD results in superior RBC labeling with less nontarget activity relative to heparin and is preferred over heparin for preparing in vivo/in vitro Tc-99m RBC.

Porter, W.C.; Dees, S.M.; Freitas, J.E.; Dworkin, H.J.



Biokinetic modelling of DTPA decorporation therapy: the CONRAD approach.  


Administration of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) can enhance the urinary excretion rate of plutonium (Pu) for several days, but most of this Pu decorporation occurs on the first day after treatment. The development of a biokinetic model describing the mechanisms of decorporation of actinides by administration of DTPA was initiated as a task of the coordinated network for radiation dosimetry project. The modelling process was started by using the systemic biokinetic model for Pu from Leggett et al. and the biokinetic model for DTPA compounds of International Commission on Radiation Protection Publication 53. The chelation of Pu and DTPA to Pu-DTPA was treated explicitly and is assumed to follow a second-order process. It was assumed that the chelation takes place in the blood and in the rapid turnover soft tissues compartments of the Pu model, and that Pu-DTPA behaves in the same way as administered DTPA. First applications of this draft model showed that the height of the peak of urinary excretion after administration of DTPA was determined by the chelation rate. However, repetitions of DTPA administration shortly after the first one showed no effect in the application of the draft model in contrast to data from real cases. The present draft model is thus not yet realistic. Therefore several questions still have to be answered, notably about where the Pu-DTPA complexes are formed, which biological ligands of Pu are dissociated, if Pu-DTPA is stable and if the biokinetics of Pu-DTPA excretion is similar to that of DTPA. Further detailed studies of human contamination cases and experimental data about Pu-DTPA kinetics will be needed in order to address these issues. The work will now be continued within a working group of EURADOS. PMID:19351653

Breustedt, B; Blanchardon, E; Berard, P; Fritsch, P; Giussani, A; Lopez, M A; Luciani, A; Nosske, D; Piechowski, J; Schimmelpfeng, J; Sérandour, A-L



The CONRAD approach to biokinetic modeling of DTPA decorporation therapy.  


Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) is used for decorporation of plutonium because it is known to be able to enhance its urinary excretion for several days after treatment by forming stable Pu-DTPA complexes. The decorporation prevents accumulation in organs and results in a dosimetric benefit, which is difficult to quantify from bioassay data using existing models. The development of a biokinetic model describing the mechanisms of actinide decorporation by administration of DTPA was initiated as a task in the European COordinated Network on RAdiation Dosimetry (CONRAD). The systemic biokinetic model from Leggett et al. and the biokinetic model for DTPA compounds of International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 53 were the starting points. A new model for biokinetics of administered DTPA based on physiological interpretation of 14C-labeled DTPA studies from literature was proposed by the group. Plutonium and DTPA biokinetics were modeled separately. The systems were connected by means of a second order kinetics process describing the chelation process of plutonium atoms and DTPA molecules to Pu-DTPA complexes. It was assumed that chelation only occurs in the blood and in systemic compartment ST0 (representing rapid turnover soft tissues), and that Pu-DTPA complexes and administered forms of DTPA share the same biokinetic behavior. First applications of the CONRAD approach showed that the enhancement of plutonium urinary excretion after administration of DTPA was strongly influenced by the chelation rate constant. Setting it to a high value resulted in a good fit to the observed data. However, the model was not yet satisfactory since the effects of repeated DTPA administration in a short time period cannot be predicted in a realistic way. In order to introduce more physiological knowledge into the model several questions still have to be answered. Further detailed studies of human contamination cases and experimental data will be needed in order to address these issues. The work is now continued within the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, EURADOS. PMID:20838097

Breustedt, Bastian; Blanchardon, Eric; Bérard, Philippe; Fritsch, Paul; Giussani, Augusto; Lopez, Maria Antonia; Luciani, Andrea; Nosske, Dietmar; Piechowski, Jean; Schimmelpfeng, Jutta; Sérandour, Anne-Laure



Role of nuclear medicine in clinical urology and nephrology  

SciTech Connect

The application of radionuclide studies to nephrologic and urologic practice has reached a measurable degree of maturity during the past several years. In spite of this, the utilization of these techniques in many institutions in the United States continues to be far less frequent than one would expect from the clinical advantages. The aim of this editorial is to try to place the role of nuclear medicine in urology and nephrology in perspective. At the present time, in spite of the large number of renal agents that have been developed, there is no practical ideal radiopharmaceutical that can serve as a universal agent. Arbitrarily, one may reduce the chief armamentarium to only four radiopharmaceuticals; technetium-99m DTPA, I-131 OIH (orthoiodohippurate), technetium-99m glucoheptonate and technetium-99m DMSA. These agents are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages.

Blaufox, M.D.; Fine, E.; Lee, H.B.; Scharf, S.



Characterisation of Ho-DTPA and Y-DTPA complexes by capillary isotachophoresis and TLC with radiometric detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexation of holmium and yttrium with DTPA (diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid) was studied as a first step for labelling of monoclonal antibodies for radiopharmaceutical application. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with radiometric detection was used to determine the suitable conditions for the preparation of studied complexes. The optimum pH of the reaction mixture, radionuclide: ligand ratio, reaction time and stability of selected complex compounds were found. To find out the physico—chemical properties (stability constants) of Ho-DTPA and Y-DTPA complexes the capillary isotachophoresis (cITP) with conductivity detection was applied using the fact that a good linear relationship exists between the stability constants of lanthanide-DTPA complexes and the zone reduction due to the bleeding effect (liberation of free metal ion). Satisfactory agreement between the stability constant values of Ho-DTPA and Y-DTPA complexes determined by ITP and ones obtained from the SC Querry Database was obtained.

Koudelková, M.; Vinšová, H.; Jedináková-K?ížová, V.



Characterization of DTPA complexes and conjugated antibodies of astatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex formation of astatine\\/I\\/ cation with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid \\/DTPA\\/ and characterization of the complexes were investigated by electromigration in free electrolytes and by gel-chromatography on Sephadex G 25. We describe the conjugation procedure for the production of At-DTPA conjugated polyclonal antibodies.

S. Milesz; Yu. V. Norseev; Z. Szücs; L. Vasáros



Evaluation of lung function and deposition of aerosolized bronchodilators carried by heliox associated with positive expiratory pressure in stable asthmatics: a randomized clinical trial.  


While administration of medical aerosols with heliox and positive airway pressure are both used clinically to improve aerosol delivery, few studies have differentiated their separate roles in treatment of asthmatics. The aim of this randomized, double blinded study is to differentiate the effect of heliox and oxygen with and without positive expiratory pressure (PEP), on delivery of radiotagged inhaled bronchodilators on pulmonary function and deposition in asthmatics. 32 patients between 18 and 65 years of age diagnosed with stable moderate to severe asthma were randomly assigned into four groups: (1) Heliox + PEP (n = 6), (2) Oxygen + PEP (n = 6), (3) Heliox (n = 11) and (4) Oxygen without PEP (n = 9). Each group received 1 mg of fenoterol and 2 mg of ipratropium bromide combined with 25 mCi (955 Mbq) of Technetium-99m and 0.9% saline to a total dose volume of 3 mL placed in a Venticis II nebulizer attached to a closed, valved mask with PEP of 0 or 10 cm H2O. Both gas type and PEP level were blinded to the investigators. Images were acquired with a single-head scintillation camera with the longitudinal and transverse division of the right lung as regions of interest (ROIs). While all groups responded to bronchodilators, only group 1 showed increase in FEV1%predicted and IC compared to the other groups (p < 0.04). When evaluating the ROI in the vertical gradient we observed higher deposition in the middle and lower third in groups 1 (p = 0.02) and 2 (p = 0.01) compared to group 3. In the horizontal gradient, a higher deposition in the central region in groups 1 (p = 0.03) and 2 (p = 0.02) compared to group 3 and intermediate region of group 2 compared to group 3. We conclude that aerosol deposition was higher in groups with PEP independent of gas used, while bronchodilator response with Heliox + PEP improved FEV1 % and IC compared to administration with Oxygen, Oxygen with PEP and Heliox alone. Trial registration NCT01268462. PMID:23664767

Alcoforado, Luciana; Brandão, Simone; Rattes, Catarina; Brandão, Daniella; Lima, Vitória; Ferreira Lima, Gildo; Fink, James B; Dornelas de Andrade, Armele



The Pharmacokinetics of Pulmonary-Delivered Insulin: A Comparison of Intratracheal and Aerosol Administration to the Rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulmonary deposition and pharmacokinetics of insulin, administered via an endotracheal tube as an aerosol and instillate, in formulations containing either 113mIn-DTPA or 99mTc-DTPA (for gamma scintigraphic imaging) have been studied in four male New Zealand White rabbits. Using a randomized crossover design, the pharmacokinetics of intravenous insulin were also characterized. Recovery of immunoreactive insulin after nebulization was greater than

Paul Colthorpe; Stephen J. Farr; Glyn Taylor; lan J. Smith; David Wyatt



Clinical comparison of a new Tc-99m DTPA delivery system with Kr-81m  

SciTech Connect

Satisfactory agents for ventilation imaging are not widely available. Access to Kr-81m is limited and image quality with Xe-133 is poor, so attention is being focused on radioaerosols as possible alternatives. The authors assessed the diagnostic value of a new Tc-99m DTPA aerosol delivery system. Forty patients were studied, most with suspected pulmonary embolism. The protocol involved FEV/sub 1/ measurement, six minutes aerosol inhalation immediately followed by steady-state Kr-81m imaging and, 60 minutes later, by Tc-99m MAA perfusion imaging. The efficiency of the system was 2%. Twenty-one patients had no central airways deposition of aerosol, 14 had 'spotty' images which were correctly interpretable and five had airways deposition sufficient to be misleading. The overall sensitivity of the test relative to Kr-81m was 75% and the specificity 84% (100% and 94% respectively among non-smokers). Airways deposition was significantly more frequent in smokers than in non-smokers and in patients whose FEV/sub 1/ was less than 50% predicted. The authors conclude that the system provides accurate clinical information in non-smokers but is of less value in smokers. It should prove a practical alternative to Xe-133.

Finn, J.P.; Myers, M.J.; Nair, K.M.; Lavender, J.P.



Ozone-induced changes in the pulmonary clearance of (99m)Tc-DTPA in man  

SciTech Connect

Ozone is a respiratory irritant that has been shown in animals to increase the premeability of the respiratory epithelium. In the study the authors have recently reported that respiratory epithelial permeability was similarly affected in eight healthy non-smoking young men exposed to ozone (ARRD, 135 (1987) 1124-8). Permeability was evaluated by determining the pulmonary clearance of inhaled aerosolized 99mTc-DTPA with sequential posterior lung imaging by a computer-assisted gamma camera. In a randomized crossover design, 16 young men were exposed for 2 h to purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone while performing intermittent high intensity treadmill exercise; forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured before and at the end of exposures. The results demonstrate that ozone exposure increased respiratory epithelial permeability. Such an increase may be a manifestation of direct ozone-induced epithelial-cell injury, lung inflammation, or both.

Kehrl, H.R.; Vincent, L.M.; Kowalsky, R.J.; Horstman, D.H.; O'Neil, J.J.



Organic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN.

Penner, J.E.



Artificial Aerosols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains the technical proceedings of the Workshop on Artificial Aerosols held in Vail, Colorado, June 19-20, 1979. The workshop reviewed the state-of-the-art of chemically, aerodynamically or pyrotechnically produced aerosols and identified f...

A. Deepak L. H. Ruhnke



New insights into formation of trivalent actinides complexes with DTPA.  


Complexation of trivalent actinides with DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) was studied as a function of pcH and temperature in (Na,H)Cl medium of 0.1 M ionic strength. Formation constants of both complexes AnHDTPA(-) and AnDTPA(2-) (where An stands for Am, Cm, and Cf) were determined by TRLFS, CE-ICP-MS, spectrophotometry, and solvent extraction. The values of formation constants obtained from the different techniques are coherent and consistent with reinterpreted literature data, showing a higher stability of Cf complexes than Am and Cm complexes. The effect of temperature indicates that formation constants of protonated and nonprotonated complexes are exothermic with a high positive entropic contribution. DFT calculations were also performed on the An/DTPA system. Geometry optimizations were conducted on AnDTPA(2-) and AnHDTPA(-) considering all possible protonation sites. For both complexes, one and two water molecules in the first coordination sphere of curium were also considered. DFT calculations indicate that the lowest energy structures correspond to protonation on oxygen that is not involved in An-DTPA bonds and that the structures with two water molecules are not stable. PMID:23152978

Leguay, Sébastien; Vercouter, Thomas; Topin, Sylvain; Aupiais, Jean; Guillaumont, Dominique; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Moisy, Philippe; Le Naour, Claire



Ustur whole body case 0269: demonstrating effectiveness of i.v. CA-DTPA for Pu.  


