Science.gov

Sample records for tejidos vegetales sensibles

  1. Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Bioespecímenes de calidad son un recurso de investigación oncológica. Uno de los programas de bioespecímenes que han operado por más tiempo es la Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano, ara descubrimientos básicos e investigación inicial de transferencia.

  2. Constructive Memory for Bizarre and Sensible Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Paula T.; Ellis, Henry C.

    1979-01-01

    Two experiments examined subjects' ability to recognize or to recall sensible, interrelated sentences, with or without added bizarre sentences, either immediately or after two weeks. Results suggested that processing bizarre information can lead to more accurate recognition and recall of the sensible context. (Author/MH)

  3. Epistemic Sensibility: Third Dimension of Virtue Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belbase, Shashidhar

    2012-01-01

    The author tries to argue how epistemic sensibility as virtue sensibility can complement virtue epistemology. Many philosophers interrelated virtue reliabilism (e.g., Brogaard, 2006) and virtue responsibilism (e.g., Code, 1987) to virtue epistemology as two dimensions with many diverging and a few converging characters. The possible new dimension…

  4. Direct computation of the sensible heat flux.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1980-01-01

    An algorithm to determine the sensible heat flux from simple field measurements (wind speed, air and ground temperatures) has been developed. It provides a direct solution, in parametric form, which can be displayed graphically or tabularly. -from Author

  5. Sarcoma de tejido blando—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del sarcoma de tejido blando, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Indigenous Metissage: A Decolonizing Research Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donald, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report on the theoretical origins of a decolonizing research sensibility called Indigenous Metissage. This research praxis emerged parallel to personal and ongoing inquiries into historic and current relations connecting Aboriginal peoples and Canadians in the place now called Canada. I frame the colonial frontier origins of these…

  7. Students' Conceptions of Mathematics as Sensible (SCOMAS) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Maureen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the development of the Students' Conceptions of Mathematics as Sensible (SCOMAS) Framework and its application to the study of the conceptions of mathematics as sensible of students in a secondary mathematics classroom. The SCOMAS Framework begins with indicators that students conceive of mathematics as sensible and provides a…

  8. Latent and sensible heat flux estimated from ERS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacobellis, S. F.; Gautier, C.

    1993-01-01

    Two issues regarding surface latent and sensible heat flux are addressed: its value in low wind speed conditions over the tropical oceans,and its determination solely from satellite observations. The investigation is performed with an oceanic mixed layer model operated in an 'inverse' mode. The 'normal' model is forced with the surface heat and radiative fluxes and produces the SST evolution, whereas the 'inverse' model produces the latent sensible heat flux given the SST and surface radiative flux as input. The results indicate that at low wind speeds there exists a minimum latent sensible heat flux of about 80 to 100 W/sq m. Sensitivity studies show that the latent sensible heat flux is very sensitive to random errors in the forcing SST time series. The implications of this strong sensitivity in regards to the use of satellite measurements to supply the forcing SST are discussed.

  9. Heat pipe cooling system with sensible heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1988-01-01

    A heat pipe cooling system which employs a sensible heat sink is discussed. With this type of system, incident aerodynamic heat is transported via a heat pipe from the stagnation region to the heat sink and absorbed by raising the temperature of the heat sink material. The use of a sensible heat sink can be advantageous for situations where the total mission heat load is limited, as it is during re-entry, and a suitable radiation sink is not available.

  10. Human Sensibility Ergonomics Approach to Vehicle Simulator Based on Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Kwon; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Yoon, Ji-Sup

    Simulators have been used to evaluate drivers' reactions to various transportation products. Most research, however, has concentrated on their technical performance. This paper considers driver's motion perception on a vehicle simulator through the analysis of human sensibility ergonomics. A sensibility ergonomic method is proposed in order to improve the reliability of vehicle simulators. A simulator in a passenger vehicle consists of three main modules such as vehicle dynamics, virtual environment, and motion representation modules. To evaluate drivers' feedback, human perceptions are categorized into a set verbal expressions collected and investigated to find the most appropriate ones for translation and angular accelerations of the simulator. The cut-off frequency of the washout filter in the representation module is selected as one sensibility factor. Sensibility experiments were carried out to find a correlation between the expressions and the cut-off frequency of the filter. This study suggests a methodology to obtain an ergonomic database that can be applied to the sensibility evaluation of dynamic simulators.

  11. Sensible heat receiver for solar dynamic space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Gaier, James R.; Petrefski, Chris

    1991-01-01

    A sensible heat receiver considered in this study uses a vapor grown carbon fiber-carbon (VGCF/C) composite as the thermal storage media and was designed for a 7 kW Brayton engine. The proposed heat receiver stores the required energy to power the system during eclipse in the VGCF/C composite. The heat receiver thermal analysis was conducted through the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer and Fluid Integrator (SINDA) software package. The sensible heat receiver compares well with other latent and advanced sensible heat receivers analyzed in other studies while avoiding the problems associated with latent heat storage salts and liquid metal heat pipes. The concept also satisfies the design requirements for a 7 kW Brayton engine system. The weight and size of the system can be optimized by changes in geometry and technology advances for this new material.

  12. Sensible heat receiver for solar dynamic space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Gaier, James R.; Petrefski, Chris

    1991-01-01

    A sensible heat receiver is considered which uses a vapor grown carbon fiber-carbon (VGCF/C) composite as the thermal storage medium and which was designed for a 7-kW Brayton engine. This heat receiver stores the required energy to power the system during eclipse in the VGCF/C composite. The heat receiver thermal analysis was conducted through the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer and Fluid Integrator (SINDA) software package. The sensible heat receiver compares well with other latent and advanced sensible heat receivers analyzed in other studies, while avoiding the problems associated with latent heat storage salts and liquid metal heat pipes. The concept also satisfies the design requirements for a 7-kW Brayton engine system. The weight and size of the system can be optimized by changes in geometry and technology advances for this new material.

  13. Sarcoma de tejido blando—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del sarcoma de tejido blando, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  14. Building Awareness of Dispositions: Enhancing Moral Sensibilities in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schussler, Deborah L.; Knarr, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain why and how dispositions can operate as a mechanism for enhancing teacher candidates' moral sensibilities. Dispositions conjoin the knowledge and skills of teaching with the commitments one has to achieve intended purposes. Dispositions build candidates' awareness of their own perceptions (and…

  15. Bringing an Ethnographic Sensibility to Service-Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polin, Deborah Keisch; Keene, Arthur S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the methodological implications of applying an ethnographic sensibility to evaluation in service-learning. It describes the evolution of such a method over the past 10 years within the Citizen Scholars Program at the University of Massachusetts, and outlines what we have learned from employing this method, as well as the…

  16. What Develops in Moral Development? A Model of Moral Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherblom, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The field of moral psychology would benefit from an integrative model of what develops in moral development, contextualized within the larger scope of social science research. Moral sensibility is proposed as the best concept to embody stated aims, but the content of this concept must be more finely articulated and conceptualized as a dynamic…

  17. Estimation of wet surface evaporation from sensible heat flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercauteren, Nikki; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Huwald, Hendrik; Parlange, Marc B.; Brutsaert, Wilfried

    2009-06-01

    A new method is proposed to estimate wet surface evaporation by means of measurements of sensible heat flux and of air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed at one level only. This formulation is made possible by the linearization of the Bowen ratio, a common assumption in other methods, such as Penman's model and its derivatives. The method will be useful in those cases where the sensible heat flux is more reliably acquired at field scales than the net radiation and the ground heat flux, which are needed in many operational methods because of energy budget considerations. Indeed, the ground heat flux is a notoriously difficult variable to measure on wet surfaces, such as lakes or wetlands, especially at the appropriate length scales, whereas sensible heat flux can be obtained from standard temperature variance methods or other instruments such as scintillometers. The proposed method was tested with field experimental data taken over Lake Geneva in Switzerland, where it showed excellent agreement with evaporation rates measured using eddy covariance techniques.

  18. Influence of Surface Sensible Heat Flux on Incipient Marine Cyclogenesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Mankin

    1998-03-01

    Incipient marine cyclogenesis is investigated as an instability process of a mean baroclinic state with a vertically nonuniform static stability under the influence of a self-induced surface sensible heat flux in the context of a quasigeostrophic model framework. The analytic solution of such a model is first presented. The surface sensible heat flux induces strongly unstable short waves in the meso- range and an e-folding time of the order of one day under supposedly relevant parameter conditions. Those modes have a shallow vertical structure near the surface with a pronounced westward tilt with height. The latter facilitates a release of enough potential energy from the basic state to overcompensate the destruction of potential energy by the surface heat exchange itself. The diabatic destabilization by surface sensible heat flux is therefore an alternative mechanism for initiating small marine cyclones without upper-level forcing.A potential vorticity interpretation of this instability process is also given. A supplementary numerical analysis confirms that the meso- unstable waves are robust because they exist when various combinations of low-level static stability and heating profiles are used. The dependence upon the heating profile is somewhat stronger, capable of inducing an additional set of unstable modes between the meso- and synoptic-scale ranges when it increases substantially with height near the surface.

  19. Advanced sensible heat solar receiver for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Timothy J.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis, through in-house efforts, has begun a study to generate a conceptual design of a sensible heat solar receiver and to determine the feasibility of such a system for space power applications. The sensible heat solar receiver generated in this study uses pure lithium as the thermal storage medium and was designed for a 7 kWe Brayton (PCS) operating at 1100 K. The receiver consists of two stages interconnected via temperature sensing variable conductance sodium heat pipes. The lithium is contained within a niobium vessel and the outer shell of the receiver is constructed of third generation rigid, fibrous ceramic insulation material. Reradiation losses are controlled with niobium and aluminum shields. By nature of design, the sensible heat receiver generated in this study is comparable in both size and mass to a latent heat system of similar thermal capacitance. The heat receiver design and thermal analysis was conducted through the combined use of PATRAN, SINDA, TRASYS, and NASTRAN software packages.

  20. Advanced sensible heat solar receiver for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Timothy J.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis, through in-house efforts, has begun a study to generate a conceptual design of a sensible heat solar receiver and to determine the feasibility of such a system for space power applications. The sensible heat solar receiver generated in this study uses pure lithium as the thermal storage medium and was designed for a 7 kWe Brayton (PCS) operating at 1100 K. The receiver consists of two stages interconnected via temperature sensing variable conductance sodium heat pipes. The lithium is contained within a niobium vessel and the outer shell of the receiver is constructed of third generation rigid, fibrous ceramic insulation material. Reradiation losses are controlled with niobium and aluminum shields. By nature of design, the sensible heat receiver generated in this study is comparable in both size and mass to a latent heat system of similar thermal capacitance. The heat receiver design and thermal analysis were conducted through the combined use of PATRAN, SINDA, TRASYS, and NASTRAN software packages.

  1. Sensible Quantum Mechanics:. are Probabilities Only in the Mind?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Don N.

    Quantum mechanics may be formulated as Sensible Quantum Mechanics (SQM) so that it contains nothing probabilistic except conscious perceptions. Sets of these perceptions can be deterministically realized with measures given by expectation values of positive-operator-valued awareness operators. Ratios of the measures for these sets of perceptions can be interpreted as frequency-type probabilities for many actually existing sets. These probabilities generally cannot be given by the ordinary quantum probabilities for a single set of alternatives. Probabilism, or ascribing probabilities to unconscious aspects of the world, may be seen to be an aesthemamorphic myth.

  2. Early use of artificial sensibility in hand transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lanzetta, Marco; Perani, Daniela; Anchisi, Davide; Rosén, Birgitta; Danna, Massimo; Scifo, Paola; Fazio, Ferruccio; Lundborg, Göran

    2004-01-01

    Hands were transplanted from brain-dead donors for the treatment of two male unilateral amputees, aged 35 years and 32 years, involved in the Italian Hand Transplantation Programme. Each had lost his right dominant hand, in a farming accident and an explosion, respectively. In one case artificial sensibility was applied postoperatively using a Sensor Glove that transformed vibrotactile stimuli induced by touch, to stereophonic vibroacoustic stimuli perceived through earphones. The principle is based on the brain's capacity for multimodal plasticity, implying that deprivation of one sense (somatosensory) can be compensated for by another sense (auditory). Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) taken at regular intervals showed that cortical remodelling of the transplanted hand within the sensory-motor maps occurred early in the patient who used the artificial sensibility regimen compared with the one who did not. We conclude that postoperative use of a device using hearing as a substitution for sensation in hand transplantation may have considerable potential value for speeding up cortical integration of a transplanted hand. PMID:15202668

  3. Estimation of sensible heat flux from remotely sensed canopy temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, R. C.; Blad, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Temperatures of tallgrass priarie vegetation were measured with infrared thermometers (IRT) at different view zenith and azimuth angles. The optimum IRT view zenith angle for estimating sensible heat fluxes (H) was determined by comparing H estimated with eddy correlation and/or Bowen ratio techniques to H calculated by a method suggested by Hatfield et al. (1984). For wind speeds of 5 m/s or greater, H estimated with surface temperatures measured at a 0 deg or 20 deg view zenith angle gave the best agreement, but for wind speeds of less than 4 m/s the best estimate of H was made with surface temperatures measured at a 40 deg or 60 deg view zenith angle.

