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1

Use of ECT in a patient with a Harrington rod implant.  

PubMed

A 50-year-old depressed patient with prior Harrington rod implantation and spinal disease was treated with 6 electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatments, despite conflicting orthopedic recommendations. Complete muscle relaxation was achieved with succinylcholine 2.1-2.2 mg/kg without complication during or after ECT. Concerns and recommendations regarding the use of ECT in patients with Harrington rods are discussed. PMID:8919579

Hanretta, A T; Malek-Ahmadi, P

1995-12-01

2

A highly accurate ECT calibration system based on virtual instrument technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic current transformer (ECT) calibration system based on virtual instrument technology is introduced in this paper. The system uses the fourth-order convolution window algorithm for error calculation method. Compared with Fast Fourier Transform, which is recommended by standard IEC-60044-8 (Electronic current transformers), it has higher accuracy. The relative measuring errors caused by asynchronous sampling could be reduced effectively without

Yue Tong; Hongbin Li; Lei Cheng; Mingming Zhang; Ying Deng

2008-01-01

3

Microsystem technologies for implantable applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsystem technologies (MST) have become the basis of a large industry. The advantages of MST compared to other technologies provide opportunities for application in implantable biomedical devices. This paper presents a general and broad literature review of MST for implantable applications focused on the technical domain. A classification scheme is introduced to order the examples, basic technological building blocks relevant

Rogier A M Receveur; Fred W Lindemans; Nicolaas F de Rooij

2007-01-01

4

TOPICAL REVIEW: Microsystem technologies for implantable applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsystem technologies (MST) have become the basis of a large industry. The advantages of MST compared to other technologies provide opportunities for application in implantable biomedical devices. This paper presents a general and broad literature review of MST for implantable applications focused on the technical domain. A classification scheme is introduced to order the examples, basic technological building blocks relevant

Rogier A. M. Receveur; Fred W. Lindemans; Nicolaas F. de Rooij

2007-01-01

5

Ion Implantation Processing Technologies for Telecommunications Electronics  

SciTech Connect

The subject CRADA was a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies (formerly AT and T Bell Laboratories) to explore the development of ion implantation technologies for silicon integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing.

Haynes, T.E.

2000-05-01

6

RFID technology for human implant devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents an overview on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for human implants and investigates the technological feasibility of such implants for locating and tracking persons or for remotely controlling human biological functions. Published results on the miniaturization of implantable passive RFID devices are reported as well as a discussion on the choice of the transmission frequency in wireless communication between a passive RFID device implanted inside human body and an off-body interrogator. The two techniques (i.e., inductive coupling and electromagnetic coupling) currently used for wirelessly supplying power to and read data from a passive implantable RFID device are described and some documented biomedical and therapeutic applications of human RFID-implant devices are finally reported.RésuméCet article dresse un état de l'art sur la technologie des puces RFID implantées dans le corps humain. Il explore la faisabilité d'implants permettant de localiser en temps réel des personnes ou encore de contrôler à distance les fonctions biologiques du corps humain. Des résultats sur la miniaturisation des puces RFID passives et implantables dans le corps sont présentés. Des considérations sur le choix de la fréquence de la communication sans fil entre l'implant RFID et son lecteur sont formulées. Deux techniques usuelles (à savoir le couplage inductif et le couplage électromagnétique) pour alimenter sans fil et à distance l'implant RFID passif et pour lire les données de l'implant sont décrites. Des applications biomédicales et thérapeutiques des implants RFID sont finalement données.

Aubert, Hervé

2011-09-01

7

ECT IN NEUROLOGICAL COUNDITIONS  

PubMed Central

It is a myth that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) produces greater side effects and worsens the neurological condition when used in neurologically ill patients. With the advancement and sophistication in ECT practice standards and modification procedures, it can be safely administered either to treat selected neurological conditions or the co-morbid psychiatric illnesses without additional risks. However ECT should be administered only after thorough evaluation of risks and benefits in such individuals.

Girish, K.; Gangadhar, B.N.; Janakiramaiah, N.

2002-01-01

8

Implantable micropump technologies for murine intracochlear infusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the very small size of the mouse inner ear, 600 nL volume, developing effective, controlled infusion systems is quite challenging. Key technologies have been created to minimize both size and power for an implantable pump for murine intracochlear infusions. A method for coupling fine capillary tubing to microfluidic channels is presented which provides low volume, biocompatible interconnects withstanding

D. G. Johnson; M. J. Waldron; R. D. Frisina; D. A. Borkholder

2010-01-01

9

Catatonia, autism, and ECT.  

PubMed

We describe the clinical presentation, course, and treatment response of a 14-year-old boy with catatonic stupor. This patient, with a preexisting diagnosis of autism, displayed mutism, akinesia, and an extreme level of rigidity, waxy flexibility, posturing, including the psychological pillow, facial grimacing, and other involuntary movements of his upper extremities. In addition he had symptoms suggestive of a depressive disorder as well as some non-specific psychotic symptoms. Intravenous injection of sodium amytal failed to resolve any motor symptoms, although he showed a good response to the zolpidem test. A course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) caused dramatic and sustained relief of catatonic stupor without a change in the symptoms of autism. The presentation of catatonia in autism and the use of ECT in children are discussed, and the available literature reviewed. This is the first description of the use of ECT in the treatment of catatonia coinciding with autism and we confirm its efficacy. PMID:10619284

Zaw, F K; Bates, G D; Murali, V; Bentham, P

1999-12-01

10

The ect2 rho Guanine nucleotide exchange factor is essential for early mouse development and normal cell cytokinesis and migration.  

PubMed

Ect2 is a member of the human Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) that serve as activators of Rho family small GTPases. Although Ect2 is one of at least 25 RhoGEFs that can activate the RhoA small GTPase, cell culture studies using established cell lines determined that Ect2 is essential for mammalian cell cytokinesis and proliferation. To address the function of Ect2 in normal mammalian development, we performed gene targeting to generate Ect2 knockout mice. The heterozygous Ect2(+/-) mice showed normal development and life span, indicating that Ect2 haplodeficiency was not deleterious for development or growth. In contrast, Ect2(-/-) embryos were not found at birth or postimplantation stages. Ect2(-/-) blastocysts were recovered at embryonic day 3.5 but did not give rise to viable outgrowths in culture, indicating that Ect2 is required for peri-implantation development. To further assess the importance of Ect2 in normal cell physiology, we isolated primary fibroblasts from Ect2(fl/fl) embryos (MEFs) and ablated Ect2 using adenoviral delivery of Cre recombinase. We observed a significant increase in multinucleated cells and accumulation of cells in G2/M phase, consistent with a role for Ect2 in cytokinesis. Ect2 deficiency also caused enlargement of the cytoplasm and impaired cell migration. Finally, although Ect2-dependent activation of RhoA has been implicated in cytokinesis, Ect2 can also activate Rac1 and Cdc42 to cause growth transformation. Surprisingly, ectopic expression of constitutively activated RhoA, Rac1, or Cdc42, known substrates of Ect2, failed to phenocopy Ect2 and did not rescue the defect in cytokinesis caused by loss of Ect2. In summary, our results establish the unique role of Ect2 in development and normal cell proliferation. PMID:22701760

Cook, Danielle R; Solski, Patricia A; Bultman, Scott J; Kauselmann, Gunther; Schoor, Michael; Kuehn, Ralf; Friedman, Lori S; Cowley, Dale O; Van Dyke, Terry; Yeh, Jen Jen; Johnson, Leisa; Der, Channing J

2011-10-01

11

The mortality rate with ECT.  

PubMed

ECT is a low-risk procedure, even in the older cardiac patient who is fast becoming the modal candidate for this therapy. To put the mortal risk with ECT in proper perspective, it is only necessary to note that ECT is about 10 times safer than childbirth, that approximately 6 times as many deaths annually in the U.S. are caused by lightning as by ECT, that two complications of psychotropic drug therapy in younger women-fatal myocardial infarction and fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage-virtually never occur with ECT, and that the death rate reported for ECT is an order of magnitude smaller than the spontaneous death rate in the general population. PMID:9342128

Abrams, R

1997-09-01

12

Implantable Micropump Technologies for Murine Intracochlear Infusions  

PubMed Central

Due to the very small size of the mouse inner ear, 600 nL volume, developing effective, controlled infusion systems is quite challenging. Key technologies have been created to minimize both size and power for an implantable pump for murine intracochlear infusions. A method for coupling fine capillary tubing to microfluidic channels is presented which provides low volume, biocompatible interconnects withstanding pressures as high as 827 kPa (120 psi) and consuming less than 20 nL of volume exiting in-plane with the pump. Surface micromachined resistive bridges integrated into the flow channel for anemometry based flow rate measurement have been optimized for low power operation in the ultra-low flow rate regime. A process for creation of deformable diaphragms over pump chambers with simultaneous coating of the microfluidic channels has been developed allowing integration of a biocompatible fluid flow path. These advances represent enabling capabilities for a drug delivery system suitable for space constrained applications such as subcutaneous implantation in mice.

Johnson, D. G.; Waldron, M. J.; Frisina, R. D.; Borkholder, D. A.

2011-01-01

13

Evaluating the Feasibility of Using Remote Technology for Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of remote technology to provide cochlear implant services has gained popularity in recent years. This article contains a review of research evaluating the feasibility of remote service delivery for recipients of cochlear implants. To date, published studies have determined that speech-processor programming levels and other objective tests…

Goehring, Jenny L.; Hughes, Michelle L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.

2012-01-01

14

Research and Technology Transfer Ion Implantation Technology for Specialty Materials: Proceedings of a joint workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion implantation research and technology transfer workshop brought together a diverse group of academic, industrial, and government participants. Several key issues highlighted were: (1) a need exists for new technology transfer infrastructures between universities, research labs and industry; (2) ion implantation technology has promise for several Army and industry applications because of environmental concerns and technological benefits; (3) the U.S. ion implantation industry is primarily service oriented; and (4) the cost of ion implantation technology could be significantly reduced if larger scale production equipment was available for on-line processing. A need exists in the U.S. for mechanisms and funds to develop such equipment.

Reeber, Robert R.

1991-02-01

15

Ion Implantation in Iii-V Semiconductor Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is given of the applications of ion implantation in III-V compound semiconductor device technology, beginning with the fundamentals of ion stopping in these materials and describing the use of implantation for both doping and isolation. There is increasing interest in the use of MeV implantation to create unique doping profiles or for the isolation of thick device structures such as heterojunction bipolar transistors or multi quantum well lasers, and we give details of these areas and the metal masking layers necessary for selective area processing. Finally, examples are given of the use of implantation in a variety of III-V devices.

Pearton, S. J.

16

Innovation and regulation in human implant technologies: developing comparative approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human implant technologies are subject to continual innovation and proliferation, raising important issues for technology testing, healthcare sciences, clinical performance and risk assessment, and regulation. The regulatory environment of medical devices is being shaped by harmonisation of standards in the European Union. The aim of this paper is to compare the histories and current regulatory environment of two technologies, breast

Alex Faulkner; Julie Kent

2001-01-01

17

Microbattery technologies for miniaturized implantable medical devices.  

PubMed

Implanted medical devices (IMDs), in particular neuro-stimulators, drug delivery chips and cochlear implants are undergoing miniaturization. Some of these miniaturized IMDs are "active" in the sense that they require a power source for operation. In most cases, the ideal power source needs to be an implanted battery of dimensions similar to that of the device. The state-of-the-art of battery miniaturization is reviewed with emphasis on novel Li and Li-ion two- and three-dimensional thin-film microbatteries. It is shown that three-dimensional thin-film batteries may provide a solution to the power requirements of miniaturized IMDs. PMID:20199378

Nathan, Menachem

2010-06-01

18

Crack shape reconstruction using ECT camera system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ECT (eddy current testing) camera system is proposed to quantitatively evaluate\\/visualize cracks of the metal structures. It is composed of the multi-coil ECT probe, ECT instrument, and computer-aided analysis\\/visualization that correspond to the lens, film and development\\/picture in the elements of photography, respectively. At first, scanning the probe in one direction gives ECT signals as a two-dimensional image. Second,

Y. Nagaya; H. Endo; T. Uchimoto; T. Takagi; H. J. Jung; L. Bartolomeo

2004-01-01

19

GaAs FET Device Fabrication and Ion Implantation Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microwave device fabrication and evaluation in conjunction with ion implantation has been selected to provide a benchmark technology for evaluation of semi-insulating GaAs and InP grown at NRL and elsewhere. Devices have been processed by a combination of...

K. J. Sleger H. B. Dietrich

1980-01-01

20

Ion Implantation of Graphene-Toward IC Compatible Technologies.  

PubMed

Doping of graphene via low energy ion implantation could open possibilities for fabrication of nanometer-scale patterned graphene-based devices as well as for graphene functionalization compatible with large-scale integrated semiconductor technology. Using advanced electron microscopy/spectroscopy methods, we show for the first time directly that graphene can be doped with B and N via ion implantation and that the retention is in good agreement with predictions from calculation-based literature values. Atomic resolution high-angle dark field imaging (HAADF) combined with single-atom electron energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy reveals that for sufficiently low implantation energies ions are predominantly substitutionally incorporated into the graphene lattice with a very small fraction residing in defect-related sites. PMID:24059439

Bangert, U; Pierce, W; Kepaptsoglou, D M; Ramasse, Q; Zan, R; Gass, M H; Van den Berg, J A; Boothroyd, C B; Amani, J; Hofsäss, H

2013-10-01

21

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) from the patient's perspective  

PubMed Central

This is a response to Dr Charlotte Rosalind Blease's paper ‘Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), the Placebo Effect and Informed Consent’, written by Julie K. Hersh who has had ECT. Hersh argues that placebo effect is impossible to prove without endangering the lives of participants in the study. In addition, informing potential ECT patients of unproven placebo effect could discourage patients from using a procedure that from experience has proven highly effective.

Hersh, Julie K

2013-01-01

22

Adaptation of NASA Technology for the Optimization of Orthopedic Knee Implants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA technology originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) is adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the tailoring of the implant for optimal interacti...

D. A. Saravanos P. J. Mraz D. A. Hopkins

1991-01-01

23

Plasma ion implantation technology at Hughes Research Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

The plasma ion implantation (PII) project at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL) has as its main objective the evaluation and application of PII technology to improve the tribological properties of metal and nonmetal materials used in aerospace, defense, and commercial applications. The HRL PII facility consists of a 4-ft-diam[times]8-ft-long vacuum chamber capable of implanting objects weighing up to 7000 lbs, and a high-power (100-kW), high-voltage (100-kV) pulse modulator to provide voltage pulses for implantation. Advanced plasma sources have been developed to produce atomic, as well as molecular, nitrogen and oxygen ions, and PII processes have been developed to treat metal and nonmetal materials. The HRL PII facility has been operational since 1989 and has been used for prototype demonstrations of PII technology to achieve (1) a 2--3[times] improved wear life of Co/WC drill bits used for printed-wiring-board fabrication, (2) an 8[times] reduced wear rate for TiN-coated cutting tools, and (3) a 2[times] increased surface hardness for a 7000-lb polymer object, 3 ft by 5 ft by 1 ft.

Matossian, J.N. (Plasma Physics Laboratory, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, California 90265 (United States))

1994-03-01

24

A comparison of RUL ultrabrief pulse (0.3 ms) ECT and standard RUL ECT.  

PubMed

An important goal in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) research is to minimize associated cognitive side-effects while maintaining its high efficacy. This study explored the use of a novel approach, right unilateral (RUL) ECT with an ultrabrief pulsewidth (0.3 ms) (RUL-UB), in comparison with standard RUL ECT. Seventy-four depressed in-patients received RUL-UB ECT at six times seizure threshold, and 22 patients received standard RUL ECT (1.0 ms pulsewidth) at five times seizure threshold. Formal, prospective evaluations of mood and cognitive functioning over the treatment course were done by a rater blinded to treatment condition. Efficacy was maintained using the ultrabrief pulsewidth, with equivalent numbers of responders and remitters to the standard RUL ECT group, although the speed of response was slower. Cognitive outcomes were superior in the RUL-UB ECT group, particularly in the retention of verbal and visual information, as well as in retrograde autobiographical memory. PMID:18752719

Loo, Colleen K; Sainsbury, Kirby; Sheehan, Patrick; Lyndon, Bill

2008-08-28

25

V ect(S 1 ) Action on Pseudodierential Symbols on S 1 and (Noncommutative) Hydrodynamic Type Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard embedding of the Lie algebra V ect(S 1 ) of smooth vector fields on the circle V ect(S 1 ) into the Lie algebra D(S 1 ) of pseudodierential symbols on S 1 identifies vector field f(x) @ @x 2 V ect(S 1 ) and its dual as (f(x) @ @x ) = f(x) (u(x)dx 2 ) =

Partha GUHA

2006-01-01

26

Evolution of Ion Implantation Technology and its Contribution to Semiconductor Industry  

SciTech Connect

Industrial aspects of the evolution of ion implantation technology will be reviewed, and their impact on the semiconductor industry will be discussed. The main topics will be the technology's application to the most advanced, ultra scaled CMOS, and to power devices, as well as productivity improvements in implantation technology. Technological insights into future developments in ion-related technologies for emerging industries will also be presented.

Tsukamoto, Katsuhiro [Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (Japan); Kuroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yoji [Renesas Electronics Corporation (Japan)

2011-01-07

27

ECT Use in Unipolar and Bipolar Depression  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have compared response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in depressed patients with unipolar and bipolar disorder. Methods We reviewed the charts of inpatients with unipolar or bipolar depression who received open treatment with right unilateral ECT. We compared the number of treatments, demographics, and change in Global Assessment of Functioning scores and length of hospital stay in both groups. Results Whereas changes in Global Assessment of Functioning scores and length of stay overlapped, the number of treatments in patients with bipolar disorder (mean ± SD, 7.5 ± 1.6) was lower than that in patients with unipolar disorder (mean ± SD, 10.2 ± 1.9). Conclusion Fewer ECT treatments may be required to achieve similar benefit in patients with bipolar disorder compared to patients with unipolar disorder.

Agarkar, Smita; Hurt, Stephen; Lisanby, Sarah; Young, Robert C.

2013-01-01

28

The Impact of A "Brief ECT Orientation Module" on The Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical Students Towards ECT in India  

PubMed Central

Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) continues to be an intervention that attracts controversy in spite of its proven efficacy. There is limited literature on attitude and knowledge of medical students towards ECT from Asian and African countries. Aim: The current study assesses the impact of a “Brief ECT Orientation Module” on the knowledge of and attitudes of Indian medical students towards modified ECT. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted at a tertiary care multi-specialty hospital associated with a government medical college. The students were administered the study questionnaire on Day 1 of Psychiatry clerkship. Following this, they were administered the Brief ECT Orientation Module. Assessment was made using a questionnaire with items related to knowledge and attitude towards ECT before and after “Brief ECT Orientation Module.” Results: Fifty-nine students completed the study. There was a significant improvement in knowledge of medical students on all the three domains of the questionnaire for assessment of knowledge about ECT-related facts. A change in attitudes towards ECT was also observed following Brief ECT Orientation Module, especially among those who witnessed ECT administration. Conclusion: The findings of the current study suggest that the Brief ECT Orientation Module is effective in improving the knowledge and attitude of medical students towards ECT.

Balhara, YPS; Yadav, T; Mathur, S; Kataria, DK

2012-01-01

29

Delayed Onset and Prolonged ECT-Related Delirium  

PubMed Central

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective in the treatment of depression. Delayed post-ECT delirium is rare but can occur in a small subset of patients with risk factors and in most cases resolves with the use of psychotropic medications. We report a unique presentation of a patient who developed a delayed post-ECT delirium with fecal incontinence that commenced 24 hours after the administration of ECT. The condition resolved spontaneously after 48 hours without the use of psychotropic medications.

Pandurangi, Ananda; Levenson, James

2013-01-01

30

Diagnostic variability and therapeutic efficacy of ECT in Nepalese sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Though electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used in Nepal for last twenty years, researches regarding its use, its efficacy and other data are non-existent. Aims: The objective of this study was to know about diagnostic variability and therapeutic efficacy of the use of ECT in hospitalized patients. Methods: This is a prospective comparative study between patients who received ECT

Pradhan SN; Sharma SC; Shrestha BR; Shrestha S

31

Industrial Hygiene and Control Technology Assessment of Ion Implantation Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion implantation is a process used to create the functional units (pn junctions) of integrated circuits, photovoltaic (solar) cells and other semiconductor devices. During the process, ions of an impurity or a “dopant” material are created, accelerated and imbedded in wafers of silicon. Workers responsible for implantation equipment are believed to be at risk from exposure to both chemical (dopant

L. J. UNGERS; J. H. JONES

1986-01-01

32

Science and technology of biocompatible thin films for implantable biomedical devices.  

SciTech Connect

This presentation focuses on reviewing research to develop two critical biocompatible film technologies to enable implantable biomedical devices, namely: (1) development of bioinert/biocompatible coatings for encapsulation of Si chips implantable in the human body (e.g., retinal prosthesis implantable in the human eye) - the coating involves a novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film or hybrid biocompatible oxide/UNCD layered films; and (2) development of biocompatible films with high-dielectric constant and microfabrication process to produce energy storage super-capacitors embedded in the microchip to achieve full miniaturization for implantation into the human body.

Li, W.; Kabius, B.; Auciello, O.; Materials Science Division

2010-01-01

33

Implantable electronic devices technology challenges for long-term human implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the requirements for long-term implantation of electronic devices with a focus on packaging and encapsulation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Owing to their intended long-term use in the human body, implants for electrical stimulation present specific challenges to the engineers. The respective roles of packaging and encapsulation must be clearly understood to make

Anne Vanhoestenberghe

2009-01-01

34

Dual gate oxide integrity improvement by implementing nitrogen implantation technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual gate oxide layers were implemented in 0.15 ?m Mask ROM device. Two predominant approaches were carried out to achieve a combination of thin and thick gate oxides. One was the conventional, growth-etching-growth, process and another one was oxidation on wafers with pre-gate-oxide nitrogen implantation. The retardation rate of oxidation was dependent on the nitrogen implant dosage but independent on implant energy. For thin gate oxide, device performance by using nitrogen implantation prior to gate oxide demonstrated better thickness uniformity and breakdown voltage than that by using conventional approach. Furthermore, directly formed thick gate oxide achieved better thickness uniformity and breakdown voltage than that of the grow-etching-grow process.

Luoh, Tuung; Hsieh, Jung-Yu; Yang, Ling-Wuu; Huang, Chi-Tung; Chen, Kuang-Chao; Chung, Henry; Ku, Joseph; Lu, Chih-Yuan

2005-08-01

35

Consent, competency and ECT: a psychiatrist's view  

PubMed Central

Dr Taylor, an English psychiatrist, considers the issue of the symposium in the context of the Mental Health (Amendment) Act 1982. This, she says, gives little guidance on how judgment of a patient's competency or capability to consent to treatment should be made, although it specifies that unless compulsorily detained patients competently consent to ECT a special second medical opinion is required. Although some guidelines from the Department of Health may be offered before implementation of the Act in September 1983 all those working with psychiatric patients will have to consider the issues. After discussing her criteria for informed consent, some practical approaches for obtaining it and problems arising from these, and problems of surrogate consent, Dr Taylor concludes that there is no single or simple solution to the dilemma. She ends by asking: `Can refusal of ECT for severe depression ever be a competent decision?'

Taylor, P J

1983-01-01

36

Factors influencing patients' willingness to pay for new technologies in hip and knee implants.  

PubMed

Rising implant prices and evolving technologies are important factors contributing to the increased cost of arthroplasty. Assessing how patients value arthroplasty, new technologies, and their perceived outcomes is critical in planning cost-effective care, as well as evaluating new-technologies. One hundred one patients undergoing arthroplasty took part in the survey. We captured demographics, spending practices, knowledge of implants, patient willingness to pay for implants, and preferences related to implant attributes. When patients were asked if they would be satisfied with "standard of care" prosthesis, 80% replied "no". When asked if they would pay for a higher than "standard of care" prosthesis, 86% replied "yes". The study demonstrated that patients, regardless of their socio-economic status, are not satisfied with standard of care implants when newer technologies are available, and they may be willing to share in the cost of their prosthesis. Patients also prefer the option to choose what they perceive to be a higher quality or innovative implant even if the "out of pocket" cost is higher. PMID:23142436

Schwarzkopf, Ran; Sagebin, Fabio M; Karia, Raj; Koenig, Karl M; Bosco, Joseph A; Slover, James D

2012-11-08

37

Implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes required facilities, preoperative procedures, anesthesia, and operative techniques for the implantation\\u000a of currently available defibrillator models. Electrophysiologists would prefer not to have to think about the days when defibrillator\\u000a implantations were performed using a median sternotomy with mortality rates exceeding five percent. The size reduction of\\u000a the generators and the use of transvenous leads have allowed subcutaneous

Antonio Pacifico; Philip D. Henry

38

Epi-replacement in CMOS technology by high dose, high energy boron implantation into Cz substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We implanted high energy boron to create a heavily doped ground plane in Cz wafers to replace p\\/p+ epi-substrates in CMOS technology. Devices manufactured on Cz wafers with a 1.5 MeV, 1×1015cm-2 boron implanted ground plane have superior latch-up immunity as compared to devices on epi-wafers. Improvements in latch-up suppression were observed for all isolation spacings. Diode leakage was lower

K. K. Bourdelle; Y. Chen; R. A. Ashton; L. M. Rubin; A. Agarwal; W. Morris

2000-01-01

39

Implantable medical applications of lithium-ion technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements for implantable medical batteries include high energy density, reliable performance, and a long service lifetime. These requirements have typically been satisfied by lithium primary cells. However, many new and exciting medical devices are being developed which have energy requirements that cannot be satisfied by a reasonably sized primary cell. For these applications, a secondary cell will be required.

Robert S. Rubino; Hong Gan; Esther S. Takeuchi

2002-01-01

40

Industrial hygiene and control technology assessment of ion implantation operations  

SciTech Connect

Ion implantation is a process used to create the functional units (pn junctions) of integrated circuits, photovoltaic (solar) cells and other semiconductor devices. During the process, ions of an impurity or a dopant material are created, accelerated and imbedded in wafers of silicon. Workers responsible for implantation equipment are believed to be at risk from exposure to both chemical (dopant compounds) and physical (ionizing radiation) agents. In an effort to characterize the chemical exposures, monitoring for chemical hazards was conducted near eleven ion implanters at three integrated circuit facilities, while ionizing radiation was monitored near four of these units at two of the facilities. The workplace monitoring suggests that ion implantation operators routinely are exposed to low-level concentrations of dopants. Although the exact nature of dopant compounds released to the work environment was not determined, area and personal samples taken during normal operating activities found concentrations of arsenic, boron and phosphorous below OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) for related compounds; area samples collected during implanter maintenance activities suggest that a potential exists for more serious exposures. The results of badge dosimetry monitoring for ionizing radiation indicate that serious exposures are unlikely to occur while engineering controls remain intact. All emissions were detected at levels unlikely to result in exposures above the OSHA standard for the whole body (1.25 rems per calendar quarter). The success of existing controls in preventing worker exposures is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the differential exposures likely to be experienced by operators and maintenance personnel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Ungers, L.J.; Jones, J.H.

1986-10-01

41

Industrial hygiene and control technology assessment of ion implantation operations.  

PubMed

Ion implantation is a process used to create the functional units (pn junctions) of integrated circuits, photovoltaic (solar) cells and other semiconductor devices. During the process, ions of an impurity or a "dopant" material are created, accelerated and imbedded in wafers of silicon. Workers responsible for implantation equipment are believed to be at risk from exposure to both chemical (dopant compounds) and physical (ionizing radiation) agents. In an effort to characterize the chemical exposures, monitoring for chemical hazards was conducted near eleven ion implanters at three integrated circuit facilities, while ionizing radiation was monitored near four of these units at two of the facilities. The workplace monitoring suggests that ion implantation operators routinely are exposed to low-level concentrations of dopants. Although the exact nature of dopant compounds released to the work environment was not determined, area and personal samples taken during normal operating activities found concentrations of arsenic, boron and phosphorous below OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) for related compounds; area samples collected during implanter maintenance activities suggest that a potential exists for more serious exposures. The results of badge dosimetry monitoring for ionizing radiation indicate that serious exposures are unlikely to occur while engineering controls remain intact. All emissions were detected at levels unlikely to result in exposures above the OSHA standard for the whole body (1.25 rems per calendar quarter). The success of existing controls in preventing worker exposures is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the differential exposures likely to be experienced by operators and maintenance personnel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3776837

Ungers, L J; Jones, J H

1986-10-01

42

Visualization of Flow Pattern in Thermosyphon by ECT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation on the visualization of the flow of the liquid in a two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) is carried out. Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) with optimal step lengths for iterative image reconstruction algorithm is applied in the study. Measurements are made under a range of heating rates of the TPCT. As against the common assumption of ``low spatial resolution of ECT'', the experimental results have demonstrated ECT's capability of reconstructing images of thin films on the order of 100 ?m in thickness. Results for film thickness by ECT are compared with the established theory. Agreements and discrepancies are observed among the reconstructed images corresponding to difference thresholds. ECT images of the liquid distributions in the TPCT show clear dependence on the variation of working conditions, which proves the potential of ECT as an advantageous technique for monitoring the operation of TPCT.

Liu, Shi; Li, Jingtao; Chen, Qi

2007-06-01

43

Technological, biological, and acoustical constraints to music perception in cochlear implant users.  

PubMed

Despite advances in technology, the ability to perceive music remains limited for many cochlear implant users. This paper reviews the technological, biological, and acoustical constraints that make music an especially challenging stimulus for cochlear implant users, while highlighting recent research efforts to overcome these shortcomings. The limitations of cochlear implant devices, which have been optimized for speech comprehension, become evident when applied to music, particularly with regards to inadequate spectral, fine-temporal, and dynamic range representation. Beyond the impoverished information transmitted by the device itself, both peripheral and central auditory nervous system deficits are seen in the presence of sensorineural hearing loss, such as auditory nerve degeneration and abnormal auditory cortex activation. These technological and biological constraints to effective music perception are further compounded by the complexity of the acoustical features of music itself that require the perceptual integration of varying rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and timbral elements of sound. Cochlear implant users not only have difficulty perceiving spectral components individually (leading to fundamental disruptions in perception of pitch, melody, and harmony) but also display deficits with higher perceptual integration tasks required for music perception, such as auditory stream segregation. Despite these current limitations, focused musical training programs, new assessment methods, and improvements in the representation and transmission of the complex acoustical features of music through technological innovation offer the potential for significant advancements in cochlear implant-mediated music perception. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Music: A window into the hearing brain". PMID:23665130

Limb, Charles J; Roy, Alexis T

2013-05-01

44

Increased transcranial magnetic motor threshold after ECT. A case report.  

PubMed

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a powerful antidepressive treatment, but its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. To clarify the influence of ECT on corticospinal tract excitability we tested the motor threshold, the motor evoked potential (MEP) input/output curve, and the intracortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation in a depressed patient before and after successful treatment with ECT. Resting motor thresholds were increased bilaterally after treatment, and the input/output curve less steep. These results point to a decreased excitability of the corticospinal motor tract after successful ECT. PMID:12451468

Sommer, Martin; Dieterich, Anja; Rüther, Eckart; Paulus, Walter; Wiltfang, Jens

2002-10-01

45

Ion Implant Technology for Intermediate Band Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes the creation of an Intermediate Band (IB) on single crystal silicon substrates by means of high-dose Ti implantation and subsequent Pulsed Laser Melting (PLM). The Ti concentration over the Mott limit is confirmed by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) measurements and the recovery of the crystallinity after annealing by means of Glancing Incidence X Ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) measurements show that most of the atoms are located interstitially. Analysis of the sheet resistance and mobility measured using the van der Pauw geometry shows a temperature-dependent decoupling between the implanted layer and the substrate. This decoupling and the high laminated conductivity of the implanted layer could not be explained except if we assume that an IB has been formed in the semiconductor. A specific model for the bilayer electrical behaviour has been developed. The fitting of this model and also the simulation of the sheet resistance with the ATLAS code allow to determine that the IB energetic position is located around 0.36-0.38 eV below the conduction band. Carriers at the IB have a density very similar to the Ti concentration and behave as holes with mobilities as low as 0.4 cm2 Vs- 1.

Olea, Javier; Pastor, David; Luque, María Toledano; Mártil, Ignacio; Díaz, Germán González

46

Science and technology of biocompatible thin films for implantable biomedical devices.  

PubMed

This presentation focuses on reviewing research to develop two critical biocompatible film technologies to enable implantable biomedical devices, namely: 1) development of bioinert/biocompatible coatings for encapsulation of Si chips implantable in the human body (e.g., retinal prosthesis implantable in the human eye)-the coating involves a novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film or hybrid biocompatible oxide/UNCD layered films; and 2) development of biocompatible films with high-dielectric constant and microfabrication process to produce energy storage super-capacitors embedded in the microchip to achieve full miniaturization for implantation into the human bodynovel Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates exhibit abnormally high dielectric constant to enable super-capacitors with very high-capacitance. PMID:21097345

Li, Wei; Kabius, Bernd; Auciello, Orlando

2010-01-01

47

Resuming electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) after emergence of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation during a course of right unilateral ECT.  

PubMed

Atrial fibrillation induced by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is rare, with only 3 reported cases. None of those cases involved either young healthy patients or right unilateral ECT. We report a 46-year-old healthy male observed to be in atrial fibrillation immediately after electrical induction of the 25th administration of right unilateral ECT. Diltiazem was administered, and he spontaneously cardioverted. After a negative cardiology workup, he safely resumed ECT. Atrial fibrillation was most likely triggered by autonomic imbalance due to the combination of electrical induction, seizure, and medication. PMID:22343588

Loeffler, George; Capobianco, Marc

2012-03-01

48

Evolution and acceptability of medical applications of RFID implants among early users of technology.  

PubMed

RFID as a wireless identification technology that may be combined with microchip implants have tremendous potential in today's market. Although these implants have their advantages and disadvantages, recent improvements how allowed for implants designed for humans. Focus was given to the use of RFID tags and its effects on technology and CRM through a case study on VeriChip, the only corporation to hold the rights and the patent to the implantable chip for humans, and an empirically based study on working professionals to measure perceptions by early adopters of such technology. Through hypotheses-testing procedures, it was found that although some resistance to accept microchip implants was found in several applications, especially among gender, it was totally expected that healthcare and medical record keeping activities would be universally treated in a positive light and the use of authorities (namely governmental agencies) would be equally treated in a negative light by both sexes. Future trends and recommendations are presented along with statistical results collected through personal interviews. PMID:19042524

Smith, Alan D

2007-01-01

49

Plasma source ion implantation technology for engineering surfaces of materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma Source Ion Implantation* (PSII) is a non-line-of-sight technique for energetic ion surface modification of materials. At the University of Wisconsin there are presently three PSII systems two of which measure about 1 m3 and a third that measures 0.1 m3. Plasma generation is achieved in vacuum through filamentary, RF, DC-pulsed, or glow discharge. High voltage pulsing is achieved using a tetrode modulator that pulses at up to 60kV or by a solid-state pulser that can supply 20kV. Recently, a crossatron modulator capable of 40kV and 1kA peak anode current was built in-house. Surface properties of a wide range of materials have been beneficially modified using PSII in ion implantation, film deposition, energetic ion mixing, and sputtering modes. Industrial field testing of PSII-treated parts has yielded promising results but successful commercialization requires judicious selection of applications which effectively exploit the unique aspects of PSII as a surface modification tool.*J.R. Conrad U.S. Patent#4764394, 1988 .

Wilson, E. H.; Lawrence, D. F.; Sridharan, K.; Sandstrom, P. W.

2001-07-01

50

Research and Technology Transfer Ion Implantation Technology for Specialty Materials: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop Held in Knoxville, Tennessee on 26-27 October 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ion implantation research and technology transfer workshop brought together a diverse group of academic, industrial and government participants. Several key issues highlighted were: (1) A need exists for new technology transfer infrastructures between...

R. R. Reeber

1991-01-01

51

Model-based estimation for dynamic cardiac studies using ECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors develop a strategy for joint estimation of physiological parameters and myocardial boundaries using ECT (emission computed tomography). They construct an observation model to relate parameters of interest to the projection data and to account for limited ECT system resolution and measurement noise. The authors then use a maximum likelihood (ML) estimator to jointly estimate all the parameters directly

Ping-Chun Chiao; W. Leslie Rogers; Neal H. Clinthorne; Jeffrey A. Fessler; A. O. Hero

1994-01-01

52

Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for treatment-resistant disorganized schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients who have not responded to recommended antipsychotic medications should be considered for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, there has been controversy about the standardized methods of continuation and maintenance ECT in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. We describe a patient with a serious case of disorganized schizophrenia who had not responded well with any typical and atypical antipsychotic drug for

Eiji Shimizu; Masao Imai; Mihisa Fujisaki; Naoyuki Shinoda; Satoshi Handa; Hiroyuki Watanabe; Michiko Nakazato; Kenji Hashimoto; Masaomi Iyo

2007-01-01

53

[Laser technologies for the making of dentures, orthodontic appliances, metallic and sapphire implants and root pins].  

PubMed

The authors analyze 10-year experience gained in the use of patented laser technologies for making metal dentures, orthodontic devices, metal and sapphire implants, radical pins, and other structures from various metal dental alloys (steel IXI8H9T, cobalt-chromium, silver-palladium, gold, titanium, etc.). Kvant-155, a new-generation Russian laser device, is described. PMID:10368609

Prokhonchukov, A A; Smirnov, A I; Rebrov, V I; Shatakhtsian, R E

1999-01-01

54

Development of micropackage technology for biomedical implantable microdevices using parylene C as water vapor barrier coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study on micro package technology using conformal coating of parylene C as non hermetic packaging material for implantable biomedical devices. Different thicknesses (2-25 ?m) of parylene C were coated on patterned two electrode PCB test board for electrical performance measurement. Experiments were carried out in 85°C salient solutions for accelerated testing. Test results on survive life

Hung-I Kuo; Rui Zhang; Wen H. Ko

2010-01-01

55

Are brief pulse and sine wave ECT equally efficient?  

PubMed

The literature reflects that brief pulse electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) uses less energy to elicit seizures and produces less cognitive disturbance than does sine wave ECT. However, the relative effectiveness and efficiency of the two waveforms have not been firmly established. In an effort to clarify these issues, the authors retrospectively compared a diagnostically heterogeneous group of 197 patients who received sine wave ECT with a similar group of 144 patients who received brief pulse ECT. The average number of ECT treatments administered to each group was essentially the same. Among a more homogeneous group of patients with affective disorders treated with either bilateral or mixed electrode placements, the number of treatments required with each waveform did not differ significantly. PMID:2808311

Fox, H A; Rosen, A; Campbell, R J

1989-11-01

56

Correlation between ECT2 gene expression and methylation change of ECT2 promoter region in pancreatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is closely related to epigenetic abnormality. The epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 gene (ECT2) plays a critical role in Rho activation during cytokinesis, and thus may play a role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the relationships between aberrant expression and epigenetic changes of the ECT2 gene in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Four

Mang-Li Zhang; Sen Lu; Lin Zhou; Shu-Sen Zheng

2008-01-01

57

SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Reducing the influence of STI on SONOS memory through optimizing added boron implantation technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of shallow trench isolation (STI) on a 90 nm polysilicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon structure non-volatile memory has been studied based on experiments. It has been found that the performance of edge memory cells adjacent to STI deteriorates remarkably. The compressive stress and boron segregation induced by STI are thought to be the main causes of this problem. In order to mitigate the STI impact, an added boron implantation in the STI region is developed as a new solution. Four kinds of boron implantation experiments have been implemented to evaluate the impact of STI on edge cells, respectively. The experimental results show that the performance of edge cells can be greatly improved through optimizing added boron implantation technology.

Yue, Xu; Feng, Yan; Zhiguo, Li; Fan, Yang; Yonggang, Wang; Jianguang, Chang

2010-09-01

58

Complete oral rehabilitation with implants using CAD/CAM technology, stereolithography, and conoscopic holography.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old totally edentulous female initially presented with ill-fitting removable prostheses. A comprehensive treatment plan with dental implants was accepted by the patient. Clinical and laboratory procedures were executed using various computer technologies including computed tomography, rapid prototyping, and optical scanning using conoscopic holography. A review of the patient's treatment and various modalities used are the focus of this patient report. PMID:22223191

Bentz, Robert M; Balshi, Stephen F

2012-02-01

59

A Vocoder for a Novel Cochlear Implant Stimulating Strategy Based on Virtual Channel Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cochlear implant provides opportunity for profoundly hearing impairment patient to have a chance to hear sound again. However,\\u000a the limited number of electrodes is in sufficient to provide enough hearing resolution for hearing impaired people, especially\\u000a for application in tonal language and music. Virtual channel technology opens up the possibility to increase the hearing resolution\\u000a under the limited electrodes available

Charles T. M. Choi; C. H. Hsu; W. Y. Tsai; Yi Hsuan Lee

60

Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition: A review of physics,technology, and applications  

SciTech Connect

After pioneering work in the 1980s, plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBIID) can now be considered mature technologies for surface modification and thin film deposition. This review starts by looking at the historical development and recalling the basic ideas of PBII. Advantages and disadvantages are compared to conventional ion beam implantation and physical vapor deposition for PBII and PBIID, respectively, followed by a summary of the physics of sheath dynamics, plasma and pulse specifications, plasma diagnostics, and process modeling. The review moves on to technology considerations for plasma sources and process reactors. PBII surface modification and PBIID coatings are applied in a wide range of situations. They include the by-now traditional tribological applications of reducing wear and corrosion through the formation of hard, tough, smooth, low-friction and chemically inert phases and coatings, e.g. for engine components. PBII has become viable for the formation of shallow junctions and other applications in microelectronics. More recently, the rapidly growing field of biomaterial synthesis makes used of PBII&D to produce surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible surfaces and coatings, etc. With limitations, also non-conducting materials such as plastic sheets can be treated. The major interest in PBII processing originates from its flexibility in ion energy (from a few eV up to about 100 keV), and the capability to efficiently treat, or deposit on, large areas, and (within limits) to process non-flat, three-dimensional workpieces, including forming and modifying metastable phases and nanostructures. We use the acronym PBII&D when referring to both implantation and deposition, while PBIID implies that deposition is part of the process.

Pelletier, Jacques; Anders, Andre

2005-05-16

61

Novel technology for the provision of power to implantable physiological devices.  

PubMed

We report the development of a novel technology that enables the wireless transmission of sufficient amounts of power to implantable physiological devices. The system involves a primary unit generating the magnetic field and a secondary pickup unit deriving power from the magnetic field and a power conditioner. The inductively coupled system was able to supply a minimum of 20 mW at all locations and pickup orientations across a rat cage, although much higher power of up to 10 W could be achieved. We hypothesized that it would be possible to use this technology to record a high-fidelity ECG signal in a conscious rat. A device was constructed in which power was utilized to recharge a battery contained within a telemetry device recording ECG signal sampled at 2,000 Hz in conscious rats (200-350 g) living in their home cage. Attributes of the ECG signal (QT, QRS, and PR interval) could be obtained with a high degree of accuracy (<1 ms). ECG and heart rate changes in response to treatment with the beta blocker propranolol and the proarrhythmic alkaloid aconitine were measured. Transmitters were implanted for up to 4 mo, and the characteristic circadian variation in heart rate was recorded. Such technology allows potentially lifetime monitoring without the need for implant refurbishment. The ability to provide suitable power levels to implanted devices without concern to the orientation of the device and without causing heating provides the basis for the development of new devices to record or influence physiological signals in animals or humans over significantly longer time periods than can currently be accommodated. PMID:17218431

Budgett, David M; Hu, Aiguo Patrick; Si, Ping; Pallas, Wayne T; Donnelly, Mark G; Broad, Jared W T; Barrett, Carolyn J; Guild, Sarah-Jane; Malpas, Simon C

2007-01-11

62

Silicon-gate n-well CMOS process by full ion-implantation technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A silicon-gate n-well CMOS process technology which makes use of full ion implantation for digital circuits operating at TTL compatible supply voltage is presented. The process employs an n well for p-MOSFETs in a p substrate and an n(+) polysilicon gate in both n- and p-MOSFETs, with six photomasks, eight photolithography steps and five ion-implantation steps to realize gate lengths as short as 2 microns in n- and p-MOSFETs. Average impurity concentrations determined from MOSFET substrate bias effects and junction depth have been found to be in good agreement with those expected from impurity profiles calculated by simple diffusion theories, indicating that CMOS circuits can be designed for any supply voltage by adjusting threshold voltages.