This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol 'mist'. Chelation treatment with intravenously (i.v.) Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2.5 y with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation) and continuing for 37 y. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 y after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive data set has been applied to derive 'chelation-enhanced' transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially, all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modelling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as effective as promptly administered Ca-EDTA. PMID:18227077

James, A C; Sasser, L B; Stuit, D B; Glover, S E; Carbaugh, E H




SciTech Connect

This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol ‘mist.’ Chelation treatment with i.v. Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2½ years with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation), and continuing for 37 years. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 years after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive dataset has been applied to derive ‘chelation-enhanced’ transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys, and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modeling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as effective as promptly administered Ca-EDTA.

James, Anthony C.; Sasser , Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Carbaugh, Eugene H.



241Am removal by DTPA vs. occurrence of skeletal malignancy.  


Beagle dogs injected with 241Am and treated subsequently with DTPA exhibited a reduced occurrence of skeletal malignancies and increased lifespans when compared to corresponding untreated animals also given 241Am. Whereas 92% of dogs given about 11 kBq 241Am kg(-1) and not treated with DTPA developed bone cancer (skeletal dose about 5.9 Gy), skeletal malignancy was seen in only 40% and 27%, respectively, among two groups of DTPA-treated animals injected with 11 kBq kg(-1) (doses of 5.7 and 1.7 Gy). The median lifespan among the untreated dogs was 1,728 d, but the median lifespans in the DTPA-treated groups were 2,478 and 3,654 d, respectively. Untreated dogs with a skeletal dose averaging about 2 Gy had 53% bone cancer occurrence and a median lifespan of 3,227 d. These data did not enable us to address the question of whether the reduction in cancer occurrence was proportional to, greater than, or less than the reduction in skeletal dose, but the third possibility seems unlikely. PMID:9827511

Lloyd, R D; Taylor, G N; Mays, C W



Aerosol Inhaler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is an item of medical equipment, an aerosol inhaler used for treatment of respiratory tracts. Familiar aerosol inhalers consist of a housing with a water bath, an inlet fitting, a nozzle, a container with the medicinal solution to be sprayed...

A. S. Perelmutr M. L. Talalai S. A. Glukov



Comparison of dobutamine stress echocardiography and technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in hypertensive patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy.  


Stress echocardiography has been considered an accurate method for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in hypertensive patients and in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. In contrast, the specificity of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in these patients has been questioned. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of these two imaging modalities in conjunction with dobutamine stress test for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in hypertensive patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy. Dobutamine (up to 40 microg kg-1min-1) stress echocardiography in conjunction with sestamibi (MIBI) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) was performed in 84 patients with the diagnosis of systemic hypertension who had been referred for evaluation of myocardial ischaemia. Ischaemia was defined as new or worsened wall motion abnormalities at echocardiography and reversible perfusion defects at SPET. Significant coronary artery disease (>/=50% luminal diameter stenosis) was detected in 66 patients (79%). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ischaemic pattern at echocardiography for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease were 73% (CI 63%-82%), 83% (CI 75%-91%) and 75% (CI 66%-84%), those for MIBI were 67% (CI 57%-77%), 83% (CI 75%-91%) and 70% (CI 60%-80%) respectively (P = NS vs echocardiography). Significant stenosis was detected in 123 (49%) of the 252 analysed coronary arteries. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of echocardiography for the regional diagnosis of coronary artery disease were 63% (CI 56%-69%), 90% (CI 86%-94%) and 77% (CI 72%-82%). Those for MIBI were 58% (CI 51%-64%), 91% (CI 87%-94%) and 75% (CI 69%-80) respectively (P = NS vs echocardiography). Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 59 patients (70%) by echocardiography and did not influence the overall or regional specificity of echocardiography or MIBI SPET. It is concluded that in hypertensive patients, dobutamine stress echocardiography and MIBI SPET have a comparable accuracy for the overall and regional diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Hypertensive patients with or without left ventricular hypertrophy should not be considered unsuitable candidates for stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. PMID:9396877

Elhendy, A; Geleijnse, M L; van Domburg, R T; Bax, J J; Nierop, P R; Beerens, S A; Valkema, R; Krenning, E P; Mohsen Ibrahim, M; Roelandt, J R



Comparison of the predictive value of Exercise-Induced ST depression versus exercise technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging for detection of coronary artery disease in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scant knowledge exists regarding the significance of either additional ST depression in the presence of baseline depression or new stress-induced ST depression in patients with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Accordingly, the purpose of this investigation is to determine whether the appearance and\\/or severity of ST abnormalities during exercise stress testing can accurately predict the prevalence of ischemic burden as measured

Dharmesh Patel; Timir S. Baman; George A. Beller



Technetium 99m Ethylcysteinate Dimer Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) During Intellectual Stress Test in Children and Adolescents With Pure Versus Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children and adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can have comorbid conditions such as conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (comorbid type). The purpose of our study was to compare the pattern of regional cerebral perfusion in these two groups of children with ADHD during a computerized

Mordechai Lorberboym; Nathan Watemberg; Andreea Nissenkorn; Batia Nir; Tally Lerman-Sagie



Detection of coronary artery disease: Comparison between technetium 99m-labeled sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography and two-dimensional echocardiography with dipyridamole low-level exercise-stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Myocardial perfusion imaging in conjunction with dipyridamole low-level exercise stress has proved its value in the evaluation\\u000a of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Simultaneous wall motion analysis by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography\\u000a may provide additional information beyond that obtained by myocardial perfusion imaging alone. The purpose of this study was\\u000a to compare 99mTc-labeled sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and

Maarten-Jan M. Cramer; Ernst E. van der Wall; Wybren Jaarsma; J. Fred Verzijlbergen; Menco G. Niemeyer; Aeilko H. Zwinderman; Ernest K. J. Pauwels



Use of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and gallium-67 citrate scans after intraarticular injection of Staphylococcus aureus into knee joints of rabbits with chronic antigen-induced arthritis  

SciTech Connect

Numerous clinical studies have questioned the ability of radionuclide scans to differentiate septic from aseptic joint inflammation. A clinical study may not be able to document an underlying disease process or duration of infection and, thus, may make conclusions about the accuracy of scan interpretations open to debate. In this study, the Dumonde-Glynn model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits was used as the experimental model to study technetium and gallium scans in Staphylococcus aureus infection of arthritic and normal joints. Gallium scans were negative in normal rabbits, usually negative in antigen-induced arthritis, but positive in septic arthritis. The bone scan was usually negative in early infection but positive in late septic arthritis, a finding reflecting greater penetration of bacteria into subchondral bone because of the underlying inflammatory process.

Mahowald, M.L.; Raskind, J.R.; Peterson, L.; Gerding, D.; Raddatz, D.A.; Shafer, R.



[Evaluation of SPECT with N-isopropyl [I-123]-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) or technetium-99m [99mTc]-d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (d, 1-HM-PAO) in cerebral concussion].  


123I-IMP and Tc-PAO SPECT were performed in 20 cases of cerebral concussion ranging in age from 4 to 20 years old, including six cases of the juvenile head trauma syndrome (JHTS). The SPECT findings were divided into two main types: six cases in the normal group with no blood flow abnormalities, and 14 cases in abnormal group showing reduced blood flow, mainly in cerebellum and occipital lobe except in one case. In 10 cases with reduced blood flow which could be analyzed, calculation of the blood flow ratio in the temporal and occipital lobes and the cerebellum with the frontal lobe taken as 100 showed values of 93.5% for the temporal lobe, 82.7% for the occipital lobe and 76.8% for the cerebellum. A statistically significant reduction in blood flow occurred in the occipital lobe and cerebellum. In blood examination, abnormally high values of white blood cell counts were observed transiently in 94% of cerebral concussion cases. Abnormalities in brain stem and hypothalamus appeared to cause these abnormal WBC values. From these findings, it was suggested that the blood flow regions of the basilar and posterior cerebral arteries, i.e., the brain stem and hypothalamus are closely connected with the lesions responsible for cerebral concussion. It also appeared that the JHTS occurs in cerebral concussion cases where recovery of the abnormal blood flow in these regions in poor. PMID:1910937

Torigoe, R; Hayashi, T; Anegawa, S; Harada, K; Matsuo, H; Yoshikawa, I



F-18-2-Fluoro-2Deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Compared to Technetium99m Hexakis-2-Methoxyisobutyl Isonitrile Single Photon Emission Chest Tomography in the Diagnosis of Indeterminate Lung Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:18FDG-PET plays a significant role in diagnosing malignancy of lung lesions but remains an expensive test available at a limited number of sites in Italy. Objective: We prospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of 99mTc-MIBI- SPECT and 18FDG-PET in patients with indeterminate lung lesions to demonstrate that 99mTc-MIBI-SPECT may be considered as a valid alternative when 18FDG-PET is not available. Methods:

Mario Santini; Alfonso Fiorelli; Giovanni Vicidomini; Paolo Laperuta; Luigi Busiello; Pier Francesco Rambaldi; Luigi Mansi; Antonio Rotondo



Gamma scintigraphic studies on guar gum matrix tablets for colonic drug delivery in healthy human volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel colon-specific drug delivery system based on a polysaccharide, guar gum, was evaluated by conducting gamma scintigraphic studies using technetium-99m-DTPA as tracer, in six healthy male human volunteers. Scintigraphs taken at regular intervals have shown that some amount of tracer present on the surface of the tablets was released in stomach and small intestine and the bulk of the

Y. S. R Krishnaiah; S Satyanarayana; Y. V Rama Prasad; S Narasimha Rao



Preferential decorporation of americium by pulmonary administration of DTPA dry powder after inhalation of aged PuO(2) containing americium in rats.  


After inhalation of plutonium oxides containing various percentages of americium in rats, we identified an acellular transient pulmonary compartment, the epithelial lining fluid (ELF), in which a fraction of actinide oxides dissolve prior to absorption and subsequent extrapulmonary deposit. Chelation therapy is usually considered to be poorly efficient after inhalation of actinide oxides. However, in the present study, prompt pulmonary administration of diethylenetraminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as a dry powder led to a decrease in actinide content in ELF together with a limitation of bone and liver deposits. Because americium is more soluble than plutonium, higher amounts of americium were found in ELF, extrapulmonary tissues and urine. Our results also demonstrated that the higher efficacy of DTPA on americium compared to plutonium in ELF induced a preferential inhibition of extrapulmonary deposit and a greater urinary excretion of americium compared to plutonium. All together, our data justify the use of an early and local DTPA treatment after inhalation of plutonium oxide aerosols in which americium can be in high proportion such as in aged compounds. PMID:20726717

Grémy, Olivier; Tsapis, Nicolas; Chau, Quang; Renault, Daniel; Abram, Marie-Claire; Van der Meeren, Anne



Gd-DTPA-loaded polymer-metal complex micelles with high relaxivity for MR cancer imaging.  


Nanodevices for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer were self-assembled to core-shell micellar structures by metal complex formation of K(2)PtCl(6) with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (III) dihydrogen (Gd-DTPA), a T(1)-contrast agent, and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly{N-[N'-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]aspartamide} (PEG-b-PAsp(DET)) copolymer in aqueous solution. Gd-DTPA-loaded polymeric micelles (Gd-DTPA/m) showed a hydrodynamic diameter of 45 nm and a core size of 22 nm. Confining Gd-DTPA inside the core of the micelles increased the relaxivity of Gd-DTPA more than 13 times (48 mM(-1) s(-1)). In physiological conditions Gd-DTPA/m sustainedly released Gd-DTPA, while the Pt(IV) complexes remain bound to the polymer. Gd-DTPA/m extended the circulation time in plasma and augmented the tumor accumulation of Gd-DTPA leading to successful contrast enhancement of solid tumors. ?-Synchrotron radiation-X-ray fluorescence results confirmed that Gd-DTPA was delivered to the tumor site by the micelles. Our study provides a facile strategy for incorporating contrast agents, dyes and bioactive molecules into nanodevices for developing safe and efficient drug carriers for clinical application. PMID:23059004

Mi, Peng; Cabral, Horacio; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Rafi, Mohammad; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Ichio; Saga, Tsuneo; Takehiko, Ishii; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori



MR image time-intensity relations in spleen and kidney: a comparative study of GdDTPA, albumin-(GdDTPA), and Gd2O3 colloid.  