  4. Rainfall droplet size distributions (DSD) parameterization: physics and sensibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, M. A.; Machado, L.

    2014-12-01

    The CHUVA project (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)) is a Brazillian experiment that aims to understand the several cloud processes that occur in different precipitating regimes. At present, the CHUVA project has conducted 6 field campaigns, the last one being in Manaus jointly with GoAmazon, IARA and ACRIDICON. The main focus of the present study is to bring into perspective the different characteristics of precipitation that reaches the surface in Brazil over several locations. To do so, disdrometer data is analyzed in detail, employing a Gamma fit for each DSD measurement which provides the respective parameters to be studied. Those are disposed in a 3D space, each axis corresponding to one parameter, and the patterns are analyzed. A correlation between the Gamma parameters is defined as a parametric surface that fits the observations with errors smaller than 10% and R2 greater than 0.95. In this way, one parameter can be estimated with respect to the other two, reducing the degrees of freedom of the problem from 3 to 2. As the 3 parameters are defined over this surface, it's possible to obtain a surface representing integral DSD properties such as rainfall intensity (RI). Sensibilities tests are conducted on this estimation and also on other DSD characteristics such as total droplet concentrations and mean mass-weighted diameter. It's shown that the DSD integral properties are generally very sensitive to the Gamma parameters. Nonetheless, the sensibility varies over the surface, being higher in a region where the parameters are not balanced (i.e. a relatively high value in one parameter and low values on the other two). It's suggested that any study proposing parameterization/estimation of DSD properties should be aware of this region of high sensitivity. To further the collaboration with GoAmazon and ACRIDICON, the disdrometer results regarding rainfall droplets are compared against in-situ cloud DSDs. The same 3D pattern recognition on the parameters is conducted and discussed, highlighting the effects of aerosol particles on the DSD characteristics.

  5. Sensible and latent heat flux estimates in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, Charles R.; Weidner, George A.

    1993-01-01

    The assumption has been made that the net annual contribution of water by the processes of deposition and sublimation to the Antarctic Ice Sheet is zero. The U.S. Antarctic Program started installing reliable automatic weather stations on the Antarctic Continent in 1980. The initial units were equipped to measure wind speed, wind direction, air pressure, and air temperature. During the 1983-1984 field season in Antarctica, three units were installed that measured a vertical air temperature difference between the nominal heights of 0.5 m and 3.0 m and relative humidity at a nominal height of 3 m. The measurements of the vertical air temperature difference and the relative humidity are the minimum required to estimate the sensible and latent heat fluxes to the air, while not exceeding the available energy requirements for the weather stations. The estimates of the net annual sublimation and deposition on the Ross Ice Shelf amount to 20 to 80 percent of the annual accumulation. We conclude that the assumption that annual sublimation and deposition are zero is not valid under Antarctic conditions.

  6. Anterior insular cortex mediates bodily sensibility and social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Midori; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Umeda, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Studies in psychiatry and cognitive neuroscience have reported an important relationship between individual interoceptive accuracy and anxiety level. This indicates that greater attention to ones bodily state may contribute to the development of intense negative emotions and anxiety disorders. We hypothesized that reactivity in the anterior insular cortex underlies the intensity of interoceptive awareness and anxiety. To elucidate this triadic mechanism, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and mediation analyses to examine the relationship between emotional disposition and activation in the anterior insular cortex while participants evaluated their own emotional and bodily states. Our results indicated that right anterior insular activation was positively correlated with individual levels of social anxiety and neuroticism and negatively correlated with agreeableness and extraversion. The results of the mediation analyses revealed that activity in the right anterior insula mediated the activity of neural correlates of interoceptive sensibility and social fear. Our findings suggest that attention to interoceptive sensation affects personality traits through how we feel emotion subjectively in various situations. PMID:22977199

  7. Sensible School-Based Evaluation: Multilevel Evaluation Systems Project. Final Deliverable--January 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Joan L.; Winters, Lynn

    A rationale for school-based evaluation, criteria for a sensible evaluation and assessment system, and a systematic process for implementing an evaluation and assessment system are presented. School-based evaluation can be used as a management tool and a means of improving aspects of teaching. Sensible evaluation must be aligned with school goals,…

  8. Artistic Sensibility in the Studio and Gallery Model: Revisiting Process and Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the cultivation of artistic sensibility and its impact on the art therapy process and product in a community mental health center. Artistic sensibility embodies the sense of self as an artist through the integration of artistic and aesthetic attributes of self and other. The formation of a gallery to exhibit patient art was…

  9. Sensible and latent heating of the atmosphere as inferred from DST-6 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, G. F.; Schubert, S. D.; Johnson, W. T.

    1979-01-01

    The average distribution of convective latent heating, boundary layer sensible heat flux, and vertical velocity are determined for the winter 1976 DST period from GLAS model diagnostics. Key features are the regions of intense latent heating over Brazil, Central Africa, and Indonesia; and the regions of strong sensible heating due to air mass modification over the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans.

  10. The normal sensibility of the hand declines with age--a proclamation for the use of delta two-point discrimination values for sensibility assessment after nerve reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Schmauss, Daniel; Finck, Tom; Megerle, Kai; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Lohmeyer, Joern A

    2014-09-01

    The scores used to evaluate sensibility after digital nerve reconstruction do not take the patient's age into consideration, although there is evidence that the outcome after digital nerve reconstruction is age-dependent. However, it is not clear if the normal sensibility of the hand is also age-dependent, as the existing studies have major limitations. We evaluated the normal sensibility of the hand in 232 patients using static and moving two-point discrimination (2PD) tests and the Semmes-Weinstein-monofilament test. We found the climax of sensibility in the third decade with age-dependent deterioration afterwards in all three tests. Mean 2PD values of the radial digital nerve of the index finger (N3) showed to be significantly lower than values of the ulnar digital nerve of the small finger (N10). To overcome shortcomings of classification systems that do not consider the patient's age and inter-individual differences, we suggest using the difference of the static 2PD values of the injured to the uninjured contralateral nerve (delta 2PD) for assessment of sensibility after digital nerve reconstruction. PMID:25400078

  11. Sensibility Threshold in Depressive and Nondepressive Patients with Chronic Orofacial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hampf, Göran; Aalberg, Veikko; Ekholm, Anita; Vikkula, Juhani

    1988-01-01

    Sensibility threshold was measured in patients with depressive and nondepressive psychiatric disorders, where both groups were suffering from chronic orofacial pain. The control patients had no pain and no signs of mental disturbance. Patients with major depressive disorders had a significantly lower sensibility threshold than patients with milder depressive disorders, while patients with milder depressive disorders had a significantly lower sensibility threshold than patients with nondepressive mental disorders. The controls had the highest sensibility threshold. Plasma, β-endorphin, cortisol and prolactin levels were also measured. The depressed patients were found to have a lower serum β-endorphin level than the nondepressive patients and the controls, although the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:19598700

  12. [Dynamics of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a temperate desert steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Yang, Fu-Lin

    2010-03-01

    This paper studied the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a temperate desert steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, based on the 2008 observation data from eddy covariance tower. The diurnal patterns of sensible and latent heat fluxes over the ecosystem were both single kurtosis, with the maximum value being 319.01 W x m(-2) (on May 30th, 2008) and 425.37 W x m(-2) (on Jun 2nd, 2008), respectively, and occurred at about 12:00-13:30 (local time), which was similar to the diurnal pattern of net radiation but lagged about one hour of the maximum net radiation. The maximum diurnal variations of monthly mean sensible and latent heat fluxes occurred in May and June, and their minimum diurnal variations occurred in January and November, respectively. There was a closer relationship between soil moisture content and precipitation. Surface soil moisture content was most sensitive to precipitation, while the moisture content in deeper soil layers had a lagged response to precipitation. The seasonal dynamics of sensible and latent heat fluxes was similar to that of net radiation, and affected by precipitation. Sensible heat flux was obviously affected by net radiation, but latent heat flux was more sensitive to precipitation and mainly controlled by soil moisture content. PMID:20560313

  13. "Lesbians are not women": feminine and lesbian sensibilities in Harmony Hammond's late-1970s sculpture.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Margo Hobbs

    2008-01-01

    Harmony Hammond's wrapped fabric sculptures are placed in context of the theories of gender and sexuality that circulated among lesbian and straight feminists at the time they were made, the late 1970s. Hammond has cited in particular Monique Wittig's novels, such as The Lesbian Body, and her essays including "The Straight Mind" where Wittig concludes that the lesbian is not a woman. The critique to which Wittig's lesbian separatism has been subjected by Judith Butler in her consideration of the appeal and limitations of essentialism also applies to Hammond's art. Hammond's use of vaginal imagery was instrumental to visualizing a lesbian sensibility, but the proposition of such a sensibility established a new problematic: a new essential category. The article concludes that because Hammond's work was produced in the context of a complex set of discourses, lesbian, feminist, and aesthetic, it resisted reduction to a singular meaning. Her sculptures avoided the pitfall of substituting one essence for another, lesbian for feminine sensibility, but activated both. The sculptures effectively queered vaginal imagery: When Hammond used vaginal imagery to represent lesbian sensibility, she subverted the equation of sex and gender and the essentialist notion of feminine sensibility. PMID:19042751

  14. [Effects of atmospheric thermally stratified condition on sensible heat within forest canopy].

    PubMed

    Diao, Yi-Wei; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Pei, Tie-Fan

    2010-01-01

    By using Eulerian second-order closure model, this paper studied the source-sink distribution and flux characteristics of sensible heat within forest canopy under atmospheric thermally stratified condition. In the daytime, a notable feature for the atmospheric stratification of forest canopy was the unstable stratification above the canopy and the stable stratification under the canopy. The changes of temperature profile indicated there was a 'hot spot' at about 2/3 of canopy height. The counter-gradient fluxes within the canopy were discovered by modeling the heat flux under weak stable atmospheric condition. Simulations of the diurnal variation of sensible heat flux were consistent with the measurements (R2 = 0.9035, P < 0.01). Adding buoyancy in the sensible heat balance equation could increase the simulation accuracy of inversion model, and improve the simulation capability for heat flux balance. PMID:20387436

  15. Sensibility in the relations and interactions of teaching and learning to be and do nursing.

    PubMed

    Terra, Marlene Gomes; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; dos Santos, Evanguelia Kotzias Atherino; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on proxemic feelings and feelings of detachment and ambiguity among professors-nurses concerning their experiences. This study aimed to reveal the meanings of sensibility held by being-professor-nurse in teaching and learning to be and do nursing. The theoretical-philosophical support is based on Merleau-Ponty's existential phenomenological approach and the hermeneutics phenomenology of Paul Ricoeur was used. Nineteen professors-nurses from a Higher Education institution in the South of Brazil were interviewed between November and December 2006. Sensibility was revealed as the capacity to observe details in order to intervene in a situation the best way possible, and also as a way to break with exclusive models of the cognitive-instrumental rationality of science and technique, since sensibility is the basis for developing other ways of teaching and learning to be and do Nursing. PMID:20549119

  16. A Bayesian approach to estimate sensible and latent heat over vegetated land surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Tol, C.; van der Tol, S.; Verhoef, A.; Su, B.; Timmermans, J.; Houldcroft, C.; Gieske, A.

    2009-06-01

    Sensible and latent heat fluxes are often calculated from bulk transfer equations combined with the energy balance. For spatial estimates of these fluxes, a combination of remotely sensed and standard meteorological data from weather stations is used. The success of this approach depends on the accuracy of the input data and on the accuracy of two variables in particular: aerodynamic and surface conductance. This paper presents a Bayesian approach to improve estimates of sensible and latent heat fluxes by using a priori estimates of aerodynamic and surface conductance alongside remote measurements of surface temperature. The method is validated for time series of half-hourly measurements in a fully grown maize field, a vineyard and a forest. It is shown that the Bayesian approach yields more accurate estimates of sensible and latent heat flux than traditional methods.

