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Sample records for technology ect implant

  1. Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

  2. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 4 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Marin, Jose A.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG), and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures on a 24/7 basis. ECT is a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. This is the fourth year of the project.

  3. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 3 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Bates, Lakesha D.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

  4. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

  5. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 3; Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

  6. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 1; Main Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

  7. Advances in lens implant technology

    PubMed Central

    Kampik, Anselm; Dexl, Alois K.; Zimmermann, Nicole; Glasser, Adrian; Baumeister, Martin; Kohnen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Cataract surgery is one of the oldest and the most frequent outpatient clinic operations in medicine performed worldwide. The clouded human crystalline lens is replaced by an artificial intraocular lens implanted into the capsular bag. During the last six decades, cataract surgery has undergone rapid development from a traumatic, manual surgical procedure with implantation of a simple lens to a minimally invasive intervention increasingly assisted by high technology and a broad variety of implants customized for each patient’s individual requirements. This review discusses the major advances in this field and focuses on the main challenge remaining – the treatment of presbyopia. The demand for correction of presbyopia is increasing, reflecting the global growth of the ageing population. Pearls and pitfalls of currently applied methods to correct presbyopia and different approaches under investigation, both in lens implant technology and in surgical technology, are discussed. PMID:23413369

  8. Microsystems Technology for Retinal Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, James

    2005-03-01

    The retinal prosthesis is targeted to treat age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and other outer retinal degenerations. Simulations of artificial vision have predicted that 600-1000 individual pixels will be needed if a retinal prosthesis is to restore function such as reading large print and face recognition. An implantable device with this many electrode contacts will require microsystems technology as part of its design. An implantable retinal prosthesis will consist of several subsystems including an electrode array and hermetic packaging. Microsystems and microtechnology approaches are being investigated as possible solutions for these design problems. Flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate electrode arrays and silicon micromachined electrode arrays are under development. Inactive PDMS electrodes have been implanted in 3 dogs to assess mechanical biocompatibility. 3 dogs were followed for 6 months. The implanted was securely fastened to the retina with a single retinal tack. No post-operative complications were evident. The array remained within 100 microns of the retinal surface. Histological evaluation showed a well preserved retina underneath the electrode array. A silicon device with electrodes suspended on micromachined springs has been implanted in 4 dogs (2 acute implants, 2 chronic implants). The device, though large, could be inserted into the eye and positioned on the retina. Histological analysis of the retina from the spring electrode implants showed that spring mounted posts penetrated the retina, thus the device will be redesigned to reduce the strength of the springs. These initial implants will provide information for the designers to make the next generation silicon device. We conclude that microsystems technology has the potential to make possible a retinal prosthesis with 1000 individual contacts in close proximity to the retina.

  9. Using Aerospace Technology To Design Orthopedic Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1996-01-01

    Technology originally developed to optimize designs of composite-material aerospace structural components used to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants. Development effort focused on designing knee implants, long-term goal to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants in general.

  10. Antimicrobial technology in orthopedic and spinal implants

    PubMed Central

    Eltorai, Adam EM; Haglin, Jack; Perera, Sudheesha; Brea, Bielinsky A; Ruttiman, Roy; Garcia, Dioscaris R; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-01-01

    Infections can hinder orthopedic implant function and retention. Current implant-based antimicrobial strategies largely utilize coating-based approaches in order to reduce biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion. Several emerging antimicrobial technologies that integrate a multidisciplinary combination of drug delivery systems, material science, immunology, and polymer chemistry are in development and early clinical use. This review outlines orthopedic implant antimicrobial technology, its current applications and supporting evidence, and clinically promising future directions. PMID:27335811

  11. Antimicrobial technology in orthopedic and spinal implants.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam Em; Haglin, Jack; Perera, Sudheesha; Brea, Bielinsky A; Ruttiman, Roy; Garcia, Dioscaris R; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-06-18

    Infections can hinder orthopedic implant function and retention. Current implant-based antimicrobial strategies largely utilize coating-based approaches in order to reduce biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion. Several emerging antimicrobial technologies that integrate a multidisciplinary combination of drug delivery systems, material science, immunology, and polymer chemistry are in development and early clinical use. This review outlines orthopedic implant antimicrobial technology, its current applications and supporting evidence, and clinically promising future directions. PMID:27335811

  12. ECT in poetry.

    PubMed

    Walter, Garry; Fisher, Karen; Harte, Angela

    2002-03-01

    We sought to identify poems about Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and describe their major themes, with a view to using some of those poems in clinical situations-for persons receiving ECT and their families-as well as for teaching purposes. Several poems were identified, eight almost exclusively about ECT and a number of other works containing references to the treatment. The poets, some of whom have won distinguished prizes, came from the United States, U.K., Australia, and Estonia. The poems included very positive accounts of ECT and more denigrating pieces. Some of the themes covered by the poems were the desperate plight of persons prior to ECT, the potentially striking beneficial effects of the treatment, fears about the use of electricity, ECT procedure, and memory impairment, and the stigma associated with the treatment. PMID:11925522

  13. ECT IN NEUROLOGICAL COUNDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Girish, K.; Gangadhar, B.N.; Janakiramaiah, N.

    2002-01-01

    It is a myth that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) produces greater side effects and worsens the neurological condition when used in neurologically ill patients. With the advancement and sophistication in ECT practice standards and modification procedures, it can be safely administered either to treat selected neurological conditions or the co-morbid psychiatric illnesses without additional risks. However ECT should be administered only after thorough evaluation of risks and benefits in such individuals. PMID:21206577

  14. Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology

    PubMed Central

    McAlpine, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue contains a collection of 13 papers highlighting the collaborative research and engineering project entitled Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology—ABCIT—as well as research spin-offs from the project. In this introductory editorial, a brief history of the project is provided, alongside an overview of the studies. PMID:26721929

  15. On the Horizon: Cochlear Implant Technology.

    PubMed

    Roche, Joseph P; Hansen, Marlan R

    2015-12-01

    Cochlear implantation and cochlear implants (CIs) have a long history filled with innovations that have resulted in the high-performing device's currently available. Several promising technologies have been reviewed in this article, which hold the promise to drive performance even higher. Remote CI programming, totally implanted devices, improved neural health and survival through targeted drug therapy and delivery, intraneural electrode placement, electroacoustical stimulation and hybrid CIs, and methods to enhance the neural-prosthesis interface are evolving areas of innovation reviewed in this article. PMID:26443490

  16. Microsystem technologies for ophtalmological implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokwa, Wilfried

    2003-01-01

    Due to the low power consumption CMOS electronics is ideal for the use in implanted systems. This paper presents two projects working on ophthalmological implants. Both systems are powered by an external RF-field. One system has been developed to measure the intraocular pressure continuously which is important for the therapy of glaucoma patients. The system consists of a micro coil and an integrated pressure transponder chip built into an artificial soft lens. A second example is a very complex system for epiretinal stimulation of the nerve cells of the retina. With such a system it might be possible to give blind people that are suffering from retinitis pigmentosa some visual contact to their surrounding.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: Microsystem technologies for implantable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Receveur, Rogier A. M.; Lindemans, Fred W.; de Rooij, Nicolaas F.

    2007-05-01

    Microsystem technologies (MST) have become the basis of a large industry. The advantages of MST compared to other technologies provide opportunities for application in implantable biomedical devices. This paper presents a general and broad literature review of MST for implantable applications focused on the technical domain. A classification scheme is introduced to order the examples, basic technological building blocks relevant for implantable applications are described and finally a case study on the role of microsystems for one clinical condition is presented. We observe that the microfabricated parts span a wide range for implantable applications in various clinical areas. There are 94 active and 67 commercial 'end items' out of a total of 142. End item refers to the total concept, of which the microsystem may only be a part. From the 105 active end items 18 (13% of total number of end items) are classified as products. From these 18 products, there are only two for chronic use. The number of active end items in clinical, animal and proto phase for chronic use is 17, 13 and 20, respectively. The average year of first publication of chronic end items that are still in the animal or clinical phase is 1994 (n = 7) and 1993 (n = 11), respectively. The major technology market combinations are sensors for cardiovascular, drug delivery for drug delivery and electrodes for neurology and ophthalmology. Together these form 51% of all end items. Pressure sensors form the majority of sensors and there is just one product (considered to be an implantable microsystem) in the neurological area. Micro-machined ceramic packages, glass sealed packages and polymer encapsulations are used. Glass to metal seals are used for feedthroughs. Interconnection techniques such as flip chip, wirebonding or conductive epoxy as used in the semiconductor packaging and assembly industry are also used for manufacturing of implantable devices. Coatings are polymers or metal. As an alternative to

  18. The sham ECT literature: implications for consent to ECT.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2006-01-01

    The author reviewed the placebo-controlled literature on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression. No study demonstrated a significant difference between real and placebo (sham) ECT at 1 month posttreatment. Many studies failed to find a difference between real and sham ECT even during the period of treatment. Claims in textbooks and review articles that ECT is effective are not consistent with the published data. A large, properly designed study of real versus sham ECT should be undertaken. In the absence of such a study, consent forms for ECT should include statements that there is no controlled evidence demonstrating any benefit from ECT at 1 month posttreatment. Consent forms should also state that real ECT is only marginally more effective than placebo. PMID:16856307

  19. The Ect2 Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Is Essential for Early Mouse Development and Normal Cell Cytokinesis and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Danielle R.; Solski, Patricia A.; Bultman, Scott J.; Kauselmann, Gunther; Schoor, Michael; Kuehn, Ralf; Friedman, Lori S.; Cowley, Dale O.; Van Dyke, Terry; Yeh, Jen Jen; Johnson, Leisa

    2011-01-01

    Ect2 is a member of the human Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) that serve as activators of Rho family small GTPases. Although Ect2 is one of at least 25 RhoGEFs that can activate the RhoA small GTPase, cell culture studies using established cell lines determined that Ect2 is essential for mammalian cell cytokinesis and proliferation. To address the function of Ect2 in normal mammalian development, we performed gene targeting to generate Ect2 knockout mice. The heterozygous Ect2 +/– mice showed normal development and life span, indicating that Ect2 haplodeficiency was not deleterious for development or growth. In contrast, Ect2 –/– embryos were not found at birth or postimplantation stages. Ect2 –/– blastocysts were recovered at embryonic day 3.5 but did not give rise to viable outgrowths in culture, indicating that Ect2 is required for peri-implantation development. To further assess the importance of Ect2 in normal cell physiology, we isolated primary fibroblasts from Ect2 fl/fl embryos (MEFs) and ablated Ect2 using adenoviral delivery of Cre recombinase. We observed a significant increase in multinucleated cells and accumulation of cells in G2/M phase, consistent with a role for Ect2 in cytokinesis. Ect2 deficiency also caused enlargement of the cytoplasm and impaired cell migration. Finally, although Ect2-dependent activation of RhoA has been implicated in cytokinesis, Ect2 can also activate Rac1 and Cdc42 to cause growth transformation. Surprisingly, ectopic expression of constitutively activated RhoA, Rac1, or Cdc42, known substrates of Ect2, failed to phenocopy Ect2 and did not rescue the defect in cytokinesis caused by loss of Ect2. In summary, our results establish the unique role of Ect2 in development and normal cell proliferation. PMID:22701760

  20. Implantable Micropump Technologies for Murine Intracochlear Infusions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D. G.; Waldron, M. J.; Frisina, R. D.; Borkholder, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the very small size of the mouse inner ear, 600 nL volume, developing effective, controlled infusion systems is quite challenging. Key technologies have been created to minimize both size and power for an implantable pump for murine intracochlear infusions. A method for coupling fine capillary tubing to microfluidic channels is presented which provides low volume, biocompatible interconnects withstanding pressures as high as 827 kPa (120 psi) and consuming less than 20 nL of volume exiting in-plane with the pump. Surface micromachined resistive bridges integrated into the flow channel for anemometry based flow rate measurement have been optimized for low power operation in the ultra-low flow rate regime. A process for creation of deformable diaphragms over pump chambers with simultaneous coating of the microfluidic channels has been developed allowing integration of a biocompatible fluid flow path. These advances represent enabling capabilities for a drug delivery system suitable for space constrained applications such as subcutaneous implantation in mice. PMID:21096713

  1. The cochlear implant. A technology for the profoundly deaf.

    PubMed

    Lea, A R; Hailey, D M

    1995-01-01

    The cochlear implant is a device that enables the profoundly deaf to hear. This article considers the nature of the technology, the need for rehabilitation programs for those who are implanted and the evidence of benefits from this approach. A preliminary economic assessment suggests that costs per QALY for this technology would be of the order of $ 14,000 for children and $ 22,000 for adults. Cochlear implantation appears to be superior to vibrotactile devices, and is an effective technology for appropriately selected persons. PMID:7791692

  2. Evaluating the Feasibility of Using Remote Technology for Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehring, Jenny L.; Hughes, Michelle L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of remote technology to provide cochlear implant services has gained popularity in recent years. This article contains a review of research evaluating the feasibility of remote service delivery for recipients of cochlear implants. To date, published studies have determined that speech-processor programming levels and other objective tests…

  3. New horizon for infection prevention technology and implantable device.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yusuke; Ueda, Marehiko; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Schwab, Joerg O

    2016-08-01

    There has been a significant increase in the number of patients receiving cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) over the last two decades. CIED infection represents a serious complication after CIED implantation and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, newly advanced technologies have offered attractive and suitable therapeutic alternatives. Notably, the leadless pacemaker and anti-bacterial envelope decrease the potential risk of CIED infection and the resulting mortality, when it does occur. A completely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator is also an alternative to the transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), as it does not require implantation of any transvenous or epicardial leads. Among the patients who require ICD removal and subsequent antibiotics secondary to infection, the wearable cardioverter defibrillator represents an alternative approach to inpatient monitoring for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. In this review paper, we aimed to introduce the advanced technologies and devices for prevention of CIED infection. PMID:27588153

  4. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shigeki Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-15

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  5. Study on application of aerospace technology to improve surgical implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Youngblood, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The areas where aerospace technology could be used to improve the reliability and performance of metallic, orthopedic implants was assessed. Specifically, comparisons were made of material controls, design approaches, analytical methods and inspection approaches being used in the implant industry with hardware for the aerospace industries. Several areas for possible improvement were noted such as increased use of finite element stress analysis and fracture control programs on devices where the needs exist for maximum reliability and high structural performance.

  6. The evolution of cochlear implant technology and its clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Hainarosie, M; Zainea, V; Hainarosie, R

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a brief history of the development of the cochlear implant, from its beginnings to the present day. After a short description of the device, it describes the evolution of the technology for three of the top manufacturing companies, from the first model marketed, to the latest. It presents the technological advancements from one model to the next, taking into account the exterior design, processing capabilities and functionality. PMID:25870662

  7. Optimal design of composite hip implants using NASA technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, T. A.; Saravanos, D. A.; Davy, D. T.; Waters, S. A.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Using an adaptation of NASA software, we have investigated the use of numerical optimization techniques for the shape and material optimization of fiber composite hip implants. The original NASA inhouse codes, were originally developed for the optimization of aerospace structures. The adapted code, which was called OPORIM, couples numerical optimization algorithms with finite element analysis and composite laminate theory to perform design optimization using both shape and material design variables. The external and internal geometry of the implant and the surrounding bone is described with quintic spline curves. This geometric representation is then used to create an equivalent 2-D finite element model of the structure. Using laminate theory and the 3-D geometric information, equivalent stiffnesses are generated for each element of the 2-D finite element model, so that the 3-D stiffness of the structure can be approximated. The geometric information to construct the model of the femur was obtained from a CT scan. A variety of test cases were examined, incorporating several implant constructions and design variable sets. Typically the code was able to produce optimized shape and/or material parameters which substantially reduced stress concentrations in the bone adjacent of the implant. The results indicate that this technology can provide meaningful insight into the design of fiber composite hip implants.

  8. ECT practices in Iraq: a national audit

    PubMed Central

    Alhemiary, Nesif; Ali, Zainab; Abbas, Mohammed J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method This national audit examined practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Iraq against local standards. Data were collected by a questionnaire sent to heads of departments or medical directors in the 10 Iraqi hospitals which provide ECT and by examining case notes of all patients who had ECT in the first 6 months of 2013. Results Of the 26 psychiatric hospitals in Iraq, 10 provide ECT. There were some resource shortcomings in the ECT clinics (e.g. only 2 had a minimum of 2 rooms and all had no EEG monitoring). During the audit period, 251 patients had ECT. The mean age was 36.2 years and 51.8% were males. Bilateral ECT was used in all cases, general anaesthesia in 77.15%. The main indication for ECT was schizophrenia, followed by severe depression, resistant mania, catatonia and others. Clinical implications More work is needed to ensure all patients receive modified ECT. ECT is still used widely for schizophrenia. This needs further exploration and training. PMID:26755993

  9. Future technology in cochlear implants: assessing the benefit.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Robert J S

    2011-05-01

    It has been over 50 years since Djourno and Eyries first attempted electric stimulation in a patient with deafness. Over this time, the Cochlear Implant (CI) has become not only remarkably successful, but increasingly complex. Although the basic components of the system still comprise an implanted receiver stimulator and electrode, externally worn speech processor, microphone, control system, and power source, there are now several alternative designs of these components with different attributes that can be variably combined to meet the needs of specific patient groups. Development by the manufacturers has been driven both by these various patient needs, and also by the desire to achieve technological superiority, or at least differentiation, ultimately in pursuit of market share. Assessment of benefit is the responsibility of clinicians. It is incumbent on both industry and clinicians to ensure appropriate, safe, and affordable introduction of new technology. For example, experience with the totally implanted cochlear implant (TIKI) has demonstrated that quality of hearing is the over-riding consideration for CI users. To date, improved hearing outcomes have been achieved by improvements in: speech processing strategies; microphone technology; pre-processing strategies; electrode placement; bilateral implantation; use of a hearing aid in the opposite ear (bimodal stimulation); and the combination of electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear. The resulting expansion of CI candidacy, with more residual hearing, further improves the outcomes achieved. Largely facilitated by advances in electronic capability and computerization, it can be expected that these improvements will continue. However, marked variability of results still occurs and we cannot assure any individual patient of their outcome. Realistic goals for implementation of new technology include: improved hearing in noise and music perception; effective invisible hearing (no external apparatus

  10. ECT and Autism--Making the Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey-Dale, Susan R.

    This report describes using Environmental Communication Teaching (ECT) to assist students with autism spectrum disorder. The paper compares several key points of the ECT approach with other common intervention methods for students with autism and identifies the features of intervention programs or approaches that should be considered when planning…

  11. Adaptation of NASA technology for the optimum design of orthopedic knee implants.

    PubMed

    Saravanos, D A; Mraz, P J; Davy, D T; Hopkins, D A

    1991-03-01

    NASA technology originally developed for designing aircraft turbine-engine blades has been adapted and applied to orthopedic knee implants. This article describes a method for tailoring an implant for optimal interaction with the environment of the tibia. The implant components are designed to control stresses in the bone for minimizing bone degradation and preventing failures. Engineers expect the tailoring system to improve knee prosthesis design and allow customized implants for individual patients. PMID:10150099

  12. Evolution of Ion Implantation Technology and its Contribution to Semiconductor Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Katsuhiro; Kuroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yoji

    2011-01-07

    Industrial aspects of the evolution of ion implantation technology will be reviewed, and their impact on the semiconductor industry will be discussed. The main topics will be the technology's application to the most advanced, ultra scaled CMOS, and to power devices, as well as productivity improvements in implantation technology. Technological insights into future developments in ion-related technologies for emerging industries will also be presented.

  13. The power of disruptive technological innovation: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Berlin, David B; Davidson, Michael J; Schoen, Frederick J

    2015-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the principles of disruptive innovation, defined as technology innovation that fundamentally shifts performance and utility metrics, as applied to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). In particular, we considered implantation procedure, device design, cost, and patient population. Generally cheaper and lower performing, classical disruptive innovations are first commercialized in insignificant markets, promise lower margins, and often parasitize existing usage, representing unattractive investments for established market participants. However, despite presently high unit cost, TAVI is less invasive, treats a "new," generally high risk, patient population, and is generally done by a multidisciplinary integrated heart team. Moreover, at least in the short-term TAVI has not been lower-performing than open surgical aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients. We conclude that TAVI extends the paradigm of disruptive innovation and represents an attractive commercial opportunity space. Moreover, should the long-term performance and durability of TAVI approach that of conventional prostheses, TAVI will be an increasingly attractive commercial opportunity. PMID:25545639

  14. Combined use of ECT with aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Garcia, Pilar; Chiclana, Carlos; Gonzalez, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This case report is on the combined use of electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) with a partial dopamine agonist, aripiprazole, in the treatment of a 30-year-old man with chronic and refractory paranoid schizophrenia. The patient had been under high doses of typical and atypical antipsychotics with a lack of control of the symptoms, characterized by agitation, suspiciousness, and obsessive fears. ECT therapy was started while receiving antipsychotic treatment and aripiprazole was added to the pharmacological treatment after six sessions of ECT. The convulsive threshold and the seizure duration did not significantly change after the treatment with aripiprazole was initiated. There was a clinical improvement after the combined treatment with ECT and aripiprazole and the combination was well tolerated. PMID:17853257

  15. An Introduction to Cochlear Implant Technology, Activation, and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jan A.; Teagle, Holly F. B.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides information about the hardware components and speech-processing strategies of cochlear implant systems. The use of assistive listening devices with cochlear implants is also discussed. A brief description of surgical procedures and the initial activation of the device are also presented, along with programming considerations.…

  16. Science and technology of biocompatible thin films for implantable biomedical devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Kabius, B.; Auciello, O.; Materials Science Division

    2010-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reviewing research to develop two critical biocompatible film technologies to enable implantable biomedical devices, namely: (1) development of bioinert/biocompatible coatings for encapsulation of Si chips implantable in the human body (e.g., retinal prosthesis implantable in the human eye) - the coating involves a novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film or hybrid biocompatible oxide/UNCD layered films; and (2) development of biocompatible films with high-dielectric constant and microfabrication process to produce energy storage super-capacitors embedded in the microchip to achieve full miniaturization for implantation into the human body.

  17. Adaptation of NASA technology for the optimization of orthopedic knee implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) is adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the tailoring of the implant for optimal interaction with the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized, such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation and prevent failures. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is elevated. The optimization system is expected to provide the means for improving knee prosthesis and individual implant tailoring for each patient.