Magnetic resonance images were performed using a gradient recalled echo sequence with acquisition of images every 30 s in anesthetized rats before and after intravenous bolus injections of 100 microns/kg GdDTPA, 60 microns/kg albumin-(GdDTPA), and 60 microns/kg Gd2O3 colloid. All three agents caused significant enhancement of the renal cortex, and even greater enhancement of the spleen. GdDTPA showed an early peak at 11 s followed by a wash-out as blood concentrations fell, whereas albumin-(GdDTPA) and Gd2O3 showed sustained tissue enhancement. The enhancement in each organ was equivalent for albumin-(GdDTPA) and Gd2O3 which stay intravascular; but 30% less for GdDTPA which enters the interstitial space. In addition GdDTPA showed an initial enhancement of the renal medulla but then a subsequent loss of signal, whereas albumin-(GdDTPA) resulted in a greater enhancement of the medulla as compared to the cortex. We conclude that time-intensity studies of local tissue response to MR indicators reflect tissue physiological parameters such as perfusion, blood volume, and concentrating ability in a semiquantitative manner. PMID:2285522

Daly, P F; Zimmerman, J B; Cannillo, J A; Wolf, G L



Species-dependent effective concentration of DTPA in plasma for chelation of 241Am.  


Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a chelating agent that is used to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides such as americium from contaminated individuals. Its primary site of action is in the blood, where it competes with various biological ligands, including transferrin and albumin, for the binding of radioactive metals. To evaluate the chelation potential of DTPA under these conditions, the competitive binding of Am between DTPA and plasma proteins was studied in rat, beagle, and human plasma in vitro. Following incubation of DTPA and Am in plasma, the Am-bound ligands were fractionated by ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography, and each fraction was assayed for Am content by gamma scintillation counting. Dose response curves of DTPA for Am binding were established, and these models were used to calculate the 90% maximal effective concentration, or EC90, of DTPA in each plasma system. The EC90 were determined to be 31.4, 15.9, and 10.0 ?M in rat, beagle, and human plasma, respectively. These values correspond to plasma concentrations of DTPA that maximize Am chelation while minimizing excess DTPA. Based on the pharmacokinetic profile of DTPA in humans, after a standard 30 ?mol kg intravenous bolus injection, the plasma concentration of DTPA remains above EC90 for approximately 5.6 h. Likewise, the effective duration of DTPA in rat and beagle were determined to be 0.67 and 1.7 h, respectively. These results suggest that species differences must be considered when translating DTPA efficacy data from animals to humans and offer further insights into improving the current DTPA treatment regimen. PMID:23799506

Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Jay, Michael; Di Pasqua, Anthony J



Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

The clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was studied in 14 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance during HD was 37.8% +/- 10.1 of creatinine clearance. Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance in PD was 65.1% +/- 10.3 of creatinine clearance. Tc-99m DTPA, with a larger molecular weight than that of creatinine, is cleared relatively better during PD than during HD. Thus Tc-99m DTPA may be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of different dialytic treatments for substances of similar molecular weight. In addition, our study shows that clearance of DTPA both in HD and PD is sufficiently high to allow the removal of this chelating agent in patients with renal failure.

Wainer, E.; Boner, G.; Lubin, E.; Rosenfeld, J.B.



Iron availability in peat substrates as assessed by water, calcium chloride, ammonium acetate, DTPA and calcium chloride\\/DTPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to find out which extractant for a peat substrate gave the best prediction of iron (Fe) uptake by the plant. Iron was added in four levels (including zero) to peat in the form of either EDTA or sulphate, at two pH levels. Iron from the peat was extracted by water, 0.01M CaCl2,0.5M NH4OAc, 0.002M DTPA and

C. de Kreij; C. W. van Elderen; H. Bajar



Biodistribution of Ru97-labeled DTPA, DMSA and transferrin. [Diagnostic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruthenium-97 is being produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The favorable physical properties of Ru-97 and chemical reactivity of ruthenium offer a potential for using this isotope to label compounds useful for delayed scanning. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and Transferrin (TF) were labeled with Ru-97-chloride. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA, injected intravenously, showed similar organ distribution, kinetics,

P. Som; Z. H. Oster; R. G. Fairchild; H. L. Atkins; A. B. Brill; M. C. Gil; S. C. Srivastava; G. E. Meinken; A. G. Goldman; P. Richards



Preparation and premilinary evaluation of astatine-211 labeled IgG via DTPA anhydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for211At labeling of human IgG via DTPA anhydride is described. DTPA-IgD was prepared and211At was conjugated to human IgG by adding Na211At to the DTPA-IgG and reaction for 30 minutes at room temperature. The astatinated IgG was isolated by a Sephadex G50 column and identified by size exclusion HPLC. The labeling procedure was executed in 1.5 hours and

Liu Ning; Jin Jiannan; Mo Shangwu; Chen Hengliu; Yu Yanping



Radioimmunodetection of medullary thyroid cancer using a bispecific anti-CEA/anti-indium-DTPA antibody and an indium-111-labeled DTPA dimer.  


Two-step radioimmunotargeting using a bispecific anti-CEA/anti-in-DTPA monoclonal antibody and an 111In-labeled DTPA dimer (diDTPA-TL) was evaluated nine times in eight patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Immunoscintigraphy was performed 5 and 24 hr after injection of 111In-diDTPA-TL. For five patients, radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) was performed using a hand-held gamma probe (sodium iodine), and a biodistribution study was performed 48 hr (four times) and 24 hr (one time) after injection of 111In-diDTPA-TL. Mean tumor uptake (%ID/kg in tumor) was 39 (range 2.75-139). In these five patients, immunoscintigraphy visualized all known tumors and detected unknown foci (US and CT were negative) in the neck (once) and neck and liver (once). Immunoscintigraphy, performed four times in search of a recurrence, detected unknown localizations in the mediastinum and neck (twice) and was negative twice. There were no false-positives. In three of five patients who had surgery, RIGS localized tumor foci not detected by the surgeon. RIGS failed to detect two small lesions (10 x 10 mm) corresponding to sites of fibrosis and microscopic cancer infiltration. Bispecific anti-CEA/anti-In-DTPA mediated targeting of 111In-diDTPA-TL provided elevated tumor uptake and tumor-to-normal tissue ratios. Radioimmunodetection of small MTC lesions is thus possible even when morphological imaging techniques prove negative. PMID:8326383

Peltier, P; Curtet, C; Chatal, J F; Le Doussal, J M; Daniel, G; Aillet, G; Gruaz-Guyon, A; Barbet, J; Delaage, M



Technegas and Pertechnegas particle size distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technegas and Pertechnegas are radioactive aerosols produced in a commercial generator and used for lung scintigraphy. The aerosols are produced by first evaporating to dryness standard technetium-99m generator eluate (99m-TcO4 in normal saline) in a graphite crucible (thesimmer stage) and then heating this to 2500° C (the „burn” stage). The aim of this work was to measure the particle size

J. J. Lloyd; R. A. Shields; C. J. Taylor; R. S. Lawson; J. M. James; H. J. Testra



Importance of aerosol phase upon aerosol oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical processing of organic aerosol changes the composition of the aerosol. If the composition becomes more volatile, then the aerosol can become a source of gaseous oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC). At present, the global budget of OVOC is poorly constrained. Increased oxidation of the aerosol, generally leads to greater aerosol hygroscopicity and a hence a greater propensity for the aerosol to form cloud condensation nuclei. Therefore the radiative effects of the aerosol will change upon oxidation. We will present a single particle study on maleic acid aerosol using the electrodynamic balance methodology. The ozonolysis of the maleic acid particle is found to be phase dependent. The ozonolysis of deliquesced particles show distinct differences to the ozonolysis of dry particles. Differences include the change in hygroscopicity and hence aerosol composition. The volatility of the ozonolysis products is also dependent upon the phase of aerosol during the ozonolysis event.1 This study highlights the necessity to investigate aerosol reactivity under different relative humidities. The oxidation of organic aerosol in general should be very dependent upon aerosol phase. We will also present complementary mass spectrometric results on maleic acid aerosol ensembles where clear chemical differences are observed in the aerosol composition when ozonolysis is performed under different relative humidities. The chemical mechanisms responsible for the ozonolysis of aerosol composed of small highly oxidised species differs greatly from the chemistry of aerosols composed of longer and less oxidised species (e.g. oleic acid). A discussion on the importance of these chemical differences for global aerosol populations will be provided. (1) Pope et al. (2010) Ozonolysis of maleic acid aerosols: Effect upon aerosol hygroscopicity, phase and mass. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44 (17), 6656.

Pope, F. D.; Achakulwisut, P.; Gallimore, P.; Kalberer, M.



Booster vaccination with hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV\\/Hib vaccine in the second year of life is as safe as concomitant DTPa-IPV\\/Hib + HBV administered separately  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of GSK Biologicals’ hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV\\/Hib vaccine (N=4725) was compared with the separate administration of GSK Biologicals’ DTPa-IPV\\/Hib and HBV vaccines (N=4474) in two open, randomized multicenter studies (A and B). Solicited symptoms occurring within 4 days of vaccination were recorded on diary cards and serious adverse events (SAEs) were collected throughout the

R. Saenger; G. Maechler; M. Potreck; F. Zepp; M. Knuf; P. Habermehl; L. Schuerman




EPA Science Inventory

The average American spends an overwhelming portion of his/her time indoors. t is probable that the majority of ones exposure to pollutants will also occur indoors. ampling aerosols for risk assessment in the indoor environment present peculiar problems because of the relatively ...


Aerosol Mobility Size Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housi...

J. Wang P. Kulkarni



Tropospheric Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Between 1970 and 1990 the major advances in atmospheric chemistry were made in gas-phase photochemistry, except perhaps for\\u000a a brief intermezzo of “nuclear winter” studies. This focus is now shifting, as it is recognised that natural and anthropogenic\\u000a aerosols play a substantial role in the radiative properties of the atmosphere and Earth’s climate. In addition, studies on\\u000a the causes of

Jost Heintzenberg; Frank Raes; Stephen E. Schwartz; Ingmar Ackermann; Paulo Artaxo; Timothy S. Bates; Carmen Benkovitz; Keith Bigg; Tami Bond; Jean-Louis Brenguier; Fred L. Eisele; Johann Feichter; Andrea I. Flossman; Sandra Fuzzi; Hans-F. Graf; Jeremy M. Hales; Hartmut Herrmann; Thorsten Hoffmann; Barry Huebert; Rudolf B. Husar; Ruprecht Jaenicke; Bernd Kärcher; Yoram Kaufman; Geoffrey S. Kent; Markku Kulmala; Caroline Leck; Catherine Liousse; Ulrike Lohmann; Beatrice Marticorena; Peter McMurry; Kevin Noone; Colin O’Dowd; Joyce E. Penner; Alex Pszenny; Jean-Philipe Putaud; Patricia K. Quinn; Ulrich Schurath; John H. Seinfeld; Herman Sievering; Jeffrey Snider; Irina Sokolik; Frank Stratmann; Rita Dingenen; Douglas Westphal; Anthony S. Wexler; Alfred Wiedensohler; David M. Winker; Julian Wilson



A pharmacokinetic approach to the evaluation of aerosol solutes for lung permeability studies  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and clearance of inhaled radioactive aerosols prepared from five Tc-99m labelled derivatives of HIDA, Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m 04- were evaluated in Beagle dogs. The investigation was designed to develop new aerosol solutes and to obtain information on molecular transport across the alveolar capillary membrane by evaluating molecular structure versus biological activity relationships. Aerosols with an aerodynamic mean diameter of .48 microns (sigmag=1.50), produced in a jet nebulizer, were administered to anesthetized dogs through an endotrachial tube. Aerosols were evaluated twice in each of five dogs for three HIDA derivatives, pertechnetate, and DTPA. Two other HIDA derivatives were evaluated twice in one animal. Sixty min. quantitative gamma camera studies were obtained. ROI processing and functional mapping of images showed distribution and clearance of identically sized aerosols to have a strong dependance on chemical properties. Dimethyl HIDA, trimethylbromo HIDA, and DISIDA with capacity factors (k') of -0.24, 0.63, and 0.65 respectively gave mean lung clearance t1/2 times of 76.6, 206.7, and 97.3 min. 4-bromo HIDA and 3,5-dichloro HIDA were administered to one animal; t1/2 times were 80.0 and 330 min. Two hydro-philic compounds, Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m 04-, were examined; t1/2 times were 49.6 min. and 21.2 min. respectively. A trend is seen where t1/2 values increase with lipophilicity; this suggests that structure activity relationships could be built on lipophilicity. These studies support the contention that molecular transport in the lung is an intercellular mechanism.

Waldman, D.L.; Weber, D.A.