Ohzone, T.; Shimura, H.; Tsuji, K.; Hirao, T.

1980-09-01

63

Evaluation of high dose, high energy boron implantation into Cz substrates for epi-replacement in CMOS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We implanted high energy boron to create a heavily doped ground plane in Cz wafers in order to replace p\\/p+ episubstrates in deep submicron complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Devices manufactured on Cz wafers with a 1.5 or 1.6 MeV, 1×1015 cm-2 boron implanted ground plane have superior latch-up immunity as compared to devices on epiwafers. Improvements in latch-up suppression

Konstantin K. Bourdelle; Yuanning Chen; Robert A. Ashton; Leonard M. Rubin; Aditya Agarwal; Wesley H. Morris

2001-01-01

64

A programmed release multi-drug implant fabricated by three-dimensional printing technology for bone tuberculosis therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the world, bone tuberculosis is still very difficult to treat and presents a challenge to clinicians. In this study, we utilized 3D printing technology to fabricate a programmed release multi-drug implant for bone tuberculosis therapy. The construction of the drug implant was a multi-layered concentric cylinder divided into four layers from the center to the periphery. Isoniazid and rifampicin

Weigang Wu; Qixin Zheng; Xiaodong Guo; Jianhua Sun; Yudong Liu

2009-01-01

65

Twice versus thrice weekly ECT in a clinical population: an evaluation of patient outcomes.  

PubMed

Increasing demand on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) services led to a recommendation that low risk patients be considered for twice weekly ECT rather than the usual thrice weekly. We evaluated whether practice changed and compared patient clinical outcomes for twice and thrice weekly ECT. Medical records for all patients receiving ECT in the 2-year study period (1/9/08 to 30/8/10) were reviewed to determine ECT protocol, diagnosis, admission duration and readmission rates. During the study period, 119 patients received 150 treatment courses. Patient outcomes were compared for twice weekly ECT and thrice weekly ECT protocols, as well as for 1 year before and after the recommendation (1/9/09). Twice weekly ECT courses increased (8-20) after the recommendation while thrice weekly ECT courses decreased (64-30). The recommendation had no significant effect on patient outcomes. Comparing twice and thrice weekly ECT, patient clinical outcomes were similar between the two groups, though non-affective twice weekly patients waited longer before starting ECT. In the context of resource constraints, psychiatrists can be influenced to examine and change their ECT prescribing practice. This bodes well for the implementation of evidence-based treatment into mental health services. Secondly, for adults, there appear to be no significant differences in clinical outcomes for twice versus thrice weekly ECT. PMID:22486947

Siskind, Dan; Charlson, Fiona; Saraf, Sudeep; Scheurer, Roman; Lie, David Charles

2012-04-07

66

Comparison of SAGS I vs. SAGS II delivery systems in emerging implantation technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Fire Code has classified Subatmospheric Gas Delivery Systems (SAGS) technologies into two main categories: SAGS Type I and SAGS Type II systems. SAGS Type I delivery systems both store and deliver gases at subatmospheric pressures. An example of this technology is ATMI's Safe Delivery Source (SDS®) adsorbent based cylinder. SAGS Type II delivery systems store fluids at high pressure and utilize mechanical devices internal to the cylinder to deliver the gas at subatmospheric pressures. Typical mechanical devices used to enable subatmospheric delivery are either set point regulators or mechanical capillary based systems. This paper focuses on how these delivery systems perform against the unique requirements of traditional beam line ion implantation as well as solar and flat panel applications. Specifically, data are provided showing the capability of these systems with respect to flow rate, residual gas left within the cylinder, and cylinder end-point flow and delivery pressure dynamics.

Despres, Joseph; Sweeney, Joseph

2012-11-01

67

Electrochemical-Treeing (Ect) Structures in High-Voltage Cable Insulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dyeing and microscope techniques were used to study the influence on ECT conditions of the type of insulation and of the crosslinking technique. The ECT-structures produced under laboratory conditions resembled those found in cables after years of service...

H. J. Henkel N. Mueller W. Kalkner H. Hans G. Sander

1983-01-01

68

7 CFR 985.31 - Research and development proj-ects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Research and development proj-ects. 985.31...Research § 985.31 Research and development proj-ects. The...production research, marketing research and development projects designed...

2013-01-01

69

Cloning and Characterization of ectABC Cluster from Bacillus alcalophilus DTY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus alcalophilus DTY1, a moderate halophytic bacterium isolated from saline soil in Loess Plateau of China, was characterized with efficient production of ectoine. In this study, the gene cluster ectABC taking in charge of biosynthesizing ectoine was cloned from the genomic library of strain DTY1. Nucleotide sequencing indicated that ectA, ectB and ectC were predicted to encode peptides of 169,

Wei Zhang; Hailei Wei; Hongwen Gao; Guohe Huang

2008-01-01

70

Bypassing the learning curve in permanent seed implants using state-of-the-art technology  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to demonstrate, based on clinical postplan dose distributions, that technology can be used efficiently to eliminate the learning curve associated with permanent seed implant planning and delivery. Methods and Materials: Dose distributions evaluated 30 days after the implant of the initial 22 consecutive patients treated with permanent seed implants at two institutions were studied. Institution 1 (I1) consisted of a new team, whereas institution 2 (I2) had performed more than 740 preplanned implantations over a 9-year period before the study. Both teams had adopted similar integrated systems based on three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasonography, intraoperative dosimetry, and an automated seed delivery and needle retraction system (FIRST, Nucletron). Procedure time and dose volume histogram parameters such as D90, V100, V150, V200, and others were collected in the operating room and at 30 days postplan. Results: The average target coverage from the intraoperative plan (V100) was 99.4% for I1 and 99.9% for I2. D90, V150, and V200 were 191.4 Gy (196.3 Gy), 75.3% (73.0%), and 37.5% (34.1%) for I1 (I2) respectively. None of these parameters shows a significant difference between institutions. The postplan D90 was 151.2 Gy for I1 and 167.3 Gy for I2, well above the 140 Gy from the Stock et al. analysis, taking into account differences at planning, results in a p value of 0.0676. The procedure time required on average 174.4 min for I1 and 89 min for I2. The time was found to decrease with the increasing number of patients. Conclusion: State-of-the-art technology enables a new brachytherapy team to obtain excellent postplan dose distributions, similar to those achieved by an experienced team with proven long-term clinical results. The cost for bypassing the usual dosimetry learning curve is time, with increasing team experience resulting in shorter treatment times.

Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)]. E-mail: beaulieu@phy.ulaval.ca; Evans, Dee-Ann Radford [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aubin, Sylviane [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Angyalfi, Steven [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Husain, Siraj [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kay, Ian [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Martin, Andre-Guy [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Varfalvy, Nicolas [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Vigneault, Eric [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Dunscombe, Peter [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-01-01

71

The Cresco Bridge and implant concept: presentation of a technology for fabrication of abutment-free, passively fitting superstructures.  

PubMed

This article describes a new and cost-effective concept comprising innovative and simplified clinical and laboratory procedures for the rational fabrication of abutment-free, cast-titanium superstructures with passive fit to implants. Other alloys, such as precious metal or cobalt-chromium, can also be used. The precision of fit between the implants and superstructure is obtained by the Cresco Ti Precision method. This method is a user-friendly technology and can be adapted to most implant systems on the market. The method does not include any abutments, even when implants are positioned in extremely different angulations or inclined in a facial or palatal direction. Coupled with a simple All Parts Included (API) delivery system, the concept therefore represents an efficient treatment alternative. PMID:15736782

Helldén, Leif B; Ericson, Gunnel; Olsson, Carl-Olof

2005-02-01

72

Design of a miniature implantable left ventricular assist device using CAD/CAM technology.  

PubMed

In this study, we developed a new miniature motor-driven pulsatile left ventricular assist device (LVAD) for implantation into a Japanese patient of average build by means of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. A specially designed miniature ball-screw and a high-performance brushless DC motor were used in an artificial heart actuator to allow miniaturization. A blood pump chamber (stroke volume 55 ml) and an inflow and outflow port were designed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The geometry of the blood pump was evaluated using the value of index of pump geometry (IPG) = (Reynolds shear stress) x (occupied volume) as a quantitative index for optimization. The calculated value of IPG varied from 20.6 Nm to 49.1 Nm, depending on small variations in pump geometry. We determined the optimum pump geometry based on the results of quantitative evaluation using IPG and qualitative evaluation using the flow velocity distribution with blood flow tracking. The geometry of the blood pump that gave lower shear stress had more optimum spiral flow around the diaphragm-housing (D-H) junction. The volume and weight of the new LVAD, made of epoxy resin, is 309 ml and 378 g, but further miniaturization will be possible by improving the geometry of both the blood pump and the back casing. Our results show that our new design method for an implantable LVAD using CAD/CAM promises to improve blood compatibility with greater miniaturization. PMID:14598098

Okamoto, Eiji; Hashimoto, Takuya; Mitamura, Yoshinori

2003-01-01

73

Results of 2007 Ect Benchmark Obtained with Civa at Cea: Prediction of Ect Inspection Over Tubes with 2d or 3d Flaws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has developed for years the software CIVA dedicated to the simulation of NDT techniques such as Eddy Current Testing (ECT). ECT modeling is achieved in CIVA using semi-analytical models based on the Volume Integral Method (VIM). This paper presents results obtained with CIVA for the QNDE 2007 ECT benchmark, dedicated to the inspection of tube affected by 2D and 3D flaws. Further configurations are also proposed for future benchmark sessions.

Pichenot, G.; Reboud, C.; Raillon, R.; Mahaut, S.

2008-02-01

74

Ironic Technology: Old Age and the implantable cardioverter defibrillator in US health care  

PubMed Central

We take the example of cardiac devices, specifically the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, or ICD, to explore the complex cultural role of technology in medicine today. We focus on persons age 80 and above, for whom ICD use is growing in the U.S. We highlight an ironic feature of this device. While it postpones death and ‘saves’ life by thwarting a lethal heart rhythm, it also prolongs living in a state of dying from heart failure. In that regard the ICD is simultaneously a technology of life extension and dying. We explore that irony among the oldest age group -- those whose considerations of medical interventions are framed by changing societal assumptions of what constitutes premature death, the appropriate time for death and medicine’s goals in an aging society. Background to the rapidly growing use of this device among the elderly is the ‘technological imperative’ in medicine, bolstered today by the value given to evidence-based studies. We show how evidence contributes to standards of care and to the expansion of Medicare reimbursement criteria. Together, those factors shape the ethical necessity of physicians offering and patients accepting the ICD in late life. Two ethnographic examples document the ways in which those factors are lived in treatment discussions and in expectations about death and longevity.

Kaufman, Sharon R.; Mueller, Paul S.; Ottenberg, Abigale L.; Koenig, Barbara A.

2010-01-01

75

Use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in postpartum psychosis--a naturalistic prospective study.  

PubMed

Postpartum psychosis (PPP) is a severe psychiatric condition requiring rapid restoration of health in view of significant risks to both mother and the infant. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is often used for treatment of severe PPP. The aims of the study were to describe the indications for ECT among women admitted with PPP to a psychiatric hospital in India. It also aimed at assessing whether women with PPP who received ECT differed in their clinical history, diagnosis, severity of illness, psychopathology, drug dosage, and duration of hospital stay, compared to women who did not receive ECT. Infants of mothers who were breast-feeding their infants while receiving ECT were assessed for adverse effects. This was a naturalistic prospective study of 78 women admitted with PPP, 34 (43.6 %) of whom received ECT. Presence of catatonia, augmentation of medications, and suicidality were common indications for ECT. Catatonic symptoms were significantly higher among women who received ECT. There was no significant difference in duration of hospitalization or severity of psychopathology between women who did and did not receive ECT. Transient side effects to ECT were observed in few women, with no adverse effects noted in infants who were breast-fed. The current study supports the use of ECT as an effective and safe treatment for women with severe PPP. PMID:23568390

Babu, Girish N; Thippeswamy, Harish; Chandra, Prabha S

2013-04-09

76

[Modern digital technologies as a useful tool for dental implantation planning].  

PubMed

The method of implant size choice concerning mechanical properties of bone tissue surrounding an implant is proposed based on CT-assessment of anatomical and topographical conditions using MIMICS-ANSYS software. PMID:23752851

2013-01-01

77

Comparison of plasma doping and beamline technologies for low energy ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend towards shallower junctions especially in high dose applications, for example source drain extensions, results in significant challenges for ion implantation. Satisfying increasingly stringent device performance requirements, such as energy purity, dose uniformity and implant angle control, runs counter to maintaining adequate productivity with beamline systems. The limitations of beamline implant are discussed and compared with the capabilities of

A. Renau; J. T. Scheuer

2002-01-01

78

Model-based estimation for dynamic cardiac studies using ECT  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors develop a strategy for joint estimation of physiological parameters and myocardial boundaries using ECT (Emission Computed Tomography). The authors construct an observation model to relate parameters of interest to the projection data and to account for limited ECT system resolution and measurement noise. The authors then use a maximum likelihood (ML) estimator to jointly estimate all the parameters directly from the projection data without reconstruction of intermediate images. The authors also simulate myocardial perfusion studies based on a simplified heart model to evaluate the performance of the model-based joint ML estimator and compare this performance to the Cramer-Rao lower bound. Finally, model assumptions and potential uses of the joint estimation strategy are discussed.

Chiao, P.C.; Rogers, W.L.; Clinthorne, N.H.; Fessler, J.A.; Hero, A.O. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine)

1994-06-01

79

Electroconvulsive Therapy in Patients With Skull Defects or Metallic Implants: A Review of the Literature and Case Report  

PubMed Central

Context: Head injury is often associated with psychiatric morbidity. While it is well understood that the loss of critical areas of the brain may play a role in cognitive dysfunction and change in personality, head injury can also have profound effects on mood and cognition. The role of medications in the treatment of mood disorders associated with brain injury is well documented, and there is also evidence favoring the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in this context. However, data are limited on the use of ECT in patients with skull defects or metallic head implants. Evidence Acquisition: First, a review of the literature on use of ECT in patients with metallic head implants is provided. Electronic databases and online sites, including PubMed, Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, and UpToDate, were used to search for relevant articles and case reports on the use of ECT in patients with and without metallic implants in the head (1964 to 2009). The search terms electroconvulsive, electroconvulsive therapy, ECT, electroshock therapy, EST, head injury, brain injury, metallic plates, metallic implants, skull prosthesis, and depression were used interchangeably. The search produced 7 articles discussing exclusively the use of ECT in patients with a metallic skull plate. Second, the case of the successful and safe use of ECT in an individual with a previous history of brain trauma and metallic plate implantation is described. Results: Most cases of head injury are managed by neurologists and rehabilitation consultants; the more severe cases of depression and other mood disorders tend to be referred for specialist psychiatric care. With greater degrees of deficit following head injury, management becomes more complicated. Our patient showed positive results with ECT, including improvement in depressive features and resolution of suicidal ideas/plans. Conclusion: ECT is an effective and safe alternative in patients with a history of brain trauma and metallic plate implantation who subsequently develop treatment-resistant depression and associated suicidal ideas or plans refractory to management with medications.

Delva, Nicholas; McRae, Harold; Campbell, Laura A.; Cole, Julie

2012-01-01

80

A rapid ECT tester for transformer oil studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the measurement of the electrostatic charging tendency (ECT) of transformer oils using a sintered metal filter as the charge inducer has been developed. The apparatus is a modification of the previously described recirculating charge tester and gives the charge density in ?C\\/m3 induced in the oil after passage at 100 ml\\/min through a 60 ?m sintered metal

R. G. Heydon; J. Rungis; A. Sierota

1994-01-01

81

Semiconductor thin film transfer by wafer bonding and advanced ion implantation layer splitting technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wafer bonding is an attractive technology for modern semiconductor and microelectronic industry due to its variability in allowing combination of materials. Initially, the bonding of wafers of the same material, such as silicon-silicon wafer bonding has been major interest. In the meantime, research interest has shifted to the bonding of dissimilar materials such as silicon to quartz or to sapphire. Thermal stress coming from the different expansion coefficients usually is a barrier to the success of dissimilar material bonding. Thermal stress may cause debonding, sliding, cracking, thermal misfit dislocations, or film wrinkle to impair the quality of the transferred layer. This dissertation presents several effective approaches to solve the thermal stress problem. These approaches concern bonding processes (low vacuum bonding and storage), thinning (advanced ion implantation layer splitting), and annealing processes (accumulative effect of blister generation) and are combined to design the best heat-treatment cycle. For this propose the concept of hot bonding is used in order to effectively minimize the thermal mismatch of dissimilar material bonding during the bonding and thinning procedures. During the initial bonding and bond strengthening phase, the difference in the temperature between bonding and annealing processes should be decreased as much as possible to avoid excessive thermal stresses. This concept can be realized either by increasing the bonding temperature or by decreasing the annealing temperature. A thinning technique has to employed that can thin the device wafer before debonding occurs due to the thermal stress generated either from the cooling-down process in the first case or by the annealing process itself in the late case. The ion implantation layer splitting method, also known as the Smart-cutsp°ler process, developed by Bruel at LEIT in France is a practical thinning technique which satisfies the above requirement. In the study, an advanced ion implantation layer splitting technique was developed to significantly decrease the splitting (annealing) temperature. It successfully solved the debonding and cracking problems because of thermal stress. Low vacuum bonding and storage process also was investigated in the dissertation because its enhanced bonding effect can render a way to increase sufficient high bonding energy at low annealing (splitting) temperature condition that can notably reduce thermal stress to successfully transfer a thin film onto substrate during splitting process.

Lee, Tien-Hsi

82

Racial disparity and technology diffusion: the case of cardioverter defibrillator implants, 1996-2001.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Although implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is widely endorsed for preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD), prior research documented a large black-white disparity in ICD therapy among the elderly. No studies have examined this disparity among nonelderly adults or over time as ICD therapy became widely diffused. OBJECTIVE: This study compares disparity in use of ICD therapy for 1996-1998 to 1999-2001 between African Americans and other adults. METHODS: The National Hospital Discharge Survey is used to compare ICD utilization between black and other adults diagnosed with ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation or cardiac arrest. RESULTS: Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, ICD use per 100 at-risk patients rose from 11.0 to 27.3 among African Americans and from 24.0 to 37.5 among other adults between 1996-1998 and 1999-2001. Although the disparity was evident throughout the study period, it declined by 40%. Compared with their nonblack counterparts, black adults at risk for SCD were five years younger on average (p < 0.01) and more likely to be female (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: As ICD therapy became more widely available, use of this technology increased faster for black versus other adults, and the disparity in use declined but was not eliminated. Policymakers and clinicians should focus on increasing access among underserved populations to promising new technologies. Research focusing only on the elderly may miss important racial disparities when there is a race difference in the age distribution of disease risk. Further research should explore the relationship of technology diffusion to disparities in health service use.

Stanley, Ava; DeLia, Derek; Cantor, Joel C.

2007-01-01

83

Implantable Microimagers  

PubMed Central

Implantable devices such as cardiac pacemakers, drug-delivery systems, and defibrillators have had a tremendous impact on the quality of live for many disabled people. To date, many devices have been developed for implantation into various parts of the human body. In this paper, we focus on devices implanted in the head. In particular, we describe the technologies necessary to create implantable microimagers. Design, fabrication, and implementation issues are discussed vis-à-vis two examples of implantable microimagers; the retinal prosthesis and in vivo neuro-microimager. Testing of these devices in animals verify the use of the microimagers in the implanted state. We believe that further advancement of these devices will lead to the development of a new method for medical and scientific applications.

Ng, David C.; Tokuda, Takashi; Shiosaka, Sadao; Tano, Yasuo; Ohta, Jun

2008-01-01

84

Role of EctR as transcriptional regulator of ectoine biosynthesis genes in Methylophaga thalassica.  

PubMed

In the halophilic aerobic methylotrophic bacterium Methylophaga thalassica, the genes encoding the enzymes for biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine were shown to be located in operon ectABC-ask. Transcription of the ect-operon was started from the two promoters homologous to the ?(70)-dependent promoter of Escherichia coli and regulated by protein EctR, whose encoding gene, ectR, is transcribed from three promoters. Genes homologous to ectR of methylotrophs were found in clusters of ectoine biosynthesis genes in some non-methylotrophic halophilic bacteria. EctR proteins of methylotrophic and heterotrophic halophiles belong to the MarR-family of transcriptional regulators but form a separate branch on the phylogenetic tree of the MarR proteins. PMID:22860907

Mustakhimov, I I; Reshetnikov, A S; Fedorov, D N; Khmelenina, V N; Trotsenko, Y A

2012-08-01

85

Advances in pump technology: insulin patch pumps, combined pumps and glucose sensors, and implanted pumps.  

PubMed

This review discusses the most recent developments in insulin pump technology. The benefits of the insulin pump to patients with type 1 diabetes are recognized both for its metabolic effectiveness and its positive effects on quality of life. The current pumps are reliable, small and light, and are becoming more and more sophisticated. Nevertheless, there remain practical and psychological constraints for the patient. However, recent patch-pump advances should simplify the technical aspects of pump treatment and enhance patient comfort. Another advance combines the insulin pump with a glucose sensor. Such a combination is logical for optimizing pump use and, to that end, developing an automated or 'closed-loop'system that permits the delivery of subcutaneous insulin adjusted according to measured levels of subcutaneous glucose. Finally, implanted insulin pumps have proven their worth not only because of their simple use, but also for their contribution in the artificial pancreas project. Indeed, the prompt response with intraperitoneal administration of insulin makes it of interest for use in a closed-loop system. PMID:22208717

Schaepelynck, P; Darmon, P; Molines, L; Jannot-Lamotte, M F; Treglia, C; Raccah, D

2011-12-01

86

Submicron CBiCMOS technology with new well and buried layer formed by multiple energy ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple 0.6-?m complementary BiCMOS (CBiCMOS) technology was developed without an epitaxial layer. The wells and the buried layers for all transistors were formed by only three steps of masking layers, using multiple energy ion implantation with megaelectronvolt energy. The problem of the secondary defect induced by high dose and high energy ion implementation was solved by using the rapid

Keiichi HIGASHITANI; Takashi KUROI; K. Suda; M. Hatanaka; S. Nagao; N. Tsubouchi

1991-01-01

87

[Cloning and characterization of ectABC cluster from Bacillus alcalophilus DTY1].  

PubMed

Bacillus alcalophilus DTY1, one moderate halophytic bacterium isolated from saline soil in Loess Plateau of China, was characterized with efficient production of ectoine. In this study, the gene cluster ectABC taking in charge of biosynthesizing ectoine was cloned from the genomic library of strain DTY1. Nucleotide sequencing indicated that ectA, ectB and ectC were predicted to encode peptides of 169, 428 and 132 amino acids, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of EctA, EctB and EctC share 59%, 81% and 81% identity to 2,4-diaminobutyric acid acetyltransferase, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid transaminase and ectoine synthase of B. halodurans C-125, respectively. A fragment containing ectABC genes was introduced into B. cereus Z, which made the transgenic Z cells increased tolerance to salt, remarkably. HPLC analysis of ectoine in the transgenic Z cells revealed that 70.1 mg/g ectoine was detected in 1.0% NaCl medium and 118.6 mg/g ectoine in 5.0% NaCl medium. Furthermore, as the concentration of salt increased, transgenic Z cells accumulated more ectoine. These results suggest that ectoine is an important facet in B. alcalophilus DTY1 to high-osmolarity surroundings, and the expression of ectABC is induced by salt strength. PMID:18589814

Zhang, Wei; Wei, Hailei; Gao, Hongwen; Huang, Guohe

2008-03-01

88

Detection and Sizing of Defects in Structural Components of a Nuclear Power Plant by ECT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, progress of ECT technique for inspection of stress corrosion cracks in a structural component of a nuclear power plant is reported. Access and scanning vehicle (robot), advanced probes for SG tube inspection, development and evaluation of new probes for welding joint, and ECT based crack sizing technique are described respectively. Based on these new techniques, it is clarified that ECT can play as a supplement of UT for the welding zone inspection. It is also proved in this work that new ECT sensors are efficient even for a stainless plate as thick as 15mm.

Chen, Zhenmao; Miya, Kenzo

2005-04-01

89

Rationale for the use of CAD/CAM technology in implant prosthodontics.  

PubMed

Despite the predictable longevity of implant prosthesis, there is an ongoing interest to continue to improve implant prosthodontic treatment and outcomes. One of the developments is the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to produce implant abutments and frameworks from metal or ceramic materials. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate the rationale of CAD/CAM utilization for implant prosthodontics. To date, CAD/CAM allows simplified production of precise and durable implant components. The precision of fit has been proven in several laboratory experiments and has been attributed to the design of implants. Milling also facilitates component fabrication from durable and aesthetic materials. With further development, it is expected that the CAD/CAM protocol will be further simplified. Although compelling clinical evidence supporting the superiority of CAD/CAM implant restorations is still lacking, it is envisioned that CAD/CAM may become the main stream for implant component fabrication. PMID:23690778

Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl

2013-04-16

90

CAD-CAM-RTV – lost-wax casting technology for medical implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the development of a technical procedure for the manufacturing of medical implant prototypes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper was performed on a new hip implant design and manufactured with different metallic alloys F75 (ASTM) commonly used in biomedical applications. Dimensional parameters between the computer-aided design (CAD) geometry and the prototypes and

António Manuel de A. Monteiro Ramos; José António Simões

2009-01-01

91

A programmed release multi-drug implant fabricated by three-dimensional printing technology for bone tuberculosis therapy.  

PubMed

In the world, bone tuberculosis is still very difficult to treat and presents a challenge to clinicians. In this study, we utilized 3D printing technology to fabricate a programmed release multi-drug implant for bone tuberculosis therapy. The construction of the drug implant was a multi-layered concentric cylinder divided into four layers from the center to the periphery. Isoniazid and rifampicin were distributed individually into the different layers in a specific sequence of isoniazid-rifampicin-isoniazid-rifampicin. The drug release assays in vitro and in vivo showed that isoniazid and rifampicin were released orderly from the outside to the center to form the multi-drug therapeutic alliance, and the peak concentrations of drugs were detected in sequence at 8 to 12 day intervals. In addition, no negative effect on the proliferation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was detected during the cytocompatibility assay. Due to its ideal pharmacologic action and cytocompatibility, the programmed release multi-drug implant with a complex construction fabricated by 3D printing technology could be of interest in prevention and treatment of bone tuberculosis. PMID:19901446

Wu, Weigang; Zheng, Qixin; Guo, Xiaodong; Sun, Jianhua; Liu, Yudong

2009-12-01

92

Health Technology Review No. 3. Cochlear Implantation in Outpatient Settings, August 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cochlear implant is a prosthetic device used to produce the sensation of sound through the generation of electrical signals, which are perceived as an analog of environmental sound waves. Most patients with profound sensorineural deafness (no useful hea...

M. Erlichman T. V. Holohan

1992-01-01

93

A phone-assistive device based on Bluetooth technology for cochlear implant users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hearing-impaired people, and particularly hearing-aid and cochlear-implant users, often have difficulty communicating over the telephone. The intelligibility of telephone speech is considerably lower than the intelligibility of face-to-face speech. This is partly because of lack of visual cues, limited telephone bandwidth, and background noise. In addition, cellphones may cause interference with the hearing aid or cochlear implant. To address these

Haifeng Qian; Philipos C. Loizou; Michael F. Dorman

2003-01-01

94

Virtual positioning and shaping of source fields for ECT of tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to drive the excitation field sources in the eddy current testing (ECT) of tubular conductive structures. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The magnetic field used for ECT is generated by pairs of counter-series connected coils, driven by AC currents. The phase and amplitude of the currents is electronically controlled in

Fabrizio Ferraioli; Alessandro Formisano; Raffaele Martone; Francesco Iacotucci

2010-01-01

95

Electronic Current Transducer (ECT) For High-Voltage DC Lines. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a bipolar electronic current transducer (ECT) for measuring the current in a high-voltage dc (HVDC) power line at line potential is reported. The design and construction of a free-standing ECT for use on a 400-kV line having a nominal l...

J. M. Houston P. H. Peters H. R. Summerhayes G. J. Carlson A. M. Itani

1980-01-01

96

The use of sintered metal filters in the study of ECT in transformer oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of sintered metal filters in the investigation of electrostatic charging tendency (ECT) in transformer oils was examined. Tests were conducted on the recirculating ECT tester. The results of passing two different oils through 60-?m filters are presented. The results obtained with the recirculating tester are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further development

R. G. Heydon; J. Rungis; R. Sheehy

1992-01-01

97

DIS[subscript 2]ECT: A Framework for Effective Inclusive Science Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to provide special education and general education teachers a framework (DIS[subscript 2]ECT) for teaching science in inclusive settings. DIS2ECT stands for Design (Backwards); Individualization; Scaffolding and Strategies; Experiential learning; Cooperative Learning; and Teamwork. This framework was derived from…

Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Flannagan, Jenny Sue

2012-01-01

98

Changes in Ect2 Localization Couple Actomyosin-Dependent Cell Shape Changes to Mitotic Progression  

PubMed Central

Summary As they enter mitosis, animal cells undergo profound actin-dependent changes in shape to become round. Here we identify the Cdk1 substrate, Ect2, as a central regulator of mitotic rounding, thus uncovering a link between the cell-cycle machinery that drives mitotic entry and its accompanying actin remodeling. Ect2 is a RhoGEF that plays a well-established role in formation of the actomyosin contractile ring at mitotic exit, through the local activation of RhoA. We find that Ect2 first becomes active in prophase, when it is exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, activating RhoA to induce the formation of a mechanically stiff and rounded metaphase cortex. Then, at anaphase, binding to RacGAP1 at the spindle midzone repositions Ect2 to induce local actomyosin ring formation. Ect2 localization therefore defines the stage-specific changes in actin cortex organization critical for accurate cell division.

Matthews, Helen K.; Delabre, Ulysse; Rohn, Jennifer L.; Guck, Jochen; Kunda, Patricia; Baum, Buzz

2012-01-01

99

Estimation of Nitrogen Ion Energy in Sterilization Technology by Plasma Based Ion Implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma based ion implantation (PBII) with negative voltage pulses to the test specimen has been applied to the sterilization process as a technique suitable for three-dimensional work pieces. Pulsed high negative voltage (5 ?s pulse width, 300 pulses/s, -800 V to -15 kV) was applied to the electrode in this process at a gas pressure of 2.4 Pa of N2. We found that the PBII process, in which N2 gas self-ignitted plasma generated by only pulsed voltages is used, reduces the number of active Bacillus pumilus cell. The number of bacteria survivors was reduced by 10-5 x with 5 min exposure. Since the ion energy is the most important processing parameter, a simple method to estimate the nitrogen ion energy from distribution of nitrogen atoms in Si implanted by PBII was developed. The implanted ion energy is discussed from the SIMS in depth profiles.

Kondou, Youhei; Nakashima, Takeru; Tanaka, Takeshi; Takagi, Toshinori; Watanabe, Satoshi; Ohkura, Kensaku; Shibahara, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Shin

100

Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithms for Maximum a Posteriori ECT Reconstruction.  

PubMed

We propose a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) for solving the maximum a posteriori (MAP) emission computed tomography (ECT) reconstruction problem. Specifically, we formulate the reconstruction problem as a constrained convex optimization problem with the total variation (TV) regularization. We then characterize the solution of the constrained convex optimization problem and show that it satisfies a system of fixed-point equations defined in terms of two proximity operators raised from the convex functions that define the TV-norm and the constrain involved in the problem. The characterization (of the solution) via the proximity operators that define two projection operators naturally leads to an alternating projection algorithm for finding the solution. For efficient numerical computation, we introduce to the alternating projection algorithm a preconditioning matrix (the EM-preconditioner) for the dense system matrix involved in the optimization problem. We prove theoretically convergence of the preconditioned alternating projection algorithm. In numerical experiments, performance of our algorithms, with an appropriately selected preconditioning matrix, is compared with performance of the conventional MAP expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm with TV regularizer (EM-TV) and that of the recently developed nested EM-TV algorithm for ECT reconstruction. Based on the numerical experiments performed in this work, we observe that the alternating projection algorithm with the EM-preconditioner outperforms significantly the EM-TV in all aspects including the convergence speed, the noise in the reconstructed images and the image quality. It also outperforms the nested EM-TV in the convergence speed while providing comparable image quality. PMID:23271835

Krol, Andrzej; Li, Si; Shen, Lixin; Xu, Yuesheng

2012-11-01

101

The controlled-releasing drug implant based on the three dimensional printing technology: Fabrication and properties of drug releasing in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three dimensional (3D) printing technology was utilized to fabricate a new type of drug implant with complicated architectures,\\u000a employing levofloxacin (LVFX) and rifampicine (RFP) as model drugs. The prepared drug implant prototype consists of a double-layer\\u000a structure, of which the upper region is a reservoir system containing RFP and the lower region is a matrix one containing\\u000a LVFX. The release

Weigang Wu; Qixin Zheng; Xiaodong Guo; Weidong Huang

2009-01-01

102

Computer-guided implant placement: 3D planning software, fixed intraoral reference points, and CAD\\/CAM technology. A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to explain the use of a computer-aided three-dimensional planning protocol in combination with previously placed mini-implants and computer-aided design\\/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD\\/CAM) technology to restore a completely edentulous patient. Mini-implants were used to establish a setup for computerized tomographic imaging and a surgical template. The software and its three-dimensional simulation allowed the authors to plan

A. Tahmaseb; Clerck De R; D. Wismeijer

2009-01-01

103

The Effect of Technology and Testing Environment on Speech Perception Using Telehealth with Cochlear Implant Recipients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors evaluated the effect of remote system and acoustic environment on speech perception via telehealth with cochlear implant recipients. Method: Speech perception was measured in quiet and in noise. Systems evaluated were Polycom visual concert (PVC) and a hybrid presentation system (HPS). Each system was evaluated…

Goehring, Jenny L.; Hughes, Michelle L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.; Valente, Daniel L.; McCreery, Ryan W.; Diaz, Gina R.; Sanford, Todd; Harpster, Roger

2012-01-01

104

The Effect of Technology and Testing Environment on Speech Perception Using Telehealth with Cochlear Implant Recipients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: In this study, the authors evaluated the effect of remote system and acoustic environment on speech perception via telehealth with cochlear implant recipients. Method: Speech perception was measured in quiet and in noise. Systems evaluated were Polycom visual concert (PVC) and a hybrid presentation system (HPS). Each system was evaluated…

Goehring, Jenny L.; Hughes, Michelle L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.; Valente, Daniel L.; McCreery, Ryan W.; Diaz, Gina R.; Sanford, Todd; Harpster, Roger

2012-01-01

105

Ect2, an ortholog of Drosophila Pebble, regulates formation of growth cones in primary cortical neurons.  

PubMed

In collaboration with Marshall Nirenberg, we performed in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) genome-wide screening in Drosophila embryos. Pebble has been shown to be involved in Drosophila neuronal development. We have also reported that depletion of Ect2, a mammalian ortholog of Pebble, induces differentiation in NG108-15 neuronal cells. However, the precise role of Ect2 in neuronal development has yet to be studied. Here, we confirmed in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells that inhibition of Ect2 expression by RNAi stimulated neurite outgrowth, and in the mouse embryonic cortex that Ect2 was accumulated throughout the ventricular and subventricular zones with neuronal progenitor cells. Next, the effects of Ect2 depletion were studied in primary cultures of mouse embryonic cortical neurons: Loss of Ect2 did not affect the differentiation stages of neuritogenesis, the number of neurites, or axon length, while the numbers of growth cones and growth cone-like structures were increased. Taken together, our results suggest that Ect2 contributes to neuronal morphological differentiation through regulation of growth cone dynamics. PMID:22366651

Tsuji, Takahiro; Higashida, Chiharu; Aoki, Yoshihiko; Islam, Mohammad Saharul; Dohmoto, Mitsuko; Higashida, Haruhiro

2012-02-15

106

[Use of ECT in drug-refractory schizophrenia--a survey of the current literature].  

PubMed

Since its introduction in the 1930s, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has maintained an important role as an efficacious and evidence-based somatic treatment option in affective or schizophrenic diseases. As opposed to major depressive disorder, ECT is commonly used to a substantially lesser extent for patients with schizophrenia in the USA, UK and most parts of Europe. Accordingly there is comparably little evidence regarding the clinical effectiveness and tolerability of ECT in schizophrenia. Recent clinical studies, meta-analyses and surveys point to the combination of ECT and antipsychotic medication as being advantageous in the treatment of schizophrenia, particularly in those patients who have shown inadequate responses to psychotropic medication alone. Clinical features considered to be predictive for ECT outcome are delusions, hallucinations, presence of affective and catatonic symptoms and absence of negative symptoms as well as a short duration of the current episode. National and international guidelines suggest ECT as an augmentation strategy in treatment-refractory schizophrenia in acute exacerbation and continuation therapy. Considering the fact that a substantial part of schizophrenic patients does not respond sufficiently to pharmacotherapy there still is a lack of well designed, controlled and randomised clinical trials to improve evidence for the promising role of ECT in schizophrenia. PMID:22706802

Lehnhardt, F-G; Konkol, C; Kuhn, J

2012-06-15

107

APCcdh1 Mediates Degradation of the Oncogenic Rho-GEF Ect2 after Mitosis  

PubMed Central

Background Besides regulation of actin cytoskeleton-dependent functions, Rho GTPase pathways are essential to cell cycle progression and cell division. Rho, Rac and Cdc42 regulate G1 to S phase progression and are involved in cytokinesis. RhoA GDP/GTP cycling is required for normal cytokinesis and recent reports have shown that the exchange factor Ect2 and the GTPase activating protein MgcRacGAP regulate RhoA activity during mitosis. We previously showed that the transcription factors E2F1 and CUX1 regulate expression of MgcRacGAP and Ect2 as cells enter S-phase. Methodology/Principal Findings We now report that Ect2 is subject to proteasomal degradation after mitosis, following ubiquitination by the APC/C complex and its co-activator Cdh1. A proper nuclear localization of Ect2 is necessary for its degradation. APC-Cdh1 assembles K11-linked poly-ubiquitin chains on Ect2, depending upon a stretch of ?25 amino acid residues that contain a bi-partite NLS, a conventional D-box and two TEK-like boxes. Site-directed mutagenesis of target sequences generated stabilized Ect2 proteins. Furthermore, such degradation-resistant mutants of Ect2 were found to activate RhoA and subsequent signalling pathways and are able to transform NIH3T3 cells. Conclusions/Significance Our results identify Ect2 as a bona fide cell cycle-regulated protein and suggest that its ubiquitination-dependent degradation may play an important role in RhoA regulation at the time of mitosis. Our findings raise the possibility that the overexpression of Ect2 that has been reported in some human tumors might result not only from deregulated transcription, but also from impaired degradation.

Liot, Caroline; Seguin, Laetitia; Siret, Aurelie; Crouin, Catherine; Schmidt, Susanne; Bertoglio, Jacques

2011-01-01

108

Electrochemical-treeing (ECT) structures in high-voltage cable insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyeing and microscope techniques were used to study the influence on ECT conditions of the type of insulation and of the crosslinking technique. The ECT-structures produced under laboratory conditions resembled those found in cables after years of service. Results show that stressing field strength has an accelerating influence. Frequency, type of electrolyte and conductor material have no influence. The moisture content of the insulation and of the surroundings influence the growth of ECT-structures. The electrical breakdown strength of PE- and XLPE-Insulated model cables decreases with duration of water immersion and of electrical prestressing.

Henkel, H. J.; Mueller, N.; Kalkner, W.; Hans, H.; Sander, G.; Vanolshausen, R.; Vogel, U.

1983-05-01

109

Petit Mal-Grand Mal ECT: A Method to Induce Seizures Without Barbiturate Anesthesia.  

PubMed

Petit mal-grand mal (PM-GM) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a technique developed by Impastato to elicit unconsciousness with a subconvulsive electrical stimulus, rather than with barbiturate anesthesia. Muscle relaxation is produced with succinylcholine chloride before stimulus is applied. The cases reported here illustrate applications of the technique to depressed patients with severe cardiac and pulmonary disease, and the use of PM-GM ECT in a patient in whom seizures could not be elicited by the usual ECT technique is described. PMID:11940972

Fox, Herbert A.; Kantor, Shepard; Dell'Aria, Salvatore; Campbell, Robert J.; Mouzon, Philip

1988-01-01

110

Effect of piracetam on ECT-induced cognitive disturbances: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.  

PubMed

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is still the fastest, most effective, and frequently life-saving therapeutic intervention in several forms of depression and some other psychiatric disorders. Transient memory disturbances are frequent after ECT. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to investigate the effects of piracetam on ECT-induced confusion and memory disturbances. Thirty-eight consecutively admitted patients with depressive illness or schizophrenia requiring ECT were given either piracetam or an identical-looking placebo during the period of ECT treatment and for 2 weeks afterward. Daily dosage of piracetam was 7.2 g, given orally for the first 2 weeks while patients underwent ECT (loading phase), followed by 4.8 g for the rest of the study period. Participants were evaluated by standardized clinical rating scales and cognitive psychologic tests 1 to 2 days before ECT, 1 day after their third and sixth ECT treatments, and 2 weeks after they had completed their ECT courses. Piracetam had no significant effect in preventing ECT-induced memory disturbances. All clinical ratings were consistently, albeit not significantly, better in the piracetam group, suggesting that piracetam may have augmented the effects of ECT. PMID:12394531

Tang, Wai Kwong; Ungvari, Gabor S; Leung, Henry Chi Ming

2002-09-01

111

[Which indications and access routes for transcatheter aortic valve implantation? Health technology assessment from HAS].  

PubMed

The transcatheter aortic valve implantation should be restricted to patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis with a contraindication for a surgical replacement (taking into account surgical risk scores, comorbidities, anatomical conditions, life expectancy and frailty). Patient eligibility should be performed by a heart team with the involvement of a cardiac surgeon, an interventional cardiologist, a clinical cardiologist and an anaesthetist/resuscitation specialist. The advice of a geriatrician is strongly recommended. The long-term efficacy remains unknown. The French National Authority for Health (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]) reminds that contraindications in the CE mark should be strictly respected (i.e.instructions for use). Extension of current indications should be conditional to the presentation of clinical evidence. Thus, implantation in patients at lower surgical risk or the use of direct transaortic route are not eligible for reimbursement given the current state of knowledge. PMID:23122941

Velzenberger, Elodie; Galmiche, Hubert; Denis, Catherine; Machecourt, Jacques

2012-11-01

112

Cochlear Implants  

MedlinePLUS

... Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics - Section Contents Menu Products and Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Cochlear Implants What is a Cochlear Implant? Benefits ...

113

BARE PCB INSPECTION BY MEAN OF ECT TECHNIQUE WITH SPIN-VALVE GMR SENSOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-sensitive micro eddy-current testing (ECT) probe composed of planar meander coil as an exciter and spin-valve giant magneto-resistance (SV-GMR) sensor as a magnetic sensor for bare printed circuit board (PCB) inspection is proposed in this paper. The high-sensitive micro ECT probe detects the magnetic field distribution on the bare PCB and the image processing technique analyzes output signal achieved

K. Chomsuwan; S. Yamada; M. Iwahara; H. Wakiwaka; T. Taniguchi; S. Shoji

114

ECT in an Adolescent with Down Syndrome and Treatment-Refractory Major Depressive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as a treatment for patients with major depressive disorder who are intolerant of or refractory to antidepressant medications is well known. This treatment may be overlooked in children and adolescents, and in those with developmental disabilities. The case report of a 15-year-old male with Down syndrome and treatment-refractory major depressive disorder who received ECT

Paula M. Gensheimer; Karen G. Meighen; Christopher J. McDougle

2002-01-01

115

ECT in the treatment of a patient with catatonia: consent and complications.  