  17. EL PROTEOMA DEL TEJIDO ADIPOSO SUBCUTÁNEO MUESTRA HETEROGENEIDAD ANATÓMICA

    PubMed Central

    Martos-Moreno, G.A.; Sackmann-Sala, L.; Berryman, D.E.; Blome, D.W.; Argente, J.; Kopchick, y J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introducción El tejido adiposo blanco (TAB) subcutáneo (Sc) humano podría variar dependiendo de su localización anatómica, con diferencias en su perfil proteómico. Pacientes y métodos Se obtuvieron aspirados de TAB-Sc de seis mujeres con IMC >25 kg/m2, sometidas a liposucción. Dicho TAB-Sc se obtuvo de seis localizaciones anatómicas: abdominal superior e inferior, muslo, dorsal, flanco y cadera, analizándose su perfil proteómico mediante electroforesis bidimensional. En muslo y abdomen superior se compararon, además, las muestras obtenidas de las dos capas del TAB-Sc (profunda y superficial). Resultados Se detectaron 21 proteínas que mostraban una intensidad de expresión diferente entre las seis localizaciones anatómicas y 14 entre las capas superficial y profunda de una misma región. Entre las proteínas identificadas se incluyen: vimentina (proteína estructural); proteínas “heat-shock” (HSPs), superóxido-dismutasa, (estrés/chaperoninas); proteína fijadora de ácidos grasos 4 (FABP-4) y alfa-enolasa (metabolismo lipídico y de los hidratos de carbono, respectivamente) y ATP-sintetasa (producción de energía). Entre las regiones estudiadas, el TAB-Sc dorsal mostraba un perfil proteómico particular, con menor expresión de proteínas implicadas en la producción de energía y metabolismo (ATP-sintetasa, alfa-enolasa, HSPs y FABP-4) que el resto de regiones. Conclusiones Los niveles de expresión de diversas proteínas en el TAB-Sc humano no son homogéneos, difiriendo entre localizaciones anatómicas. Esto sugiere la existencia de diferencias funcionales en el TAB-Sc de acuerdo con su localización anatómica, lo que debe considerarse antes de asumir la extrapolación de los datos derivados del TAB-Sc de una determinada localización al de otras partes de la anatomía. PMID:23228439

  18. Numerical evaluation of a sensible heat balance method to determine rates of soil freezing and thawing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-situ determination of ice formation and thawing in soils is difficult despite its importance for many environmental processes. A sensible heat balance (SHB) method using a sequence of heat pulse probes has been shown to accurately measure water evaporation in subsurface soil, and it has the poten...

  19. "Loss and Change": Radio and the Shock to Sensibility in American Life, 1919-1924.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covert, Catherine L.

    Historians have traditionally seen the advent of radio in the United States as a signal in the early 1920s for a season of euphoria; what they have not seen is the sense of shock and loss the new technology brought. An analysis of newspaper and magazine coverage of the new medium documents the impact on American sensibilities of the new…

  20. Field test and sensitivity analysis of a sensible heat balance method to determine ice contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil ice content impacts winter vadose zone hydrology. It may be possible to estimate changes in soil ice content with a sensible heat balance (SHB) method, using measurements from heat pulse (HP) sensors. Feasibility of the SHB method is unknown because of difficulties in measuring soil thermal pro...

  1. Mean surface temperature prediction models for broiler chickens—a study of sensible heat flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; da Silva, Iran José Oliveira; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; de Castro, Ariane Cristina; Vieira, Frederico Marcio Corrêa

    2014-03-01

    Body surface temperature can be used to evaluate thermal equilibrium in animals. The bodies of broiler chickens, like those of all birds, are partially covered by feathers. Thus, the heat flow at the boundary layer between broilers' bodies and the environment differs between feathered and featherless areas. The aim of this investigation was to use linear regression models incorporating environmental parameters and age to predict the surface temperatures of the feathered and featherless areas of broiler chickens. The trial was conducted in a climate chamber, and 576 broilers were distributed in two groups. In the first trial, 288 broilers were monitored after exposure to comfortable or stressful conditions during a 6-week rearing period. Another 288 broilers were measured under the same conditions to test the predictive power of the models. Sensible heat flow was calculated, and for the regions covered by feathers, sensible heat flow was predicted based on the estimated surface temperatures. The surface temperatures of the feathered and featherless areas can be predicted based on air, black globe or operative temperatures. According to the sensible heat flow model, the broilers' ability to maintain thermal equilibrium by convection and radiation decreased during the rearing period. Sensible heat flow estimated based on estimated surface temperatures can be used to predict animal responses to comfortable and stressful conditions.

  2. Thomas Hardy's Victorian Gothic: Reassessing Hardy's Fiction and His Gothic Sensibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Norma Walrath

    Proposing that Thomas Hardy's fiction exhibits strong Gothic sensibilities which offer insight into his artistic vision and add to the power of his fiction, creating a new form of the Gothic, a Victorian Gothic, this dissertation reassesses the Gothic strains in Hardy's fiction. The dissertation is in eight chapters: (1) Introduction to Hardy's…

  3. Exploring the Distance Education Students' Cyberbullying, Cybervictimization and Cyberbullying Sensibility Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of present research is to detect cyberbullying, cybervictimization and cyberbullying sensibility levels of distance education students and analyze these levels with respect to several variables. The research has been patterned on relational screening model. Study group consisted of 297 distance education students studying at university…

  4. Impact of Dissociation and Sensible Heat Release on Pulse Detonation and Gas Turbine Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    2001-01-01

    A thermodynamic cycle analysis of the effect of sensible heat release on the relative performance of pulse detonation and gas turbine engines is presented. Dissociation losses in the PDE (Pulse Detonation Engine) are found to cause a substantial decrease in engine performance parameters.

  5. Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study: A Sensible Approach. The Bill Harp Professional Teachers Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Susan Mandel

    This concise book shares several sensible, logical, and meaningful approaches that guide young children to use the written coding system to read, spell, and make meaning of the English language coding system. The book demonstrates that phonics, spelling, and word study are essential parts of literacy learning. After an introduction, chapters are:…

  6. Sensible heat balance measurements of soil water evaporation beneath a maize canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water evaporation is an important component of the water budget in a cropped field. Few methods are available for continuous and independent measurement of soil water evaporation. A sensible heat balance (SHB) approach has recently been demonstrated for continuously determining soil water evapo...

  7. Mean surface temperature prediction models for broiler chickens-a study of sensible heat flow.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; da Silva, Iran Jos Oliveira; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; de Castro, Ariane Cristina; Vieira, Frederico Marcio Corra

    2014-03-01

    Body surface temperature can be used to evaluate thermal equilibrium in animals. The bodies of broiler chickens, like those of all birds, are partially covered by feathers. Thus, the heat flow at the boundary layer between broilers' bodies and the environment differs between feathered and featherless areas. The aim of this investigation was to use linear regression models incorporating environmental parameters and age to predict the surface temperatures of the feathered and featherless areas of broiler chickens. The trial was conducted in a climate chamber, and 576 broilers were distributed in two groups. In the first trial, 288 broilers were monitored after exposure to comfortable or stressful conditions during a 6-week rearing period. Another 288 broilers were measured under the same conditions to test the predictive power of the models. Sensible heat flow was calculated, and for the regions covered by feathers, sensible heat flow was predicted based on the estimated surface temperatures. The surface temperatures of the feathered and featherless areas can be predicted based on air, black globe or operative temperatures. According to the sensible heat flow model, the broilers' ability to maintain thermal equilibrium by convection and radiation decreased during the rearing period. Sensible heat flow estimated based on estimated surface temperatures can be used to predict animal responses to comfortable and stressful conditions. PMID:23820939

  8. The Discursive Constitution of the UK Alcohol Problem in "Safe, Sensible, Social": A Discussion of Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackley, Chris; Bengry-Howell, Andrew; Griffin, Christine; Mistral, Willm; Szmigin, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we critically reflect on the constitution of the UK's alcohol problem in the government's "Safe, Social, Sensible" policy document, referring to findings from a 3-year ESRC funded study on young people, alcohol and identity. We suggest that discursive themes running throughout "Safe, Sensible, Social" include "shared…

  9. The Discursive Constitution of the UK Alcohol Problem in "Safe, Sensible, Social": A Discussion of Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackley, Chris; Bengry-Howell, Andrew; Griffin, Christine; Mistral, Willm; Szmigin, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we critically reflect on the constitution of the UK's alcohol problem in the government's "Safe, Social, Sensible" policy document, referring to findings from a 3-year ESRC funded study on young people, alcohol and identity. We suggest that discursive themes running throughout "Safe, Sensible, Social" include "shared

  10. Sensible Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Commercial remote sensing uses satellite imagery to provide valuable information about the planet's features. By capturing light reflected from the Earth's surface with cameras or sensor systems, usually mounted on an orbiting satellite, data is obtained for business enterprises with an interest in land feature distribution. Remote sensing is practical when applied to large-area coverage, such as agricultural monitoring, regional mapping, environmental assessment, and infrastructure planning. For example, cellular service providers use satellite imagery to select the most ideal location for a communication tower. Crowsey Incorporated has the ability to use remote sensing capabilities to conduct spatial geographic visualizations and other remote-sensing services. Presently, the company has found a demand for these services in the area of litigation support. By using spatial information and analyses, Crowsey helps litigators understand and visualize complex issues and then to communicate a clear argument, with complete indisputable evidence. Crowsey Incorporated is a proud partner in NASA's Mississippi Space Commerce Initiative, with research offices at the John C. Stennis Space Center.

  11. A Three Component Model to Estimate Sensible Heat Flux Over Sparse Shrubs in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chehbouni, A.; Nichols, W.D.; Njoku, E.G.; Qi, J.; Kerr, Y.H.; Cabot, F.

    1997-01-01

    It is now recognized that accurate partitioning of available energy into sensible and latent heat flux is crucial to understanding surface-atmosphere interactions. This issue is more complicated in arid and semi-arid regions where the relative contribution to surface fluxes from the soil and vegetation may vary significantly throughout the day and throughout the season. The objective of this paper is to present a three-component model to estimate sensible heat flux over heterogeneous surfaces. The surface was represented with two adjacent compartments. The first compartment is made up of two components, shrubs and shaded soil; the second compartment consists of bare, unshaded soil. Data collected at two different sites in Nevada during the summers of 1991 and 1992 were used to evaluate model performance. The results show that the present model is sufficiently general to yield satisfactory results for both sites.

  12. Characteristics of Sensible Heat, Water Vapor, and CO2 Fluxes Over a Rice Paddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, C.

    2007-12-01

    An eddy-correlation system consisting of a sonic anemometer and an open-gas analyzer was used for understanding the characteristics of sensible heat, water vapor, and CO2 fluxes over a subtropical rice paddy in Taipei, Taiwan. The results showed that about 35-40 percent of net radiation was used for latent heat flux, 13 percent for sensible heat flux, and the rest (about 50 percent) was absorbed by the water and soil in the rice paddy. Based on the background measurements (where no rice was growing), it was found that CO2 emission from the soil surface was small, just about 0.074 micro mole per square meter per second. We also found that the relative turbulent transport efficiencies of heat to water and heat to carbon dioxide depended on Bowen ratio. However, in average, heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide were transported with the same rate above this rice paddy.

  13. Experimental test for interpreting the increase in sensibility of doped CR-39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laville, A.; Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Estrada, M. R.

    1985-08-01

    In recent years the sensibility of CR-39 to nuclear tracks has been increased by doping the corresponding monomer with dioctyl phtalate. At this regard, two theoretical approaches are current managed to explain this phenomenon: either the doping react with the active radicals in the chain blocking them, stopping crosslinking between chains, or alternatively that the doping gets between them giving wider space between the crosslinkined chains.

  14. Local advection of sensible heat in the snowmelt landscape of Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Natasha; Marsh, Philip

    1998-07-01

    The spring landscape of the Arctic tundra is dominated by a snow cover which is highly variable in depth owing to redistribution by wind. Because of different energy dynamics, this heterogeneous land cover produces a horizontal transfer of energy at a small scale, a process termed local advection. An advection efficiency term (FS), which represents the fraction of the sensible heat from snow-free patches which is advected to snow patches, was determined from field studies and published model results. Energy balance calculations demonstrated the strong contrast between the two surface cover types that drive advective processes, and FS was found to decrease exponentially with decreasing snow cover fraction. The field results suggest higher values of FS compared with the model results for single snow patches of varying size, but similar in magnitude to FS for multiple small snow patches. Utilizing exponential best-fit relationships between FS and fractional snow cover shows an increase in sensible heat flux of over 100% for low snow cover fractions. When considering the average flux over a composite snow and snow-free surface, the average sensible heat flux obtained from weighting the fluxes for each surface by their respective areas underestimates the composite flux when compared with when advection is considered.This work provides a simple method to estimate the effect of local advection on sensible heat to snow patches and the average flux from a composite surface during the snowmelt period, using only fluxes calculated independently for 0% snow cover and 100% snow cover and an estimate of FS . It demonstrates a good first estimate of the role of advection, but for future study the influence of wind speed, patch distribution patterns and fetch lengths needs to be considered more explicitly. This has important implications in studies of areal energy fluctuations over melting, patchy snow covers, basin water balance studies and regional and global climate modelling.

  15. Experimental test for interpreting the increase in sensibility of doped CR-39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laville, A.; Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Estrada, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years the sensibility of CR-39 to nuclear tracks has been increased by doping the corresponding monomer with dioctyl phtalate. At this regard, two theoretical approaches are current managed to explain this phenomenon: either the doping react with the active radicals in the chain blocking them, stopping crosslinking between chains, or alternatively that the doping gets between them giving wider space between the crosslinkined chains.