Phosphonate-modified GdDTPA complexes. II. Evaluation in a rat myocardial infarct model.  


The localization of 1-hydroxy-3-aminopropane-1,1-diphosphonate-modified GdDTPA (GdDTPA-HPDP) and 4-amino-butane-1,1-diphosphonate-modified GdDTPA (GdDTPA-BDP) in (1) normal and (2) infarcted rat hearts has been measured. The phosphonate-modified agents are preferentially retained in infarcted myocardium. The ratio of GdDTPA-HPDP accumulated in whole infarcted heart to that detected in normal heart is 15 at 2 hours after injecting a dose of 50 to 100 mumol/kg; the ratio is 2 for GdDTPA. At these doses, significant changes are detected in the tissue relaxation rates. An average relaxivity of 11.2 (mmol-sec)-1 is calculated for the agent in the infarcted whole heart. GdDTPA-BDP, in comparison, displayed prolonged blood retention. The result is a low diseased-to-normal heart ratio (approximately 2) at 2 hours, making this agent less attractive as a contrast agent. PMID:2055714

Adzamli, I K; Johnson, D; Blau, M



Tracheal blood flow and luminal clearance of [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA in sheep  

SciTech Connect

Tracheal blood flow and [sup 99m][Tc]-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) clearance were measured in the sheep trachea in vivo. The tracheal arteries were isolated and perfused. An isolated segment of tracheal lumen was filled with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA, and radioactivity was measured in blood from a catheterized tracheal vein. Infusions at constant pressure of methacholine (n=5), albuterol (n=6), and histamine (n=5) increased arterial inflow and venous outflow but decreased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Phenylephrine (n=9) decreased arterial inflow and venous outflow but increased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. When the tracheal arteries were initially perfused at constant flow and the flow rate was then changed, 50% increases in flow (n=5) increased perfusion pressure and venous outflow but decreased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Decreases in flow of 50% (n=3) and 100% (n=10) decreased perfusion pressure and venous outflow but increased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Infusion of the same drugs at constant flow produced significant changes in perfusion pressure but no significant changes in venous outflow or, except for histamine, in [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output. Thus [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output was inversely related to both mechanically and drug-induced changes in tracheal blood flow but, except for histamine, was not directly affected by the drugs. The results may be due to redistribution of blood between collateral circuits and altered interstitial fluid volume affecting [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA transport across the interstitium. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Hanafi, Z.; Corfield, D.R.; Webber, S.E.; Widdicombe, J.G. (St. George's Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom))



Aerosol scrubbers  

SciTech Connect

The Submerged Gravel Scrubber is an air cleaning system developed by the Department of Energy's Liquid Metal Reactor Program. The Scrubber System has been patented by the Department of Energy. This technology is being transferred to industry by the DOE. Its basic principles can be adapted for individual applications and the commercialized version can be used to perform a variety of tasks. The gas to be cleaned is percolated through a continuously washed gravel bed. The passage of the gas through the gravel breaks the stream into many small bubbles rising in a turbulent body of water. These conditions allow very highly efficient removal of aerosols from the gas.

Sheely, W.F.



An evaluation of Technegas as a ventilation agent compared with krypton-81 m in the scintigraphic diagnosis of pulmonary embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ventilation agent that provides good quality lung images, which is cheap, easy to use and non-toxic, with a low radiation dose, has long been sought. Technegas, an ultrafine aerosol of technetium-99m-labelled carbon, was developed with these qualities in mind. We have studied Technegas in a clinical setting to evaluate some of these qualities. Twenty-five patients referred with a diagnosis

Gary Cook; Susan E. M. Clarke



Effect of increases in lung volume on clearance of aerosolized solute from human lungs  

SciTech Connect

To study the effect of increases in lung volume on solute uptake, we measured clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) at different lung volumes in 19 healthy humans. Seven subjects inhaled aerosols (1 micron activity median aerodynamic diam) at ambient pressure; clearance and functional residual capacity (FRC) were measured at ambient pressure (control) and at increased lung volume produced by positive pressure (12 cmH2O continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)) or negative pressure (voluntary breathing). Six different subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure; clearance and FRC were measured at ambient pressure and CPAP of 6, 12, and 18 cmH2O pressure. Six additional subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure or at CPAP of 12 cmH2O; clearance and FRC were determined at CPAP of 12 cmH2O. According to the results, Tc-DTPA clearance from human lungs is accelerated exponentially by increases in lung volume, this effect occurs whether lung volume is increased by positive or negative pressure breathing, and the effect is the same whether lung volume is increased during or after aerosol administration. The effect of lung volume must be recognized when interpreting the results of this method.

Marks, J.D.; Luce, J.M.; Lazar, N.M.; Wu, J.N.; Lipavsky, A.; Murray, J.F.



Paramagnetic Gd III?Fe III heterobimetallic complexes of DTPA-bis-salicylamide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction between DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid)-anhydride and p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) affords a novel ligand, [DTPA(PAS) 2], able to form stable heterobimetallic complexes with Gd 3+ and Fe 3+ ions. The lanthanide ion occupies an internal coordination cage formed by three nitrogen atoms, two carboxylate and two carboxoamido groups of the ligand, whereas the outer salicylic moieties form stable chelate rings with Fe III ions. The stoichiometry of the resulting heterobimetallic complexes, established by measurements of water proton relaxation enhancement, is [(H 2O)-Gd-DTPA(PAS) 2] 2-Fe(H 2O) 2 or [(H 2O)-Gd-DTPA(PAS) 2] 3-Fe depending on the pH of the aqueous solution. The individual contributions to the observed relaxation enhancement from Gd 3+ and Fe 3+ paramagnetic ions have been clearly distinguished and analysed.

Aime, S.; Botta, M.; Fasano, M.; Terreno, E.



Indium-111 DTPA flow study to evaluate surgically implanted drug pump delivery system  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a radionuclide technique for evaluating intrathecal and intraventricular infusions by surgically implanted drug pump delivery systems. Sixteen patients underwent flow studies, performed by injecting 500 mu Ci of indium-111 DTPA into the pumps. Early and delayed images were obtained. These studies enabled distinction among functioning pumps, nonfunctioning pumps, and obstructed or occluded catheters. We conclude that indium-111 DTPA flow studies provide an excellent way to assess these drug pump delivery systems.

Rosenson, A.S.; Ali, A.; Fordham, E.W.; Penn, R.D. (Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago, IL (USA))



Modification of the NH4 HCO3?DTPA soil test to omit carbon black  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently Soltanpour and Schwabdeveloped an NH4HCO3 ?DTPA (AB?DTPA) soil test to simultaneously extract NO3, P, K, Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu. In this test carbon black was used to clear the extract for the chromotropic acid method of nitrate determination. However, use of carbon black was inconvenient due to its staining and sometimes contaminative properties. The purpose of the study

P. N. Soltanpour; S. Workman



Gadolinium-DTPA in rheumatoid arthritis and related diseases: first results with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-four joints (19 knees, 15 wrists) of 31 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and related disorders were examined prior to and following intravenous administration of Gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol\\/kg body weight). T1-weighted spin-echo sequences and the gradient-echo technique FLASH were applied. FLASH scanning was used for the registration of the time-dependent changes of signal intensity following Gd-DTPA. Synovial proliferations exhibited a

Maximilian F. Reiser; Georg P. Bongartz; Rainer Erlemann; Mathias Schneider; Thomas Pauly; Harald Sittek; Peter E. Peters



A novel DTPA cross-linking of hyaluronic acid and metal complexation thereof  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macromolecular conjugates of a natural polysaccharide, hyaluronic acid, with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)—metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR, SEC-MALLS and ICP analysis. Several parameters of the cross-linking reaction as molecular weight of starting HA, temperature, equivalent of DTPA bis-anhydride, concentration of HA, presence of transacylation catalyst DMAP and reaction time were studied. The mechanism for the reaction was

Radovan Buffa; Ji?í B??ák; Sofiane Kettou; Martina Hermannová; Lucie Pospíšilová; Vladimír Velebný



Magnetic resonance imaging of human cerebral infarction: Enhancement with Gd-DTPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five patients (1 female and 4 males) with cerebral infarction of 4 h to 27 months duration were studied 9 times with magnetic resonance (MR) using Gd-DTPA. Spin-echo (SE) MR images (MRI) were obtained before and after the administration of Gd-DTPA, and correlative CT scans were performed on the same day. In 2 cases, 4 h and 27 months after

S. Imakita; T. Nishimura; H. Naito; N. Yamada; K. Yamamoto; M. Takamiya; Y. Yamada; Y. Sakashita; J. Minamikawa; H. Kikuchi; T. Terada



1H T1 and T2 measurements of the MR imaging contrast agents Gd-DTPA and Gd-DTPA BMA at 1.5T  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We report in vitro T1 and T2 relaxation studies for the open-chain complexes Gd-DTPA and Gd-DTPA BMA. Measurements were performed on phantoms containing\\u000a aqueous and plasma solutions of different concentrations by MR imaging in a 1.5T superconducting whole-body scanner. Longitudinal\\u000a relaxation times T1 were evaluated from serial turbo-FLASH experiments for concentrations less than 1 mM, whereas for larger concentrations

J. R. Reichenbach; T. Hackländer; T. Harth; M. Hofer; M. Rassek; U. Mödder



Phosphonate-modified Gd-DTPA complexes. III: The detection of myocardial infarction by MRI.  


The potential of a phosphonate-modified-Gd-DTPA for MR image enhancement of myocardial infarction has been demonstrated in imaging experiments on rats. The agent, 1-hydroxy-3-aminopropane-1,1-diphosphonate-modified-Gd-DTPA (Gd-DTPA-HPDP) accumulates in two models of myocardial infarction, (i.e., drug-induced diffusely infarcted whole hearts and in focal acute myocardial infarction from a left coronary artery ligation). The time course of the accumulation of the agent in the focal model of infarction and subsequent washout has also been followed in vitro. Results of this kinetics demonstrate that the agent first perfuses all normal fluid spaces and then slowly diffuses into the occluded zone where it is retained for a prolonged period, in sufficient quantities to be useful as an MRI contrast agent. Wash-out of the agent from normal myocardium is fast and complete with MR signal returning to background in minutes. The specificity of Gd-DTPA-HPDP for soft-tissue calcification and its retention within the infarcts permitted imaging at 1 to 2 h postinjection, (after unbound material has cleared the normal tissues). Infarcted tissue appeared as regions of increased signal intensity in T1-weighted images (> 200% enhancement), and correlated with histopathology. Unmodified Gd-DTPA was not retained under identical conditions. Gd-DTPA-HPDP permits a more accurate infarct delineation than is possible with the unmodified agent. PMID:8464367

Adzamli, I K; Blau, M; Pfeffer, M A; Davis, M A



Aerosols Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure the aerosol optical thickness of the atmosphere (how much of the sun's light is scattered or absorbed by particles suspended in the air). Students point a GLOBE sun photometer at the sun and record the largest voltage reading they obtain on a digital voltmeter connected to the photometer. Students observe sky conditions near the sun, perform the Cloud, Optional Barometric Pressure (optional) and Relative Humidity Protocols, and measure current air temperature. Intended outcomes are that students will understand the concept that the atmosphere prevents all of the sun's light from reaching Earth's surface and they learn what causes hazy skies. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)



Induction of sister chromatid exchange in the presence of gadolinium-DTPA and its reduction by dimethyl sulfoxide  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigate the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) after the addition of gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA to venous blood samples. Venous blood was obtained from nonsmokers. Samples were incubated with Gd-DTPA alone or in combination with mitomycin C, cytarabine, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and then evaluated for SCEs. The frequency of SCE increased with the concentration of Gd-DTPA and as each chemotherapeutic agent was added. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies were lower when the blood was treated with a combination of Gd-DTPA and DMSO compared with Gd-DTPA alone. The increase in frequency of SCE seen after the addition of Gd-DTPA was decreased by the addition of DMSO, indicating the production of hydroxyl radicals. The effect likely is dissociation-related. 14 refs., 6 tabs.