  18. The use of ECT in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Salzman, C

    1980-09-01

    ECT has been replaced by neuroleptics for the treatment of schizophrenia. The production of serious drug-related side effects, particularly tardive dyskinesia, raises the question of the efficacy and toxicity of ECT versus neuroleptics. Most of the studies in the English literature on the use of ECT in the treatment of schizophrenia are unacceptable according to contemporary criteria: the question of ECT versus neuroleptic drugs thus remains unanswered. In the few acceptable published studies, clinical response to ECT was inversely proportional to duration of schizophrenic symptoms. Schizophrenic patients with affective and catatonic symptoms responded best: those with chronic symptoms rarely responded. ECT does not alter the fundamental psychopathology of schizophrenia. PMID:6107048

  19. Maxillary implant-supported bar overdenture and mandibular implant-retained fixed denture using CAD/CAM technology and 3-D design software: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Spyropoulou, Panagiota-Eirini; Razzoog, Michael E; Duff, Renée E; Chronaios, Dimitrios; Saglik, Berna; Tarrazzi, Daler E

    2011-06-01

    The implant-supported bar overdenture and the implant-retained fixed complete denture are appropriate treatment choices for patients with inadequate bone volume in the posterior maxilla and mandible, respectively. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has broadened the scope and application of those treatment options, allowing for prosthodontically-driven implant placement and ideal substructure design for optimal esthetics and biomechanics. This report describes the fabrication of a maxillary implant-supported milled titanium bar with attachments and an overdenture, and a mandibular implant-retained fixed complete denture with milled titanium substructure. PMID:21640235

  20. Psychotic and nonpsychotic depression: comparison of response to ECT.

    PubMed

    Solan, W J; Khan, A; Avery, D H; Cohen, S

    1988-03-01

    The charts of 46 patients who underwent ECT in a teaching hospital between 1980 and 1986 were reviewed. All patients were suffering from major depression, with or without psychotic features, and were resistant to pharmacotherapy. Response to ECT was compared between those with psychotic features (N = 27) and those without psychotic features (N = 19). Both groups had equal and effective response to ECT. Therefore, the presence of psychotic features was not significant in predicting response to ECT. PMID:3346204

  1. Factors influencing patients' willingness to pay for new technologies in hip and knee implants.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Sagebin, Fabio M; Karia, Raj; Koenig, Karl M; Bosco, Joseph A; Slover, James D

    2013-03-01

    Rising implant prices and evolving technologies are important factors contributing to the increased cost of arthroplasty. Assessing how patients value arthroplasty, new technologies, and their perceived outcomes is critical in planning cost-effective care, as well as evaluating new-technologies. One hundred one patients undergoing arthroplasty took part in the survey. We captured demographics, spending practices, knowledge of implants, patient willingness to pay for implants, and preferences related to implant attributes. When patients were asked if they would be satisfied with "standard of care" prosthesis, 80% replied "no". When asked if they would pay for a higher than "standard of care" prosthesis, 86% replied "yes". The study demonstrated that patients, regardless of their socio-economic status, are not satisfied with standard of care implants when newer technologies are available, and they may be willing to share in the cost of their prosthesis. Patients also prefer the option to choose what they perceive to be a higher quality or innovative implant even if the "out of pocket" cost is higher. PMID:23142436

  2. Implantable Smart Technologies (IST): Defining the 'Sting' in Data and Device.

    PubMed

    Haddow, Gill; Harmon, Shawn H E; Gilman, Leah

    2016-09-01

    In a world surrounded by smart objects from sensors to automated medical devices, the ubiquity of 'smart' seems matched only by its lack of clarity. In this article, we use our discussions with expert stakeholders working in areas of implantable medical devices such as cochlear implants, implantable cardiac defibrillators, deep brain stimulators and in vivo biosensors to interrogate the difference facets of smart in 'implantable smart technologies', considering also whether regulation needs to respond to the autonomy that such artefacts carry within them. We discover that when smart technology is deconstructed it is a slippery and multi-layered concept. A device's ability to sense and transmit data and automate medicine can be associated with the 'sting' of autonomy being disassociated from human control as well as affecting individual, group, and social environments. PMID:26646672

  3. Nanomaterials and synergistic low intensity direct current (LIDC) stimulation technology for orthopaedic implantable medical devices

    PubMed Central

    Samberg, Meghan E.; Cohen, Paul H.; Wysk, Richard A.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials play a significant role in biomedical research and applications due to their unique biological, mechanical, and electrical properties. In recent years, they have been utilised to improve the functionality and reliability of a wide range of implantable medical devices ranging from well-established orthopaedic residual hardware devices (e.g. hip implants) that can repair defects in skeletal systems to emerging tissue engineering scaffolds that can repair or replace organ functions. This review summarizes the applications and efficacies of these nanomaterials that include synthetic or naturally occurring metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites in orthopaedic implants, the largest market segment of implantable medical devices. The importance of synergistic engineering techniques that can augment or enhance the performance of nanomaterial applications in orthopaedic implants is also discussed,, the focus being on a low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) stimulation technology to promote the long-term antibacterial efficacy of oligodynamic metal-based surfaces by ionization, while potentially accelerating tissue growth and osseointegration. While many nanomaterials have clearly demonstrated their ability to provide more effective implantable medical surfaces, further decisive investigations are necessary before they can translate into medically safe and commercially viable clinical applications. The paper concludes with a discussion about some of the critical impending issues with the application of nanomaterials-based technologies in implantable medical devices, and potential directions to address these. PMID:23335493

  4. Industrial hygiene and control technology assessment of ion implantation operations.

    PubMed

    Ungers, L J; Jones, J H

    1986-10-01

    Ion implantation is a process used to create the functional units (pn junctions) of integrated circuits, photovoltaic (solar) cells and other semiconductor devices. During the process, ions of an impurity or a "dopant" material are created, accelerated and imbedded in wafers of silicon. Workers responsible for implantation equipment are believed to be at risk from exposure to both chemical (dopant compounds) and physical (ionizing radiation) agents. In an effort to characterize the chemical exposures, monitoring for chemical hazards was conducted near eleven ion implanters at three integrated circuit facilities, while ionizing radiation was monitored near four of these units at two of the facilities. The workplace monitoring suggests that ion implantation operators routinely are exposed to low-level concentrations of dopants. Although the exact nature of dopant compounds released to the work environment was not determined, area and personal samples taken during normal operating activities found concentrations of arsenic, boron and phosphorous below OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) for related compounds; area samples collected during implanter maintenance activities suggest that a potential exists for more serious exposures. The results of badge dosimetry monitoring for ionizing radiation indicate that serious exposures are unlikely to occur while engineering controls remain intact. All emissions were detected at levels unlikely to result in exposures above the OSHA standard for the whole body (1.25 rems per calendar quarter). The success of existing controls in preventing worker exposures is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the differential exposures likely to be experienced by operators and maintenance personnel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3776837

  5. Technological, biological, and acoustical constraints to music perception in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Limb, Charles J; Roy, Alexis T

    2014-02-01

    Despite advances in technology, the ability to perceive music remains limited for many cochlear implant users. This paper reviews the technological, biological, and acoustical constraints that make music an especially challenging stimulus for cochlear implant users, while highlighting recent research efforts to overcome these shortcomings. The limitations of cochlear implant devices, which have been optimized for speech comprehension, become evident when applied to music, particularly with regards to inadequate spectral, fine-temporal, and dynamic range representation. Beyond the impoverished information transmitted by the device itself, both peripheral and central auditory nervous system deficits are seen in the presence of sensorineural hearing loss, such as auditory nerve degeneration and abnormal auditory cortex activation. These technological and biological constraints to effective music perception are further compounded by the complexity of the acoustical features of music itself that require the perceptual integration of varying rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and timbral elements of sound. Cochlear implant users not only have difficulty perceiving spectral components individually (leading to fundamental disruptions in perception of pitch, melody, and harmony) but also display deficits with higher perceptual integration tasks required for music perception, such as auditory stream segregation. Despite these current limitations, focused musical training programs, new assessment methods, and improvements in the representation and transmission of the complex acoustical features of music through technological innovation offer the potential for significant advancements in cochlear implant-mediated music perception. PMID:23665130

  6. Biofilm Disrupting Technology for Orthopedic Implants: What’s on the Horizon?

    PubMed Central

    Connaughton, Alexander; Childs, Abby; Dylewski, Stefan; Sabesan, Vani J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of orthopedic implants in joints has revolutionized the treatment of patients with many debilitating chronic musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoarthritis. However, the introduction of foreign material into the human body predisposes the body to infection. The treatment of these infections has become very complicated since the orthopedic implants serve as a surface for multiple species of bacteria to grow at a time into a resistant biofilm layer. This biofilm layer serves as a protectant for the bacterial colonies on the implant making them more resistant and difficult to eradicate when using standard antibiotic treatment. In some cases, the use of antibiotics alone has even made the bacteria more resistant to treatment. Thus, there has been surge in the creation of non-antibiotic anti-biofilm agents to help disrupt the biofilms on the orthopedic implants to help eliminate the infections. In this study, we discuss infections of orthopedic implants in the shoulder then we review the main categories of anti-biofilm agents that have been used for the treatment of infections on orthopedic implants. Then, we introduce some of the newer biofilm disrupting technology that has been studied in the past few years that may advance the treatment options for orthopedic implants in the future. PMID:25705632

  7. Which depressed patients respond to ECT? The Nottingham results.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, D; Gill, D; Gregory, S; Shawcross, C

    1995-04-01

    The Nottingham electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) trial was designed with a simulated treatment group to test prospectively the power of delusions or agitation to predict response. The response of patients without retardation and without delusions was examined retrospectively as well because of doubts over the usefulness of ECT for this subgroup. Deluded/nondeluded and agitated/nonagitated subtypes responded significantly to real treatment. Neither delusions nor agitation predicted greater treatment response. Patients without retardation, with or without delusions responded to real ECT, supporting the continuing prescription of ECT for these patients as well. PMID:7790678

  8. Increased transcranial magnetic motor threshold after ECT. A case report.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Martin; Dieterich, Anja; Rüther, Eckart; Paulus, Walter; Wiltfang, Jens

    2002-10-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a powerful antidepressive treatment, but its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. To clarify the influence of ECT on corticospinal tract excitability we tested the motor threshold, the motor evoked potential (MEP) input/output curve, and the intracortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation in a depressed patient before and after successful treatment with ECT. Resting motor thresholds were increased bilaterally after treatment, and the input/output curve less steep. These results point to a decreased excitability of the corticospinal motor tract after successful ECT. PMID:12451468

  9. Contacting the brain--aspects of a technology assessment of neural implants.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michael; Fleischer, Torsten

    2008-12-01

    The public interest in neural implants has grown considerably in recent years. Progress within related research areas in combination with increasing--albeit overly optimistic and indiscriminate--mass media coverage have led to the impression that the possibilities of neural prosthetics have grown enormously. But a closer look reveals that the reasons for the intensified interest are varied and cannot be attributed to technical progress alone. Some neural prostheses that have been under development for many years have not left the clinical development phase despite intensive research activities. Other implants, like cardiac pacemakers and cochlea implants, are mature products that have already been implanted in a large number of patients. From the public perspective and in media reports, progress in the development of neural implants is associated with new achievements in other fields of neuroscience. Communications on new applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may suggest that a number of cognitive functions are now easily accessible with technological means. The fact that the interpretation of the results of fMRI studies depends on many conditions and is partly disputed also within the scientific community has been discussed in many publications but only very limited, in the general media. Besides this, research results and implementations in the area of electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have sparked further debate on the question of free will, on determinism and indeterminism, and have attracted a large media response. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some societal and ethical aspects of neural implants from a technology assessment perspective. Technology assessment (TA) aims at providing knowledge about impacts and consequences of (new) technologies as well as about political and societal ways of dealing with them. It reflects about implementation conditions of technology and potential technology conflicts. Over the

  10. Implantable sensor technology: measuring bone and joint biomechanics of daily life in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stresses and strains are major factors influencing growth, remodeling and repair of musculoskeletal tissues. Therefore, knowledge of forces and deformation within bones and joints is critical to gain insight into the complex behavior of these tissues during development, aging, and response to injury and disease. Sensors have been used in vivo to measure strains in bone, intraarticular cartilage contact pressures, and forces in the spine, shoulder, hip, and knee. Implantable sensors have a high impact on several clinical applications, including fracture fixation, spine fixation, and joint arthroplasty. This review summarizes the developments in strain-measurement-based implantable sensor technology for musculoskeletal research. PMID:23369655

  11. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Reducing the influence of STI on SONOS memory through optimizing added boron implantation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xu; Feng, Yan; Zhiguo, Li; Fan, Yang; Yonggang, Wang; Jianguang, Chang

    2010-09-01

    The influence of shallow trench isolation (STI) on a 90 nm polysilicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon structure non-volatile memory has been studied based on experiments. It has been found that the performance of edge memory cells adjacent to STI deteriorates remarkably. The compressive stress and boron segregation induced by STI are thought to be the main causes of this problem. In order to mitigate the STI impact, an added boron implantation in the STI region is developed as a new solution. Four kinds of boron implantation experiments have been implemented to evaluate the impact of STI on edge cells, respectively. The experimental results show that the performance of edge cells can be greatly improved through optimizing added boron implantation technology.

  12. Cryogenic ion implantation near amorphization threshold dose for halo/extension junction improvement in sub-30 nm device technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hugh; Todorov, Stan; Colombeau, Benjamin; Rodier, Dennis; Kouzminov, Dimitry; Zou Wei; Guo Baonian; Khasgiwale, Niranjan; Decker-Lucke, Kurt

    2012-11-06

    We report on junction advantages of cryogenic ion implantation with medium current implanters. We propose a methodical approach on maximizing cryogenic effects on junction characteristics near the amorphization threshold doses that are typically used for halo implants for sub-30 nm technologies. BF{sub 2}{sup +} implant at a dose of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13}cm{sup -2} does not amorphize silicon at room temperature. When implanted at -100 Degree-Sign C, it forms a 30 - 35 nm thick amorphous layer. The cryogenic BF{sub 2}{sup +} implant significantly reduces the depth of the boron distribution, both as-implanted and after anneals, which improves short channel rolloff characteristics. It also creates a shallower n{sup +}-p junction by steepening profiles of arsenic that is subsequently implanted in the surface region. We demonstrate effects of implant sequences, germanium preamorphization, indium and carbon co-implants for extension/halo process integration. When applied to sequences such as Ge+As+C+In+BF{sub 2}{sup +}, the cryogenic implants at -100 Degree-Sign C enable removal of Ge preamorphization, and form more active n{sup +}-p junctions and steeper B and In halo profiles than sequences at room temperature.

  13. A phone-assistive device based on Bluetooth technology for cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haifeng; Loizou, Philipos C; Dorman, Michael F

    2003-09-01

    Hearing-impaired people, and particularly hearing-aid and cochlear-implant users, often have difficulty communicating over the telephone. The intelligibility of telephone speech is considerably lower than the intelligibility of face-to-face speech. This is partly because of lack of visual cues, limited telephone bandwidth, and background noise. In addition, cellphones may cause interference with the hearing aid or cochlear implant. To address these problems that hearing-impaired people experience with telephones, this paper proposes a wireless phone adapter that can be used to route the audio signal directly to the hearing aid or cochlear implant processor. This adapter is based on Bluetooth technology. The favorable features of this new wireless technology make the adapter superior to traditional assistive listening devices. A hardware prototype was built and software programs were written to implement the headset profile in the Bluetooth specification. Three cochlear implant users were tested with the proposed phone-adapter and reported good speech quality. PMID:14518792

  14. Wafer topography modeling for ionic implantation mask correction dedicated to 2x nm FDSOI technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Jean-Christophe; Le Denmat, Jean-Christophe; Sungauer, Elodie; Robert, Frédéric; Yesilada, Emek; Armeanu, Ana-Maria; Entradas, Jorge; Sturtevant, John L.; Do, Thuy; Granik, Yuri

    2013-04-01

    Reflection by wafer topography and underlying layers during optical lithography can cause unwanted exposure in the resist [1]. This wafer stack effect phenomenon which is neglected for larger nodes than 45nm, is becoming problematic for 32nm technology node and below at the ionic implantation process. This phenomenon is expected to be attenuated by the use of anti-reflecting coating but increases process complexity and adds cost and cycle time penalty. As a consequence, an OPC based solution is today under evaluation to cope with stack effects involved in ionic implantation patterning [2] [3]. For the source drain (SD) ionic implantation process step on 28nm Fully Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (FDSOI) technology, active silicon areas, poly silicon patterns, Shallow Trench Isolation (STI), Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) areas and the transitions between these different regions result in significant SD implant pattern critical dimension variations. The large number of stack variations involved in these effects implies a complex modeling to simulate pattern degradations. This paper deals with the characterization of stack effects on 28nm node using SOI substrates. The large number of measurements allows to highlight all individual and combined stack effects. A new modeling flow has been developed in order to generate wafer stack aware OPC model. The accuracy and the prediction of the model is presented in this paper.

  15. Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition: A review of physics,technology, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, Jacques; Anders, Andre

    2005-05-16

    After pioneering work in the 1980s, plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBIID) can now be considered mature technologies for surface modification and thin film deposition. This review starts by looking at the historical development and recalling the basic ideas of PBII. Advantages and disadvantages are compared to conventional ion beam implantation and physical vapor deposition for PBII and PBIID, respectively, followed by a summary of the physics of sheath dynamics, plasma and pulse specifications, plasma diagnostics, and process modeling. The review moves on to technology considerations for plasma sources and process reactors. PBII surface modification and PBIID coatings are applied in a wide range of situations. They include the by-now traditional tribological applications of reducing wear and corrosion through the formation of hard, tough, smooth, low-friction and chemically inert phases and coatings, e.g. for engine components. PBII has become viable for the formation of shallow junctions and other applications in microelectronics. More recently, the rapidly growing field of biomaterial synthesis makes used of PBII&D to produce surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible surfaces and coatings, etc. With limitations, also non-conducting materials such as plastic sheets can be treated. The major interest in PBII processing originates from its flexibility in ion energy (from a few eV up to about 100 keV), and the capability to efficiently treat, or deposit on, large areas, and (within limits) to process non-flat, three-dimensional workpieces, including forming and modifying metastable phases and nanostructures. We use the acronym PBII&D when referring to both implantation and deposition, while PBIID implies that deposition is part of the process.

  16. Bilateral ECT induces bilateral increases in regional cortical thickness.

    PubMed

    van Eijndhoven, P; Mulders, P; Kwekkeboom, L; van Oostrom, I; van Beek, M; Janzing, J; Schene, A; Tendolkar, I

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for patients suffering from severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear. One line of evidence indicates that the seizures produced by ECT induce or stimulate neuroplasticity effects. Although these seizures also affect the cortex, the effect of ECT on cortical thickness is not investigated until now. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data in 19 treatment-resistant MDD patients before and after a bilateral ECT course, and 16 healthy controls at 2 time points, and compared changes in cortical thickness between the groups. Our results reveal that ECT induces significant, bilateral increases in cortical thickness, including the temporal pole, inferior and middle temporal cortex and the insula. The pattern of increased cortical thickness was predominant in regions that are associated with seizure onset in ECT. Post hoc analyses showed that the increase in thickness of the insular cortex was larger in responders than in non-responders, which may point to a specific relationship of this region with treatment effects of ECT. PMID:27552587

  17. A therapeutic delivery system for chronic osteomyelitis via a multi-drug implant based on three-dimensional printing technology.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weigang; Ye, Chenyi; Zheng, Qixin; Wu, Gui; Cheng, Zhaohui

    2016-08-01

    Chronic osteomyelitis is difficult to be cured and often relapses, which presents to be a great challenge to clinicians. We conducted this original study to explore the efficiency of therapeutic alliance for chronic osteomyelitis by a multi-drug implant based on three-dimensional printing technology. We designed and fabricated preciously a multi-drug implant with a multi-layered concentric cylinder construction by three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. Levofloxacin and tobramycin were incorporated into the drug implant in a specific sequence. The drug release property of the drug implant was assayed in vitro We also developed an animal model of chronic osteomyelitis to estimate the effect of the 3D printed multi-drug implant. The results showed that the multi-drug implant had a sustained and programmed drug release property. Levofloxacin and tobramycin which were released from the multi-drug implant worked in tandem to enhance pharmacodynamic action which was similar to a tumor chemotherapy program and were sufficient to treat chronic osteomyelitis. These findings imply that the administration of 3D printed multi-drug implant would be a potential therapeutic method for chronic osteomyelitis. Further studies are required. PMID:27013218

  18. Ion beam technology applications study. [ion impact, implantation, and surface finishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.; Zafran, S.; Komatsu, G. K.

    1978-01-01

    Specific perceptions and possible ion beam technology applications were obtained as a result of a literature search and contact interviews with various institutions and individuals which took place over a 5-month period. The use of broad beam electron bombardment ion sources is assessed for materials deposition, removal, and alteration. Special techniques examined include: (1) cleaning, cutting, and texturing for surface treatment; (2) crosslinking of polymers, stress relief in deposited layers, and the creation of defect states in crystalline material by ion impact; and (3) ion implantation during epitaxial growth and the deposition of neutral materials sputtered by the ion beam. The aspects, advantages, and disadvantages of ion beam technology and the competitive role of alternative technologies are discussed.

  19. Repairing an implant titanium milled framework using laser welding technology: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Soni; Monaco, Edward A

    2009-04-01

    The application of laser welding technology allows titanium to be welded predictably and precisely to achieve accurate fit of a milled framework. Laser energy results in localized heat production, thereby reducing thermal expansion. Unlike soldering, laser energy can be directed to a small area, making it possible to laser weld close to acrylic resin or ceramic. This article describes the use of laser welding to repair an implant titanium milled fixed denture. A quick, cost-effective, accurate repair was accomplished, and the repaired framework possessed adequate strength and the same precise fit as the original framework. PMID:19328274

  20. Crystal field analysis of Dy and Tm implanted silicon for photonic and quantum technologies.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mark A; Lourenço, Manon A; Carey, J David; Murdin, Ben; Homewood, Kevin P

    2014-12-01

    We report the lattice site and symmetry of optically active Dy3+ and Tm3+ implanted Si. Local symmetry was determined by fitting crystal field parameters (CFPs), corresponding to various common symmetries, to the ground state splitting determined by photoluminescence measurements. These CFP values were then used to calculate the splitting of every J manifold. We find that both Dy and Tm ions are in a Si substitution site with local tetragonal symmetry. Knowledge of rare-earth ion symmetry is important in maximising the number of optically active centres and for quantum technology applications where local symmetry can be used to control decoherence. PMID:25606863

  1. Immediate Implant Placement in Anterior Aesthetic Region and Assessment using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Scan Technology

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Vaibhav; Gupta, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    The esthetics and functional integrity of the periodontal tissues may be compromised by the dental loss. Dental implants have become an additional tool in the armamentarium of treatment options to offer the patient for the replacement of a missing tooth or teeth. Diagnosis and treatment planning is the key factors in achieving the successful outcome after placing and restoring implants placed immediately after tooth extraction. The introduction of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for the maxillofacial region provides opportunities for dental practitioners to request multiplanar imaging. This case report demonstrates the use of CBCT scan technology in immediate implant placement in the maxillary anterior teeth region. PMID:26668494

  2. Effectiveness of ECT combined with risperidone against aggression in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hirose, S; Ashby, C R; Mills, M J

    2001-03-01

    Aggressive behavior in schizophrenic patients can often be problematic not only for the patients themselves, but for their families and others. This study examined the effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in combination with risperidone in an open trial in 10 male schizophrenic patients with significant aggressive behaviors. Patients were given bilateral ECT five times a week in combination with risperidone. The mean total number of times of ECT was 6.6 (range 5-9). The aggressive behavior in five of the six patients, who showed positive symptoms, was rapidly ameliorated within 12 days. The ECT/risperidone regimen also eliminated aggressive behavior in four patients showing no positive symptoms within 10 days. These treatment effects lasted for at least 6 months in 9 (of the 10) patients. The results suggest that ECT, combined with risperidone, produce a rapid and effective elimination of aggressive behaviors in schizophrenic patients. In addition, there was a resolution of aggression in four patients with no positive symptoms. This suggests that aggression in some schizophrenic patients develops as a primary symptom of schizophrenia and is not related to other positive symptoms of the disease or the patient's personality traits. PMID:11281510

  3. Decreased efficacy of combined benzodiazepines and unilateral ECT in treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Jha, A; Stein, G

    1996-08-01

    In a retrospective study, 124 patients with depression who were concomitantly receiving ECT and benzodiazepines were compared with patients (matched for age, sex, diagnosis, and laterality of ECT) receiving ECT without benzodiazepines in order to investigate the efficacy of ECT in terms of therapeutic response and length of stay in hospital. Most of the subjects (84% of cases and 89% of controls) improved on ECT, but the benzodiazepine group of patients receiving unilateral ECT showed a significantly poorer response and a longer stay in hospital. No such difference was detected with the bilateral ECT. It is therefore concluded that prescription of benzodiazepines with ECT does compromise the therapeutic effect of unilateral ECT for depression. PMID:8883570

  4. Bypassing the learning curve in permanent seed implants using state-of-the-art technology

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, Luc . E-mail: beaulieu@phy.ulaval.ca; Evans, Dee-Ann Radford; Aubin, Sylviane; Angyalfi, Steven; Husain, Siraj; Kay, Ian; Martin, Andre-Guy; Varfalvy, Nicolas; Vigneault, Eric; Dunscombe, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to demonstrate, based on clinical postplan dose distributions, that technology can be used efficiently to eliminate the learning curve associated with permanent seed implant planning and delivery. Methods and Materials: Dose distributions evaluated 30 days after the implant of the initial 22 consecutive patients treated with permanent seed implants at two institutions were studied. Institution 1 (I1) consisted of a new team, whereas institution 2 (I2) had performed more than 740 preplanned implantations over a 9-year period before the study. Both teams had adopted similar integrated systems based on three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasonography, intraoperative dosimetry, and an automated seed delivery and needle retraction system (FIRST, Nucletron). Procedure time and dose volume histogram parameters such as D90, V100, V150, V200, and others were collected in the operating room and at 30 days postplan. Results: The average target coverage from the intraoperative plan (V100) was 99.4% for I1 and 99.9% for I2. D90, V150, and V200 were 191.4 Gy (196.3 Gy), 75.3% (73.0%), and 37.5% (34.1%) for I1 (I2) respectively. None of these parameters shows a significant difference between institutions. The postplan D90 was 151.2 Gy for I1 and 167.3 Gy for I2, well above the 140 Gy from the Stock et al. analysis, taking into account differences at planning, results in a p value of 0.0676. The procedure time required on average 174.4 min for I1 and 89 min for I2. The time was found to decrease with the increasing number of patients. Conclusion: State-of-the-art technology enables a new brachytherapy team to obtain excellent postplan dose distributions, similar to those achieved by an experienced team with proven long-term clinical results. The cost for bypassing the usual dosimetry learning curve is time, with increasing team experience resulting in shorter treatment times.

  5. The use of CAD/CAM technology to fabricate a custom ceramic implant abutment: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Martinna de Mendonça e; Kempen, Juan; Lourenço, Eduardo José Veras; Telles, Daniel de Moraes

    2014-05-01

    Well-placed dental implants are a prerequisite of functional and esthetically successful dental implant-supported crowns. The presence of soft tissue is essential for excellent esthetics because the dental implant or titanium abutment may become visible if the soft-tissue contour is not acceptable. This clinical report describes the use of a custom ceramic implant abutment designed with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology by milling a zirconia framework that was cemented extraorally to a prefabricated titanium abutment with a reduced diameter. This ceramic abutment has the strength and precise fit of a titanium interface and also the esthetic advantages of shaded custom-milled zirconia, with no visible metal. PMID:24433839

  6. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator: technology, indications, and impact on cardiovascular survival.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Atul; Cooley, Ryan; Berger, Marcie; Blanck, Zalmen; Dhala, Anwer; Sra, Jasbir; Axtell-Mcbride, Kathleen; Vandervort, Cheryl; Akhtar, Masood

    2004-06-01

    Since the introduction of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for the management of patients with high risk of arrhythmic SCD, there has been increasing use of this device. Its basic promise to effectively terminate ventricular tachycardia (VT)-ventricular fibrillation (VF) has been repeatedly met. In several randomized trials, the ICD has been shown to be superior to conventional anti-arrhythmic therapy, both in patients with documented VT-VF (secondary prevention) and those with high risk such as left ventricular ejection fraction and no prior sustained VT-VF (primary prevention). In both groups, the ICD showed overall and cardiac mortality reduction. The device now can more accurately detect VT-VF and differentiate these from other arrhythmias through a series of algorithms and direct-chamber sensing. Therapy options include painless antitachycardia pacing, low-energy cardioversion, and high-energy defibrillation. The technique implant is now simple as a pacemaker with one lead attached to an active (hot) can functioning as the other electrode. Among other improvements is its weight, volume, multiprogrammability, and storage of information,dual-chamber pacing and sensing, dual-chamber defibrillation, and addition of biventricular pacing for cardiac synchronization. It is anticipated that further improvement in ICD technology will take place and the list of indications will grow. PMID:15159713

  7. [Preoperative imaging of the inner ear prior to the implantation of a multichannel cochlear implant using computed and MR technology].