PubMed

Acute catatonia in an adolescent or young adult can present complex clinical challenges. Prominent issues include those involving diagnosis, timely and effective treatment, and diminished capacity to provide consent. The authors describe a 19-year-old woman presenting initially with manic excitement followed by a lengthy period of mutism, immobility, and food and fluid refusal. Elevated temperature, an elevated creatine phosphokinase level, and autonomic dysfunction led to consideration of a malignant catatonic syndrome. The patient manifested rigidity accompanied by posturing and waxy flexibility. Neurologic, medical, and laboratory evaluations failed to identify an organic cause for the likely catatonia. Treatment with amantadine, bromocriptine, and lorazepam was unsuccessful. ECT was deemed appropriate but required emergency guardianship because of the patient's inability to provide consent. At the initial ECT session, the elicited seizure was followed by an episode of torsade de pointes requiring immediate cardioversion. In reviewing the ECT complication, it appeared that muscle damage due to catatonic immobility led to acute hyperkalemia with the administration of succinylcholine. Discussions were held with the patient's guardian outlining the clinical issues and the risks of additional ECT. The patient responded to eight subsequent ECT sessions administered with rocuronium, a nondepolarizing muscle relaxant. The authors provide a brief review of the diagnosis and treatment of catatonia and address issues surrounding ECT, cardiac effects, use of muscle relaxants, and the consent process. PMID:20123920

Zisselman, Marc H; Jaffe, Richard L

2010-02-01

116

Ion implantation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion implantation in silicon has been widely used in the production of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits in China. Research of low energy ion implantation, high energy ion implantation and the SOI technology is in progress. Fully Si-implanted planar GaAs dual-gate MESFETs, high linear GaAs Hall effect sensors, light emitting diodes, laser devices, and infrared detectors made of HgCdTe have

Zou Shichang; Liu Xianghuai

1989-01-01

117

Identification and characterization of EctR1, a new transcriptional regulator of the ectoine biosynthesis genes in the halotolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z.  

PubMed

Genes encoding key enzymes of the ectoine biosynthesis pathway in the halotolerant obligate methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z have been shown to be organized into an ectABC-ask operon. Transcription of the ect operon is initiated from two promoters, ectAp(1) and ectAp(2) (ectAp(1)p(2)), similar to the sigma(70)-dependent promoters of Escherichia coli. Upstream of the gene cluster, an open reading frame (ectR1) encoding a MarR-like transcriptional regulator was identified. Investigation of the influence of EctR1 on the activity of the ectAp(1)p(2) promoters in wild-type M. alcaliphilum 20Z and ectR1 mutant strains suggested that EctR1 is a negative regulator of the ectABC-ask operon. Purified recombinant EctR1-His(6) specifically binds as a homodimer to the putative -10 motif of the ectAp(1) promoter. The EctR1 binding site contains a pseudopalindromic sequence (TATTTAGT-GT-ACTATATA) composed of 8-bp half-sites separated by 2 bp. Transcription of the ectR1 gene is initiated from a single sigma(70)-like promoter. The location of the EctR1 binding site between the transcriptional and translational start sites of the ectR1 gene suggests that EctR1 may regulate its own expression. The data presented suggest that in Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z, EctR1-mediated control of the transcription of the ect genes is not the single mechanism for the regulation of ectoine biosynthesis. PMID:19897647

Mustakhimov, Ildar I; Reshetnikov, Alexander S; Glukhov, Anatoly S; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Trotsenko, Yuri A

2009-11-06

118

A method and technical equipment for an acute human trial to evaluate retinal implant technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on methods and technical equipment to investigate the epiretinal stimulation of the retina in blind human subjects in acute trials. Current is applied to the retina through a thin, flexible microcontact film (microelectrode array) with electrode diameters ranging from 50 to 360 µm. The film is mounted in a custom-designed surgical tool that is hand-held by the surgeon during stimulation. The eventual goal of the work is the development of a chronically implantable retinal prosthesis to restore a useful level of vision to patients who are blind with outer retinal degenerations, specifically retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration.

Hornig, Ralf; Laube, Thomas; Walter, Peter; Velikay-Parel, Michaela; Bornfeld, Norbert; Feucht, Matthias; Akguel, Harun; Rössler, Gernot; Alteheld, Nils; Lütke Notarp, Dietmar; Wyatt, John; Richard, Gisbert

2005-03-01

119

Etude de detecteurs nucleaires minces, passives et implantes, realises a partir de Silicium epitaxique. Applications aux ions lourds et au rayonnement synchrotron. (Study of thin nuclear detectors, using passivation and ion implantation technologies and epitaxial silicon. Applications to heavy ions and synchrotron radiation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thin nuclear detectors using epitaxial silicon technology are described. The following manufacturing procedures are presented: the planar technology, which consists in the passivation of the surface for the background noise minimization and in ion implant...

L. Lavergne-Gosselin

1989-01-01

120

Income and Pollutant Emissions in the ObjECTS MiniCAM Model  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the implications of the relationship between income and pollutant emission controls as parameterized in the ObjECTS MiniCAM integrated assessment model. Future scenarios for energy-related emissions of nitrous oxide (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are presented along with the methodology used to parameterize this relationship. We use a “pseudo-Kuznets” approach where the level of emission control is assumed to vary with per-capita income. No explicit assumption is, therefore, made about the relationship between income and emissions — emissions are the result of driving forces, such as economic activity level, and energy combustion technology in addition to emission controls. Emission projections depend both on the assumptions for when emissions controls are implemented and the stringency of those controls. We suggest that historical analysis of the relationship between income and emission controls might be particularly useful in informing the selection of parameters that control when emission controls are implemented. Historical analysis is likely to be less helpful in informing the selection of parameters for the future levels of control, however, particularly at future times when parameter values are well outside the range of historical experience.

Smith, Steven J.

2005-01-03

121

Electroconvulsive therapy in the presence of deep brain stimulation implants: electric field effects.  

PubMed

The safety of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients who have deep brain stimulation (DBS) implants represents a significant clinical issue. A major safety concern is the presence of burr holes and electrode anchoring devices in the skull, which may alter the induced electric field distribution in the brain. We simulated the electric field using finite-element method in a five-shell spherical head model. Three DBS electrode anchoring techniques were modeled, including ring/cap, microplate, and burr-hole cover. ECT was modeled with bilateral (BL), right unilateral (RUL), and bifrontal (BF) electrode placements and with clinically-used stimulus current amplitude. We compared electric field strength and focality among the DBS implantation techniques and ECT electrode configurations. The simulation results show an increase in the electric field strength in the brain due to conduction through the burr holes, especially when the burr holes are not fitted with nonconductive caps. For typical burr hole placement for subthalamic nucleus DBS, the effect on the electric field strength and focality is strongest for BF ECT, which runs contrary to the belief that more anterior ECT electrode placements are safer in patients with DBS implants. PMID:21096149

Deng, Zhi-De; Hardesty, David E; Lisanby, Sarah H; Peterchev, Angel V

2010-01-01

122

Dental Implants  

MedlinePLUS

Dental Implants Did you know that dental implants are frequently the best treatment option for replacing missing teeth? ... implants can last a lifetime. Anatomy of a Dental Implant A dental implant designed to replace a single ...

123

An Anillin-Ect2 Complex Stabilizes Central Spindle Microtubules at the Cortex during Cytokinesis  

PubMed Central

Cytokinesis occurs due to the RhoA-dependent ingression of an actomyosin ring. During anaphase, the Rho GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) Ect2 is recruited to the central spindle via its interaction with MgcRacGAP/Cyk-4, and activates RhoA in the central plane of the cell. Ect2 also localizes to the cortex, where it has access to RhoA. The N-terminus of Ect2 binds to Cyk-4, and the C-terminus contains conserved DH (Dbl homologous) and PH (Pleckstrin Homology) domains with GEF activity. The PH domain is required for Ect2's cortical localization, but its molecular function is not known. In cultured human cells, we found that the PH domain interacts with anillin, a contractile ring protein that scaffolds actin and myosin and interacts with RhoA. The anillin-Ect2 interaction may require Ect2's association with lipids, since a novel mutation in the PH domain, which disrupts phospholipid association, weakens their interaction. An anillin-RacGAP50C (homologue of Cyk-4) complex was previously described in Drosophila, which may crosslink the central spindle to the cortex to stabilize the position of the contractile ring. Our data supports an analogous function for the anillin-Ect2 complex in human cells and one hypothesis is that this complex has functionally replaced the Drosophila anillin-RacGAP50C complex. Complexes between central spindle proteins and cortical proteins could regulate the position of the contractile ring by stabilizing microtubule-cortical interactions at the division plane to ensure the generation of active RhoA in a discrete zone.

Frenette, Paul; Haines, Eric; Loloyan, Michael; Kinal, Mena; Pakarian, Paknoosh; Piekny, Alisa

2012-01-01

124

A rho-specific exchange factor ect2 is induced from S to M phases in regenerating mouse liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ect2 oncogene was originally identified as a transforming complementary DNA (cDNA) from mouse epithelial cells in an expression cloning approach and encodes a product related to Rho-specific exchange factors and yeast cell cycle regulators. To explore the potential role of ect2 in the cell cycle, we examined the expression of the ect2 proto-oncogene in a liver regeneration model in

Hiromi Sakata; Jeffrey S. Rubin; William G. Taylor; Toru Miki

2000-01-01

125

The Ect2 Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Is Essential for Early Mouse Development and Normal Cell Cytokinesis and Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ect2 is a member of the human Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) that serve as activators of Rho family small GTPases. Although Ect2 is one of at least 25 RhoGEFs that can activate the RhoA small GTPase, cell culture studies using established cell lines determined that Ect2 is essential for mammalian cell cytokinesis and proliferation. To address

Danielle R. Cook; Patricia A. Solski; Scott J. Bultman; Gunther Kauselmann; Michael Schoor; Ralf Kuehn; Lori S. Friedman; Dale O. Cowley; Terry Van Dyke; Jen Jen Yeh; Leisa Johnson; Channing J. Der

2011-01-01

126

Clinical relevance of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in adolescents with severe mood disorder: evidence from a follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the limited knowledge on the long-term outcome of adolescents who receive electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), the study aimed to follow-up adolescents treated with ECT for severe mood disorder. Eleven subjects treated during adolescence with bilateral ECT for psychotic depression (n = 6) or mania (n = 5), and ten psychiatric controls matched for sex, age, school level, and clinical diagnosis, completed at least 1

O. Taieb; M.-F. Flament; S. Chevret; P. Jeammet; J.-F. Allilaire; P. Mazet; D. Cohen

2002-01-01

127

The Effect of Technology and Testing Environment on Speech Perception using Telehealth with Cochlear Implant Recipients  

PubMed Central

Purpose The current study evaluated the effect of remote system and acoustic environment on speech perception via telehealth with cochlear implant recipients. Method Speech perception was measured in quiet and in noise. Systems evaluated were: Polycom visual concert (PVC) and a hybrid presentation system (HPS). Each system was evaluated in a sound-treated booth and a quiet office. Results For speech in quiet, there was a significant effect of environment with better performance in the booth compared to the office; there was no effect of system (PVC or HPS). Speech in noise revealed a significant interaction between environment and system. Subjects’ performance was poorer for PVC in the office while performance in the sound booth was not significantly different for the two systems. Results from the current study were compared to results for the same group of subjects from an earlier study; results suggested poorer performance at remote sites in the previous study was primarily due to environment, not system. Conclusions Speech perception was best when evaluated in a sound-treated booth. HPS was superior for speech in noise in a reverberant environment. Future research should focus on modifications to non sound-treated environments for telehealth service delivery in rural areas.

Goehring, Jenny L.; Hughes, Michelle L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.; Valente, Daniel L.; McCreery, Ryan W.; Diaz, Gina R.; Sanford, Todd; Harpster, Roger

2012-01-01

128

Brain-behavior relationship in a case of successful ECT for drug refractory catatonic OCD.  

PubMed

This case report describes the successful response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a patient with an unusual presentation of catatonia, whose onset occurred in the context of an extremely severe form of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We correlated the clinical improvement in catatonic and OCD symptoms with specific changes in brain function as shown by regional cerebral blood flow scans, neurological soft signs examination, and neuropsychological testing. All assessments were conducted before and after the ECT course. The results strongly suggest that a right hemisphere dysfunction was the neural correlate of our patient's symptoms, and that ECT, by reverting this abnormality, may serve as an effective therapeutic approach for refractory catatonic OCD. PMID:22569374

D'Urso, Giordano; Mantovani, Antonio; Barbarulo, Anna Maria; Labruna, Ludovica; Muscettola, Giovanni

2012-09-01

129

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ETOMIDATE AND THIOPENTONE IN MODIFIED E.C.T  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The study was undertaken to assess the value of etomidate in modifed E.C.T. and compare the results with thiopentone sodium. Fifty patients of schizophrenia, depressive illness and manic depressive psychosis requiring E.C.T. were studied with thiopentone and etomidate in two subsequent sittings. The results indicate that induction time is approximately same with both the drugs. The shorter recovery time with etomidate in comparison to thiopentone proved to be of definite advantage specially to psychiatric out patients who rapidly have to regain consciousness and soon become alert enough to go back to their homes alter treatment.

Gupta, U.K.; Mahendru, R.K.; Mehta, R.K.; Sonkar, Poonam

1986-01-01

130

BEM modeling for ECT simulation of complex narrow cracks in multilayered structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulation of Eddy Current Testing (ECT) signals due to real cracks constitutes a matter of interest in many industrial fields. Such complex flaws can be modeled as a succession of narrow crack with canonical shapes (i.e. slot, elliptical, semi-elliptical, etc.) having arbitrary positions and orientations. This paper present a semi-analytical model dedicated to the simulation of ECT inspections of stratified planar structures, affected by narrow crack. Validation of the developments, carried out with experimental data or by comparison with other numerical results, are then discussed.

Miorelli, R.; Reboud, C.; Theodoulidis, T.; Lesselier, D.

2013-01-01

131

Clinical efficacy and cognitive side effects of bifrontal versus right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): A short-term randomised controlled trial in pharmaco-resistant major depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn most studies right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been shown to cause fewer cognitive side effects but less antidepressant efficacy compared with bi(fronto)temporal ECT at certain intensities.

Gerhard W. Eschweiler; Reinhard Vonthein; Ruediger Bode; Michael Huell; Andreas Conca; Oliver Peters; Stefan Mende-Lechler; Julia Peters; Dorothee Klecha; Michael Prapotnik; Jan DiPauli; Barbara Wild; Christian Plewnia; Mathias Bartels; Wilfried Schlotter

2007-01-01

132

Information Technology for Workplace Communication. Workscape 21: The Ecology of New Ways of Working.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken to understand the role of electronic communication technologies (ECTs) in maintaining work-related communication. The study site was Sun Microsystems, a company at the high end of the curve in terms of its commitment to and employees' experience with ECTs. An electronic focus group (n=40, 4% response) and an e-mail survey…

Becker, Franklin; Tennessen, Carolyn M.; Young, David

133

Implant Chips  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A group of eight people, including all members of one Florida family, had an implant chip, roughly the size of a grain of rice, injected under their skin on Friday, May 10. Manufactured by Applied Digital Solutions (ADS), the chips store a special identification number that enables the retrieval of personal and medical information. In the event of a medical emergency, a special handheld scanner activates the dormant digital implant, which provides identification data with which medical personnel can query ADS's database, the location of the patient's medical records. Alzheimer's patients seem to be the most promising market for this technology, even though other people, like the Florida family, hope to benefit from it as well. Another product that ADS offers is called Digital Angel, a wearable global positioning system (GPS) device that, among other things, can track in real time the wearer's physical movements. In the future, ADS is planning to release a product that will utilize both of these technologies: an implanted GPS-enabled chip. Unlike VeriChip, though, the GPS-enabled implant would require Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, meaning the US market won't see its introduction until after FDA testing. Many organizations, ranging from privacy advocates to religious groups, have already denounced VeriChip and its eventually successors, associated them with "Big Brother" and the biblical "Mark of the Beast."To read about the eight people that received their implants, look at the first and second sites, articles from the Los Angeles Times and Miami Herald respectively. For a non-US perspective, view the news story posted by the British Broadcasting Company (BBC). The fourth site, an extensive analysis of the subject from ABC News, should give readers a broader understanding of implanted chips and their potential uses. Two sites from ADS are next -- VeriChip's product pages and the press release that details a FDA's decision regarding VeriChip in April, 2002. Finally, the last two sites give more information on Digital Angel and a sample of GPS technology already in use.

Schroeder, Ted.

2002-01-01

134

SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: Influence of nitrogen dose on the charge density of nitrogen-implanted buried oxide in SOI wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To harden silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers fabricated using separation by implanted oxygen (SIMOX) to total-dose irradiation, the technique of nitrogen implantation into the buried oxide (BOX) layer of SIMOX wafers can be used. However, in this work, it has been found that all the nitrogen-implanted BOX layers reveal greater initial positive charge densities, which increased with increasing nitrogen implantation dose. Also, the results indicate that excessively large nitrogen implantation dose reduced the radiation tolerance of BOX for its high initial positive charge density. The bigger initial positive charge densities can be ascribed to the accumulation of implanted nitrogen near the Si-BOX interface after annealing. On the other hand, in our work, it has also been observed that, unlike nitrogen-implanted BOX, all the fluorine-implanted BOX layers show a negative charge density. To obtain the initial charge densities of the BOX layers, the tested samples were fabricated with a metal-BOX-silicon (MBS) structure based on SIMOX wafers for high-frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) analysis.

Zhongshan, Zheng; Zhongli, Liu; Ning, Li; Guohua, Li; Enxia, Zhang

2010-02-01

135

A novel root analogue dental implant using CT scan and CAD/CAM: selective laser melting technology.  

PubMed

Direct laser metal forming (DLMF) is a new technique which allows solids with complex geometry to be produced by annealing metal powder microparticles in a focused laser beam, according to a computer-generated three-dimensional (3D) model. For dental implants, the fabrication process involves the laser-induced fusion of titanium microparticles, in order to build, layer by layer, the desired object. Modern computed tomography (CT) acquisition and 3D image conversion, combined with the DLMF process, allows the fabrication of custom-made, root-analogue implants (RAI), perfect copies of the radicular units that need replacing. This report demonstrates the successful clinical use of a custom-made, root-analogue DLMF implant. CT images of the residual non-restorable root of a right maxillary premolar were acquired and modified with specific software into a 3D model. From this model, a custom-made, root-analogue, DLMF implant was fabricated. Immediately after tooth extraction, the root-analogue implant was placed in the extraction socket and restored with a single crown. At the 1-year follow-up examination, the custom-made implant showed almost perfect functional and aesthetic integration. The possibility of fabricating custom-made, root-analogue DLMF implants opens new interesting perspectives for immediate placement of dental implants. PMID:22377004

Figliuzzi, M; Mangano, F; Mangano, C

2012-02-28

136

Enhancing the mechanical integrity of the implant-bone interface with BoneWelding technology: determination of quasi-static interfacial strength and fatigue resistance.  

PubMed

The BoneWelding technology is an innovative bonding method, which offers new alternatives in the treatment of fractures and other degenerative disorders of the musculoskeletal system. The BoneWelding process employs ultrasonic energy to liquefy a polymeric interface between orthopaedic implants and the host bone. Polymer penetrates the pores of the surrounding bone and, following a rapid solidification, forms a strong and uniform bond between implant and bone. Biomechanical testing was performed to determine the quasi-static push-out strength and fatigue performance of 3.5-mm-diameter polymeric dowels bonded to a bone surrogate material (Sawbones solid and cellular polyurethane foam) using the BoneWelding process. Fatigue tests were conducted over 100,000 cycles of 20-100 N loading. Mechanical test results were compared with those obtained with a comparably-sized, commercial metallic fracture fixation screw. Tests in surrogate bone material of varying density demonstrated significantly superior mechanical performance of the bonded dowels in comparison to conventional bone screws (p < 0.01), with holding strengths approaching 700 N. Even in extremely porous host material, the performance of the bonded dowels was equivalent to that of the bone screws. For both cellular and solid bone analog materials, failure always occurred within the bone analog material surrounding and distant to the implant; the infiltrated interface was stronger than the surrounding bone analog material. No significant decrease in interfacial strength was observed following conditioning in a physiological saline solution for a period of 1 month prior to testing. Ultrasonically inserted implants migrated, on average, less than 20 microm over, and interfacial stiffness remained constant the full duration of fatigue testing. With further refinement, the BoneWelding technology may offer a quicker, simpler, and more effective method for achieving strong fixation and primary stability for fracture fixation or other orthopaedic and dental implant applications. PMID:16211571

Ferguson, Stephen J; Weber, Urs; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Mayer, Joerg

2006-04-01

137

Simulated Eff ects of Sulfur Deposition on Nutrient Cycling in Class I Wilderness Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We predicted the eff ects of sulfate (SO4) deposition on wilderness areas designated as Class I air quality areas in western North Carolina using a nutrient cycling model (NuCM). We used three S deposition simulations: current, 50% decrease, and 100% increase. We measured vegetation, forest fl oor, and root biomass and collected soil, soil solution, and stream water samples for

Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose; Jennifer D. Knoepp

138

Identifying Pathways and Processes Aff ecting Nitrate and Orthophosphate Inputs to Streams in Agricultural Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding nutrient pathways to streams will improve nutrient management strategies and estimates of the time lag between when changes in land use practices occur and when water quality eff ects that result from these changes are observed. Nitrate and orthophosphate (OP) concentrations in several environmental compartments were examined in watersheds having a range of base fl ow index (BFI) values

Anthony J. Tesoriero; John H. Duff; David M. Wolock; Norman E. Spahr USGS

139

Computer key switch force-displacement characteristics and short-term eŒ ects on localized fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the eΠects of key switch design parameters on short-term localized muscle fatigue in the forearm and hand. An experimental apparatus was utilized for simulating and controlling key switch make force and travel using leaf spring mechanisms, and provided direct measurement of applied key strike force using strain gauge load cells. Repetitive key tapping was performed as

ROBERT G. RADWIN; BARRY A. RUFFALO

140

Top Ten Reasons a Graduate Student Should Apply to Be an ECT Foundation Intern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author encourages graduate students to apply for the ECT Foundation Internship. She presents a list of the top ten benefits the internship offers a graduate student's career: (1) It could change your life. It changed mine; (2) Networking; (3) Mentoring; (4) Leadership opportunities; (5) Behind the scenes pass; (6) Shadowing;…

York, Cindy S.

2009-01-01

141

Tillage, Cropping Systems, and Nitrogen Fertilizer Source Eff ects on Soil Carbon Sequestration and Fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifi cation of soil carbon (C) cycling as infl uenced by management practices is needed for C sequestration and soil quality improvement. We evaluated the 10-yr eff ects of tillage, cropping system, and N source on crop residue and soil C fractions at 0- to 20-cm depth in Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Paleudults) in northern Alabama, USA.

Upendra M. Sainju; Zachary N. Senwo; Ermson Z. Nyakatawa; Irenus A. Tazisong; K. Chandra

142

The e%ect of selected parameters on ship collision results by dynamic FE simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the paper is to study the e%ect of selected design parameters on crashworthiness of the struck ship. The dynamic collision process is simulated by the ABAQUS=Explicit code, and two problems are analysed: (1) a plate struck by a cone, and (2) a collision of two ships. The \\

Krzysztof Wi

143

Glycopyrrolate Versus Atropine in Post-ECT Amnesia in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is important in memory function, and low brain concentrations may be associated with cognitive impairment. Our hypothesis was that atropine, a centrally acting anticholinergic drug known to cause amnesia, confusion, and delirium, may further exacerbate the amnesia and\\/or confusion resulting from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) when used as a preanesthetic, and that the peripherally acting glycopyrrolate would by

Barbara R. Sommer; Andrew Satlin; Loren Friedman; Jonathan O. Cole

1989-01-01

144

Extended coronary trees by neural network based fusion of DSA-sequences and ECT-images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to support the clinical routine by integrated diagnoses, an existing coronary angiogram (DCI-System), computed tomography (CT) and emission computed tomography (ECT) imaging system is extended. To perform integrated imaging repetitively, standards and processing facilities are defined for each individual imaging system. Angiogram sequences are prestructured and viewed as typed dynamic data sets, allowing specific items to restrict regions

P. Jensch; L. Kohler; J. Schwanke; A. Hewett; G.-H. Reil; N. Rilinger; H. Niemann

1990-01-01

145

Packaging of Implantable Microsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenges and technologies for long-term stable packaging of implantable devices and microsystems are reviewed. Packaging of implantable microsystems is especially difficult because of the many limitations in terms of size, material properties, mechanical structure and rigidity, biocompatibility, required lifetime, and maximum allowable temperature. Our group has demonstrated their long-term reliability in salt water and biological environments. Glass packages anodically bonded

Khalil Najafi

2007-01-01

146

Science and Technology of Bio-Inert Thin Films as Hermetic-Encapsulating Coatings for Implantable Biomedical Devices: Application to Implantable Microchip in the Eye for the Artificial Retina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive research has been devoted to the development of neuron prostheses and hybrid bionic systems to establish links between the nervous system and electronic or robotic prostheses with the main focus of restoring motor and sensory functions in blind patients. Artificial retinas, one type of neural prostheses we are currently working on, aim to restore some vision in blind patients caused by retinitis picmentosa or macular degeneration, and in the future to restore vision at the level of face recognition, if not more. Currently there is no hermetic microchip-size coating that provides a reliable, long-term (years) performance as encapsulating coating for the artificial retina Si microchip to be implanted inside the eye. This chapter focuses on the critical topics relevant to the development of a robust, long-term artificial retina device, namely the science and technology of hermetic bio-inert encapsulating coatings to protect a Si microchip implanted in the human eye from being attacked by chemicals existing in the eye's saline environment. The work discussed in this chapter is related to the development of a novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) hermetic coating, which exhibited no degradation in rabbit eyes. The material synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of these hermetic coatings are reviewed for application as encapsulating coating for the artificial retinal microchips implantable inside the human eye. Our work has shown that UNCD coatings may provide a reliable hermetic bio-inert coating technology for encapsulation of Si microchips implantable in the eye specifically and in the human body in general. Electrochemical tests of the UNCD films grown under CH4/Ar/H2 (1%) plasma exhibit the lowest leakage currents (˜7 × 10-7 A/cm2) in a saline solution simulating the eye environment. This leakage is incompatible with the functionality of the first-generation artificial retinal microchip. However, the growth of UNCD on top of the Si microchip passivated by a silicon nitride layer or the oxide layers is also under investigation in our group as introduced in this chapter. The electrochemically induced leakage will be reduced by at least one to three orders of magnitude to the range of 10-10 A/cm2, which is compatible with reliable, long-term implants.

Auciello, Orlando; Shi, Bing

147

Ect2, an ortholog of Drosophila's pebble, negatively regulates neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells.  

PubMed

To identify genes required for brain development, we previously performed in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) screening in Drosophila embryos. We identified pebble as a gene that disrupts development of the Drosophila nervous system. Although pebble has been shown to be involved in neuronal development of Drosophila in several screens, the involvement of Ect2, a mammalian ortholog of pebble, in mammalian neuronal development has not been addressed. To examine the role of Ect2 in neuronal differentiation, we performed Ect2 RNAi in the mouse neuroblastoma × rat glioma NG108-15 cell line. Depletion of Ect2 resulted in an increased proportion of binucleate cells and morphological differentiation of NG108-15 cells characterized by the outgrowth of neurites. These morphological changes were correlated with an increased level of acetylcholine esterase mRNA. In addition, expression of Ect2 was decreased in differentiated NG108-15 cells induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. These findings indicate that Ect2 negatively regulates the differentiation of NG108-15 cells and suggest that Ect2 may play a role in neuronal differentiation and brain development in vivo. PMID:21350944

Tsuji, Takahiro; Higashida, Chiharu; Yoshida, Yasumasa; Islam, Mohammad Saharul; Dohmoto, Mitsuko; Koizumi, Keita; Higashida, Haruhiro

2011-02-25

148

Synthesis of SiC microstructures in Si technology by high dose carbon implantation: Etch-stop properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of high dose carbon ion implantation in Si for the production of membranes and microstructures is investigated. Si wafers were implanted with carbon doses of 10¹⁷ and 5 à 10¹⁷ cm⁻², at an energy of 300 keV and a temperature of 500 C. The structural analysis of these samples revealed the formation of a highly stable buried layer

C. Serre; A. Perez-Rodriguez; A. Romano-Rodriguez; L. Calvo-Barrio; J. R. Morante; J. Esteve; M. C. Acero; W. Skorupa; R. Koegler

1997-01-01

149

Predictors of regained occupational functioning after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with major depressive disorder-A population based cohort study.  

PubMed

Abstract Nordenskjöld A, von Knorring L, Brus O, Engström I. Predictors of regained occupational functioning after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with major depressive disorder-A population based cohort study. Nord J Psychiatry 2012;Early Online:1-8. Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the rate of regained occupational functioning among patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for major depression and to define predictors of time to regained occupational functioning. Methods: A nested cohort study was performed of patients treated by ECT for unipolar major depressive disorder registered in the Quality register for ECT and in the Swedish Social Insurance Agency registry. Predictive values of single clinical variables and their relative importance were tested with Cox regression analysis. Results: 394 patients were identified. Of those, 266 were on non-permanent sick leave and 128 on disability pension during ECT. Within 1 year post-ECT, 71% of the patients with non-permanent sick leave regained occupational functioning. Factors independently associated with a statistically significant increased time to regained occupational functioning were longer duration of sick leave pre-ECT, milder depression pre-ECT, less complete improvement with ECT, benzodiazepine treatment after ECT and co-morbid substance dependence. Conclusions: A large proportion of the patients do not return to work within several months post-ECT. Paradoxically, patients with more severe depression pre-ECT had a reduced time to regained occupational functioning, indicating a larger effect in this patients group of the treatment. Moreover, the period with sick leave compensation might be reduced if ECT is initiated within the first 3 months of sick leave. Clinical implications: Most patients on non-permanent sick leave regain occupational functioning after ECT. However, it usually takes a few months even in symptomatically improved patients. PMID:23228156

Nordenskjöld, Axel; von Knorring, Lars; Brus, Ole; Engström, Ingemar

2012-12-11

150

E!ects of prosodic and lexical constraints on parsing in young children (and adults) q  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior studies of ambiguity resolution in young children have found that children rely heavily on lexical information but persistently fail to use referential constraints in online parsing (Trueswell, J.C., Sekerina, I., Hill, N.M., & Logrip, M.L, (1999). The kindergarten-path e!ect: Studying on-line sentence processing in young children. Cognition, 73, 89- 134; Snedeker, J. & Trueswell, J. (2004). The developing constraints

Jesse Snedeker; Sylvia Yuan

151

Neuroimaging of meditation's e¡ect on brain reactivity to pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some meditation techniques reduce pain, but there have been no studies on how meditation a¡ects the brain's response to pain. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the response to thermally induced pain applied outside the meditation period found that long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique showed 40^50% fewer voxels responding to pain in the thalamus and total brain than in

David W. Orme-Johnsona; H. Schneider; Zang-Hee Chob; David Orme-Johnson

152

A note on stopping rules in EM-ML reconstructions of ECT images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the expectation-maximization algorithm to obtain pseudo-maximum likelihood estimates (i.e. the EM-ML algorithm) of radiopharmaceutical distributions based on data collected from emission computed tomography (ECT) systems is now a well developed area, as witnessed by a number of recent articles on that topic, including the detailed study of the relative performance of EM-ML and FBP reconstructions provided in

Valen E. Johnson

1994-01-01

153

Moderate clinical improvement with maintenance ECT in a 17-year-old boy with intractable catatonic schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) in adolescents is controversial, and few studies have been conducted to assess\\u000a its efficacy and safety in this population. We report the case of a 19-year-old boy who received two series of ECT, one at\\u000a 15 and another at 16, for intractable catatonic schizophrenia. Since the age of 17, he has required treatment combining

Angèle Consoli; Valérie Boulicot; Françoise Cornic; Philippe Fossati; Martine Barbeau; David Cohen

2009-01-01

154

From Long Infrared to Very Long Infrared Wavelength Focal Plane Arrays Made with HgCdTe n + n ? \\/ p Ion Implantation Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at studying the feasibility of very long infrared wavelength (VLWIR) (12–18 ?m) focal plane arrays using n-on-p planar ion-implanted technology. To explore and analyze the feasibility of such VLWIR detectors, a set of four Cd\\u000a x\\u000a Hg1?x\\u000a Te LPE layers with an 18 ? cutoff at 50 K has been processed at Defir (LETI\\/LIR–Sofradir joint laboratory), using both our “standard”

O. Gravrand; E. De Borniol; S. Bisotto; L. Mollard; G. Destefanis

2007-01-01

155

X- and gamma-ray hardness of floating-gate EEPROM technology as applied to implantable medical devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing need for the inclusion of nonvolatile memory within implantable medical devices in order to store product identification, operating parameters, calibration information, as well as patient and diagnostic data. Due to the critical nature of the application however, the data retention reliability is of utmost importance. In the case of nonvolatile memories, a source of concern regards

David Prutchi; John L. Prince; Lawrence J. Stotts

1999-01-01

156

[ECT versus transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): preliminary data of computer modeling].  

PubMed

The essential issue of electroshock therapy (ECT) is the activity of physical stimulus, i.e., the electric current, on the disturbed structures of the brain. ECT sessions--when chronically applied for evoking antidepressive effects--are responsible for the appearance of excessive incitement in the neuronal net in the brain tissue in a form of self-sustaining after-discharge (SSAD) (convulsive attack characteristic for ECT). The study presents the computer research on basic biophysical phenomena of electroshock therapy (flow of electric current in the structures of the head just before convulsive attack). Five-layer 3-D model of the head was created in OPERA-3D (Vector Fields Ltd., Oxford), general 3 dimensional issues solver. Geometrical dimensions and electrophysical properties of each layer correspond with natural properties. The model was subjected to the action of electric stimulation (parameters identical to those applied in clinical conditions). Analysis of the flow in particular layers revealed the crawling/spreading effect present not only in the scalp layer but also in the layer of cerebrospinal fluid. The effect is conditioned by "deeper situated" lesser conduction of electricity-respectively skull bones, brain tissue. Crawling effect is the reason why only 5-15% of the electricity applied on the surface of the head reaches the surface of the brain. Electro-stimulation examinations also showed that the values of the so called density of the current in layers of brain tissue balanced between 1-10 mA/mm2. The current parameters of ECT were effective in evoking subsequent convulsive attack and safe for the brain tissue. The model was subjected to the action of magnetic stimulation according to the parameters of neurologic technique of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). ELECTRA module was used to solve wire-current issues. The examination showed more regular distribution of current vectors in all layers of the head. The density of cerebral cortex was 0.1-1 mA/mm2, confirming markedly lesser current charge than that observed during ECT. The problem of magnetic stimulation efficacy in irritating deep structures of the brain demands further studies. PMID:10776027

Zyss, T; Krawczyk, A; Drzyma?a, P; Starzy?ski, J

157

Thyratron modulators in plasma source ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is an emerging technology which can be used to harden metal surfaces in a conformal manner. North Star Research Corp. (NSRC) is building a unique implanter system for Empire Hard Chrome which will be the first truly commercial implanter of this type. The choice of pulsed power technology for this application is important from the

R. J. Adler; J. Scheuer; W. Horne

1995-01-01

158

Selfprotective smart orthopedic implants.  

PubMed

In this review, we discuss current advances leading to an exciting change in implant design for orthopedic surgery. The initial biomaterial approaches in implant design are being replaced by cellular-molecular interactions and nanoscale chemistry. New designs address implant complications, particularly loosening and infection. For infection, local delivery systems are an important first step in the process. Selfprotective 'smart' devices are an example of the next generation of orthopedic implants. If proven to be effective, antibiotics or other active molecules that are tethered to the implant surface through a permanent covalent bond and tethering of antibiotics or other biofactors are likely to transform the practice of orthopedic surgery and other medical specialties. This new technology has the potential to eliminate periprosthetic infection, a major and growing problem in orthopedic practice. PMID:17187471

Parvizi, Javad; Antoci, Valentin; Hickok, Noreen J; Shapiro, Irving M

2007-01-01

159

Surgical techniques in cochlear implants.  

PubMed

Cochlear implants have a remarkable history and a promising future. As the cochlear implant has evolved, so has the surgical technique. This review encompasses a history of the cochlear implant, a summary of the evolution of the implant incision and the methods used to secure the device and the electrode, the cochleostomy versus round window debate, and a discussion of the validity of intraoperative tests. Advanced technology, new surgical techniques, and refining established techniques are hallmarks of cochlear implant surgery. Advancements, including image-guided surgery, hearing preservation with full insertion, and telemetry-based advanced programming, are expected to be standard in the future. PMID:22115682

Mangus, Brannon; Rivas, Alejandro; Tsai, Betty S; Haynes, David S; Roland, J Thomas

2012-02-01

160

Placing Dental Implants  

MedlinePLUS

Placing Dental Implants Before Placing an Implant Placing the Implants Complications from Surgery Implant Failure When you get implants, more ... Implant Most people are good candidates to get dental implants. You must have enough bone in your jaw ...

161

Comparison of implantation and pregnancy rates in African American and white women in an assisted reproductive technology practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare IVF outcomes between infertile African American and white women.Design: Retrospective cohort study.Setting: Hospital-based IVF practice.Patient(s): Women undergoing IVF procedures between November 1996 and June 2000.Intervention(s): None.Main Outcomes Measure(s): Implantation and pregnancy rates.Result(s): There were 24 African American and 273 white women ?40 years of age who underwent 25 and 333 IVF cycles, respectively. African American women were

John E Nichols; H. Lee Higdon; Martin M Crane; William R Boone

2001-01-01

162

Drug Delivery: Enabling Technology for Drug Discovery and Development. iPRECIO® Micro Infusion Pump: Programmable, Refillable, and Implantable  

PubMed Central

Successful drug delivery using implantable pumps may be found in over 12,500 published articles. Their versatility in delivering continuous infusion, intermittent or complex infusion protocols acutely or chronically has made them ubiquitous in drug discovery and basic research. The recent availability of iPRECIO®, a programmable, refillable, and implantable infusion pump has made it possible to carry out quantitative pharmacology (PKPD) in single animals. When combined with specialized catheters, specific administration sites have been selected. When combined with radiotelemetry, the physiologic gold standard, more sensitive and powerful means of detecting drug induced therapeutic, and/or adverse effects has been possible. Numerous application examples are cited from iPRECIO® use in Japan, United States, and Europe with iPRECIO® as an enabling drug delivery device where the refillable and programmability functionality were key benefits. The ability to start/stop drug delivery and to have control periods prior dosing made it possible to have equivalent effects at a much lower dose than previously studied. Five different iPRECIO® applications are described in detail with references to the original work where the implantable, refillable, and programmable benefits are demonstrated with their different end-points.

Tan, Tsung; Watts, Stephanie W.; Davis, Robert Patrick

2011-01-01

163

Digital Technology and Cultural Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews how digital technology, and the devices and broadband networks associated with it (the Internet, for short), can be expected to a ect the ways in which books, music, the visual arts, libraries and archived cultural heritage (cultural goods, for short) are produced, distributed and consumed. The paper has four parts. First, I place the growth of the

Kieran Healy

2001-01-01

164

Reasoned discourse or a holy war: postscript to a report on ECT.  

PubMed

The author points out that both favorable and unfavorable opinions regarding the value of electroconvulsive therapy have become entrenched in the absence of adequate data. These opinions are discussed in relation to the training, experience, and personal orientation of the psychiatrist. The inability of some psychiatrists to tolerate uncertainty is held responsible for their denial of the validity of alternative methods of treatment. The author recommends that psychiatrists tolerate a certain amount of ambiguity and uncertainty: postponing closure may lead to the conclusion that treatment styles (including use of psychotherapy and ECT) are not mutually exclusive. PMID:1088841

Frankel, F H

1975-01-01

165

Cochlear Implants  

MedlinePLUS

... and sends them to different regions of the auditory nerve. An implant does not restore normal hearing. ... portions of the ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve. Signals generated by the implant are sent ...

166

0.5 {mu}m E/D AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure field effect transistor technology with DFET threshold adjust implant  

SciTech Connect

A doped-channel heterostructure field effect transistor (H-FET) technology has been developed with self-aligned refractory gate processing and using both enhancement- and depletion-mode transistors. D-HFET devices are obtained with a threshold voltage adjust implant into material designed for E-HFET operation. Both E- and D-HFETs utilize W/WSi bilayer gates, sidewall spacers, and rapid thermal annealing for controlling short channel effects. The 0.5 {mu}m E- HFETs (D-HFETs) have been demonstrated with transconductance of 425 mS/mm (265-310 mS/mm) and f{sub t} of 45-50 GHz. Ring oscillator gate delays of 19 ps with a power of 0.6 mW have been demonstrated using direct coupled FET logic. These results are comparable to previous doped-channel HFET devices and circuits fabricated by selective reactive ion etching rather than ion implantation for threshold voltage adjustment.

Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.; Briggs, R.D.; Heise, J.A.; Robertson, P.J.; Hafich, M.F.

1997-04-01

167

Ion Implantation in Gallium Arsenide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion implantation is a useful method to incorporate dopants into semiconductors. Understanding implantation processes is essential to the advancement of solid state technology. Because of its technical importance, gallium arsenide (GaAs) was chosen for this study. Hall effect, x-ray diffraction, and electrochemical capacitance-voltage (CV) profiling were used to study activation of silicon implants as functions of dose and annealing temperature

John Hamilton Madok

1993-01-01

168

Synthesis of SiC microstructures in Si technology by high dose carbon implantation: Etch-stop properties  

SciTech Connect

The use of high dose carbon ion implantation in Si for the production of membranes and microstructures is investigated. Si wafers were implanted with carbon doses of 10{sup 17} and 5 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}2}, at an energy of 300 keV and a temperature of 500 C. The structural analysis of these samples revealed the formation of a highly stable buried layer of crystalline {beta}-SiC precipitates aligned with the Si matrix. The etch-stop properties of this layer have been investigated using tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide as etchant solution. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements performed on the etched samples have allowed an estimate of the minimum dose needed for obtaining an etch-stop layer to a value in the range 2 to 3 {times} 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. This behavior has been explained assuming the existence of a percolation process in a SiC/Si binary system. Finally, very thin crystalline membranes and self-standing structures with average surface roughness in the range 6 to 7 nm have been obtained.

Serre, C.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Calvo-Barrio, L.; Morante, J.R. [Univ. de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Electronica; Esteve, J.; Acero, M.C. [CSIC, Bellaterra (Spain). Centre National de Microelectronica; Skorupa, W.; Koegler, R. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung

1997-06-01

169

Amplification of the Ect2 proto-oncogene and over-expression of Ect2 mRNA and protein in nickel compound and methylcholanthrene-transformed 10T1/2 mouse fibroblast cell lines.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure of humans to mixtures of insoluble and soluble nickel (Ni) compounds correlates with increased incidences of lung, sinus, and pharyngeal tumors. Specific insoluble Ni compounds are carcinogenic to animals by inhalation and induce morphological and neoplastic transformation of cultured rodent cells. Our objectives were to (1) understand mechanisms of nickel ion-induced cell transformation, hence carcinogenesis and (2) develop biomarkers of nickel ion exposure and nickel ion-induced cell transformation. We isolated mRNAs from green nickel oxide (NiO), crystalline nickel monosulfide (NiS), and 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) transformed C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 cell lines, and determined by mRNA differential display that nine mRNA fragments were differentially expressed between Ni transformed and non-transformed 10T1/2 cell lines. Fragment R2-5 was expressed at higher steady-state levels in the transformed cell lines. R2-5 had 100% sequence identity to part of the coding region of Ect2, a mouse proto-oncogene encoding a GDP-GTP exchange factor. The 3.9-kb Ect2 transcript was expressed at 1.6- to 3.6-fold higher steady-state levels in four Ni transformed, and in two MCA-transformed, cell lines. Ect2 protein was expressed at 3.0- to 4.5-fold higher steady-state levels in Ni-transformed and in MCA-transformed cell lines. The Ect2 gene was amplified by 3.5- to 10-fold in Ni transformed, and by 2.5- to 3-fold in MCA transformed cell lines. Binding of nickel ions to enzymes of DNA synthesis likely caused amplification of the Ect2 gene. Ect2 gene amplification and over-expression of Ect2 mRNA and protein can cause microtubule disassembly and cytokinesis, contributing to induction and maintenance of morphological, anchorage-independent, and neoplastic transformation of these cell lines. Over-expression of Ect2 protein is a useful biomarker to detect exposure to nickel compounds and nickel ion-induced morphological and neoplastic cell transformation. PMID:15967202

Clemens, Farrah; Verma, Rini; Ramnath, Jamuna; Landolph, Joseph R

2005-08-01

170

[Breast implants and their history].  