Yamazaki, Etsuo; Fukuda, Hozumi; Shibuya, Hitoshi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Yokohama (Japan); Matsubara, Sho [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan)



Pu and Am decorporation in beagles: effects of magnitude of initial Ca-DTPA injection upon chelation efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effects of magnitude of initial DTPA injection upon chelation efficacy, five young adult beagles were each given an intravenous injection of \\/sup 237 +239\\/Pu(IV) citrate + ²⁴¹Am(III) citrate, followed by a single intravenous injection of Ca-DTPA 0.5 hr later. Amounts of this chelating agent administered were 3, 10, 30, 100, and 300 Ca-DTPA\\/kg body mass. Animals

R. D. Lloyd; C. W. Jones; G. N. Taylor; C. W. Mays; D. R. Atherton



Uptake of Iron by Isolated Rat Hepatocytes from a Hydrophilic Impermeant Ferric Chelate, Fe(III)DTPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied uptake of iron from Fe(III)–diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) in isolated rat hepatocytes. This uptake is specific with an affinity of 600 nMand shows an optimum pH of 6. The specificity is indicated by inhibition by ferric citrate and diferric transferrin. Iron uptake from Fe(III)–DTPA is completely inhibited by trypsinization of the cell surface, by strong impermeant ferric chelators (DTPA,

Barbara Scheiber; Hans Goldenberg




EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes progress in measuring the optical properties of aerosols and in relating aerosol characteristics to visibility reduction made in the author's laboratory during the period 1965-1971. An instrument, the integrating nephelometer, which measures the scattering ...



EPA Science Inventory

Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...


Solid Aerosol Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future NBC threats may include solid aerosols as well as vapor and liquids. The goal of this research program is to develop methodology to determine solid aerosol protection factors for enclosures and to express the controlling mechanisms in model calcula...

S. R. Lewis A. T. Seitzinger E. Knoebel



Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of g...

J. Hendricks M. Righi V. Aquila



Solid aerosol generator  


An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.



Solid aerosol generator  


An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

Prescott, Donald S. (Shelley, ID); Schober, Robert K. (Midwest City, OK); Beller, John (Idaho Falls, ID)




EPA Science Inventory

The Modal Aerosol Dynamics (MAD) model is a computationally efficient model for solving the General Dynamics Equation of Aerosols (GDE) (Friedlander, 1977). The simplifying assumption in the model is that aerosol size distributions can be approximated by overlapping modes, each r...


Decorporation approach following rat lung contamination with a moderately soluble compound of plutonium using local and systemic Ca-DTPA combined chelation.  


Decorporation efficacy of prompt pulmonary delivery of DTPA dry powder was assessed following lung contamination with plutonium nitrate and compared to an intravenous injection of DTPA solution and a combined administration of both DTPA compounds. In addition, efficacy of a delayed treatment was assessed. In case of either early or late administration, insufflated DTPA was more efficient than intravenously injected DTPA in reducing the plutonium lung burden due to its high local concentration. Prompt treatment with DTPA powder was also more effective in limiting extrapulmonary deposits by removing the early transportable fraction of plutonium from lungs prior its absorption into blood. Translocation of DTPA from lungs to blood may also contribute to the decrease in extrapulmonary retention, as shown by reduced liver deposit after delayed pulmonary administration of DTPA. Efficacy of DTPA dry powder was further increased by the combined intravenous administration of DTPA solution for reducing extrapulmonary deposits of plutonium and promoting its urinary excretion. According to our results, the most effective treatment protocol for plutonium decorporation was the early pulmonary delivery of DTPA powder supplemented by an intravenous injection of DTPA solution. Following inhalation of plutonium as nitrate chemical form, this combined chelation therapy should provide a more effective method of treatment than conventional intravenous injection alone. At later stages following lung contamination, pulmonary administration of DTPA should also be considered as the treatment of choice for decreasing the lung burden. PMID:22799632

Grémy, Olivier; Tsapis, Nicolas; Bruel, Sylvie; Renault, Daniel; Van der Meeren, Anne



Discrimination of aerosol types and absorbing aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol particles are one of the most variable components in the Earth's atmosphere, affecting the radiative balance and influencing the climate system by direct and indirect effects. To evaluate these two effects the optical-radiative properties of aerosols are the key elements and hence the necessity of their retrieval. Many detailed campaigns of measurements have been carried out in the past

Victoria E. Cachorro; Natalia Prats; Sandra I. Mogo; Carlos Toledano; Alberto J. Berjon; Elena Montilla; Benjamin Torres; Ruben Rodrigo; David Fuertes; Ramiro Gonzalez; Yasmine S. Bennouna; Angel de Frutos



Synthesis and evaluation of novel polysaccharide-Gd-DTPA compounds as contrast agent for MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macromolecular conjugates of two kinds of natural polysaccharides, that from Panax quinquefolium linn (PQPS) and Ganoderma applanatum pat (GAPS), with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) have been synthesized and characterized by means of FTIR, elementary analysis and ICP-AES. Their stability was investigated by competition study with Ca2+, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and DTPA. Polysaccharide-bound complexes exhibit T1 relaxivities of 1.5-1.7 times that of Gd-DTPA in D2O at 25°C and 9.4T. MR imaging of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats showed remarkable enhancement in rat liver and kidney after i.v. injection of these two complexes: liver parenchyma 60.9+/-5.6%, 57.8+/-7.4% at 65-85min; kidney 144.9+/-14.5%, 199.9+/-25.4% at 10-30min for PQPS-Gd-DTPA, GAPS-Gd-DTPA at gadolinium dose of 0.083 and 0.082mmol/kg, respectively. Our preliminary in vivo and in vitro study indicates that the two kinds of polysaccharide-bound complexes are potential tissue-specific contrast agents for MRI.

Sun, Guoying; Feng, Jianghua; Jing, Fengying; Pei, Fengkui; Liu, Maili



Use of NH4 HCO3?DTPA soil test to assess availability and toxicity of selenium to alfalfa plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine if ammonium bicarbonate?DTPA soil test (AB?DTPA) of Soltanpour and Schwab for simultaneous extraction of P, K, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn can be used to determine the availability index for Se. Five Mollisols from North Dakota were treated with sodium selenate and were subjected to several wetting and drying cycles. These soils were

P. N. Soltanpour; S. M. Workman



Treatment of human contamination with plutonium and americium: would orally administered Ca- or Zn-DTPA be effective?  


Accidental or deliberate dispersion of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) into the public environment could contaminate large numbers of people by inhalation. If measures to reduce the internal dose are considered appropriate, oral administration of either calcium (Ca) or zinc (Zn) diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) would be the simplest treatment. Published experimental data from rats on the effects of oral DTPA on the retention of inhaled Pu and Am show that: (1) orally administered Zn-DTPA is as effective as repeated intravenous injection for the decorporation of Pu and Am inhaled as nitrates, although higher dosages are required; (2) oral Zn-DTPA appears to be an effective treatment for Am dioxide but not Pu dioxide; (3) maximum decorporation of Pu, by oral or intravenous administration, requires a large molar excess of Zn-DTPA over Pu (>1 x 10(6)); (4) neither oral nor injected Zn-DTPA are likely to be effective for Pu oxides, nor when Pu and Am nitrates are mixed with other dusts. It is concluded that oral administration of a simple aqueous solution of Zn-DTPA could be an important treatment in accident or emergency scenarios after intake of pure chemical forms of Pu and Am, which are highly or moderately soluble in biological fluids. However, more research is needed on the efficacy of treatment when these forms are mixed with other materials. Importantly, studies designed to increase the efficiency of uptake of DTPA from the gastrointestinal tract could appreciably reduce the dosage. PMID:17556346

Taylor, David M; Hodgson, Susan A; Stradling, Neil



A practical method for assessing cadmium levels in soil using the DTPA extraction technique with graphite furnace analysis  

SciTech Connect

Using the DTPA extraction procedure and a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, a practical method for determining soil cadmium levels was developed. Furnace parameters, instrument parameters, solvent dilution factor, and solvent characteristics were determined using experimental field samples and standardized control samples. The DTPA extraction method gave reproducible results and removed approximately 20 to 60% of total soil cadmium. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

Bailey, V.L.; Grant, C.A.; Bailey, L.D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Manitoba (Canada)] [and others



Enhanced decorporation of plutonium by DTPA encapsulated in small PEG-coated liposomes.  


The aim of the study was to demonstrate that decorporation of 238Pu is achieved more efficiently by an optimized liposomal formulation of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) than by the usual free DTPA treatment. The optimized formulation consisted of polyethylene glycol-coated stealth liposomes with a mean diameter of 100 nm (SL-100 nm). Rats were intravenously injected with various Pu-phytate salt solutions in order to test different contamination conditions (activity and salt concentration) impacting liver kinetics and skeletal uptake of Pu. All treatments were given intravenously 1 h after contamination. Efficiency was evaluated 24 h, 7, 16 or 30 days later through their ability to promote Pu elimination and to reduce Pu burden in the skeleton and liver, the main organs of Pu deposition and radiotoxicological effects. Whatever the conditions of contaminations, a single injection of SL-100 nm (3.2 micromol kg(-1) DTPA) boosted urinary elimination of Pu to above 90% of the injected dose. In addition, liposomes strongly and significantly reduced the Pu burden of the liver and skeleton even 30 days after a single treatment: a dose of 0.3 micromol kg(-1) induced the same skeletal Pu reduction as four injections of free DTPA (30 micromol kg(-1)). A log dose-effect relation was found with SL-100 nm DTPA and Pu excretion in urine or Pu burden in the studied organs (liver, femurs, spleen and kidneys). This efficacy was attributed to an optimized targeting of DTPA to the main Pu retention organs and especially the liver. PMID:16860919

Phan, G; Le Gall, B; Grillon, G; Rouit, E; Fouillit, M; Benech, H; Fattal, E; Deverre, J-R



Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of bone cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To examine the contents of intraosseous cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through the signal intensity characteristics on gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS--The hand or foot joints of nine patients with the cystic form of RA (where the initial radiological abnormality consisted of intraosseous cysts without erosions) were imaged before and after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. A 0.6 unit, T1 weighted spin echo and T2* weighted gradient echo were used to obtain images in at least two perpendicular planes. RESULTS--Most cysts showed a low signal intensity on the non-enhanced T1 weighted (spin echo) images and a high signal intensity on the T2* weighted (gradient echo) images, consistent with a fluid content. No cyst showed an enhancement of signal intensity on the T1 weighted images after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA, whereas synovium hyperplasia at the site of bony erosions did show an increased signal intensity after Gd-DTPA. Magnetic resonance imaging detected more cysts (as small as 2 mm) than plain films, and the cysts were located truly intraosseously. In six patients no other joint abnormalities were identified by magnetic resonance imaging; the three other patients also showed, after Gd-DTPA administration, an enhanced synovium at the site of bony erosions. CONCLUSIONS--It is suggested that intraosseous bone cysts in patients with RA do not contain hyperaemic synovial proliferation. The bone cysts in patients with the cystic form of RA may be the only joint abnormality. Images

Gubler, F M; Algra, P R; Maas, M; Dijkstra, P F; Falke, T H



Synthesis of DTPA-attached estradiol derivative and determination of its radiopharmaceutical potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An estrogen derivative, ?-estradiol or 1,3,5,(10)-estratriene-3,17?-diol) attached to diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid\\u000a (DTPA) was synthesized in six experimental steps. At the end of these steps, a DTPA-attached estradiol derivative called deoxy-demethyl\\u000a homoestradiolyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (ESTDTPA) was obtained. The synthesized compounds were labeled with 99mTc. Thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC) was used to determine radiochemical yields and stabilities.Structural investigations\\u000a confirmed the structures. The

F. Z. Biber; P. Unak; H. Enginar; T. Ertay; E. I. Medine; C. Tasci; H. Durak



Aerosol penetration ratio: a new index of ventilation  

SciTech Connect

Superimposition of nuclear medicine scintigrams and standard radiographs provides a unique opportunity for merging functional information intrinsic to nuclear medicine images with the high resolution anatomic detail of radiographs. A newly developed image processing system allows the merging of two separate films of greatly varying sizes to form a single composite image. Subsequent quantitative analysis of the composite image may be performed. Using the superimposition technique, (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol ventilation scans (4.5 X 4.5 cm) were superimposed upon chest radiographs (35.6 X 43.2 cm) in 17 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Subsequent quantification of the area of nuclear scan ventilation and the radiographic lung area was then performed. A new quantitative radiologic index of ventilation, the aerosol penetration ratio (APR), was defined. Linear correlation of aerosol penetration ratio with residual volume (RV) as percent of total lung capacity (TLC) measured by body plethysmography was good. We conclude that the APR has validity as a physiologic parameter which localized regional excessive residual volume and correlates well with RV/TLC, the gold standard pulmonary function index of obstructive airway disease.

Sirr, S.A.; Elliott, G.R.; Regelmann, W.E.; Juenemann, P.J.; Morin, R.L.; Boudreau, R.J.; Warwick, W.J.; Loken, M.K.