  16. ¿Cómo puede usted contribuir a la investigación médica? Done su sangre, sus tejidos y otras muestras

    Cancer.gov

    Explica la importancia de la donación de tejidos, responde a posibles preocupaciones y anima a los pacientes a que hablen con sus proveedores de cuidados para la salud acerca de la donación de muestras biológicas.

  17. The Relevance of Interoception in Chronic Tinnitus: Analyzing Interoceptive Sensibility and Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Pia; Miesen, Miriam; Wunderlich, Robert; Stein, Alwina; Engell, Alva; Wollbrink, Andreas; Gerlach, Alexander L.; Junghöfer, Markus; Ehring, Thomas; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand tinnitus and distress associated with tinnitus, psychological variables such as emotional and cognitive processing are a central element in theoretical models of this debilitating condition. Interoception, that is, the perception of internal processes, may be such a psychological factor relevant to tinnitus. Against this background, 20 participants suffering from chronic tinnitus and 20 matched healthy controls were tested with questionnaires, assessing interoceptive sensibility, and participated in two tasks, assessing interoceptive accuracy: the Schandry task, a heartbeat estimation assignment, and a skin conductance fluctuations perception task assessing the participants' ability to perceive phasic increases in sympathetic activation were used. To test stress reactivity, a construct tightly connected to tinnitus onset, we also included a stress induction. No differences between the groups were found for interoceptive accuracy and sensibility. However, the tinnitus group tended to overestimate the occurrence of phasic activation. Loudness of the tinnitus was associated with reduced interoceptive performance under stress. Our results indicate that interoceptive sensibility and accuracy do not play a significant role in tinnitus. However, tinnitus might be associated with a tendency to overestimate physical changes. PMID:26583114

  18. Sensible heat flux - Radiometric surface temperature relationship for eight semiarid areas

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.B.; Kustas, W.P.; Humes, K.S.; Nichols, W.D.; Moran, M.S.; De Bruin, H.A.R.

    1994-09-01

    Measurements of sensible heat flux, radiometric surface temperature, air temperature, and wind speed made at eight semiarid rangeland sites were used to investigate the sensible heat flux-aerodynamic resistance relationship. The individual sites covered a wide range of vegetation (0.1-4 m tall) and cover (3%-95% bare soil) conditions. Mean values of k/B, a quantity related to the resistance of heat versus momentum transfer at the surface, for the individual sites varied between 3.5 and 12.5. A preliminary test of the utility of an excess resistance based on the mean value of k/B showed that the difference between the mean estimated and measured sensible heat fluxes varied +/- 60 W/sq m for the eight semiarid sites. For the eight sites the values of k/B were plotted against the roughness Reynolds number. The plot showed considerable scatter with values ranging between and beyond the theoretical curves for bluff rough and permeable rough surfaces.

  19. An improved model for sensible heat flux estimation based on landcover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ti; Xin, Xiaozhou; Jiao, Jingjun; Peng, Zhiqing

    2014-10-01

    Remote sensing (RS) has been recognized as the most feasible means to provide spatially distributed regional evapotranspiration (ET). However, classical RS flux algorithms (SEBS, S-SEBI, SEBAL, etc.) can hardly be used with coarser resolution RS data from sensors like MODIS or AVHRR for no consideration of surface heterogeneity in mixed pixels even they are suitable for assessing the surface fluxes with high resolution RS data.A new model named FAFH is developed in this study to enhance the accuracy of flux estimation in mixed pixels based on high resolution landcover classification data. The area fraction and relative sensible heat fraction of each heterogeneous land use type calculated within coarse resolution pixels are calculated firstly, and then used for the weighted average of modified sensible heat. The study is carried out in the core agricultural land of Zhangye, the middle reaches of Heihe river based on the flux and landcover classification product of HJ-1B in our earlier work. The result indicates that FAFH increases the accuracy of sensible heat by 5% absolutely, 10.64% relatively in the whole research area.

  20. Estimating Sensible Heat in the Great Basin, NV using a Large Aperture Scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, B.; Devitt, D.; Young, M.

    2007-12-01

    In arid regions such as the southwestern US, where net evaporation exceeds net precipitation, communities are faced with the challenge or providing sufficient water resources to meet the increasing demand. Recent population growth in major cities such as Las Vegas, Nevada, coupled with a continued long-term drought, has led water managers to seek additional water from greater distances. In 2004 a study was initiated to investigate two valleys in the Great Basin, Nevada that could potentially provide additional water to Las Vegas. The goal of the study was to close a water balance on each basin scaling from leaf level measurements to basin wide estimates. The evapotranspiration (ETa) component of the water budget was estimated using an energy balance approach. A large aperture scintillometer (Scintec BLS 5000) was used to measure sensible heat flux with a path length of 1500 m and within the footprint of an eddy flux tower. Additionally, micro-meteorological stations were used to estimate net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) at two mid point locations along the scintillometer path length. An adjusted R2 of 0.93 between scintillometer and eddy flux sensible heat estimates was found during a diurnal measurement in early spring 2004. Additional runs also accounted for significant amounts of the variation between these two techniques, but at lower R2 values. These results suggest that a scintillometer can be an effective tool for estimating sensible heat over long path lengths of heterogeneous vegetation.

  1. Sensible heat flux - Radiometric surface temperature relationship for eight semiarid areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, J. B.; Kustas, W. P.; Humes, K. S.; Nichols, W. D.; Moran, M. S.; De Bruin, H. A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of sensible heat flux, radiometric surface temperature, air temperature, and wind speed made at eight semiarid rangeland sites were used to investigate the sensible heat flux-aerodynamic resistance relationship. The individual sites covered a wide range of vegetation (0.1-4 m tall) and cover (3%-95% bare soil) conditions. Mean values of k/B, a quantity related to the resistance of heat versus momentum transfer at the surface, for the individual sites varied between 3.5 and 12.5. A preliminary test of the utility of an excess resistance based on the mean value of k/B showed that the difference between the mean estimated and measured sensible heat fluxes varied +/- 60 W/sq m for the eight semiarid sites. For the eight sites the values of k/B were plotted against the roughness Reynolds number. The plot showed considerable scatter with values ranging between and beyond the theoretical curves for bluff rough and permeable rough surfaces.

  2. CO2 and Sensible heat fluxes over an urban grass land in Taipei, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, C.; Phillips, N. G.; Chang, T.; Cheng, S.; Wang, Y.; Huang, C.; Cheng, S.

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was carried out to understand the characteristics of CO2 and sensible heat fluxes over an urban grass land in Taipei, Taiwan. The urban grass land is located on the National Taiwan University campus in Taipei city center. The CO2 and sensible heat fluxes were measured by an eddy-covariance system. The heights of the instruments and the average grass canopy were 1.25 m and 0.25 m, respectively. The urban grass land was found to be able to reduce the CO2 concentration for about 10 ppm. Our data showed the CO2 concentration varied between 370 - 525 ppm, and has a diurnal cycle with high concentration in night time and low concentration during day time. This diurnal cycle is strongly related to the development of the atmospheric boundary layer and photosynthesis/respiration of vegetation. The CO2 flux was about -6 umol/m-2/s-1 when the photosynthesis was strong, and around 1 umol/m-2/s-1 during night time respiration. The sensible heat flux was small (less than 100 W/m-2) and occupied 10% of the net radiation.

  3. Sensible heat and CO2 fluxes in the urban canyon of Taipei city, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, C.; Chang, T.; Huang, C.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    An experiment was carried out to understand the characteristics of sensible heat and CO2 fluxes in an urban canyon of Taipei city, Taiwan. The urban canyon is located in the city center and has a height-to-width ratio of 0.57 (average building height = 25.6 m; street width = 45 m). The sensible heat and CO2 fluxes were measured by an eddy-covariance system installed on a flyover and in the middle of the urban canyon. The height of the instruments was 7.75 m above the street surface. Our results showed that the CO2 concentration varied with a diurnal cycle which reached its maximum around 435 ppm during night time and had the minimum value of 400 ppm around noon. The CO2 flux in this urban canyon could be as high as 100 micro mol/m-2/s-1 during rush hours at 0730 and 1730. Around midnight when there was no traffic, the CO2 flux was close to zero. As to the sensible heat flux, it varied along with the net radiation pattern. This implies that the heat emission from vehicles is minor when compared with the heat from radiation.

  4. Airborne flux measurements of CO2, sensible, and latent heat over the Hudson Bay lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, R. L.; MacPherson, J. I.; Schuepp, P. H.; Hayhoe, H. N.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) in the summer of 1990, 30 flights were conducted with the National Research Council (NRC) Twin Otter research aircraft to quantify the spatial and temporal variations of CO2, H2O, and sensible heat fluxes over the Hudson Bay lowland. These consisted of two regional runs of approximately 100 km in length from James Bay to the Kinosheo Lake and 13-km runs in the form of "L" and grid patterns near the Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) tower in the Kinosheo Lake area. An examination of the average fluxes shows that day-to-day differences were larger than the spatial differences. Significant correlations were found between the fluxes of CO2, sensible heat and latent heat, and selected environmental characteristics, such as air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, surface temperature minus air temperature, and incident solar radiation, for different sections of the NOWES area. The presentation of the spatial variations of aircraft-based fluxes of CO2, sensible heat, and latent heat over a 13 km 13 km area near Kinosheo Lake permits an evaluation of the spatial representativeness of the AES tower observations.

  5. Development and Analysis of a Global, Terrestrial Sensible Heat Flux Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemann, A.; Coccia, G.; Chaney, N.; Wood, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Energy exchange between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface is manifested through sensible and latent heat turbulent fluxes, with their mean states and variability central features of regional climate. Estimating these fluxes using global data sets and understanding their variability is still unresolved but is a central focus of WCRP's Global Energy and Water Exchange (GEWEX) Data Assessment Panel (GDAP) through the LandFlux activities. In recent years, LandFlux has made progress developing terrestrial latent heat data sets, but the progress developing a consistent, multi-decadal sensible heat product has been limited by challenges such as the poorly measured surface temperature gradient and the parameterization of the aerodynamic resistance. While wind and surface roughness control the turbulent transfer of heat, stable boundary layer conditions offer additional challenges. GDAP strives for satellite and input consistency across the data sets. For the sensible heat data product, this manifests itself primarily in the land surface temperature (LST) (being consistent with the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) observations). Due to its sparse coverage (swath and cloud-contamination), a HIRS-consistent, hourly, global, 0.5 degree resolution LST dataset for clear and cloudy conditions (1979 to 2009) is developed through merging of the NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) estimates with HIRS retrievals, which are validated against the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN)-based LST. The surface air temperature is estimated by adding the temperature gradient from CFSR to the HIRS-consistent LST data product, and validated against ~10,000 surface stations. The aerodynamic resistance is based on optimized values at 70 global FluxNet towers and extended globally through an objective analysis with land cover and climate covariates. These products are used to form a global terrestrial, hourly, 0.5 degree spatial resolution sensible heat dataset. The spatial, seasonal, and inter-annual variability of the dataset is presented. The sensible heat flux is combined with the LandFlux latent heat estimates and the surface radiation budget ver. 3 (SRB-3) to assess the space-time variability in the combined surface fluxes (e.g. Bowen ratio) as well as budget closure.

  6. A wind-driven, hybrid latent and sensible heat coastal polynya off Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Daisuke; Fukamachi, Yasushi; Watanabe, Eiji; Ohshima, Kay I.; Iwamoto, Katsushi; Mahoney, Andrew R.; Eicken, Hajo; Simizu, Daisuke; Tamura, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the Barrow Coastal Polynya (BCP), which forms episodically off the Alaska coast in winter, is examined using mooring data, atmospheric reanalysis data, and satellite-derived sea-ice concentration and production data. We focus on oceanographic conditions such as water mass distribution and ocean current structure beneath the BCP. Two moorings were deployed off Barrow, Alaska in the northeastern Chukchi Sea from August 2009 to July 2010. For sea-ice season from December to May, a characteristic sequence of five events associated with the BCP has been identified; (1) dominant northeasterly wind parallel to the Barrow Canyon, with an offshore component off Barrow, (2) high sea-ice production, (3) upwelling of warm and saline Atlantic Water beneath the BCP, (4) strong up-canyon shear flow associated with displaced density surfaces due to the upwelling, and (5) sudden suppression of ice growth. A baroclinic current structure, established after the upwelling, caused enhanced vertical shear and corresponding vertical mixing. The mixing event and open water formation occurred simultaneously, once sea-ice production had stopped. Thus, mixing events accompanied by ocean heat flux from the upwelled warm water into the surface layer played an important role in formation/maintenance of the open water area (i.e., sensible heat polynya). The transition from a latent to a sensible heat polynya is well reproduced by a high-resolution pan-Arctic ice-ocean model. We propose that the BCP, previously considered to be a latent heat polynya, is a wind-driven hybrid latent and sensible heat polynya, with both features caused by the same northeasterly wind.