PubMed

The controversy concerning breast implants has led to a profound change in our surgical practice. Four years after the moratorium suspending the use of silicone implants, the situation still remains confused. Polyurethane implants, incriminated as being dangerous at the start of the anti-implant campaign, were cleared by the FDA in 1995, but have not been re-released onto the market. Silicone implants, the subject of a great many international studies on carcinogenicity and immunological risks which failed to confirm these risks, are now being used again throughout the world except in the USA, Canada and France. Hydrogel implants, victims of the bad reputation of the other implants, were suspended for dubious insurance reasons concerning the French Huriet law, although they satisfy the clinical and laboratory criteria required for breast implants. Only normal saline implants are currently used in France, although their safety is only relative, as the reoperation rate for deflation is not negligible. In our opinion, the Cronin type of bladder implant is obsolete and the new available technologies must be used, although they raise an economic problem following the overpublicized silicone implant catastrophe. PMID:9768176

Muller, G H

1996-12-01

171

Accuracy of preemptively constructed, Cone Beam CT-, and CAD/CAM technology-based, individual Root Analogue Implant technique: An in vitro pilot investigation.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this in vitro pilot investigation is to assess the accuracy of the preemptive individually fabricated root analogue implant (RAI) based on three-dimensional (3D) root surface models obtained from a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan, computer-aided designing (CAD), and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology and to measure the discrepancy in congruence with the alveolar socket subsequent to placement of the RAI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven single-rooted teeth from nine human cadaver mandibles were scanned with the 3D Accuitomo 170 CBCT system. The 3D surface reconstructions of the teeth acquired from the CBCT scans were used as input for fabrication of the RAIs in titanium using rapid manufacturing technology. The teeth were then carefully extracted. The teeth and RAIs were consequently optically scanned. The mandibles with the empty extraction sockets were scanned with CBCT using identical settings to the first scan. Finally, the preemptively made RAIs were implanted into their respective sockets, and the mandibles were again scanned with CBCT using the same scan settings as previous scans. All 3D surface reconstructions (CBCT 3D surface models and optical scan 3D models) were saved for further analysis. 3D models of original teeth and optical scans of the RAIs were superimposed onto each other; differences were quantified as root mean square (RMS) and Hausdorff surface distance. To obtain an estimate of the fit (congruence) of the RAIs in their respective sockets, the volumetric data sets of the sockets were compared with those of the root part of RAIs congruent with the sockets. RESULTS: Superimposed surfaces of the RAIs and the original tooth reveal discrepancy for RMS, volumetric geometry, and surface area varying from 0.08 mm to 0.35 mm, 0.1% to 7.9%, and 1.1% to 3.8%, respectively. Comparing volume differences of the alveolus with the socket corresponding part of the RAI resulted in every case the volume of the socket being greater than the root part of the RAI ranging from 0.6% to 5.9% volume difference. CONCLUSION: The preemptive CAD/CAM-based RAI technique might offer promising features for immediate implant placement. However, due to the lack of prospective clinical data, further research is needed to fine-tune and evaluate this technique. PMID:23278702

Anssari Moin, David; Hassan, Bassam; Parsa, Azin; Mercelis, Peter; Wismeijer, Daniel

2012-12-21

172

Very Large Scale Plasma Source Ion Implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a technology in the process of being commercialized for the surface enhancement of industrial components.( Plasma-Based Processing of Materials for Motor Vehicle Components and Manufacturing Applications, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Advanced Technology Program, Focused Program 95-02) The process is based on the utilization of plasma sheath characteristics to accelerate and implant ions

Carter P. Munson

1997-01-01

173

ECT treatment of malignant catatonia/NMS in an adolescent: a useful lesson in delayed diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

A 17-year-old adolescent female presented to a psychiatric emergency room with excitement, confusion, and psychotic symptoms. After brief exposure to haloperidol and olanzapine, she developed fever, rigidity, waxy flexibility, autonomic instability, and elevated creatinine phosphokinase enzyme. Approximately 6 weeks after the onset of the illness, multiple laboratory tests, and evaluation at three different hospitals, the condition was effectively treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This case is a lesson in delayed recognition and the delayed use of ECT for the malignant catatonia/neuroleptic malignant syndrome. PMID:12195138

Ghaziuddin, Neera; Alkhouri, Iyad; Champine, Donna; Quinlan, Paul; Fluent, Thomas; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

2002-06-01

174

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a six-year-old girl suffering from major depressive disorder with catatonic features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  ECT is generally both effective and safe in the treatment of adolescents, but treatment using ECT in children of pre-pubertal\\u000a age has been less reported and is a controversial treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical picture  This article reports a 6-year-old girl who has been diagnosed as having major depressive disorder with catatonic features\\u000a and 50% loss of weight due to food refusal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Treatment  The seven-session

Taghi Esmaili; Ayyoub Malek

2007-01-01

175

Focal Electrically Administered Seizure Therapy: A Novel form of ECT Illustrates the Roles of Current Directionality, Polarity, and Electrode Configuration in Seizure Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a mainstay in the treatment of severe, medication-resistant depression. The antidepressant efficacy and cognitive side effects of ECT are influenced by the position of the electrodes on the head and by the degree to which the electrical stimulus exceeds the threshold for seizure induction. However, surprisingly little is known about the effects of other key electrical

Timothy Spellman; Angel V Peterchev; Sarah H Lisanby

2009-01-01

176

Peri-Implant Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown Lengthening Procedure Dental Implants Single Tooth Implants Multiple Tooth Implants Full Mouth Dental Implants Sinus Augmentation Ridge Modification Periodontal Pocket Reduction Procedures ...

177

The Italian regulation on Assisted Reproductive Technologies facing the European Court of Human Rights: the case of Costa and Pavan v. Italy.  

PubMed

This article will describe the current legal framework on Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART) regulation in Italy, taking into account recent case-law derived from the implementation of the Law 40 of 2004 on ART. Special attention will be devoted to the case of Costa and Pavan v. Italy, recently decided by the Tenth Session of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). In that decision, the European Court declared the incompatibility of the ban to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis introduced by the abovementioned Italian law on ART. The case will be analysed from a dual perspective. On the one hand, it will be considered in the light of the ECtHR case-law, in order to derive systematic aspects of continuity or discontinuity between the former and the latter2. On the other hand, the case will be considered in the light of its concrete and prospective impact on the Italian legal approach to ART regulation, considering especially the direct and indirect influence of the case: e.g., its possible utilisation by Italian judges when they are called upon to implement Law 40. PMID:23520918

Penasa, Simone

178

Ion implantation in semiconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion implantation is being applied extensively to silicon device technology. Two principle features are utilized- 1) charge control in MOS structures for threshold shift, autoregistration, and complementary wells and 2) distribution control in microwave and bipolar structures. Another feature that has not been extensively exploited is to combine the advantages of the high resolution capabilities of electric beam pattern delineation

James W. Mayer

1973-01-01

179

The unnecessary penile implant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaborate medical and psychological technologies now provide options to men with erectile difficulties. An increasingly popular option is the penile prosthesis. However, physicians and sex therapists should have concerns about inadequate evaluation and counseling, the increasing numbers of unnecessary or inappropriate implants, and inadequate provision of treatment options. Concerns of sex therapists who treat dissatisfied postimplant patients include: What proportion

Jeanne Shaw

1989-01-01

180

High Productivity Implantation ``PARTIAL IMPLANT''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patterned ion implantation ``PARTIAL IMPLANT'' has been developed as a productivity improvement tool. The Partial Implant can form several different ion dose areas on the wafer surface by controlling the speed of wafer moving and the stepwise rotation of twist axis. The Partial Implant system contains two implant methods. One method is ``DIVIDE PARTIAL IMPLANT,'' that is aimed at reducing the consumption of the wafer. The Divide Partial Implant evenly divides dose area on one wafer surface into two or three different dose part. Any dose can be selected in each area. So the consumption of the wafer for experimental implantation can be reduced. The second method is ``RING PARTIAL IMPLANT'' that is aimed at improving yield by correcting electrical characteristic of devices. The Ring Partial Implant can form concentric ion dose areas. The dose of wafer external area can be selected to be within plus or minus 30% of dose of wafer central area. So the electrical characteristic of devices can be corrected by controlling dose at edge side on the wafer.

Hino, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sakai, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Takao

2008-11-01

181

A simple new radiative transfer model for simulating the e*ect of cirrus clouds in the microwave spectral region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upwelling atmospheric radiation in the millimeter wave spectral range is in3uenced by the presence of cirrus clouds. A plane parallel radiative transfer model which can take into account the e*ect of multiple scattering by ice particles in the cirrus has been developed and is used to simulate the brightness temperatures as they would be measured by a satellite instrument.

T. R. Sreerekha; S. Buehler; C. Emde

2002-01-01

182

Antidepressant efficacy of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in melancholia: a randomized comparison with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and imipramine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) is a procedure that involves essentially rhythmic hyperventilation at different rates of breathing. The antidepressant efficacy of SKY was demonstrated in dysthymia in a prospective, open clinical trial. This study compared the relative antidepressant efficacy of SKY in melancholia with two of the current standard treatments, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and imipramine (IMN). Methods: Consenting, untreated

N. Janakiramaiah; B. N. Gangadhar; P. J. Naga Venkatesha Murthy; M. G. Harish; D. K. Subbakrishna; A. Vedamurthachar

2000-01-01

183

Eff ect of Compost, Sand, or Gypsum-amended Waste Foundry Sands on Turfgrass Yield and Nutrient Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

To prevent the 7 to 11 million metric tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) produced annually in the USA from entering landfi lls, current research is focused on the reuse of WFSs as soil amendments. Th e eff ects of diff erent WFS-containing amendments on turfgrass growth and nutrient content were tested by planting perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and

R. S. Dungan USDA-ARS

184

Ion implant standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greater Silicon Valley Implant Users Group (GSVIUG) has been working with the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, previously known as NBS) to develop a standard for ion implantation. This standard would address two critical needs of the industry: (1) standard reference material (SRM) for certifying and calibrating equipment, and (2) a recommended standard procedure for fabricating such a standard. The SRM would be a wafer that had been implanted with a specified species, energy and dose. Its average sheet resistance and uniformity would be certified to be within certain tolerances. It would be used to verify the performance of the four-point probe and sheet resistance mapping equipment and to calibrate analytical characterization techniques such as secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and spreading resistance profiling (SRP). An unannealed sample could be used to calibrate Thermawave, ellipsometer and other optical tools and to verify annealing systems. The standard procedure would prescribe the recommended steps to produce the same wafer in the fab. This would help determine if an implanter is operating correctly at the specified conditions. We have reviewed all the previous implant round robins and studies and solicited input from implant vendors and implant service organizations in recommending a set of implant conditions for a proposed standard. Particular attention was paid to the requirement of stability over time and minimum variation with ambient temperature. Fabrication specifications for species, energy and dose are detailed. Plots are also presented for the sensitivity to various parameters that could influence the results, such as substrate resistivity, screen oxide thickness, anneal time and temperature and measurement conditions.

Larson, L. A.; Keenan, W. A.; Johnson, W. H.

1991-04-01

185

Cochlear Implants  

MedlinePLUS

... studying large groups of children who were identified early with hearing loss and implanted with a cochlear implant. Knowledge from this research will shed light on the variables most related to improved speech and language acquisition as well as reading and higher academic performance ...

186

Optima HD Imax: Molecular Implant  

SciTech Connect

Molecular implantation offers semiconductor device manufacturers multiple advantages over traditional high current ion implanters. The dose multiplication due to implanting more than one atom per molecule and the transport of beams at higher energies relative to the effective particle energies result in significant throughput enhancements without risk of energy contamination. The Optima HD Imax is introduced with molecular implant capability and the ability to reach up to 4.2 keV effective {sup 11}B from octadecaborane (B{sub 18}H{sub 22}). The ion source and beamline are optimized for molecular species ionization and transport. The beamline is coupled to the Optima HD mechanically scanned endstation. The use of spot beam technology with ionized molecules maximizes the throughput potential and produces uniform implants with fast setup time and with superior angle control. The implanter architecture is designed to run multiple molecular species; for example, in addition to B{sub 18}H{sub 22} the system is capable of implanting carbon molecules for strain engineering and shallow junction engineering. Source lifetime data and typical operating conditions are described both for high dose, memory applications such as dual poly gate as well as lower energy implants for source drain extension and contact implants. Throughputs have been achieved in excess of 50 wafers per hour at doses up to 1x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} and for energies as low as 1 keV.

Tieger, D. R.; Splinter, P. R.; Hsieh, T. J.; Reynolds, W. P. [Axcelis Technologies Inc., 108 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, Ma. 01915 (United States)

2008-11-03

187

Towards biodegradable wireless implants.  

PubMed

A new generation of partially or even fully biodegradable implants is emerging. The idea of using temporary devices is to avoid a second surgery to remove the implant after its period of use, thereby improving considerably the patient's comfort and safety. This paper provides a state-of-the-art overview and an experimental section that describes the key technological challenges for making biodegradable devices. The general considerations for the design and synthesis of biodegradable components are illustrated with radiofrequency-driven resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) resonators made of biodegradable metals (Mg, Mg alloy, Fe, Fe alloys) and biodegradable conductive polymer composites (polycaprolactone-polypyrrole, polylactide-polypyrrole). Two concepts for partially/fully biodegradable wireless implants are discussed, the ultimate goal being to obtain a fully biodegradable sensor for in vivo sensing. PMID:22509064

Boutry, Clémentine M; Chandrahalim, Hengky; Streit, Patrick; Schinhammer, Michael; Hänzi, Anja C; Hierold, Christofer

2012-05-28

188

From Long Infrared to Very Long Infrared Wavelength Focal Plane Arrays Made with HgCdTe n + n -/ p Ion Implantation Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims at studying the feasibility of very long infrared wavelength (VLWIR) (12 18 ?m) focal plane arrays using n-on -p planar ion-implanted technology. To explore and analyze the feasibility of such VLWIR detectors, a set of four Cd x Hg1 -x Te LPE layers with an 18 ? cutoff at 50 K has been processed at Defir (LETI/LIR Sofradir joint laboratory), using both our “standard” n-on- p process and our improved low dark current process. Several 320 × 256 arrays, 30- ?m pitch, have been hybridized on standard Sofradir readout circuits and tested. Small dimension test arrays characterization is also presented. Measured photonic currents with a 20°C black body suggest an internal quantum efficiency above 50%. Typical I(V) curves and thermal evolution of the saturation current are discussed, showing that standard photodiodes remain diffusion limited at low biases for temperatures down to 30 K. Moreover, the dark current gain brought by the improved process is clearly visible for temperatures higher than 40 K. Noise measurements are also discussed showing that a very large majority of detectors appeared background limited under usual illumination and biases. In our opinion, such results demonstrate the feasibility of high-performance complex focal plane arrays in the VLWIR range at medium term.

Gravrand, O.; de Borniol, E.; Bisotto, S.; Mollard, L.; Destefanis, G.

2007-08-01

189

Impianti Cocleari: Indagine su Stato dell'arte, Problematiche Riscontrate, Aspetti Clinici e Normativi (Cochlear Implants; A Study on technology, Problems Found Clinical and Regulation Aspects).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Istituto Superiore di Sanita (the National Institute of Health in Italy) has started a preliminary study on the cochlear implant but basic to the future aspects. In this first phase it has been investigated the evolution of the cochlear implants, from...

D. Giansanti G. Maccioni M. Grigioni S. Morelli

2009-01-01

190

Goserelin Implant  

MedlinePLUS

... as an implant to be inserted with a syringe subcutaneously (under the skin) in your stomach area ... written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as ...

191

Hip Implants  

MedlinePLUS

... advances in the design, construction, and implantation of artificial hip joints, resulting in a high percentage of ... number of measurements to ensure proper prosthesis selection, limb length, and hip rotation. After making the incision, ...

192

Carmustine Implant  

MedlinePLUS

Carmustine implant is used along with surgery and sometimes radiation therapy to treat malignant glioma (a certain type of cancerous brain tumor). Carmustine is in a class of medications called alkylating agents. It works by slowing or stopping ...

193

Predictable immediate loading of mandibular implants.  

PubMed

Technological advancements have resulted in modern dental implant protocols that provide the possibility to immediately load implants in fresh extraction sockets. This article briefly addresses various aspects to be considered such as computed tomography (CT), surgical guides, implant considerations for the edentulous patient, and considerations for immediate implant placement and loading. In this clinical case, immediate post-extraction implant placement with immediate loading was performed accurately because of the planning done with the CT scan. The use of a stereolithographic model and a surgical guide prevented technical difficulties and improved the predictability during the prosthetically driven surgery. PMID:24015451

Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I; Cárdenas-Bahena, José T; Afrashtehfar, Cyrus D M

2013-07-01

194

ECT imaging with Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid useful to detect lung metastases of osteosarcoma  

SciTech Connect

ECT imaging, using Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc(V)-DMS) was performed in two patients with lung metastasis of osteosarcoma, and the results were compared with those of CT scan. Clear accumulation of Tc(V)-DMS was recognized in all cases in the same area that CT scans demonstrated. Tc(V)-DMS was labeled under optimal pH 8, had very low SnCl/sub 2/ concentrations, an equilibrium between a stable form and a dissociated form of anion TcO/sub 4/(3-) structurally similar to PO/sub 4/(3-), and was postulated for tumor uptake. Considering this proposed mechanism for Tc(V)-DMS uptake by tumor cells, ECT imaging using this tracer could be of use in the early detection of lung metastasis of osteosarcoma.

Ohta, H.; Ishii, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Fujita, T.; Nakajima, T.; Sakahara, H.; Torizuka, K.; Kotoura, Y.; Yokoyama, A.

1985-01-01

195

2008 Ect Benchmark Results: Modeling with Civa of 3d Flaws Responses in Planar and Cylindrical Work Pieces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The configurations proposed in the 2008 ECT modeling benchmark session are addressed in this paper using the eddy current modeling tool embedded into CIVA, which is a multi-technique simulation platform dedicated to NDT and developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). The theoretical approach used in CIVA for ECT modeling is based on Volume integral Method (VIM) coupled with the Method of Moments (MoM) and thus leads to fast and accurate calculations in the case of canonical geometries. Symmetries of the configurations considered in this benchmark are moreover exploited by using the Dodd and Deed formalism for the field computations. After a presentation of the semi-analytical model, results obtained in all benchmark cases are discussed and compared with experimental data.

Reboud, C.; Pichenot, G.; Prémel, D.; Raillon, R.

2009-03-01

196

Acute and residual e V ects of vibratory stimulation on explosive strength in elite and amateur athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

- 2 transmitted through the two-arm s handle to the arm muscles. The m echanical power of each repetition was m easured by thePower Teach' instrument. The m axim al and mean power values for each set were autom atically recorded and shown on the screen. The acute e V ect was evaluated as the diV erence between the mean

V. B. ISSURIN

197

ect of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide on the Improvement of Antioxidant Ability and DNA Damage in NIDDM Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eŠects of polysaccharide extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP) on blood glucose, oxidative stress and DNA damage in rats with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied. The results show that LBP treat- ment (10 mg\\/kg·d) for 4 weeks led to decreased levels of blood glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in serum of fasting rats; and to increased

Hao WU; Hongwei GUO

198

The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Trio, Ect2, and Vav3 Mediate the Invasive Behavior of Glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

Malignant gliomas are characterized by their ability to invade normal brain tissue. We have previously shown that the small GTPase Rac1 plays a role in both migration and invasion in gliomas. Here, we aim to identify Rac-activating guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that mediate glioblastoma invasiveness. Using a brain tumor expression database, we identified three GEFs, Trio, Ect2, and Vav3, that are expressed at higher levels in glioblastoma versus low-grade glioma. The expression of these GEFs is also associated with poor patient survival. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analyses on an independent set of tumors confirmed that these GEFs are overexpressed in glioblastoma as compared with either nonneoplastic brain or low-grade gliomas. In addition, depletion of Trio, Ect2, and Vav3 by siRNA oligonucleotides suppresses glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. Depletion of either Ect2 or Trio also reduces the rate of cell proliferation. These results suggest that targeting GEFs may present novel strategies for anti-invasive therapy for malignant gliomas.

Salhia, Bodour; Tran, Nhan L.; Chan, Amanda; Wolf, Amparo; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Rutka, Fiona; Ennis, Matthew; McDonough, Wendy S.; Berens, Michael E.; Symons, Marc; Rutka, James T.

2008-01-01

199

Problem Solving with an Icon Oriented Programming Tool: A Case Study in Technology Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: In 1995, the authors started the Empirica Control for Technology Education (ECTE) project in the Department of Teacher Education at the University of Helsinki with the purpose of widening the possibilities for creative problem solving in technology education. First, an icon-oriented visual programming tool was developed to teach computer control technology, along with an appropriate computer interface. Authors developed

Jari M. Lavonen; Veijo P. Meisalo; Matti Lattu

2001-01-01

200

Bioelectronics and Implanted Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future may well involve the emergence of humans who are fundamentally coupled with bioelectronic devices, science fiction's\\u000a “cyborgs.” Revolutions in semiconductor devices, cognitive science, bioelectronics, nanotechnology and applied neural control\\u000a technologies are facilitating breakthroughs in hybrids of humans and machines. The interactions of increased computing power,\\u000a advances in prosthetic devices, artificial implants, and systems that blend electronic and biological

Ellen M. McGee

201

Investigation of droplet distribution in electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) using an ac-based electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system with an internal-external electrode sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) has recently been applied to the fabrication of polymeric micro- or nano-particles or fibres for drug encapsulation. For in situ monitoring of pharmaceutical particle fabrication in an EHDA encapsulation chamber, electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) has been used as a non-invasive measurement technique. The key achievements made during this study include the successful monitoring of very dilute droplet and particle trajectories in different regions of the EHDA encapsulation chamber. The results of both a charge/discharge ECT system and an ac-based ECT system are compared. A new type of ECT sensor with internal and external electrodes is used to improve the sensitivity of ECT measurement for detection of the objects in the central area of the EHDA encapsulation chamber. The water-air and dicholoromethane (DCM)-air systems in the dripping and spray modes have been investigated to determine the feasibility of imaging water and DCM droplets of low concentration in the encapsulation chamber using ECT.

Rezvanpour, Alireza; Wang, Chi-Hwa; Liang, Yung C.; Yang, Wuqiang

2012-01-01

202

ECT, rTMS, and deepTMS in pharmacoresistant drug-free patients with unipolar depression: a comparative review  

PubMed Central

Background Biological treatments are considered as additional options for the treatment of resistant unipolar depression. Controversial data exist about the efficacy and tolerability of three of the most used somatic treatments: electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (deepTMS). The aim of this review is to investigate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of these three techniques in drug-free patients with pharmacoresistant unipolar depression. Methods Three independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the quality of methodological reporting of selected studies. The first outcome was the clinical response to the three different techniques defined as a percentage improvement of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The second outcome was the evaluation of their neuropsychological effects. The third outcome was the evaluation of the number of remitted patients; remission was defined as an absolute HDRS-24 score of ?11 or as an absolute HDRS-17 score of ?8. Tolerability was the fourth outcome; it was evaluated by examining the number of dropped-out patients. Results The comparative evaluation of HDRS percentage variations shows ECT as the most effective method after 4 weeks of therapy; on the other hand, a better efficacy is obtainable by deepTMS after 2 weeks of therapy. DeepTMS is the technique that gives the best improvement of cognitive performances. The percentage of remitted patients obtained with ECT treatment is the same obtained in the deepTMS group. Both techniques have a remitted patients percentage two times larger than the rTMS. DeepTMS shows a tolerability, measured by the number of dropped-out patients, worse than ECT. Conclusion Our investigation confirms the great therapeutic power of ECT. DeepTMS seems to be the only therapy that provides a substantial improvement of both depressive symptoms and cognitive performances; nevertheless it is characterized by a poor tolerability. rTMS seems to provide a better tolerability for patients, but its therapeutic efficacy is lower. Considering the small therapeutic efficacy of deepTMS in the last 2 weeks of treatment, it could be reasonable to shorten the standard period of deepTMS treatment from 4 to 2 weeks, expecting a reduction of dropped-out patients and thus optimizing the treatment outcome.

Minichino, Amedeo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Capra, Enrico; Pannese, Rossella; Bonanno, Celeste; Salviati, Massimo; Chiaie, Roberto Delle; Biondi, Massimo

2012-01-01

203

Implantable enzyme amperometric biosensors.  

PubMed

The implantable enzyme amperometric biosensor continues as the dominant in vivo format for the detection, monitoring and reporting of biochemical analytes related to a wide range of pathologies. Widely used in animal studies, there is increasing emphasis on their use in diabetes care and management, the management of trauma-associated hemorrhage and in critical care monitoring by intensivists in the ICU. These frontier opportunities demand continuous indwelling performance for up to several years, well in excess of the currently approved seven days. This review outlines the many challenges to successful deployment of chronically implantable amperometric enzyme biosensors and emphasizes the emerging technological approaches in their continued development. The foreign body response plays a prominent role in implantable biotransducer failure. Topics considering the approaches to mitigate the inflammatory response, use of biomimetic chemistries, nanostructured topographies, drug eluting constructs, and tissue-to-device interface modulus matching are reviewed. Similarly, factors that influence biotransducer performance such as enzyme stability, substrate interference, mediator selection and calibration are reviewed. For the biosensor system, the opportunities and challenges of integration, guided by footprint requirements, the limitations of mixed signal electronics, and power requirements, has produced three systems approaches. The potential is great. However, integration along the multiple length scales needed to address fundamental issues and integration across the diverse disciplines needed to achieve success of these highly integrated systems, continues to be a challenge in the development and deployment of implantable amperometric enzyme biosensor systems. PMID:22516142

Kotanen, Christian N; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Carrara, Sandro; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

2012-03-28

204

Ion Implant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation which illustrates the ion implant process. Objective: Name the three common dopants used in implantation processes and explain the process of generating an ion beam from source to wafer. You can find this animation under the heading "Process & Equipment III." This simulation is from Module 026 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

2012-10-04

205

Cochlear Implants  

MedlinePLUS

... In With a Cochlear Implant This type of hearing loss is sensorineural , which means there is damage to the tiny hair cells in the part of the inner ear called the cochlea. Because of this damage, ... or “cured” hearing. It does, however, allow for the perception of ...

206

Data communication between brain implants and computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in neuroscience, microelectronics, and information technology have allowed construction of miniature, but highly intelligent, devices to be implanted within the brain to perform in vitro diagnostic and therapeutic functions. However, there exists a significant problem in establishing an effective wireless data communication link between brain implants and external computer. This communication investigates this link and presents a new

Mingui Sun; Marlin Mickle; Wei Liang; Qiang Liu; Robert J. Sclabassi

2003-01-01

207

Information Communication Technology & Crime: the Future of Criminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the 21st century can be considered the centur y of the technological revolution. The increase in communication flows has brought about an evolution in the global economy and the globa l spread of Internet and mobile communication, all of which aff ect our lives significantly and are key factors of social change. New models of deviance and crime can

Arije Antinori

208

Comparative phylogenetic analyses of Halomonas variabilis and related organisms based on 16S rRNA, gyrB and ectBC gene sequences.  

PubMed

Halomonas variabilis and phylogenetically related organisms were isolated from various habitats such as Antarctic terrain and saline ponds, deep-sea sediment, deep-sea waters affected by hydrothermal plumes, and hydrothermal vent fluids. Ten strains were selected for physiological and phylogenetic characterization in detail. All of those strains were found to be piezotolerant and psychrotolerant, as well as euryhaline halophilic or halotolerant. Their stress tolerance may facilitate their wide occurrence, even in so-called extreme environments. The 16S rDNA-based phylogenetic relationship was complemented by analyses of the DNA gyrase subunit B gene (gyrB) and genes involved in the synthesis of the major compatible solute, ectoine: diaminobutyric acid aminotransferase gene (ectB) and ectoine synthase gene (ectC). The phylogenetic relationships of H. variabilis and related organisms were very similar in terms of 16S rDNA, gyrB, and ectB. The ectC-based tree was inconsistent with the other phylogenetic trees. For that reason, ectC was inferred to derive from horizontal transfer. PMID:15214638

Okamoto, Takuji; Maruyama, Akihiko; Imura, Satoshi; Takeyama, Haruko; Naganuma, Takeshi

2004-05-01

209

P2RX7 polymorphisms Gln460Arg and His155Tyr are not associated with major depressive disorder or remission after SSRI or ECT.  

PubMed

Purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2RX7) gene polymorphism, has been suggested to be associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). The association between P2RX7 gene polymorphism and remission after serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has not previously been studied. The aims of the present study were to test for an association between P2RX7 polymorphisms Gln460Arg (rs2230912) and His155Tyr (rs208294) and MDD in two patient populations compared to controls. The first patient sample consisted of 119 subjects with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, who were treated with ECT and the second of 99 depressive outpatients treated with SSRI. Genotype frequencies were also compared between remitters (Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)<8) and non-remitters (defined as MADRS?8) to SSRI or ECT treatment. There were no differences in allele or genotype frequencies of either rs2230912 or rs208294 between patient groups and controls. Neither rs2230912 nor rs208294 was associated with MDD or remission after SSRI or ECT. The results suggest that P2RX7 gene polymorphisms Gln460Arg (rs2230912) and His155Tyr (rs208294) are not associated with MDD or remission after SSRI or ECT. PMID:21335057

Viikki, Merja; Kampman, Olli; Anttila, Sami; Illi, Ari; Setälä-Soikkeli, Eija; Huuhka, Martti; Mononen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Leinonen, Esa

2011-02-16

210

The e!ect of fullerene doping on photoelectric conversion using titanyl phthalocyanine and a perylene pigment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The e!ect of fullerene (C 60 ) doping on photoelectric conversion using titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) and a perylene pigment, N, N@-dimethyl-3,4 : 9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide) (MPCI), was investigated. A new three-layer cell, ITO\\/MPCI\\/C 60 -doped TiOPc\\/TiOPc\\/Au, exhibited a higher quantum yield for charge-carrier photogeneration than a two-layer cell without the C 60 -doped TiOPc layer, ITO\\/MPCI\\/TiOPc\\/Au, upon irradiation with monochromatic light which

Toshimitsu Tsuzuki; Yasuhiko Shirota; Dieter Meissner

211

Indications and Common Surgical Approaches for Cochlear Implantation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cochlear implants have become widely used in the management of profound sensorineural hearing loss. With today’s technology and the demonstrated success of cochlear implantation, candidacy criteria have greatly widened. In this paper, we describe issues concerning the current indications and common surgical approaches to cochlear implantation in China.

Zhengnong Chen; Dongzhen Yu; Yaqin Wu; Huiqun Zhou; Haibo Shi; Shankai Yin

2009-01-01

212

A novel strategy for long-term implantable artificial pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology has recently changed type 1 diabetes treatment by introducing several advancements able to improve patients' quality of life. However, despite of several decades of research efforts, the dream of a fully-automated implanted artificial pancreas is quite far from its realization. The need for periodically restoring the implanted battery charge and refilling the implanted insulin reservoir are the main issues,

Leonardo Ricotti; Tareq Assaf; Arianna Menciassi; Paolo Dario

2011-01-01

213

The use of ion implantation for materials processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interdisciplinary program on the use of ion implantation for materials processing is being conducted at NRL. This report describes the important factors in ion implantation science and technology and reports progress in the use of ion implantation to modify wear, fatigue, corrosion, and optical properties of materials.

Smidt, F. A.

1982-07-01

214

Application of the finite element method in dental implant research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a review of the achievements and advancements in dental technology brought about by computer-aided design and the all powerful finite element method (FEM) of analysis. The scope of the review covers dental implants, jawbone surrounding the implant and the biomechanical implant and jawbone interaction. Prevailing assumptions made in the published finite element analysis (FEA) and their limitations

R. C. Van Staden; H. Guan; Y. C. Loo

2006-01-01

215

Penile Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective penile implants were introduced in the early 1970s and have provided a predictable and reliable treatment of erectile\\u000a dysfunction. They can be placed in almost all circumstances in which more conservative treatments have been ineffective or\\u000a are contraindicated. Manufacturers of these devices have improved their functioning and durability, and repair rates are low\\u000a when compared with other mechanical products.

Steven K. Wilson; John J. Mulcahy

216

Alloy May Improve Durability of Dental Implants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A porous metal implant designed to support removable dentures and fixed bridges and to replace missing teeth proved successful in tests on monkeys at the University ...

1983-01-01

217

Model-Based Investigation on the Behavior of ECT Signals According to the Changes in Geometry and Material Property of a Steam Generator Tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interpretation of eddy current testing (ECT) signals is known as a truly difficult task since it is influenced by various factors including the variation in geometry and material properties of steam generator tubes. To provide necessary information for the proper signal interpretation, the present study investigates the behavior of bobbin-coil ECT signal according to the changes in diameter, electric conductivity and magnetic permeability of a tube using a 2-dimensional finite element analysis program. It was found that the behaviors of a differential bobbin coil probe were similar to those of an absolute bobbin coil probe for localized variation. However, quite different behaviors were observed for two probes for the cases of smooth variation in geometry. It was also found that the phase angle of ECT signals could be used as an effective feature to identify the kind of abnormalities.

Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung-Jin; Heo, Jin-Soo; Han, Jung-Ho; Choi, Young-Hwan

2004-02-01

218

Ion-implantation induced crystallization of glass  

SciTech Connect

Controlled crystallization of glass through ion-implantation technology provides a means of altering near-surface physical properties, e.g., composition, hardness, reactivity, and refractive index. These changes may be desirable from the standpoint of electro- optical device fabrication technology. We have achieved crystallization through ion-implantation and appropriate thermal annealing. Three approaches have been used: (1) catalyzed precipitation of the crystalline phase on colloidal implanted metal (Au, Ag) in a lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) glass, (2) crystalline quartz growth on Li-implanted fused silica, and (3) crystallization of Li{sub 2}O{lg bullet}2SiO{sub 2} glass by inertgas ion implantation. The processing methods and our understanding of the phenomenology are discussed in detail. 16 refs., 16 figs.

Arnold, G.W.

1991-01-01

219

Nanostructured surfaces of dental implants.  

PubMed

The structural and functional fusion of the surface of the dental implant with the surrounding bone (osseointegration) is crucial for the short and long term outcome of the device. In recent years, the enhancement of bone formation at the bone-implant interface has been achieved through the modulation of osteoblasts adhesion and spreading, induced by structural modifications of the implant surface, particularly at the nanoscale level. In this context, traditional chemical and physical processes find new applications to achieve the best dental implant technology. This review provides an overview of the most common manufacture techniques and the related cells-surface interactions and modulation. A Medline and a hand search were conducted to identify studies concerning nanostructuration of implant surface and their related biological interaction. In this paper, we stressed the importance of the modifications on dental implant surfaces at the nanometric level. Nowadays, there is still little evidence of the long-term benefits of nanofeatures, as the promising results achieved in vitro and in animals have still to be confirmed in humans. However, the increasing interest in nanotechnology is undoubted and more research is going to be published in the coming years. PMID:23344062

Bressan, Eriberto; Sbricoli, Luca; Guazzo, Riccardo; Tocco, Ilaria; Roman, Marco; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Stellini, Edoardo; Gardin, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Sivolella, Stefano; Zavan, Barbara

2013-01-17

220

Implantable Medical Devices  

MedlinePLUS

Implantable Medical Devices Updated:May 1,2012 In certain cases, your doctor may prescribe an implantable device to assist your ... maintain the pumping ability of your heart. Implantable Medical Devices Left Ventricular Assist Device (Also known as LVAD) ...

221

Implant-Supported Denture  

MedlinePLUS

... to implants. A regular denture rests on the gums, and is not supported by implants. An implant- ... supported denture daily to clean the denture and gum area. Just as with regular dentures, you should ...

222

Immediate postextraction implant placement using plasma rich in growth factors technology in maxillary premolar region: a new strategy for soft tissue management.  

PubMed

Achieving an excellent aesthetic outcome in postextraction dental implant placement in the anterior maxilla is a challenging procedure for clinicians. In fact, there is an increased risk for soft tissue recession at the facial aspect which may require supplementary connective tissue grafts to accomplish the final aesthetic result. The aim of this case report is to describe a regenerative technique using autologous plasma rich in growth factors fibrin plug for preservation of soft tissue architecture around an implant immediately placed into an extraction site in the anterior maxilla. Such a procedure allowed for guided bone regeneration without the need for vertical releasing incisions and primary healing, thus showing a pleasant gingival contour at the facial aspect after a single stage surgery. Integrating this technique into common practice could provide important benefits for the patients regarding aesthetics, without any risk of infection or transmission of diseases. PMID:21767206

Rosano, Gabriele; Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo

2011-07-18

223

Analysis of the results of four years of research and application of a student-centered system based on the ECTS to first-year students in order to improve their performance in the subject ACI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the results of four years of a research aimed at carrying out a comparative analysis between the application of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and the traditional teaching and learning system (TTLS) to first-year students, in order to improve their performance in the subject Analysis of Circuits I (AC-I) are presented. The ECTS is

Wilmar Hernandez; Javier Palmero; Manuel Labrador; Jorge Bonache; Carmen Cousido; A. A?lvarez-Vellisco; J. M. Gutie?rrez-Arriola; J. Jimenez-Trillo

2010-01-01

224

Combined Intacs and Posterior Chamber Toric Implantable Collamer Lens Implantation for Keratoconic Patients with Extreme Myopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

? PURPOSE: To evaluate the results of combined Intacs (Addition Technology, Fremont, California, USA) and posterior chamber toric implantable Collamer lens (ICLs) (Visian ICL; STAAR Surgical, Monrovia, California, USA) implantation in keratoconic patients with extreme myopia and irregular astigmatism. ? DESIGN: Prospective, single-center, noncomparative, interventional, consecutive case series. ? METHODS: Three eyes of two consecutive highly my- opic keratoconic patients

EFEKAN COSKUNSEVEN; METHIYE ONDER; GEORGE D. KYMIONIS; VASILIOS F. DIAKONIS; EBRU ARSLAN; NIKOLAOS TSIKLIS; DIMITRIOS I. BOUZOUKIS; IOANNIS PALLIKARIS

2007-01-01

225

Wearable and implantable pancreas substitutes.  

PubMed

A lifelong-implanted and completely automated artificial or bioartificial pancreas (BAP) is the holy grail for type 1 diabetes treatment, and could be a definitive solution even for other severe pathologies, such as pancreatitis and pancreas cancer. Technology has made several important steps forward in the last years, providing new hope for the realization of such devices, whose feasibility is strictly connected to advances in glucose sensor technology, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal insulin pump development, the design of closed-loop control algorithms for mechatronic pancreases, as well as cell and tissue engineering and cell encapsulation for biohybrid pancreases. Furthermore, smart integration of the mentioned components and biocompatibility issues must be addressed, bearing in mind that, for mechatronic pancreases, it is most important to consider how to recharge implanted batteries and refill implanted insulin reservoirs without requiring periodic surgical interventions. This review describes recent advancements in technologies and concepts related to artificial and bioartificial pancreases, and assesses how far we are from a lifelong-implanted and self-working pancreas substitute that can fully restore the quality of life of a diabetic (or other type of) patient. PMID:22990986

Ricotti, Leonardo; Assaf, Tareq; Dario, Paolo; Menciassi, Arianna

2012-09-20

226

Modern Device Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implantable cardiac devices for arrhythmias and related conditions are a rapidly evolving field, with a constant stream of technologies being developed. There are a number of novel devices, other than conventional pacemakers and implantable defibrillators, currently being developed that have the potential to greatly improve patient outcomes. This paper reviews the important recent technologies, the subcutaneous defibrillator, cardiac contraction modulation,

Ian Crozier; Warren Smith

227

Micro- and nano-fabricated implantable drug-delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Implantable drug-delivery systems provide new means for achieving therapeutic drug concentrations over entire treatment durations in order to optimize drug action. This article focuses on new drug administration modalities achieved using implantable drug-delivery systems that are enabled by micro- and nano-fabrication technologies, and microfluidics. Recent advances in drug administration technologies are discussed and remaining challenges are highlighted.

Meng, Ellis; Hoang, Tuan

2013-01-01

228

Modeling the e!ect of light generation and light attenuation properties on the performance of phosphors used in medical imaging radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical description of the e!ect of light generation and light attenuation properties on the imaging performance of phosphor materials used in radiation detectors of medical imaging systems is presented. The description is based on a theoretical model employing analytical expressions for the detector optical gain (DOG) (emitted optical quanta per incident X-ray), the modulation transfer function (MTF), and the

I. Kandarakis; D. Cavouras

229

Focal electrically administered seizure therapy: a novel form of ECT illustrates the roles of current directionality, polarity, and electrode configuration in seizure induction.  

PubMed

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a mainstay in the treatment of severe, medication-resistant depression. The antidepressant efficacy and cognitive side effects of ECT are influenced by the position of the electrodes on the head and by the degree to which the electrical stimulus exceeds the threshold for seizure induction. However, surprisingly little is known about the effects of other key electrical parameters such as current directionality, polarity, and electrode configuration. Understanding these relationships may inform the optimization of therapeutic interventions to improve their risk/benefit ratio. To elucidate these relationships, we evaluated a novel form of ECT (focal electrically administered seizure therapy, FEAST) that combines unidirectional stimulation, control of polarity, and an asymmetrical electrode configuration, and contrasted it with conventional ECT in a nonhuman primate model. Rhesus monkeys had their seizure thresholds determined on separate days with ECT conditions that crossed the factors of current directionality (unidirectional or bidirectional), electrode configuration (standard bilateral or FEAST (small anterior and large posterior electrode)), and polarity (assignment of anode and cathode in unidirectional stimulation). Ictal expression and post-ictal suppression were quantified through scalp EEG. Findings were replicated and extended in a second experiment with the same subjects. Seizures were induced in each of the 75 trials, including 42 FEAST procedures. Seizure thresholds were lower with unidirectional than with bidirectional stimulation (p<0.0001), and lower in FEAST than in bilateral ECS (p=0.0294). Ictal power was greatest in posterior-anode unidirectional FEAST, and post-ictal suppression was strongest in anterior-anode FEAST (p=0.0008 and p=0.0024, respectively). EEG power was higher in the stimulated hemisphere in posterior-anode FEAST (p=0.0246), consistent with the anode being the site of strongest activation. These findings suggest that current directionality, polarity, and electrode configuration influence the efficiency of seizure induction with ECT. Unidirectional stimulation and novel electrode configurations such as FEAST are two approaches to lowering seizure threshold. Furthermore, the impact of FEAST on ictal and post-ictal expression appeared to be polarity dependent. Future studies may examine whether these differences in seizure threshold and expression have clinical significance for patients receiving ECT. PMID:19225453

Spellman, Timothy; Peterchev, Angel V; Lisanby, Sarah H

2009-02-18

230

Synthesis of 5-hydroxyectoine from ectoine: crystal structure of the non-heme iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase EctD.  

PubMed

As a response to high osmolality, many microorganisms synthesize various types of compatible solutes. These organic osmolytes aid in offsetting the detrimental effects of low water activity on cell physiology. One of these compatible solutes is ectoine. A sub-group of the ectoine producer's enzymatically convert this tetrahydropyrimidine into a hydroxylated derivative, 5-hydroxyectoine. This compound also functions as an effective osmostress protectant and compatible solute but it possesses properties that differ in several aspects from those of ectoine. The enzyme responsible for ectoine hydroxylation (EctD) is a member of the non-heme iron(II)-containing and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (EC 1.14.11). These enzymes couple the decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate with the formation of a high-energy ferryl-oxo intermediate to catalyze the oxidation of the bound organic substrate. We report here the crystal structure of the ectoine hydroxylase EctD from the moderate halophile Virgibacillus salexigens in complex with Fe(3+) at a resolution of 1.85 A. Like other non-heme iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases, the core of the EctD structure consists of a double-stranded beta-helix forming the main portion of the active-site of the enzyme. The positioning of the iron ligand in the active-site of EctD is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved 2-His-1-carboxylate iron-binding motif. The side chains of the three residues forming this iron-binding site protrude into a deep cavity in the EctD structure that also harbours the 2-oxoglutarate co-substrate-binding site. Database searches revealed a widespread occurrence of EctD-type proteins in members of the Bacteria but only in a single representative of the Archaea, the marine crenarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus. The EctD crystal structure reported here can serve as a template to guide further biochemical and structural studies of this biotechnologically interesting enzyme family. PMID:20498719

Reuter, Klaus; Pittelkow, Marco; Bursy, Jan; Heine, Andreas; Craan, Tobias; Bremer, Erhard

2010-05-14

231

A new method for Fourier analysis in ECG-gated cardiac blood pool emission computed tomography (ECT)  

SciTech Connect

An integrated technique for Fourier analysis in multigated blood pool ECT study has been developed. Following the administration of 15-20 mCi of Tc-99m RBC, ECG-gated cardiac blood pool data were acquired using an ECT system with dual opposed gamma cameras. Fundamental studies for data acquisition showed that acquisition time of 10 sec. for each projection, 14 divisions of one cardiac cycle and angular interval of 6/sup 0/ (60 projections over 360/sup 0/) were reasonable for clinical purpose. Total acquisition time was about 5 minutes under these conditions. Data were processed as follows: 1) Transaxial (TA) tomographic images in every phase of cardiac cycle were reconstructed by convolution algorithm; 2) TA images were rotated to construct sagittal (SAG) and short axial (S-A) oblique-angle tomography which are respectively parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of either of the ventricles; 3) Images covering the portion other than the purposed ventricle were eliminated from the series of SAG images in every phase of the cycle; 4) Images in the same phase were summed to construct a series of SAG and S-A planar images; and 5) Fourier analysis was made to construct phase and amplitude images. The advantages of this method are that the phase and amplitude images from arbitrary directions can be obtained, that the region of interest can be selected on a three dimensional basis, eliminating the overlapping activity of the other ventricle or neighbouring tissues, that the diseased areas can be easily and accurately localized even in small inferior wall myocardial infarction and that patient study can be finished within 5 minutes.