    PubMed

    Czerny, C; Gstoettner, W; Adunka, O; Hamzavi, J; Baumgartner, W D

    2000-06-01

    CT and MRT are now standard examinations prior to insertion of a cochlear implant. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages in terms of discovering potentially pathological structures in the inner ear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pros and cons of using CT and MRT before cochlear implantation. CT is usually performed using axial planigraphic planes. Like MRT, bone-specific CT is helpful in the diagnosis of congenital and acquired changes within the inner ear. Congenital defects in the meatus acusticus internus, the endolymphatic duct and sac, the cochlea and the vestibulum can be diagnosed and also quantified. Infectious morphologic changes can be seen on CT images in their terminal residual state (sclerotic tissue). However, acute inflammation and fibrotic tissue is not visible on CT. T2-specific MRT images are very fluid sensitive and play a major role in preoperative cochlear implant diagnosis. This examination demonstrates fluid within the peri- and enolymphatic cave and permits the diagnostician to determine whether congenital or acquired diseases have destroyed such fluid-filled cavities. In order to demonstrate pathological changes in the temporal bone and neural structures in the inner ear, MRT is the preferred method. Displaying the modiolus and the cochlear nerve is extremely important because, in their absence, a cochlear implantation may be contra-indicated. MRT also demonstrates other neural structures such as the facial nerve. This information may be important for the surgeon, e.g. the state of the pneumatic system in the mastoid cavity (which is best visualised by bone-specific CT). PMID:10890125

  8. ECT as a therapeutic option in severe brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kant, R; Bogyi, A M; Carosella, N W; Fishman, E; Kane, V; Coffey, C E

    1995-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe, highly effective, and rapidly acting treatment for certain major psychiatric illnesses, most notably severe mood disorders. Disturbances in mood and behavior as symptoms of delirium may complicate recovery from traumatic brain injury, but virtually no data exist on the role of ECT as a treatment modality in such clinical situations. We describe a patient with severe, unremitting, agitated behavior following a severe closed head injury from a motor vehicle accident. The initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was 3, with computed tomographic evidence of bilateral frontal and left thalamic contusions. After awakening from a 21-day coma, the patient failed to improve beyond a Ranchos Los Amigos level 4 recovery stage. He exhibited persistent severe agitation with vocal outbursts and failed to assist in performing activities of daily living. His difficulties proved unresponsive to combined behavioral therapy and multiple trials of various psychopharmacologic agents. As an intervention of "last resort," he then received six brief-pulse, bilateral ECT treatments that resulted in marked lessening of his agitation and improvement in his ability to express his needs and participate in his self-care. Also, following the ECT, he showed a markedly enhanced response to psychopharmacologic agents. These findings may have important clinical implications for treatment of prolonged delirium after traumatic brain injury. PMID:7796068

  9. 7 CFR 3560.103 - Maintaining housing proj-ects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining housing proj-ects. 3560.103 Section 3560.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Borrower Management and...

  10. Study of millisecond laser annealing on ion implanted soi and application to scaled finfet technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, Tyler J.

    The fabrication of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET) requires the engineering of low resistance, low leakage, and extremely precise p-n junctions. The introduction of finFET technology has introduced new challenges for traditional ion implantation and annealing techniques in junction design as the fin widths continue to decrease for improved short channel control. This work investigates the use of millisecond scanning laser annealing in the formation of n-type source/drain junctions in next generation MOSFET. We present a model to approximate the true thermal profile for a commercial laser annealing process which allows us to represent more precisely specific thermal steps using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD). Sheet resistance and Hall Effect measurements for blanket films are used to correlate dopant activation and mobility with the regrowth process during laser anneal. We show the onset of high conductivity associated with completion of solid phase epitaxial regrowth (SPER) in the films. The Lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (LKMC) model shows excellent agreement with cross section transmission electron microscopy (TEM), correlating the increase of conductivity with completion of crystal regrowth, increased activation, and crystal quality at various temperatures. As scaled devices move into the non-planar geometries and possibly adopt silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates, the crystal regrowth and dopant activation of amorphizing implants becomes more complicated and doping methods must adapt accordingly. Following the concept of the more recently proposed hot ion implantation and the benefits of laser anneal, we investigate a possible process flow for a 10/14 nm node SOI finFET by utilizing process and device TCAD. Device simulation parameters for the 10/14 nm node device are taken from a calibrated model based on fabricated non-planar 40 nm gate length device finFET. The implications on device performance are considered for the

  11. Implantable Microimagers

    PubMed Central

    Ng, David C.; Tokuda, Takashi; Shiosaka, Sadao; Tano, Yasuo; Ohta, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Implantable devices such as cardiac pacemakers, drug-delivery systems, and defibrillators have had a tremendous impact on the quality of live for many disabled people. To date, many devices have been developed for implantation into various parts of the human body. In this paper, we focus on devices implanted in the head. In particular, we describe the technologies necessary to create implantable microimagers. Design, fabrication, and implementation issues are discussed vis-à-vis two examples of implantable microimagers; the retinal prosthesis and in vivo neuro-microimager. Testing of these devices in animals verify the use of the microimagers in the implanted state. We believe that further advancement of these devices will lead to the development of a new method for medical and scientific applications.

  12. Low-cost ion implantation and annealing technology for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. H.; Minnucci, J. A.; Greenwald, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    Ion implantation and thermal annealing techniques for processing junctions and back surface layers in solar cells are discussed. Standard 10 keV (31)p(+) junction implants and 25 keV (11)B(+) back surface implants in combination with three-step furnace annealing are used for processing a range of silicon materials and device structures. Cells with efficiencies up to 16.5% AM1 are being produced, and large-area terrestrial cells with implanted junctions and back fields being fabricated in pilot production exhibit average efficiencies in excess of 15% AM1. Thermal annealing methods for removal of the radiation damage caused by implantation should be replaced by transient processing techniques in future production. Design studies have been completed for solar cell processing implanters to support 10 MW/yr and 100 MW/yr production lines, and analyses indicate that implantation costs can be reduced to approximately 1 cent/watt.

  13. The dynamic behavior of Ect2 in response to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    He, Dan; Xiang, Jinnan; Li, Baojie; Liu, Huijuan

    2016-01-01

    Ect2 is a BRCT-containing guanidine exchange factor for Rho GTPases. It is essential for cytokinesis and is also involved in tumorigenesis. Since most BRCT-containing proteins are involved in DNA damage response and/or DNA repair, we tested whether Ect2 plays similar roles. We report that in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), DNA damage quickly led to Ect2 relocalization to the chromatin and DNA damage foci-like structures. Ect2 knockdown did not affect foci localization of γH2AX, TopBP1, or Brca1, or activation of Atm, yet it impeded p53 Ser15 phosphorylation and activation, and resulted in defects in apoptosis and activation of S and G2/M checkpoints in response to DNA damage. These results suggest that Ect2 plays a role in DNA damage response. Interestingly, Ect2 is down-regulated at late stages of DNA damage response. Although p53 and E2F1 have been shown to regulate Ect2 transcription, DNA damage-induced Ect2 down-regulation occurred in p53−/− or Atm−/− MEFs and E2F1 knockdown cells. Instead, DNA damage-induced Ect2 down-regulation is mainly attributable to decreased protein stability. Like Ect2 knockdown, Ect2 destabilization may help the cell to recover from DNA damage response. These results suggest that Ect2 plays roles in multiple aspects of DNA damage response. PMID:27074761

  14. The Role of Ect2 Nuclear RhoGEF Activity in Ovarian Cancer Cell Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Lauren P.; DeCristo, Molly J.; Trembath, Dimitri; Kuan, Pei Fen; Yim, Margaret; Liu, Jinsong; Cook, Danielle R.; Miller, C. Ryan; Der, Channing J.

    2013-01-01

    Ect2, a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGEF), is atypical among RhoGEFs in its predominantly nuclear localization in interphase cells. One current model suggests that Ect2 mislocalization drives cellular transformation by promoting aberrant activation of cytoplasmic Rho family GTPase substrates. However, in ovarian cancers, where Ect2 is both amplified and overexpressed at the mRNA level, we observed that the protein is highly expressed and predominantly nuclear and that nuclear but not cytoplasmic Ect2 increases with advanced disease. Knockdown of Ect2 in ovarian cancer cell lines impaired their anchorage-independent growth without affecting their growth on plastic. Restoration of Ect2 expression rescued the anchorage-independent growth defect, but not if either the DH catalytic domain or the nuclear localization sequences of Ect2 were mutated. These results suggested a novel mechanism whereby Ect2 could drive transformation in ovarian cancer cells by acting as a RhoGEF specifically within the nucleus. Interestingly, Ect2 had an intrinsically distinct GTPase specificity profile in the nucleus versus the cytoplasm. Nuclear Ect2 bound preferentially to Rac1, while cytoplasmic Ect2 bound to RhoA but not Rac. Consistent with nuclear activation of endogenous Rac, Ect2 overexpression was sufficient to recruit Rac effectors to the nucleus, a process that required a functional Ect2 catalytic domain. Furthermore, expression of active nuclearly targeted Rac1 rescued the defect in transformed growth caused by Ect2 knockdown. Our work suggests a novel mechanism of Ect2-driven transformation, identifies subcellular localization as a regulator of GEF specificity, and implicates activation of nuclear Rac1 in cellular transformation. PMID:24386507

  15. Plasma-based ion implantation: a valuable technology for the elaboration of innovative materials and nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vempaire, D.; Pelletier, J.; Lacoste, A.; Béchu, S.; Sirou, J.; Miraglia, S.; Fruchart, D.

    2005-05-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII), invented in 1987, can now be considered as a mature technology for thin film modification. After a brief recapitulation of the principle and physics of PBII, its advantages and disadvantages, as compared to conventional ion beam implantation, are listed and discussed. The elaboration of thin films and the modification of their functional properties by PBII have already been achieved in many fields, such as microelectronics (plasma doping/PLAD), biomaterials (surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible materials), plastics (grafting, surface adhesion) and metallurgy (hard coatings, tribology), to name a few. The major advantages of PBII processing lie, on the one hand, in its flexibility in terms of ion implantation energy (from 0 to 100 keV) and operating conditions (plasma density, collisional or non-collisional ion sheath), and, on the other hand, in the easy transferrability of processes from the laboratory to industry. The possibility of modifying the composition and physical nature of the films, or of drastically changing their physical properties over several orders of magnitude makes this technology very attractive for the elaboration of innovative materials, including metastable materials, and the realization of micro- or nanostructures. A review of the state of the art in these domains is presented and illustrated through a few selected examples. The perspectives opened up by PBII processing, as well as its limitations, are discussed.

  16. Rationale for the Use of CAD/CAM Technology in Implant Prosthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Despite the predictable longevity of implant prosthesis, there is an ongoing interest to continue to improve implant prosthodontic treatment and outcomes. One of the developments is the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to produce implant abutments and frameworks from metal or ceramic materials. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate the rationale of CAD/CAM utilization for implant prosthodontics. To date, CAD/CAM allows simplified production of precise and durable implant components. The precision of fit has been proven in several laboratory experiments and has been attributed to the design of implants. Milling also facilitates component fabrication from durable and aesthetic materials. With further development, it is expected that the CAD/CAM protocol will be further simplified. Although compelling clinical evidence supporting the superiority of CAD/CAM implant restorations is still lacking, it is envisioned that CAD/CAM may become the main stream for implant component fabrication. PMID:23690778

  17. An Ultrasound Assisted Anchoring Technique (BoneWelding® Technology) for Fixation of Implants to Bone – A Histological Pilot Study in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Langhoff, Jens D; Kuemmerle, Jan M; Mayer, Joerg; Weber, Urs; Berra, Milica; Mueller, Jessika M; Kaestner, Sabine B; Zlinszky, Katalin; Auer, Joerg A; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    The BoneWelding® Technology offers new opportunities to anchor implants within bone. The technology melted the surface of biodegradable polymer pins by means of ultrasound energy to mould material into the structures of the predrilled bone. Temperature changes were measured at the sites of implantation in an in vitro experiment. In the in vivo part of the study two types of implants were implanted in the limb of sheep to investigate the biocompatibility of the method. One implant type was made of PL-DL-lactide (PLA), the second one was a titanium core partially covered with PLA. Healing period was 2 and 6 months, with 3 sheep per group. Bone samples were evaluated radiologically, histologically and histomorphometrically for bone remodeling and inflammatory reactions. Results demonstrated mild and short temperature increase during insertion. New bone formed at the implant without evidence of inflammatory reaction. The amount of adjacent bone was increased compared to normal cancellous bone. It was concluded that the BoneWelding® Technology proved to be a biocompatible technology to anchor biodegradable as well as titanium-PLA implants in bone. PMID:19572033

  18. Long-term results of BVS implantation: a focus on safety and efficacy of the bioresorbable technology.

    PubMed

    DEN Dekker, Wijnand K; VAN Geuns, Robert J; Diletti, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The everolimus eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) represents a novel technology and a novel paradigm for treatment of coronary artery disease, with the potential of improving the long-term clinical outcomes after complete bioresorption. The increasing amount of clinical data is adding in a gradual understanding of the appropriate implantation technique, but long-term results after BVS implantation are sparse. In addition, concern related to a possible increased rate of scaffold thrombosis has recently risen. The present article reviews the current status of knowledge on bioresorbable vascular scaffold from the preclinical phase and the first-in-man experience to the recently reported large randomized trials. Challenging subsets are discussed as well as possible factors impacting on the occurrence of thrombotic events, particularly focusing on clinical outcomes reported in the longest follow-ups currently available. PMID:27175976

  19. Plasma Implantation Technology for Upcoming Ultra Shallow and Highly Doped Fully Depleted Silicon On Insulator Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzatti, Frederic; Milési, Frederic; Delaye, Vincent; Duchaine, Julian; Torregrosa, Frank; Etienne, Hasnaa; Yckache, Karim

    2011-01-01

    To face the continuous dimensions downscaling for upcoming semiconductor devices, we have investigated a plasma immersion ion implantation way and have compared the results to a conventional one. This new implantation method allows, in particular, high and thin doping concentration to field source and drain requirements for 32 nm node and below. In addition to this key step, a silicon selective epitaxy growth has been performed. Thus, n-type and p-type ion implantations have been carried out on thin blanket SOI substrates in Pulsion® plasma ion implantation tool manufactured by Ion Beam Services, with AsH3, BF3 or B2H6 precursors. Then a recrystallization annealing followed by silicon selective epitaxial growth has been performed in a reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition tool. Regarding n-type implantation we observed a poly-silicon growth in areas where the top silicon has been amorphous down to the buried oxide and a mono-silicon growth for areas where the top silicon has not been completely amorphous. Indeed, in this case recrystallization annealing was not sufficient to allow lengthwise solid phase epitaxy growth whereas there were no difficulties for axial one. Regarding p-type implantations no epitaxial growths have been observed at all. This lack of growth cannot be explained by a complete silicon amorphization which would have led to a growth of poly-silicon like for n-type implantation. According to our first results this growth vacancy could be explained by the very high boron atoms concentration on the substrate surface. The latter being resistant to HF-last cleaning could thus block silicon nucleation. However some rinsing processes, more or less aggressive, have been tested to remove this boron silicon alloy layer. Among these different tests, hydrochloric or plasma etching have provided, in some specific cases, promising results allowing an epitaxial silicon growth.

  20. Detection and Sizing of Defects in Structural Components of a Nuclear Power Plant by ECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenmao; Miya, Kenzo

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, progress of ECT technique for inspection of stress corrosion cracks in a structural component of a nuclear power plant is reported. Access and scanning vehicle (robot), advanced probes for SG tube inspection, development and evaluation of new probes for welding joint, and ECT based crack sizing technique are described respectively. Based on these new techniques, it is clarified that ECT can play as a supplement of UT for the welding zone inspection. It is also proved in this work that new ECT sensors are efficient even for a stainless plate as thick as 15mm.

  1. Engineering the heart: Evaluation of conductive nanomaterials for improving implant integration and cardiac function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin; Chen, Jun; Sun, Hongyu; Qiu, Xiaozhong; Mou, Yongchao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuwei; Li, Xia; Han, Yao; Duan, Cuimi; Tang, Rongyu; Wang, Chunlan; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Jie; Luo, Ying; (Mengqiu) Xing, Malcolm; Wang, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, carbon nanotubes together with other types of conductive materials have been used to enhance the viability and function of cardiomyocytes in vitro. Here we demonstrated a paradigm to construct ECTs for cardiac repair using conductive nanomaterials. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were incorporated into gelatin hydrogel scaffolds to construct three-dimensional ECTs. We found that SWNTs could provide cellular microenvironment in vitro favorable for cardiac contraction and the expression of electrochemical associated proteins. Upon implantation into the infarct hearts in rats, ECTs structurally integrated with the host myocardium, with different types of cells observed to mutually invade into implants and host tissues. The functional measurements showed that SWNTs were essential to improve the performance of ECTs in inhibiting pathological deterioration of myocardium. This work suggested that conductive nanomaterials hold therapeutic potential in engineering cardiac tissues to repair myocardial infarction.

  2. Engineering the heart: Evaluation of conductive nanomaterials for improving implant integration and cardiac function

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Chen, Jun; Sun, Hongyu; Qiu, Xiaozhong; Mou, Yongchao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuwei; Li, Xia; Han, Yao; Duan, Cuimi; Tang, Rongyu; Wang, Chunlan; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Jie; Luo, Ying; (Mengqiu) Xing, Malcolm; Wang, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, carbon nanotubes together with other types of conductive materials have been used to enhance the viability and function of cardiomyocytes in vitro. Here we demonstrated a paradigm to construct ECTs for cardiac repair using conductive nanomaterials. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were incorporated into gelatin hydrogel scaffolds to construct three-dimensional ECTs. We found that SWNTs could provide cellular microenvironment in vitro favorable for cardiac contraction and the expression of electrochemical associated proteins. Upon implantation into the infarct hearts in rats, ECTs structurally integrated with the host myocardium, with different types of cells observed to mutually invade into implants and host tissues. The functional measurements showed that SWNTs were essential to improve the performance of ECTs in inhibiting pathological deterioration of myocardium. This work suggested that conductive nanomaterials hold therapeutic potential in engineering cardiac tissues to repair myocardial infarction. PMID:24429673

  3. Fabricating a tooth- and implant-supported maxillary obturator for a patient after maxillectomy with computer-guided surgery and CAD/CAM technology: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Noh, Kwantae; Pae, Ahran; Lee, Jung-Woo; Kwon, Yong-Dae

    2016-05-01

    An obturator prosthesis with insufficient retention and support may be improved with implant placement. However, implant surgery in patients after maxillary tumor resection can be complicated because of limited visibility and anatomic complexity. Therefore, computer-guided surgery can be advantageous even for experienced surgeons. In this clinical report, the use of computer-guided surgery is described for implant placement using a bone-supported surgical template for a patient with maxillary defects. The prosthetic procedure was facilitated and simplified by using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology. Oral function and phonetics were restored using a tooth- and implant-supported obturator prosthesis. No clinical symptoms and no radiographic signs of significant bone loss around the implants were found at a 3-year follow-up. The treatment approach presented here can be a viable option for patients with insufficient remaining zygomatic bone after a hemimaxillectomy. PMID:26774316

  4. Transaction-neutral implanted data collection interface as EMR driver: a model for emerging distributed medical technologies.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Daniel; Sivaramakrishnan, Anusha; Richards, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Electronic Medical Record (EMR) and Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption continues to lag across the US. Cost, inconsistent formats, and concerns about control of patient information are among the most common reasons for non-adoption in physician practice settings. The emergence of wearable and implanted mobile technologies, employed in distributed environments, promises a fundamentally different information infrastructure, which could serve to minimize existing adoption resistance. Proposed here is one technology model for overcoming adoption inconsistency and high organization-specific implementation costs, using seamless, patient controlled data collection. While the conceptual applications employed in this technology set are provided by way of illustration, they may also serve as a transformative model for emerging EMR/EHR requirements. PMID:20703915

  5. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  6. The Effect of Technology and Testing Environment on Speech Perception Using Telehealth with Cochlear Implant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehring, Jenny L.; Hughes, Michelle L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.; Valente, Daniel L.; McCreery, Ryan W.; Diaz, Gina R.; Sanford, Todd; Harpster, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors evaluated the effect of remote system and acoustic environment on speech perception via telehealth with cochlear implant recipients. Method: Speech perception was measured in quiet and in noise. Systems evaluated were Polycom visual concert (PVC) and a hybrid presentation system (HPS). Each system was evaluated…

  7. Retrospective Analysis of the Short-Term Safety of ECT in Patients With Neurological Comorbidities: A Guide for Pre-ECT Neurological Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Simon; Murray, Evan D; Seiner, Stephen J; Tayeb, Haythum; Legesse, Benafew; Price, Bruce H

    2015-01-01

    Pre-ECT neurology consultations are often requested to determine the relative risk of the procedure in patients with neurological comorbidities, but there is limited data to guide clinicians. The authors performed a retrospective chart review of all consecutive inpatients at McLean Hospital who underwent a pre-ECT neurological evaluation between January 2012 and June 2014 (N=68). ECT was safe and effective in patients with a wide variety of neurological diseases. Only one minor event was related to a neurological comorbidity, and there were no serious neurological complications. Based on the latest evidence, the authors provide guidance on the pre-ECT evaluation with respect to neurologic status. PMID:25658682

  8. The use of flumazenil in the anxious and benzodiazepine-dependent ECT patient.

    PubMed

    Krystal, A D; Watts, B V; Weiner, R D; Moore, S; Steffens, D C; Lindahl, V

    1998-03-01

    Many patients who receive electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are benzodiazepine dependent or are anxious and require benzodiazepine drugs. Because these agents may diminish the therapeutic effectiveness of ECT, we explored the dosing, safety, and efficacy of pre-ECT flumazenil administration, a benzodiazepine-competitive antagonist, in patients receiving benzodiazepine medications. We report our experience with 35 patients who received both flumazenil and benzodiazepine drugs during their ECT course. We compared seizure duration with and without flumazenil and compared treatment efficacy to 49 patients who received ECT without either of these medications. Flumazenil could be safely administered with ECT. A few subjects taking higher chronic benzodiazepine dosages experienced breakthrough anxiety or withdrawal symptoms, which were well managed by dosing flumazenil immediately before the anesthetic agent and by immediate posttreatment benzodiazepine administration. A dose of 0.4-0.5 mg was adequate for all but those taking the highest benzodiazepine dosages, where 0.8-1.0 mg resulted in a clinically more effective reversal. No differences in efficacy or seizure duration were found as a function of flumazenil administration. Flumazenil offers the promise of safe and effective ECT in patients receiving benzodiazepine drugs. Follow-up outcome investigation on a random assignment basis will be necessary for definitive assessment of the value of flumazenil. In addition, the direct effect of benzodiazepine drugs and the flumazenil/benzodiazepine combination on ECT seizures remains to be determined. PMID:9661088

  9. 7 CFR 985.31 - Research and development proj-ects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development proj-ects. 985.31 Section 985.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Research § 985.31 Research and development proj-ects. The Committee, with the approval of the...

  10. DIS[subscript 2]ECT: A Framework for Effective Inclusive Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Flannagan, Jenny Sue

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide special education and general education teachers a framework (DIS[subscript 2]ECT) for teaching science in inclusive settings. DIS2ECT stands for Design (Backwards); Individualization; Scaffolding and Strategies; Experiential learning; Cooperative Learning; and Teamwork. This framework was derived from our…

  11. European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System: An Alternative Way to Calculate the ECTS Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosges, Thomas; Barchiesi, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) has been developed and instituted to facilitate student mobility and academic recognition. This paper presents, discusses, and illustrates the pertinence and the limitation of the current statistical distribution of the ECTS grades, and we propose an alternative way to calculate the ECTS…

  12. Supporting Open Access to European Academic Courses: The ASK-CDM-ECTS Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G.; Zervas, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present and evaluate a web-based tool, namely ASK-CDM-ECTS, which facilitates authoring and publishing on the web descriptions of (open) academic courses in machine-readable format using an application profile of the Course Description Metadata (CDM) specification, namely CDM-ECTS. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  13. Ictal EEG fractal dimension in ECT predicts outcome at 2 weeks in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Abhishekh, Hulegar A; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Manjegowda, Anusha; Phutane, Vivek H; Muralidharan, Kesavan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2013-09-30

    Studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have found an association between ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) measures and clinical outcome in depression. Such studies are lacking in schizophrenia. Consenting schizophrenia patients receiving ECT were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) before and 2 weeks after the start of ECT. The patients' seizure was monitored using EEG. In 26 patients, completely artifact-free EEG derived from the left frontal-pole (FP1) channel and electrocardiography (ECG) were available. The fractal dimension (FD) was computed to assess 4-s EEG epochs, and the maximal value from the earliest ECT session (2nd, 3rd or 4th) was used for analysis. There was a significant inverse correlation between the maximum FD and the total score following 6th ECT. An inverse Inverse correlation was also observed between the maximum FD and the total number of ECTs administered as well as the maximum heart rate (HR) and BPRS scores following 6th ECT. In patients with schizophrenia greater intensity of seizures (higher FD) during initial sessions of ECT is associated with better response at the end of 2 weeks. PMID:23261182

  14. Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithms for Maximum a Posteriori ECT Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Krol, Andrzej; Li, Si; Shen, Lixin; Xu, Yuesheng

    2012-11-01

    We propose a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) for solving the maximum a posteriori (MAP) emission computed tomography (ECT) reconstruction problem. Specifically, we formulate the reconstruction problem as a constrained convex optimization problem with the total variation (TV) regularization. We then characterize the solution of the constrained convex optimization problem and show that it satisfies a system of fixed-point equations defined in terms of two proximity operators raised from the convex functions that define the TV-norm and the constrain involved in the problem. The characterization (of the solution) via the proximity operators that define two projection operators naturally leads to an alternating projection algorithm for finding the solution. For efficient numerical computation, we introduce to the alternating projection algorithm a preconditioning matrix (the EM-preconditioner) for the dense system matrix involved in the optimization problem. We prove theoretically convergence of the preconditioned alternating projection algorithm. In numerical experiments, performance of our algorithms, with an appropriately selected preconditioning matrix, is compared with performance of the conventional MAP expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm with TV regularizer (EM-TV) and that of the recently developed nested EM-TV algorithm for ECT reconstruction. Based on the numerical experiments performed in this work, we observe that the alternating projection algorithm with the EM-preconditioner outperforms significantly the EM-TV in all aspects including the convergence speed, the noise in the reconstructed images and the image quality. It also outperforms the nested EM-TV in the convergence speed while providing comparable image quality. PMID:23271835

  15. Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithms for Maximum a Posteriori ECT Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Krol, Andrzej; Li, Si; Shen, Lixin; Xu, Yuesheng

    2012-01-01

    We propose a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) for solving the maximum a posteriori (MAP) emission computed tomography (ECT) reconstruction problem. Specifically, we formulate the reconstruction problem as a constrained convex optimization problem with the total variation (TV) regularization. We then characterize the solution of the constrained convex optimization problem and show that it satisfies a system of fixed-point equations defined in terms of two proximity operators raised from the convex functions that define the TV-norm and the constrain involved in the problem. The characterization (of the solution) via the proximity operators that define two projection operators naturally leads to an alternating projection algorithm for finding the solution. For efficient numerical computation, we introduce to the alternating projection algorithm a preconditioning matrix (the EM-preconditioner) for the dense system matrix involved in the optimization problem. We prove theoretically convergence of the preconditioned alternating projection algorithm. In numerical experiments, performance of our algorithms, with an appropriately selected preconditioning matrix, is compared with performance of the conventional MAP expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm with TV regularizer (EM-TV) and that of the recently developed nested EM-TV algorithm for ECT reconstruction. Based on the numerical experiments performed in this work, we observe that the alternating projection algorithm with the EM-preconditioner outperforms significantly the EM-TV in all aspects including the convergence speed, the noise in the reconstructed images and the image quality. It also outperforms the nested EM-TV in the convergence speed while providing comparable image quality. PMID:23271835

  16. Assessing the Moderating Effect of the End User in Consumer Behavior: The Acceptance of Technological Implants to Increase Innate Human Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Reinares-Lara, Eva; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Garcia-Sierra, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Today, technological implants are being developed to increase innate human capacities, such as memory or calculation speed, and to endow us with new ones, such as the remote control of machines. This study's aim was two-fold: first, to introduce a Cognitive-Affective-Normative (CAN) model of technology acceptance to explain the intention to use this technology in the field of consumer behavior; and second, to analyze the differences in the intention to use it based on whether the intended implant recipient is oneself or one's child (i.e., the moderating effect of the end user). A multi-group analysis was performed to compare the results between the two groups: implant “for me” (Group 1) and implant “for my child” (Group 2). The model largely explains the intention to use the insideable technology for the specified groups [variance explained (R2) of over 0.70 in both cases]. The most important variables were found to be “positive emotions” and (positive) “subjective norm.” This underscores the need to broaden the range of factors considered to be decisive in technology acceptance to include variables related to consumers' emotions. Moreover, statistically significant differences were found between the “for me” and “for my child” models for “perceived ease of use (PEU)” and “subjective norm.” These findings confirm the moderating effect of the end user on new insideable technology acceptance. PMID:26941662

  17. Assessing the Moderating Effect of the End User in Consumer Behavior: The Acceptance of Technological Implants to Increase Innate Human Capacities.