Particle size influences aerosol deposition in guinea pigs during bronchoconstriction  

SciTech Connect

The role of two factors determining the deposition of aerosols in the respiratory tract was investigated: the particle size and the nature of the airflow in the airways. An aerosol of Tc99 m-DTPA was generated, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of either 3 (Bird nebulizer) or 0.5 (Jouan nebulizer). The vehicle was either saline (S) or histamine (H) at a concentration which was previously shown to induce a 50% decrease of specific airway conductance. Spontaneously breathing guinea pigs were exposed during 2 minutes to the aerosol, then killed and the radioactivity in the pharynx, the trachea, the large bronchi and the remaining parenchyma was measured. Results are evaluated as the percentage of total radioactivity in the respiratory tract (mean +/- SEM). Analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference in the pattern of deposition for large particles (3 during bronchoconstriction: the more proximal deposition can be ascribed to inertial impaction. Particle size should be clearly defined during histamine challenge in experimental animals.

Praud, J.P.; Macquin-Mavier, I.; Wirquin, V.; Meignan, M.; Harf, A.



Effect of contrast media on immature renal function: comparison of agents with high and low osmolality  

SciTech Connect

Contrast media having high osmolality (methylglucamine diatrizoate) and low osmolality (triiodoisophthaldiamide) were compared in 15 functionally immature rabbits 2 to 3 weeks of age. Renal function was assessed with a gamma camera and whole-body counter, using excretion of technetium-99m-tin-DTPA as an index of glomerular filtration rate. Both DTPA and the contrast agent (2 ml/kg) were injected as a single intravenous bolus in 15 seconds. After 40 minutes, per cent DTPA excreted was 33.0 +- 2.3 for triiodoisophthaldiamide and 28.2 +- 1.5 (p < 0.01) for methylglucamine diatrizoate. Excretion of DTPA was reduced with the latter (p < 0.005) but not the former agent (p > 0.6). Thus, contrast materials with high osmolality depress renal function in immature rabbits suggesting that agents with low osmolality are preferable for use in newborns.

Harvey, L.A.; Caldicott, W.J.H.; Kuruc, A.



Kidney scintigraphy after ACE inhibition in the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension  

SciTech Connect

Suppression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition may induce renal failure in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis. Recent scintigraphic studies with the glomerular tracer technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (99m-Tc DTPA) indicate that in patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be markedly reduced in the affected kidney after inhibition of ACE. This finding reflects the important role of the RAS in maintaining GFR (by increasing postglomerular resistance) in states of low renal perfusion pressure. Preliminary observations suggest that this scintigraphic test might be useful in the detection of renovascular hypertension.

Ghione, S.; Fommei, E.; Palombo, C.; Giaconi, S.; Mantovanelli, A.; Ragazzini, A.; Palla, L.



Kidney scintigraphy after ACE inhibition in the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension.  


Suppression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition may induce renal failure in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis. Recent scintigraphic studies with the glomerular tracer technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (99m-Tc DTPA) indicate that in patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be markedly reduced in the affected kidney after inhibition of ACE. This finding reflects the important role of the RAS in maintaining GFR (by increasing postglomerular resistance) in states of low renal perfusion pressure. Preliminary observations suggest that this scintigraphic test might be useful in the detection of renovascular hypertension. PMID:3915923

Ghione, S; Fommei, E; Palombo, C; Giaconi, S; Mantovanelli, A; Ragazzini, A; Palla, L


Radionuclide-anesthetic flow study: a new technique for the study of regional anesthesia.  


A new technique to study the dynamics of in vivo distribution of regional anesthetics is described. Five hundred microcuries of technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) added to the anesthetic in a syringe prior to injection allows both dynamic and static imaging to assess the initial distribution of the injected anesthetic. Superimposed bone scans or transmission scans help delineate anatomy. The radionuclide-anesthetic flow study is a simple, safe technique to investigate both the spread of regional anesthetics and the factors that affect it. PMID:3528416

Bauman, J M; Middaugh, R E; Cawthon, M A; Hartshorne, M F; Menk, E J; Baysinger, C



Lung inflammation in coal miners assessed by uptake of 67Ga-citrate and clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate aerosol  

SciTech Connect

The authors compared the diffuse lung uptake of 67Ga-citrate, an index of inflammatory lung activity, with the lung clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) aerosol, an index of pulmonary epithelial permeability, in a group of 19 West Virginia coal miners whose pulmonary status was compatible with coal worker's pneumoconiosis. 99mTc-DTPA clearance alone and 67Ga-citrate uptake alone were measured in nine and five additional subjects, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine if increased 99mTc-DTPA lung clearance was caused by inflammation at the lung epithelial surfaces. Subjects inhaled approximately 150 microCi (approximately 5.6 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, and quantitative gamma camera images of the lungs were acquired at 1-min increments for 25 min. Regions of interest (ROI) were selected to include (1) both lungs; (2) each individual lung; and (3) the upper, middle, and lower thirds of each lung. 99mTc-DTPA clearance was determined from the slopes of the respective time-activity plots for the different ROI. Each subject was intravenously administered 50 miCroCk (1.9 MBq)/kg 67Ga-citrate 48 to 72 h before imaging the body between neck and pelvis. The extent of 67Ga-citrate lung uptake was expressed as the gallium index (GI). Mean radioaerosol clearance half-time (T1/2) for the six nonsmoking coal miners (60.6 +/- 16.0 min) was significantly shorter (p less than 0.001) than for the nonsmoking control group (123.8 +/- 28.7 min). T1/2 for the 12 smoking miners (18.4 +/- 10.2 min) was shorter than for the smoking control group (33.1 +/- 17.8 min), but the difference did not attain statistical significance.

Susskind, H.; Rom, W.N. (Clinical Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States))



Dy-DTPA derivatives as relaxation agents for very high field MRI: the beneficial effect of slow water exchange on the transverse relaxivities.  


Proton longitudinal and transverse relaxivities of Dy(DTPA)(2-) and Dy-DTPA bisamide derivatives (Dy(DTPA-BA): Dy-DTPA bisamide, Dy(DTPA-BEA): Dy-DTPA bisethylamide, Dy(DTPA-BnBA): Dy-DTPA bis-n-butylamide, and Dy(DTPA-BBMA): Dy-DTPA bisbismethylamide) were analyzed between 0.47 T and 18.8 T. Curie longitudinal relaxation was clearly observed at magnetic fields larger than 2.4 T, but the longitudinal relaxivities are limited by the fast rotation of the complexes. Rotational correlation times were separately assessed by deuterium relaxometry of the diamagnetic deuterated lanthanum analogs. Transverse relaxivity, which depends on the square of the magnetic field and on the residence time of the coordinated water molecule (tau(M)), was more than 7.5 times larger at 18.8 T and 310 K for Dy(DTPA-BA) and Dy(DTPA-BEA) as compared to Dy(DTPA)(2-). This difference is mainly related to the slower water exchange of the bisamide complexes, as confirmed by the values of tau(M) measured by oxygen-17 relaxometry. Such Dy-complexes, characterized by relatively long tau(M) values (tauM310 larger than 100 ns but smaller than 1 micros), thus appear to be useful as negative T(2) (or transverse) contrast agents for high-field imaging. This was demonstrated by the spin-echo images of phantoms obtained at 4.7 T on samples containing Dy(DTPA)(2-) and Dy(DTPA-BEA). PMID:12111958

Vander Elst, Luce; Roch, Alain; Gillis, Pierre; Laurent, Sophie; Botteman, François; Bulte, Jeff W M; Muller, Robert N



Tropical Atlantic Aerosols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The atmosphere is a mixture of gases including nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and other trace gases. Additionally, the atmosphere contains small, suspended liquid and particle matter called aerosols. Aerosols come from various sources, both natural and anthropogenic (man-made). Aerosols are important to study and monitor because they have direct and indirect effects on regional weather and global climate. In this lesson, students will use real satellite data to determine where the greatest concentrations of aerosols are located during the course of a year in the tropical Atlantic region and their source of origin.


Influence of Inhaled Ca-Dtpa on the Long-Term Effects of Inhaled Pu Nitrate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inhaled Ca-DTPA administered to rats in 6 weekly, one-hour treatments of 3 mg/rat did not affect weight gain or life-span compared to Pu burdened animals (78 nCi ILB) or nontreated controls. In addition, the drug did not appear to promote the development ...

J. E. Ballou G. E. Dagle K. E. McDonald R. L. Buschbom



Iron-mobilizing properties of the gadolinium-DTPA complex: clinical and experimental observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Gadolinium (Gd) magnetic resonance ima- ging (MRI) contrast agents are considered to be safe in patients with impaired renal function. Our study investi- gates a mechanism of severe iron intoxication with life- threatening serum iron levels in a haemodialysis patient following MRI with Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) administration. His previous history was remarkable for multiple blood transfusions and biochemical evidence

Marina Vorobiov; Anna Basok; David Tovbin; Alla Shnaider; Leonid Katchko; Boris Rogachev


Lower efficiency of DTPA in reducing cadmium retention in suckling rats  

SciTech Connect

The influence of age on the effectiveness of chelation therapy in enhancing cadmium elimination was studied in 1-, 2-, 8-, and 26-week-old rats. /sup 115m/Cd was administered intraperitoneally, followed immediately and after 24 hr by an intraperitoneal injection of trisodium calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) (600 body wt). The whole body retention determined on the second, fourth, and sixth days of the experiment showed that DTPA greatly decreased cadmium retention in all age groups being about four times more effective in older than younger animals. Determination of /sup 115m/Cd retention in the gut and organs also revealed that effectiveness of DTPA was lowest for the youngest age group and increased with increasing age. This effect of DTPA was more pronounced in the liver than in the kidney and brain in all age groups. These results indicate that age greatly influences chelation of cadmium and that age might be an important factor in chelation therapy in general.

Kostial, K.; Kargacin, B.; Blanusa, M.; Landeka, M.



Contrast-enhanced NMR imaging: animal studies using gadolinium-DTPA complex  

SciTech Connect

Gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA complex was assessed as a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) contrast-enhancing agent by experimentally imaging normal and diseased animals. After intravenous injection, Gd-DTPA, a strongly paramagnetic complex by virtue of unpaired electrons, was rapidly excreted into the urine of rats, producing an easily observable contrast enhancement on NMR images in kidney parenchyma and urine. Sterile soft-tissue abscesses demonstrated an obvious rim pattern of enhancement. A focus of radiation-induced brain damage in a canine model was only faintly detectable on spin-echo NMR images before contrast administration; after 0.5 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA administration, the lesion intensity increased from 3867 to 5590. In comparison, the normal brain with an intact blood-brain barrier remained unchanged in NMR characterization. Gd-DTPA is a promising new NMR contrast enhancer for the clinical assessment of renal function, of inflammatory lesions, and of focal disruption of the blood-brain barrier.

Brasch, R.C.; Weinmann, H.J.; Wesbey, G.E.



Uptake of iron by isolated rat hepatocytes from a hydrophilic impermeant ferric chelate, Fe(III)-DTPA.  


We studied uptake of iron from Fe(III)-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) in isolated rat hepatocytes. This uptake is specific with an affinity of 600 nM and shows an optimum pH of 6. The specificity is indicated by inhibition by ferric citrate and diferric transferrin. Iron uptake from Fe(III)-DTPA is completely inhibited by trypsinization of the cell surface, by strong impermeant ferric chelators (DTPA, apo-transferrin, polymer-conjugated desferrioxamine), both hexacyanoferrates, copper and zinc, and partly by dipyridyl, manganese, cobalt, N-ethylmaleimide, and citrate. The lysosomotropic agent chloroquin inhibits weakly; proton pump inhibitors are without effect. Ascorbate and Tiron both effectively stimulate the uptake and also mobilize iron from DTPA in vitro. Approximately 75% of the freshly acquired intracellular iron is found in ferritin even after uptake at lowered temperature (16 degrees C). We conclude that a rate-limiting mobilization of iron from the DTPA chelate by a cell-surface activity is required before iron can actually enter the cell. This can be enhanced by mediators of iron release, but does not seem to require reduction of iron. The use of DTPA as chelator offers the possibility of studying this putative activity because the Fe(III)-DTPA chelate is stable in the presence of transferrin or desferroxamine, in contrast to ferric citrate or Fe(NTA)2. PMID:8611022

Scheiber, B; Goldenberg, H



Bronchial and alveolar absorption of inhaled 99mTc-DTPA  

SciTech Connect

The clearance rate of 99mTc-DTPA deposited in the lung by inhalation has been used as an index to measure lung epithelial permeability. To determine if differences exist between alveolar and bronchial absorption of 99mTc-DTPA we measured regional clearance rates in 4 beagle dogs for 30 min after preferential bronchial and alveolar deposition. Alveolar deposition was maximized by inhalation for 2 min of small 99mTc-DTPA particles (activity median aerodynamic diameter, AMAD = 0.5 micron; geometric standard deviation, GSD = 1.6) with deep slow ventilation (VT = 350 ml; f = 9 min-1), and bronchial deposition was increased by inhalation of large particles (AMAD = 4.1 microns, GSD = 2.3) with rapid shallow ventilation (VT = 50 ml; f = 65 min-1). Respective clearance rates from basal regions, which represent mainly alveolar absorption, were: for small particles, 2.29% min-1; for large particles, 1.57% min-1 (p = 0.10). Apical regions, which contain relatively more bronchial surface than do the basal regions, showed the following clearance rates: for small particles, 1.76% min-1; for large particles, 1.31% min-1 (p less than 0.05). These results indicate that in vivo alveolar absorption of 99mTc-DTPA is more rapid than bronchial absorption. Control or verification of the site of deposition of the tracer in the lung is of importance for the interpretation of the results of the 99mTc-DTPA lung permeability assay.