  7. Aircraft- and tower-based fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent, and sensible heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R. L.; Hart, R. L.; Macpherson, J. I.; Schuepp, P. H.; Verma, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    Fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sensible heat obtained over a grassland ecosystem, during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), using an aircraft- and two tower-based systems are compared for several days in 1987 and in 1989. The tower-based cospectral estimates of CO2, sensible heat, water vapor, and momentum, expressed as a function of wavenumber K times sampling height z, are relatively similar to the aircraft-based estimates for K x z greater than 0.1. A measurable contribution to the fluxes is observed by tower-based systems at K x z less than 0.01 but not by the aircraft-based system operating at an altitude of approximately 100 m over a 15 x 15 km area. Using all available simultaneous aircraft and tower data, flux estimates by both systems were shown to be highly correlated. As expected from the spatial variations of the greenness index, surface extrapolation of airborne flux estimates tended to lie between those of the two tower sites. The average fluxes obtained, on July 11, 1987, and August 4, 1989, by flying a grid pattern over the FIFE site agreed with the two tower data sets for CO2, but sensible and latent heat were smaller than those obtained by the tower-based systems. However, in general, except for a small underestimation due to the long wavelength contributions and due to flux divergence with height, the differences between the aircraft- and tower-based surface estimates of fluxes appear to be mainly attributable to differences in footprint, that is, differences in the area contributing to the surface flux estimates.

  8. Sensible Heat Flux Estimation over the FIFE Site by Neural Networks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abareshi, Behzad; Schuepp, Peter H.

    1998-04-01

    Observations from the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) showed that it is difficult to estimate the sensible heat flux from routinely observed environmental parameters. This study, therefore, explores the use of backpropagation neural networks to elucidate the link between sensible heat flux on the one hand and horizontal wind speed, air temperature, radiometric surface temperature, net radiation, and time on the other. Data collected over the FIFE site in 1987 and 1989 were used for network training and validation. Networks trained on part of the data from a narrow range of space-time coordinates performed well over the other part, with error (rms divided by mean of observations) values as low as 0.24. This indicates the potential in neural networks for linking sensible heat flux to routinely measured meteorological variables and variables amenable to remote sensing. When the networks were tested with data from other space-times, performance varied from good to poor (average error values around 1.27), depending on the degree of similarity between the training and validation datasets in terms of parameters not explicitly included in the training set. Poor predictive performance was primarily associated with the lack of input variables parameterizing canopy morphology and soil moisture, indicating that such variables should be incorporated in the design of future networks intended for large-scale applications. Observations also showed that an underparameterized network cannot be made more general by expanding the size of the training dataset. These findings have repercussions on the potential to derive energy and moisture balance estimates from standard meteorological and satellite-based remote sensing observations.

  9. The effectiveness of cut-proof glove liners: cut and puncture resistance, dexterity, and sensibility.

    PubMed

    Salkin, J A; Stuchin, S A; Kummer, F J; Reininger, R

    1995-11-01

    Five types of commercial glove liners (within double latex gloves) were compared to single and double latex gloves for cut and puncture resistance and for relative manual dexterity and degree of sensibility. An apparatus was constructed to test glove-pseudofinger constructs in either a cutting or puncture mode. Cutting forces, cutting speed, and type of blade (serrated or scalpel blade) were varied and the time to cut-through measured by an electrical conductivity circuit. Penetration forces were similarly determined with a scalpel blade and a suture needle using a spring scale loading apparatus. Dexterity was measured with an object placement task among a group of orthopedic surgeons. Sensibility was assessed with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, two-point discrimination, and vibrametry using standard techniques and rating scales. A subjective evaluation was performed at the end of testing. Time to cut-through for the liners ranged from 2 to 30 seconds for a rapid oscillating scalpel and 4 to 40 seconds for a rapid oscillating serrated knife under minimal loads. When a 1 kg load was added, times to cut-through ranged from 0.4 to 1.0 second. In most cases, the liners were superior to double latex. On average, 100% more force was required to penetrate the liners with a scalpel and 50% more force was required to penetrate the liners with a suture needle compared to double latex. Object placement task times were not significantly liners compared to double latex gloves. Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, two-point discrimination, and vibrametry showed no difference in sensibility among the various liners and double latex gloves. Subjects felt that the liners were minimally to moderately impairing. An acclimation period may be required for their effective use. PMID:8559691

  10. Convective boundary layer budgets of moisture and sensible heat over an unstressed prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of convective boundary layer budgets of sensible heat and moisture were examined for two days over the unstressed vegetation of the tallgrass Konza National Prairie. In addition to the budget evaluation the study had these goals: to estimate the area-average surface fluxes and compare them to independent, ground-based measurements, to estimate the near surface evaporative fraction, and to compare different evaluations of the ratio of surface to inversion fluxes, i.e., the entrainment parameter. The budget analyses indicate that vertical and horizontal advection were significant terms in the budget and cannot be ignored.

  11. Optimized sensible heat storage systems for application to solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denner, W. J.; Fritzsche, A. A.; Jany, P.

    1989-08-01

    The transient behavior of a sensible heat storage system is investigated numerically. With a counterflow scheme and a matrix of BeO-spheres, a thermal efficiency of 98.5 percent and almost constant fluid outlet temperature during 85 percent of discharge time are obtained, proving the potential of this storage alternative for application to solar dynamic power generation in space. Some preliminary results of the overall system simulation, comprising the storage, induced transient behavior of turbine, radiator etc. indicate that the electrical power output can be kept constant within a few percent.

  12. Tubular cross talk in acute kidney injury: a story of sense and sensibility.

    PubMed

    El-Achkar, Tarek M; Dagher, Pierre C

    2015-06-15

    The mammalian kidney is an organ composed of numerous functional units or nephrons. Beyond the filtering glomerulus of each nephron, various tubular segments with distinct populations of epithelial cells sequentially span the kidney from cortex to medulla. The highly organized folding of the tubules results in a spatial distribution that allows intimate contact between various tubular subsegments. This unique arrangement can promote a newly recognized type of horizontal epithelial-to-epithelial cross talk. In this review, we discuss the importance of this tubular cross talk in shaping the response of the kidney to acute injury in a sense and sensibility model. We propose that injury-resistant tubules such as S1 proximal segments and thick ascending limbs (TAL) can act as "sensors" and thus modulate the responsiveness or "sensibility" of the S2-S3 proximal segments to injury. We also discuss new findings that highlight the importance of tubular cross talk in regulating homeostasis and inflammation not only in the kidney, but also systemically. PMID:25877507

  13. A new method for estimation of sensible heat flux from air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingfeng; Bras, Rafael L.

    1998-09-01

    A new method has been proposed for estimating sensible heat flux from single-level measurement of air temperature. When turbulent transfer of heat in the lower atmosphere over a homogeneous surface is modeled by a one-dimensional diffusion equation with a constant diffusivity, heat flux can be expressed as a weighted average (half-order derivative) of the time history of air temperature. This formula provides an approximate solution of the diffusion equation where the (eddy) diffusivity characterizing the turbulent flow is not constant. Eddy diffusivity has been formulated based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory with Businger-Dyer stability functions or determined by an empirical equation. The knowledge of surface parameters including friction velocity sometimes is needed to apply this method. The method was tested against observations collected during two field experiments, FIFE and ABRACOS. The close agreement between the estimated sensible heat flux and observations suggests that this novel approach is a potentially powerful tool in evaluating the energy balance at the land surface.

  14. Surface renewal analysis to obtain sensible heat flux in rice, maize and soybean canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, A.; Paw U, K.; Snyder, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The thermal environment in the plant canopy affects plants' growth processes such as flowering and ripening. High temperatures often cause grain sterility and poor filling, and reduce crop production in tropical and temperate regions. With global warming predicted, these effects have become a major concern worldwide. In this study, surface renewal analysis, which is a novel method for estimating scalar fluxes, was applied to rice, maize and soybean canopies to understand the dynamics of sensible heat in crop canopies. Surface renewal analysis has advantages of (1) lower cost of equipment, (2) a shorter fetch requirement and (3) less disturbance in the field. The temperature of the atmosphere (T) at multiple heights was measured at 10 Hz with fine-wire thermocouples to calculate sensible heat flux (H) from the ramp pattern of T. Variations in H determined from the T measurements at canopy top was from -80 to 120 Wm-2 for rice, and it showed reasonable diurnal variation. However, H values determined from the T measurements within the canopies were smaller because of differences in temperature ramp frequency with height. These results suggest that not all turbulent structures penetrate deeply into canopies. The results for rice, maize and soybean canopies will be presented at the meeting.

  15. Determination of Turbulent Sensible Heat Flux over a Coastal Maritime Area Using a Large Aperture Scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Scintillometers have been widely used in estimating the surface-layer sensible heat flux (Q_H) over natural and urban surfaces, but their application over water bodies is rare. Here, a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) was deployed over a coastal maritime area (`a beach') with an optical path distance of 1 km to investigate LAS capability in estimating the sensible heat fluxes. The measurements were conducted for clear days in the cold season, characterized by a warmer sea surface than the overlying air throughout the studied days. The LAS-derived Q_H showed a significant diurnal variability of 10-150 W m^{-2} at the coastal site, and it was found that local thermal advection and tidal change at the site largely influenced the diurnal variability. A series of sensitivity tests indicated that the uncertainty in the LAS-derived Q_H was less than 11 %, except when De Bruin's similarity function was used. The overall results demonstrate that the LAS system can detect the magnitude and variability of the turbulent heat exchange at the coastal site with high temporal resolution, suggesting its usefulness for estimating Q_H in the coastal maritime environment.

  16. Development of a new thermal environment meter responding both to sensible and latent heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, J. C. A. F.; Gameiro da Silva, M. C.

    2004-05-01

    A new thermal environment meter, simultaneously sensible to the various heat and mass transfer phenomena that participate in the human body thermal balance was developed. Relative to the existing heated sensors that simulate only the sensible heat processes, it adds the capability of evaluating also the effect of evaporative heat losses. It has an ellipsoid shape and is made of ceramic material with porous characteristics to allow the appearance of a uniform humid layer on its external surface. It behaves like a person who adjusts his metabolic rate to ensure a constant deep-body temperature. The inner volume of the sensor is filled with water that is heated to a temperature similar to the deep-body temperature of a person. Evaluation of a given environment is derived after the measured values of the electrical power required to keep the water temperature constant and the loss of weight due to water evaporation on the external surface of the sensor. The developed sensor responds to the same heat transfer mechanisms (convection, radiation, conduction and evaporation), but acts as a type of person who would adjust his metabolic rate in order to keep the deep-body temperature at a constant value whatever the environmental conditions. The calibration of the sensor response, in terms of the standard effective temperature index, was carried out, which makes it a very useful tool for the characterization of thermal environments, especially those where the thermal regulation system needs to use the sweating mechanism.

  17. Sensible heat flux at the spray-laden air-sea interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D. H.; Sullivan, P.

    2013-12-01

    Air-sea exchange processes are typically parameterized in large-scale numerical models owing to the prohibitively large length and time scales involved. For example, intensity predictions of tropical cyclones rely heavily on accurate knowledge of the fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture from the ocean surface, but these quantities must be computed using bulk flux coefficients since small-scale exchange processes cannot be fully resolved. As a result, these exchange coefficients attempt to represent a large number of physical processes, whose individual roles are difficult to distinguish. One such near-surface process is the formation and transport of sea spray, which has been identified as a possible source of flux modification. In this study, we investigate the role of spray in the turbulent transfer of sensible heat at the air-sea interface using direct numerical simulation (DNS) and a Lagrangian point-particle tracking technique. This is a follow-up to our previous work where the influence of spray on the transfer of momentum was examined. Our idealized simulations suggest that sea spray has the ability to greatly enhance the transfer of sensible heat at the ocean surface, in agreement with existing sea spray models. The physical explanation of this behavior and a discussion of its apparent contradiction with observational studies will be included. Simulation snapshot showing particle-turbulence interaction

  18. An analysis of turbulent sensible heat fluxes within a heterogeneous black spruce boreal forest in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkenburg, Derek