    PubMed

    Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Reinares-Lara, Eva; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Garcia-Sierra, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Today, technological implants are being developed to increase innate human capacities, such as memory or calculation speed, and to endow us with new ones, such as the remote control of machines. This study's aim was two-fold: first, to introduce a Cognitive-Affective-Normative (CAN) model of technology acceptance to explain the intention to use this technology in the field of consumer behavior; and second, to analyze the differences in the intention to use it based on whether the intended implant recipient is oneself or one's child (i.e., the moderating effect of the end user). A multi-group analysis was performed to compare the results between the two groups: implant "for me" (Group 1) and implant "for my child" (Group 2). The model largely explains the intention to use the insideable technology for the specified groups [variance explained (R (2)) of over 0.70 in both cases]. The most important variables were found to be "positive emotions" and (positive) "subjective norm." This underscores the need to broaden the range of factors considered to be decisive in technology acceptance to include variables related to consumers' emotions. Moreover, statistically significant differences were found between the "for me" and "for my child" models for "perceived ease of use (PEU)" and "subjective norm." These findings confirm the moderating effect of the end user on new insideable technology acceptance. PMID:26941662

  18. A Generic Method for Distribution and Transfer of ECTS and Other Norm-Referenced Grades within Student Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfvinge, Per

    2008-01-01

    The ECTS grade transfer scale is an interface grade scale to help European universities, students and employers to understand the level of student achievement. Hence, the ECTS scale can be seen as an interface, transforming local scales to a common system where A-E denote passing grades. By definition, ECTS should distribute the passing students…

  19. A method and technical equipment for an acute human trial to evaluate retinal implant technology.

    PubMed

    Hornig, Ralf; Laube, Thomas; Walter, Peter; Velikay-Parel, Michaela; Bornfeld, Norbert; Feucht, Matthias; Akguel, Harun; Rössler, Gernot; Alteheld, Nils; Lütke Notarp, Dietmar; Wyatt, John; Richard, Gisbert

    2005-03-01

    This paper reports on methods and technical equipment to investigate the epiretinal stimulation of the retina in blind human subjects in acute trials. Current is applied to the retina through a thin, flexible microcontact film (microelectrode array) with electrode diameters ranging from 50 to 360 microm. The film is mounted in a custom-designed surgical tool that is hand-held by the surgeon during stimulation. The eventual goal of the work is the development of a chronically implantable retinal prosthesis to restore a useful level of vision to patients who are blind with outer retinal degenerations, specifically retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration. PMID:15876648

  20. A method and technical equipment for an acute human trial to evaluate retinal implant technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornig, Ralf; Laube, Thomas; Walter, Peter; Velikay-Parel, Michaela; Bornfeld, Norbert; Feucht, Matthias; Akguel, Harun; Rössler, Gernot; Alteheld, Nils; Lütke Notarp, Dietmar; Wyatt, John; Richard, Gisbert

    2005-03-01

    This paper reports on methods and technical equipment to investigate the epiretinal stimulation of the retina in blind human subjects in acute trials. Current is applied to the retina through a thin, flexible microcontact film (microelectrode array) with electrode diameters ranging from 50 to 360 µm. The film is mounted in a custom-designed surgical tool that is hand-held by the surgeon during stimulation. The eventual goal of the work is the development of a chronically implantable retinal prosthesis to restore a useful level of vision to patients who are blind with outer retinal degenerations, specifically retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration.

  1. ECT of major depressed patients in relation to biological and clinical variables: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Wahlund, Björn; von Rosen, Dietrich

    2003-07-01

    The knowledge that spontaneous or induced convulsions can improve mental disorders has been present for several centuries. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has undergone fundamental changes since its introduction, and in the last 15-20 years there has been a legitimate renewal of interest for this therapy. Today the indications for use of ECT seem well codified, and its technique and practices have evolved considerably. It is now firmly established as an important and effective method of treating certain severe forms of depression. However, still very little is known about the mechanism of ECT. In this paper, first, we will give a short overview as to how far we have got concerning ECT in relation to various clinical and biological variables. Second, we will describe ECT in relation to electroencephalographic (EEG) technique and clinical outcome as well as give some proposals as to how to go on with the data analysis of EEG. In conclusion, the superior effect of ECT compared to other antidepressives in severe depression may depend on neurochemical and neurobiological cascade effects initiated by repeated treatments. Above all, ECT offers a unique experimental opportunity to study how neuromodulation of the major transmitter systems may be involved in brain dynamics and alteration of connectivity. PMID:12827140

  2. Packaging and Non-Hermetic Encapsulation Technology for Flip Chip on Implantable MEMS Devices

    PubMed Central

    Sutanto, Jemmy; Anand, Sindhu; Sridharan, Arati; Korb, Robert; Zhou, Li; Baker, Michael S.; Okandan, Murat; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2013-01-01

    We report here a successful demonstration of a flip-chip packaging approach for a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device with in-plane movable microelectrodes implanted in a rodent brain. The flip-chip processes were carried out using a custom-made apparatus that was capable of the following: 1) creating Ag epoxy microbumps for first-level interconnect; 2) aligning the die and the glass substrate; and 3) creating non-hermetic encapsulation (NHE). The completed flip-chip package had an assembled weight of only 0.5 g significantly less than the previously designed wire-bonded package of 4.5 g. The resistance of the Ag bumps was found to be negligible. The MEMS micro-electrodes were successfully tested for its mechanical movement with microactuators generating forces of 450 μN with a displacement resolution of 8.8 μm/step. An NHE on the front edge of the package was created by patterns of hydrophobic silicone microstructures to prevent contamination from cerebrospinal fluid while simultaneously allowing the microelectrodes to move in and out of the package boundary. The breakdown pressure of the NHE was found to be 80 cm of water, which is significantly (4.5–11 times) larger than normal human intracranial pressures. Bench top tests and in vivo tests of the MEMS flip-chip packages for up to 75 days showed reliable NHE for potential long-term implantation. PMID:24431925

  3. The combination of digital surface scanners and cone beam computed tomography technology for guided implant surgery using 3Shape implant studio software: a case history report.

    PubMed

    Lanis, Alejandro; Álvarez Del Canto, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of virtual engineering into dentistry and the digitization of information are providing new perspectives and innovative alternatives for dental treatment modalities. The use of digital surface scanners with surgical planning software allows for the combination of the radiographic, prosthetic, surgical, and laboratory fields under a common virtual scenario, permitting complete digital treatment planning. In this article, the authors present a clinical case in which a guided implant surgery was performed based on a complete digital surgical plan combining the information from a cone beam computed tomography scan and the virtual simulation obtained from the 3Shape TRIOS intraoral surface scanner. The information was imported to and combined in the 3Shape Implant Studio software for guided implant surgery planning. A surgical guide was obtained by a 3D printer, and the surgical procedure was done using the Biohorizons Guided Surgery Kit and its protocol. PMID:25822304

  4. Miniature low-power inertial sensors: promising technology for implantable motion capture systems.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Joris M; Kirsch, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    Inertial and magnetic sensors are valuable for untethered, self-contained human movement analysis. Very recently, complete integration of inertial sensors, magnetic sensors, and processing into single packages, has resulted in miniature, low power devices that could feasibly be employed in an implantable motion capture system. We developed a wearable sensor system based on a commercially available system-in-package inertial and magnetic sensor. We characterized the accuracy of the system in measuring 3-D orientation-with and without magnetometer-based heading compensation-relative to a research grade optical motion capture system. The root mean square error was less than 4° in dynamic and static conditions about all axes. Using four sensors, recording from seven degrees-of-freedom of the upper limb (shoulder, elbow, wrist) was demonstrated in one subject during reaching motions. Very high correlation and low error was found across all joints relative to the optical motion capture system. Findings were similar to previous publications using inertial sensors, but at a fraction of the power consumption and size of the sensors. Such ultra-small, low power sensors provide exciting new avenues for movement monitoring for various movement disorders, movement-based command interfaces for assistive devices, and implementation of kinematic feedback systems for assistive interventions like functional electrical stimulation. PMID:24846651

  5. High current vacuum-arc ion source for ion implantation and coating deposition technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Ryabchikov, Igor A.; Stepanov, Igor B.; Dektyarev, Sergey V.

    2006-03-15

    This work is devoted to the development and investigation of a high current ion source based on dc vacuum-arc plasma generation. Extraction and acceleration of ion beams are realized in a repetitively pulsed mode with the pulse repetition rate up to 200 pps, the pulse duration up to 400 {mu}s, the accelerating voltage up to 40 kV, and the pulsed ion-beam current up to 2 A. To remove microparticles from the vacuum-arc plasma a straight-line plasma filter is used. Examples of the source use for realization of high-intensity and high-concentration ion implantation regimes including those with formation of doped layers at depths that exceed ion projective range for more than an order of magnitude are presented. At the expense of change in order and intensity of ion and plasma material treatment, the advantage of application of one source for execution of material surface pretreatment and activation regimes, formation of wide transition layers between the substrate and coating, coating deposition, and high-intensity ion mixing using ions of the same type was shown.

  6. Experimental studies on electrolytic dosage of ECT for dog's oesophageal injury and clinical effects of ECT for oesophageal anastomotic opening stenosis and oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Xin, Y L; Ge, B; Zhao, F; Zhso, H

    1994-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have been performed to explore the potential benefits of electrochemical therapy (ECT) in oesophageal cancer. In a dog experiment, the oesophageal injury induced by ECT was evaluated. The provision of 7.5 volts (V) and 25-100 coulomb (C) was associated with a slight injury of the mucosa, which was completely healed after two weeks. Ten patients with oesophageal stenosis were treated with ECT (4.5-5.5 V, 20-50 mA and 85-180 C). In all patients there was a significant dilatation of the stenotic area and the patients could eat a normal diet after three to four weeks. The clinical effectiveness in 35 patients treated with ECT for inoperable oesophagela carcinoma was found to be satisfactory. Complete and partial response was obtained in 15 cases (42.8%), and dysphagia was relieved for five to 13 months. In conclusion, oesophageal cancer may be successfully treated with a specially designed electrode and a specified dosage of electricity. PMID:7531026

  7. Numerical Simulation Research in Plasma Technologies 4. PIC-MCC Simulation for Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagawa, Yoshiko

    Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) has been developed as a method for high-flux implantation and conformal implantation on a complex shaped target. In PIII, a negative pulsed high voltage is applied to the target immersed in low-pressure high-density plasma. Then an ion sheath is formed around the target and energetic ions are implanted on the target surface. By increasing the plasma density, conformal implantation is possible. However, this process can not be easily realized for a complex shaped target, for instance which has a trench or holes with high aspectratios. In order to find the best condition in the process, it is very important to know the sheath shape around the target and the energy and flux distributions of implanted ions at each surface point. Plasma behavior in the PIII process has been simulated using “PEGASUS”.

  8. First long term in vivo study on subdurally implanted micro-ECoG electrodes, manufactured with a novel laser technology.

    PubMed

    Henle, C; Raab, M; Cordeiro, J G; Doostkam, S; Schulze-Bonhage, A; Stieglitz, T; Rickert, J

    2011-02-01

    A novel computer aided manufacturing (CAM) method for electrocorticography (ECoG) microelectrodes was developed to be able to manufacture small, high density microelectrode arrays based on laser-structuring medical grade silicone rubber and high purity platinum. With this manufacturing process, we plan to target clinical applications, such as presurgical epilepsy monitoring, functional imaging during cerebral tumor resections and brain-computer interface control in paralysed patients, in the near future. This paper describes the manufacturing, implantation and long-term behaviour of such an electrode array. In detail, we implanted 8-channel electrode arrays subdurally over rat cerebral cortex over a period of up to 25 weeks. Our primary objective was to ascertain the electrode's stability over time, and to analyse the host response in vivo. For this purpose, impedance measurements were carried out at regular intervals over the first 18 weeks of the implantation period. The impedances changed between day 4 and day 7 after implantation, and then remained stable until the end of the implantation period, in accordance with typical behaviour of chronically implanted microelectrodes. A post-mortem histological examination was made to assess the tissue reaction due to the implantation. A mild, chronically granulated inflammation was found in the area of the implant, which was essentially restricted to the leptomeninges. Overall, these findings suggest that the concept of the presented ECoG-electrodes is promising for use in long-term implantations. PMID:20838900

  9. An Anillin-Ect2 Complex Stabilizes Central Spindle Microtubules at the Cortex during Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Frenette, Paul; Haines, Eric; Loloyan, Michael; Kinal, Mena; Pakarian, Paknoosh; Piekny, Alisa

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinesis occurs due to the RhoA-dependent ingression of an actomyosin ring. During anaphase, the Rho GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) Ect2 is recruited to the central spindle via its interaction with MgcRacGAP/Cyk-4, and activates RhoA in the central plane of the cell. Ect2 also localizes to the cortex, where it has access to RhoA. The N-terminus of Ect2 binds to Cyk-4, and the C-terminus contains conserved DH (Dbl homologous) and PH (Pleckstrin Homology) domains with GEF activity. The PH domain is required for Ect2's cortical localization, but its molecular function is not known. In cultured human cells, we found that the PH domain interacts with anillin, a contractile ring protein that scaffolds actin and myosin and interacts with RhoA. The anillin-Ect2 interaction may require Ect2's association with lipids, since a novel mutation in the PH domain, which disrupts phospholipid association, weakens their interaction. An anillin-RacGAP50C (homologue of Cyk-4) complex was previously described in Drosophila, which may crosslink the central spindle to the cortex to stabilize the position of the contractile ring. Our data supports an analogous function for the anillin-Ect2 complex in human cells and one hypothesis is that this complex has functionally replaced the Drosophila anillin-RacGAP50C complex. Complexes between central spindle proteins and cortical proteins could regulate the position of the contractile ring by stabilizing microtubule-cortical interactions at the division plane to ensure the generation of active RhoA in a discrete zone. PMID:22514687

  10. Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine; Scott, Larry

    This brochure explains what a cochlear implant is, lists the types of individuals with deafness who may be helped by a cochlear implant, describes the process of evaluating people for cochlear implants, discusses the surgical process for implanting the aid, traces the path of sound through the cochlear implant to the brain, notes the costs of…

  11. Materials processing towards development of rapid prototyping technology for manufacturing biomedical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekin, Senol

    2000-10-01

    Materials processing towards development of fused deposition of materials (FDM) method for manufacturing biomedical implants has been studied experimentally. Main processing steps consisted of thermoplastic binder development in the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)-microcrystalline wax system, feedstock extrusion, characterization and optimization of binder degradation, and sintering of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that the melting index (MI) of the copolymer affects the temperature location of the solidification exotherm, whereas the effect on the temperature location of the melting endotherm was negligible. Nonisothermal measurement of viscosity of different blends as a function of VA content of the EVA component revealed that the microcrystalline wax is compatible with 25--14% VA-containing EVA grades. Further DSC analysis revealed that co-crystallization leads to compatible EVA-microcrystalline wax blends. A typical binder formulation that was developed in the present work has a viscosity of about 700 cP at 140°C, a compressive yield strength of 6 MPa and an elastic modulus of about 600 MPa, and contained 15--20% EVA and 80--85% microcrystalline wax. Various filaments with a nominal diameter of 1.8 mm were extruded by using such a binder, and calcium pyro-phosphate powder that had a distribution modulus of about 0.37. Measurement of physical dimensions of the filament revealed that fluid state can be achieved in the filaments. Simultaneous thermal analysis of degradation characteristics of the typical binder formulations revealed that degradation sequence is oxidation of the hydrocarbons, evaporation of the hydrocarbons, degradation of the vinyl acetate, and degradation of the ethylene chain. A rate controlled binder removal system was developed and used in order to optimize the binder removal schedule. Sintering of gel-cast calcium hydroxyapatite was studied by means of thermal analysis, XRD, mechanical

  12. Use of ECT in Nepal: A One Year Study From the Country’s Largest Psychiatric Facility

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Tapas Kumar; Sharma, Niru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electro-Convulsive Therapy (ECT) refers to the electrical stimulation of the brain to produce seizures for therapeutic purpose. Since the development of ECT, it’s use has been consistent. Inspite of the common use, data pertaining to the use of ECT in Nepal is lacking. Aim This study was undertaken with the aim of exploring the clinico-demographic profile of patients treated with ECT in the largest psychiatry facility in the country. Materials and Methods It is a retrospective descriptive study of patients who were treated with ECT after admission in the inpatient psychiatry unit of Universal College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Bhairahawa, Nepal during a period of one year (August 2012 to July 2013). Results Out of 1095 patients admitted during the specified period, 81 (7.39%) patients received ECT. About 44.44% of the patients belonged to 20-29 years age group. Female patients constituted more than half of the subjects (55.56%). Review of diagnostic profile showed that majority of patients receiving ECT were suffering from Schizophrenia (44.4%), followed by Bipolar Affective Disorder/Mania (29.6%), Depressive disorder (11.1%), Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorder (6.2%), Post-partum Psychosis (3.7%) and substance induced mood/psychotic disorders (3.7%). A significant majority of subjects (75.3%) received about 5-7 ECT treatments. The mean seizure duration after ECT treatment was 31.13±5.79 seconds. No any major complications were noted during ECT treatment. Conclusion This study suggests that ECT, use, as a treatment modality is common in young adults and females with Schizophrenia being the most common indication. Direct ECT is safe when used judiciously. PMID:27042563

  13. A novel root analogue dental implant using CT scan and CAD/CAM: selective laser melting technology.

    PubMed

    Figliuzzi, M; Mangano, F; Mangano, C

    2012-07-01

    Direct laser metal forming (DLMF) is a new technique which allows solids with complex geometry to be produced by annealing metal powder microparticles in a focused laser beam, according to a computer-generated three-dimensional (3D) model. For dental implants, the fabrication process involves the laser-induced fusion of titanium microparticles, in order to build, layer by layer, the desired object. Modern computed tomography (CT) acquisition and 3D image conversion, combined with the DLMF process, allows the fabrication of custom-made, root-analogue implants (RAI), perfect copies of the radicular units that need replacing. This report demonstrates the successful clinical use of a custom-made, root-analogue DLMF implant. CT images of the residual non-restorable root of a right maxillary premolar were acquired and modified with specific software into a 3D model. From this model, a custom-made, root-analogue, DLMF implant was fabricated. Immediately after tooth extraction, the root-analogue implant was placed in the extraction socket and restored with a single crown. At the 1-year follow-up examination, the custom-made implant showed almost perfect functional and aesthetic integration. The possibility of fabricating custom-made, root-analogue DLMF implants opens new interesting perspectives for immediate placement of dental implants. PMID:22377004

  14. Electroconvulsive Therapy Part I: A Perspective on the Evolution and Current Practice of ECT

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Nancy A.; Prudic, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The concept of inducing convulsions, mainly through chemical means, to promote mental wellness has existed since the 16th century. In 1938, Italian scientists first applied electrically induced therapeutic seizures. Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is employed in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders, it is most frequently used today to treat severe depressive episodes and remains the most effective treatment available for those disorders. Despite this, ECT continues to be the most stigmatized treatment available in psychiatry, resulting in restrictions on and reduced accessibility to a helpful and potentially life-saving treatment. The psychiatric and psychosocial ramifications of this stigmatization may include the exacerbation of the increasingly serious, global health problem of major depressive disorders as well as serious consequences for individual patients who may not be offered, or may refuse, a potentially beneficial treatment. The goal of this first article in this two-part series is to provide an overview of ECT's historical development and discuss the current state of knowledge about ECT, including technical aspects of delivery, patient selection, its side-effect profile, and factors that may contribute to underuse of ECT. PMID:19820553

  15. Students’ Factors Affecting Undergraduates’ Perceptions of their Teaching and Learning Process within ECTS Experience

    PubMed Central

    la Fuente, Jesús De; Cardelle-Elawar, María; Peralta, F. Javier; Sánchez, M. Dolores; Martínez-Vicente, José Manuel; Zapata, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study, we investigated the potential factors that influenced the level of students satisfaction with the teaching–learning process (TLP), from the perspective of students participating in the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) experience. Method: A total of 1490 students from the Universities of Almería and Granada (Spain) participated in an evaluation of their class discipline area. They completed the new revised protocol for evaluating the ECTS experience. Analyses of variance were carried out, taking the following factors as independent variables: student's grade average, year in school, study discipline, credit load in terms of ECTS credits assigned to a subject, the e-learning approach. Perception of the TLP was used as the dependent variable. Results: The data analyses showed variability of the degree of statistically significance among the factors that influenced students’ perceptions of the TLP. These factors included: Student's grade average (in favor of high performers), year in school (in favor of earlier years), ECTS load (in favor of subjects with a medium load of credits), and e-learning (in favor of its use). These research findings provided evidence to explore the delineation of a potential profile of factors that trigger a favorable perception of the TLP. Discussion and Conclusion: The present findings certainly have implications to deepen our understanding of the core beliefs, commitment, and the experience in shaping the implementation of the European Higher Education Area through the ECTS. PMID:21713171

  16. Enhancing the mechanical integrity of the implant-bone interface with BoneWelding technology: determination of quasi-static interfacial strength and fatigue resistance.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Stephen J; Weber, Urs; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Mayer, Joerg

    2006-04-01

    The BoneWelding technology is an innovative bonding method, which offers new alternatives in the treatment of fractures and other degenerative disorders of the musculoskeletal system. The BoneWelding process employs ultrasonic energy to liquefy a polymeric interface between orthopaedic implants and the host bone. Polymer penetrates the pores of the surrounding bone and, following a rapid solidification, forms a strong and uniform bond between implant and bone. Biomechanical testing was performed to determine the quasi-static push-out strength and fatigue performance of 3.5-mm-diameter polymeric dowels bonded to a bone surrogate material (Sawbones solid and cellular polyurethane foam) using the BoneWelding process. Fatigue tests were conducted over 100,000 cycles of 20-100 N loading. Mechanical test results were compared with those obtained with a comparably-sized, commercial metallic fracture fixation screw. Tests in surrogate bone material of varying density demonstrated significantly superior mechanical performance of the bonded dowels in comparison to conventional bone screws (p < 0.01), with holding strengths approaching 700 N. Even in extremely porous host material, the performance of the bonded dowels was equivalent to that of the bone screws. For both cellular and solid bone analog materials, failure always occurred within the bone analog material surrounding and distant to the implant; the infiltrated interface was stronger than the surrounding bone analog material. No significant decrease in interfacial strength was observed following conditioning in a physiological saline solution for a period of 1 month prior to testing. Ultrasonically inserted implants migrated, on average, less than 20 microm over, and interfacial stiffness remained constant the full duration of fatigue testing. With further refinement, the BoneWelding technology may offer a quicker, simpler, and more effective method for achieving strong fixation and primary stability for fracture

  17. Science and Technology of Bio-Inert Thin Films as Hermetic-Encapsulating Coatings for Implantable Biomedical Devices: Application to Implantable Microchip in the Eye for the Artificial Retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auciello, Orlando; Shi, Bing

    Extensive research has been devoted to the development of neuron prostheses and hybrid bionic systems to establish links between the nervous system and electronic or robotic prostheses with the main focus of restoring motor and sensory functions in blind patients. Artificial retinas, one type of neural prostheses we are currently working on, aim to restore some vision in blind patients caused by retinitis picmentosa or macular degeneration, and in the future to restore vision at the level of face recognition, if not more. Currently there is no hermetic microchip-size coating that provides a reliable, long-term (years) performance as encapsulating coating for the artificial retina Si microchip to be implanted inside the eye. This chapter focuses on the critical topics relevant to the development of a robust, long-term artificial retina device, namely the science and technology of hermetic bio-inert encapsulating coatings to protect a Si microchip implanted in the human eye from being attacked by chemicals existing in the eye's saline environment. The work discussed in this chapter is related to the development of a novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) hermetic coating, which exhibited no degradation in rabbit eyes. The material synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of these hermetic coatings are reviewed for application as encapsulating coating for the artificial retinal microchips implantable inside the human eye. Our work has shown that UNCD coatings may provide a reliable hermetic bio-inert coating technology for encapsulation of Si microchips implantable in the eye specifically and in the human body in general. Electrochemical tests of the UNCD films grown under CH4/Ar/H2 (1%) plasma exhibit the lowest leakage currents (˜7 × 10-7 A/cm2) in a saline solution simulating the eye environment. This leakage is incompatible with the functionality of the first-generation artificial retinal microchip. However, the growth of UNCD on top of the

  18. Brain-behavior relationship in a case of successful ECT for drug refractory catatonic OCD.

    PubMed

    D'Urso, Giordano; Mantovani, Antonio; Barbarulo, Anna Maria; Labruna, Ludovica; Muscettola, Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    This case report describes the successful response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a patient with an unusual presentation of catatonia, whose onset occurred in the context of an extremely severe form of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We correlated the clinical improvement in catatonic and OCD symptoms with specific changes in brain function as shown by regional cerebral blood flow scans, neurological soft signs examination, and neuropsychological testing. All assessments were conducted before and after the ECT course. The results strongly suggest that a right hemisphere dysfunction was the neural correlate of our patient's symptoms, and that ECT, by reverting this abnormality, may serve as an effective therapeutic approach for refractory catatonic OCD. PMID:22569374

  19. Cochlear implantation: a biomechanical prosthesis for hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Yawn, Robert; Hunter, Jacob B.; Sweeney, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants are a medical prosthesis used to treat sensorineural deafness, and one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The following article is an overview of cochlear implant technology. The history of cochlear implantation and the development of modern implant technology will be discussed, as well as current surgical techniques. Research regarding expansion of candidacy, hearing preservation cochlear implantation, and implantation for unilateral deafness are described. Lastly, innovative technology is discussed, including the hybrid cochlear implant and the totally implantable cochlear implant. PMID:26097718

  20. Strain E?ect on the Instability of Island Formation in Submonolayer Heteroepitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, yugui; Li, Maozhi; Wu, Biao; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wang, Enge

    2009-01-01

    Strain e ect on the instability of island formation in submonolayer heteroepitaxy is studied in both thermodynamic and kinetic regimes. By using linear stability analysis, the energy change of an island due to small perturbations is analyzed. A phase diagram is constructed to illustrate the interplay between kinetic processes and strain e ect on the shape instability. Critical island sizes beyond which islands grow unstable are also derived for various growth conditions and can be used to estimate energy parameters. The scaling forms of shape instability are also discussed.