Oberdoerster, G.U.; Utell, M.J.; Morrow, P.E.; Hyde, R.W.; Weber, D.A.



Detection of pleural effusions and increased lung water by Tc-99m DTPA imaging  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to report a systematic observation of uptake or retention of Tc-99m DTPA in pleural effusions and other abnormal states of increased lung water. 24 patients who underwent renal imaging with 10 mCi Tc-99m DTPA were included. Imaging was performed with a large field of view camera for 0-03 minutes after injection and delayed images acquired 2-4 hours later. The images encompassed the mid and lower thorax as well as kidneys. 15 patients showed, at 0-5 minutes, cold areas at lung bases that later showed relatively increased activity at 2-4 hours (hot on delayed images). 14 of these 15 patients showed pleural effusions on chest x-ray. Small bilateral effusions were more clearly demonstrated by scan than by x-ray in 8 of 15 patients. One patient with pneumonia showed an immediate hot area in the infected lobe, and two with pulmonary edema and congestive failure showed diffuse lung retention of Tc-99m on delayed images. Among 9 patients who did not demonstrate abnormal cold or hot areas in their lungs on DTPA images, none had clinical or x-ray evidence of pleural effusion, pneumonia, or congestive failure (100% negative predictive value). Differences in rate constants for diffusion into vs. out of pleural fluid provide a plausible explanation for the observed retention of tracer in effusions, as seen on delayed images. This study indicates that imaging with Tc-99m DTPA provides information of diagnostic value in the detection of pleural effusions. Futhermore, the data suggests that DTPA imaging may also be useful as a simple, cost-effective method to detect other conditions in which regional lung water is abnormally increased.

Glass, E.C.; Karelitz, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.



Alveolar epithelial permeability in baboons: histamine and capsaicin.  

PubMed Central

1. We investigated if changes in alveolar epithelial permeability could be initiated by various doses of the irritant capsaicin through stimulation of pulmonary afferent nerves either directly, or indirectly through the release of an intermediate cell mediator, and whether mediation of permeability involved histamine H1 and/or H2 receptors. 2. Alveolar epithelial permeability was indicated by the clearance of peripherally deposited 99mTc-DTPA (technetium-99m-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate) aerosol in baboons. Aerosol challenge experiments were performed twice with histamine (32 mg/ml), once each with capsaicin (10(-6), 10(-5), 10(-4) and 10(-3) M), and once each with histamine (32 mg/ml) preceded by H1 (terfenadine) and H2 (ranitidine) antagonists alone and combined. 3. Mean half-time for 99mTc-DTPA clearance was 66 +/- 4 min. After histamine, it decreased to 41 +/- 5 min (P < 0.05), and after capsaicin it was 70 +/- 5 min (combined doses). Pretreatment with the H1 and H2 antagonists, either separately or in combination, did not consistently inhibit increases in 99mTc-DTPA permeability. 4. Capsaicin caused tachypnoea only at 10(-3) M (P < 0.05). Inhibition of histamine-induced tachypnoea required both antagonists (P < 0.05) suggesting the existence of a population of peripheral sensory neurons possessing H1 and H2 receptors. Changes in permeability were unrelated to the changes in respiratory frequency. Thus, neither the mechanisms that stimulate respiratory frequency, nor the respiratory frequency per se, were responsible for increased alveolar epithelial permeability. 5. Capsaicin did not change epithelial permeability at doses that cause capsaicin-sensitive C fibre stimulation as delineated by increases in respiratory frequency. Nor does C fibre stimulation, induced by mediators released from pulmonary cells activated by low doses of capsaicin, increase epithelial permeability. These data suggest that in the primate, histamine increases epithelial permeability to small solutes by a mechanism independent of the activation of capsaicin-sensitive C fibres and capsaicin-initiated release of cell mediators. 6. These findings do not support a role for C fibre activation in regulating epithelial permeability of small solutes.

Yeates, D B; Hameister, W M



Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of

D. J. Hofmann; J. M. Rosen



Indian aerosols: present status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the

A. P Mitra; C Sharma



Spaceborne Observations of Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

As early as 1963, photographs of the twilight horizon from the Vostok-6 spaceship were used by G. V. Rozenberg and V. V. Nikolaeva-Tereshkova to derive profiles of stratospheric aerosols. The launch of the ATS III satellite in 1967 sparked interest in using satellites to observe aerosol emission, transport, and their effects on climate, precipitation and health. The first use of

Y. J. Kaufman; D. Tanre; J. A. Coakley; R. S. Fraser



Tropical Atlantic Aerosols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use real satellite data to determine 1) where the greatest concentrations of aerosols are located during the course of a year in the tropical Atlantic region and 2) their source of origin. This is an inquiry-style lesson where students pull real aerosol data and attempt to identify trends among data sets.

Roettger, Rex; Collection, Nasa -.


Ganges valley aerosol experiment.  

SciTech Connect

In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K. (Environmental Science Division); (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India)



Portable Aerosol Contaminant Extractor  


A compact, portable, aerosol contaminant extractor having ionization and collection sections through which ambient air may be drawn at a nominal rate so that aerosol particles ionized in the ionization section may be collected on charged plate in the collection section, the charged plate being readily removed for analyses of the particles collected thereon.

Carlson, Duane C. (N. Augusta, SC); DeGange, John J. (Aiken, SC); Cable-Dunlap, Paula (Waynesville, NC)



Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols represent an important component of the Earth's atmosphere. Because aerosols are composed of solid and liquid particles of varying chemical complexity, size, and phase, large challenges exist in understanding how they impact climate, health, and the chemistry of the atmosphere. Only through the integration of field, laboratory, and modeling analysis can we begin to unravel the roles atmospheric aerosols play in these global processes. In this article, we provide a brief review of the current state of the science in the analysis of atmospheric aerosols and some important challenges that need to be overcome before they can become fully integrated. It is clear that only when these areas are effectively bridged can we fully understand the impact that atmospheric aerosols have on our environment and the Earth's system at the level of scientific certainty necessary to design and implement sound environmental policies.

Prather, Kimberly A.; Hatch, Courtney D.; Grassian, Vicki H.



Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We illustrate how climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols depends on aerosol properties. The climate forcing is a function of aerosol size distribution, but the size dependence can be described well by a single parameter: the area-weighted mean radius, reff. If reff is greater than about 2mum, the global average greenhouse effect of the aerosols exceeds the albedo effect, causing a

Andrew Lacis; James Hansen; Makiko Sato



A climatology of stratospheric aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol is created by combining nearly a decade (1979-1981 and 1984-1990) of contemporaneous observations from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE I and II) and Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) instruments. One goal of this work is to provide a representative distribution of the aerosol layer for use in radiative and chemical modeling. A

Matthew H. Hitchman; Megan McKay; Charles R. Trepte



Photothermal Interferometric Aerosol Absorption Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol light absorption still remains a difficult quantity to measure at the precision, accuracy and temporal resolution necessary to quantitatively bound the contribution of this direct effect on aerosol radiative forcing. These continuing difficulties are due, in part, because aerosol extinction is dominated by light scattering. In response to these and other issues, the aerosol community has been developing a

Arthur Sedlacek; Jeonghoon Lee



Salicylic acid failed to increase the efficacy of Ca-DTPA in the decorporation of plutonium and americium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male and female C57BL\\/Do mice were each given a single ip injection of \\/sup 237 + 239\\/Pu + ²⁴¹Am as the citrate complex at 45 days of age. Twice-weekly ip injections of either 500\\/kg Ca-DTPA or 500\\/kg Ca-DTPA mixed just before injection with 2000\\/kg salicylic acid (SA) were begun 3 days after nuclide administration and continued for

C. W. Jones; R. D. Lloyd; C. W. Mays



Aerosol mass spectrometer measurements of organic aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic species are known to be ubiquitous and comprise a significant component of ambient aerosols. Identifying the sources, chemical compositions, and loadings of particulate organics remains a difficult, yet important problem as organic components may affect the formation, hygroscopicity, growth, reactivity, and radiative effects of ambient particles. Unraveling this complexity inherently must rely on chemical information (such as off-line filter

D. Worsnop; M. Canagaratna; J. Jayne; H. Boudries; T. Onasch; J. Jimenez; J. Slowik; H. Coe



External monitoring of kidney transplant function using Tc-99m(Sn)DTPA  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of an external counting technique to provide daily monitoring of kidney transplant function by measuring the renal clearance of Tc-99m(SN)DTPA. During the first few weeks following transplant, 15 patients had their renal clearance of Tc-99m DTPA measured daily over periods of 5 to 24 h. Clearance rates were compared with daily plasma creatinine levels, and the effects of diurnal variation, drug treatment, and physical activity noted. The resuls show tht any significant fall in clearance rate of chelate, indicating a rejection episode, preceded a rise in plasma creatinine levels by at least 24 hr. It is considered that this noninvasive, low-dose, easy-to-perform technique is of considerable value in extended daily monitoring of renal function and is superior to standard daily or twice-weekly renography for the early detection of transplant rejection.

Sampson, W.F.D.; Macleod, M.A.; Warren, D.



Calcium and zinc DTPA administration for internal contamination with plutonium-238 and americium-241.  


The accidental or intentional release of plutonium or americium can cause acute and long term adverse health effects if they enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation, or injection. These effects can be prevented by rapid removal of these radionuclides by chelators such as calcium or zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (calcium or zinc DTPA). These compounds have been shown to be efficacious in enhancing the elimination of members of the actinide family particularly plutonium and americium when administered intravenously or by nebulizer. The efficacy and adverse effects profile depend on several factors that include the route of internalization of the actinide, the type, and route time of administration of the chelator, and whether the calcium or zinc salt of DTPA is used. Current and future research efforts should be directed at overcoming limitations associated with the use of these complex drugs by using innovative methods that can enhance their structural and therapeutic properties. PMID:22352730

Kazzi, Ziad N; Heyl, Alexander; Ruprecht, Johann



The pharmacokinetics of pulmonary-delivered insulin: a comparison of intratracheal and aerosol administration to the rabbit.  


The pulmonary deposition and pharmacokinetics of insulin, administered via an endotracheal tube as an aerosol and instillate, in formulations containing either 113mIn-DTPA or 99mTc-DTPA (for gamma scintigraphic imaging) have been studied in four male New Zealand White rabbits. Using a randomized crossover design, the pharmacokinetics of intravenous insulin were also characterized. Recovery of immunoreactive insulin after nebulization was greater than 90%, indicating that the aerosolisation procedure did not cause appreciable insulin degradation. Gamma scintigraphy demonstrated that the penetration index (peripheral:central deposition) for the aerosolized formulation (1.52) was much greater than that for the instillate (0.32). Gamma scintigraphy also allowed exact quantification of the dose deposited after aerosol administration and thus permitted accurate determination of bioavailabilities. The bioavailable fraction for aerosolized insulin was 10-fold greater than for instilled insulin (57.2 vs 5.6%). Mucociliary clearance was likely to be greater for the instillate since it showed a preferential central deposition; this may account for the lower bioavailability. Insulin pharmacokinetics from both pulmonary formulations were absorption rate limited, resulting in postpeak half-lives which were approximately 20-fold greater than the intravenous elimination half-life (3 min). The apparent absorption rate constants resulting from instillation and aerosolisation were statistically equivalent (0.015 and 0.011 min-1, respectively). Mucociliary clearance of insulin would result in an overestimation of the true absorption rate constant; hence if mucociliary transport were greater for the instillate, then the true airways to blood transfer rate constant will be higher for the aerosolized formulation. PMID:1409359

Colthorpe, P; Farr, S J; Taylor, G; Smith, I J; Wyatt, D



Three-dimensional images of liver tumours reconstructed by Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional images of liver tumours obtained with gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI (3D-EOB-MRI) in hepatic surgery. We conclude that 3D-EOB-MRI may be an alternative method for depicting liver tumours adjacent to the hepatic veins and portal branches, and may provide additional information for surgical planning.