    Turbulent sensible heat fluxes within the heterogeneous canopy of a black spruce boreal forest in Interior Alaska are evaluated at three different scales in order to assess their spatial variability, and to determine the feasibility of upscaling locally measured flux values to the landscape scale for modeling applications and climate studies. The first evaluation is performed locally at a single micrometeorological tower in an area of the boreal forest with a mean canopy height of 4.7 m. The data were taken across winter, spring and summer of 2012 from two sonic anemometers, one below the canopy at 3 m above ground, and one above the canopy at 12 m above ground. A multiresolution analysis is used to isolate coherent structures from the turbulent temperature time series at both instruments. When mean global statistics of coherent structures are analyzed at the two levels independently, results show an average of 8 structures per period, a mean duration of 85 s, and a mean sensible heat flux contribution of 48%. A spectral version of the Stokes parameters is applied to the turbulent horizontal wind components to show that 31% of the coherent turbulent structures detected at 12 m, and 13% at 3 m, may be complicated by canopy waves due to the prevalence of stable flows at this high latitude location. The second evaluation quantifies differences in turbulent sensible heat fluxes horizontally between two micrometeorological towers 600 m apart, one in a denser canopy (DC) and the other in a sparser canopy (SC), but under approximately similar atmospheric boundary layer conditions. Results show that SC is ˜ 3 °C cooler and more stably stratified than DC during nighttime. This suggests that changes in the height and density of the canopy impact local temperature and stability regimes. Most importantly, the sensible heat flux at DC is greater during midday periods, with that difference exceeding 30% of the measured flux and over 30 W m-2 in magnitude more than 60% of the time. The third evaluation compares locally measured sensible heat fluxes from a sonic anemometer atop a 24 m micrometeorological tower to those derived from a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) whose beam is centered near the tower at an average height of 36 m above ground, and over a path length of 1423 m. This analysis focuses on unstable daytime periods from June, July and August of 2013. The daytime is defined as 0700-2000 Alaska Standard Time, since local sensible heat flux values derived from the sonic anemometer (H EC) are robust (above 50 W m-2) during this time, and since this time also agrees with the minima in the mean diurnal pattern of Cn2 from the LAS. For daytime periods with robust sensible heat flux values, HEC and the large-scale flux from the LAS (HLAS) correlate with R2 = 0.68, while H EC captures about 82% of HLAS on average. The magnitude of HEC and HLAS are both strongly sensitive to incoming solar radiation, with HLAS having a better correlation and regression slope, suggesting that the local measurements are adjusting also to surface and/or flow conditions above the heterogeneous canopy. Evaluation of the magnitude of the ratio of HEC/HLAS for days with varying amounts of solar radiation suggests that while radiation affects the magnitude of HEC and HLAS independently, it does not affect their ratio. For daytime periods with lower fluxes (HEC between 10 and 50 W m-2), HEC captures about 69% of HLAS on average. However, local and large-scale fluxes during this low flux regime correlate poorly with incoming solar radiation (R2 = 0.42 for HLAS and R2 = 0.15 for HEC), and with one another (R2 = 0.27), suggesting that local heterogeneities are not well-integrated into the large-scale flux. Therefore, low flux periods should be considered separately for the purposes of upscaling local to landscape scale flux values in the boreal forest. For the high flux regime, a finer resolution of upscaling can be provided based on the mean diurnal pattern of HEC/HLAS and the Obukhov length (L). Namely, as the boundary layer becomes less unstable in late afternoon, HEC/H LAS increases, supporting that the eddy covariance technique can capture more of the large-scale flux when the boundary layer is more shear-driven (less buoyancy driven). (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  19. Eddy covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat flux over snow in complex alpine terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehning, M.; Gromke, C.

    2011-12-01

    An eddy covariance system for measuring vertical fluxes of sensible / latent heat and momentum over snow was set up in summer 2011 at the Weissfluhjoch field site close to Davos in the Swiss Alps at 2450 m a.s.l. The field site itself is located on a flat part of a south-east facing slope which is imbedded in complex alpine terrain with nearby mountain ridges overtopping the study plot by ~ 100 - 200 m on the three remaining sides. The final objectives of the eddy covariance measurements are twofold. Firstly, to investigate the air-surface exchange of sensible / latent heat and relate it to the local boundary layer structure given the fact that diverse footprints will play a role depending on wind and stability and secondly, to estimate the turbulent flux contributions to the snow pack energy budget, which ultimately drive the snow metamorphism (Stoessel et al. 2010). Here we present the eddy covariance data collected within 5 months of the winter season 2010/2011 in a primarily methodological framework. The eddy covariance measurements are analysed as to the implications of different data quality assurance and processing methods on sensible / latent heat flux estimates. In particular, the effects are investigated of (i) mean wind speed, turbulence intensity and well developed turbulence, (ii) stationarity and averaging intervals, and (iii) despiking, detrending and spectral correction algorithms. The methodological study is motivated by the fact that most investigations of this type have been performed for grasslands or forested landscapes in homogeneous terrain at low altitude sites in moderate or warm climates rather than for snow covered surfaces at complex alpine sites. However, due to considerable differences in ambient conditions between these types of sites, it appears advisable to pursue a critical analysis of the effect of different data quality assurance and processing methods on flux estimates and to establish specific rules for such sites (e.g. Reba et al. 2009). Beyond the methodological study, first results are presented which show that a few characteristic boundary layer developments cover most of the situations at the site and relate to typical scenarios of snow surface energy and mass exchange such as surface hoar formation, sublimation or intensive melt.

  20. A Wind-Driven, Hybrid Latent and Sensible Heat Coastal Polynya at Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, D.; Fukamachi, Y.; Watanabe, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Mahoney, A. R.; Eicken, H.; Shimizu, D.; Ohshima, K. I.; Tamura, T.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of the Barrow Coastal Polynya (BCP) formed off the Alaska Coast in winter is examined using mooring data (temperature, salinity, and ocean current), atmospheric re-analysis data (ERA-Interim), and AMSR-E-derived sea-ice concentration and production data (Iwamoto et al., 2014). Previously, the BCP has been considered to be a latent heat polynya formed by predominantly offshore winds resulting in sea-ice divergence. Recently, it has been suggested that the sea-ice production rate in the BCP is suppressed by warm Pacific- or Atlantic-origin waters distributed beneath the BCP (e.g. Itoh et al., 2012). In this study, we focus on the oceanographic conditions such as water mass distribution and ocean current structure beneath the BCP, which have not been fully documented. A mooring was deployed off Barrow, Alaska in the northeast Chukchi Sea (71.23°N, 157.65°W, water depth 55 m) from August 2009 to July 2010. During the freeze-up period from December to May, five BCP events occurred in the same manner; 1) dominant wind parallel to Barrow Canyon, with an offshore component near Barrow, 2) high sea-ice production followed by sudden cessation of ice growth, 3) upwelling of warm (>2 K above freezing point) and saline (>34) Atlantic Water (AW) beneath the BCP, 4) strong up-canyon flow (>100cm/s) associated with density fluctuations. A baroclinic current structure, established after the upwelling, resulted in enhanced vertical shear, promoting vertical mixing. The mixing event and open water formation occurred simultaneously, once sea-ice production had stopped. Thus, mixing events accompanied by ocean heat flux from AW into the surface layer were likely to form/maintain the open water area that is a sensible heat polynya. The transition from a latent to a sensible heat polynya was well reproduced by a pan-Arctic ice-ocean model (COCO). We propose that the BCP is a hybrid latent and sensible heat polynya, with both processes driven by the same offshore wind.

  1. Performance improvement studies in a solar greenhouse drier using sensible heat storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayyappan, S.; Mayilsamy, K.; Sreenarayanan, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Experiments were conducted in a natural convection solar greenhouse dryer using different sensible heat storage materials (concrete, sand and rock-bed) in order to study their thermal performance. For both sand and rock-bed, 4″ thickness was found to be optimum as it provides better drying environment both during day and night. The dryer reduced the moisture content of coconuts from 52 (w.b.) to 7 % (w.b.) using concrete as heat storage material in 78 h saving 55 % of drying time compared to open sun drying which takes 174 h for reducing the moisture content to the same level. The sand took 66 h saving 62 % of drying time whereas rock-bed took only 53 h thereby saving 69 % of drying time compared to open sun drying. The efficiency of the dryer was found to be 9.5, 11 and 11.65 % using concrete, sand and rock-bed respectively.

  2. Simulation of Atmospheric Dispersion of a Radioactive Plume Including Sensible Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Hope, E.P., Ades, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    A postulated fire scenario in a Savannah River Site (SRS) laboratory facility could result in release of radioactive materials to the environment.The Technology Center is located in the general proximity of the site boundary.The relatively short distance to potential off- site receptors makes it important to consider the effects of plume rise and the effects of the sensible heat of the escaping combustion products. The potential consequences from the airborne release are calculated with the MACCS, Version 1.5.11.1, computer code. Calculation of atmospheric dispersion without consideration of plume rise results in a monotonically decreasing dose response. When the plume rise is modeled in the dose calculation, the results show that the cloud touchdown point and the location of highest off-site dose do not follow a monotonically decreasing pattern.

  3. Evaluation of scintillometery measurements of fluxes of momentum and sensible heat in the roughness sublayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Hirofumi; Inagaki, Atsushi; Roth, Matthias; Kanda, Manabu

    2015-08-01

    Scintillometer measurements of turbulent fluxes of momentum and sensible heat in the roughness sublayer over a regular array of cubes in an outdoor environment were tested with direct measurement from sonic anemometers. The dissipation rate, ?, and temperature structure parameter, C T 2 , obtained from the scintillometer agreed well with those from four sonic anemometers located along the scintillometer path. The fluxes measured by the scintillometer also corresponded well to those from the line-averaged eddy covariance approach, although this agreement was greatly influenced by the choice of the zero-plane displacement length and the form of the similarity function used in the scintillometer software. A guide for choosing the appropriate similarity function for the urban roughness sublayer is proposed.

  4. Land-surface water vapor and sensible heat flux: Spatial variability, homogeneity, and measurement scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried

    1998-10-01

    Available methods to determine the sensible and latent heat fluxes from the Earth's land surfaces are still relatively imprecise; this is due primarily to the inherent irregularity of the turbulent transport mechanisms and also to the pronounced variability of most natural land surfaces. While great progress has been made in the study of turbulence, until recently, surface variability has received relatively little attention in this context. Some thoughts are provided on approaching this issue by focusing on the stochastic structure of the land surface within the framework of homogeneous, i.e., stationary, random functions. In addition, suggestions are made regarding the likely applicability of classical concepts by relating the relevant scales of surface variability structure to those characterizing turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  5. Effects of dynamic heat fluxes on model climate sensitivity Meridional sensible and latent heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Wang, W.-C.; Stone, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    The high- and low-latitude radiative-dynamic (HLRD) climatic model of Wang et al. (1984) was used to study the effect of meridional heat (MH) fluxes on climate changes caused by increases of CO2 abundance and solar constant variations. However, the empirical MH parameterization of the HLRD model was replaced by physically based parameterization, which gives separate meridional sensible and latent heat fluxes and provides a complete representation of the dependence of the flux on the mean temperature field. Both parameterization methods yielded about the same changes in global mean surface temperature and ice line, and both produced only small changes in meridional temperature gradient, although the latter were even smaller with the physically based parameterizations. At any latitude, the hemispheric mean surface temperature, rather than MH fluxes, dominates the surface temperature changes.

  6. Parameterization of eddy sensible heat transports in a zonally averaged dynamic model of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genthon, Christophe; Le Treut, Herve; Sadourny, Robert; Jouzel, Jean

    1990-01-01

    A Charney-Branscome based parameterization has been tested as a way of representing the eddy sensible heat transports missing in a zonally averaged dynamic model (ZADM) of the atmosphere. The ZADM used is a zonally averaged version of a general circulation model (GCM). The parameterized transports in the ZADM are gaged against the corresponding fluxes explicitly simulated in the GCM, using the same zonally averaged boundary conditions in both models. The Charney-Branscome approach neglects stationary eddies and transient barotropic disturbances and relies on a set of simplifying assumptions, including the linear appoximation, to describe growing transient baroclinic eddies. Nevertheless, fairly satisfactory results are obtained when the parameterization is performed interactively with the model. Compared with noninteractive tests, a very efficient restoring feedback effect between the modeled zonal-mean climate and the parameterized meridional eddy transport is identified.

  7. [The stated and non-stated on the part of the nurse-teacher being in the comprehension of sensibility].

    PubMed

    Terra, Marlene Gomes; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; Santos, Evangelia Kotzias Atherino Dos; Erdamann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to describe the stated and non-stated information in the comprehension of sensibility on the part of the nursing teacher-nurse being in the teaching of Nursing. The theoretical- philosophical reference was sought in the Phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and the methodological support was based on the hermeneutic phenomenology of Paul Ricoeur. Nineteen nursing teachers-nurses from a Public Institution of Higher Education in the south of Brazil were interviewed during the months of November and December 2006. Data analysis revealed sensibility as the base for the development of doing, thinking, caring and doing research. Without sensibility, the relations and interactions in teaching in Nursing will be only techniques and theories of healthcare. PMID:18982217

  8. Comparison of Turbulent Sensible Heat Flux Determined by Large-Aperture Scintillometer and Eddy Covariance over Urban and Suburban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Field observations of the atmospheric boundary layer were made over urban and suburban areas in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Sensible heat fluxes were obtained by eddy-covariance (EC) systems and large-aperture scintillometers (LASs). The results indicated that (1) the sensible heat flux obtained by LAS was less noisy and slightly larger than that obtained by EC over both urban and suburban surfaces; (2) the values of were higher when the correlation coefficient of vertical wind speed and temperature () was smaller. Lower values of were due to low-frequency trends. The urban values of were smaller than suburban values at low values; (3) the sensible heat flux determined by LAS was improved by use of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory of the temperature structure parameter over urban and suburban areas, and the improvement is more significant over urban surface areas.