  1. Measurement of Water Fraction in Liquid Hydro-Carbons Using ECT Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhari, Syed Faisal Ahmed; Ismail, Idris; Yang, Wuqiang

    2007-06-01

    In the oil industry, it is important to measure the water fraction in liquid hydrocarbons in oil pipelines for optimising operation and transportation, e.g. loading/unloading of oil tankers, where the flow rate is variable. As a feasibility study an electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) sensor has been used for on-line water fraction measurement. Data from different electrode combinations, e.g. adjacent electrodes and opposite electrodes are combined. Preliminary results indicate that ECT can be used for measuring the fraction of water in oil with 0.05% error in a range of water-in-oil up to 10%.

  2. Dental Implant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktören, Oya; Gençay, Koray

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036

  3. The role of APOE-ɛ4 and beta amyloid in the differential rate of recovery from ECT: a review

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, T A; Sohrabi, H R; Rainey-Smith, S R; Bird, S M; Weinborn, M; Martins, R N

    2015-01-01

    Individual biological differences may contribute to the variability of outcomes, including cognitive effects, observed following electroconvulsive treatment (ECT). A narrative review of the research literature on carriage of the apolipoprotein E ɛ4 allele (APOE-ɛ4) and the protein biomarker beta amyloid (Aβ) with ECT cognitive outcome was undertaken. ECT induces repeated brain seizures and there is debate as to whether this causes brain injury and long-term cognitive disruption. The majority of ECT is administered to the elderly (over age 65 years) with drug-resistant depression. Depression in the elderly may be a symptom of the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Carriage of the APOE-ɛ4 allele and raised cerebral Aβ are consistently implicated in AD, but inconsistently implicated in brain injury (and related syndromes) recovery rates. A paucity of brain-related recovery, genetic and biomarker research in ECT responses in the elderly was found: three studies have examined the effect of APOE-ɛ4 allele carriage on cognition in the depressed elderly receiving ECT, and two have examined Aβ changes after ECT, with contradictory findings. Cognitive changes in all studies of ECT effects were measured by a variety of psychological tests, making comparisons of such changes between studies problematic. Further, psychological test data-validity measures were not routinely administered, counter to current testing recommendations. The methodological issues of the currently available literature as well as the need for well-designed, hypothesis driven, longitudinal studies are discussed. PMID:25826114

  4. The role of APOE-ɛ4 and beta amyloid in the differential rate of recovery from ECT: a review.

    PubMed

    Sutton, T A; Sohrabi, H R; Rainey-Smith, S R; Bird, S M; Weinborn, M; Martins, R N

    2015-01-01

    Individual biological differences may contribute to the variability of outcomes, including cognitive effects, observed following electroconvulsive treatment (ECT). A narrative review of the research literature on carriage of the apolipoprotein E ɛ4 allele (APOE-ɛ4) and the protein biomarker beta amyloid (Aβ) with ECT cognitive outcome was undertaken. ECT induces repeated brain seizures and there is debate as to whether this causes brain injury and long-term cognitive disruption. The majority of ECT is administered to the elderly (over age 65 years) with drug-resistant depression. Depression in the elderly may be a symptom of the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Carriage of the APOE-ɛ4 allele and raised cerebral Aβ are consistently implicated in AD, but inconsistently implicated in brain injury (and related syndromes) recovery rates. A paucity of brain-related recovery, genetic and biomarker research in ECT responses in the elderly was found: three studies have examined the effect of APOE-ɛ4 allele carriage on cognition in the depressed elderly receiving ECT, and two have examined Aβ changes after ECT, with contradictory findings. Cognitive changes in all studies of ECT effects were measured by a variety of psychological tests, making comparisons of such changes between studies problematic. Further, psychological test data-validity measures were not routinely administered, counter to current testing recommendations. The methodological issues of the currently available literature as well as the need for well-designed, hypothesis driven, longitudinal studies are discussed. PMID:25826114

  5. Current trends in dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evolution of dental implants. It also describes the types of implants that have been developed, and the parameters that are presently used in the design of dental implants. Finally, it describes the trends that are employed to improve dental implant surfaces, and current technologies used for the analysis and design of the implants. PMID:24868501

  6. 7 CFR 985.31 - Research and development proj-ects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research and development proj-ects. 985.31 Section 985.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT...

  7. 7 CFR 985.31 - Research and development proj-ects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research and development proj-ects. 985.31 Section 985.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT...

  8. 7 CFR 985.31 - Research and development proj-ects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and development proj-ects. 985.31 Section 985.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT...

  9. ECT2 amplification and overexpression as a new prognostic biomarker for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yoshihiko; Minami, Yuko; Iwakawa, Reika; Yokota, Jun; Usui, Shingo; Tsuta, Koji; Shiraishi, Kouya; Sakashita, Shingo; Satomi, Kaishi; Iijima, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Genetic abnormality in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma was examined to search for new prognostic biomarkers. Six in situ lung adenocarcinomas and nine small but invasive adenocarcinomas were examined by array-comparative genomic hybridization, and candidate genes of interest were screened. To examine gene abnormalities, 83 cases of various types of lung carcinoma were examined by quantitative real-time genomic PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results were then verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas. Array-comparative genomic hybridization indicated frequent amplification at chromosome 3q26. Of the seven genes located in this region, we focused on the epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (ECT2) oncogene, as ECT2 amplification was detected only in invasive adenocarcinoma, and not in in situ carcinoma. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses also detected overexpression of ECT2 in invasive adenocarcinoma, and this was correlated with both the Ki-67 labeling index and mitotic index. In addition, it was associated with disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. These results were verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas resected at another hospital. Abnormality of the ECT2 gene occurs at a relatively early stage of lung adenocarcinogenesis and would be applicable as a new biomarker for prognostication of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24484057

  10. ECT2 amplification and overexpression as a new prognostic biomarker for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yoshihiko; Minami, Yuko; Iwakawa, Reika; Yokota, Jun; Usui, Shingo; Tsuta, Koji; Shiraishi, Kouya; Sakashita, Shingo; Satomi, Kaishi; Iijima, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Masayuki

    2014-04-01

    Genetic abnormality in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma was examined to search for new prognostic biomarkers. Six in situ lung adenocarcinomas and nine small but invasive adenocarcinomas were examined by array-comparative genomic hybridization, and candidate genes of interest were screened. To examine gene abnormalities, 83 cases of various types of lung carcinoma were examined by quantitative real-time genomic PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results were then verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas. Array-comparative genomic hybridization indicated frequent amplification at chromosome 3q26. Of the seven genes located in this region, we focused on the epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (ECT2) oncogene, as ECT2 amplification was detected only in invasive adenocarcinoma, and not in in situ carcinoma. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses also detected overexpression of ECT2 in invasive adenocarcinoma, and this was correlated with both the Ki-67 labeling index and mitotic index. In addition, it was associated with disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. These results were verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas resected at another hospital. Abnormality of the ECT2 gene occurs at a relatively early stage of lung adenocarcinogenesis and would be applicable as a new biomarker for prognostication of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24484057

  11. An Assessment of the ECTS in Software Engineering: A Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas-Morera, L.; Berral-Yeron, J.; Serrano-Gomez, I.; Martinez-Jimenez, P.

    2009-01-01

    Spain is currently implementing the regulatory modifications promulgated by the Declaration of Bologna, which should result in the updating of the structure of university degrees, and the inclusion of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) methodology. In some Spanish universities, the experimental adoption of this methodology…

  12. Debunking EHEA Myths: Common ECTS Misconceptions and Why They Are Wrong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez Cañado, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    The present article seeks to overcome some of the most common misconceptions which are currently proliferating in the application of the "European Credit Transfer System" (ECTS) at tertiary level. It presents and unpacks seven false myths affecting all the main curricular and organizational levels of the implementation of the new credit…

  13. Applying the ECTS System to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Rosario Merida; Romero, Julia Angulo; Del Pino, Carmen Gil

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the research conducted as part of a Pilot Experiment regarding the application of the ECTS to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree taught at the University of Cordoba (Spain). It analyses the Experiment, which was carried out in the Education Faculty over the course of three academic years (2004/05, 2005/06 and 2006/07).…

  14. Top Ten Reasons a Graduate Student Should Apply to Be an ECT Foundation Intern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Cindy S.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author encourages graduate students to apply for the ECT Foundation Internship. She presents a list of the top ten benefits the internship offers a graduate student's career: (1) It could change your life. It changed mine; (2) Networking; (3) Mentoring; (4) Leadership opportunities; (5) Behind the scenes pass; (6) Shadowing;…

  15. Autobiographical Memory and ECT: Don’t Throw Out the Baby

    PubMed Central

    Sackeim, Harold A.

    2014-01-01

    Retrograde amnesia for autobiographical information is the most critical side effect of ECT. Much, if not most, modern research demonstrating long-term autobiographical amnesia following ECT has used either the Columbia University Autobiographical Memory Interview (CUAMI) or the short form of this scale (CUAMI-SF). Semkovska and McLoughlin claimed that studies using these instruments should be dismissed and the findings ignored due to a lack of normative data, as well as concerns about the reliability and validity of these instruments. In this commentary, the development and use of these scales is reviewed. It is shown that Semkovska and McLoughlin’s critique is factually incorrect, as normative data were simultaneously collected in virtually all studies using these instruments. Furthermore, there is substantial evidence supporting the reliability and validity of these scales. Indeed, these instruments are the only neuropsychological tests repeatedly shown to covary with patient self-evaluations of ECT’s effects on memory, and have repeatedly demonstrated long-term differences in the magnitude of amnesia as a function of ECT technique. Findings with the CUAMI and CUAMI-SF provide key evidence regarding ECT’s cognitive side effect profile. It is inaccurate and inadvisable to continue to deny that ECT can exert long-term adverse effects in this domain. PMID:24755727

  16. Cochlear implants in children.

    PubMed

    Young, N M

    1994-04-01

    Children with such profound deafness that they are not helped by hearing aids are now candidates for cochlear implantation. This technology permits us to provide these children with a significant degree of useful hearing. The degree of improvement in speech perception and spoken language in pediatric cochlear implant recipients varies. However, the younger the children and the less time they have been completely deprived of auditory stimuli, the more likely they are to make significant progress. The evaluation of the deaf child for implantation is best done by a multidisciplinary team who understands the needs of hearing-impaired children and who can work with the family, the child, and classroom teachers, as well as other school professionals. The decision to proceed with cochlear implantation in a child is one that requires long-term commitment on the part of the family and the cochlear implant team. PMID:8039409

  17. Noise reduction technologies implemented in head-worn preprocessors for improving cochlear implant performance in reverberant noise fields.

    PubMed

    Chung, King; Nelson, Lance; Teske, Melissa

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a multichannel adaptive directional microphone and a modulation-based noise reduction algorithm could enhance cochlear implant performance in reverberant noise fields. A hearing aid was modified to output electrical signals (ePreprocessor) and a cochlear implant speech processor was modified to receive electrical signals (eProcessor). The ePreprocessor was programmed to flat frequency response and linear amplification. Cochlear implant listeners wore the ePreprocessor-eProcessor system in three reverberant noise fields: 1) one noise source with variable locations; 2) three noise sources with variable locations; and 3) eight evenly spaced noise sources from 0° to 360°. Listeners' speech recognition scores were tested when the ePreprocessor was programmed to omnidirectional microphone (OMNI), omnidirectional microphone plus noise reduction algorithm (OMNI + NR), and adaptive directional microphone plus noise reduction algorithm (ADM + NR). They were also tested with their own cochlear implant speech processor (CI_OMNI) in the three noise fields. Additionally, listeners rated overall sound quality preferences on recordings made in the noise fields. Results indicated that ADM+NR produced the highest speech recognition scores and the most preferable rating in all noise fields. Factors requiring attention in the hearing aid-cochlear implant integration process are discussed. PMID:22750449

  18. Prosthodontic management of implant therapy.

    PubMed

    Thalji, Ghadeer; Bryington, Matthew; De Kok, Ingeborg J; Cooper, Lyndon F

    2014-01-01

    Implant-supported dental restorations can be screw-retained, cement-retained, or a combination of both, whereby a metal superstructure is screwed to the implants and crowns are individually cemented to the metal frame. Each treatment modality has advantages and disadvantages. The use of computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture technologies for the manufacture of implant superstructures has proved to be advantageous in the quality of materials, precision of the milled superstructures, and passive fit. Maintenance and recall evaluations are an essential component of implant therapy. The longevity of implant restorations is limited by their biological and prosthetic maintenance requirements. PMID:24286654

  19. Reflections on Rodent Implantation.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jeeyeon M; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2015-01-01

    Embryo implantation is a complex process involving endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, and juxtacrine modulators that span cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The quality of implantation is predictive for pregnancy success. Earlier observational studies formed the basis for genetic and molecular approaches that ensued with emerging technological advances. However, the precise sequence and details of the molecular interactions involved have yet to be defined. This review reflects briefly on aspects of our current understanding of rodent implantation as a tribute to Roger Short's lifelong contributions to the field of reproductive physiology. PMID:26450495

  20. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... electrodes are inserted. The electronic device at the base of the electrode array is then placed under ... FDA approval for implants The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates cochlear implant devices for both adults ...

  1. Goserelin Implant

    MedlinePlus

    Goserelin implant is used in combination with radiation therapy and other medications to treat localized prostate cancer and is ... treatment of abnormal bleeding of the uterus. Goserelin implant is in a class of medications called gonadotropin- ...

  2. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    A cochlear implant is a small, complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound. People who are ... of-hearing can get help from them. The implant consists of two parts. One part sits on ...

  3. Carmustine Implant

    MedlinePlus

    Carmustine implant is used along with surgery and sometimes radiation therapy to treat malignant glioma (a certain type of ... Carmustine implant comes as a small wafer that is placed in the brain by a doctor during surgery to ...

  4. Breast Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updated Safety Information (Consumer Article) FDA Provides Updated Safety Data on Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants (Press Announcement) [ARCHIVED] Breast Implant Guidance for Industry (2006) Post Approval Studies Webpage Freedom of Information ...

  5. Cochlear implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... antenna. This part of the implant receives the sound, converts the sound into an electrical signal, and sends it to ... implants allow deaf people to receive and process sounds and speech. However, these devices do not restore ...

  6. Annexin V-induced rat Leydig cell proliferation involves Ect2 via RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jun; Chen, Li; Fu, Hai-Yan; Fan, Kai; Yao, Qi; Ge, Yi-Feng; Lu, Jin-Chun; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of annexin V on the proliferation of primary rat Leydig cells and the potential mechanism. Our results showed that annexin V promoted rat Leydig cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Increased level of annexin V also enhanced Ect2 protein expression. However, siRNA knockdown of Ect2 attenuated annexin V-induced proliferation of rat Leydig cells. Taken together, these data suggest that increased level of annexin V induced rat Leydig cell proliferation and cell cycle progression via Ect2. Since RhoA activity was increased following Ect2 activation, we further investigated whether Ect2 was involved in annexin V-induced proliferation via the RhoA/ROCK pathway, and the results showed that annexin V increased RhoA activity too, and this effect was abolished by the knockdown of Ect2. Moreover, inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway by a ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, also attenuated annexin V-induced proliferation and cell cycle progression. We thus conclude that Ect2 is involved in annexin V-induced rat Leydig cell proliferation through the RhoA/ROCK pathway. PMID:25807302

  7. The effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on implicit memory: skill learning and perceptual priming in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Vakil, E; Grunhaus, L; Nagar, I; Ben-Chaim, E; Dolberg, O T; Dannon, P N; Schreiber, S

    2000-01-01

    While explicit memory in amnesics is impaired, their implicit memory remains preserved. Memory impairment is one of the side effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). ECT patients are expected to show impairment on explicit but not implicit tasks. The present study examined 17 normal controls and 17 patients with severe major depressive disorder who underwent right unilateral ECT. Patients were tested in three sessions: 24-48 hours prior to, 24-48 hours following the first ECT, and 24-48 hours following the eighth ECT. The controls were tested in three sessions, at time intervals that paralleled those of the patients. Implicit memory was tested by the perceptual priming task - Partial Picture-Identification (PPI). The skill learning task used entailed solving the Tower of Hanoi puzzle (TOHP). Explicit memory was tested by picture recall from the PPI task, verbal recall of information regarding the TOHP, and by the Visual Paired Association (VPA) test. Results showed that explicit questions about the implicit tasks were impaired following ECT treatment. Patients' learning ability, as measured by the VPA task, was only impaired in the first testing session, prior to ECT treatment, reflecting the effect of depression. In addition, groups only differed in the first session on the learning rate of the skill learning task. Perceptual priming was preserved in the patients' group in all sessions, indicating that it is resilient to the effect of depression and ECT. The results are interpreted in terms of the differential effect of depression and ECT on explicit and implicit memory. PMID:10869584

  8. AB250. Annexin V-induced rat Leydig cell proliferation involves Ect2 via RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effect of annexin V on the proliferation of primary rat Leydig cells and the potential mechanism. Methods The primary rat Leydig cells were cultured in vitro and treated with 1 nmol/L annexin 5 and with siRNA–Ect2 transfection. The cell proliferation rate was measured by MTT assay. Phase distribution of cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of Ect2 in protein level were detected by western blotting. RhoA activity was measured by Rho activation assay kit. Results Our results showed that annexin V promoted rat Leydig cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Increased level of annexin V also enhanced Ect2 protein expression. However, siRNA knockdown of Ect2 attenuated annexin V-induced proliferation of rat Leydig cells. Taken together, these data suggest that increased level of annexin V induced rat Leydig cell proliferation and cell cycle progression via Ect2. Since RhoA activity was increased following Ect2 activation, we further investigated whether Ect2 was involved in annexin V-induced proliferation via the RhoA/ROCK pathway, and the results showed that annexin V increased RhoA activity too, and this effect was abolished by the knockdown of Ect2. Moreover, inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway by a ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, also attenuated annexin V-induced proliferation and cell cycle progression. Conclusions We thus conclude that Ect2 is involved in annexin V-induced rat Leydig cell proliferation through the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

  9. Science Highlights from the RBSP-ECT Particle Instrument Suite on NASA's Van Allen Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Harlan

    2014-05-01

    The NASA Van Allen Probes mission includes an instrument suite known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) - Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite. RBSP-ECT contains a well-proven complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the radiation belts and the inner magnetosphere. The coordinated RBSP-ECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and state of-the-art theory and modeling, provide new understanding on the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions, key science objectives of NASA's Living With a Star program and the Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT suite consists of three highly-coordinated instruments: the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) spectrometer, the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT). Collectively these three instrument types cover comprehensively the full electron and ion spectra from one eV to 10's of MeV with sufficient energy resolution, pitch angle coverage and resolution, and with composition measurements in the critical energy range up to 50 keV and also from a few to 50 MeV/nucleon. All three instruments are based on measurement techniques proven in the radiation belts, then optimized to provide unambiguous separation of ions and electrons and clean energy responses even in the presence of extreme penetrating background environments. In this presentation, we summarize overall ECT science goals and then show scientific results derived from the ECT suite on the dual Van Allen Probes spacecraft to date. Mission operations began only in late October 2012, and we have now achieved significant results. Results presented here will include substantial progress toward resolving primary Van Allen Probes science targets, such as: the relative role of localized acceleration versus transport-generated particle acceleration

  10. A Case Report of Prolonged Apnea during ECT in a Patient with Suicidal Attempt by Organophosphorus Poison

    PubMed Central

    Moudi, Sussan; Alijanpour, Ebrahim; Manouchehri, Ali-asghar; Jafarian, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides have been used in some cases for suicidal attempts. Such poison can affect plasma cholinesterase activity. The case was a 47-year-old man hospitalized due to suicide attempt with swallowing agricultural poison. The patient, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), underwent treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). At the first ECT session, the patient developed apnea for 45 minutes following receiving 20 mg succinylcholine. The patient was intubated; after restoration of respiration depth and rate, the patient was extubated. Collectively, in cases with history of suicide attempts, taking organophosphorus pesticides should be warn for pre-ECT anesthesia. PMID:24644472

  11. A Case Report of Prolonged Apnea during ECT in a Patient with Suicidal Attempt by Organophosphorus Poison.

    PubMed

    Moudi, Sussan; Alijanpour, Ebrahim; Manouchehri, Ali-Asghar; Jafarian, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides have been used in some cases for suicidal attempts. Such poison can affect plasma cholinesterase activity. The case was a 47-year-old man hospitalized due to suicide attempt with swallowing agricultural poison. The patient, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), underwent treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). At the first ECT session, the patient developed apnea for 45 minutes following receiving 20 mg succinylcholine. The patient was intubated; after restoration of respiration depth and rate, the patient was extubated. Collectively, in cases with history of suicide attempts, taking organophosphorus pesticides should be warn for pre-ECT anesthesia. PMID:24644472

  12. Simplified data reduction methods for the ECT test for mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian; Obrien, T. Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Simplified expressions for the parameter controlling the load point compliance and strain energy release rate were obtained for the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) specimen for mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness. Data reduction methods for mode 3 toughness based on the present analysis are proposed. The effect of the transverse shear modulus, G(sub 23), on mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness characterization was evaluated. Parameters influenced by the transverse shear modulus were identified. Analytical results indicate that a higher value of G(sub 23) results in a low load point compliance and lower mode 3 toughness estimation. The effect of G(sub 23) on the mode 3 toughness using the ECT specimen is negligible when an appropriate initial delamination length is chosen. A conservative estimation of mode 3 toughness can be obtained by assuming G(sub 23) = G(sub 12) for any initial delamination length.

  13. A nonlinear image reconstruction technique for ECT using a combined neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marashdeh, Q.; Warsito, W.; Fan, L.-S.; Teixeira, F. L.

    2006-08-01

    A combined multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFF-NN) and analogue Hopfield network is developed for nonlinear image reconstruction of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT). The (nonlinear) forward problem in ECT is solved using the MLFF-NN trained with a set of capacitance data from measurements based on a back-propagation training algorithm with regularization. The inverse problem is solved using an analogue Hopfield network based on a neural-network multi-criteria optimization image reconstruction technique (HN-MOIRT). The nonlinear image reconstruction based on this combined MLFF-NN + HN-MOIRT approach is tested on measured capacitance data not used in training to reconstruct the permittivity distribution. The performance of the technique is compared against commonly used linear Landweber and semi-linear image reconstruction techniques, showing superiority in terms of both stability and quality of reconstructed images.

  14. D Rf-Ect Simulations of Isi of U-Bend SG Tubes in Fbr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalache, Ovidiu; Yamaguchi, Toshihiko; Ueda, Masashi; Tsukimori, Kazuyuki

    2010-02-01

    The paper focus on 3-dimensional finite element simulations of the steam generator inspection using remote field eddy current testing (RF-ECT) in order to asses the performance of the in-service inspection in SG tubes. It is evaluated the influences of the SG tubes U-bend curvature on the eddy current sensor signal by taking into account a 3D model in which also multiple SG tubes are located close to each other, as in the nuclear reactor.

  15. Improve the corrosion and cytotoxic behavior of NiTi implants with use of the ion beam technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, L. L. Meisner, S. N.; Matveeva, V. A.; Matveev, A. L.

    2015-11-17

    The corrosion resistance behavior and cytotoxicity of binary NiTi-base alloy specimens subjected to surface modification by silicon ion beams and the proliferative ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) of rat marrow on an ion-implanted surface of the alloy have been studied. The silicon ion beam processing of specimen surfaces is shown to bring about a nearly two-fold improvement in the corrosion resistance of the material to attack by acqueous solutions of NaCl and human plasma and a drastic decrease in the nickel concentration after immersion of the specimens into the solutions for ∼3400 and ∼6000 h, respectively. It is found that MSC proliferation strongly depends on the surface structure, roughness and chemical condition of NiTi implants.

  16. Improve the corrosion and cytotoxic behavior of NiTi implants with use of the ion beam technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, L. L.; Matveeva, V. A.; Meisner, S. N.; Matveev, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    The corrosion resistance behavior and cytotoxicity of binary NiTi-base alloy specimens subjected to surface modification by silicon ion beams and the proliferative ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) of rat marrow on an ion-implanted surface of the alloy have been studied. The silicon ion beam processing of specimen surfaces is shown to bring about a nearly two-fold improvement in the corrosion resistance of the material to attack by acqueous solutions of NaCl and human plasma and a drastic decrease in the nickel concentration after immersion of the specimens into the solutions for ˜3400 and ˜6000 h, respectively. It is found that MSC proliferation strongly depends on the surface structure, roughness and chemical condition of NiTi implants.