Ito, T.; Maeda, H.; Takeda, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Konishi, T.; Ichikawa, T.

1984-01-01

232

Retrograde peri-implantitis  

PubMed Central

Retrograde peri-implantitis constitutes an important cause for implant failure. Retrograde peri-implantitis may sometimes prove difficult to identify and hence institution of early treatment may not be possible. This paper presents a report of four cases of (the implant placed developing to) retrograde peri-implantitis. Three of these implants were successfully restored to their fully functional state while one was lost due to extensive damage. The paper highlights the importance of recognizing the etiopathogenic mechanisms, preoperative assessment, and a strong postoperative maintenance protocol to avoid retrograde peri-implant inflammation.

Mohamed, Jumshad B.; Shivakumar, B.; Sudarsan, Sabitha; Arun, K. V.; Kumar, T. S. S.

2010-01-01

233

The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Enabling Computational Technologies FY09 Report  

SciTech Connect

In this document we report on the status of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) effort. In particular, we provide the context for ECT In the broader NEAMS program and describe the three pillars of the ECT effort, namely, (1) tools and libraries, (2) software quality assurance, and (3) computational facility (computers, storage, etc) needs. We report on our FY09 deliverables to determine the needs of the integrated performance and safety codes (IPSCs) in these three areas and lay out the general plan for software quality assurance to meet the requirements of DOE and the DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). We conclude with a brief description of our interactions with the Idaho National Laboratory computer center to determine what is needed to expand their role as a NEAMS user facility.

Diachin, L F; Garaizar, F X; Henson, V E; Pope, G

2009-10-12

234

Nitrogen and aluminum implantation in high resistivity silicon carbide  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the results on N and Al implantations into undoped high-resistance and vanadium doped semi-insulating bulk 6H-SiC are reported for the first time. The N implants were performed at 700{degree}C and the Al implants at 800{degree}C to create n- and p-type layers, respectively. For comparison, implants were performed into epitaxial layers at the above temperatures and, for N, also at room temperature. The implanted/annealed material was characterized by van der Pauw Hall, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements. After annealing, the room temperature N implantation gave similar electrical and RBS results as the 700{degree}C implantation for a total implant dose of 8{times}10{sup 14}cm{sup {minus}2} which corresponds to a volume concentration of 2{times}10{sup 19}cm{sup {minus}3}. The Al implant redistributed in the bulk crystals during annealing, resulting in a shoulder formation at the tail of the implant profile. Lower implant activation was obtained in V-doped material compared to the undoped bulk and epitaxial layers, but the results were promising enough to use implantation technology for making planar high frequency devices in the bulk V-doped substrates, especially as the quality of the substrates continue to improve. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Dwight, D.; Rao, M.V. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Holland, O.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Kelner, G. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Chi, P.H. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Kretchmer, J.; Ghezzo, M. [General Electric Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, New York 12301 (United States)

1997-12-01

235

Physical understanding of cryogenic implant benefits for electrical junction stability  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effect of cryogenic temperature implants on electrical junction stability for ultra shallow junction applications for sub-32 nm technology nodes and beyond. A comprehensive study was conducted to gain physical understanding of the impact of cryogenic temperature implants on dopant-defect interactions. Carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) molecule, a potential alternative to monomer boron was implanted in carbon preamorphized silicon substrates at cryogenic implant temperatures. Results indicate implants at cryogenic temperatures increase dopant activation with reduced diffusion, resulting in lower sheet resistance for a lower junction depth. Further, this study emphasizes the benefits of co-implants performed at cryogenic temperatures as alternative to traditional preamorphizing implants.

Adeni Khaja, Fareen; Colombeau, Benjamin; Thanigaivelan, Thirumal; Ramappa, Deepak; Henry, Todd [Applied Materials-Varian Semiconductor Equipment, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

2012-03-12

236

Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators  

MedlinePLUS

... arrhythmia is serious, you may need a cardiac pacemaker or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). They are ... are implanted in your chest or abdomen. A pacemaker helps control abnormal heart rhythms. It uses electrical ...

237

Dental Implant Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Dental implant surgery Basics Multimedia Expert Answers Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Dental implant surgery By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http:// ...

238

Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices  

PubMed Central

The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented.

Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

2009-01-01

239

A perspective on the electrical stunning of animals: are there lessons to be learned from human electro-convulsive therapy (ECT)?  

PubMed

Animals have been slaughtered by humans since time immemorial. Over the last few generations attention has been focused on minimizing the animal's pain and suffering during slaughter. Based on the assumption that loss of consciousness due to electrical stunning combined with exsanguination is a humane technique of slaughter, this procedure has become one of the most widely employed methods in commercial meat production, being used in almost all species. In recent years, some shortcomings with this method of minimizing the animal's suffering have been noted. Electrical stunning is probably more akin to human electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) than to epilepsy, and some of the negative aspects of unmodified ECT may be present during electrical stunning, further questioning the use of electrical stunning in the slaughter of animals. PMID:22193040

Zivotofsky, Ari Z; Strous, Rael D

2011-12-08

240

Radial-capitellar implant  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A radial-capitellar implant for surgical replacement of the capitellum of the humerus and, optionally, the head of the radius. The radial-capitellar implant includes a capitellar implant or surface replacement arthroplasty of the capitellum and a radial prosthesis for replacement of the head of the radius. In one embodiment the radial prosthesis includes an articular head which moveable articulates with a stem implantable in the radius.

Cooney, III; William P. (Rochester, MN); Morrey; Bernard F. (Rochester, MN); Leibel; David A. (Princeton, MN)

2007-01-09

241

A no bleed implant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast implants have evolved from the original saline-filled, smooth-surfaced silicone rubber bag to silicone gel-filled smooth-walled sacs to a combination of a silicone gel-filled bag within a saline-filled sac, and, most recently, a reversed, double-lumen implant with a saline bag inside of a gel-filled bag. Texture-surfaced implants were first used in 1970 when the standard silicone gelfilled implant was covered

Robert A. Ersek; Jose Alberto Navarro; Dora Zsofia Nemeth; George Sas

1993-01-01

242

Repair of orbital floor fractures with bioactive glass implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The ideal management of orbital floor fractures has been highly controversial. Many implants, both autogenous and alloplastic, have been used to span the defects. This study evaluated the use of bioactive glass implants (BAG-implant, S53P4; Abmin Technologies Ltd, Turku, Finland) for the repair of orbital floor defects caused by blunt facial trauma. Patients and Methods: This retrospective review of

Kalle Aitasalo; Ilpo Kinnunen; Jarkko Palmgren; Matti Varpula

2001-01-01

243

Functional outcome of auditory implants in hearing loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The auditory implant provides a new mechanism for hearing when a hearing aid is not enough. It is the only medical technology\\u000a able to functionally restore a human sense i.e. hearing. The auditory implant is very different from a hearing aid. Hearing\\u000a aids amplify sound. Auditory implants compensate for damaged or non-working parts of the inner ear because they can

S. Di Girolamo; A. Saccoccio; P. G. Giacomini; F. Ottaviani

244

Cdc42 and the guanine nucleotide exchange factors Ect2 and trio mediate Fn14-induced migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Malignant glioblastomas are characterized by their ability to infiltrate into normal brain. We previously reported that binding of the multifunctional cytokine TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) to its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) induces glioblastoma cell invasion via Rac1 activation. Here, we show that Cdc42 plays an essential role in Fn14-mediated activation of Rac1. TWEAK-treated glioma cells display an increased activation of Cdc42, and depletion of Cdc42 using siRNA abolishes TWEAK-induced Rac1 activation and abrogates glioma cell migration and invasion. In contrast, Rac1 depletion does not affect Cdc42 activation by Fn14, showing that Cdc42 mediates TWEAK-stimulated Rac1 activation. Furthermore, we identified two guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF), Ect2 and Trio, involved in TWEAK-induced activation of Cdc42 and Rac1, respectively. Depletion of Ect2 abrogates both TWEAK-induced Cdc42 and Rac1 activation, as well as subsequent TWEAK-Fn14-directed glioma cell migration and invasion. In contrast, Trio depletion inhibits TWEAK-induced Rac1 activation but not TWEAK-induced Cdc42 activation. Finally, inappropriate expression of Fn14 or Ect2 in mouse astrocytes in vivo using an RCAS vector system for glial-specific gene transfer in G-tva transgenic mice induces astrocyte migration within the brain, corroborating the in vitro importance of the TWEAK-Fn14 signaling cascade in glioblastoma invasion. Our results suggest that the TWEAK-Fn14 signaling axis stimulates glioma cell migration and invasion through two GEF-GTPase signaling units, Ect2-Cdc42 and Trio-Rac1. Components of the Fn14-Rho GEF-Rho GTPase signaling pathway present innovative drug targets for glioma therapy. PMID:22571869

Fortin, Shannon P; Ennis, Matthew J; Schumacher, Cassie A; Zylstra-Diegel, Cassandra R; Williams, Bart O; Ross, Julianna T D; Winkles, Jeffrey A; Loftus, Joseph C; Symons, Marc H; Tran, Nhan L

2012-05-09

245

Suppressive E?ects of Transforming Growth Factor? 1 Produced by Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines on Interferon? Production by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor? 1 (TGF? 1exerts potent immunosuppressive e?ects. In this study we investigated the potential role of TGF? 1 produced by hepatocellular carcinoma(HCCcell lines in immunosuppression mechanisms. Using the Mv1Lu cell?growth inhibition assay and an enzyme? linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA we detected optimal levels of TGF? 1 in the culture super? natants conditioned by the HCC cell lines PLC\\/PRF\\/5 Hep3B

Hirokazu Mouri; Kohsaku Sakaguchi; Tomoyuki Sawayama; Tomonori Senoh; Takeyuki Ohta; Mamoru Nishimura; Akiko Fujiwara; Masako Terao; Yasushi Shiratori; Takao Tsuji

246

ect of foot movement and an elastic lumbar back support on spinal loading during free-dynamic symmetric and asymmetric lifting exertions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the eŒect of an elastic lumbar back support on spinal loading and trunk, hip and knee kinematics while allowing subjects to move their feet during lifting exertions. Predicted spinal forces and moments about the L5\\/S1 intervertebral disc from a three-dimensional EMG-assisted biomechanical model, trunk position, velocities and accelerations, and hip and knee

W. S. MARRAS; M. J. JORGENSEN; K. G. DAVIS

2000-01-01

247

Combining peer?assessment with negotiated learning activities on a day?release undergraduate?level certificate course (ECTS level 3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer?assessment was used within a negotiated curriculum in a module on training and development at ECTS level 3. The students on the programme were exclusively day?release and all had a major responsibility for the management and delivery of work?based training programmes. Analysis of student evaluations, supplemented by those of university assessors and the external examiner, showed that the learning on

Tim McMahon

2010-01-01

248

Hydrogen implanted silicon oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation rate and the oxide thickness of the hydrogen ion implanted silicon wafers were examined. It was observed that the native oxide thickness is higher for the H+ implanted Si(100) compared to the Si(111). Also the native oxide thickness depended on the implanted hydrogen distribution. The thickness increased with the hydrogen con-centration. The oxide thickness after wet oxidization of

S. Hava; B. M. Lacquet; P. L. Swart

1989-01-01

249

Expression of the Rho-GEF Pbl/ECT2 is regulated by the UBE3A E3 ubiquitin ligase.  

PubMed

We applied genetic tools available in Drosophila to identify candidate substrates of the UBE3A ubiquitin ligase, the gene responsible for Angelman syndrome (AS). Human UBE3A was expressed in Drosophila heads to identify proteins differentially regulated in UBE3A-expressing versus wild-type extracts. Using two-dimensional gel and MALDI-TOF analysis, we detected 20 proteins that were differentially regulated by over-expression of human UBE3A in Drosophila heads. One protein responsive to UBE3A was the Rho-GEF pebble (pbl). Here, we present three lines of evidence suggesting that UBE3A regulates Pbl. First, we show genetic evidence that UBE3A and the Drosophila de-ubiquitinase fat facets (faf) exert opposing effects on Pbl function. Secondly, we find that both Pbl and ECT2, the mammalian orthologue of Pbl called epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 oncogene, physically interact with their respective ubiquitin E3 ligases. Finally, we show that Ect2 expression is regulated by Ube3a in mouse neurons as the pattern of Ect2 expression is dramatically altered in the hippocampus and cerebellum of Ube3a null mice. These results suggest that an orthologous UBE3A post-translational regulatory pathway regulates neuronal outgrowth in the mammalian brain and that dysregulation of this pathway may result in neurological phenotypes including AS and possibly other autism spectrum disorders. PMID:16905559

Reiter, Lawrence T; Seagroves, Tiffany N; Bowers, Megan; Bier, Ethan

2006-08-11

250

Nanotechnology Approaches for Better Dental Implants  

PubMed Central

The combined requirements imposed by the enormous scale and overall complexity of designing new implants or complete organ regeneration are well beyond the reach of present technology in many dimensions, including nanoscale, as we do not yet have the basic knowledge required to achieve these goals. The need for a synthetic implant to address multiple physical and biological factors imposes tremendous constraints on the choice of suitable materials. There is a strong belief that nanoscale materials will produce a new generation of implant materials with high efficiency, low cost, and high volume. The nanoscale in materials processing is truly a new frontier. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades but they have serious shortcomings related to their osseointegration and the fact that their mechanical properties do not match those of bone. This paper reviews recent advances in the fabrication of novel coatings and nanopatterning of dental implants. It also provides a general summary of the state of the art in dental implant science and describes possible advantages of nanotechnology for further improvements. The ultimate goal is to produce materials and therapies that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and improve quality of life and current standards of care.

Tomsia, Antoni P.; Launey, Maximilien E.; Lee, Janice S.; Mankani, Mahesh H.; Wegst, Ulrike G.K.; Saiz, Eduardo

2011-01-01

251

APC Implementation on VIISta Ion Implanters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As transistor features shrink, small variations in process steps have a significant impact on device performance and yield. The industry is adopting Advanced Process Control (APC) to control wafer-to-wafer variations in several process steps, but to-date APC has had limited application for implant. For example, lot-to-lot adjustments are being used today by chip manufacturers to adjust halo implants. The controls now possible due to the use of single wafer implant systems to adjust for blanket film variations has generated increased interest in implementing APC in the implant bay. Emerging implant APC applications are being implemented using Within wafer (WiW) control and feed-forward methods to compensate for transistor threshold voltage non-uniformities introduced during gate etch process steps. In the past, APC applications in implant have lagged other processing steps because of the inability to adjust parameters on batch systems and the lack of on-board metrology. New in-situ metrology technologies being developed on the VIISta platform for monitoring critical yield parameters will enable APC on implanters for meeting emerging challenges in advanced transistor designs.

Kim, Youn Ki; Adams, Bret; Parisi, Nick; Mehta, Sandeep; Hamilton, Jim

2006-11-01

252

Peri-implant soft tissue management: Where are we?  

PubMed

Dental implants have evolved dramatically over the last decade, and so have our expectations from them in terms of functional and esthetic criteria. The maintenance and augmentation of the soft tissue has emerged as an area of concern and focus. The triad of anatomical peri-implant characteristics, soft tissue response to the implant material, and clinical skill form the fundamental principles in augmenting soft tissue. However, as clinicians, where are we with regards to the ability to augment and maintain soft tissue around dental implants, about 40 years after the first implants were placed? We now understand that peri-implant soft tissue management begins with extraction management. Our treatment modalities have evolved from socket compression post-extraction, to socket preservation with an aim to enhance the eventual peri-implant soft tissue. This short communication will assess the evolution of our thought regarding peri-implant soft tissue management, augmentation of keratinized mucosa around implants, and also look at some recent techniques including the rotated pedicle connective tissue graft for enhancing inter-implant papilla architecture. With newer research modalities, such as cyto-detachment technology, and cutting-edge bioengineering solutions (possibly a soft-tissue-implant construct) which might be available in the near future for enhancing soft tissue, we are certainly in an exciting era in dentistry. PMID:23493178

Bhatavadekar, Neel

2012-10-01

253

The Educational Technology Centre: A Window to View the Progress of Chinese ICT-Based Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In China, after many years, the current status and challenges of e-learning development in higher education have been gradually understood. The educational technology centre (ECT) serves as the key unit to promote e-learning initiatives, but the performance of some centres still trails their foreign counterparts. Under such conditions, the…

Zhou, Rong; Xie, Baizhi

2010-01-01

254

MeV implanted boron and phosphorus photoresist penetration tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the introduction of new semiconductor technologies more processes are requiring the use of high energy (MeV) ion implantation. When fabricating semiconductor devices, it is important to understand the stopping power of the photoresist (PR) when used as a blocking mask for ion implantation. This study uses a 23 factorial experimental design varying energy and dose of both boron and

H. J. Miller; C. Jasper; T. C. Smith; A. Hoover; K. S. Jones

1999-01-01

255

The Language and Meaning of Implantables for Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of adopting artificial limbs for prosthesis can be traced back to 1000 BC to the ancient Egyptians of the Third Intermediate Period. Beyond the replacement of issing teeth, wholly functional implantable technologies embedded within a human being are a recent phenomenon. The introduction of pacemakers in the late 1950s began the humancentric implantable revolution. Today, there is an

K. Michael

2009-01-01

256

Nitrogen implantation for local oxidation (NILO) of silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete physical and electrical characterisation of nitrogen implantation for local oxidation (NILO) of silicon technology is detailed. Nitrogen implantation is performed at 20 keV through 25 nm of thermal oxide with doses within the range of 5 × 1016-1.5 × 1017 cm-2. Physical characterisation of the sealed nitride films is performed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear

P. Molle; C. Jaussaud; M. Bruel

1991-01-01

257

Indigenously developed titanium implants: oral and skeletal rehabilitation aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implant technology has tremendous applications in the field of oral and skeletal rehabilitation, post cancer surgery cases, developmental deformities, war injuries and accident cases. At present these implants and suitable surgical instruments are being imported at exorbitant prices, due to lack of indigenous know-how in this area of specialisation and hence, restrict their use to common humans of developing nations.

R. K. Mehta; T. Ravindranath; B. L. Khandelwal

1995-01-01

258

Ion implantation of indium gallium arsenide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ternary compound In0.53Ga0.47As, lattice-matched to Inp, is a semiconductor alloy of technological importance for numerous electronic and optoelectronic device applications. One of these applications includes photodiodes to be developed for the 1.3--1.55 mum wavelength range where silica fibers have their lowest optical loss. With a rapid increase in its use there is an essential need to understand the effects of ion implantation of this alloy semiconductor for implant isolation purposes in which highly resistive layers are required. Due to the small band gap (0.75 eV at 300K) of In0.53Ga0.47As, the estimated maximum resistivity is of the order of 1000 O-cm. Implant isolation can be achieved by the implantation of either inert noble gas ions or electrically active ions. Ion bombardment with inert species introduces defects which trap charge carriers. In the case of implant isolation by electrically active ions, the implanted impurities form an electronic level located close to the middle of the bandgap. Studies of the effects of implantation in In0.53Ga0.47 As due to damage by implantation of Ne+ ions and to compensation by implantation of Fe+ ions are reported in this thesis. The former only involves lattice damage related effects while the latter leads to damage and dopant induced compensation. From the Ne+ implantation results it appears that the damage related energy levels in In0.53 Ga0.47M produced by ion bombardment of chemically inactive species, are not sufficiently deep to lead to effective isolation. A higher resistivity of the order of 770 O-cm is achieved with Fe+ implantation, indicating that Fe introduces an energy level deep in the bandgap. The changes in the electrical properties of the layers are correlated to the lattice damage (damage induced effects) and/or the diffusion of the compensating dopants (dopant induced compensation). Structural characterization of the layers is performed with channeling Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The distribution of the compensating dopants in the as-implanted and annealed layers is examined by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). SIMS analysis shows Fe out-diffusion which results in the loss of the semi-insulating electrical characteristics. To further our understanding of Fe diffusion in In0.53Ga0.47As, the diffusion coefficient of Fe is measured for the first time. The diffusivity of Fe was measured to be 4 x 10-13 cm2 s-1 at 550°C. The thermal stability of these damage and compensation induced effects producing implant isolation is discussed in detail.

Almonte, Marlene Isabel

259

Finite volume analysis of temperature effects induced by active MRI implants: 2. Defects on active MRI implants causing hot spots  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Active magnetic resonance imaging implants, for example stents, stent grafts or vena cava filters, are constructed as wireless inductively coupled transmit and receive coils. They are built as a resonator tuned to the Larmor frequency of a magnetic resonance system. The resonator can be added to or incorporated within the implant. This technology can counteract the shielding caused by

Martin HJ Busch; Wolfgang Vollmann; Dietrich HW Grönemeyer

2006-01-01

260

Blistering of H-implanted GaN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanisms of blistering of wurtzite GaN films implanted with H ions are studied. In particular, we report on the influence of the following parameters on the blistering process: (i) ion energy (from 20 to 150 keV), (ii) ion dose (up to 1.2×1018 cm-2), (iii) implantation temperature (from -196 to 250 °C), and (iv) annealing temperature (up to 900 °C). Results show that both the onset of blistering and blistering surface patterns strongly depend on implant conditions. This study may have significant technological implications for ion slicing and ``etching'' of GaN using high-dose implantation with H ions.

Kucheyev, S. O.; Williams, J. S.; Jagadish, C.; Zou, J.; Li, G.

2002-03-01

261

Human pre-implantation embryo development  

PubMed Central

Understanding human pre-implantation development has important implications for assisted reproductive technology (ART) and for human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based therapies. Owing to limited resources, the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing this early stage of human development are poorly understood. Nonetheless, recent advances in non-invasive imaging techniques and molecular and genomic technologies have helped to increase our understanding of this fascinating stage of human development. Here, we summarize what is currently known about human pre-implantation embryo development and highlight how further studies of human pre-implantation embryos can be used to improve ART and to fully harness the potential of hESCs for therapeutic goals.

Niakan, Kathy K.; Han, Jinnuo; Pedersen, Roger A.; Simon, Carlos; Pera, Renee A. Reijo

2012-01-01

262

Dose and energy-dependent behaviour of silicon nitride films produced by plasma immersion ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schottky devices having guard ring structures were fabricated with conventional silicon processing technology. Nitrogen ions were implanted in contact area silicon at three doses corresponding to low, moderate and high regime. The implantation was carried out employing Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) technique at two pulse voltages, i.e. ?10 and ?20 kV. The dose of nitrogen ions was controlled by

R Rajkumar; Mukesh Kumar; P. J George; S Mukherjee; K. S Chari

2002-01-01

263

Implanted Defibrillator Improves Survival Rate of Cardiac Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A surgically implanted device that normalizes the rhythm of a patient's failing heart has significantly reduced the death rate of some high-risk cardiac patients, ac...

1984-01-01

264

Implantable Drug Dispenser: Differential vapor pressure allows fine control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Drugs such as insulin would be injected as needed directly into the bloodstream by a compact implantable dispensing unit. The dispenser uses counteracting vapor pres...

1983-01-01

265

Programming, Care, and Troubleshooting of Cochlear Implants for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of current cochlear implant technology, programming strategies, troubleshooting, and care techniques. It considers: device components, initial stimulation, speech coding strategies, use and care, troubleshooting, and the classroom environment. (Contains references.) (DB)

Hedley-Williams, Andrea J.; Sladen, Douglas P.; Tharpe, Anne Marie

2003-01-01

266

Optimization of single keV ion implantation for the construction of single P-donor devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report recent progress in single keV ion implantation and online detection for the controlled implantation of single donors in silicon. When integrated with silicon nanofabrication technology this forms the \\

Changyi Yang; David N. Jamieson; Toby Hopf; Soren E. Andresen; Sean M. Hearne; Fay E. Hudson; Christopher I. Pakes; Mladen Mitic; Eric Gauja; Grigori Tamanyan; Andrew S. Dzurak; Steven Prawer; Robert G. Clark

2005-01-01

267

Implant therapy using ultraspeed CO2 lasers.  

PubMed

tial applications are very beneficial clinically. As the technology improves, different wavelengths and laser mediums exhibit advantages and disadvantages in those clinical applications. The purpose of this article is to discuss the use of the CO2 UltraSpeed Laser for implant dentistry as well as how it compares, in the author's opinion, to other soft tissue PMID:17039679

Julian, Jon M

2005-09-01

268

Esteem 2 Middle Ear Implant: Our Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The Esteem is a totally implantable hearing system that uses piezoelectric technology. It is indicated in case of moderate to severe stable sensorineural hearing loss with a minimum discrimination score of 60% and a middle ear which is anatomically and functionally intact. Its two components (sensor and driver) are positioned and fixed in the mastoid cavity and coupled respectively

J. M. Gerard; M. P. Thill; G. Chantrain; M. Gersdorff; N. Deggouj

2012-01-01

269

The patient with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophysiologic technology developed over the past 20 years has improved the life expectancy of patients who have survived sudden cardiac death events. Use of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) continues to increase as more indications for the device are researched. Patients with ICDs will be cared for in the postanesthesia care unit following cardiac and noncardiac surgery and require PACU

Susan Jane Fetzer

2003-01-01

270

Development of an Implantable Pulse Oximeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term implantable photoplethysmographic sensor system is proposed. The system employs an elastic cuff which is directly wrapped around an arterial blood vessel. The optically transparent cuff is equipped with light emitting diodes and a photo transistor including the technology of pulse oximetry. The sensor will permit real-time, continuous monitoring of important vital parameters such as arterial blood oxygen saturation

Stephan Reichelt; Jens Fiala; Armin Werber; Katharina Forster; Claudia Heilmann; Rolf Klemm; Hans Zappe

2008-01-01

271

Implants in adolescents.  

PubMed

Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature. PMID:24174743

Shah, Rohit A; Mitra, Dipika K; Rodrigues, Silvia V; Pathare, Pragalbha N; Podar, Rajesh S; Vijayakar, Harshad N

2013-07-01

272

Implants in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature.

Shah, Rohit A.; Mitra, Dipika K.; Rodrigues, Silvia V.; Pathare, Pragalbha N.; Podar, Rajesh S.; Vijayakar, Harshad N.

2013-01-01

273

Hydrogen implanted silicon oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation rate and the oxide thickness of the hydrogen ion implanted silicon wafers were examined. It was observed that\\u000a the native oxide thickness is higher for the H+ implanted Si(100) compared to the Si(111). Also the native oxide thickness depended on the implanted hydrogen distribution.\\u000a The thickness increased with the hydrogen con-centration. The oxide thickness after wet oxidization of

S. Hava; B. M. Lacquet; P. L. Swart

1989-01-01

274

Extraction of Implantable Cardiac Electronic Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing numbers of cardiac implantable devices in use, lead extraction has become a critical procedure in remedying\\u000a device-related infections and complications. Lead extraction technology has grown considerably over the past two decades from\\u000a simple traction maneuvers to the use of powered, telescoping sheaths equipped with laser technology. Data from single center\\u000a experiences and randomized control trials have continued

John Rickard; Bruce L. Wilkoff

275

Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve: II. E¡ect of stimulus waveshape on single ¢bre response properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the generation of action potentials by electrical stimulation we studied the response of auditory nerve fibres (ANFs) to a variety of stimulus waveforms. Current pulses were presented to longitudinal bipolar scala tympani electrodes implanted in normal and deafened cochleae. Capacitively coupled monophasic current pulses evoked single ANF responses that were more sensitive to one phase (the 'excitatory' phase)

Robert K. Shepherd; Eric Javel

1999-01-01

276

Restoring hearing with active hearing implants.  

PubMed

Due to shortcomings of conventional hearing aid technology, such as unsatisfactory sound quality due to limited frequency range and undesired distortion, occlusion of the outer ear canal, and acoustic feedback with high amplification, but also psychological aspects of stigmatization, a significant of patients in need of hearing aids are actually not wearing them. Active hearing implants can be distinguished in: (1) impedance transformation implants (ITI), (2) cochlear amplifier implants (CAI), (3) cochlear implants (CI), and (4) brain stem implants (BSI). Whereas ITI are designed for patients with middle ear hearing loss, CAI are intended to restore hearing in patients with inner ear hearing loss. Advantages of CAI may be: (1) improved sound fidelity, (2) no occlusion of the outer ear canal, (3) no feedback, and (4) invisibility. However, not all features are true for every device. CI replace inner ear function in deaf or almost deaf patients. This article gives an overview on the range of active hearing implants to restore hearing and outlines the future use of computer and robot aided surgery. PMID:15171586

Federspil, Ph A; Plinkert, P K

2004-04-01

277

The immediate dental implant.  

PubMed

Numerous clinical studies have shown that dental implants can be placed immediately in extraction sockets with success when sites are carefully selected. Dental implants have been placed at the time of extraction with a variety of techniques. All the techniques report survival rates of 94 percent to 100 percent over a varied healing period of three months to approximately seven years. this article will review clinical criteria for determining patient selection for immediate implants and the advantages and disadvantages of immediate implant placement. PMID:12041804

Douglass, Gordon L; Merin, Robert L

2002-05-01

278

Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 induces cytokinesis without chromosome segregation in an ECT2 and MgcRacGAP-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Cleavage furrow formation marks the onset of cell division during early anaphase. The small GTPase RhoA and its regulators ECT2 and MgcRacGAP have been implicated in furrow ingression in mammalian cells, but the signaling upstream of these molecules remains unclear. We now show that the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)1 is sufficient to initiate cytokinesis. When mitotically synchronized cells were treated with the Cdk-specific inhibitor BMI-1026, the initiation of cytokinesis was induced precociously before chromosomal separation. Cytokinesis was also induced by the Cdk1-specific inhibitor purvalanol A but not by Cdk2/Cdk5- or Cdk4-specific inhibitors. Consistent with initiation of precocious cytokinesis by Cdk1 inhibition, introduction of anti-Cdk1 monoclonal antibody resulted in cells with aberrant nuclei. Depolymerization of mitotic spindles by nocodazole inhibited BMI-1026-induced precocious cytokinesis. However, in the presence of a low concentration of nocodazole, BMI-1026 induced excessive membrane blebbing, which appeared to be caused by formation of ectopic cleavage furrows. Depletion of ECT2 or MgcRacGAP by RNA interference abolished both of the phenotypes (precocious furrowing after nocodazole release and excessive blebbing in the presence of nocodazole). RNA interference of RhoA or expression of dominant-negative RhoA efficiently reduced both phenotypes. RhoA was localized at the cleavage furrow or at the necks of blebs. We propose that Cdk1 inactivation is sufficient to activate a signaling pathway leading to cytokinesis, which emanates from mitotic spindles and is regulated by ECT2, MgcRacGAP, and RhoA. Chemical induction of cytokinesis will be a valuable tool to study the initiation mechanism of cytokinesis. PMID:16118207

Niiya, Fumihiko; Xie, Xiaozhen; Lee, Kyung S; Inoue, Hiroki; Miki, Toru

2005-08-23

279

The Nuclear Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Ect2 and Net1 Regulate RhoB-Mediated Cell Death after DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

Commonly used antitumor treatments, including radiation and chemotherapy, function by damaging the DNA of rapidly proliferating cells. However, resistance to these agents is a predominant clinical problem. A member of the Rho family of small GTPases, RhoB has been shown to be integral in mediating cell death after ionizing radiation (IR) or other DNA damaging agents in Ras-transformed cell lines. In addition, RhoB protein expression increases after genotoxic stress, and loss of RhoB expression causes radio- and chemotherapeutic resistance. However, the signaling pathways that govern RhoB-induced cell death after DNA damage remain enigmatic. Here, we show that RhoB activity increases in human breast and cervical cancer cell lines after treatment with DNA damaging agents. Furthermore, RhoB activity is necessary for DNA damage-induced cell death, as the stable loss of RhoB protein expression using shRNA partially protects cells and prevents the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and the induction of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim after IR. The increase in RhoB activity after genotoxic stress is associated with increased activity of the nuclear guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), Ect2 and Net1, but not the cytoplasmic GEFs p115 RhoGEF or Vav2. Importantly, loss of Ect2 and Net1 via siRNA-mediated protein knock-down inhibited IR-induced increases in RhoB activity, reduced apoptotic signaling events, and protected cells from IR-induced cell death. Collectively, these data suggest a mechanism involving the nuclear GEFs Ect2 and Net1 for activating RhoB after genotoxic stress, thereby facilitating cell death after treatment with DNA damaging agents.

Srougi, Melissa C.; Burridge, Keith

2011-01-01

280

Biomedical Devices based on Semiconductor Microelectronics Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent development of biomedical devices based on microelectronics technologies are reviewed. Implantable biomedical devices are focused and discussed in detail. Two typical devices are demonstrated; one is for retinal prosthesis and the other is a deep brain implantable device. Future issues for implantable biomedical devices are addressed.

Ohta, Jun; Kobayashi, Takuma; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi

281

Lithium Implantation into Fullerite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depth profiles of lithium, implanted into fullerene at different fluences and temperatures are reported. They deviate considerably from the simple ballistic predictions. They can be understood in terms of depth dependent Li mobility immediately after the ion implantation. This mobility depends considerably on the temperature and on the degree of fullerene damage. It appears that the fullerene destruction products

D. Fink; S. Ghosh; R. Klett; L. Palmetshofer; J. Vacik; V. Hnatowicz; J. Cervena; J. Kaschny; F. C. Zawislak; P. Sanchez; M. Behar

1998-01-01

282

A no bleed implant.  

PubMed

Breast implants have evolved from the original saline-filled, smooth-surfaced silicone rubber bag to silicone gel-filled smooth-walled sacs to a combination of a silicone gel-filled bag within a saline-filled sac, and, most recently, a reversed, double-lumen implant with a saline bag inside of a gel-filled bag. Texture-surfaced implants were first used in 1970 when the standard silicone gel-filled implant was covered with a polyurethane foam. Because of concerns about the degradation products of this foam, they were removed from the market in 1991. In 1975 double-lumen silicone textured implants were developed, followed by silicone gel-filled textured implants. In 1990 a new radiolucent, biocompatible gel was produced that reduced the problem of radioopacity of silicone implants. Because of the gel's sufficiently low coefficient of friction, leakage caused by fold flaw fracture may also be decreased. We present a case where this new biocompatible gel implant was repositioned after four months. The resulting scar capsule in this soft breast was thin [< 0.002 cm (0.008 in.)] and evenly textured as a mirror image of the textured silicone surface. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray defraction spectrophotometry revealed no silicone bleed. PMID:8213316

Ersek, R A; Navarro, J A; Nemeth, D Z; Sas, G

1993-01-01

283

Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices.  

PubMed

The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented. PMID:22291554

Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

2009-11-17

284

Gold bead implants.  

PubMed

Gold bead implantation is an experimental area of study in the acupuncture field dealing with chronic diseases. Special acupuncture techniques are required to implant the gold beads successfully in the proper location. Gold beads are used to treat degenerative joint disease, osteochondritis, osteochondritis dessicans, ventral spondylosis, and seizures. PMID:1581658

Durkes, T E

1992-03-01

285

Implantate in avaskulären Beckenknochentransplantaten  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Der Verlust des Alveolarfortsatzes im Ober- und Unterkiefer setzt Knochenersatzplastiken voraus, um die kaufunktionelle Rehabilitation über alloplastische Zahnwurzelimplantate zu ermöglichen. Mit dieser Arbeit soll geklärt werden, wie hoch die langfristige Liegerate dentaler Implantate ist, die in avaskulär transplantierten Beckenknochen-Onlays inseriert werden, und ob und in welchem Umfang ein einzeitiges oder zweizeitiges Vorgehen die Prognose der Implantate beeinflußt. In einer

H. E. Umstadt; J. Völlinger; H.-H. Müller; K. H. Austermann

1999-01-01

286

Implantable cardioverter defibrillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical design challenges for implantable defibrillators are discussed based on the following criteria: device evolution, system architecture, therapy delivery, mid heart activity sensing circuits. The discussion includes the incidence of sudden cardiac death and the clinical requirements of device hardware. System architecture includes the three dependent entities that define the system mid the functional components of the implanted device

JAY A. WARREN; ROBERT D. DREHER; RONALD V. JAWORSKI; JAMES J. PUTZKE; RENOLD J. RUSSIE

1996-01-01

287

Plasma-based biofunctionalization of vascular implants.  

PubMed

Polymeric and metallic materials are used extensively in permanently implanted cardiovascular devices and devices that make temporary but often prolonged contact with body fluids and tissues. Foreign body responses are typically triggered by host interactions at the implant surface, making surface modifications to increase biointegration desirable. Plasma-based treatments are extensively used to modify diverse substrates; modulating surface chemistry, wettability and surface roughness, as well as facilitating covalent biomolecule binding. Each aspect impacts on facets of vascular compatibility including endothelialization and blood contact. These modifications can be readily applied to polymers such as Dacron and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, which are widely used in bypass grafting and the metallic substrates of stents, valves and pacemaker components. Plasma modification of metals is more challenging given the need for coating deposition in addition to surface activation, adding the necessity for robust interface adhesion. This review examines the evolving plasma treatment technology facilitating the biofunctionalization of polymeric and metallic implantable cardiovascular materials. PMID:23249334

Wise, Steven G; Waterhouse, Anna; Kondyurin, Alexey; Bilek, Marcela M; Weiss, Anthony S

2012-12-01

288

Ectoine and Hydroxyectoine as Protectants against Osmotic and Cold Stress: Uptake through the SigB-Controlled Betaine-Choline- Carnitine Transporter-Type Carrier EctT from Virgibacillus pantothenticus ?  

PubMed Central

Virgibacillus pantothenticus has been shown to synthesize the compatible solute ectoine in response to high salinity or low growth temperature. We found that exogenously provided ectoine and hydroxyectoine also serve as protectants against these challenges. Transport studies with [14C]ectoine revealed that both types of stress induced a high-affinity ectoine uptake activity in V. pantothenticus. By using an Escherichia coli mutant defective in osmoprotectant uptake systems, a functional complementation approach for osmostress resistance in the presence of ectoine was employed to retrieve a gene encoding an ectoine transporter from V. pantothenticus. The cloned gene (ectT) encodes a protein (EctT) that is a member of the BCCT (betaine-choline-carnitine-transporter) family of carriers. Osmoprotection assays demonstrated that the EctT carrier mediates the preferential import of ectoine and hydroxyectoine but also possesses minor uptake activities for the compatible solutes proline and glycine betaine. Northern blot analysis with RNA isolated from V. pantothenticus revealed that a rise in the external osmolality or a reduction in growth temperature strongly increased the transcription of the ectT gene. Primer extension analysis demonstrated that ectT was transcribed under these conditions from a SigB-type promoter. SigB is the master regulator of the general stress regulon of bacilli and provides protection to cells against various challenges, including high salinity and low temperature. Both the synthesis of ectoine and the EctT-mediated uptake of ectoine and hydroxyectoine are triggered by the same environmental cues, high salinity and cold stress, and thereby provide, in a concerted fashion, the protection of V. pantothenticus against these challenges.

Kuhlmann, Anne U.; Hoffmann, Tamara; Bursy, Jan; Jebbar, Mohamed; Bremer, Erhard

2011-01-01

289

Ectoine and hydroxyectoine as protectants against osmotic and cold stress: uptake through the SigB-controlled betaine-choline- carnitine transporter-type carrier EctT from Virgibacillus pantothenticus.  

PubMed

Virgibacillus pantothenticus has been shown to synthesize the compatible solute ectoine in response to high salinity or low growth temperature. We found that exogenously provided ectoine and hydroxyectoine also serve as protectants against these challenges. Transport studies with [(14)C]ectoine revealed that both types of stress induced a high-affinity ectoine uptake activity in V. pantothenticus. By using an Escherichia coli mutant defective in osmoprotectant uptake systems, a functional complementation approach for osmostress resistance in the presence of ectoine was employed to retrieve a gene encoding an ectoine transporter from V. pantothenticus. The cloned gene (ectT) encodes a protein (EctT) that is a member of the BCCT (betaine-choline-carnitine-transporter) family of carriers. Osmoprotection assays demonstrated that the EctT carrier mediates the preferential import of ectoine and hydroxyectoine but also possesses minor uptake activities for the compatible solutes proline and glycine betaine. Northern blot analysis with RNA isolated from V. pantothenticus revealed that a rise in the external osmolality or a reduction in growth temperature strongly increased the transcription of the ectT gene. Primer extension analysis demonstrated that ectT was transcribed under these conditions from a SigB-type promoter. SigB is the master regulator of the general stress regulon of bacilli and provides protection to cells against various challenges, including high salinity and low temperature. Both the synthesis of ectoine and the EctT-mediated uptake of ectoine and hydroxyectoine are triggered by the same environmental cues, high salinity and cold stress, and thereby provide, in a concerted fashion, the protection of V. pantothenticus against these challenges. PMID:21764932

Kuhlmann, Anne U; Hoffmann, Tamara; Bursy, Jan; Jebbar, Mohamed; Bremer, Erhard

2011-07-15

290

Corticosteroid intravitreal implants.  

PubMed

Intraocular implants developed for ocular inflammation which release glucocorticoids for a prolonged period within the vitreous cavity make use of either a bioerodible polymer (dexamethasone in polylactic acid-coglycolic acid matrix) or non-erodible implantable device (fluocinolone acetonide, FA, in a polyvinyl acetate/silicone laminate). Pharmacologically, both steroids are similar in their binding characteristics to glucocorticoid receptors (GR), their ability to transactivate the GR complex and their vitreous half-lives. They both possess neuroprotective properties for retina and retinal pigment epithelium which place them apart from triamcinolone acetonide. Triamcinolone acetonide's higher lipophilicity makes it possible to create an implant with prolonged release characteristics, but may be increasing the propensity for ocular side effects such as cataract and glaucoma. In clinical trials, both implants were shown to be effective at inhibiting intraocular inflammation in patients with intermediate or posterior uveitis. The Dexamethasone implant is inserted through a 22-gauge needle through the pars plana and can control inflammation for up to 6 months. The FA implant requires surgical insertion through the pars plana and can control inflammation for up to 3 years. The MUST trial has shown the FA implant when placed bilaterally to be slightly more effective than strict systemic therapy, though at the cost of additional ocular surgeries for cataract and glaucoma. Certain clinical situations particularly with asymmetric uveitis may in fact favor local vs. systemic therapy. PMID:22517210

de Smet, Marc D

2012-04-17

291

Annealing of PEEK, PET and PI implanted with Co ions at high fluencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of implanted polymers strongly depend on the implantation ion fluence and on the properties of the implanted atoms. The stability of synthesized nano-structures during further technological steps like annealing is of importance for their possible applications. Polyimide (PI), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), and polyethyleneterephtalate (PET) were implanted with 40 keV Co+ ions at room temperature at fluences ranging from 0.2 × 1016 cm-2 to 1.0 × 1017 cm-2 and annealed at a temperature of 200 °C. The implanted depth profiles of as-implanted and annealed samples, determined by the RBS method, were compared with the results of SRIM 2012 simulations. The structural and compositional changes of the implanted and subsequently annealed polymers were characterized by RBS and UV-vis spectroscopy. The surface morphology of as-implanted and annealed samples was examined by the AFM method and their electrical properties by sheet resistance measurement.

Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P.; Miksova, R.; Pupikova, H.; Khaibullin, R. I.; Valeev, V. F.; Svorcik, V.; Slepicka, P.

2013-07-01

292

A touch probe method of operating an implantable RFID tag for orthopedic implant identification.  

PubMed

The major problem in operating an implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag embedded on an orthopedic implant is low efficiency because of metallic interference. To improve the efficiency, this paper proposes a method of operating an implantable passive RFID tag using a touch probe at 13.56 MHz. This technology relies on the electric field interaction between two pairs of electrodes, one being a part of the touch probe placed on the surface of tissue and the other being a part of the tag installed under the tissue. Compared with using a conventional RFID antenna such as a loop antenna, this method has a better performance in the near field operation range to reduce interference with the orthopedic implant. Properly matching the touch probe and the tag to the tissue and the implant reduces signal attenuation and increases the overall system efficiency. The experiments have shown that this method has a great performance in the near field transcutaneous operation and can be used for orthopedic implant identification. PMID:23853323

Liu, Xiaoyu; Berger, J Lee; Ogirala, Ajay; Mickle, Marlin H

2013-06-01

293

Biolink Implantable Telemetry System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most biotelemetry applications deal with the moderated data rates of biological signals. Few people have studied the problem of transcutaneous data transmission at the rates required by NASA's Life Sciences-Advanced BioTelemetry System (LS-ABTS). Implante...

R. J. Betancourt-Zamora

1999-01-01

294

[Implantation metastasizing of craniopharyngioma].  

PubMed

The paper describes two cases of implantation metastasizing of craniopharyngioma after its resection using combined (transcallosal and subfrontal) and pterional approach. The mechanisms of metastasizing and possible ways of prevention are discussed. PMID:23379184

Zhukov, V Iu; Konovalov, A N; Pitsehelauri, D I; Gorelyshev, S K; Kadyrov, Sh U; Krasnova, T S; Mazerkina, N A

2012-01-01

295

Implantable Insulin Delivery System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An insulin delivery system suitable for experimental implants and external use has been developed to study glucose control for diabetics. The programmable system developed at Sandia National Laboratories, in conjunction with the University of New Mexico S...

J. T. Love J. I. Gaona

1981-01-01

296

Urinary incontinence - injectable implant  

MedlinePLUS

Intrinsic sphincter deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... inject material into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the ...

297

Ion implant round robin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Silicon Valley Implant Users Group (SVIUG) ran a round robin to compare the uniformity and accuracy of various tools in active use in the Valley. Results are presented for several As doses at 80 keV. Results are also presented for a sheet resistance round robin involving the five Rs mappers used to characterize the ion implant (I/I) round robin wafers. Prometrix Corp., Santa Clara, CA 95051, USA.

Current, M. I.; Keenan, W. A.

1985-01-01

298

An implantable artificial pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artificial implantable pancreas is seen as the optimal means of therapy in patients with severe diabetes mellitus. The\\u000a implantable pancreas consists of three modules; (i) the dosing unit, (ii) the control circuit and (iii) a glucose sensor for\\u000a the realisation of a feedback system. Intensive research has been devoted to essential items, such as a dosing valve with\\u000a only

W. Schubert; P. Baurschmidt; J. Nagel; R. Thull; M. Schaldach

1980-01-01

299

Biomaterials in cochlear implants  

PubMed Central

The cochlear implant (CI) represents, for almost 25 years now, the gold standard in the treatment of children born deaf and for postlingually deafened adults. These devices thus constitute the greatest success story in the field of ‘neurobionic’ prostheses. Their (now routine) fitting in adults, and especially in young children and even babies, places exacting demands on these implants, particularly with regard to the biocompatibility of a CI’s surface components. Furthermore, certain parts of the implant face considerable mechanical challenges, such as the need for the electrode array to be flexible and resistant to breakage, and for the implant casing to be able to withstand external forces. As these implants are in the immediate vicinity of the middle-ear mucosa and of the junction to the perilymph of the cochlea, the risk exists – at least in principle – that bacteria may spread along the electrode array into the cochlea. The wide-ranging requirements made of the CI in terms of biocompatibility and the electrode mechanism mean that there is still further scope – despite the fact that CIs are already technically highly sophisticated – for ongoing improvements to the properties of these implants and their constituent materials, thus enhancing the effectiveness of these devices. This paper will therefore discuss fundamental material aspects of CIs as well as the potential for their future development.

Stover, Timo; Lenarz, Thomas

2011-01-01

300

Ethical implications of implantable radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags in humans.  

PubMed

This article reviews the use of implantable radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags in humans, focusing on the VeriChip (VeriChip Corporation, Delray Beach, FL) and the associated VeriMed patient identification system. In addition, various nonmedical applications for implanted RFID tags in humans have been proposed. The technology offers important health and nonhealth benefits, but raises ethical concerns, including privacy and the potential for coercive implantation of RFID tags in individuals. A national discussion is needed to identify the limits of acceptable use of implantable RFID tags in humans before their use becomes widespread and it becomes too late to prevent misuse of this useful but ethically problematic technology. PMID:18802863

Foster, Kenneth R; Jaeger, Jan

2008-08-01

301

Integration of an Axcelis Optima HD Single Wafer High Current Implanter for p- and n-S/D Implants in an Existing Batch Implanter Production Line  

SciTech Connect

This paper is focused on the integration and qualification of an Axcelis Optima HD single wafer high current spot beam implanter in an existing 200 mm production line with different types of Axcelis batch implanters for high current applications. Both the design of the beamline and the beam shape are comparable between single wafer and batch high current spot beam implanters. In contrast to the single wafer high current ribbon beam implanter, energy contamination is not a concern for the considered spot beam tool because the drift mode can be used down to energies in the 2 keV region. The most important difference between single wafer and batch high current implanters is the significantly higher dose rate and, therefore, the higher damage rate for the single wafer tool due to the different scanning architecture. The results of the integration of high dose implantations, mainly for p- and n-S/D formation, for DRAM 110 nm without pre-amorphization implantation (PAI), CMOS Logic from around 250 nm down to 90 nm without and with PAI, are presented and discussed. Dopant concentration profile analysis using SIMS was performed for different technologies and implantation conditions. The impurity activation was measured using sheet resistance and in some cases spreading resistance technique was applied. The amorphous layer thickness was measured using TEM. Finally, device data are presented in combination with dose, energy and beam current variations. The results have shown that the integration of implantation processes into crystalline structure without PAI is more complex and time consuming than implantations into amorphous layer where the damage difference due to the different dose rates is negligible.

Schmeide, Matthias [Infineon Technologies Dresden GmbH and Co. OHG, Koenigsbruecker Str. 180, D-01099 Dresden (Germany); Kontratenko, Serguei; Krimbacher, Bernhard [Axcelis Technologies, Inc., 108 Cherry Hill Dr., Beverly, MA (United States); Mueller, Ralf Peter [Qimonda Dresden GmbH and Co. OHG, Koenigsbruecker Str. 180, D-01099 Dresden (Germany)

2008-11-03

302

REVIEW ARTICLE: Medical implants based on microsystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast development of CMOS technologies to smaller dimensions led to very high integration densities with complex circuitry on very small chip areas. In 2006 Intel fabricated the first products in a 65 nm technology. The cointegration of microsensors or actuators together with the very low power consumption of the CMOS circuitry is very well suited for use in implanted systems. Applications like intracranial or intraocular pressure measurements have become possible. This review presents an overview over actual applications and developments of sensor/actuator-based microsystems for medical implants. It concentrates on the technical part of these investigations. It will mainly review work on systems measuring pressure in blood vessels and on systems for ophthalmic applications.

Mokwa, W.

2007-05-01

303

Ethical Implications of Implantable Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) Tags in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the use of implantable radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags in humans, focusing on the VeriChip (VeriChip Corporation, Delray Beach, FL) and the associated VeriMed patient identification system. In addition, various nonmedical applications for implanted RFID tags in humans have been proposed. The technology offers important health and nonhealth benefits, but raises ethical concerns, including privacy and the potential

Kenneth R. Foster; Jan Jaeger

2008-01-01

304

Infections in breast implants.  

PubMed

Infection following breast implants is an uncommon event. This is somewhat surprising, since the human breast is not a sterile anatomical structure. The flora found in the breast are derived from the nipple ducts and closely resemble those of normal skin. These organisms, predominantly S. epidermidis, may in some cases be responsible for firmness secondary to capsular contracture. Treatment of the periprosthetic infection usually involves implant removal, but salvage by systemic antibiotics is sometimes possible. Atypical mycobacteria are very rarely the cause of infection, but can be extremely difficult to eradicate when involved. Toxic shock syndrome has been reported to occur following breast implants and is a life-threatening problem requiring immediate removal of the implant. It may be significant that in some cases with effusion and infection occurring many months or years after implant placement, there has been a preceding event such as a laryngitis or flu-like illness. This suggests the possibility of a bacteremia being involved in the causation of the infection. If this were the case, then these patients should be handled in a fashion similar to those with prosthetic heart valves. Accordingly, in our own practice, we advise that penicillin "V" be given beforehand when a patient with breast implants is to have any dental procedure. It must be stressed that there is no statistical or scientific proof at the present time that this is of any value. In conclusion, when dealing with these large foreign bodies, absolute sterility is essential, and excellent surgical technique to obviate hematoma and the occurrence of tissue ischemia is mandatory. Evidence of severe infection necessitates implant removal, but in less severe cases a trial of intravenous antibiotics is permissible. Having removed an implant, further insertion should be deferred, preferably for 6 months. If the new implant can be placed in a different plane, that is, submuscular, this is desirable. Exposed implants can be salvaged but this requires considerable judgment and one should be prepared for re-exposure or frank infection. PMID:2663982

Freedman, A M; Jackson, I T

1989-06-01

305

Mometasone implant for chronic rhinosinusitis  

PubMed Central

The Propel mometasone-eluting stent (Intersect ENT, Palo Alto, CA) is the first Food and Drug Administration-approved device for delivering steroid medication into the ethmoid cavity following surgery. The implant is composed of a biodegradable polymer in a lattice pattern that expands in a spring-like fashion to conform to the walls of a dissected ethmoid cavity and contains a total of 370 ?g of mometasone furoate designed for gradual release over 30 days. The purpose of this article is to review the mode of action and the evidence supporting the efficacy of this novel technology. Three recently published clinical trials have demonstrated that the mometasone-eluting stent produced statistically significant reductions in inflammation, polyp formation, and postoperative adhesions. In addition, the implant has been found to significantly reduce the need for postoperative administration of oral steroids and to decrease the frequency of postoperative lysis of adhesions. Minimal adverse effects were reported in these trials and included infection, crusting, and granulation tissue formation. Although the placement of steroid-impregnated packing, stents, sponges, and gels has previously been used in the postoperative sinus cavities, the Propel mometasone-eluting stent introduces a new mechanism for localized and controlled delivery of topical therapy directly to the nasal mucosa for chronic rhinosinusitis.

Wei, Calvin C; Kennedy, David W

2012-01-01

306

Modulation techniques for biomedical implanted devices and their challenges.  

PubMed

Implanted medical devices are very important electronic devices because of their usefulness in monitoring and diagnosis, safety and comfort for patients. Since 1950s, remarkable efforts have been undertaken for the development of bio-medical implanted and wireless telemetry bio-devices. Issues such as design of suitable modulation methods, use of power and monitoring devices, transfer energy from external to internal parts with high efficiency and high data rates and low power consumption all play an important role in the development of implantable devices. This paper provides a comprehensive survey on various modulation and demodulation techniques such as amplitude shift keying (ASK), frequency shift keying (FSK) and phase shift keying (PSK) of the existing wireless implanted devices. The details of specifications, including carrier frequency, CMOS size, data rate, power consumption and supply, chip area and application of the various modulation schemes of the implanted devices are investigated and summarized in the tables along with the corresponding key references. Current challenges and problems of the typical modulation applications of these technologies are illustrated with a brief suggestions and discussion for the progress of implanted device research in the future. It is observed that the prime requisites for the good quality of the implanted devices and their reliability are the energy transformation, data rate, CMOS size, power consumption and operation frequency. This review will hopefully lead to increasing efforts towards the development of low powered, high efficient, high data rate and reliable implanted devices. PMID:22368470

Hannan, Mahammad A; Abbas, Saad M; Samad, Salina A; Hussain, Aini

2011-12-28

307

The behaviour of hydrogen in titanium after ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion implantation is a technique which is used to improve tribomechanical behavior of IVb-metals like titanium and its alloys which are interesting materials for a number of technological applications, e.g., in aerospace or in the field of metallic surgical implants. However, ion implantation induces defect formation processes that may influence the hydrogen content and its depth distribution in the implanted material. A large amount of hydrogen accumulation is observed in the implanted near surface region of commercially pure titanium. This effect may have important consequences, since excessive hydrogen accumulation generally leads to precipitating hydrides in the matrix lattice and results in degradation of its mechanical properties. In this contribution, the influence of different implantation parameters on hydrogen accumulation such as the implanted element (B, C, N, O, F, He, Ne and Fe), the ion fluence, sample temperature and residual gas composition was investigated for a better understanding of the observed hydrogen behavior. A correlation between binary phases and hydrogen accumulation was found. Furthermore, it will be discussed whether the hydrogen atoms diffused from the bulk into the modified region or are absorbed from the residual gas in the implantation chamber. The effect of hydrogen accumulation was studied using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA).

Soltani-Farshi, M.; Baumann, H.; Richter, E.; Kreissig, U.; Bethge, K.

1999-06-01

308

Modulation Techniques for Biomedical Implanted Devices and Their Challenges  

PubMed Central

Implanted medical devices are very important electronic devices because of their usefulness in monitoring and diagnosis, safety and comfort for patients. Since 1950s, remarkable efforts have been undertaken for the development of bio-medical implanted and wireless telemetry bio-devices. Issues such as design of suitable modulation methods, use of power and monitoring devices, transfer energy from external to internal parts with high efficiency and high data rates and low power consumption all play an important role in the development of implantable devices. This paper provides a comprehensive survey on various modulation and demodulation techniques such as amplitude shift keying (ASK), frequency shift keying (FSK) and phase shift keying (PSK) of the existing wireless implanted devices. The details of specifications, including carrier frequency, CMOS size, data rate, power consumption and supply, chip area and application of the various modulation schemes of the implanted devices are investigated and summarized in the tables along with the corresponding key references. Current challenges and problems of the typical modulation applications of these technologies are illustrated with a brief suggestions and discussion for the progress of implanted device research in the future. It is observed that the prime requisites for the good quality of the implanted devices and their reliability are the energy transformation, data rate, CMOS size, power consumption and operation frequency. This review will hopefully lead to increasing efforts towards the development of low powered, high efficient, high data rate and reliable implanted devices.

Hannan, Mahammad A.; Abbas, Saad M.; Samad, Salina A.; Hussain, Aini

2012-01-01

309

Optimal restoration of dental esthetics and function with advanced implant-supported prostheses: a clinical report.  

PubMed

For more than 25 years, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has been used in implant restorative dentistry. Today this technology offers a means of milling titanium frameworks that fit dental implants accurately. This report presents a restoratively driven protocol employing advanced implant restorative and surgical techniques. Treatment of a patient with advanced periodontitis with extensive loss of hard and soft tissues is presented. After extraction of the patient's remaining hopeless teeth, dental implants were placed, along with interim, fixed-margin abutments and abutment protection caps. Two days later, acrylic resin fixed-interim prostheses restored the patient's esthetics and partial masticatory function. After implant osseointegration, maxillary, and mandibular frameworks for definitive prostheses were milled from Ti alloy, using one specific CAD/CAM technology. The benefits of this technology are also discussed. PMID:22372489

Meulen, Peter van der; Linden, Wynand van der; Eeden, Ronnie van

2012-02-28

310

Foam-covered mammary implants.  

PubMed

Our investigations suggest that polyurethane coating of implants prevents longitudinal fibrosis, circumferential capsule formation, and contracture as long as the underlying smooth silicone surface remains firmly and completely covered. Although not studied extensively, our experimental observations give no indication that polyurethane-coated implants promote septic inflammation more so than uncoated implants. Polyurethane-coated implants are less tumorigenic in mice than uncoated implants. However, because humans are highly resistant to foreign body tumorigenesis in general, either implant type can be considered virtually noncarcinogenic in humans. PMID:3066560

Brand, K G

1988-10-01

311

Positron implantation in solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monte Carlo technique for modeling positron prior to annihilation and electron implantation in semi-infinite metals is described. Particle implantation is modelled as a multistep process, a series of collisions with the atoms of the host material. In elastic collisions with neutral atoms there is no transfer of energy. The particle loses energy by several different channels, excitation of the electron gas, ionization of the ion cores, or, at low energies, by phonon excitation. These competing scattering mechanisms have been incorporated into the Monte Carlo framework and several different models are being used. Brief descriptions of these Monte Carlo schemes, as well as an analytic model for positron implantation are included. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations are presented and compared with experimental data. Problems associated with modeling positron implantation are discussed and the need for more experimental data on energy-loss in different materials is stressed. Positron implantation in multilayers of different metals is briefly described and extensions of this work to include a study of multilayers and heterostructures is suggested.

Ghosh, V. J.; Lynn, K. G.; Welch, D. O.

312

[Cochlear implant in children: rational, indications and cost/efficacy].  

PubMed

A cochlear implant (CI) is a partially implanted electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound and support speech to severely to profoundly hearing impaired patients. It is constituted by an external portion, that usually sits behind the ear and an internal portion surgically placed under the skin. The external components include a microphone connected to a speech processor that selects and arranges sounds pucked up by the microphone. This is connected to a transmitter coil, worn on the side of the head, which transmits data to an internal receiver coil placed under the skin. The received data are delivered to an array of electrodes that are surgically implanted within the cochlea. The primary neural targets of the electrodes are the spiral ganglion cells which innervate fibers of the auditory nerve. When the electrodes are activated by the signal, they send a current along the auditory nerve and auditory pathways to the auditory cortex. Children and adults who are profoundly or severely hearing impaired can be fitted with cochlear implants. According to the Food and Drug Administration, approximately 188,000 people worldwide have received implants. In Italy it is extimated that there are about 6-7000 implanted patients, with an average of 700 CI surgeries per year. Cochlear implantation, followed by intensive postimplantation speech therapy, can help young children to acquire speech, language, and social skills. Early implantation provides exposure to sounds that can be helpful during the critical period when children learn speech and language skills. In 2000, the Food and Drug Administration lowered the age of eligibility to 12 months for one type of CI. With regard to the results after cochlear implantation in relation to early implantation, better linguistic results are reported in children implanted before 12 months of life, even if no sufficient data exist regarding the relation between this advantage and the duration of implant use and how long this advantage persists in the subsequent years. With regard to cochlear implantation in children older than 12 months the studies show better hearing and linguistic results in children implanted at earlier ages. A sensitive period under 24-36 months has been identified over which cochlear implantation is reported to be less effective in terms of improvement in speech and hearing results. With regard to clinical effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implantation, greater benefits from bilateral implants compared to monolateral ones when assessing hearing in quiet and in noise and in sound localization abilities are reported to be present in both case of simultaneous or sequential bilateral implantation. However, with regard to the delay between the surgeries in sequential bilateral implantation, although benefit is reported to be present even after very long delays, on average long delays between surgeries seems to negatively affect the outcome with the second implant. With regard to benefits after cochlear implantation in children with multiple disabilities, benefits in terms of speech perception and communication as well as in quality of the daily life are reported even if benefits are slower and lower in comparison to those generally attained by implanted children without additional disabilities. Regarding the costs/efficacy ratio, the CI is expensive, in particular because of the cost of the high technological device, long life support, but even if healthcare costs are high, the savings in terms of indirect costs and quality of life are important. The CI, in fact, has a positive impact in terms of quality of life. PMID:23685383

Martini, A; Bovo, R; Trevisi, P; Forli, F; Berrettini, S

2013-06-01

313

Management of peri-implantitis  

PubMed Central

Peri-implantitis is a site-specific infectious disease that causes an inflammatory process in soft tissues, and bone loss around an osseointegrated implant in function. The etiology of the implant infection is conditioned by the status of the tissue surrounding the implant, implant design, degree of roughness, external morphology, and excessive mechanical load. The microorganisms most commonly associated with implant failure are spirochetes and mobile forms of Gram-negative anaerobes, unless the origin is the result of simple mechanical overload. Diagnosis is based on changes of color in the gingiva, bleeding and probing depth of peri-implant pockets, suppuration, X-ray, and gradual loss of bone height around the tooth. Treatment will differ depending upon whether it is a case of peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis. The management of implant infection should be focused on the control of infection, the detoxification of the implant surface, and regeneration of the alveolar bone. This review article deals with the various treatment options in the management of peri-implantitis. The article also gives a brief description of the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis of peri-implantitis.

Prathapachandran, Jayachandran; Suresh, Neethu

2012-01-01

314

Extraoral prostheses using extraoral implants.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate extraoral prostheses and the use of extraoral implants in patients with facial defects. 10 cases were treated utilizing maxillofacial prostheses employing extraoral implants in five cases. 16 extraoral implants were installed. Seven implants were placed in irradiated sites in the orbital regions. Six implants were placed in mastoid regions and three in a zygoma region that was irradiated. Two implants failed before initial integration was achieved in irradiated areas. Using 14 extraoral implants as anchors, five extraoral prostheses were set. The other five cases were treated with extraoral prostheses without using extraoral implants due to cost and patient-related factors. The data included age, sex, primary disease, implant length, implant failure, prosthetic attachment, radiation therapy, and peri-implant skin reactions. The use of extraoral implants for the retention of extraoral prostheses has simplified the placement, removal, and cleaning of the prosthesis by the patient. The stability of the prostheses was improved by anchors. Clinical and technical problems are presented with the techniques used for their resolution. Using extraoral implants resulted in a high rate of success in retaining facial prostheses and gave good stability and aesthetic satisfaction. PMID:21255978

Pekkan, G; Tuna, S H; Oghan, F

2011-01-20

315

[Breast implant alternatives].  

PubMed

The use of implants is a basic technique in breast reconstruction after mastectomy, for the correction of breast abnormalities or even more in aesthetic breast augmentation. However, especially in difficult cases, implants can have inconveniences and insufficiencies (poor natural aspect, necessity of replacement, capsular contracture). To mitigate these, numerous alternatives were developed. These autologous techniques use mainly the pedicled or free musculocutaneous flaps, which were at first used in breast reconstruction. Their indications were then widened in surgery of breast abnormalities and in aesthetic surgery of the breast. Main alternatives, described, in the breast implants are envisaged by clarifying their advantages, inconveniences, indications and contraindications. The current place of the fat grafting in breast plastic surgery is defined by taking into account the most recent data. PMID:16169142

Delay, E; Delaporte, T; Sinna, R

2005-10-05

316

Recent developments in ion implantation accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion implantation technology plays an important role in different fields of materials modification and has become a well established industrial technique. In semiconductor device fabrication more than 1000 ion implanters operating in the low- and medium-energy range (<=, 400 keV) are working worldwide. There is also an increasing interest in the improvement of the surface properties of metals, ceramics, and polymers by means of ion implantation. For some of the newer applications the required penetration depth is large, up to several ?m, corresponding to an ion beam energy of several MeV. Furthermore, certain processes involve implant doses up to 1018 ions/cm2, which implies that high currents are needed as well. Both requirements - high ion current and high energy - are difficult to fulfill simultaneously by the commonly used static machines. Modem rf linacs combine strong radial focusing with efficient acceleration, which allows for high currents and high energy. In this paper recent developments in this field will be discussed.

Thomae, R. W.

1990-04-01

317

Piggyback intraocular lens implantation.  

PubMed

The piggyback method of implanting two intraocular lenses in one eye has been successfully expanded to address pseudophakic refractive error in normal eyes and eyes that have undergone post-penetrating keratoplasty. Piggyback implantation has been combined with the use of newly available minus-power lenses to provide appropriate power for a cataract patient with keratoconus, as well as to correct pseudophakic myopia. The phenomenon of increased depth of focus in piggybacks may be explained by a contact zone between the lenses. The late complication of inter-lenticular cellular growth with resultant hyperopic shift, opacification, and loss of vision has recently become a concern. PMID:10724832

Fenzl, R E; Gills, J P; Gills, J P

2000-02-01

318

Hydroxylapatite Otologic Implants  

SciTech Connect

A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMER) and Smith and Nephew Richards Inc. of Bartlett, TN, was initiated in March 1997. The original completion date for the Agreement was March 25, 1998. The purpose of this work is to develop and commercialize net shape forming methods for directly creating dense hydroxylapatite (HA) ceramic otologic implants. The project includes three tasks: (1) modification of existing gelcasting formulations to accommodate HA slurries; (2) demonstration of gelcasting to fabricate green HA ceramic components of a size and shape appropriate to otologic implants: and (3) sintering and evaluation of the HA components.

McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Beale, B.; Johnson, R.

2000-01-01

319

Interpositional biarticular disk implant  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An interpositional biarticular disk implant (11) having a circular peripheral rim, a generally toroidal axial center opening (13) and convex upper and lower surfaces (15, 17) is implanted between resected concave surfaces of the metacarpal base and the trapezium or other carpal bone in a CMC joint replacement. The disk (11) is anchored in operative position through the use of a flexible cord, such as a harvested tendon that passes through the center opening (13) and through osseous passageways created in the two facing bones.

2010-11-23

320

Ion implantation in silicate glasses  

SciTech Connect

This review examines the effects of ion implantation on the physical properties of silicate glasses, the compositional modifications that can be brought about, and the use of metal implants to form colloidal nanosize particles for increasing the nonlinear refractive index.

Arnold, G.W.

1993-12-01

321

Asymmetric implants for breast asymmetry.  

PubMed

The indications, advantages, and disadvantages of round and anatomical implants have previously been described. The principles of biodimensional implant selection have been developed by several authors, where the objective choice of breast prosthesis for augmentation is based on the patient's breast tissues. This process has largely been applied to anatomical implant selection. We report a case of breast asymmetry, where we have applied the same concepts in the selection of implants based on tissue dimension. This resulted in an anatomical implant being used to augment the left breast, and a round implant on the right. To our knowledge a round implant and an anatomical implant have not previously been employed in the same patient to correct breast asymmetry. This resulted in excellent postoperative symmetry. PMID:22542729

Mallucci, P; Branford, O A

2012-04-28

322

Modern device technologies.  

PubMed

Implantable cardiac devices for arrhythmias and related conditions are a rapidly evolving field, with a constant stream of technologies being developed. There are a number of novel devices, other than conventional pacemakers and implantable defibrillators, currently being developed that have the potential to greatly improve patient outcomes. This paper reviews the important recent technologies, the subcutaneous defibrillator, cardiac contraction modulation, the HeartPOD and CardioMEMS heart failure monitors, left atrial appendage closure devices and leadless cardiac pacing. The features of these devices, the results to date, and their possible clinical utility are discussed. PMID:22138425

Crozier, Ian; Smith, Warren

2011-12-03

323

Rehabilitation using single stage implants  

PubMed Central

Implant related prosthesis has become an integral part of rehabilitation of edentulous areas. Single stage implant placement has become popular because of its ease of use and fairly predictable results. In this paper, we present a series of cases of single stage implants being used to rehabilitate different clinical situations. All the implants placed have been successfully restored and followed up for up to one year.

Mohamed, Jumshad B.; Sudarsan, Sabitha; Arun, K. V.; Shivakumar, B.

2009-01-01

324

Current status of ion implantation equipment and techniques for semiconductor IC fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of the use of ion implantation for IC fabrication is described in terms of the history of ion implantation system sales, operating regions for beam currents and energies and new applications for advanced IC structures. Key aspects of process limiting effects such as charging, heating, channeling, particle contamination and uptime are discussed. New technologies such as MeV implantation, direct formation of buried dielectric layers, focused ion beams and advances in the use of computer controls are described.

Current, Michael I.

1985-01-01

325

Ethical, Legal and Social Aspects of Brain-Implants Using Nano-Scale Materials and Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology is an important platform technology which will add new features like improved biocompatibility, smaller size,\\u000a and more sophisticated electronics to neuro-implants improving their therapeutic potential. Especially in view of possible\\u000a advantages for patients, research and development of nanotechnologically improved neuro implants is a moral obligation. However,\\u000a the development of brain implants by itself touches many ethical, social and legal

Francois Berger; Sjef Gevers; Ludwig Siep; Klaus-Michael Weltring

2008-01-01

326

Modeling of nanocluster formation by ion beam implantation  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical model was developed to investigate the mechanism of the formation of nanoclusters via ion beam implantation. The evolution of nanoclusters, including the nucleation and growth process known as Ostwald ripening, was rebuilt using numerical simulations. The effects of implantation parameters such as the ion energy, ion fluence, and temperature on the morphology of implanted microstructures were also studied through integration with the Monte Carlo Transport of Ions in Matter code calculation for the distribution profiles of implanted ions. With an appropriate ion fluence, a labyrinth-like nanostructure with broad size distributions of nanoclusters formed along the ion implantation range. In a latter stage, a buried layer of implanted impurity developed. With decreasing ion energy, the model predicted the formation of precipitates on the surface. These simulation results were fully consistent with many experimental observations. With increased temperature, the characteristic length and size of nanostructures would increase due to the high mobility. This theoretical model provides an efficient numerical approach for fully understanding the mechanism of the formation of nanoclusters, allowing for the design of ion beam experiments to form specific nanostructures through ion-implantation technology.

Li, Kun-Dar [Department of Materials Science, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan 700 (China)

2011-08-15

327

The Même implant.  

PubMed

Eighty-one patients have had breast augmentation with the Même implant since November of 1981. All breasts remain free of spherical capsules or palpable edges. The reason for these good results is still unknown. Although it is too early to determine whether the problem of capsules has been conquered, the results thus far are encouraging. PMID:6701215

Herman, S

1984-03-01

328

Biodegradable Orthopedic Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 30 years, there have been significant advances in the development of biodegradable materials [79]. In particular, these materials have received attention for use as implants to aid regeneration of orthopedic defects [49,91]. Every year more than 3.1 million orthopedic surgeries are performed in the United States alone [1]. However, although current treatments using nondegradable fixation materials have

Johnna S. Temenoff; Antonios G. Mikos

329

Implantable biohybrid artificial organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biohybrid artificial organs encompass all devices which substitute for an organ or tissue function and incorporate both synthetic materials and living cells. This review concerns implantable immunoisolation devices in which the tissue is protected from immune rejection by enclosure within a semipermeable membrane. Two critical areas are discussed in detail: (i) Device design and performance as it relates to maintenance

Clark K. Colton

1995-01-01

330

Implantable continuous glucose sensors.  

PubMed

Because of the limits of wearable needle-type or microdialysis-based enzymatic sensors in clinical use, fully implantable glucose monitoring systems (IGMS) represent a promising alternative. Long-term use reducing impact of invasiveness due to implantation, less frequent calibration needs because of a more stable tissue environment around the sensor and potential easier inclusion in a closed-loop insulin delivery system are the expected benefits of IGMS. First experiences with subcutaneous and intravenous IGMS have been recently collected in pilot studies. While no severe adverse events have been reported, biointerface issues have been responsible for the failures of IGMS. Tissue reactions around implanted subcutaneous devices and damages of intravenous sensors due to shearing forces of blood flow impaired IGMS function and longevity. In functioning systems, accuracy of glucose measurement reached satisfactory levels for average durations of about 120 days with subcutaneous IGMS and 259 days with intravenous sensors. Moreover, sensor information could help to improve time spent in normal glucose range when provided to patients wearing subcutaneous IGMS and allowed safe and effective closed-loop glucose control when intravenous sensors were connected to implanted pumps using intra-peritoneal insulin delivery. These data could open a favourable perspective for IGMS after improvement of biointerface conditions and if compatible with an affordable cost. PMID:18690897

Renard, Eric

2008-08-01

331

Cyborg Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discussions of cyborg technology tend to be relegated to science fiction literature and TV programs like Star Trek. This Topic in Depth looks into current issues and developments in the area of cyborg technology. The first website, from the UC Santa Barbara Department of English, (1) lists a variety of resources on cyborgs, from philosophical articles and literary criticism to current scientific practices. A related area of research is brain-computer interfacing (BCI), which is described on this website from the Helsinki Institute of Technology (2). Research on neural engineering, which combines work in electrical and computer engineering, tissue engineering, materials science, and nanotechnology, is also described on this website from USC (3). The Discovery School (4) suggests this lesson on technology for grades six through eight, in which students explore how the human body uses electric signals to send messages to and from the brain, and then how the nervous system uses those signals, with the option for additional discussions regarding the potential for cyborg technology. The next website from National Public Radio (5) provides a current look at applications of cyber technology, most of which are in the area of healthcare. For example, this program reports on how "scientists make it possible for quadriplegics to control a television, play simple computer games and check e-mail... by just thinking about it." Another interesting experiment--Project Cyborg--involves the neuro-surgical implantation of a device into the median nerves of this researchers' left arm and is described this website (6).

332

A novel strategy for long-term implantable artificial pancreas.  

PubMed

Technology has recently changed type 1 diabetes treatment by introducing several advancements able to improve patients' quality of life. However, despite of several decades of research efforts, the dream of a fully-automated implanted artificial pancreas is quite far from its realization. The need for periodically restoring the implanted battery charge and refilling the implanted insulin reservoir are the main issues, for which invasive surgery, transcutaneous catheters or external portable devices are presently the only solutions. In this paper we propose a novel approach to these issues, describing a totally implanted closed-loop artificial pancreas with a wireless battery charger and a non-invasive strategy for insulin refilling, based on sensorized swallowable "insulin carrier" capsules. Such system has the potential to represent a final solution for diabetes treatment, by fully restoring patients' quality of life. PMID:22254935

Ricotti, Leonardo; Assaf, Tareq; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

2011-01-01

333

Basic design and construction of the Vienna FES implants: existing solutions and prospects for new generations of implants.  

PubMed

We can distinguish 3 generations of FES implants for activation of neural structures: 1. RF-powered implants with antenna displacement dependent stimulation amplitude; 2. RF-powered implants with stabilised stimulation amplitude; and 3. battery powered implants. In Vienna an 8-channel version of the second generation type has been applied clinically to mobilisation of paraplegics and phrenic pacing. A 20-channel implant of the second generation type for mobilisation of paraplegics and an 8-channel implant of the third generation type for cardiac assist have been tested in animal studies. A device of completely new design for direct stimulation of denervated muscles is being tested in animal studies. There is a limited choice of technologically suitable biocompatible and bioresistant materials for implants. The physical design has to be anatomically shaped without corners or edges. Electrical conductors carrying direct current (D.C.) have to be placed inside a hermetic metal case. The established sealing materials, silicone rubber and epoxy resin, do not provide hermeticity and should only embed DC-free components. For electrical connections outside the hermetic metal case welding is preferable to soldering; conductive adhesives should be avoided. It is advisable to use a hydrophobic oxide ceramic core for telemetry antenna coils embedded in sealing polymer. Cleaning of all components before sealing in resin is of the utmost importance as well as avoidance of rapid temperature changes during the curing process. PMID:11344008

Mayr, W; Bijak, M; Rafolt, D; Sauermann, S; Unger, E; Lanmüller, H

2001-01-01

334

Surgical treatment of an exposed orbital implant with vascularized superficial temporal fascia flap.  

PubMed

Orbital implants are often used for the correction of volume deficit after enucleation or evisceration. An orbital implant enhances aesthetics and improves mobility of the subsequent prosthetic eye. With advancements in technology and techniques, implant-related complication rates have been decreased. However, implant exposition as one of the most common complications of socket surgery is still a problem for the oculoplastic surgeon. Many factors are thought to cause orbital implant exposure: Large implants, tension on the wound, and textured surface of the implant may cause a breakdown of the covering layers over the implant. Inadequate fibrovascular ingrowth into the porous implant is the most important factor. Various surgical methods have been described to cover the defect, most offering the use of various tissues as a graft, which are not always satisfactory. We describe a case with silicone implant exposition that was managed with a vascularized superficial temporal fascia flap. According to our knowledge, this is the first article reporting the usage of a vascular tissue in the management of an orbital implant exposure. PMID:19276817

Basterzi, Yavuz; Sari, Ayca; Sari, Alper

2009-03-01

335

Isolation of Highly Doped Implants on Low-Doped Active Layers for CMOS Radiation Drift Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to avoid punchthrough between highly doped implants, built on low-doped substrates or epitaxial layers, is proposed. The technique, which is similar to other previously used in scientific pixel detectors, is here applied in a VLSI CMOS standard technology, to design electrically isolated pixels for radiation or particle detection using the source\\/drain implants as collecting electrodes. The isolation principle

Giacomo Langfelder

2009-01-01

336

Focused ion-beam implantation induced thermal quantum-well intermixing for monolithic optoelectronic device integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

By focused ion beam implantation induced thermal intermixing the bandgap of quantum-well layer structures can be selectively changed. This allows lateral bandgap engineering and gives a new degree of freedom for lateral structuring. The principle technological aspects like the dependence of the bandgap shift on implantation parameters and the spatial resolution are investigated and applied to the fabrication of photonic

Johann Peter Reithmaier; Alfred Forchel

1998-01-01

337

A retrospective study of paediatric health and development following pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and screening (PGD and PGS) are treatments for patients that have (or are carriers of) an inherited genetic disorder, or who have had a history of miscarriage, problems with embryo implantation, etc. Often conducted alongside assisted reproductive technologies (ART), a number of embryos are produced, and the DNA and chromosomes of each are tested for various disorders

Mark Olive; Alison Lashwood; Tony Solomonides

2011-01-01

338

TBCD-TDM: Novel Ultra-Low Energy Protocol for Implantable Wireless Body Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of remote health monitoring now includes technologies such as home and mobile health monitoring, tele-retinal imaging, tele-radiology, remote cardiac monitoring, video conferencing and sensors for remote diagnosis and treatment to patients. In this regard, implantable wireless body sensor networks (IWBSNs) have recently emerged as an important and growing research area. These implantable sensors are required to be reliable,

Fariborz Fereydouni-Forouzandeh; Otmane Aït Mohamed; M. Sawan; F. Awwad

2009-01-01

339

The effect of N 2 + and C + implantation on uranium hydride nucleation and growth kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen attack on uranium and uranium alloys may cause embrittlement and hydride formation that are undesirable in nuclear fuel technology. Implantation of the uranium surface by a high dose of energetic ions modifies the surface in a way that delays the hydrogen attack and slows the growth rate of the hydride. The implanted surfaces also exhibited better passivation to air

R Arkush; M Brill; S Zalkind; M. H Mintz; N Shamir

2002-01-01

340

Identification of the impedance model of an implanted cochlear prosthesis from intracochlear potential measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Those suffering from a severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss can obtain substantial benefit from a cochlear implant prosthesis. An electrode array implanted in the inner ear stimulates auditory nerve fibers by direct injection of electrical current. A major limitation of today's technology is the imprecise control of intracochlear current flow, particularly the relatively wide spread of neural excitation. A

Filiep J. Vanpoucke; Andrzej J. Zarowski; Stefaan A. Peeters

2004-01-01

341

Entertainment Television and Hearing Students' Attitudes Regarding the Pediatric Cochlear Implant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cochlear implant, a bionic technology that restores sound sensation in some patients, has become ethically controversial in the 20 years since its introduction. This controversy recently has entered American entertainment culture, with the issue of pediatric implants emerging in episodes of popular TV programs. This pilot study examines the effects of one such TV episode on the attitudes of

Katrina R. Miller; Kathy Wheeler-Scruggs

2002-01-01

342

Ablation plasma ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The novel hybrid technique, Ablation Plasma Ion Implantation (APII), has been characterized and optimized for ion implantation and/or thin film deposition. In APII, a solid target is ablated by a laser; the resulting plasma plume is the source of ions, which are accelerated to high energy by a negative bias voltage imposed on the substrate. The ions are implanted into the substrate, and the neutral atoms in the ablation plume deposit on the substrate in the form of a thin film. Two configurations of APII are characterized and compared. The parallel target-substrate configuration yields ion-beam-assisted deposition and/or ion implantation, and the perpendicular target-substrate configuration yields pure ion implantation mode. A novel theory of the ion matrix sheath has been developed for APII. The ion current predicted by the Child-Langmuir sheath theory matches well with the experimental ion current. Two different target-substrate orientations have been compared for APII. Parallel target-substrate orientation yields ion-beam-assisted-deposition and ion implantation; to prevent arcing, a laser-voltage delay of several microseconds is required for this mode. For the optimized perpendicular target-substrate orientation, the laser can be fired during the voltage pulse, thereby accelerating ions to full energy. Furthermore, the ion dose is higher than that of the parallel target-substrate orientation by a factor of two. The parameters of plasma plumes have been thoroughly characterized by numerous diagnostics, which include electrical characteristics, optical emission spectroscopy, dye laser resonance absorption photography, resonant/non-resonant interferometry, and Langmuir probe. The total number of ions measured by Langmuir probe, and resonant interferometry, is in the range of 1014 ions per laser pulse. Ion dose measured by plasma diagnostics, has been correlated to the ion dose obtained from material analysis, including sputtering yield calculation, X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The retained and delivered ion doses are in the range of 10 12/cm2 per pulse, which is favorable compared to the ion dose obtained from conventional Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PHI). The APII ion implantation efficiency is estimated to be about 2%. Ion acceleration and implantation was demonstrated for both of the APB configurations. The feasibility of APII was verified by Cross-Sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. For parallel target-substrate configuration, the average deposition rate is 0.0075 nm/shot for the Ti -10 kV APII film. Atomic Force Microscopy implemented at Timken Research Lab indicates that the -4 kV APII film has the smoothest surface. Scratch tests performed at Timken Research lab also prove that APR produces excellent film adhesion.

Qi, Bo

343

Crown-to-implant ratios of short-length implants.  

PubMed

Excessive crown-implant ratios have been cited in the literature as being detrimental to long-term implant survival. However, unfavorable crown-implant ratios have not yet been established. The primary aim of this study was to determine the crown-implant ratios of single-tooth implant-supported restorations on short-length implants in a clinical practice, and to evaluate the health of these implants via mesial and distal first bone-to-implant contact levels. Additionally, the relationship between crown-implant ratios and proximal first bone-to-implant contact levels will be evaluated. In this retrospective cohort study, the cohort was composed of 194 patients who possessed at least 1 single 5.7 mm or 6 mm length plateau design implant-supported restoration that had been surgically placed between February 1997 and December 2005. A chart review was performed to acquire the most recent radiographs in which both the entire crown and the implant were visible. The length of the crown and implant was measured directly from the radiographs using consistent magnification to calculate the crown-implant ratio. Mesial and distal first bone-to-implant contact levels were measured using 3 times magnification and were mathematically corrected for distortion. The last available radiograph was used to measure bone levels. Follow-up time was calculated from the day of implant placement to the date of the last available radiograph. Statistical analyses with analysis of variance mixed models were used. Data from 309 single implant-supported fixed restorations were tabulated and included in the study. The mean (SD) follow-up time was 20.9 (23.2) months, with a range of 15.6 to 122.8 months. The mean crown length (SD) was 13.4 (2.6) mm, with a range of 6.2 to 21.7 mm. The mean (SD) crown-implant ratio was 2.0 (0.4) and ranged from 0.9 to 3.2. The average mesial and distal first bone-to-implant contact levels (SD) measured from the radiographs were -0.2 (0.7) mm and -0.2 (0.9) mm, respectively. No statistically significant relationship was observed between increasing crown-implant ratios and decreasing mesial and distal first bone-to-implant contact levels around the implant with P values of .94 and .57, respectively. In this investigation, mesial and distal first bone-to-implant contact levels on short-length implants fall within the established guidelines for success. Also, there are no associations between crown-implant ratios and first bone-to-implant contact levels. PMID:20545533

Birdi, Hardeep; Schulte, John; Kovacs, Alejandro; Weed, Meghan; Chuang, Sung-Kiang

2010-06-14

344

Surface roughening in ion implanted 4H-silicon carbide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon carbide (SiC) devices have the potential to yield new components with functional capabilities that far exceed components based on silicon devices. Selective doping of SiC by ion implantation is an important fabrication technology that must be completely understood if SiC devices are to achieve their potential. One major problem with ion implantation into SiC is the surface roughening that results from annealing SiC at the high temperatures which are needed to activate implanted acceptor ions, boron or aluminum. This paper examines the causes and possible solutions to surface roughening of implanted and annealed 4H-SiC. Samples consisting of n-type epilayers (5 × 1015 cm-3, 4 µm thick) on 4H-SiC substrates were implanted with B or Al to a total dose of 4 × 1014 cm-2 or 2 × 1015 cm-2, respectively. Roughness measurements were made using atomic force microscopy. From the variation of root mean square (rms) roughness with annealing temperature, apparent activation energies for roughening following implantation with Al and B were 1.1 and 2.2 eV, respectively, when annealed in argon. Time-dependent activation and surface morphology analyses show a sublinear dependence of implant activation on time; activation percentages after a 5 min anneal following boron implantation are about a factor of two less than after a 40 min anneal. The rms surface roughness remained relatively constant with time for anneals in argon at 1750°C. Roughness values at this temperature were approximately 8.0 nm. Annealing experiments performed in different ambients demonstrated the benefits of using silane to maintain good surface morphology. Roughnesses were 1.0 nm (rms) when boron or aluminum implants were annealed in silane at 1700°C, but were about 8 and 11 nm for B and Al, respectively, when annealed in argon at the same temperature.