  9. Sensible method for updating motif instances in an increased biological network.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Y; Kurmar, S

    2015-07-15

    A network motif is defined as an over-represented subgraph pattern in a network. Network motif based techniques have been widely applied in analyses of biological networks such as transcription regulation networks (TRNs), protein-protein interaction networks (PPIs), and metabolic networks. The detection of network motifs involves the computationally expensive enumeration of subgraphs, NP-complete graph isomorphism testing, and significance testing through the generation of many random graphs to determine the statistical uniqueness of a given subgraph. These computational obstacles make network motif analysis unfeasible for many real-world applications. We observe that the fast growth of biotechnology has led to the rapid accretion of molecules (vertices) and interactions (edges) to existing biological network databases. Even with a small percentage of additions, revised networks can have a large number of differing motif instances. Currently, no existing algorithms recalculate motif instances in 'updated' networks in a practical manner. In this paper, we introduce a sensible method for efficiently recalculating motif instances by performing motif enumeration from only updated vertices and edges. Preliminary experimental results indicate that our method greatly reduces computational time by eliminating the repeated enumeration of overlapped subgraph instances detected in earlier versions of the network. The software program implementing this algorithm, defined as SUNMI (Sensible Update of Network Motif Instances), is currently a stand-alone java program and we plan to upgrade it as a web-interactive program that will be available through http://faculty.washington.edu/kimw6/research.htm in near future. Meanwhile it is recommended to contact authors to obtain the stand-alone SUNMI program. PMID:25869675

  10. A comparison of the effect of different surgical gloves on objective measurement of fingertip cutaneous sensibility

    PubMed Central

    Bucknor, A; Karthikesalingam, A; Markar, SR; Holt, PJ; Jones, I; Allen-Mersh, TG

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The prudent selection of surgical gloves can deliver significant efficiency savings. However, objective data are lacking to compare differences in cutaneous sensibility between competing gloves. Therefore, the present study examined the use of a single comparable model of sterile surgical glove from two competing providers, Gammex PF HyGrip® (Ansell Limited, Red Bank, NJ, USA) with Biogel® (Mölnlycke Health Care AB, Göteborg, Sweden). SUBJECTS AND METHODS Cutaneous pressure threshold, static and moving two-point discrimination were measured as indices of objective surgical glove performance in 52 blinded healthcare professionals. RESULTS The mean cutaneous pressure threshold was 0.0680 ± 0.0923 g for skin, 0.411 ± 0.661 g for Ansell gloves and 0.472 ± 0.768 g for Biogel gloves. Skin was significantly more sensitive than Ansell (P< 0.0001) or Biogel (P< 0.0001) gloves (Wilcoxon signed rank test). There was no statistical difference between Biogel and Ansell gloves (P = 0.359). There was no significant difference between static or moving 2-point discrimination of skin and Ansell gloves (P= 0.556, P = 0.617; Wilcoxon signed rank test), skin and Biogel gloves (P= 0.486, P= 0.437; Wilcoxon signed rank test) or Ansell and Biogel gloves (P= 0.843, P= 0.670; Wilcoxon signed rank test). CONCLUSIONS No demonstrable objective difference was found between competing gloves in the outcome measures of cutaneous sensibility and two-point discrimination. However, a difference in subjective preference was noted. Untested factors may underlie this discrepancy, and further research should employ more sophisticated measurements of surgical performance using competing models of surgical glove. PMID:21118618

  11. Estimation of sensible heat flux using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and ATSR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Li; Su, Zhongbo; van den Hurk, Bart; Menenti, Massimo; Moene, Arnold; De Bruin, Henk A. R.; Yrisarry, J. Javier Baselga; Ibanez, Manuel; Cuesta, Antonio

    This paper describes a modified version of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) as regards the use of radiometric data from space and presents the results of a large area validation study on estimated sensible heat flux, extended over several months. The improvements were made possible by the characteristics of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR-2) on board the European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) and relate to: (a) the use of bi-angular radiometric data in two thermal infrared channels to estimate column atmospheric water vapor; (b) the use of bi-angular radiometric data in four spectral channels in the 550-1600 nm spectral regions to estimate aerosols optical depth; (c) determination of bottom of atmosphere (BOA) spectral reflectance using column water vapor, aerosols optical depth and a two-stream radiative transfer scheme to relate BOA spectral reflectance to top of atmosphere spectral radiance; (d) direct and inverse modeling of radiative transfer in a vegetation canopy to relate BOA spectral reflectance to canopy properties, such as spectrally integrated hemispherical reflectance (albedo). A parameterization of the aerodynamic resistance for heat transfer (in term of kB-1) was applied for the first time at large spatial scales. For such large area analyses SEBS requires wind speed, potential temperature and humidity of air at an appropriate reference height. The latter was taken as being the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the data used were fields generated by an advanced numerical weather prediction model, i.e. regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO), integrated over the PBL. Validation of estimated sensible heat flux H obtained with the ATSR radiometric data was done using long-range, line-averaged measurements of H done with large aperture scintillometers (LAS) located at three sites in Spain and operated continuously between April and September 1999. The root mean square deviation of SEBS H estimates from LAS H measurements was 25.5 W m -2.

  12. Sensible and Latent Heat Exchange at the Soil Surface Beneath a Maize Canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Thomas John

    Soil heat and vapor exchange at the soil surface beneath a plant canopy was measured using heat and vapor source plates. Data from field and laboratory experiments were used to derive equations predicting interfacial heat and vapor transfer coefficients for inclusion in an existing, comprehensive soil-plant-atmosphere model, Cupid. Heat and vapor source plates constructed of anodized aluminum (305 by 864 mm by 13 mm thick) were installed level with the soil surface within a maize (Zea mays, L.) field to provide an area of known and controllable temperature and/or vapor pressure and sensible and/or latent heat flux. Sensible heat flux density was determined from an energy budget analysis while evaporation from wetted felt fabric on one plate's surface was used to determine the latent heat flux density. Flux measurements were combined with measured temperature and vapor pressure differences to determine the interfacial transfer coefficients. Field measurements were made during all stages of canopy development and were supplemented by extensive measurements of the local microclimate. Controlled forced convection experiments were also conducted in a wind tunnel using three levels of turbulence intensity and two arrays of aluminum roughness elements to assess the effects of turbulence and surface roughness on heat and mass transfer. Measured interfacial transfer coefficients during the field experiments ranged from 2 to 30 mm s ^{-1} over wind speeds of 5 to 280 cm s^{-1} measured 3 cm above the plate surface. Equations based on dimensionless parameters were developed and fit to the wind tunnel data, compared with the field data, and incorporated into the computer model. The new transfer coefficient relationships had less scatter and were more closely correlated to within -canopy wind speed than the previous formulations. Predictions of canopy microclimate characteristics were significantly improved as compared to those predictions obtained using transfer coefficients calculated by dividing a near-surface eddy diffusivity by the thickness of the air layer nearest the soil surface.

  13. The role of individual cyclones for atmospheric latent and sensible heat transport into the European Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodemann, H.; Stohl, A.

    2010-12-01

    The bulk of the atmospheric latent heat transport induced by extratropical cyclones is organized in the warm conveyor belt, also known as atmospheric rivers. In order to enhance the process understanding of atmospheric sensible and latent heat transport with these structures into the European Arctic, the magnitude and variability of the energy flux from individual cyclones in this region was studied. We applied a moisture source tracking algorithm embedded in the limited-area numerical weather prediction model (NWP) Climate High-Resolution Model (CHRM) to trace the evaporation sources and transport of water vapour from different latitude bands of the North Atlantic Ocean. September 2002 and December 2006 were chosen as initial analysis periods, since a particularly large number of cyclones (including former hurricanes) traveled within the North Atlantic storm track during these months. The main findings are that latent heat (LH) from more southerly source regions is transported at higher altitudes. Stronger storms draw latent heat from a larger area (further south), and the ensuing precipitation will hence on average originate from further south as well. Most long-range transport of LH occurs in the cold frontal bands. Individual cyclones are the main source of sub-monthly LH flux variability, and can cause up to 4-sigma variation of the mean flux. LH flux is almost permanently net positive (northward), unlike for sensible heat (SH) and other energy fluxes. Most LH that is "permanently" transferred to north of 60°N in the Atlantic storm track originates from directly south of that latitude, implying on average short atmospheric moisture lifetimes, and hence a fast energy turnover. We compare these findings to results from a Lagrangian moisture tracking method based on the FLEXPART model. Remarks with regard to differences in the transport conditions of latent head in such structures along the North American West Coast and the Norwegian West Coast will be made.

  14. Microsurgeons do better--tactile training might prevent the age-dependent decline of the sensibility of the hand.

    PubMed

    Schmauss, Daniel; Megerle, Kai; Weinzierl, Andrea; Agua, Kariem; Cerny, Michael; Schmauss, Verena; Lohmeyer, Joern A; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Erne, Holger

    2015-12-01

    Recent data demonstrate that the normal sensibility of the hand seems to be age-dependent with the best values in the third decade and a consecutive deterioration afterwards. However, it is not clear if long-term tactile training might prevent this age-dependent decline. We evaluated sensibility of the hand in 125 surgeons aged between 26 and 75 years who perform microsurgical operations, thereby undergoing regular tactile training. We examined sensibility of the radial digital nerve of the index finger (N3) and the ulnar digital nerve of the small finger (N10) using static and moving two-point discrimination (2PD) tests and compared the results to 154 age-matched individuals without specific long-term tactile training. We found significantly lower static and moving 2PD values for the sixth, seventh, and eighth decade of life in the microsurgery group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that long-term tactile training might prevent the known age-dependent decline of the sensibility of the hand. PMID:26306813

  15. Persistent unstable atmospheric boundary layer enhances sensible and latent heat loss in a tropical great lake: Lake Tanganyika

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Piet; Antenucci, Jason P.

    2010-06-01

    Energy fluxes across the surface of lakes regulate heat storage and affect the water balance. Sensible and latent heat fluxes are affected by atmospheric stability, especially for large lakes. We examined the effect of atmospheric stability on the heat fluxes on seasonal time scales at Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, by estimating hourly sensible and latent heat fluxes and net radiation using thermistor chains and meteorological stations. The atmosphere was almost always unstable, in contrast to the atmosphere above North American Great Lakes which is unstable in winter and stable in summer. Persistent atmospheric instability resulted in a 13% and 18% increase in the annual mean heat loss by latent and sensible heat fluxes, respectively, relative to conditions of neutral stability. The persistent unstable atmosphere is caused by a higher water surface temperature compared with air temperature, which we argue is the case in general in (sub)tropical lakes. Low humidity further enhanced the frequency of unstable conditions and enhanced the exchange of heat and vapor from the lake to the atmosphere. The estimated heat fluxes were sensitive to the temporal scale of data inputs and to the local values of parameters such as air density. To our knowledge this is the first paper that demonstrates and quantifies the effect of atmospheric stability on latent and sensible heat fluxes from a lake on an annual basis, using data collected from the lake surface.

  16. Wasted Potential: The Role of Higher Education Institutions in Supporting Safe, Sensible and Social Drinking among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orme, Judy; Coghill, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Setting: The United Kingdom (UK) government has acknowledged that there is a problem with excess alcohol consumption, in particular amongst young people. Higher education is an important health promotion setting in which to explore not only how sensible drinking patterns can be facilitated and embedded in students' current lifestyles but also

  17. The Views of the Classroom Teacher Candidates Related to the Environmental Science Course and the Environmental Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenice, Nilgun; Saracaloglu, A. Seda; Karacaoglu, O. Cem

    2008-01-01

    This research has been performed to determine the effects of the "Environmental Science Course" within the curriculum of Classroom Teacher Program in Education Faculty on the environmental sensibilities of the students, and the ideas of the students related to the effectiveness of their environmental education. The research has been performed on…

  18. Responses of sensible heat flux to soil water variation over a forest in a subalpine mountain valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chunhua; Chai, Minwei; Zhang, Qingtao; Xiang, Jiao; Wang, Yongqiang; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sensible heat flux is a vital component of Evapotranspiration (ET) and a critical process in the energy budget of the earth-atmosphere system. In our early study, it's found that soil water variation may be a critical factor for sensible heat flux over the forest in a subalpine mountain valley. The components of surface energy fluxes were measured for 2 years using the eddy covariance technique in Jiuzhaigou Valley, a subalpine mountainous area of Southwest China. Meanwhile, transpiration was measured by sap flow sensors. Within the observation period, the magnitude and distribution of energy fluxes and the magnitude of transpiration were mainly controlled by leaf emergence and seasonal changes in net radiation and soil water content. Large increases in transpiration were observed after leaves emerged around May, while evapotranspiration started to increase from February, which increased from nearly zero during winter to more than 5 mm d-1 in summer. Large increases in soil water content were observed despite increases in evapotranspiration during early spring. In spite of the large increases in net radiation, obvious decreases in sensible heat flux were observed with the variation of soil water content over the same period. Therefore, the most influential effect on the variability of sensible heat flux was the soil water content. These general characteristics can help us have a better understanding of the energy budget and water consumption of forest and their responses to net radiation and soil water content.