  17. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  18. [ECT versus transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): preliminary data of computer modeling].

    PubMed

    Zyss, T; Krawczyk, A; Drzymała, P; Starzyński, J

    1999-01-01

    The essential issue of electroshock therapy (ECT) is the activity of physical stimulus, i.e., the electric current, on the disturbed structures of the brain. ECT sessions--when chronically applied for evoking antidepressive effects--are responsible for the appearance of excessive incitement in the neuronal net in the brain tissue in a form of self-sustaining after-discharge (SSAD) (convulsive attack characteristic for ECT). The study presents the computer research on basic biophysical phenomena of electroshock therapy (flow of electric current in the structures of the head just before convulsive attack). Five-layer 3-D model of the head was created in OPERA-3D (Vector Fields Ltd., Oxford), general 3 dimensional issues solver. Geometrical dimensions and electrophysical properties of each layer correspond with natural properties. The model was subjected to the action of electric stimulation (parameters identical to those applied in clinical conditions). Analysis of the flow in particular layers revealed the crawling/spreading effect present not only in the scalp layer but also in the layer of cerebrospinal fluid. The effect is conditioned by "deeper situated" lesser conduction of electricity-respectively skull bones, brain tissue. Crawling effect is the reason why only 5-15% of the electricity applied on the surface of the head reaches the surface of the brain. Electro-stimulation examinations also showed that the values of the so called density of the current in layers of brain tissue balanced between 1-10 mA/mm2. The current parameters of ECT were effective in evoking subsequent convulsive attack and safe for the brain tissue. The model was subjected to the action of magnetic stimulation according to the parameters of neurologic technique of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). ELECTRA module was used to solve wire-current issues. The examination showed more regular distribution of current vectors in all layers of the head. The density of cerebral cortex was 0

  19. Information Technology for Workplace Communication. Workscape 21: The Ecology of New Ways of Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Franklin; Tennessen, Carolyn M.; Young, David

    A study was undertaken to understand the role of electronic communication technologies (ECTs) in maintaining work-related communication. The study site was Sun Microsystems, a company at the high end of the curve in terms of its commitment to and employees' experience with ECTs. An electronic focus group (n=40, 4% response) and an e-mail survey…

  20. Electronic Communications Technologies and the Transition to College: Links to Parent-Child Attachment and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarigiani, Pamela A.; Trumbell, Jill M.; Camarena, Phame M.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic communications technologies (ECTs) help college students and parents remain in contact. Because recent reports have emphasized a link between ECTs, helicopter parenting, and autonomy issues, this study focused on the significance of contact patterns for attachment and student adjustment. First-semester college students (199 female, 81…

  1. High Productivity Implantation ''PARTIAL IMPLANT''

    SciTech Connect

    Hino, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sakai, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Takao

    2008-11-03

    The patterned ion implantation 'PARTIAL IMPLANT' has been developed as a productivity improvement tool. The Partial Implant can form several different ion dose areas on the wafer surface by controlling the speed of wafer moving and the stepwise rotation of twist axis. The Partial Implant system contains two implant methods. One method is 'DIVIDE PARTIAL IMPLANT', that is aimed at reducing the consumption of the wafer. The Divide Partial Implant evenly divides dose area on one wafer surface into two or three different dose part. Any dose can be selected in each area. So the consumption of the wafer for experimental implantation can be reduced. The second method is 'RING PARTIAL IMPLANT' that is aimed at improving yield by correcting electrical characteristic of devices. The Ring Partial Implant can form concentric ion dose areas. The dose of wafer external area can be selected to be within plus or minus 30% of dose of wafer central area. So the electrical characteristic of devices can be corrected by controlling dose at edge side on the wafer.

  2. Synthesis of SiC microstructures in Si technology by high dose carbon implantation: Etch-stop properties

    SciTech Connect

    Serre, C.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Calvo-Barrio, L.; Morante, J.R.; Esteve, J.; Acero, M.C.; Skorupa, W.; Koegler, R.

    1997-06-01

    The use of high dose carbon ion implantation in Si for the production of membranes and microstructures is investigated. Si wafers were implanted with carbon doses of 10{sup 17} and 5 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}2}, at an energy of 300 keV and a temperature of 500 C. The structural analysis of these samples revealed the formation of a highly stable buried layer of crystalline {beta}-SiC precipitates aligned with the Si matrix. The etch-stop properties of this layer have been investigated using tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide as etchant solution. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements performed on the etched samples have allowed an estimate of the minimum dose needed for obtaining an etch-stop layer to a value in the range 2 to 3 {times} 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. This behavior has been explained assuming the existence of a percolation process in a SiC/Si binary system. Finally, very thin crystalline membranes and self-standing structures with average surface roughness in the range 6 to 7 nm have been obtained.

  3. [Implant allergies].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Thomsen, M

    2010-03-01

    An increasing number of patients receive and benefit from osteosynthesis materials or artificial joint replacement. The most common complications are mechanical problems or infection. Metals like nickel, chromium and cobalt as well as bone cement components like acrylates and gentamicin are potential contact allergens which can cause intolerance reactions to implants. Eczema, delayed wound/bone healing, recurrent effusions, pain and implant loosening all have been described as manifestation of implant allergy. In contrast to the high incidence of cutaneous metal allergy, allergies associated with implants are rare. Diagnosis of metal implant allergy is still difficult. Thus differential diagnoses--in particular infection--have to be excluded and a combined approach of allergologic diagnostics by patch test and histopathology of peri-implant tissue is recommended. It is still unknown which conditions induce allergic sensitization to implants or trigger peri-implant allergic reactions in the case of preexisting cutaneous metal allergy. Despite the risk of developing complications being unclear, titanium based osteosynthesis materials are recommended for metal allergic patients and the use of metal-metal couplings in arthroplasty is not recommended for such patients. If the regular CoCr-polyethylene articulation is employed, the patient should give informed written consent. PMID:20204719

  4. Extraoral Cementation Technique to Minimize Cement-Associated Peri-implant Marginal Bone Loss: Can a Thin Layer of Zinc Oxide Cement Provide Sufficient Retention?

    PubMed

    Frisch, Eberhard; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Weigl, Paul; Woelber, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the use of laboratory-fabricated crown intaglio replicas for extraorally prepared cementation of fixed restorations to implants. This technique minimizes excess cement and may therefore reduce the risk of cement-related marginal peri-implant bone loss. It is unclear whether the remaining thin layer of luting agent provides sufficient retention if low-adhesive zinc oxide (ZnO) cement is used. In 85 consecutive patients, 113 single crowns were cemented to implants using extraoral cementation technique (ECT) and ZnO cement. All patients were followed for 6 months and investigated for decementation. Seven events of decementation (incidence: 6.19%) were found in 7 patients (8.24%). ECT may represent a viable cementation technique for implant-supported single crowns, even using low-adhesion cements. PMID:27479343

  5. [Successful amantadine treatment of a patient with ECT-resistant catatonia].

    PubMed

    Walstra, A N; den Broek, M VAN; Giltay, E J; van Paassen, J; van Noorden, M S

    2016-01-01

    Catatonia is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome. There is a life-threatening subtype of this disease known as malignant catatonia. One of the hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis is an imbalance of multiple neurotransmitters (gaba, glutamate and dopamine). The first step in treatment is to administer benzodiazepines; if the response is insufficient, the treatment can be replaced by electroconvulsive therapy (ect). So far, there is no consensus with regard to the tertiary treatment step. On the basis of a case report we describe the beneficial effects of administering an nmda receptor antagonist, amantadine, as the tertiary step for treating a patient with treatment-resistant malignant catatonia. PMID:27527886

  6. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  7. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion. Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  8. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at 7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at 6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing `only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around 2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  9. Goserelin Implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... which the type of tissue that lines the uterus [womb] grows in other areas of the body ... with the treatment of abnormal bleeding of the uterus. Goserelin implant is in a class of medications ...

  10. Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langouche, G.; Yoshida, Y.

    In this tutorial we describe the basic principles of the ion implantation technique and we demonstrate that emission Mössbauer spectroscopy is an extremely powerful technique to investigate the atomic and electronic configuration around implanted atoms. The physics of dilute atoms in materials, the final lattice sites and their chemical state as well as diffusion phenomena can be studied. We focus on the latest developments of implantation Mössbauer spectroscopy, where three accelerator facilities, i.e., Hahn-Meitner Institute Berlin, ISOLDE-CERN and RIKEN, have intensively been used for materials research in in-beam and on-line Mössbauer experiments immediately after implantation of the nuclear probes.

  11. Dental Implants

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... facts so you can make an informed decision as to whether dental implants are right for your ... the jaw bone. It’s obviously not the same as the original connection , but functions just the same. ...

  12. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... additional visits are needed for activating, adjusting, and programming the various electrodes that have been implanted. Also, ... to the center for checkups once the final programming is made to the speech processor. Both children ...

  13. Histrelin Implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in girls usually between 2 and 8 years of age ... MRI scans (radiology techniques designed to show the images of body structures) to find the implant when ...

  14. Speech Understanding with a New Implant Technology: A Comparative Study with a New Nonskin Penetrating Baha System

    PubMed Central

    Caversaccio, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare hearing and speech understanding between a new, nonskin penetrating Baha system (Baha Attract) to the current Baha system using a skin-penetrating abutment. Methods. Hearing and speech understanding were measured in 16 experienced Baha users. The transmission path via the abutment was compared to a simulated Baha Attract transmission path by attaching the implantable magnet to the abutment and then by adding a sample of artificial skin and the external parts of the Baha Attract system. Four different measurements were performed: bone conduction thresholds directly through the sound processor (BC Direct), aided sound field thresholds, aided speech understanding in quiet, and aided speech understanding in noise. Results. The simulated Baha Attract transmission path introduced an attenuation starting from approximately 5 dB at 1000 Hz, increasing to 20–25 dB above 6000 Hz. However, aided sound field threshold shows smaller differences and aided speech understanding in quiet and in noise does not differ significantly between the two transmission paths. Conclusion. The Baha Attract system transmission path introduces predominately high frequency attenuation. This attenuation can be partially compensated by adequate fitting of the speech processor. No significant decrease in speech understanding in either quiet or in noise was found. PMID:25140314

  15. Tailoring through Technology: A Retrospective Review of a Single Surgeon's Experience with Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction before and after Implementation of Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Angiography.

    PubMed

    Harless, Christin A; Jacobson, Steven R

    2016-05-01

    Reported complication rates of implant-based breast reconstruction in the literature exceed 50%, with mastectomy skin flap necrosis reported to occur in up to 25% of cases. Laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (LA-ICGA) technology allows the surgeon to optimize preservation of the mastectomy skin flap while avoiding skin necrosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if outcomes of breast reconstruction are beneficially affected by using LA-ICGA. A total 269 consecutive women (467 breast reconstructions) undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction from 2008 to 2013 were examined. The complication rates of those who underwent reconstruction prior to the implementation of LA-ICGA were compared with those who were reconstructed after implementation of LA-ICGA. A total of 254 consecutive breast reconstructions were performed prior to implementation of LA-ICGA, and 213 breasts were reconstructed with the use of LA-ICGA. After implementation of LA-ICGA System, the rate of mastectomy skin flap necrosis decreased by 86% (6.7% versus 0.9%, p = 0.02). The overall complication rate prior to LA-ICGA was 13.8% compared with 6.6% with the use of LA-ICGA (p = 0.01). After LA-ICGA was incorporated, the percentage of patients undergoing single-stage reconstruction increased from 12% to 32% (p = <0.001). Implementation of LA-ICGA provides the surgeon with an objective assessment of mastectomy flap perfusion resulting in a trend toward overall reduction in complications as well as an 86% decrease in the rate of subsequent skin necrosis. The objective assessment of mastectomy flap perfusion allows the surgeon to tailor breast reconstruction intraoperatively, in real-time, adjusting for the individual patient's mastectomy flap perfusion. PMID:26899399

  16. Feasibility and safety of electrochemotherapy (ECT) in the pancreas: a pre-clinical investigation

    PubMed Central

    Girelli, Roberto; Prejanò, Simona; Cataldo, Ivana; Corbo, Vincenzo; Martini, Lucia; Scarpa, Aldo; Claudio, Bassi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease generally refractory to standard chemotherapeutic agents; therefore improvements in anticancer therapies are mandatory. A major determinant of therapeutic resistance in PDAC is the poor drug delivery to neoplastic cells, mainly due to an extensive fibrotic reaction. Electroporation can be used in vivo to increase cancer cells’ local uptake of chemotherapeutics (electrochemotherapy, ECT), thus leading to an enhanced tumour response rate. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo effects of reversible electroporation in normal pancreas in a rabbit experimental model. We also tested the effect of electroporation on pancreatic cancer cell lines in order to evaluate their increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Materials and methods. The application in vivo of the European Standard Operating Procedure of Electrochemotherapy (ESOPE) pulse protocol (1000 V/cm, 8 pulses, 100 μs, 5 KHz) was tested on the pancreas of normal New Zealand White Rabbits and short and long-term toxicity were assessed. PANC1 and MiaPaCa2 cell lines were tested for in vitro electrochemotherapy experiments with and without electroporation. Levels of cell permeabilization were determined by flow cytometry, whereas cell viability and drug (cisplatin and bleomycin) sensitivity of pulsed cells were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Results. In healthy rabbits, neither systemic nor local toxic effects due to the electroporation procedure were observed, demonstrating the safety of the optimized electric parameters in the treatment of the pancreas in vivo. In parallel, we established an optimized protocol for ECT in vitro that determined an enhanced anti-cancer effect of bleomycin and cisplatin with respect to treatment without electroporation. Conclusions. Our data suggest that electroporation is a safe procedure in the treatment of PDAC

  17. Comparison between the effect of liothyronine and piracetam on personal information, orientation and mental control in patients under treatment with ECT

    PubMed Central

    Ghafur, Mousavi Seyed; Saadat, Mohammad; Maraci, Mohamad Reza; Bagherian, Reza S.; Mazaheri, Mina

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to compare the effect of liothyronine and piracetam on three subscales of the Wechsler memory test on patients under treatment with ECT. Materials and Methods: In a double blind clinical trial, 60 of 99 patients between 20 and 45 years old, under treatment with ECT were studied in three groups. Patients in the allocation groups received liothyronine, piracetam, or placebo, from the first session of ECT until 1 month after the last session of ECT. Personal information, orientation, and mental control were tested in the participants at first, fourth, and last session of ECT and 1 month after the last session of ECT. Data were analyzed with Repeated measure ANOVA using SPSS 13. Results: There wasn’t any significant difference among three groups in demographic characteristics before the study and number of ECT sessions (P=0.684). After intervention, a significant difference in memory scores was seen in third and fourth assessment sessions (0.002). Orientation subscales showed a significant difference among four assessment sessions (P=0.001). Personal information and mental control never decreased in the liothyronine group. There was no significant difference among three studied groups in personal information, orientation, and mental control (P>0.05). Conclusion: Memory changes due to ECT may be limited to some parts of memory like orientation. More powerful studies for comparison between the effect of liothyronine and placebo are necessary. PMID:22988323

  18. Simulation and design of ECT differential bobbin probes for the inspection of cracks in bolts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ra, S. W.; Im, K. H.; Lee, S. G.; Kim, H. J.; Song, S. J.; Kim, S. K.; Cho, Y. T.; Woo, Y. D.; Jung, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    All Various defects could be generated in bolts for a use of oil filters for the manufacturing process and then may affect to the safety and quality in bolts. Also, fine defects may be imbedded in oil filter system during multiple forging manufacturing processes. So it is very important that such defects be investigated and screened during the multiple manufacturing processes. Therefore, in order effectively to evaluate the fine defects, the design parameters for bobbin-types were selected under a finite element method (FEM) simulations and Eddy current testing (ECT). Especially the FEM simulations were performed to make characterization in the crack detection of the bolts and the parameters such as number of turns of the coil, the coil size and applied frequency were calculated based on the simulation results.

  19. Aberrant CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotypes do not show increased frequency in patients undergoing ECT after antidepressant therapy.

    PubMed

    Mirzakhani, Hooman; van Dormolen, Juliët; van der Weide, Karen; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; van Noorden, Martijn S; Swen, Jesse

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the accumulation of aberrant CYP2D6 genotypes and predicted metabolizer phenotypes (ultrarapid metabolizer, intermediate metabolizer and poor metabolizer) potentially affecting the antidepressant treatment response in depressive patients indicated for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) compared with patients with a single episode of depression. Seventy-six Dutch White patients with unipolar or bipolar treatment-resistant depression who underwent ECT were genotyped using the Amplichip CYP450 Test for CYP2D6. Two hundred and eight patients with a single episode of unipolar or bipolar depression were used as controls. No difference was observed in the prevalence of CYP2D6 phenotypes (poor metabolizer, intermediate metabolizer, extensive metabolizer and ultrarapid metabolizer) between the ECT and the control patients (5.3, 38.7, 56.0 and 0.0% vs. 6.4, 51.0, 42.6 and 0.0%, respectively). The types of depression (odds ratio = 0.33, P = 0.018) and age (odds ratio = 1.55 for a 10-year increase, P < 0.001), but not CYP2D6 phenotype or activity score were associated with the response to antidepressant treatment. In conclusion, preemptive genotyping for CYP2D6 currently appears to have no clinical implications in treatment-resistant depressive patients indicated for ECT. PMID:26230381

  20. Pan-European Grading Scales: Lessons from National Systems and the ECTS. The Bologna Process: Retrospect and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2005-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of the Bologna Process on the grading schemes of EU member countries. In light of some problems regarding the implementation of the European Credit Transfer system (ECTS), the author proposes further reforms and offers some elements of a unified grading system for European higher education. The author explores the…

  1. High-density ion-implanted contiguous-disk-bubble technology. Annual Scientific Report No. 1, 30 September 1986-29 September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kryder, M.H.; Greve, D.W.; Guzman, A.; Jo, S.C.; Ramesh, M.

    1987-10-31

    During the past year the authors advanced the state-of-the-art in several areas of magnetic-bubble technology. The main thrust of their research was to advance ion-implanted contiguous disk devices because these devices offer order-of-magnitude higher bit density than presently manufactured bubble devices. Noteworthy accomplishments include demonstration of bubble propagation in devices having 4 sq micrometer bit cells and exhibiting operating margins equal to those of today's manufactured devices. These devices were demonstrated to operate from 0 to 120 C, the limits of the testing capabilities. A major factor in this success was development of new epitaxial garnet materials that exhibited isotropic magnetostrictive properties -- a feature previously not obtained. In addition to the work on bubble propagation, significant progress was made on demonstrating a fully operational contiguous-disk chip, complete with bubble generators, transfer gates and stretcher/detectors. All components have been demonstrated to operate with good overlapping margins, and a complete chip was designed and fabricated.

  2. Dealing with moral dilemma raised by adaptive preferences in health technology assessment: the example of growth hormones and bilateral cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Thébaut, Clémence

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this article is to assess dilemma raised by adaptive preferences in the economic evaluation of growth hormone (GH) treatment for non-GH-deficient short children, and of bilateral cochlear implants for deaf children. Early implementation of both technologies and their irreversible consequences increase the potential conflicts faced by the assessors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) states (on behalf of patients) who could be interviewed (parents, individuals with an experience of the same disability, or representative samples of the general public). Indeed, assessors' preferences may be influenced by their own situation and they are likely to vary according to age and the experience of disability. Three options are put forward which aim to resolve these moral dilemma and help economists make methodological choices that cannot be avoided in order to carry out this assessment. They are grounded on three specific egalitarian theories of social justice. The main contribution of this article is to show that a dialogue between ethics and economics, prior to an assessment, makes it possible to redefine the choice of effectiveness criteria (subjective well-being, capabilities or social outcomes), the choice of perspective (patients or the able-bodied), as well as the scope of assessment (medical and non-medical care). PMID:24355476

  3. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... outside of the body, behind the ear. A second part is surgically placed under the skin. An implant does not restore normal hearing. It can help a person understand speech. Children and adults can benefit from them. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  4. Cochlear implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... are sent along the auditory nerve to the brain. A deaf person does not have a functioning inner ear. A cochlear implant tries to replace the function of the inner ear by ... signals to the brain. Sound is picked up by a microphone worn ...

  5. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Nikil; Gupta, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided) or dynamic (navigated) systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias), in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry. PMID:25810585

  6. [Maintenance care for dental implant].

    PubMed

    Kamoi, K

    1989-10-01

    Dental implant has tried at the early stage in 19th century recovering an oral function and esthetics. Technological revolutions in biochemical and new materials have developed on the remarkable change in the dental implants, nowadays we call the three generation therapy for dental implantology. There are many kinds of methods and techniques in dental implants, however a lot of troublesome complication on the process of surgical phase, construction of prothodontics and prognosis of maintenance care. In the proceedings of this symposium, I would like to propose you how to manage the maintenance care for various kind of dental implants through the methodology and case presentations. Tendenay and future for dental implants The current outlook of dental implant has increasing supply and demand not only dentists but also patients. According to Japanese Welfare Ministry's report in 1987, average missing teeth over sixty years old generations are approximately 42% in accordance with NIDR (U.S.A.) research. They are missed on ten over teeth in full 28th teeth dentitions owing to dental caries and periodontal diseases. Generally speaking, latent implant patients are occupied on the same possibility of needs for dental implants both Japan and U.S.A. Management of maintenance care The patients hardly recognized the importance of plaque control for the maintenance care in the intraoral condition after implantation. Dentists and dental staffs must be instruct patients for importance of plaque removal and control, because they already had forgotten the habit of teeth cleaning, especially in the edenturous conditions. 1) Concept of establishment in oral hygiene. Motivation and instruction for patients include very important factors in dental implants as well as in periodontal diseases. Patients who could not achieve on good oral hygiene levels obtained no good results in the long term observations. To establish good oral hygiene are how to control supra plaque surrounding tissues

  7. The Italian regulation on Assisted Reproductive Technologies facing the European Court of Human Rights: the case of Costa and Pavan v. Italy.

    PubMed

    Penasa, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This article will describe the current legal framework on Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART) regulation in Italy, taking into account recent case-law derived from the implementation of the Law 40 of 2004 on ART. Special attention will be devoted to the case of Costa and Pavan v. Italy, recently decided by the Tenth Session of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). In that decision, the European Court declared the incompatibility of the ban to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis introduced by the abovementioned Italian law on ART. The case will be analysed from a dual perspective. On the one hand, it will be considered in the light of the ECtHR case-law, in order to derive systematic aspects of continuity or discontinuity between the former and the latter2. On the other hand, the case will be considered in the light of its concrete and prospective impact on the Italian legal approach to ART regulation, considering especially the direct and indirect influence of the case: e.g., its possible utilisation by Italian judges when they are called upon to implement Law 40. PMID:23520918

  8. Identification and characterization of ectoine biosynthesis genes and heterologous expression of the ectABC gene cluster from Halomonas sp. QHL1, a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from Qinghai Lake.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Derui; Liu, Jian; Han, Rui; Shen, Guoping; Long, Qifu; Wei, Xiaoxing; Liu, Deli

    2014-02-01

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. QHL1 was identified as a member of the genus Halomonas by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. HPLC analysis showed that strain QHL1 synthesizes ectoine in its cytoplasm. The genes involved in the ectoine biosynthesis pathway were identified on the chromosome in the order ectABC. Subsequently, the ectB gene from this strain was amplified by PCR, and the entire ectABC gene cluster (3,580 bp) was cloned using genome walking. Analysis showed that the ectA (579 bp), ectB (1269 bp), and ectC (390 bp) genes were organized in a single transcriptional unit and were predicted to encode three peptides of 21.2 kDa, 46.4 kDa, and 14.7 kDa, respectively. Two putative promoters, a δ(70)-dependent promoter and a δ(38)-controlled promoter, as well as several conserved motifs with unknown function were identified. Individual ectA, ectB, and ectC genes, and the entire ectABC gene cluster were inserted into the expression plasmid pET-28a(+) to generate the recombinant plasmids pET-28a(+)-ectA, pET-28a(+)-ectB, pET-28a(+)-ectC and pET-28a(+)-ectABC, respectively. Heterologous expression of these proteins in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The recombinant E. coli strain BL21 (pET-28a (+)-ectABC) displayed a higher salt tolerance than native E. coli cells but produced far less ectoine than the wild-type QHL1 strain. PMID:24500478

  9. Signal Evaluation System of Flexible Array Ect Probes for Inspecting Complexly Shaped Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, H.; Nishimizu, A.; Tooma, M.; Ouchi, H.; Yoshida, I.; Nonaka, Y.; Otani, K.

    2011-06-01

    We developed a signal evaluation system of flexible array eddy current testing (ECT) probes for inspecting complexly shaped metal surfaces. Our probes employ excitation and pickup coil pairs arrayed on a bendable substrate to measure curved targets. Since the developed probes produce signals due to the change in the relative position between the coil pair, an evaluation module for flaw signal identification is integrated into the system. The identification utilizes signal phase combination of the coil pairs. It is represented as a two-dimensional diagram constituting the phase values of two of the coil pairs with different positions. The phase of signals around flaws is significantly affected by their orientations. The diagram is therefore capable of separating flaw information from other information and of imaging flaw positions. We applied the system to complex geometric mock-ups. Flaw signals were successfully identified and the images obtained for identified positions could be used to efficiently measure the length of surface flaws by the 12 decibel down method.