Capano, M. A.; Ryu, S.; Cooper, J. A., Jr.; Melloch, M. R.; Rottner, K.; Karlsson, S.; Nordell, N.; Powell, A.; Walker, D. E., Jr.

1999-03-01

345

BF{sub 3} PIII modeling: Implantation, amorphisation and diffusion  

SciTech Connect

In the race for highly doped ultra-shallow junctions (USJs) in complementary metal oxide semi-conductor (CMOS) technologies, plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a promising alternative to traditional beamline implantation. Currently, no commercial technology computer aided design (TCAD) process simulator allows modeling the complete USJ fabrication process by PIII, including as-implanted dopant profiles, damage formation, dopant diffusion and activation. In this work, a full simulation of a p-type BF{sub 3} PIII USJ has been carried out. In order to investigate the various physical phenomena mentioned above, process conditions included a high energy/high dose case (10 kV, 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}), specifically designed to increase damage formation, as well as more technology relevant implant conditions (0.5 kV) for comparison. All implanted samples were annealed at different temperatures and times. As implanted profiles for both boron and fluorine in BF{sub 3} implants were modeled and compared to Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. Amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interface depths were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and successfully simulated. Diffused profiles simulations agreed with SIMS data at low thermal budgets. A boron peak behind the a/c interface was observed in all annealed SIMS profiles for the 10 kV case, indicating boron trapping from EOR defects in this region even after high thermal budgets. TEM measurements on the annealed samples showed an end of range (EOR) defects survival behind the a/c interface, including large dislocation loops (DLs) lying on (001) plane parallel to the surface. In the last part of this work, activation simulations were compared to Hall measurements and confirmed the need to develop a (001) large BICs model.

Essa, Z.; Cristiano, F.; Spiegel, Y.; Boulenc, P.; Qiu, Y.; Quillec, M.; Taleb, N.; Burenkov, A.; Hackenberg, M.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Mortet, V.; Torregrosa, Frank; Tavernier, C. [STMicroelectronics 850 rue Jean Monnet F-38926 Crolles France and LAAS-CNRS 7 av. du Col. Roche 31077 Toulouse (France); LAAS-CNRS 7 av. du Col. Roche 31077 Toulouse (France); IBS av. Gaston Imbert prolongee 13790 Peynier Rousset (France); STMicroelectronics 850 rue Jean Monnet F-38926 Crolles (France); LAAS-CNRS 7 av. du Col. Roche 31077 Toulouse (France); Probion Analysis 37 rue de Fontenay 92220 Bagneux (France); Fraunhofer IISB Schottkystrasse 10, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); LAAS-CNRS 7 av. du Col. Roche 31077 Toulouse (France); IBS av. Gaston Imbert prolongee 13790 Peynier Rousset (France); STMicroelectronics 850 rue Jean Monnet F-38926 Crolles (France)

2012-11-06

346

The socially constructed breast: breast implants and the medical construction of need.  

PubMed Central

When silicone gel breast implants became the subject of a public health controversy in the early 1990s, the most pressing concern was safety. This paper looks at another, less publicized issue: the need for implants. Using a symbolic interactionist approach, the author explores the social construction of the need for implants by tracing the history of the 3 surgical procedures for which implants were used. Stakeholders in this history constructed need as legitimized individual desire, the form of which shifted with changes in the technological and social context.

Jacobson, N

1998-01-01

347

Requirements and Challenges in Ion Implanters for Sub-100nm CMOS Device Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

As CMOS technology moves into sub-100nm regime, significance of non-planar structure effects have grown. Traditional ion implant performed at off-critical angle exhibits shortfalls in device integration and performance merits. Modern ion implanters have evolved to face challenges of on-axis implants. Ion beam incident angle control is one essential requirement to manage the challenges. This paper describes number of implant applications in modern CMOS fabrication on which required precision in angle control is estimated based on device measurement and TCAD simulations.

Jeong, Ukyo; Guo, Baonian; Li, Gongchuan; Mehta, Sandeep [Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, MA 01930 (United States); Zhao Zhiyong [AMD, 5204 East Ben White Blvd., M/S 608, Austin, TX 78741 (United States)

2003-08-26

348

Implanted renal replacement for end-stage renal disease.  

PubMed

The nearly 400000 American patients on dialysis suffer high cardiovascular and infectious mortality, but there is now evidence that this morbid phenotype can be rescued by intensive dialytic therapy. Self-care dialysis at home is limited by patient fears about skill and safety. An implanted artificial kidney would provide the benefits of intensive therapy while avoiding the focal points of patient concern. Hollow fiber polymer membranes and dialytic waste removal are lifesaving innovations but are difficult to adapt to implantable therapies. Biomimetic membranes and living cells can replicate the native kidney's strategy for waste removal. Three key technology developments are necessary for implementation of an implantable artificial kidney: high efficiency ultrafiltration membranes, control of blood-materials interactions such as thrombosis and fouling, and stable differentiated function of renal proximal tubule cells in an engineered construct. There has been significant progress in demonstrating proof-of-concept experiments in each key technology area. PMID:21775942

Roy, S; Goldman, K; Marchant, R; Zydney, A; Brown, D; Fleischman, A; Conlisk, A; Desai, T; Duffy, S; Humes, H; Fissell, W

2011-09-01

349

Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is ideally indicated for symptomatic ICRS grade III-IV lesions greater\\u000a than 2 cm2 along the femoral condyle or trochlear regions. High-demand patients between the ages of 15 to 55 years of age with excellent\\u000a motivation and compliance potential should be chosen. Lars Peterson assessed his first 101 patients at intermediate to long-term\\u000a follow-up. Good to

Deryk G. Jones; Lars Peterson

350

Ion Implant Pinball Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The magnetic force of the ions can be compared to a pinball machine with three different masses. If the same impulse is applied to each ball, only the one with the ideal mass will "hit" the target. The objective is to describe how the mass affects implantation. This simulation is from Module 026 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML).

2011-10-27

351

Implantation of Multilead Electrode Assemblies and Radio Stimulation of the Brain in Chimpanzees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the technology developed for intracerebral implantation of multiple electrodes in the chimpanzee and subsequent multichannel radio stimulation and telemetric recording of brain activity. In conjunction with this study a photographic-h...

J. M. R. Delgado R. J. Bradley V. S. Johnston G. Weiss J. D. Wallace

1969-01-01

352

High-resolution ion-implanted silicon detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the properties of silicon detectors developed at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic (Rossendorf) and made by a special planar technology using ion implantation, anodic oxidation, thermal oxidation in an oxygen atmosphere containing HCl, and annealing by pulses of 10--20 msec duration. The resolution for

J. von Borany; B. Schmidt

1985-01-01

353

Computer simulation studies of ion implantation in crystalline silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from systematic computer simulation studies of boron, phosphorus, and arsenic implants into silicon that are important to integrated circuit technology are discussed in terms of interatomic potential, electronic energy loss, and target orientation effects. Detailed crystallographic analyses of axial and planar channeling are presented. The time evolution of an interesting collision cascade which depicts accidental channeling and dechanneling for

Cheruvu S. Murthy; G. R. Srinivasan

1992-01-01

354

Development of engineered cells for implantation in gene therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human gene therapy is based on the technology of genetic engineering of cells, either through ex vivo or in vivo methods of gene transfer. Many autologous cell types have been successfully modified to deliver recombinant gene products. An alternate form of gene therapy based on genetic modification of non-autologous cells is described. Protection within immuno-isolating devices would allow implantation of

Patricia L. Chang; Kelly MacMillan Bowie

1998-01-01

355

Hybrid microprobes for chronic implantation in the cerebral cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a neural device for chronic implantation into the cerebral cortex. Silicon microprobes with 36 electrodes arranged on four shafts are fabricated using MEMS technology. The hybrid integration of a ribbon cable with high flexibility provides the connection of the electrodes to external instrumentation. Crosstalk between the channels is investigated, as well as the electrode stability for

S. Kisban; P. Janssen; S. Herwik; T. Stieglitz; O. Paul; P. Ruther

2008-01-01

356

Improvement of surface bioactivity on titanium by water and hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation.  

PubMed

We have investigated the surface bioactivity of titanium after water and hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation. Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) excels in the surface treatment of components possessing a complicated shape such as medical implants. In addition, water and hydrogen PIII has been extensively studied as a method to fabricate silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates in the semiconductor industry and so it is relatively straightforward to transfer the technology to the biomedical field. In our investigation, water and hydrogen were plasma-implanted into titanium sequentially. Our objective is that water PIII introduces near-surface damages that trap hydrogen implanted in the subsequent step to improve the surface bioactivity while the desirable bulk properties of the materials are not compromised. Ti-OH functional groups can be detected on the (H(2)O+H(2))-implanted titanium surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. After incubation in simulated body fluids (SBF) for cytocompatibililty evaluation in vitro, bone-like hydroxyapatite was found to precipitate on the (H(2)O+H(2)) implanted samples while no apatite was found on titanium samples plasma implanted with water or hydrogen alone. Human osteoblast cells were cultured on the (H(2)O+H(2))-implanted titanium surface and they exhibited good adhesion and growth. Our results suggest a practical means to improve the surface bioactivity and cytocompatibility of medical implants made of titanium. PMID:15885768

Xie, Youtao; Liu, Xuanyong; Huang, Anping; Ding, Chuanxian; Chu, Paul K

2005-11-01

357

Imaging breasts with silicone implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Over the last two decades, the use of breast implants both for breast augmentation and for breast reconstruction following\\u000a mastectomy has increased substantially. It is estimated that around two million women have undergone breast augmentation,\\u000a while hundreds of thousands have had breast reconstruction surgery. Different types of material have been used for breast\\u000a implants, but silicone gel implants have

E. Azavedo; B. Boné

1999-01-01

358

Biological fixation of endosseous implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary implant stability is ensured by a mechanical fixation of implants. However, during implant healing a biological anchorage is necessary to achieve final osseointegration.Aim of this study was to investigate the histological aspects of biological fixation around titanium screws.Forty-eight titanium screws with different surfaces (smooth, plasma sprayed, sand blasted) were inserted in tibiae and femura of sheep and analyzed by

M. Franchi; M. Fini; D. Martini; E. Orsini; L. Leonardi; A. Ruggeri; G. Giavaresi; V. Ottani

2005-01-01

359

Endometrium implantation and ectopic pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryo in uterine implantation is a complex and multifactor-related process and is a downstream and ideal point for woman\\u000a fertility control. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanism of implantation is a prerequisite for development of\\u000a anti-implantation contraceptives. In spite of considerable accumulation of information from the laboratory animals that has\\u000a been achieved, it is difficult to generate such information in

Liu Yixun

2004-01-01

360

Development of Implantable Medical Devices: From an Engineering Perspective  

PubMed Central

From the first pacemaker implant in 1958, numerous engineering and medical activities for implantable medical device development have faced challenges in materials, battery power, functionality, electrical power consumption, size shrinkage, system delivery, and wireless communication. With explosive advances in scientific and engineering technology, many implantable medical devices such as the pacemaker, cochlear implant, and real-time blood pressure sensors have been developed and improved. This trend of progress in medical devices will continue because of the coming super-aged society, which will result in more consumers for the devices. The inner body is a special space filled with electrical, chemical, mechanical, and marine-salted reactions. Therefore, electrical connectivity and communication, corrosion, robustness, and hermeticity are key factors to be considered during the development stage. The main participants in the development stage are the user, the medical staff, and the engineer or technician. Thus, there are three different viewpoints in the development of implantable devices. In this review paper, considerations in the development of implantable medical devices will be presented from the viewpoint of an engineering mind.

2013-01-01

361

In vitro and in vivo evaluations of biodegradable implants for hormone replacement therapy: Effect of system design and PK-PD relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation evaluated the feasibility of using subdermally implantable devices fabricated by nonconventional 3-dimensional\\u000a printing technology for controlled delivery of ethinyl estradiol (EE2). In vitro release kinetics of EE2 and in vivo pharmacokinetics pharmacodynamics in ovariectomized New Zealand White rabbits were carried out to study 3 implant\\u000a prototypes: implant I (single-channel EE2 distribution in polycaprolactone polymer core), implant II (homogeneous

Senshang Lin; Pi-Yun Chao; Yie W. Chien; Amyn Sayani; Sandeep Kumar; Michelle Mason; Thomas West; Alice Yang; Donald Monkhouse

2001-01-01

362

Dental implants from functionally graded materials.  

PubMed

Functionally graded material (FGM) is a heterogeneous composite material including a number of constituents that exhibit a compositional gradient from one surface of the material to the other subsequently, resulting in a material with continuously varying properties in the thickness direction. FGMs are gaining attention for biomedical applications, especially for implants, owing to their reported superior composition. Dental implants can be functionally graded to create an optimized mechanical behavior and achieve the intended biocompatibility and osseointegration improvement. This review presents a comprehensive summary of biomaterials and manufacturing techniques researchers employ throughout the world. Generally, FGM and FGM porous biomaterials are more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous biomaterials. Therefore, our discussion is intended to give the readers about successful and obstacles fabrication of FGM and porous FGM in dental implants that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and develop quality of life and present standards of care. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 101A: 3046-3057, 2013. PMID:23754641

Mehrali, Mehdi; Shirazi, Farid Seyed; Mehrali, Mohammad; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib Bin; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

2013-06-11

363

[PROK1, prognostic marker of embryo implantation?].  

PubMed

In spite of improvements in assisted reproductive technology (ART) during the last 30 years, the rate of pregnancy remains constrained, as only about 25 % of embryo transfer lead to successful pregnancies, even with an average of two embryos replaced. Embryo selection is currently based on the establishment of morphokinetic scores, a method that obviously exhibits limitations. Therefore, the assessment of embryo development potency by criteria of higher predictive value is mandatory in order to increase the rates of pregnancy. Nowadays, there is increasing evidence that angiogenic factors might contribute to the success of the implantation and to the pregnancy outcome. Among these factors, prokineticin 1 (PROK1) and its receptors (PROKRs) constitute new targets that showed over the last ten years strong biological features directly linked to ovarian physiology, endometrial receptivity, embryo implantation and thus successful pregnancies. In ART, the rates of circulating PROK1 were reported in 2012 as significantly linked to the quality of embryonic cohort, as well as to the rates of pregnancy. Our preliminary data suggest a high potential of this cytokine in the success of implantation and pregnancy, and strongly overtones the emergency to investigate the value of its measurement in conditioned media of oocytes and embryo cultures in ART. PMID:23972922

Brouillet, S; Hoffmann, P; Thomas-Cadi, C; Bergues, U; Feige, J-J; Alfaidy, N; Hennebicq, S

2013-08-21

364

Antibacterial coatings on titanium implants.  

PubMed

Titanium and titanium alloys are key biomedical materials because of their good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Nevertheless, infection on and around titanium implants still remains a problem which is usually difficult to treat and may lead to eventual implant removal. As a result, preventive measures are necessary to mitigate implant-frelated infection. One important strategy is to render the implant surface antibacterial by impeding the formation of a biofilm. A number of approaches have been proposed for this purpose and they are reviewed in this article. PMID:19637369

Zhao, Lingzhou; Chu, Paul K; Zhang, Yumei; Wu, Zhifen

2009-10-01

365

Graphene synthesis by ion implantation  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate an ion implantation method for large-scale synthesis of high quality graphene films with controllable thickness. Thermally annealing polycrystalline nickel substrates that have been ion implanted with carbon atoms results in the surface growth of graphene films whose average thickness is controlled by implantation dose. The graphene film quality, as probed with Raman and electrical measurements, is comparable to previously reported synthesis methods. The implantation synthesis method can be generalized to a variety of metallic substrates and growth temperatures, since it does not require a decomposition of chemical precursors or a solvation of carbon into the substrate.

Garaj, Slaven; Hubbard, William; Golovchenko, J. A.

2010-01-01

366

Defect diffusion in ion implanted glasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ion implantation in glasses produces structure modifications at depths greater than those of the implanted ion range. Such a result is evidenced by means of leaching experiments, alkali element depletion, distribution of gaseous implanted species, etching...

G. W. Arnold G. Battaglin A. Boscolo-Boscoletto F. Caccavale G. De Marchi

1991-01-01

367

Ion Implantation in Perovskite Type Ferroelectrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of this work was to study ion implantation in perovskite ferroelectrics and to investigate the conductive behavior of implanted layers. Implantation experiments were carried out on strontium titanate, barium titanate (single crystal and ceramic...

R. Gerson

1979-01-01

368

21 CFR 522.1350 - Melatonin implant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Melatonin implant. 522.1350 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1350 Melatonin implant. (a) Specifications ...implant containing 2.7 milligrams of melatonin. (b) Sponsor . See No....

2009-04-01

369

Nanocoating for Improving Biocompatibility of Medical Implants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coating for an implant surface comprising one or more nanoparticles of less than or equal to 500 nanometers and an implant surface capable of receiving the nanoparticles, the implant selected from the group consisting of metal, carbon, graphite, polymer...

L. Tang

2004-01-01

370

Bone cement implantation syndrome.  

PubMed

Bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) is characterized by hypoxia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, increased pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac arrest. It is a known cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cemented orthopaedic surgeries. The rarity of the condition as well as absence of a proper definition has contributed to under-reporting of cases. We report a 59-year-old woman who sustained fracture of the neck of her left femur and underwent an elective hybrid total hip replacement surgery. She collapsed during surgery and was revived only to succumb to death twelve hours later. Post mortem findings showed multiorgan disseminated microembolization of bone marrow and amorphous cement material. PMID:23817399

Razuin, R; Effat, O; Shahidan, M N; Shama, D V; Miswan, M F M

2013-06-01

371

Broad beam ion implanter  

DOEpatents

An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

1996-01-01

372

[A Roman orbital implant?].  

PubMed

During an excavation in Regensburg/Germany the skeleton of an approximately 20-year-old Roman man was found who was buried in the 3rd/4th century after Christ. A "stone" was found which fitted into the left orbit precisely. After a thorough investigation of the "stone" and with the ophthalmohistorical literature in mind an orbital "implant" as well as a petrified medical paste ("Kollyrium") could be ruled out almost with certainty. Possibly the "stone" served another medical purpose or was used for protection of the eye. PMID:23011607

Rohrbach, J M; Harbeck, M; Holzhauser, P; Tekeva-Rohrbach, C I; Mach, M; Codreanu-Windauer, S

2012-09-25

373

A 0.1-?m delta-doped MOSFET fabricated with post-low-energy implanting selective epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple fabrication technology for delta-doped MOSFETs, named post-low-energy implanting selective epitaxy (PLISE) is presented. The PLISE technology needs no additional photo-lithography mask, deposition step or etching step even for CMOS devices. The only additional step is growing undoped epitaxial channel layers by UHV-CVD after the channel implantation. With this technology, delta-doped NMOSFETs with 0.1-?m gate length were successfully fabricated.

Kenji Noda; Toru Tatsumi; Tetsuya Uchida; Ken Nakajima; Hidenobu Miyamoto; Chenming Hu

1998-01-01

374

The optimal design of an implant to improve bone quality of implant surroundings based on stress analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on how implant surface shape contributes to long-term stability after implantation is important in the field of orthopaedics. In particular, technology that controls various bone quality parameters and voluntary bone inducement in implant surroundings should be developed for the next generation of implants and this will improve the patient's quality of life (QOL). For this research, we focused on the inducement of the appropriate alignment for biological apatite (BAp) crystallites and related collagen (Col.) fibres as a bone quality parameter. In this study, we predicted that when stress is applied to bone, the BAp/Col. preferential alignment can be formed if osteocytes are in an environment that is aligned with the principle stress vector. We tested this idea by introducing grooves in the principal stress direction on the surface of an implant. This work thus analyzes the effect of stress transmission by a load at the proximal femur on the bone inside and near the grooves by using mechanical simulation in which groove angles can be changed on the implant surface. Coordinate data from the mechanical simulation of the combined bone/implant environment was verified against the coordinate data obtained by CT scans of actual canine bone. Results suggest that the tendency of stress transmission differs depending on the position and angle of the grooves and based on a vector diagram of the maximum and minimum principal stresses. The simulation was able to predict bone dynamics in vivo and enabled a best design of an implant to control the BAp/Col. alignment as an index of bone quality.

Noyama, Yoshihiro; Nagayama, Noriyuki; Kuramoto, Koichi; Nakano, Takayoshi

2009-05-01

375

Alkaline aqueous electrolyte cells for biomedical implantable applications  

SciTech Connect

Technological advances, latest state of the art and ultimate achieved performance of primary mercuric oxide-zinc cells for biomedical, implantable applications are reviewed. The data presented serve as a basis against which long-term performance data of lithium batteries could be compared in the future. The different cell-internal and cell-external self-discharge processes are analyzed as to their relative importance in causing capacity loss. Other aqueous electrolyte, alkaline primary cells, such as the HgO-Cd cell, and secondary NiOOH-Cd batteries are also discussed regarding biomedical implantable applications. 56 refs.

Ruetschi, P.

1980-01-01

376

Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

1989-06-01

377

Active silicon implant devices  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A medical implant for injecting into the vascular system of animals comprises a device less than 500 .mu.m in size carrying signal processing means for providing an output in response to an input signal. The input may be acoustic, electromagnetic, temperature, pH value, or chemical. The output may be acoustic, electromagnetic, or chemical. Large numbers, e.g., 10.sup.8, of the implant devices may be mixed into a saline solution and injected into a blood vessel where they are carried around the vascular system, or the devices may be mixed with a gas and inhaled. The amount of circulation depends on the device size. For the larger device e.g., above 7 .mu.m to around 250 .mu.m, circulation will be short lived. Smaller sized e.g., <3 .mu.m devices will circulate for a considerable time. Anti-bodies may be coated onto the devices to cause them to adhere to target areas such as tumors. In one device a chemical is released when illuminated externally by an acoustic beam. In another device a chemical is released when the pH of surrounding blood changes to a given level. Power to operate the device may be by an integral battery.

Benjamin; John D. (Malvern, GB2); Mears; Adrian L. (Cheltenham, GB2); White; John C. (Lincoln, GB2)

1988-12-27

378

Awake transapical aortic valve implantation.  

PubMed

Transapical aortic valve implantation is being employed as a less invasive alternative to open heart surgery in high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Here we report the case of an awake transapical aortic valve implantation in a patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:22345062

Petridis, Francesco Dimitri; Savini, Carlo; Castelli, Andrea; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto

2012-02-16

379

Body Implanted Medical Device Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical care day by day and more and more is associated with and reliant upon concepts and advances of electronics and electromagnetics. Numerous medical devices are implanted in the body for medical use. Tissue implanted devices are of great interest for wireless medical applications due to the promising of different clinical usage to promote a patient independence. It can

Kamya Yekeh Yazdandoost; Ryuji Kohno

2009-01-01

380

Annealing of Ion Implanted Silicon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The newer uses of ion implantation require a higher dose rate. This has led to the introduction of high beam current implanters; the wafers move in front of a stationary beam to give a scanning effect. This can lead to non-uniform heating of the wafer. Va...

D. Chivers B. J. Smith J. Stephen M. Fisher

1980-01-01

381

Periareolar mastopexy with mammary implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our experience with using a periareolar mastopexy technique combined with prosthesis implantation to correct mammary ptosis, misplaced areolas, and tuberous hypoplastic breasts. We draw a circle around the areola and deepidermize the skin between them. We enter the glandular tissue and introduce the implant in a submuscular pocket. A purse string suture of nonabsorbable material is used to

Antonio de la Fuente; Jose L. Martín del Yerro

1992-01-01

382

New paradigm in implant osseointegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last years, implant dentistry has seen an dramatic increase as a treatment option in oral rehabilitation. This is based to a large extent on scientific advances and clinical improvements in implantology. The extension of indications has broadened the opprtunities to rehabilitate patients that were formerly considered to posess restricted indications to place implants. Additionally, patient desires (high aesthetic

Ulrich Joos; Ulrich Meyer

2006-01-01

383

Sequential provisional implant prosthodontics therapy.  

PubMed

The fabrication and long-term use of first- and second-stage provisional implant prostheses is critical to create a favorable prognosis for function and esthetics of a fixed-implant supported prosthesis. The fixed metal and acrylic resin cemented first-stage prosthesis, as reviewed in Part I, is needed for prevention of adjacent and opposing tooth movement, pressure on the implant site as well as protection to avoid micromovement of the freshly placed implant body. The second-stage prosthesis, reviewed in Part II, should be used following implant uncovering and abutment installation. The patient wears this provisional prosthesis until maturation of the bone and healing of soft tissues. The second-stage provisional prosthesis is also a fail-safe mechanism for possible early implant failures and also can be used with late failures and/or for the necessity to repair the definitive prosthesis. In addition, the screw-retained provisional prosthesis is used if and when an implant requires removal or other implants are to be placed as in a sequential approach. The creation and use of both first- and second-stage provisional prostheses involve a restorative dentist, dental technician, surgeon, and patient to work as a team. If the dentist alone cannot do diagnosis and treatment planning, surgery, and laboratory techniques, he or she needs help by employing the expertise of a surgeon and a laboratory technician. This team approach is essential for optimum results. PMID:23220306

Zinner, Ira D; Markovits, Stanley; Jansen, Curtis E; Reid, Patrick E; Schnader, Yale E; Shapiro, Herbert J

384

Porous metal for orthopedics implants  

PubMed Central

Summary Porous metal has been introduced to obtain biological fixation and improve longevity of orthopedic implants. The new generation of porous metal has intriguing characteristics that allows bone healing and high osteointegration of the metallic implants. This article gives an overview about biomaterials properties of the contemporary class of highly porous metals and about the clinical use in orthopaedic surgery.

Matassi, Fabrizio; Botti, Alessandra; Sirleo, Luigi; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo

2013-01-01

385

Airport detectors and orthopaedic implants.  

PubMed

As a result of the rising threats of terrorism, airport security has become a major issue. Patients with orthopaedic implants are concerned that they may activate alarms at airport security gates. A literature overview showed that the activation rate of the alarm by hand-held detectors is higher than for arch detectors (100% versus 56%). Arch detection rate has significantly increased from 0% before 1995 up to 83.3% after 1994. Reported factors which influence detection rates are implant mass, implant combinations, implant volume, transfer speed, side of implant, detector model, sensitivity settings, material and tissue masking. Detection rate has been improved by more sensitive devices and improved filter software. Doctors should be able to objectively inform patients. A form is presented which will easily inform the airport security staff. PMID:16184989

van der Wal, Bart C H; Grimm, Bernd; Heyligers, Ide C

2005-08-01

386

BioSTAR bioabsorbable septal repair implant.  

PubMed

Thousands of patients have had congenital defects of their intra-atrial septa successfully closed via percutaneous techniques in the cardiac catheterization laboratory for hemodynamic correction, stroke, migraine and decompression illness. However, currently available closure technologies leave a permanent cardiac implant in a relatively young patient population. As the first device incorporating a bioabsorbable material for the treatment of structural heart disease, BioSTAR is uniquely designed to remodel into native tissue following closure, providing a more natural method of defect repair. This paper reviews atrial morphology, with a focus on patent foramen ovale, indications both present and emerging, and the development of technologies that promote a healthy natural healing response, with a focus on the design, testing and clinical experience with BioSTAR. PMID:18035944

Mullen, Michael J; Devellian, Carol A; Jux, Christian

2007-11-01

387

Tribological properties of nitrogen implanted and boron implanted steels  

SciTech Connect

Samples of a steel with high chrome content was implanted separately with 75 keV nitrogen ions and with 75 keV boron ions. Implanted doses of each ion species were 2-, 4-, and 8 {times} 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 2}. Retained doses were measured using resonant non-Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. Tribological properties were determined using a pin-on-disk test with a 6-mm diameter ruby pin with a velocity of 0.94 m/min. Testing was done at 10% humidity with a load of 377 g. Wear rate and coefficient of friction were determined from these tests. While reduction in the wear rate for nitrogen implanted materials was observed, greater reduction (more than an order of magnitude) was observed for boron implanted materials. In addition, reduction in the coefficient of friction for high-dose boron implanted materials was observed. Nano-indentation revealed a hardened layer near the surface of the material. Results from grazing incidence x-ray diffraction suggest the formation of Fe{sub 2}N and Fe{sub 3}N in the nitrogen implanted materials and Fe{sub 3}B in the boron implanted materials. Results from transmission electron microscopy will be presented.

Kern, K.T. [Norfolk State Univ., VA (United States). Center for Materials Research; Walter, K.C.; Griffin, A.J. Jr.; Kung, H.; Lu, Y.; Nastasi, M.; Tesmer, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.; Fayeulle, S. [Ecole Centrale De Lyon, Ecully (France)

1996-06-01

388

Multicenter retrospective study of implants loaded with functional prostheses 8 weeks after insertion.  

PubMed

A multicenter retrospective statistical study was carried out to evaluate whether functional prosthetic loading of an implant 8 weeks after surgical insertion is acceptable clinically. Based on studies in vitro, which confirm that the fastest and best quality bone healing occurs around implants with surface treatment specifically after sanding with Al2O3 and subsequent passivity, this knowledge was applied to clinics. Four hundred and fifteen implants were inserted in 128 patients regardless of the pathology they presented and the quantity or quality of the area of the bone to be treated. Thus, all patients were included in the study independent of their physiological and pathological characteristics. The area of implant insertion, the type of prosthesis used, and the rate of success or survival of implants with bone resorption or mucositis were evaluated. With respect to the total number of implants loaded at 8 weeks, the rate of success for completely successful implants was 95.38%, and the rate of success of both partially and completely successful implants was 99.75%. Functional prosthetic loading at 8 weeks is an appropriate procedure, providing that technology of the implant surface guarantees, once the time has passed, that the osteointegration is achieved and capable of holding loading. PMID:15764944

Fradera, Alejandro Padrós; Roig, Esteban Padullés; Sesma, José Maria Arano; Mayandía, Norbert Manzanares; Alvarez, Rosario Canedo; Amell, Xavier Amell; Roma, Enric Pedemonte; Gil Mur, F Javier

2005-03-01

389

Concepts and designs of ion implantation equipment for semiconductor processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manufacturing ion implantation equipment for doping semiconductors has grown into a two billion dollar business. The accelerators developed for nuclear physics research and isotope separation provided the technology from which ion implanters have been developed but the unique requirements of the semiconductor industry defined the evolution of the architecture of these small accelerators. Key elements will be described including ion generation and beam transport systems as well as the techniques used to achieve uniform doping over large wafers. The wafers are processed one at a time or in batches and are moved in and out of the vacuum by automated handling systems. The productivity of an implanter is of economic importance and there is continuing need to increase the usable beam current especially at low energies.

Rose, Peter H.; Ryding, Geoffrey

2006-11-01

390

Deep Trench Doping by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Silicon  

SciTech Connect

The realization of three dimensional (3D) device structures remains a great challenge in microelectronics. One of the main technological breakthroughs for such devices is the ability to control dopant implantation along silicon trench sidewalls. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) has shown its wide efficiency for specific doping processing in semiconductor applications. In this work, we propose to study the capability of PIII method for large scale silicon trench doping. Ultra deep trenches with high aspect ratio were etched on 6'' N type Si wafers. Wafers were then implanted with a PIII Pulsion system using BF3 gas source at various pressures and energies. The obtained results evidence that PIII can be used and are of grateful help to define optimized processing conditions to uniformly dope silicon trench sidewalls through the wafers.

Nizou, S. [Universite Francois Rabelais, Tours, L.M.P, 16, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, B.P. 7155, F37071 TOURS Cedex (France); STMicroelectronics, 16, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, B.P. 7155, F37071 TOURS Cedex (France); Vervisch, V.; Etienne, H.; Torregrosa, F.; Roux, L. [Ion Beam Services, Rue Gaston Imbert Prolongee, ZI Peynier-Rousset, 13790, PEYNIER (France); Ziti, M.; Alquier, D. [Universite Francois Rabelais, Tours, L.M.P, 16, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, B.P. 7155, F37071 TOURS Cedex (France); Roy, M. [STMicroelectronics, 16, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, B.P. 7155, F37071 TOURS Cedex (France)

2006-11-13

391

Nitinol Surfaces for Implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitinol, a group of nearly equiatomic Ni-Ti alloys, steadily conquers new areas of application. Because of the need to keep a low profile of miniature implant devices, and considering the lack of compatibility between Nitinol superelasticity and the mechanical properties of traditional coatings, bare surfaces are of interest. In this article, an overview of our studies of bare Nitinol surfaces is presented, and the performance of coated surfaces is outlined. Together dense and porous Nitinol offer a wide array of surface topographies, suitable for attachment and migration of biological cells and tissue ingrowth. Native Nitinol surface oxides vary from amorphous to crystalline and exhibit semiconducting properties associated with better blood compatibility. Nitinol surfaces are analyzed with regard to high and lasting nickel release in vitro. Surface oxide thickness and Nitinol intermetallic particulates are discussed in relation to corrosion resistance and mechanical performance of the material.

Shabalovskaya, Svetlana; Rondelli, Gianni; Rettenmayr, Markus

2009-08-01

392

Breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants.  

PubMed

For patients who undergo mastectomy for the treatment of breast cancer, the restoration of a normal breast form through breast reconstruction is important to body image and quality of life. Implant-based reconstruction has the capability of producing excellent results in the well selected patient. In addition, compared with autogenous tissue reconstruction, implant reconstruction offers a shorter operative procedure with a quicker convalescence and no donor site morbidity. Reconstruction options for implant-based reconstruction include: single-stage reconstruction with a standard or adjustable implant, tissue expansion followed by placement of a permanent implant, or combined autologous tissue/implant reconstruction. Procedure selection is based on a range of patient variables, including: location and type of breast cancer, availability of local, regional and distant donor tissue, size and shape of the desired breast(s), surgical risk, and most importantly, patient preference. Although satisfactory results can be obtained with single-stage reconstruction, in most of patients, a more reliable approach involves two-stage expander/implant reconstruction. Individualizing selection of a reconstructive technique for each patient will be the predominant factor in achieving a reconstructive success. PMID:18677130

Mesbahi, Ali N; McCarthy, Colleen M; Disa, Joseph J

393

Colloid formation in implanted glasses  

SciTech Connect

Metal colloids in glasses can yield an enhanced ([chi]([sup 3])) susceptibility which leads to an intensity dependent refractive index. Ion implantation is a convenient means of introducing the metal species. The host glass plays an important role in colloid formation. We have characterized Ag-colloid formation in various silicate glasses and, in addition, have studied the formation of colloids in Ag-doped phosphate glass as a function of N and H implantation. Some preliminary results for Cu-implanted glasses are presented.

Arnold, G.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Mazzoldi, P.; Tramontin, L. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Boscolo-Boscoletto, A. (ECP-EniChem Polimeri, Porto Marghera (Italy)); Battaglin, G. (Venice Univ. (Italy))

1992-01-01

394

Colloid formation in implanted glasses  

SciTech Connect

Metal colloids in glasses can yield an enhanced ({chi}({sup 3})) susceptibility which leads to an intensity dependent refractive index. Ion implantation is a convenient means of introducing the metal species. The host glass plays an important role in colloid formation. We have characterized Ag-colloid formation in various silicate glasses and, in addition, have studied the formation of colloids in Ag-doped phosphate glass as a function of N and H implantation. Some preliminary results for Cu-implanted glasses are presented.

Arnold, G.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mazzoldi, P.; Tramontin, L. [Padua Univ. (Italy); Boscolo-Boscoletto, A. [ECP-EniChem Polimeri, Porto Marghera (Italy); Battaglin, G. [Venice Univ. (Italy)

1992-12-31

395

Improvement of the MR imaging behavior of vascular implants.  

PubMed

Vascular implants can cause significant MR image artifacts due to the material (susceptibility artifact) or the electromagnetic characteristics (RF artifact). These artifacts are caused by the distortion of the magnetic field and interferences with the radio frequency (RF) waves of the MR imaging process. Void or complete vanishing of signals occurs in close proximity or inside implants. The artifacts can be minimized by using a material with low magnetic susceptibility and a design of the implant which avoids electrical conductive loops. But not all designs can be made loop-free and non conductive. A resonant circuit tuned to the Larmor frequency of the MR tomography overcomes the RF artifact and thus improves the visualization of the implant lumen. The paper reviews the state-of-the-art technology of the MR-signal improvement in implants lumen, with particular regard to the use of resonant circuits such as stents or Vena Cava Filter (VCF), with resonators in 1.0 Tesla and 1.5Tesla MRT. PMID:16754191

Immel, Erwin; Melzer, Andreas

2006-01-01

396

Cochlear implants: a remarkable past and a brilliant future  

PubMed Central

The aims of this paper are to (i) provide a brief history of cochlear implants; (ii) present a status report on the current state of implant engineering and the levels of speech understanding enabled by that engineering; (iii) describe limitations of current signal processing strategies and (iv) suggest new directions for research. With current technology the “average” implant patient, when listening to predictable conversations in quiet, is able to communicate with relative ease. However, in an environment typical of a workplace the average patient has a great deal of difficulty. Patients who are “above average” in terms of speech understanding, can achieve 100% correct scores on the most difficult tests of speech understanding in quiet but also have significant difficulty when signals are presented in noise. The major factors in these outcomes appear to be (i) a loss of low-frequency, fine structure information possibly due to the envelope extraction algorithms common to cochlear implant signal processing; (ii) a limitation in the number of effective channels of stimulation due to overlap in electric fields from electrodes, and (iii) central processing deficits, especially for patients with poor speech understanding. Two recent developments, bilateral implants and combined electric and acoustic stimulation, have promise to remediate some of the difficulties experienced by patients in noise and to reinstate low-frequency fine structure information. If other possibilities are realized, e.g., electrodes that emit drugs to inhibit cell death following trauma and to induce the growth of neurites toward electrodes, then the future is very bright indeed.

Wilson, Blake S.; Dorman, Michael F.

2013-01-01

397

Beyond cochlear implants: awakening the deafened brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cochlear implants have provided hearing to more than 120,000 deaf people. Recent surgical developments include direct electrical stimulation of the brain, bilateral implants and implantation in children less than 1 year old. However, research is beginning to refocus on the role of the brain in providing benefits to implant users. The auditory system is able to use the highly impoverished

Robert V Shannon; David R Moore

2009-01-01

398

Ion sources for commercial ion implanter applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review some of the history as well as recent developments in the implanter ion source field. It is noted that ion sources for implantation have changed considerably since implantation was first used commercially. Dramatic increases in beam output have been sustained with each new generation of ion implanters. In addition to the drive for improved beam currents, the

S. R. Walther; B. O. Pedersen; C. M. McKenna

1991-01-01

399

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators. Prophylactic Use  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The use of implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) to prevent sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest or documented dangerous ventricular arrhythmias (secondary prevention of SCD) is an insured service. In 2003 (before the establishment of the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee), the Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a health technology policy assessment on the prophylactic use (primary prevention of SCD) of ICDs for patients at high risk of SCD. The Medical Advisory Secretariat concluded that ICDs are effective for the primary prevention of SCD. Moreover, it found that a more clearly defined target population at risk for SCD that would be likely to benefit from ICDs is needed, given that the number needed to treat (NNT) from recent studies is 13 to 18, and given that the per-unit cost of ICDs is $32,000, which means that the projected cost to Ontario is $770 million (Cdn). Accordingly, as part of an annual review and publication of more recent articles, the Medical Advisory Secretariat updated its health technology policy assessment of ICDs. Clinical Need Sudden cardiac death is caused by the sudden onset of fatal arrhythmias, or abnormal heart rhythms: ventricular tachycardia (VT), a rhythm abnormality in which the ventricles cause the heart to beat too fast, and ventricular fibrillation (VF), an abnormal, rapid and erratic heart rhythm. About 80% of fatal arrhythmias are associated with ischemic heart disease, which is caused by insufficient blood flow to the heart. Management of VT and VF with antiarrhythmic drugs is not very effective; for this reason, nonpharmacological treatments have been explored. One such treatment is the ICD. The Technology An ICD is a battery-powered device that, once implanted, monitors heart rhythm and can deliver an electric shock to restore normal rhythm when potentially fatal arrhythmias are detected. The use of ICDs to prevent SCD in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest or documented dangerous ventricular arrhythmias (secondary prevention) is an insured service in Ontario. Primary prevention of SCD involves identification of and preventive therapy for patients who are at high risk for SCD. Most of the studies in the literature that have examined the prevention of fatal ventricular arrhythmias have focused on patients with ischemic heart disease, in particular, those with heart failure (HF), which has been shown to increase the risk of SCD. The risk of HF is determined by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF); most studies have focused on patients with an LVEF under 0.35 or 0.30. While most studies have found ICDs to reduce significantly the risk for SCD in patients with an LVEF less than 0.35, a more recent study (Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial [SCD-HeFT]) reported that patients with HF with nonischemic heart disease could also benefit from this technology. Based on the generalization of the SCD-HeFT study, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid in the United States recently announced that it would allocate $10 billion (US) annually toward the primary prevention of SCD for patients with ischemic and nonischemic heart disease and an LVEF under 0.35. Review Strategy The aim of this literature review was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost effectiveness of ICDs for the primary prevention of SCD. The standard search strategy used by the Medical Advisory Secretariat was used. This included a search of all international health technology assessments as well as a search of the medical literature from January 2003–May 2005. A modification of the GRADE approach (1) was used to make judgments about the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations systematically and explicitly. GRADE provides a framework for structured reflection and can help to ensure that appropriate judgments are made. GRADE takes into account a study’s design, quality, consistency, and directness in judging the quality of evidence for each outcome. The balance between benefits and harms, quality of e

2005-01-01

400

Investigation on plasma immersion ion implantation treated medical implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the biocompatibility of osteosynsthesis plates treated with plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was tested using a rat model. Small rods (Ø 0.9 mm, and length 10 mm) prepared from different materials—pure Ti, anodised Ti, and two NiTi alloys (SE 508, and SM 495)—were implanted with oxygen by PIII to form a rutile surface layer and subsequently inserted

S Mändl; R Sader; G Thorwarth; D Krause; H.-F Zeilhofer; H. H Horch; B Rauschenbach

2002-01-01

401

Fracture behaviour of implant–implant- and implant–tooth-supported all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses utilising zirconium dioxide implant abutments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This in vitro study investigated the fracture behaviour of implant–implant-supported and implant–tooth-supported all-ceramic\\u000a fixed dental prostheses (FDP) using zirconium dioxide implant abutments (FRIADENT® CERCON® abutments, DENTSPLY Friadent).\\u000a Six different test groups (n?=?8) were prepared. Groups 1, 2, 4, and 5 represented an implant–implant-supported FDP condition, whereas groups 3 and 6\\u000a simulated an implant–tooth-supported FDP condition. The second right premolar of

Frank Philipp Nothdurft; Sabine Merker; Peter Reinhard Pospiech

2011-01-01

402

The design and production of Ti-6Al-4V ELI customized dental implants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the production of customized Ti-6Al-4V ELI dental implants via electron beam melting (EBM). The melting of Ti-6Al-4V ELI powder produces implants with great biocompatibility, fi ne mechanical performance, and a high bone ingrowth potential. The EBM technology is used to produce one-component dental implants that mimic the exact shape of the patient’s tooth, replacing the traditional, three-component, “screw-like” standardized dental implants currently used. The new generation of implants provides the possibility of simplifying pre-insertion procedures leading to faster healing time, and the potential of better and stronger osseointegration, specifi cally through incorporating lattice structure design.