Takeshita, K; Watanabe, A; Kutomi, K; Haruyama, T; Yamamoto, A; Furui, S; Sano, K



AB?DTPA and Mehlich III soil tests unable to predict copper available to creeping bentgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper (Cu) can be toxic to creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris ’Penncross') grown in sand?based systems. Plant analysis is not always a reliable predictor of toxic levels of Cu in these sand?based systems. Therefore, there is need for soil analysis to detect potentially toxic Cu concentrations in soil. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of AB?DTPA and

M. B. Faust; N. E. Christians



GD-DTPA enhanced MRI of ocular transport in a rat model of chronic glaucoma.  


Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease of the visual system characterized by the elevation of intraocular pressure. While this elevated pressure is related to an increased resistance to the outflow of aqueous humor from the eye, their impacts to the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease are not fully understood. This study aims to employ in vivo Gd-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the ocular transport following an induction of ocular hypertension in a rat model of chronic glaucoma. An experimental ocular hypertension model was induced in adult rats using an argon laser to photocoagulate the episcleral and limbal veins on the surface of the eyeball. The enhancements of the MRI signal intensity in the anterior chamber and vitreous body were measured as a function of time following systemic administration of Gd-DTPA solution at 3 mmol/kg. Results showed a progressive T1-weighted signal increase in the vitreous body of the glaucomatous eye but not the control eye. This increase occurred earlier in the anterior vitreous body than the preretinal vitreous. Further, there was an earlier Gd-DTPA transport into the anterior chamber in the majority of glaucomatous eyes. Our findings revealed the leakage of Gd-DTPA at the aqueous-vitreous interface, which was likely resulted from increased permeability of blood-aqueous or aqueous-vitreous barrier. These may explain the sources of changing biochemical compositions in the glaucomatous chamber components, which may implicate the cascades of neurodegenerative processes in the retina and the optic nerve. PMID:18639546

Chan, Kevin C; Fu, Qing-ling; Guo, Hua; So, Kwok-fai; Wu, Ed X



Tc-99m DTPA scans in renal allograft rejection and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

Renal allograft dysfunction arising from rejection or cyclosporine (CsA) nephrotoxicity can currently only be distinguished reliably by allograft biopsy. We have assessed Technetium (Tc)-99m diethylamine pentacetic acid (DTPA) scanning in 30 CsA-treated patients with allograft dysfunction. Scintigrams were performed during 20 biopsy-proved episodes of rejection and during 14 episodes of CsA nephrotoxicity. These results were compared with the scintigrams of 15 allografts showing stable function. Quantitative indices expressing allograft perfusion (flow index) and function (uptake index) derived from the DTPA scintigrams showed no significant differences between the groups of patients with rejection, CsA nephrotoxicity, or stable or improving function. Similarly, the flow and uptake indices of individual allografts obtained during periods of stable or improving function and then during episodes of dysfunction due to rejection or CsA nephrotoxicity did not significantly change. We conclude that Tc-99m DTPA scintigrams are of limited value in the management of allograft dysfunction in patients immunosuppressed with CsA.

Gedroyc, W.; Taube, D.; Fogleman, I.; Neild, G.; Cameron, S.; Maisey, M.



Evaluation of liver function using gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhanced MR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indocyanine green (ICG) is widely used for its clearance test in the evaluation of liver function. Gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a targeted MR contrast agent partially taken up by hepatocytes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an estimation of the liver function corresponding to plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (ICG-PDR) by use of the signal intensity of the liver alone in Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR imaging (EOB-MRI). We evaluated fourteen patients who had EOB-MRI and ICG clearance test within 1 month. 2D-GRE T1 weighted images were obtained at pre contrast, 3 min (equilibrium phase) and 20 min (hepatobiliary phase) after the intravenous administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA, and the mean signal intensity of the liver was measured. The correlation between ICG-PDR and many parameters derived from the signal intensity of the liver in EOB-MRI was evaluated. The correlation coefficient between ICG-PDR and many parameters derived from the signal intensity of the liver in EOBMRI was low and not significant. The estimation of the liver function corresponding to ICG-PDR by use of the signal intensity of the liver alone in EOB-MRI would not be reliable.

Yamada, Akira; Hara, Takeshi; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio



Stratospheric Aerosol Sizes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A balloon-borne submicron aerosol counter was successfully flown on three stratospheric balloon experiments over Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, in May 1973. The results indicate that particulate matter at altitudes above 23km has markedly different ...

H. A. Miranda R. Fenn



Aerosol Dissemination Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic program objectives are to develop, to design, and to fabricate a complete aerosol assessment system. These were reviewed in terms of the capability of the instrumentation for the measurement of the mass concentration of active agent, concentrati...

R. Dennis A. W. Doyle D. Gordon R. A. Gussman C. O. Hommel



Aerosol Dissemination Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a program to develop, design, and fabricate an integrated chamber aerosol assessment system. Its primary application will be in the area of testing and evaluation of the dissemination of chemical agents in which the mass concentration...

R. Dennis A. W. Doyle C. O. Hommel J. F. McCoy P. Morgenstern



Aerosol Dissemination Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the work accomplished during the sixth quarter of a program to develop, design, and fabricate a complete chamber aerosol assessment system. Its primary application will be in the area of testing and evaluating methods of disseminatin...

A. W. Doyle C. O. Hommel E. S. Rosenblum P. Morgenstern R. Dennis



Nuclear aerosol codes  

SciTech Connect

Codes used to simulate aerosol behavior inside containments of nuclear power plants after assumed severe accidents are described. The basic aerosol physical equations of all codes are the same worldwide. Only minor differences can be detected regarding some special aerosol physical processes. These differences are not inherent but caused by boundary conditions, which are of special interest for the code users. The comparison of the single codes also shows that the general agreement achieved by the numerical treatment of the aerosol equation requires an appropriate discretization of the distribution function to yield stable solutions under all arbitrary conditions. The application of solutions based on special distribution functions should, therefore, be restricted to certain scenarios.

Beonio-Brocchieri, F.; Bunz, H.; Schock, W.; Dunbar, I.H.; Gauvain, J.; Miyahara, S.; Himeno, Y.; Soda, K.; Yamano, N.



Aerosol lenses propagation model.  


We propose a model based on the properties of cascading lenses modulation transfer function (MTF) to reproduce the irradiance of a screen illuminated through a dense aerosol cloud. In this model, the aerosol cloud is broken into multiple thin layers considered as individual lenses. The screen irradiance generated by these individual layers is equivalent to the point-spread function (PSF) of each aerosol lens. Taking the Fourier transform of the PSF as a MTF, we cascade the lenses MTF to find the cloud MTF. The screen irradiance is found with the Fourier transform of this MTF. We show the derivation of the model and we compare the results with the Undique Monte Carlo simulator for four aerosols at three optical depths. The model is in agreement with the Monte Carlo for all the cases tested. PMID:21886230

Tremblay, Grégoire; Roy, Gilles



Emergency Protection from Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

Cristy, G.A.



Characterizing the Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organic aerosol is an important fraction of the fine particulate matter present in the atmosphere. This organic aerosol comes from a variety of sources; primary organic aerosol emitted directly from combustion process, and secondary aerosol formed in the ...

M. Lunden D. Black N. Brown



RACORO aerosol data processing  

SciTech Connect

The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

Elisabeth Andrews



Peptide transporter DtpA has two alternate conformations, one of which is promoted by inhibitor binding  

PubMed Central

Peptide transporters (PTRs) of the large PTR family facilitate the uptake of di- and tripeptides to provide cells with amino acids for protein synthesis and for metabolic intermediates. Although several PTRs have been structurally and functionally characterized, how drugs modulate peptide transport remains unclear. To obtain insight into this mechanism, we characterize inhibitor binding to the Escherichia coli PTR dipeptide and tripeptide permease A (DtpA), which shows substrate specificities similar to its human homolog hPEPT1. After demonstrating that Lys[Z-NO2]-Val, the strongest inhibitor of hPEPT1, also acts as a high-affinity inhibitor for DtpA, we used single-molecule force spectroscopy to localize the structural segments stabilizing the peptide transporter and investigated which of these structural segments change stability upon inhibitor binding. This characterization was done with DtpA embedded in the lipid membrane and exposed to physiologically relevant conditions. In the unbound state, DtpA adopts two main alternate conformations in which transmembrane ?-helix (TMH) 2 is either stabilized (in ?43% of DtpA molecules) or not (in ?57% of DtpA molecules). The two conformations are understood to represent the inward- and outward-facing conformational states of the transporter. With increasing inhibitor concentration, the conformation characterized by a stabilized TMH 2 becomes increasingly prevalent, reaching ?92% at saturation. Our measurements further suggest that Lys[Z-NO2]-Val interacts with discrete residues in TMH 2 that are important for ligand binding and substrate affinity. These interactions in turn stabilize TMH 2, thereby promoting the inhibited conformation of DtpA.

Bippes, Christian A.; Ge, Lin; Meury, Marcel; Harder, Daniel; Ucurum, Zohre; Daniel, Hannelore; Fotiadis, Dimitrios; Muller, Daniel J.



Comparison of triple dose versus standard dose gadolinium-DTPA for detection of MRI enhancing lesions in patients with MS.  


We studied whether a triple dose of gadolinium-DTPA alone or in combination with delayed scanning increases the sensitivity of brain MRI for detecting enhancing lesions in patients with MS. We obtained T1-weighted brain MRI scans in two sessions for 22 patients with clinically definite MS. In the first session, we obtained one scan 5 to 7 minutes after the injection of 0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium-DTPA (standard dose). In the second session, 6 to 24 hours later, we obtained one scan before the two scans 5 to 7 minutes (for all patients) and one hour (for 11 patients) after the injection of 0.3 mmol/kg gadolinium-DTPA (triple dose). We detected 83 enhancing lesions in 14 patients when the standard dose of gadolinium-DTPA was used. The numbers of enhancing lesions increased to 138 (average increase 66%; p = 0.001) and the numbers of patients with such lesions to 18 (increase 28%) when we used the triple dose of gadolinium-DTPA. In addition, the total area per patient occupied by such lesions was greater (p < 0.0001) and lesion signal intensity higher (p = 0.0001) on the triple-dose scans than the standard-dose scans. There was an increase in the number of large enhancing lesions (p = 0.03) in the scans obtained 1 hour after the injection of the triple dose of gadolinium-DTPA. These data indicate that in patients with MS, a triple dose of gadolinium-DTPA can reveal many more enhancing lesions, which also appear larger. This suggests that the pathologic nature of "active" lesions in MS is heterogeneous, which might have impact on planning clinical trials. PMID:8614498

Filippi, M; Yousry, T; Campi, A; Kandziora, C; Colombo, B; Voltz, R; Martinelli, V; Spuler, S; Bressi, S; Scotti, G; Comi, G




EPA Science Inventory

A general mathematical model describing the motion of particles in aerosol centrifuges has been developed. t has been validated by comparisons of theoretically predicted calibration sites with experimental data from tests sizing aerosols in instruments of three different spiral d...


Aerosol lifetime and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominant removal mechanism for atmospheric aerosol is activation of particles to cloud droplets and subsequent wet deposition in precipitation. The atmospheric lifetime of aerosol is thus closely coupled to the atmospheric cycling time of water vapor. Changes of hydrological cycle characteristics resulting from climate change therefore directly affect aerosol lifetime, and thus the radiative forcing exerted by aerosol. This study expresses the coupling between water vapor and aerosol lifetimes and their temperature sensitivities in fundamental equations and in terms of the efficiency of processing of air by precipitating clouds. Based on climate model simulations these temperature sensitivities are estimated to be on the order of +5.3% K-1, but this may be an overestimation. Generally, shifting spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol (precursor) emissions and precipitation, and changes in aerosol activation efficiency probably influence aerosol lifetimes more than climate change itself, resulting in a wide range of simulated aerosol lifetime sensitivities between aerosol-climate models. It is possible that the climate sensitivity of models plays a role. It can be argued that climate sensitivity is intrinsically coupled with the simulated (temperature sensitivity of the) aerosol lifetime through the distribution of water vapor and aerosol between the lower and upper troposphere. This implies a fundamental relation between various feedback forcings (water vapor, lapse rate, cloud) and the aerosol forcing, illustrating the key role of the hydrological cycle in different aspects of the climate system.

Roelofs, G.-J.