  10. [Evaluation of asymetric implants in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Fitoussi, A; Couturaud, B; Laki, F; Alran, S; Salmon, R J

    2005-10-01

    Since more than twenty years, methods of breast reconstruction using implants have continued to evolve in order to improve their aesthetic results. Shapes and materials of these implants have also evolved to obtain contours similar to that of the natural opposite breast. Therefore it can be considered that the use of asymmetric implants is the last step in implant technology before using made to measure implants. Asymmetric implants allow obtaining different contours in harmony to the different breast shapes according to the side, left or right, of the reconstructed breast which maximise the naturalness of the result. Such implants have an axis directed towards the exterior and lower part of the chest wall, are wider than high with a thinner part on their inner edge and a concave rear side moulding the curves of the chest wall. In our own experience, we placed more than 500 asymmetric implants. When analysing retrospectively the medical records of 156 patients, no distinctive features were observed when compared to symmetric classic implants in easiness in the surgical procedure or in complications except a slightly higher rate of seroma formation. When compared to usual implants the main benefits of asymmetric implants are: to offer a wider breadth, to slope down gently on their upper and inner sides according to their concave rear side, and therefore to better match subtle curves of a normal breast. Moreover such contours allow a distribution of the volume which fit better to the usual natural breast configuration of patients who underwent surgery for breast carcinoma. At last, such implants are easy to place and a very low rate of secondary rotation has been observed. In summary, for all these reasons, asymmetric implants, can be considered to be the class one in the choice of implants for breast reconstruction after breast surgery. PMID:16198040

  11. An ECT/ERT dual-modality sensor for oil-water two-phase flow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Pitao; Wang, Huaxiang; Sun, Benyuan; Cui, Ziqiang; Huang, Wenrui

    2014-04-11

    This paper presents a new sensor for ECT/ERT dual-modality system which can simultaneously obtain the permittivity and conductivity of the materials in the pipeline. Quasi-static electromagnetic fields are produced by the inner electrodes array sensor of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system. The results of simulation show that the data of permittivity and conductivity can be simultaneously obtained from the same measurement electrode and the fusion of two kinds of data may improve the quality of the reconstructed images. For uniform oil-water mixtures, the performance of designed dual-modality sensor for measuring the various oil fractions has been tested on representative data and the results of experiments show that the designed sensor broadens the measurement range compared to single modality.

  12. ECT imaging with Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid useful to detect lung metastases of osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Ishii, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Fujita, T.; Nakajima, T.; Sakahara, H.; Torizuka, K.; Kotoura, Y.; Yokoyama, A.

    1985-01-01

    ECT imaging, using Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc(V)-DMS) was performed in two patients with lung metastasis of osteosarcoma, and the results were compared with those of CT scan. Clear accumulation of Tc(V)-DMS was recognized in all cases in the same area that CT scans demonstrated. Tc(V)-DMS was labeled under optimal pH 8, had very low SnCl/sub 2/ concentrations, an equilibrium between a stable form and a dissociated form of anion TcO/sub 4/(3-) structurally similar to PO/sub 4/(3-), and was postulated for tumor uptake. Considering this proposed mechanism for Tc(V)-DMS uptake by tumor cells, ECT imaging using this tracer could be of use in the early detection of lung metastasis of osteosarcoma.

  13. Characterization of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode III Fracture Toughness Measurement of Laminated Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2004-01-01

    The edge crack torsion (ECT) test is designed to initiate mode III delamination growth in composite laminates. An ECT specimen is a rectangular laminate, containing an edge delamination at the laminate mid-plane. Torsion load is applied to the specimens, resulting in relative transverse shear sliding of the delaminated faces. The test data reduction schemes are intended to yield initiation values of critical mode III strain energy release rate, G(sub IIIc), that are constant with delamination length. The test has undergone several design changes during its development. The objective of this paper was to determine the suitability of the current ECT test design as a mode III fracture test. To this end, ECT tests were conducted on specimens manufactured from IM7/8552 and specimens made from S2/8552 tape laminates. Several specimens, each with different delamination lengths are tested. Detailed, three-dimensional finite element analyses of the specimens were performed. The analysis results were used to calculate the distribution of mode I, mode II, and mode III strain energy release rate along the delamination front. The results indicated that mode III-dominated delamination growth would be initiated from the specimen center. However, in specimens of both material types, the measured values of G(sub IIIc) exhibited significant dependence on delamination length. Furthermore, there was a large amount of scatter in the data. Load-displacement response of the specimens exhibited significant deviation from linearity before specimen failure. X-radiographs of a sample of specimens revealed that damage was initiated in the specimens prior to failure. Further inspection of the failure surfaces is required to identify the damage and determine that mode III delamination is initiated in the specimens.

  14. Characterization of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode III Fracture Toughness Measurement of Laminated Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2004-01-01

    The edge crack torsion (ECT) test is designed to initiate mode III delamination growth in composite laminates. The test has undergone several design changes during its development. The objective of this paper was to determine the suitability of the current ECT test design a mode III fracture test. To this end, ECT tests were conducted on specimens manufactured from IM7/8552 and S2/8552 tape laminates. Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed. The analysis results were used to calculate the distribution of mode I, mode II, and mode III strain energy release rate along the delamination front. The results indicated that mode IIIdominated delamination growth would be initiated from the specimen center. However, in specimens of both material types, the measured values of GIIIc exhibited significant dependence on delamination length. Load-displacement response of the specimens exhibited significant deviation from linearity before specimen failure. X-radiographs of a sample of specimens revealed that damage was initiated in the specimens prior to failure. Further inspection of the failure surfaces is required to identify the damage and determine that mode III delamination is initiated in the specimens.

  15. The combined eff ects of Dolichospermum flos-aquae, light, and temperature on microcystin production by Microcystis aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruoqi; Li, Fangfang; Liu, Jiadong; Zheng, Hongye; Shen, Fei; Xue, Yarong; Liu, Changhong

    2016-03-01

    The eff ects of light, temperature, and coculture on the intracellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR) quota of Microcystis aeruginosa were evaluated based on coculture experiments with nontoxic Dolichospermum (Anabaena) flos-aquae. The MC-LR quota and transcription of mcyB and mcyD genes encoding MC synthetases in M. aeruginosa were evaluated on the basis of cell counts, high-performance liquid chromatography, and reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR. The MC-LR quotas of M. aeruginosa in coculture with a 1/1 ratio of inoculum of the two species were significantly lower relative to monocultures 6-d after inoculation. Decreased MC-LR quotas under coculture conditions were enhanced by increasing the D. flos-aquae to M. aeruginosa ratio in the inoculum and by environmental factors, such as temperature and light intensity. Moreover, the transcriptional concentrations of mcyB and mcyD genes in M. aeruginosa were significantly inhibited by D. flos-aquae competition in coculture (P <0.01), lowered to 20% of initial concentrations within 8 days. These data suggested that coculture eff ects by D. flos-aquae not only reduced M. aeruginosa's intracellular MC-LR quota via inhibition of genes encoding MC synthetases, but also that this eff ect was regulated by environmental factors, including temperature and light intensities.

  16. Common Prosthetic Implant Complications in Fixed Restorations.

    PubMed

    Link-Bindo, Elyce E; Soltys, James; Donatelli, David; Cavanaugh, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Many clinicians consider implants to be one of the most important innovations in dental care. Even so, over the past 40 years of implant dentistry, complications have been a constant struggle for restorative dentists, surgeons, and patients alike. Implant-related problems can be particularly challenging and frustrating, especially given that an implant is thought to be a "lifetime" solution expected to yield minimal difficulties. This, however, is not necessarily the case with prosthetic restorations. With innovations in implant technology continuing to rapidly advance, maintaining knowledge of all the latest developments can be challenging for clinicians. The purpose of this article is to provide a basic understanding of the treatment, management, and prevention of common prosthetic and technical implant complications seen in the office of a restorative dentist. PMID:27548395

  17. Nanostructured Surfaces of Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Bressan, Eriberto; Sbricoli, Luca; Guazzo, Riccardo; Tocco, Ilaria; Roman, Marco; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Stellini, Edoardo; Gardin, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Sivolella, Stefano; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The structural and functional fusion of the surface of the dental implant with the surrounding bone (osseointegration) is crucial for the short and long term outcome of the device. In recent years, the enhancement of bone formation at the bone-implant interface has been achieved through the modulation of osteoblasts adhesion and spreading, induced by structural modifications of the implant surface, particularly at the nanoscale level. In this context, traditional chemical and physical processes find new applications to achieve the best dental implant technology. This review provides an overview of the most common manufacture techniques and the related cells-surface interactions and modulation. A Medline and a hand search were conducted to identify studies concerning nanostructuration of implant surface and their related biological interaction. In this paper, we stressed the importance of the modifications on dental implant surfaces at the nanometric level. Nowadays, there is still little evidence of the long-term benefits of nanofeatures, as the promising results achieved in vitro and in animals have still to be confirmed in humans. However, the increasing interest in nanotechnology is undoubted and more research is going to be published in the coming years. PMID:23344062

  18. GlnR-Mediated Regulation of ectABCD Transcription Expands the Role of the GlnR Regulon to Osmotic Stress Management

    PubMed Central

    Shao, ZhiHui; Deng, WanXin; Li, ShiYuan; He, JuanMei; Ren, ShuangXi; Huang, WeiRen; Lu, YinHua; Zhao, GuoPing

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ectoine and hydroxyectoine are excellent compatible solutes for bacteria to deal with environmental osmotic stress and temperature damages. The biosynthesis cluster of ectoine and hydroxyectoine is widespread among microorganisms, and its expression is activated by high salinity and temperature changes. So far, little is known about the mechanism of the regulation of the transcription of ect genes and only two MarR family regulators (EctR1 in methylobacteria and the EctR1-related regulator CosR in Vibrio cholerae) have been found to negatively regulate the expression of ect genes. Here, we characterize GlnR, the global regulator for nitrogen metabolism in actinomycetes, as a negative regulator for the transcription of ectoine/hydroxyectoine biosynthetic genes (ect operon) in Streptomyces coelicolor. The physiological role of this transcriptional repression by GlnR is proposed to protect the intracellular glutamate pool, which acts as a key nitrogen donor for both the nitrogen metabolism and the ectoine/hydroxyectoine biosynthesis. IMPORTANCE High salinity is deleterious, and cells must evolve sophisticated mechanisms to cope with this osmotic stress. Although production of ectoine and hydroxyectoine is one of the most frequently adopted strategies, the in-depth mechanism of regulation of their biosynthesis is less understood. So far, only two MarR family negative regulators, EctR1 and CosR, have been identified in methylobacteria and Vibrio, respectively. Here, our work demonstrates that GlnR, the global regulator for nitrogen metabolism, is a negative transcriptional regulator for ect genes in Streptomyces coelicolor. Moreover, a close relationship is found between nitrogen metabolism and osmotic resistance, and GlnR-mediated regulation of ect transcription is proposed to protect the intracellular glutamate pool. Meanwhile, the work reveals the multiple roles of GlnR in bacterial physiology. PMID:26170409

  19. Osteogenic activity and antibacterial effect of zinc ion implanted titanium.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guodong; Cao, Huiliang; Qiao, Yuqin; Meng, Fanhao; Zhu, Hongqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-05-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are widely used as orthopedic and dental implants. In this work, zinc (Zn) was implanted into oxalic acid etched titanium using plasma immersion ion implantation technology. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface morphology and composition of Zn-implanted titanium. The results indicate that the depth profile of zinc in Zn-implanted titanium resembles a Gaussian distribution, and zinc exists in the form of ZnO at the surface whereas in the form of metallic Zn in the interior. The Zn-implanted titanium can significantly stimulate proliferation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as well as initial adhesion, spreading activity, ALP activity, collagen secretion and extracellular matrix mineralization of the rat mesenchymal stem cells. The Zn-implanted titanium presents partly antibacterial effect on both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The ability of the Zn-implanted titanium to stimulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation as well as the antibacterial effect on E. coli can be improved by increasing implantation time even to 2 h in this work, indicating that the content of zinc implanted in titanium can easily be controlled within the safe concentration using plasma immersion ion implantation technology. The Zn-implanted titanium with excellent osteogenic activity and partly antibacterial effect can serve as useful candidates for orthopedic and dental implants. PMID:24632388

  20. Cochlear implantation: current and future device options.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Matthew L; Driscoll, Colin L W; Gifford, René H; McMenomey, Sean O

    2012-02-01

    Today most cochlear implant users achieve above 80% on standard speech recognition in quiet testing, and enjoy excellent device reliability. Despite such success, conventional designs often fail to provide the frequency resolution required for complex listening tasks. Furthermore, performance variability remains a vexing problem, with a select group of patients performing poorly despite using the most recent technologies and processing strategies. This article provides a brief history of the development of cochlear implant technologies, reviews current implant systems from all 3 major manufacturers, examines recently devised strategies aimed at improving device performance, and discusses potential future developments. PMID:22115692

  1. Wearable and implantable pancreas substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Assaf, Tareq; Dario, Paolo; Menciassi, Arianna

    2013-03-01

    A lifelong-implanted and completely automated artificial or bioartificial pancreas (BAP) is the holy grail for type 1 diabetes treatment, and could be a definitive solution even for other severe pathologies, such as pancreatitis and pancreas cancer. Technology has made several important steps forward in the last years, providing new hope for the realization of such devices, whose feasibility is strictly connected to advances in glucose sensor technology, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal insulin pump development, the design of closed-loop control algorithms for mechatronic pancreases, as well as cell and tissue engineering and cell encapsulation for biohybrid pancreases. Furthermore, smart integration of the mentioned components and biocompatibility issues must be addressed, bearing in mind that, for mechatronic pancreases, it is most important to consider how to recharge implanted batteries and refill implanted insulin reservoirs without requiring periodic surgical interventions. This review describes recent advancements in technologies and concepts related to artificial and bioartificial pancreases, and assesses how far we are from a lifelong-implanted and self-working pancreas substitute that can fully restore the quality of life of a diabetic (or other type of) patient. PMID:22990986

  2. Retrograde peri-implantitis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Jumshad B; Shivakumar, B; Sudarsan, Sabitha; Arun, K V; Kumar, T S S

    2010-01-01

    Retrograde peri-implantitis constitutes an important cause for implant failure. Retrograde peri-implantitis may sometimes prove difficult to identify and hence institution of early treatment may not be possible. This paper presents a report of four cases of (the implant placed developing to) retrograde peri-implantitis. Three of these implants were successfully restored to their fully functional state while one was lost due to extensive damage. The paper highlights the importance of recognizing the etiopathogenic mechanisms, preoperative assessment, and a strong postoperative maintenance protocol to avoid retrograde peri-implant inflammation. PMID:20922082

  3. Oral Implant Imaging: A Review

    PubMed Central

    GUPTA, Sarika; PATIL, Neelkant; SOLANKI, Jitender; SINGH, Ravinder; LALLER, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate implant imaging technique has become a challenging task since the advent of advanced imaging modalities, and many of these are used for implant imaging. On imaging, the modality should not only consider the anatomy but should also provide dimensional accuracy. Many dentists use the conventional method, mostly orthopantograph (OPG), in their routine practice of implant placement. However, because of the drawbacks associated with OPG, higher technologies, such as computed tomography (CT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), are better accepted. These help improve image sharpness and reduce distortion. These techniques are not used widely due to the cost effect. Therefore, to decide on the type of imaging technique, all associated advantages and disadvantages should be considered, which will be broadly discussed in this review. PMID:26715891

  4. Evaluation of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode 3 Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Laminated Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian; Lee, Edward W.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Lee, Shaw Ming

    1996-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was carried out on G40-800/R6376 graphite epoxy laminates to evaluate the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) test as a candidate for a standard Mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness test for laminated composites. The ECT test consists of a (90/(+/- 45)(sub 3)/(+/- 45)(sub 3)/90))(sub s) laminate with a delamination introduced by a non-adhesive film at the mid-plane along one edge and loaded in a special fixture to create torsion along the length of the laminate. Dye penetrate enhanced X-radiograph of failed specimens revealed that the delamination initiated at the middle of the specimen length and propagated in a self similar manner along the laminate mid-plane. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was performed that indicated that a pure Mode 3 delamination exists at the middle of specimen length away from both ends. At the ends near the loading point a small Mode 2 component exists. However, the magnitude of this Mode 2 strain energy release rate at the loading point is small compared to the magnitude of Mode 3 component in the mid-section of the specimen. Hence, the ECT test yielded the desired Mode 3 delamination. The Mode 3 fracture toughness was obtained from a compliance calibration method and was in good agreement with the finite element results. Mode 2 End-Notched Flexure (ENF) tests and Mode 1 Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were also performed for the same composite material. The Mode 1 fracture toughness was much smaller than both the Mode 2 and Mode 3 fracture toughness. The Mode 2 fracture toughness was found to be 75% of the Mode 3 fracture toughness.

  5. Esthetic Considerations for Reconstructing Implant Emergence Profile Using Titanium and Zirconia Custom Implant Abutments: Fifty Case Series Report.

    PubMed

    Kutkut, Ahmad; Abu-Hammad, Osama; Mitchell, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Titanium and zirconia custom implant abutments are now commonly used for esthetic implant dentistry. Custom implant abutments allow the clinician to improve an implant's emergence profile, to customize cervical margins in accordance with the anatomy of the natural root, and to compensate for poor implant angulation. All of these are essential for optimum esthetic outcomes. Computer-aided design/computer-aided machining (CAD/CAM) technology allows the clinician to design custom implant abutment configurations and create natural-looking superstructures that are in harmony with the adjacent dentition and soft tissue. The CAD/CAM technique provides precise fit, reduces the cost of the procedure, and eliminates dimensional inaccuracies inherent in the conventional waxing and casting technique. The aim of this report is to describe a simplified technique for reconstructing emergence profiles during implant restoration using milled titanium and zirconia custom implant abutments. The results of 50 consecutive cases are reported. PMID:24175922

  6. Immediate implant therapy in clinical practice: single-tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, Paul A; Baker, Richard; Lightfoot, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Once viewed as an esoteric treatment option, implant therapy has demonstrated long-term predictability at least equal to that of more "conventional" treatment modalities. The continued evolution of implant surface technology and restorative options has made implant therapy the treatment modality of choice in many if not most, clinical situations. It is, therefore, only natural that the role of immediate implant therapy continues to expand. Proponents of immediate implant therapy advocate its use at the time of tooth removal or, in a partially or fully edentulous arch, to meet a variety of clinical challenges. PMID:18069591

  7. Fabricating specialised orthopaedic implants using additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Paul

    2014-03-01

    It has been hypothesised that AM is ideal for patient specific orthopaedic implants such as those used in bone cancer treatment, that can rapidly build structures such as lattices for bone and tissues to in-grow, that would be impossible using current conventional subtractive manufacturing techniques. The aim of this study was to describe the adoption of AM (direct metal laser sintering and electron beam melting) into the design manufacturing and post-manufacturing processes and the early clinical use. Prior to the clinical use of AM implants, extensive metallurgical and mechanical testing of both laser and electron beam fabrications were undertaken. Concurrently, post-manufacturing processes evaluated included hipping, cleaning and coating treatments. The first clinical application of a titanium alloy mega-implant was undertaken in November 2010. A 3D model of the pelvic wing implant was designed from CT scans. Novel key features included extensive lattice structures at the bone interfaces and integral flanges to fix the implant to the bone. The pelvic device was implanted with the aid of navigation and to date the patient remains active. A further 18 patient specific mega-implants have now been implanted. The early use of this advanced manufacturing route for patient specific implants has been very encouraging enabling the engineer to produce more advanced and anatomical conforming implants. However, there are a new set of design, manufacturing and regulatory challenges that require addressing to permit this technique to be used more widely. This technology is changing the design and manufacturing paradigm for the fabrication of specialised orthopaedic implants.

  8. RAPID MANUFACTURING SYSTEM OF ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Relvas, Carlos; Reis, Joana; Potes, José Alberto Caeiro; Fonseca, Fernando Manuel Ferreira; Simões, José Antonio Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This study, aimed the development of a methodology for rapid manufacture of orthopedic implants simultaneously with the surgical intervention, considering two potential applications in the fields of orthopedics: the manufacture of anatomically adapted implants and implants for bone loss replacement. This work innovation consists on the capitation of the in situ geometry of the implant by direct capture of the shape using an elastomeric material (polyvinylsiloxane) which allows fine detail and great accuracy of the geometry. After scanning the elastomeric specimen, the implant is obtained by machining using a CNC milling machine programmed with a dedicated CAD/CAM system. After sterilization, the implant is able to be placed on the patient. The concept was developed using low cost technology and commercially available. The system has been tested in an in vivo hip arthroplasty performed on a sheep. The time increase of surgery was 80 minutes being 40 minutes the time of implant manufacturing. The system developed has been tested and the goals defined of the study achieved enabling the rapid manufacture of an implant in a time period compatible with the surgery time. PMID:27004181

  9. Molecular mechanisms of membrane interaction at implantation.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Lien M; Coward, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Successful pregnancy is dependent upon the implantation of a competent embryo into a receptive endometrium. Despite major advancement in our understanding of reproductive medicine over the last few decades, implantation failure still occurs in both normal pregnancies and those created artificially by assisted reproductive technology (ART). Consequently, there is significant interest in elucidating the etiology of implantation failure. The complex multistep process of implantation begins when the developing embryo first makes contact with the plasma membrane of epithelial cells within the uterine environment. However, although this biological interaction marks the beginning of a fundamental developmental process, our knowledge of the intricate physiological and molecular processes involved remains sparse. In this synopsis, we aim to provide an overview of our current understanding of the morphological changes which occur to the plasma membrane of the uterine endothelium, and the molecular mechanisms that control communication between the early embryo and the endometrium during implantation. A multitude of molecular factors have been implicated in this complex process, including endometrial integrins, extracellular matrix molecules, adhesion molecules, growth factors, and ion channels. We also explore the development of in vitro models for embryo implantation to help researchers investigate mechanisms which may underlie implantation failure. Understanding the precise molecular pathways associated with implantation failure could help us to generate new prognostic/diagnostic biomarkers, and may identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:26969610

  10. RAPID MANUFACTURING SYSTEM OF ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANTS.

    PubMed

    Relvas, Carlos; Reis, Joana; Potes, José Alberto Caeiro; Fonseca, Fernando Manuel Ferreira; Simões, José Antonio Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study, aimed the development of a methodology for rapid manufacture of orthopedic implants simultaneously with the surgical intervention, considering two potential applications in the fields of orthopedics: the manufacture of anatomically adapted implants and implants for bone loss replacement. This work innovation consists on the capitation of the in situ geometry of the implant by direct capture of the shape using an elastomeric material (polyvinylsiloxane) which allows fine detail and great accuracy of the geometry. After scanning the elastomeric specimen, the implant is obtained by machining using a CNC milling machine programmed with a dedicated CAD/CAM system. After sterilization, the implant is able to be placed on the patient. The concept was developed using low cost technology and commercially available. The system has been tested in an in vivo hip arthroplasty performed on a sheep. The time increase of surgery was 80 minutes being 40 minutes the time of implant manufacturing. The system developed has been tested and the goals defined of the study achieved enabling the rapid manufacture of an implant in a time period compatible with the surgery time. PMID:27004181

  11. Plasma immersion ion implantation for silicon processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankov, Rossen A.; Mändl, Stephan

    2001-04-01

    Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is a technology which is currently widely investigated as an alternative to conventional beam line implantation for ultrashallow doping beyond the 0.15 m technology. However, there are several other application areas in modern semiconductor processing. In this paper a detailed discussion of the PIII process for semiconductors and of actual as well as future applications is given. Besides the well known advantages of PIII - fast process, implantation of the whole surface, low cost of ownership - several peculiarities - like spread of the implantation energy due to finite rise time or collisions, no mass separation, high secondary electron emission - must be mentioned. However, they can be overcome by adjusting the system and the process parameters. Considering the applications, ultrashallow junction formation by PIII is an established industrial process, whereas SIMOX and Smart-Cut by oxygen and hydrogen implantation are current topics between research and introduction into industry. Further applications of PIII, of which some already are research topics and some are only investigated by conventional ion implantation, include seeding for metal deposition, gettering of metal impurities, etch stop layers and helium implantation for localized lifetime control.

  12. Ion-implantation doping of silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.; Edwards, A.; Rao, M.V.; Papanicolaou, N.; Kelner, G.; Holland, O.W.

    1997-10-01

    Because of their commercial availability in bulk single crystal form, the 6H- and 4H- polytypes of SiC are gaining importance for high-power, high-temperature, and high-frequency device applications. Selective area doping is a crucial processing step in integrated circuit manufacturing. In Si technology, selective area doping is accomplished by thermal diffusion or ion-implantation. Because of the low diffusion coefficients of most impurities in SiC, ion implantation is indispensable in SiC device manufacturing. In this paper the authors present their results on donor, acceptor, and compensation implants in 6H-SiC.

  13. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  14. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Malaisrie, S Chris; Iddriss, Adam; Flaherty, James D; Churyla, Andrei

    2016-05-01

    Severe aortic stenosis (AS) is a life-threatening condition when left untreated. Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the gold standard treatment for the majority of patients; however, transcatheter aortic valve implantation/replacement (TAVI/TAVR) has emerged as the preferred treatment for high-risk or inoperable patients. The concept of transcatheter heart valves originated in the 1960s and has evolved into the current Edwards Sapien and Medtronic CoreValve platforms available for clinical use. Complications following TAVI, including cerebrovascular events, perivalvular regurgitation, vascular injury, and heart block have decreased with experience and evolving technology, such that ongoing trials studying TAVI in lower risk patients have become tenable. The multidisciplinary team involving the cardiac surgeon and cardiologist plays an essential role in patient selection, procedural conduct, and perioperative care. PMID:27021619

  15. Implantable, multifunctional, bioresorbable optics

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hu; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Siebert, Sean M.; Pritchard, Eleanor M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Panilaitis, Bruce J. B.; Brenckle, Mark A.; Amsden, Jason J.; Levitt, Jonathan; Fantini, Sergio; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in personalized medicine are symbiotic with the development of novel technologies for biomedical devices. We present an approach that combines enhanced imaging of malignancies, therapeutics, and feedback about therapeutics in a single implantable, biocompatible, and resorbable device. This confluence of form and function is accomplished by capitalizing on the unique properties of silk proteins as a mechanically robust, biocompatible, optically clear biomaterial matrix that can house, stabilize, and retain the function of therapeutic components. By developing a form of high-quality microstructured optical elements, improved imaging of malignancies and of treatment monitoring can be achieved. The results demonstrate a unique family of devices for in vitro and in vivo use that provide functional biomaterials with built-in optical signal and contrast enhancement, demonstrated here with simultaneous drug delivery and feedback about drug delivery with no adverse biological effects, all while slowly degrading to regenerate native tissue. PMID:23150544

  16. Nitrogen and aluminum implantation in high resistivity silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Dwight, D.; Rao, M.V.; Holland, O.W.; Kelner, G.; Chi, P.H.; Kretchmer, J.; Ghezzo, M.