Chahine, Gilbert; Koike, Mari; Okabe, Toru; Smith, Pauline; Kovacevic, Radovan

2008-11-01

403

Optima XE Single Wafer High Energy Ion Implanter  

SciTech Connect

The Optima XE is the first production worthy single wafer high energy implanter. The new system combines a state-of-art single wafer endstation capable of throughputs in excess of 400 wafers/hour with a production-proven RF linear accelerator technology. Axcelis has been evolving and refining RF Linac technology since the introduction of the NV1000 in 1986. The Optima XE provides production worthy beam currents up to energies of 1.2 MeV for P{sup +}, 2.9 MeV for P{sup ++}, and 1.5 MeV for B{sup +}. Energies as low as 10 keV and tilt angles as high as 45 degrees are also available., allowing the implanter to be used for a wide variety of traditional medium current implants to ensure high equipment utilization. The single wafer endstation provides precise implant angle control across wafer and wafer to wafer. In addition, Optima XE's unique dose control system allows compensation of photoresist outgassing effects without relying on traditional pressure-based methods. We describe the specific features, angle control and dosimetry of the Optima XE and their applications in addressing the ever-tightening demands for more precise process controls and higher productivity.

Satoh, Shu; Ferrara, Joseph; Bell, Edward; Patel, Shital; Sieradzki, Manny [Axcelis Technologies, Inc. 108 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

2008-11-03

404

ANTIARRHYTHMICS VERSUS IMPLANTABLE DEFIBRILLATORS (AVID)  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluates whether use of an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) results in reduction in total mortality, when compared with conventional pharmacological therapy, in patients resuscitated from sudden cardiac death who are otherwise at very high risk of mortality from arrhythmi...

405

Toxicological Mechanisms of Implantation Failure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Implantation in mammals requires the successful completion of a series of integrated phenomena, including uterine preparation, synchronized embryo transport, embryonic attachment, uterine transformation, placental development, and the requisite hormonal m...

A. M. Cummings

1990-01-01

406

Lithium Implanted Solar Cells, Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the identification and processing description of all samples processed and the tabulated measurement data obtained on phosphorus diffused, lithium implanted, p-type silicon solar cell blanks. (Author)

D. A. Smith J. L. Hartke

1973-01-01

407

High fluence implantation in glasses: chemical interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results will be given on chemical interactions in amorphous SiO2 implanted with reactive and non-reactive species. Samples were implanted with nitrogen, silicon, titanium and silver; a set of samples already implanted with these elements (excluding those implanted with nitrogen) has been subjected to a second implant with nitrogen ions. at the dose of 2 × 1017 ions cm-2, at different

P. Mazzoldi; F. Caccavale; E. Cattaruzza; A. Boscolo-Boscoletto; R. Bertoncello; A. Glisenti; G. Battaglin; C. Gerardi

1992-01-01

408

Retrofitting implant overdenture attachments: a clinical report.  

PubMed

The remake of implant-overdenture prostheses on preexisting implants can present the clinician with a challenge, especially when the prosthetic components used initially cannot be replaced. The difficulty of remaking the prosthesis may be further increased by implant attachments designed to be cemented to the implant itself--a feature that complicates future replacement. This clinical report describes the restoration of worn implant attachments using retrofit components. PMID:12964687

Simon, Harel

2003-06-01

409

Update: Approach to the Patient with Suspected Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator System Malfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

T he evolution of technology has been described as either revolutionary or evolutionary. The former refers to advances in therapy that are dramatic. The latter describes advances in therapy that are more incremental. The changes in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) technology over the last two years fall into the latter category. ICD system malfunction was reviewed in 1998 and the general

Andrew E. Epstein

2001-01-01

410

FISH for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis.  

PubMed

Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an established alternative to pre-natal diagnosis, and involves selecting pre-implantation embryos from a cohort generated by assisted reproduction technology (ART). This selection may be required because of familial monogenic disease (e.g. cystic fibrosis), or because one partner carries a chromosome rearrangement (e.g. a two-way reciprocal translocation). PGD is available for couples who have had previous affected children, and/or in the case of chromosome rearrangements, recurrent miscarriages, or infertility. Oocytes aspirated following ovarian stimulation are fertilized by in vitro immersion in semen (IVF) or by intracytoplasmic injection of individual spermatocytes (ICSI). Pre-implantation cleavage-stage embryos are biopsied, usually by the removal of a single cell on day 3 post-fertilization, and the biopsied cell is tested to establish the genetic status of the embryo.Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the fixed nuclei of biopsied cells with target-specific DNA probes is the technique of choice to detect chromosome imbalance associated with chromosome rearrangements, and to select female embryos in families with X-linked disease for which there is no mutation-specific test. FISH has also been used to screen embryos for sporadic chromosome aneuploidy (also known as PGS or PGD-AS) in order to try and improve the efficiency of assisted reproduction; however, due to the unacceptably low predictive accuracy of this test using FISH, it is not recommended for routine clinical use.This chapter describes the selection of suitable probes for single-cell FISH, assessment of the analytical performance of the test, spreading techniques for blastomere nuclei, and in situ hybridization and signal scoring, applied to PGD in a clinical setting. PMID:20809319

Scriven, Paul N; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie

2010-01-01

411

FISH for Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an established alternative to pre-natal diagnosis, and involves selecting pre-implantation embryos from a cohort generated by assisted reproduction technology (ART). This selection may be required because of familial monogenic disease (e.g. cystic fibrosis), or because one partner carries a chromosome rearrangement (e.g. a two-way reciprocal translocation). PGD is available for couples who have had previous affected children, and/or in the case of chromosome rearrangements, recurrent miscarriages, or infertility. Oocytes aspirated following ovarian stimulation are fertilized by in vitro immersion in semen (IVF) or by intracytoplasmic injection of an individual spermatozoon (ICSI). Pre-implantation cleavage-stage embryos are biopsied, usually by the removal of a single cell on day 3 post-fertilization, and the biopsied cell is tested to establish the genetic status of the embryo. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the fixed nuclei of biopsied cells with target-specific DNA probes is the technique of choice to detect chromosome imbalance associated with chromosome rearrangements, and to select female embryos in families with X-linked disease for which there is no mutation-specific test. FISH has also been used to screen embryos for spontaneous chromosome aneuploidy (also known as PGS or PGD-AS) in order to try and improve the efficiency of assisted reproduction; however, the predictive value of this test using the spreading and FISH technique described here is likely to be unacceptably low in most people's hands and it is not recommended for routine clinical use. We describe the selection of suitable probes for single-cell FISH, spreading techniques for blastomere nuclei, and in situ hybridization and signal scoring, applied to PGD in a clinical setting.

Scriven, Paul N.; Kirby, Toby L.; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie

2011-01-01

412

Scleroderma and silicone breast implants.  

PubMed Central

Scleroderma, a systemic connective tissue disease, is relatively rare. Case reports of women with silicone breast implants who have developed scleroderma began appearing in the US medical literature in the 1980s. By mid-1993, of the 72 case reports of women with breast implants and connective tissue disease, 38 were reported to have scleroderma. As a result of the publication of these case reports, a number of epidemiologic studies were conducted to find out if silicone breast implants are associated with the development of scleroderma. Five case-control studies of scleroderma were done, plus four prospective studies of connective tissue diseases (including scleroderma) and breast implants. In eight other epidemiologic studies, no cases of scleroderma were identified among women with breast implants. This article includes a qualitative review of the epidemiologic studies and a quantitative summary (meta-analysis) of the case-control studies. Neither the case-control studies nor the other epidemiologic data support the hypothesis that scleroderma is associated with or causally related to breast implants.

Whorton, D; Wong, O

1997-01-01

413

Body Implanted Medical Device Communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medical care day by day and more and more is associated with and reliant upon concepts and advances of electronics and electromagnetics. Numerous medical devices are implanted in the body for medical use. Tissue implanted devices are of great interest for wireless medical applications due to the promising of different clinical usage to promote a patient independence. It can be used in hospitals, health care facilities and home to transmit patient measurement data, such as pulse and respiration rates to a nearby receiver, permitting greater patient mobility and increased comfort. As this service permits remote monitoring of several patients simultaneously it could also potentially decrease health care costs. Advancement in radio frequency communications and miniaturization of bioelectronics are supporting medical implant applications. A central component of wireless implanted device is an antenna and there are several issues to consider when designing an in-body antenna, including power consumption, size, frequency, biocompatibility and the unique RF transmission challenges posed by the human body. The radiation characteristics of such devices are important in terms of both safety and performance. The implanted antenna and human body as a medium for wireless communication are discussed over Medical Implant Communications Service (MICS) band in the frequency range of 402-405MHz.

Yazdandoost, Kamya Yekeh; Kohno, Ryuji

414

Typhoid catatonia responsive to ECT.  

PubMed Central

Twelve patients with typhoid fever presented with a catatonic syndrome that persisted after other signs of the fever had disappeared. The syndrome was distinct from the delirium seen in typhoid fever and did not have the characteristics of an affective or schizophrenic illness. Electric convulsion therapy produced rapid and lasting improvement.

Breakey, W R; Kala, A K

1977-01-01

415

Valproate release from polycaprolactone implants prepared by 3D-bioplotting.  

PubMed

In this study we examined the release kinetics of valproate from polycaprolactone (PCL) implants constructed for local antiepileptic therapy. The PCL implants were produced with a novel 3D-Bioplotting technology. Release kinetics were determined by superfusion of these implants. Valproate was measured in the superfusate fractions with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC measurements were linear over a concentration range of 10-500 microg/mL for valproate and the limit of quantification was found to be 9 microg/mL. The HPLC method used is simple, accurate and sensitive. Within the first day, valproate (10% w/w)-PCL implants released already 77% of the maximum possible liberated amount whereas (5% w/w)-PCL implants released only 53%. After four days, 88% of valproate was released from (10% w/w)-PCL implants and 94% valproate from (5% w/w)-PCL implants. When valproate was ground before the 3D-Bioplotting process, only 63% from (10% w/w)-PCL implants was released within the first day. This released amount of ground valproate was significantly lower compared to that which was not ground from the (10% w/w)-PCL implants. After three days of superfusion a total amount of 89% of ground valproate within the implants was released, corresponding to 88% of non-ground valproate after four days. The fast releasing PCL implants can be used to study acute effects of locally applied valproate on epileptogenesis in vivo after initiation of an epileptic focus in an animal model. The corresponding biocompatibility may also be analysed. PMID:21812326

Kammerer, M; Fabritius, M; Carvalho, C; Mülhaupt, R; Feuerstein, T J; Trittler, R

2011-07-01

416

Design features of implants for direct skeletal attachment of limb prostheses.  

PubMed

In direct skeletal attachment (DSA) of limb prostheses, a construct is implanted into an amputee's residuum bone and protrudes out of the residuum's skin. This technology represents an alternative to traditional suspension of prostheses via various socket systems, with clear indications when the sockets cannot be properly fitted. Contemporary DSA was invented in the 1990s, and several implant systems have been introduced since then. The current review is intended to compare the design features of implants for DSA whose use in humans or in animal studies has been reported in the literature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater ResPart A: 101A: 3339-3348, 2013. PMID:23554122

Pitkin, M

2013-04-02

417

Design features of implants for direct skeletal attachment of limb prostheses  

PubMed Central

In direct skeletal attachment (DSA) of limb prostheses, a construct is implanted into an amputee’s residuum bone and protrudes out of the residuum’s skin. This technology represents an alternative to traditional suspension of prostheses via various socket systems, with clear indications when the sockets cannot be properly fitted. Contemporary DSA was invented in the 1990s, and several implant systems have been introduced since then. The current review is intended to compare the design features of implants for DSA whose use in humans or in animal studies has been reported in the literature.

Pitkin, M.

2013-01-01

418

Superior latch-up resistance of high dose, high energy implanted p + buried layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implantation of high dose, high energy blanket boron buried layers into p-type silicon is becoming increasingly attractive for leading edge CMOS technology. Implanted p+ buried layers provide several device and circuit benefits, such as superior latch-up immunity as compared to thin epi, and secondary defect gettering of other point defects. We have demonstrated that a 1×1015 cm-2 1.7 MeV boron

K. C. Leong; P. C. Liu; W. Morris; L. Rubin; C. H. Gan; L. Chan

1999-01-01

419

Concept, operation and performance of the veeco VHC-120 high current ion implanter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Veeco has developed, and is manufacturing, a new 120 keV high current ion implanter. The VHC-120 is characterized by a high degree of automation, including total computer control. A new, fixed focused beamline technology permits a small physical size. Improved vacuum systems and a unique dosimetry/scanning technique extend process control. This paper includes a system overview and a description of each of the basic system elements. Process data regarding implant performance with photoresist are also presented.

Scaife, William; Wagner, Dennis; Faul, William

1985-01-01

420

Wear resistance of plasma immersion ion implanted Ti6Al4V  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3tm) process has been employed in the treatment of the Ti6Al4V alloy in order to improve its notoriously poor tribological properties. In particular, this study was undertaken with a view to its potential application for the surface engineering of orthopaedic implants.PI3 has been developed over recent years at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation

S. M. Johns; T. Bell; M. Samandi; G. A. Collins

1996-01-01

421

Glucose sensor characteristics for miniaturized portable closed-loop insulin delivery: a step toward implantation.  

PubMed

An implantable glucose sensor must be free of baseline and sensitivity drift. To our knowledge, a drift-free glucose sensor with fast response time is not currently available. We are therefore proposing a miniature extracorporeal glucose sensor with access to the vascular system as a practical step toward implantation. This sensor could use existing technology to form the basis of a patient-wearable closed-loop system. PMID:7172986

Oberhardt, B J; Fogt, E J; Clemens, A H

422

Characterizations of additive manufactured porous titanium implants.  

PubMed

This article describes physical, chemical, and mechanical characterizations of porous titanium implants made by an additive manufacturing method to gain insight into the correlation of process parameters and final physical properties of implants used in orthopedics. For the manufacturing chain, the powder metallurgy technology was combined with the additive manufacturing to fabricate the porous structure from the pure tanium powder. A 3D printing machine was employed in this study to produce porous bar samples. A number of physical parameters such as titanium powder size, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) amount, sintering temperature and time were investigated to control the mechanical properties and porosity of the structures. The produced samples were characterized through porosity and shrinkage measurements, mechanical compression test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed a level of porosity in the samples in the range of 31-43%, which is within the range of the porosity of the cancelluous bone and approaches the range of the porosity of the cortical bone. The results of the mechanical test showed that the compressive strength is in the wide range of 56-509 MPa implying the effect of the process parameters on the mechanical strengths. This technique of manufacturing of Ti porous structures demonstrated a low level of shrinkage with the shrinkage percentage ranging from 1.5 to 5%. PMID:22865677

Basalah, Ahmad; Shanjani, Yaser; Esmaeili, Shahrzad; Toyserkani, Ehsan

2012-08-02

423

State of the Art Batteries for Implantable Medical Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

th anniversary of the first im plant of a pacemaker powered by a lithium battery. 1 Thirty y ears later, lithium-based batteries remain at the forefront of power source technology for implantable medical devices, with many recent developments in the specialized chemistries for these applications. Early pacemakers used zinc\\/mercury cells, but by the early 1970's it was clear that an

Randolph A. Leising; Esther S. Takeuchi

424

Multimodality Noninvasive Imaging for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A primer  

PubMed Central

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has recently emerged as a treatment option for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS). For patients who are deemed inoperable for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), TAVI has a significant mortality benefit compared to medical therapy. This review discusses established and emerging roles for multimodality imaging and focuses on the application of these technologies for patient selection, intraprocedural guidance, and the detection and quantification of acute and chronic complications of this novel procedure.

Shah, Dipan J.; Mahmarian, John J.

2012-01-01

425

Be + implanted GaInAsSb\\/GaSb photodiodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Be+ implantation technology has been applied to realize p+\\/n? junctions in quaternary GaInAsSb n? alloys grown on GaSb substrates by liquid phase epitaxy. 2 ?m cut-off mesa homojunctions have been prepared and characterized: the external quantum efficiency measured without any antireflecting coating reaches ?ext = 0.5 at 1.8 ?m. Room temperature dark reverse current densities Jrev (300K) = 1–5 mA

M. Pérotin; L. Gouskov; H. Luquet; A. Baranov; Z. Hammadi

1996-01-01

426

New implant designs for fracture fixation in osteoporotic bone.  

PubMed

Screws are one of the limiting factors for fixation of implants, particularly in poor bone quality. A class of new implants with an implant-bone-interface optimized regarding load transition by increasing the peripheral area might improve the anchorage of implants in osteoporotic bone. However, the shape of these implants requires new technologies for insertion. The goal of the work presented here was to analyze the relevant parameters regarding implant geometry and to demonstrate the effect of new procedures for their insertion. The investigation was divided into three parts: 1) implant design optimisation, 2) efficiency of cortical bone ablation, and 3) implant insertion technology. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to investigate the influence of the number of lobes, the radius of the outer curvature and additional milling to remove any sharp changes of section around the lobe. Opening of the cortical bone with an Er:YAG laser was studied using calf cortex from 2 to 7 mm thickness. The effect of a) pulse energy and pulse duration, b) cortical thickness, c) wet or dry boundary conditions on volume and geometry of ablated bone, time required to penetrate the cortical bone and local bone tissue damage was quantified. Pneumatic and ultrasound based insertion were compared in the third experiment. The cortical bone was prepared in the following ways: a) no opening, b) predrilling of three holes (1 mm diameter each) and c) exact pre-cutting of the whole contour. Increasing the radius of the outer curvature from 2 to 5 mm reduces the peak stresses during loading in all planes in the implant as well as in the adjacent cortical bone by about 30-40%. An increase in the number of lobes from two to three decreases the mean peak stress by about 46% (alpha < 0.001) and the range between the minimal and maximal peak stresses for different loading directions by about 83%. Penetration of cortical bone with an Er:YAG laser was possible up to a cortical thickness of 6 mm with fewer than 100 pulses. The ablation rate per pulse increased more with increasing duration than with increasing energy. Signs of bone damage such as melting were only visible when high pulse energies and durations were used. Insertion of the prototype was possible with all devices, but only when the whole contour was cut out of the cortical bone. However, the use of the ultrasound vibrator led to heating up of the tissue fluid and subsequently to water evaporation and tissue damage. Insertion of the prototype was possible with both pneumatic vibrators, but only when the whole contour was cut out of the cortical bone. New implant designs may lead to reduced stress peaks in the surrounding bone and might be inserted with the help of new insertion technologies, namely laser cutting of cortical bone and pneumatic vibration. Further studies are required to optimize these technologies prior to clinical use. PMID:15536537

Goldhahn, J; Seebeck, J; Frei, R; Frenz, B; Antoniadis, I; Schneider, E

2004-11-05

427

Materials for endosseous dental implants.  

PubMed

The goal of placement of endosseous dental implants is to achieve osseointegration or biointegration of the bone with the implant. A wide variety of materials has been used for these implants, but only a few promote osseointegration and biointegration. Titanium and titanium alloy (Ti6A14V) have been the most widely used of these materials. The surface oxide of titanium appears to be central to the ability of this material to osseointegrate. The oxide limits dissolution of elements and promotes the deposition of biological molecules which allow bone to exist as close as 30 A to the surface of the implant. The details of the ultrastructure of the gap between the implant and bone remain undefined, and the consequences of elements which are released on the interface over time are not known. These areas of investigation are particularly important in defining the differences between commercially pure titanium implants and those made of titanium, aluminium and vanadium. The epithelial interface between the gingiva and titanium appears to contain many of the structural characteristics of the native tooth-gingiva interface, but details are still vague. The connective tissue interface with the titanium appears to be one of tightly fitting tissues rather than adhesion. Ceramic coatings appear to improve the ingrowth of bone and promote chemical integration of the implant with the bone. The characteristics of these coatings are complex and affect the bony response, but the mechanisms remain obscure. The degradation of the coatings is an issue of particular controversy. Progress in dental implantology is likely to continue as the interface between the material and bone is more clearly understood, and biological molecules and artificial tissues are developed. PMID:8850057

Wataha, J C

1996-02-01

428

Critical appraisal of cardiac implantable electronic devices: complications and management  

PubMed Central

Population aging and broader indications for the implant of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are the main reasons for the continuous increase in the use of pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-P, CRT-D). The growing burden of comorbidities in CIED patients, the greater complexity of the devices, and the increased duration of procedures have led to an augmented risk of infections, which is out of proportion to the increase in implantation rate. CIED infections are an ominous condition, which often implies the necessity of hospitalization and carries an augmented risk of in-hospital death. Their clinical presentation may be either at pocket or at endocardial level, but they can also manifest themselves with lone bacteremia. The management of these infections requires the complete removal of the device and subsequent, specific, antibiotic therapy. CIED failures are monitored by competent public authorities, that require physicians to alert them to any failures, and that suggest the opportune strategies for their management. Although the replacement of all potentially affected devices is often suggested, common practice indicates the replacement of only a minority of devices, as close follow-up of the patients involved may be a safer strategy. Implantation of a PM or an ICD may cause problems in the patients’ psychosocial adaptation and quality of life, and may contribute to the development of affective disorders. Clinicians are usually unaware of the psychosocial impact of implanted PMs and ICDs. The main difference between PM and ICD patients is the latter’s dramatic experience of receiving a shock. Technological improvements and new clinical evidences may help reduce the total burden of shocks. A specific supporting team, providing psychosocial help, may contribute to improving patient quality of life.

Padeletti, Luigi; Mascioli, Giosue; Perini, Alessandro Paoletti; Grifoni, Gino; Perrotta, Laura; Marchese, Procolo; Bontempi, Luca; Curnis, Antonio

2011-01-01

429

A paradigm for the development and evaluation of novel implant topologies for bone fixation: in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

While contemporary prosthetic devices restore some function to individuals who have lost a limb, there are efforts to develop bio-integrated prostheses to improve functionality. A critical step in advancing this technology will be to securely attach the device to remnant bone. To investigate mechanisms for establishing robust implant fixation in bone while undergoing loading, we previously used a topology optimization scheme to develop optimized orthopedic implants and then fabricated selected designs from titanium (Ti)-alloy with selective laser sintering (SLS) technology. In the present study, we examined how implant architecture and mechanical stimulation influence osseointegration within an in vivo environment. To do this, we evaluated three implant designs (two optimized and one non-optimized) using a unique in vivo model that applied cyclic, tension/compression loads to the implants. Eighteen (six per implant design) adult male canines had implants surgically placed in their proximal, tibial metaphyses. Experimental duration was 12 weeks; daily loading (peak load of ±22 N for 1000 cycles) was applied to one of each animal's bilateral implants for the latter six weeks. Following harvest, osseointegration was assessed by non-destructive mechanical testing, micro-computed tomography (microCT) and back-scatter scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data revealed that implant loading enhanced osseointegration by significantly increasing construct stiffness, peri-implant trabecular morphology, and percentages of interface connectivity and bone ingrowth. While this experiment did not demonstrate a clear advantage associated with the optimized implant designs, osseointegration was found to be significantly influenced by aspects of implant architecture. PMID:22951278

Long, Jason P; Hollister, Scott J; Goldstein, Steven A

2012-09-02

430

A Paradigm for the Development and Evaluation of Novel Implant Topologies for Bone Fixation: In Vivo Evaluation  

PubMed Central

While contemporary prosthetic devices restore some function to individuals who have lost a limb, there are efforts to develop bio-integrated prostheses to improve functionality. A critical step in advancing this technology will be to securely attach the device to remnant bone. To investigate mechanisms for establishing robust implant fixation in bone while undergoing loading, we previously used a topology optimization scheme to develop optimized orthopaedic implants and then fabricated selected designs from titanium (Ti)-alloy with selective laser sintering (SLS) technology. In the present study, we examined how implant architecture and mechanical stimulation influence osseointegration within an in vivo environment. To do this, we evaluated three implant designs (two optimized and one non-optimized) using a unique in vivo model that applied cyclic, tension/ compression loads to the implants. Eighteen (six per implant design) adult male canines had implants surgically placed in their proximal, tibial metaphyses. Experimental duration was 12 weeks; daily loading (peak load of ±22N for 1000 cycles) was applied to one of each animal’s bilateral implants for the latter six weeks. Following harvest, osseointegration was assessed by non-destructive mechanical testing, micro-computed tomography (microCT) and back-scatter scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data revealed that implant loading enhanced osseointegration by significantly increasing construct stiffness, peri-implant trabecular morphology, and percentages of interface connectivity and bone ingrowth. While this experiment did not demonstrate a clear advantage associated with the optimized implant designs, osseointegration was found to be significantly influenced by aspects of implant architecture.

Long, Jason P.; Hollister, Scott J.; Goldstein, Steven A.

2012-01-01

431

Endoscopic cochlear implant procedure.  

PubMed

The objective was to asses the feasibility of the endoscopic technique for cochlear implant (CI) positioning avoiding mastoidectomy and to discuss the benefits and drawbacks of the technique. The study design is a surgical procedure description and prospective case series report. From December 2011 to October 2012, six patients underwent endoscopic CI. All cases were selected based on CT and MRI studies. All surgical steps were analyzed; intra-and post-operative complications were noted. The length of time for each surgical procedure was recorded. The surgical procedure was described step by step focusing on the anatomy of the round window (RW) niche, analyzing the critical point during the dissection. The timing of the surgical procedures was 120 ± 21 (mean ± SD) min. In 1/6 patients, intra-operative injury of the chorda tympani occurred. In all cases, an endoscopic identification was performed and the anatomical details of the RW niche were noted. In 6/6 cases, a RW niche magnification was performed endoscopically. 5/6 cases showed a normal conformation of the RW. In 1/6 patients, obliteration of the RW niche was found. In 4/6 patients, an endoscopic cochleostomy through the RW was performed. In 1/6 patients, a difficult insertion of the array was observed. The current follow-up is 7.3 months (SD ± 3.7). No post-operative short- or long-term complications were noted in this series. Endoscopic CI is a safe and viable technique with a low rate of complications and with good outcomes. PMID:23595616

Marchioni, Daniele; Grammatica, Alberto; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Genovese, Elisabetta; Presutti, Livio

2013-04-18

432

Cochlear Implantation in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should cochlear implantation (CI) be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12 year experience with cochlear implantation in adults ?60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that cochlear implantation in adults ?60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores with a mean increase of 60. 0% (S. D. 24. 1) on HINT sentences in quiet . The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1. 3 percentage points less (95% CI: 0. 6 – 1. 9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40–60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10. 0 percentage points (95% CI: 0. 4 – 19. 6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after cochlear implantation with possible implications for current Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take into account the broad cognitive, social, and physical functioning outcomes that are likely detrimentally impacted by hearing loss and may be mitigated by cochlear implantation.

Lin, Frank R.; Chien, Wade W.; Li, Lingsheng; Niparko, John K.; Francis, Howard W.

2012-01-01

433

SURFACE CHEMISTRY INFLUENCE IMPLANT BIOCOMPATIBILITY  

PubMed Central

Implantable medical devices are increasingly important in the practice of modern medicine. Unfortunately, almost all medical devices suffer to a different extent from adverse reactions, including inflammation, fibrosis, thrombosis and infection. To improve the safety and function of many types of medical implants, a major need exists for development of materials that evoked desired tissue responses. Because implant-associated protein adsorption and conformational changes thereafter have been shown to promote immune reactions, rigorous research efforts have been emphasized on the engineering of surface property (physical and chemical characteristics) to reduce protein adsorption and cell interactions and subsequently improve implant biocompatibility. This brief review is aimed to summarize the past efforts and our recent knowledge about the influence of surface functionality on protein:cell:biomaterial interactions. It is our belief that detailed understandings of bioactivity of surface functionality provide an easy, economic, and specific approach for the future rational design of implantable medical devices with desired tissue reactivity and, hopefully, wound healing capability.

Thevenot, Paul; Hu, Wenjing; Tang, Liping

2011-01-01

434

Advanced MCT technologies in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an overview of the very recent developments of the HgCdTe infrared detector technology developed by CEA-LETI and industrialized by Sofradir in France. Today Sofradir uses in production for more than 15years a very mature, reproducible, well mastered and fully understood, planar n on p ion implanted technology. This process that allows very high yields to

Gérard Destefanis; Philippe Tribolet

2007-01-01

435

Analysis of induced electrical currents from magnetic field coupling inside implantable neurostimulator leads  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last decade, the number of neurostimulator systems implanted in patients has been rapidly growing. Nearly 50, 000 neurostimulators are implanted worldwide annually. The most common type of implantable neurostimulators is indicated for pain relief. At the same time, commercial use of other electromagnetic technologies is expanding, making electromagnetic interference (EMI) of neurostimulator function an issue of concern. Typically reported sources of neurostimulator EMI include security systems, metal detectors and wireless equipment. When near such sources, patients with implanted neurostimulators have reported adverse events such as shock, pain, and increased stimulation. In recent in vitro studies, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to inhibit the stimulation pulse of an implantable neurostimulator system during low frequency exposure at close distances. This could potentially be due to induced electrical currents inside the implantable neurostimulator leads that are caused by magnetic field coupling from the low frequency identification system. Methods To systematically address the concerns posed by EMI, we developed a test platform to assess the interference from coupled magnetic fields on implantable neurostimulator systems. To measure interference, we recorded the output of one implantable neurostimulator, programmed for best therapy threshold settings, when in close proximity to an operating low frequency RFID emitter. The output contained electrical potentials from the neurostimulator system and those induced by EMI from the RFID emitter. We also recorded the output of the same neurostimulator system programmed for best therapy threshold settings without RFID interference. Using the Spatially Extended Nonlinear Node (SENN) model, we compared threshold factors of spinal cord fiber excitation for both recorded outputs. Results The electric current induced by low frequency RFID emitter was not significant to have a noticeable effect on electrical stimulation. Conclusions We demonstrated a method for analyzing effects of coupled magnetic field interference on implantable neurostimulator system and its electrodes which could be used by device manufacturers during the design and testing phases of the development process.

2011-01-01

436

Psychopathology following cardioverter defibrillator implantation.  

PubMed

Previous reports have found elevated rates of psychopathology in recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Thirty-five consecutive ICD recipients were assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and a semistructured questionnaire; assessments were performed within 3 days of ICD implantation (Time 1) and again 9-18 months later (Time 2). At the initial assessment, alcohol dependence in remission was the most common diagnosis, followed by mood disorders. Two cases of depression were found at follow-up assessment, but those subjects had either a lifetime history of major depression or some depressive symptoms at Time 1. No new cases of anxiety disorders were seen at Time 2. It appears that ICD recipients have rates similar to the general population at the time of implantation, and the risk for new psychopathology is largely confined to those with a lifetime history of psychopathology. PMID:9691699

Crow, S J; Collins, J; Justic, M; Goetz, R; Adler, S

437

Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

1985-09-01

438

Full rehabilitation with nobel clinician® and procera implant bridge®: case report  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Implant surgery has been changing in different ways following improvements of computer technologies. Since its beginning, according to the original procedures of Branemårk system implants, guide-lines in implants-supported prosthetic rehabilitation have been founding on the placement of fixtures in a fairly upright position, after maxillary sinus floor elevation; while in the case of interforaminal rehabilitation, an upright distal implant may need to be placed anterior to the mental foramina without nerve damage (although the consequence would have been bilateral cantilevers to provide good chewing capacity). Some authors have proposed engaging the molar/tuberosity area: Bahat and Venturelli demonstrated these areas reliable and predictable alternative to distal cantilever prostheses or sinus elevation procedures. In recent years, the immediate loading of tilted implants with a provisional restoration has been proposed for the treatment of the atrophic maxilla. Tilted posterior implants in either arches could avoid (cantilever length) and provide to a better load distribution. Further studies have showed excellent outcomes for both tilted and axial implants; indeed this protocol allows to use longer implants, improve bone anchorage and avoid bone grafting procedures. Malò at al., in a retrospective clinical study, showed important results using two posterior tilted implants and two anterior non-tilted ones in the so-called All-on-four technique (Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden). Instead of the great loss of bone (amount and quality) in long-term edentuly the clinically documented computer-guided implantology software is able, through posterior tilted implants, to improve load distribution. Many authors have reported reduced surgical invasion (sinus grafting surgery is needless), shorter treatment time, lower cost, natural aesthetic profiles and functional bite.

SPINELLI, D.; OTTRIA, L.; DE VICO, G.; BOLLERO, R.; BARLATTANI, A.; BOLLERO, P.

2013-01-01

439

Full rehabilitation with nobel clinician(®) and procera implant bridge(®): case report.  

PubMed

Implant surgery has been changing in different ways following improvements of computer technologies. Since its beginning, according to the original procedures of Branemårk system implants, guide-lines in implants-supported prosthetic rehabilitation have been founding on the placement of fixtures in a fairly upright position, after maxillary sinus floor elevation; while in the case of interforaminal rehabilitation, an upright distal implant may need to be placed anterior to the mental foramina without nerve damage (although the consequence would have been bilateral cantilevers to provide good chewing capacity). Some authors have proposed engaging the molar/tuberosity area: Bahat and Venturelli demonstrated these areas reliable and predictable alternative to distal cantilever prostheses or sinus elevation procedures. In recent years, the immediate loading of tilted implants with a provisional restoration has been proposed for the treatment of the atrophic maxilla. Tilted posterior implants in either arches could avoid (cantilever length) and provide to a better load distribution. Further studies have showed excellent outcomes for both tilted and axial implants; indeed this protocol allows to use longer implants, improve bone anchorage and avoid bone grafting procedures. Malò at al., in a retrospective clinical study, showed important results using two posterior tilted implants and two anterior non-tilted ones in the so-called All-on-four technique (Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden). Instead of the great loss of bone (amount and quality) in long-term edentuly the clinically documented computer-guided implantology software is able, through posterior tilted implants, to improve load distribution. Many authors have reported reduced surgical invasion (sinus grafting surgery is needless), shorter treatment time, lower cost, natural aesthetic profiles and functional bite. PMID:24175051

Spinelli, D; Ottria, L; DE Vico, G; Bollero, R; Barlattani, A; Bollero, P

2013-10-15

440

Radial 32P ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor: Activity imaging and numerical integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beta-emitting biomedical implants are currently employed in angioplasty, in the treatment of certain types of cancers, and in the embolization of aneurysms with platinum coils. Radioisotopes such as 32P can be implanted using plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). In this article, we describe a reactor that was developed to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects. The plasma first ionizes radioisotopes sputtered from a target, and then acts as the source of particles to be implanted into the biased biomedical device. The plasma therefore plays a major role in the ionization/implantation process. Following a sequence of implantation tests, the liners protecting the interior walls of the reactor were changed and the radioactivity on them measured. This study demonstrates that the radioactive deposits on these protective liners, adequately imaged by radiography, can indicate the distribution of the radioisotopes that are not implanted. The resulting maps give unique information about the activity distribution, which is influenced by the sputtering of the 32P-containing fragments, their ionization in the plasma, and also by the subsequent ion transport mechanisms. Such information can be interpreted and used to significantly improve the efficiency of the implantation procedure. Using a surface barrier detector, a comparative study established a relationship between the gray scale of radiographs of the liners, and activity measurements. An integration process allows the quantification of the activities on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the 32P activity is correlated to the sum of the radioactivity amounts that were sputtered from radioactive targets inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This balance addresses the issue of security regarding PBII technology and confirms the confinement of the radioactivity inside the chamber.

Fortin, M. A.; Dufresne, V.; Paynter, R.; Sarkissian, A.; Stansfield, B.

2004-12-01

441

Radial {sup 32}P ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor: Activity imaging and numerical integration  

SciTech Connect

Beta-emitting biomedical implants are currently employed in angioplasty, in the treatment of certain types of cancers, and in the embolization of aneurysms with platinum coils. Radioisotopes such as {sup 32}P can be implanted using plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). In this article, we describe a reactor that was developed to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects. The plasma first ionizes radioisotopes sputtered from a target, and then acts as the source of particles to be implanted into the biased biomedical device. The plasma therefore plays a major role in the ionization/implantation process. Following a sequence of implantation tests, the liners protecting the interior walls of the reactor were changed and the radioactivity on them measured. This study demonstrates that the radioactive deposits on these protective liners, adequately imaged by radiography, can indicate the distribution of the radioisotopes that are not implanted. The resulting maps give unique information about the activity distribution, which is influenced by the sputtering of the {sup 32}P-containing fragments, their ionization in the plasma, and also by the subsequent ion transport mechanisms. Such information can be interpreted and used to significantly improve the efficiency of the implantation procedure. Using a surface barrier detector, a comparative study established a relationship between the gray scale of radiographs of the liners, and activity measurements. An integration process allows the quantification of the activities on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the {sup 32}P activity is correlated to the sum of the radioactivity amounts that were sputtered from radioactive targets inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This balance addresses the issue of security regarding PBII technology and confirms the confinement of the radioactivity inside the chamber.

Fortin, M.A.; Dufresne, V.; Paynter, R.; Sarkissian, A.; Stansfield, B. [INRS-EMT, 1650 boulevard Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Plasmionique Inc., 1650 boulevard Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); INRS-EMT, 1650 boulevard Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

2004-12-01

442

Experience with anatomically orientated devices for transapical aortic valve implantation.  

PubMed

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a new technology, which is rapidly growing to a routine procedure amenable for patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis and higher than average risk for conventional aortic valve surgery. The crucial disadvantage of TAVI remains the not well foreseeable risk of more than trivial degree of paravalvular leakage and a high rate of atrioventricular block and consecutive pacemaker implantation. In addition, current implantation techniques do not allow controlling the rotation of first-generation devices that might be beneficial regarding optimal physiological valve performance, optimal coronary flow and avoidance of placement of covered commissures in front of the coronary ostia. These shortcomings had pushed the development of second-generation self-expandable nitinol-based devices for subcoronary implantation that aim a reduction of paravalvular leak and AV-block by anatomical orientated positioning into the aortic root. This review focuses on the description of three different TAVI concepts, which are presently under early clinical evaluation, or have recently received commercial approval, using the transapical approach. PMID:23381378

Haensig, M; Holzhey, D M; Lehmkuhl, L; Lehmann, S; Linke, A; Schuler, G; Girrbach, F; Moscoso-Luduena, M; Borger, M A; Rastan, A J; Mohr, F W

2013-02-01

443

Implantation-induced structural and surface modification of silica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion irradiation of silica causes compaction of the substrate over the extent of the ion range and the resulting increase in refractive index has applications to optical waveguide fabrication. Several analytical techniques have been utilized to characterize implantation-induced structural and surface modifications of silica with the aim of yielding further insight into this technologically relevant process. Substrates of both fused silica and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited silica-on-Si were implanted with C, Si or Ge ions at an energy of 5MeV and a temperature of -196 degC over a range of ion fluences. Compaction of the substrate was characterized as a function of ion dose with both standard profilometry and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). With the former, the extent of compaction was dependent on the silica density with a saturation of the compaction for all substrates at an ion fluence of ~1015/cm2. With EXAFS, complementary information on implantation-induced effects at the atomic scale were determined to differentiate the influences of bond length and bond angle changes in the compaction process. No changes in nearest-neighbour bond length were observed following compaction. The condition of the substrate surface during ion implantation was recorded by in situ photography. Cracking of the surface, as a means of stress relief, was observed and thereafter, the evolution of the cracked surface was quantitatively characterized as a function of ion fluence.

Johnson, C. M.; Thompson, T. D.; Ridgway, M. C.; Gurarie, V.

1998-05-01

444

Nitrogen implantation for local oxidation (NILO) of silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complete physical and electrical characterisation of nitrogen implantation for local oxidation (NILO) of silicon technology is detailed. Nitrogen implantation is performed at 20 keV through 25 nm of thermal oxide with doses within the range of 5 × 1016-1.5 × 1017 cm-2. Physical characterisation of the sealed nitride films is performed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear reaction analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Nitrogen implantation in silicon can provide sealed nitride films of thicknesses around 20-25 nm, capable of masking a 550 nm field oxidation. Physical characterisation shows that implanted nitride films are composed of elemental Si-Si4 bonds, silicon oxynitride and diffused oxygen. The nitrogen concentration in such films is lower than that of a stoichiometric nitride. ``Bird's beak'' lengths as short as 0.08 ?m can be obtained. For a 950° C field oxide temperature, dislocations are observed at the edge of the nitride mask. At a higher temperature (1050° C) no dislocations are observed; on the other hand, stacking faults with a density of 0.05 faults per ?m of mask length are observed at the edge of the nitride mask. Because of the presence of the stacking faults, high leakage currents are measured on n+ p diodes.

Molle, P.; Jaussaud, C.; Bruel, M.

1991-04-01

445

Drug-Eluting Medical Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Drug-eluting medical implants are actually active implants that induce healing effects, in addition to their regular task\\u000a of support. This effect is achieved by controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) into the surrounding\\u000a tissue. In this chapter we focus on three types of drug-eluting devices: drug-eluting vascular stents, drug-eluting wound\\u000a dressings and protein-eluting scaffolds for tissue regeneration, thus describing

Meital Zilberman; Amir Kraitzer; Orly Grinberg; Jonathan J. Elsner

446

Microdamage adjacent to endosseous implants.  

PubMed

Intense remodeling occurs in lamellar bone adjacent to osseointegrated endosseous implants. The purpose of this study was to compare microdamage accumulation subsequent to ex vivo fatigue loading of bone that surrounds an endosseous implant, (a) immediately after placement (nonadapted bone) and (b) following a 12 week healing period after placement (adapted bone). We hypothesize that there is less microdamage in the more compliant adapted bone than in the older nonadapted bone. Nonthreaded titanium plasma sprayed (TPS)-coated endosseous implants were placed into dog mid-femoral diaphyses and allowed to heal for 12 weeks. Block sections of bone, each containing one implant, were cut anteroposteriorly, resulting in an implant containing lateral cortex, and a medial cortex that was used for testing the nonadapted specimens. Control specimens (n = 14 each for adapted and nonadapted) were loaded at 0 N. Experimental specimens (n = 13, adapted; n = 14, nonadapted) were loaded at 100 N in cantilever bending for 150,000 cycles at 2 Hz, at 37 degrees C on a Bionix 858 testing machine. Specimens were bulk stained with basic fuchsin and 120-140 microm sections were obtained. Crack numerical density (Cr.Dn = Cr.N/ B.Ar, #/mm2), crack surface density (Cr.S.Dn = Tt.Cr.Le/ B.Ar, mm/mm2), and percent damage area (Dm.Ar = Cr.Ar x 100/B.Ar, mm2/mm2) were measured at x 250. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) were seen for Cr.Dn, Cr.S.Dn, and Dm.Ar on the compressed cortices suggesting that adapted bone near the implant accumulated significantly less microdamage than nonadapted bone. Also, the adapted nonloaded control specimens had approximately 20-fold less damage than the respective nonadapted specimens. This study suggests that the compliant adapted bone adjacent to endosseous implants is relatively resistant to fatigue loads. The high success rates of endosseous implants may be due to the presence of a rapidly remodeling region that maintains tissue compliance and limits microdamage initiation. PMID:10456388

Huja, S S; Katona, T R; Burr, D B; Garetto, L P; Roberts, W E

1999-08-01

447

Composite implants in oculoplastic surgery.  

PubMed

Composite devices containing two or more different material components or phases are seen with increasing frequency in oculoplastic, orbital, and lacrimal surgery. These combinations aim to improve mechanical and biological properties such as expansion, malleability, and strength in ways that have not been achieved with solitary material designs. Herein we review a variety of these new generation implants, including distensible orbital tissue expanders, hydrophilic osmotic expanders, titanium and polyethylene rigid fixation devices, non-expandable hydrogels, laminated porcine intestine, and polyethylene-coated glass that likely herald a trend to more complex implantable devices in the future. PMID:21091016

Zhang, Li; Fay, Aaron

448

Radioactive implants in materials science. Abstracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper contains 15 abstracts with the following topics: Volume and Grain boundary Diffusion of (sup 113)Sn Implanted in Aluminium (G. Erdelyi); Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) - A Microscopic Tool for Implantation Site Studies (M. Forker); Off-Li...

1992-01-01

449

Surgical Tooth Implants, Combat and Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long term implant studies of alumina tooth roots are being performed in both humans and baboons. The implants designed for this project are single root elliptical and rectangular designs with serrations arranged for maximal stress distribution of occlusal...

C. R. Hassler R. H. Downes G. L. Messing O. E. Russell

1978-01-01

450

Surgical Tooth Implants, Combat and Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long term implant studies of alumina tooth roots are being performed in both h