    1997-12-01

    In this article, the results on N and Al implantations into undoped high-resistance and vanadium doped semi-insulating bulk 6H-SiC are reported for the first time. The N implants were performed at 700{degree}C and the Al implants at 800{degree}C to create n- and p-type layers, respectively. For comparison, implants were performed into epitaxial layers at the above temperatures and, for N, also at room temperature. The implanted/annealed material was characterized by van der Pauw Hall, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements. After annealing, the room temperature N implantation gave similar electrical and RBS results as the 700{degree}C implantation for a total implant dose of 8{times}10{sup 14}cm{sup {minus}2} which corresponds to a volume concentration of 2{times}10{sup 19}cm{sup {minus}3}. The Al implant redistributed in the bulk crystals during annealing, resulting in a shoulder formation at the tail of the implant profile. Lower implant activation was obtained in V-doped material compared to the undoped bulk and epitaxial layers, but the results were promising enough to use implantation technology for making planar high frequency devices in the bulk V-doped substrates, especially as the quality of the substrates continue to improve. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Hair implant complications.

    PubMed

    Hanke, C W; Norins, A L; Pantzer, J G; Bennett, J E

    1981-04-01

    Four men who underwent hair implantation for pattern baldness were treated for complications such as infection, foreign-body reaction, pruritus, and scarring. The complications were similar to those reported with synthetic modacrylic fiber implants that have been used for the same purpose. Although we believe this is the first article to report complications from hair implants, the illogical basis of the procedure suggests that complications will occur in many unsuspecting patients who undergo hair implantation. PMID:7009899

  18. Accelerating degradation rate of pure iron by zinc ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Pure iron has been considered as a promising candidate for biodegradable implant applications. However, a faster degradation rate of pure iron is needed to meet the clinical requirement. In this work, metal vapor vacuum arc technology was adopted to implant zinc ions into the surface of pure iron. Results showed that the implantation depth of zinc ions was about 60 nm. The degradation rate of pure iron was found to be accelerated after zinc ion implantation. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the implanted zinc ions brought a slight increase on cytotoxicity of the tested cells. In terms of hemocompatibility, the hemolysis of zinc ion implanted pure iron was lower than 2%. However, zinc ions might induce more adhered and activated platelets on the surface of pure iron. Overall, zinc ion implantation can be a feasible way to accelerate the degradation rate of pure iron for biodegradable applications. PMID:27482462

  19. Physical understanding of cryogenic implant benefits for electrical junction stability

    SciTech Connect

    Adeni Khaja, Fareen; Colombeau, Benjamin; Thanigaivelan, Thirumal; Ramappa, Deepak; Henry, Todd

    2012-03-12

    We investigate the effect of cryogenic temperature implants on electrical junction stability for ultra shallow junction applications for sub-32 nm technology nodes and beyond. A comprehensive study was conducted to gain physical understanding of the impact of cryogenic temperature implants on dopant-defect interactions. Carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) molecule, a potential alternative to monomer boron was implanted in carbon preamorphized silicon substrates at cryogenic implant temperatures. Results indicate implants at cryogenic temperatures increase dopant activation with reduced diffusion, resulting in lower sheet resistance for a lower junction depth. Further, this study emphasizes the benefits of co-implants performed at cryogenic temperatures as alternative to traditional preamorphizing implants.

  20. Accelerating degradation rate of pure iron by zinc ion implantation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Pure iron has been considered as a promising candidate for biodegradable implant applications. However, a faster degradation rate of pure iron is needed to meet the clinical requirement. In this work, metal vapor vacuum arc technology was adopted to implant zinc ions into the surface of pure iron. Results showed that the implantation depth of zinc ions was about 60 nm. The degradation rate of pure iron was found to be accelerated after zinc ion implantation. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the implanted zinc ions brought a slight increase on cytotoxicity of the tested cells. In terms of hemocompatibility, the hemolysis of zinc ion implanted pure iron was lower than 2%. However, zinc ions might induce more adhered and activated platelets on the surface of pure iron. Overall, zinc ion implantation can be a feasible way to accelerate the degradation rate of pure iron for biodegradable applications. PMID:27482462

  1. CAD/CAM guided surgery in implant dentistry: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Parciak, Ewa; Puri, Shweta; Scherer, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Advanced imaging and CAD/CAM technologies and their applications in enhancing treatment outcomes in implant dentistry have gained widespread interest. Guided implant surgery utilizing these advanced technologies has significant applications in implant dentistry. This article provides information on some of the perceived advantages and disadvantages for planning guided versus conventional implant surgery as well as basic steps involved in the fabrication of guided surgical templates (GST). PMID:24881444

  2. Using Clinical Decision Support and Dashboard Technology to Improve Heart Team Efficiency and Accuracy in a Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) Program.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sarah; Wilson, Marisa L; Terhaar, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Heart Team meetings are becoming the model of care for patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI) worldwide. While Heart Teams have potential to improve the quality of patient care, the volume of patient data processed during the meeting is large, variable, and comes from different sources. Thus, consolidation is difficult. Also, meetings impose substantial time constraints on the members and financial pressure on the institution. We describe a clinical decision support system (CDSS) designed to assist the experts in treatment selection decisions in the Heart Team. Development of the algorithms and visualization strategy required a multifaceted approach and end-user involvement. An innovative feature is its ability to utilize algorithms to consolidate data and provide clinically useful information to inform the treatment decision. The data are integrated using algorithms and rule-based alert systems to improve efficiency, accuracy, and usability. Future research should focus on determining if this CDSS improves patient selection and patient outcomes. PMID:27332170

  3. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management. PMID:15247993

  4. Parents' narratives on cochlear implantation: reconstructing the experience of having a child with cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, Augusto; Suárez, Roberto M; Niño, Natalia M; Aparicio, Maria Leonor; García, Juan Manuel; Barón, Clemencia

    2011-08-01

    This paper discusses parents' narratives on cochlear implantation in Bogotá, Colombia using a qualitative approach. The main research objective was to identify how parents perceived the processes of diagnosis of their child's hearing loss, making the decision for cochlear implantation and the post-surgery period. All participants were hearing couples (n = 13) with similar socio-cultural backgrounds whose children had undergone cochlear implant surgery. Results show why cochlear implants are a very highly valued technological device with great symbolic power for parents. The study also deals with how perceptions about oral/sign language and disability, as well as social expectations for their children's lifetime opportunities, determine how the parents themselves have experienced their journey through the process of their children's cochlear implantation. PMID:21917202

  5. Biomedical Imaging in Implantable Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haoyan; Hernandez, Christopher; Goss, Monika; Gawlik, Anna; Exner, Agata A.

    2015-01-01

    Implantable drug delivery systems (DDS) provide a platform for sustained release of therapeutic agents over a period of weeks to months and sometimes years. Such strategies are typically used clinically to increase patient compliance by replacing frequent administration of drugs such as contraceptives and hormones to maintain plasma concentration within the therapeutic window. Implantable or injectable systems have also been investigated as a means of local drug administration which favors high drug concentration at a site of interest, such as a tumor, while reducing systemic drug exposure to minimize unwanted side effects. Significant advances in the field of local DDS have led to increasingly sophisticated technology with new challenges including quantification of local and systemic pharmacokinetics and implant-body interactions. Because many of these sought-after parameters are highly dependent on the tissue properties at the implantation site, and rarely represented adequately with in vitro models, new nondestructive techniques that can be used to study implants in situ are highly desirable. Versatile imaging tools can meet this need and provide quantitative data on morphological and functional aspects of implantable systems. The focus of this review article is an overview of current biomedical imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging, optical imaging, X-ray and computed tomography (CT), and their application in evaluation of implantable DDS. PMID:25418857

  6. Cone Beam Computed Tomography for the Dental Implant Patient.

    PubMed

    Klokkevold, Perry R

    2015-09-01

    Cone beam computed tomography offers many advantages over 2-D imaging for the evaluation of potential implant sites. With the use of CBCT scans becoming more commonplace, it is important for clinicians to be knowledgeable and to use this new technology appropriately and judiciously. The purpose of this article is to describe the advantages and limitations of CBCT imaging for the presurgical and postsurgical evaluations of implant treatment and assessment of implant-related complications. PMID:26820009

  7. Nanotechnology Approaches for Better Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Tomsia, Antoni P.; Launey, Maximilien E.; Lee, Janice S.; Mankani, Mahesh H.; Wegst, Ulrike G.K.; Saiz, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The combined requirements imposed by the enormous scale and overall complexity of designing new implants or complete organ regeneration are well beyond the reach of present technology in many dimensions, including nanoscale, as we do not yet have the basic knowledge required to achieve these goals. The need for a synthetic implant to address multiple physical and biological factors imposes tremendous constraints on the choice of suitable materials. There is a strong belief that nanoscale materials will produce a new generation of implant materials with high efficiency, low cost, and high volume. The nanoscale in materials processing is truly a new frontier. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades but they have serious shortcomings related to their osseointegration and the fact that their mechanical properties do not match those of bone. This paper reviews recent advances in the fabrication of novel coatings and nanopatterning of dental implants. It also provides a general summary of the state of the art in dental implant science and describes possible advantages of nanotechnology for further improvements. The ultimate goal is to produce materials and therapies that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and improve quality of life and current standards of care. PMID:21464998

  8. ReProTool Version 2.0: Re-Engineering Academic Curriculum Using Learning Outcomes, ECTS and Bologna Process Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouyioutas, Philippos; Gjermundrod, Harald; Dionysiou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present ReProTool Version 2.0, a software tool that is used for the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) and the Bologna Process re-engineering of academic programmes. The tool is the result of an 18 months project (February 2012-July 2013) project, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund…

  9. Combining Peer-Assessment with Negotiated Learning Activities on a Day-Release Undergraduate-Level Certificate Course (ECTS Level 3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Peer-assessment was used within a negotiated curriculum in a module on training and development at ECTS level 3. The students on the programme were exclusively day-release and all had a major responsibility for the management and delivery of work-based training programmes. Analysis of student evaluations, supplemented by those of university…

  10. Miniaturized neural interfaces and implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas; Boretius, Tim; Ordonez, Juan; Hassler, Christina; Henle, Christian; Meier, Wolfgang; Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Schuettler, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Neural prostheses are technical systems that interface nerves to treat the symptoms of neurological diseases and to restore sensory of motor functions of the body. Success stories have been written with the cochlear implant to restore hearing, with spinal cord stimulators to treat chronic pain as well as urge incontinence, and with deep brain stimulators in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Highly complex neural implants for novel medical applications can be miniaturized either by means of precision mechanics technologies using known and established materials for electrodes, cables, and hermetic packages or by applying microsystems technologies. Examples for both approaches will be introduced and discussed. Electrode arrays for recording of electrocorticograms during presurgical epilepsy diagnosis have been manufactured using approved materials and a marking laser to achieve an integration density that is adequate in the context of brain machine interfaces, e.g. on the motor cortex. Microtechnologies have to be used for further miniaturization to develop polymer-based flexible and light weighted electrode arrays to interface the peripheral and central nervous system. Polyimide as substrate and insulation material will be discussed as well as several application examples for nerve interfaces like cuffs, filament like electrodes and large arrays for subdural implantation.

  11. Peri-implant soft tissue management: Where are we?

    PubMed

    Bhatavadekar, Neel

    2012-10-01

    Dental implants have evolved dramatically over the last decade, and so have our expectations from them in terms of functional and esthetic criteria. The maintenance and augmentation of the soft tissue has emerged as an area of concern and focus. The triad of anatomical peri-implant characteristics, soft tissue response to the implant material, and clinical skill form the fundamental principles in augmenting soft tissue. However, as clinicians, where are we with regards to the ability to augment and maintain soft tissue around dental implants, about 40 years after the first implants were placed? We now understand that peri-implant soft tissue management begins with extraction management. Our treatment modalities have evolved from socket compression post-extraction, to socket preservation with an aim to enhance the eventual peri-implant soft tissue. This short communication will assess the evolution of our thought regarding peri-implant soft tissue management, augmentation of keratinized mucosa around implants, and also look at some recent techniques including the rotated pedicle connective tissue graft for enhancing inter-implant papilla architecture. With newer research modalities, such as cyto-detachment technology, and cutting-edge bioengineering solutions (possibly a soft-tissue-implant construct) which might be available in the near future for enhancing soft tissue, we are certainly in an exciting era in dentistry. PMID:23493178

  12. Silicone breast implant materials.

    PubMed

    Daniels, A U

    2012-01-01

    This opinion article has been written on request because of the recent public controversy over silicone breast implants produced by a now-defunct company, Poly Implant Prosthese (PIP) in France. More than 300,000 PIP devices have been implanted. The purposes of my article are to (1.) provide a general overview of silicone breast implant materials, (2.) to describe the general safety of these materials as reported to date, and (3.) to summarise current publicly available information about these aspects of the PIP prostheses. The materials covered are the silicone rubber from which the implant shells are made and the silicone gel used to fill the shell. The materials safety issues are biocompatibility (especially of the gel) and biodurability of the shell. The literature reviewed indicates that biocompatibility is not an issue with other current generation implants. However, biodurability is. A rough estimate of implant shell rupture rate is ~10+% at 10 years. Information is still emerging about the PIP implants. Initial regulatory disclosures suggest the PIP implants may have both biocompatibility and biodurability problems. They also suggest that PIP implants may have been produced using silicone materials not certified as medical grade. Governmental health and regulatory agencies are just now in the process of deciding what actions should be taken to protect patients. PMID:22826101

  13. Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Allen, M

    2006-09-01

    An increasing number of patients are now treated cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators and the technology of these is constantly changing. It is vital to have a good understanding of how they function and what the real risks are. Understanding how the device should work when functioning normally, and the possible effects of electromagnetic interference, is paramount to their safe management in the peri-operative period. Knowing when a device should be disabled or reprogrammed requires careful consideration. Information from the patient's pacemaker clinic should be sought whenever possible and can be invaluable. In addition, the Medicines Healthcare products Regulatory Agency have published the first set of UK guidelines on the management of implantable devices in the presence of surgical diathermy and this will undoubtedly provide a firm foundation on which anaesthetists can base much of their practice. PMID:16922756

  14. Larynx: implants and stents

    PubMed Central

    Sittel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In the human larynx, implants a primarily used for the correction of glottis insufficiency. In a broader sense laryngeal stents may be considered as implants as well. Laryngeal implants can be differentiated into injectable and solid. The most important representatives of both groups are discussed in detail along with the respective technique of application. Laryngeal stents are primarily used perioperatively. Different types and their use are presented. PMID:22073097

  15. Implants in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rohit A.; Mitra, Dipika K.; Rodrigues, Silvia V.; Pathare, Pragalbha N.; Podar, Rajesh S.; Vijayakar, Harshad N.

    2013-01-01

    Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature. PMID:24174743

  16. Success of children with cochlear implants in mainstream educational settings.

    PubMed

    Nevins, M E; Chute, P M

    1995-09-01

    The availability of cochlear implant technology has made mainstreaming a more reachable social and academic goal for profoundly deaf children. Traditionally, the profoundly deaf child has required more self-contained education. It has been the hard-of-hearing child who reached the mainstream education classroom during the elementary years. Cochlear implant recipients, implanted early and receiving appropriate educational services that maximize learning across all domains, have shown a significant trend toward moving from a more self-contained to a less restrictive educational environment. Children with implants are making these transitions earlier than the larger majority of profoundly deaf children using traditional amplification. PMID:7668592

  17. Music perception with cochlear implants: a review.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Hugh J

    2004-01-01

    The acceptance of cochlear implantation as an effective and safe treatment for deafness has increased steadily over the past quarter century. The earliest devices were the first implanted prostheses found to be successful in compensating partially for lost sensory function by direct electrical stimulation of nerves. Initially, the main intention was to provide limited auditory sensations to people with profound or total sensorineural hearing impairment in both ears. Although the first cochlear implants aimed to provide patients with little more than awareness of environmental sounds and some cues to assist visual speech-reading, the technology has advanced rapidly. Currently, most people with modern cochlear implant systems can understand speech using the device alone, at least in favorable listening conditions. In recent years, an increasing research effort has been directed towards implant users' perception of nonspeech sounds, especially music. This paper reviews that research, discusses the published experimental results in terms of both psychophysical observations and device function, and concludes with some practical suggestions about how perception of music might be enhanced for implant recipients in the future. The most significant findings of past research are: (1) On average, implant users perceive rhythm about as well as listeners with normal hearing; (2) Even with technically sophisticated multiple-channel sound processors, recognition of melodies, especially without rhythmic or verbal cues, is poor, with performance at little better than chance levels for many implant users; (3) Perception of timbre, which is usually evaluated by experimental procedures that require subjects to identify musical instrument sounds, is generally unsatisfactory; (4) Implant users tend to rate the quality of musical sounds as less pleasant than listeners with normal hearing; (5) Auditory training programs that have been devised specifically to provide implant users with

  18. Music Perception with Cochlear Implants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Hugh J.

    2004-01-01

    The acceptance of cochlear implantation as an effective and safe treatment for deafness has increased steadily over the past quarter century. The earliest devices were the first implanted prostheses found to be successful in compensating partially for lost sensory function by direct electrical stimulation of nerves. Initially, the main intention was to provide limited auditory sensations to people with profound or total sensorineural hearing impairment in both ears. Although the first cochlear implants aimed to provide patients with little more than awareness of environmental sounds and some cues to assist visual speech-reading, the technology has advanced rapidly. Currently, most people with modern cochlear implant systems can understand speech using the device alone, at least in favorable listening conditions. In recent years, an increasing research effort has been directed towards implant users’ perception of nonspeech sounds, especially music. This paper reviews that research, discusses the published experimental results in terms of both psychophysical observations and device function, and concludes with some practical suggestions about how perception of music might be enhanced for implant recipients in the future. The most significant findings of past research are: (1) On average, implant users perceive rhythm about as well as listeners with normal hearing; (2) Even with technically sophisticated multiple-channel sound processors, recognition of melodies, especially without rhythmic or verbal cues, is poor, with performance at little better than chance levels for many implant users; (3) Perception of timbre, which is usually evaluated by experimental procedures that require subjects to identify musical instrument sounds, is generally unsatisfactory; (4) Implant users tend to rate the quality of musical sounds as less pleasant than listeners with normal hearing; (5) Auditory training programs that have been devised specifically to provide implant users with

  19. Tribological performance of surfaces enhanced by texturing and nitrogen implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Derong; Zhang, Qi; Qin, Zhenbo; Luo, Qin; Wu, Zhong; Liu, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel texturing technology by means of electrodepositon is introduced. Textured surface covered with small bumps with the average size of 28 μm in diameter and 10 μm in height was fabricated. The trough around the bumps acts as the pocket to trap the debris. The nitrogen implantation was used to enhance the tribological properties of textured surfaces. The effects of implanted energy and dose on the structures of coating and tribological performances of textured surfaces were studied. The results show that the formation of Cr2N or CrN depends on the implanted dose. After nitrogen ion implantation, the friction coefficient of textured surface reduced and the wear resistance of textured surface was improved. The wear resistance enhances with increase of implanted dose, and has little to do with implanted energy.

  20. [Adjusting gingival tissues morphology after dental implantation with fibrin use].

    PubMed

    Maĭborodin, I V; Kolesnikov, I S; Sheplev, B V; Ragimova, T M; Kovyntsev, A N; Kovyntsev, D N; Shevela, A I

    2009-01-01

    In gingival tissues of 62 patients after dental implantation of traditional type and with the use of thrombocyte rich fibrin preparation (TRFP) microcirculation and leucocytal infiltration were studied. It was disclosed that in all terms after titanium screw dental implant setting lymphostasis and leucocytal infiltration were seen as signs of active inflammatory process in gingival tissues. 3 months later after implants setting with the use of TRFP the lymphatic vessels status was normalized, the degree of leucocytal infiltration was reduced; when implantation was made without use of fibrin technologies in gingival tissues more leucocytes were found and lymphatic bed components were remained dilated. Besides fibrin preparation use in the process of dental implantation promoted quicker and stronger implant fixation, but granulomatous inflammatory process could develop and amount of eosinophils in gingival tissues could also increased. PMID:19365340

  1. Ion implantations of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojak, S.; Simeg Veternikova, J.; Slugen, V.; Petriska, M.; Stacho, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on a study of radiation damage and thermal stability of high chromium oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA 956 (20% Cr), which belongs to the most perspective structural materials for the newest generation of nuclear reactors - Generation IV. The radiation damage was simulated by the implantation of hydrogen ions up to the depth of about 5 μm, which was performed at a linear accelerator owned by Slovak University of Technology. The ODS steel MA 956 was available for study in as-received state after different thermal treatments as well as in ions implanted state. Energy of the hydrogen ions chosen for the implantation was 800 keV and the implantation fluence of 6.24 × 1017 ions/cm2. The investigated specimens were measured by non-destructive technique Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy in order to study the defect behavior after different thermal treatments in the as-received state and after the hydrogen ions implantation. Although, different resistance to defect production was observed in individual specimens of MA 956 during the irradiation, all implanted specimens contain larger defects than the ones in as-received state.

  2. NASA's RBSP-ECT Science Investigation of the Van Allen Probes Mission: Highlights of the Prime Mission Phase, Data Access Overview, and Opportunities to Collaborate in the Extended Mission Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. S.; Friedel, R. H.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    In this poster, we present a summary of access to the data products of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes - Energetic Particle Composition, and Thermal plasma (RBSP-ECT) suite of NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT science investigation (http://rbsp-ect.sr.unh.edu) measures comprehensively the near-Earth charged particle environment in order to understand the processes that control the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions. RBSP-ECT data products derive from the three instrument elements that comprise the suite, which collectively covers the broad energies that define the source and seed populations, the core radiation belts, and also their highest energy ultra-relativistic extensions. These RBSP-ECT instruments include, from lowest to highest energies: the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) sensor, the Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), and the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT). We provide a brief overview of their principles of operation, as well as a description of the Level 2-3 data products that the HOPE, MagEIS, and REPT instruments produce, both separately and together. We provide a summary of how to access these RBSP-ECT data products at our Science Operation Center and Science Data Center (http://www.rbsp-ect.lanl.gov/rbsp_ect.php ) as well as caveats for their use. Finally, in the spirit of efficiently and effectively promoting and encouraging new collaborations, we present a summary of past publications, current studies, and opportunities for your future participation in RBSP-ECT extended mission phase science.

  3. NASA's Van Allen Probes RBSP-ECT Data Products and Access to Them: An Insider's Outlook on the Inner and Outer Belts (and We Don't Mean the Nation's Beltway...)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. S.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Henderson, M. G.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    In this poster, we present a summary of access to the data products of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes - Energetic Particle Composition, and Thermal plasma (RBSP-ECT) suite of NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT science investigation (http://rbsp-ect.sr.unh.edu) measures comprehensively the near-Earth charged particle environment in order to understand the processes that control the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions. RBSP-ECT data products derive from the three instrument elements that comprise the suite, which collectively covers the broad energies that define the source and seed populations, the core radiation belts, and also their highest energy ultra-relativistic extensions. These RBSP-ECT instruments include, from lowest to highest energies: the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) sensor, the Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), and the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT). We provide a brief overview of their principles of operation, as well as a description of the Level 1-3 data products that the HOPE, MagEIS, and REPT instruments produce, both separately and together. We provide a summary of how to access these RBSP-ECT data products at our Science Operation Center and Science Data Center (http://www.rbsp-ect.lanl.gov/rbsp_ect.php ) as well as caveats for their use. Finally, in the spirit of efficiently and effectively promoting and encouraging new collaborations, we present a summary of past publications, current studies, and opportunities for your future participation in RBSP-ECT science analyses.

  4. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  5. Gold bead implants.

    PubMed

    Durkes, T E

    1992-03-01

    Gold bead implantation is an experimental area of study in the acupuncture field dealing with chronic diseases. Special acupuncture techniques are required to implant the gold beads successfully in the proper location. Gold beads are used to treat degenerative joint disease, osteochondritis, osteochondritis dessicans, ventral spondylosis, and seizures. PMID:1581658

  6. Implantable, Ingestible Electronic Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard

    1987-01-01

    Small quartz-crystal-controlled oscillator swallowed or surgically implanted provides continuous monitoring of patient's internal temperature. Receiver placed near patient measures oscillator frequency, and temperature inferred from previously determined variation of frequency with temperature. Frequency of crystal-controlled oscillator varies with temperature. Circuit made very small and implanted or ingested to measure internal body temperature.

  7. Synthetic facial implants.

    PubMed

    Quatela, Vito C; Chow, Jen

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a range of synthetic implant materials for use in facial plastic surgery. The authors discuss alternatives to autogenous tissue transfer in terms of biocompatibility, technique, complications, controversies, and cautions. The reader is presented information about a range of synthetic implant materials such as silicone, polyester fiber, polyamide mesh, metal, polyethylene, polyacrylamide gel, hydroxyapatite, polylactic acid, collagen, and others. PMID:18063244

  8. Smoking and dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Kasat, V.; Ladda, R.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a prevalent behaviour in the population. The aim of this review is to bring to light the effects of smoking on dental implants. These facts will assist dental professionals when implants are planned in tobacco users. A search of “PubMed” was made with the key words “dental implant,” “nicotine,” “smoking,” “tobacco,” and “osseointegration.” Also, publications on tobacco control by the Government of India were considered. For review, only those articles published from 1988 onward in English language were selected. Smoking has its influence on general as well as oral health of an individual. Tobacco negatively affects the outcome of almost all therapeutic procedures performed in the oral cavity. The failure rate of implant osseointegration is considerably higher among smokers, and maintenance of oral hygiene around the implants and the risk of peri-implantitis are adversely affected by smoking. To increase implant survival in smokers, various protocols have been recommended. Although osseointegrated dental implants have become the state of the art for tooth replacement, they are not without limitations or complications. In this litigious era, it is extremely important that the practitioner clearly understands and is able and willing to convey the spectrum of possible complications and their frequency to the patients. PMID:24478965

  9. Batteryless implanted echosonometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    Miniature ultrasonic echosonometer implanted within laboratory animals obtains energy from RF power oscillator that is electronically transduced via induction loop to power receiving loop located just under animal's skin. Method of powering device offers significant advantages over those in which battery is part of implanted package.

  10. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented. PMID:22291554