  19. Analyzing consistency of interannual variability in air-sea sensible and latent heat fluxes in CMIP5 model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serykh, Ilya; Gulev, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Surface turbulent heat fluxes are critically important in climate model experiments, since they represent a language of communication of the ocean and atmosphere. Interannual variability of surface turbulent heat fluxes is believed to be the major contributor to the changes in the ocean surface heat balance, at least in mid latitudes. Being relatively well assessed and validated in reanalyses, surface turbulent heat fluxes always were of a lesser attention in diagnostics of climate model experiments. We analysed interannual variability of sensible and latent heat fluxes in historical climate simulations with several CMIP5 models. Variability in surface turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes in model simulations has been analysed during several last decades (from 1950s to 2005) with the emphasis on different scales of variability (short-term, interannual, decadal). At all scales has been found a little consistency between the changes in turbulent surface fluxes diagnosed by reanalyses and blended data sets (OA-FLUX) on one hand and model simulations on the other. Furthermore, some models (e.g. ECHAM, IPSL) surprisingly demonstrate large regions with negative correlations between sensible and latent heat fluxes, which is not the case in observational data sets (reanalyses and OAFLUX). Interestingly, variability in air temperature and surface humidity (which could be potentially considered as the reason for autocorrelation between sensible and latent fluxes) demonstrates consistency with each other at most scales. Further we discuss potential reasons for the discovered phenomenon.

  20. A dual-temperature-difference approach to estimate daytime sensible and latent heat fluxes under advective conditions during BEAREX08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dual-Temperature-Difference (DTD) approach uses continuous radiometric surface temperature measurements in a two-source (soil + vegetation) energy balance model to solve for the daytime evolution of the sensible and latent heat fluxes. By using the surface-air temperature difference at two time...

  1. The Views of the Classroom Teacher Candidates Related to the Environmental Science Course and the Environmental Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenice, Nilgun; Saracaloglu, A. Seda; Karacaoglu, O. Cem

    2008-01-01

    This research has been performed to determine the effects of the "Environmental Science Course" within the curriculum of Classroom Teacher Program in Education Faculty on the environmental sensibilities of the students, and the ideas of the students related to the effectiveness of their environmental education. The research has been performed on

  2. Wasted Potential: The Role of Higher Education Institutions in Supporting Safe, Sensible and Social Drinking among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orme, Judy; Coghill, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Setting: The United Kingdom (UK) government has acknowledged that there is a problem with excess alcohol consumption, in particular amongst young people. Higher education is an important health promotion setting in which to explore not only how sensible drinking patterns can be facilitated and embedded in students' current lifestyles but also…

  3. Measurement of the Sensible Eddy Heat Flux Based on Spatial Averaging of Continuous Ground-Based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauder, M.; Desjardins, R. L.; Pattey, E.; Gao, Z.; van Haarlem, R.

    2008-07-01

    Using the standard eddy-covariance (EC) method to quantify mass and energy exchange at a single location usually results in an underestimation of vertical eddy fluxes at the surface. In order to better understand the reasons for this underestimation, an experimental set-up is presented that is based on spatial averaging of air temperature data from a network of ground-based sensors over agricultural land. For eight days during the 34-day observational period in May and June 2007, additional contributions to the sensible heat flux of more than 50Wm-2 were measured in the lower surface layer by applying the spatial EC method as opposed to the standard temporal EC method. Smaller but still significant additional sensible heat fluxes were detected for four more days. The additional energy is probably transported in organised convective structures resulting in a mean vertical wind velocity unequal to zero at the tower location. The results show that convective transport contributes significantly to the surface energy budget for measurement heights as low as 2-3 m. Since these structures may be quasi-stationary, they can hardly be captured by a single-location measurement. The spatial EC set-up presented here is capable of quantifying contributions to the sensible heat flux from structures up to the scale of our spatial sensor network, which covered an area 3.5 × 3.5 km. For future experiments aiming at closing the energy balance, the spatial EC method should be employed to measure both the sensible and latent heat fluxes. Experimental determination of the horizontal advection of sensible and latent heat should also be considered, since such transport must occur due to convergence and divergence related to convection.

  4. Combined Use of Vegetation Density, Friction Velocity, and Solar Elevation to Parameterize the Scalar Roughness for Sensible Heat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qualls, Russell; Hopson, Thomas

    1998-04-01

    Monin-Obukhov similarity was used to calculate sensible heat fluxes (Hc) at an array of up to 20 surface flux measurement sites on five days in 1987 and 1989 during the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment by means of spatially distributed radiometric surface temperatures from an airborne platform and ground-based data. To use Monin-Obukhov similarity, a parameterization for the scalar roughness, as a function of spatially varying leaf area index (LAI) and friction velocity (u), was developed from a previous, simpler parameterization. LAI was found to be significant, but the range of u was too small to ascertain its significance. The parameterization was found to produce sensible heat flux values that had correlations around 0.8 with the spatially distributed sensible heat flux measurements on four of the days, but on a day with high, uniform soil moisture content, the correlation was only 0.226. It is argued that the high soil moisture values indirectly resulted in relatively larger significance of noise in the surface-air temperature difference, which reduced the reliability of the calculated sensible heat fluxes. In addition, constants in the parameterization from one day may not necessarily be applicable to other days. This may be due to factors such as solar elevation and instrument view angle. It is proposed and verified that the differences between dates can be resolved in a spatially averaged sense by accounting for the effects of seasonal variation in solar elevation on the vertical distribution of canopy temperatures. This produced a correlation of 0.973 between measured and calculated sensible heat fluxes when all dates were considered simultaneously.

  5. From Sensibility to Pathology: The Origins of the Idea of Nervous Music around 1800

    PubMed Central

    KENNAWAY, JAMES

    2014-01-01

    Healing powers have been ascribed to music at least since David’s lyre, but a systematic discourse of pathological music emerged only at the end of the eighteenth century. At that time, concerns about the moral threat posed by music were partly replaced by the idea that it could over-stimulate a vulnerable nervous system, leading to illness, immorality, and even death. During the Enlightenment, the relationship between the nerves and music was more often put in terms of refinement and sensibility than pathology. However, around 1800, this view was challenged by a medical critique of modern culture based on a model of the etiology of disease that saw stimulation as the principal cause of sickness. Music’s belated incorporation into that critique was made possible by a move away from regarding music as an expression of cosmic and social order toward thinking of it as quasi-electrical stimulation, something that was intensified by the political and cultural changes unleashed by the French Revolution. For the next hundred and fifty years, nervousness caused by musical stimulation was often regarded as a fully fledged Zivilisationskrankheit, widely discussed in psychiatry, music criticism, and literature. PMID:20219729

  6. Regional sensible heat flux and thermal roughness length of an inhomogeneous landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlder, Meelis; Sugita, Michiaki; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Bergstrm, Hans

    1998-10-01

    Knowledge of regional roughness parameters is needed for remote sensing and large-scale modelling purposes. The presently available estimates of the most problematic parameter, namely the regional thermal roughness length (z0t), have mostly been determined for dry areas and are often contradictory with each other. In this study, radiosonde measurements of temperature profiles within the atmospheric boundary layer were carried out at Marsta (10 km north of Uppsala in Sweden), and local sensible heat flux and radiometric surface temperature data were collected at the same site over barley and at the Norunda forest site. Regional fluxes and surface temperatures were calculated as weighted means by assuming the measured fluxes and surface temperatures at the barley and forest stations, respectively, represent all fields and forests within the studied region. Atmospheric surface layer equations were fitted with the radiosonde temperature profiles in a mean height range of 40 to 120 m. The average logarithmic ratio ln(z0u/z0t) was found to be about 15 for the representative 10 km upwind area. This value is much lower than has been reported earlier for various region-scale studies. As the region comprised a large amount of forests (up to 50%), the regional z0t was closer to the larger local value of z0t for forest than to the smaller value of z0t found for barley.

  7. From sensibility to pathology: the origins of the idea of nervous music around 1800.

    PubMed

    Kennaway, James

    2010-07-01

    Healing powers have been ascribed to music at least since David's lyre, but a systematic discourse of pathological music emerged only at the end of the eighteenth century. At that time, concerns about the moral threat posed by music were partly replaced by the idea that it could over-stimulate a vulnerable nervous system, leading to illness, immorality, and even death. During the Enlightenment, the relationship between the nerves and music was more often put in terms of refinement and sensibility than pathology. However, around 1800, this view was challenged by a medical critique of modern culture based on a model of the etiology of disease that saw stimulation as the principal cause of sickness. Music's belated incorporation into that critique was made possible by a move away from regarding music as an expression of cosmic and social order toward thinking of it as quasi-electrical stimulation, something that was intensified by the political and cultural changes unleashed by the French Revolution. For the next hundred and fifty years, nervousness caused by musical stimulation was often regarded as a fully fledged Zivilisationskrankheit, widely discussed in psychiatry, music criticism, and literature. PMID:20219729

  8. Ulisse Aldrovandi's Color Sensibility: Natural History, Language and the Lay Color Practices of Renaissance Virtuosi.

    PubMed

    Pugliano, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Famed for his collection of drawings of naturalia and his thoughts on the relationship between painting and natural knowledge, it now appears that the Bolognese naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) also pondered specifically color and pigments, compiling not only lists and diagrams of color terms but also a full-length unpublished manuscript entitled De coloribus or Trattato dei colori. Introducing these writings for the first time, this article portrays a scholar not so much interested in the materiality of pigment production, as in the cultural history of hues. It argues that these writings constituted an effort to build a language of color, in the sense both of a standard nomenclature of hues and of a lexicon, a dictionary of their denotations and connotations as documented in the literature of ancients and moderns. This language would serve the naturalist in his artistic patronage and his natural historical studies, where color was considered one of the most reliable signs for the correct identification of specimens, and a guarantee of accuracy in their illustration. Far from being an exception, Aldrovandi's 'color sensibility'spoke of that of his university-educated nature-loving peers. PMID:26856048

  9. Sensible and latent heat loss from the body surface of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, A. S. C.; Dasilva, R. G.; Battiston Loureiro, C. M.

    2005-09-01

    The general principles of the mechanisms of heat transfer are well known, but knowledge of the transition between evaporative and non-evaporative heat loss by Holstein cows in field conditions must be improved, especially for low-latitude environments. With this aim 15 Holstein cows managed in open pasture were observed in a tropical region. The latent heat loss from the body surface of the animals was measured by means of a ventilated capsule, while convective heat transfer was estimated by the theory of convection from a horizontal cylinder and by the long-wave radiation exchange based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law. When the air temperature was between 10 and 36°C the sensible heat transfer varied from 160 to -30 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by cutaneous evaporation increased from 30 to 350 W m-2. Heat loss by cutaneous evaporation accounted for 20-30% of the total heat loss when air temperatures ranged from 10 to 20°C. At air temperatures >30°C cutaneous evaporation becomes the main avenue of heat loss, accounting for approximately 85% of the total heat loss, while the rest is lost by respiratory evaporation.

  10. Determination of sensible heat flux over sparse canopy using thermal infrared data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kustas, W.P.; Choudhury, B.J.; Moran, M.S.; Reginato, R. J.; Jackson, R. D.; Gay, L.W.; Weaver, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    Surface temperatures, Ts, were estimated for a natural vegetative surface in Owens Valley, California, with infrared thermometric observations collected from an aircraft. The region is quite arid and is composed primarily of bushes (???30%) and bare soil (???70%). Application of the bulk transfer equation for the estimation of sensible heat, H, gave unsatisfactory values when compared to Bowen ratio and eddy correlation methods over a particular site. This was attributed to the inability with existing data to properly evaluate the resistance to heat transfer, rah. To obtain appropriate rah-values the added resistance to heat transfer, kB-1, was allowed to vary although there is both theoretical and experimental evidence that kB-1 for vegetative surfaces can be treated as constant. The present data indicate that for partial canopy cover under arid conditions kB-1 may be a function of Ts measured radiometrically. The equation determining kB-1 was simplified and tested over another arid site with good results; however, this had a limited data set (i.e., 6 data points). The dimensionless kB-1 equation is simplified for use over full canopy cover and is shown to give satisfactory estimates of H over a fully-grown wheat crop. ?? 1989.

  11. Making sensible rationing: the use of economic evidence and the need for methodological standards.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Kamolratanakul, Pirom

    2008-06-01

    Thailand was increasingly facing budget constraints when a comprehensive package of services was provided literally free to the whole population; therefore rationing is inevitable. 'Good value for money' is among the popular criteria in priority setting as it offers a sensible basis to compare marginal benefits with the resources spent across interventions. The majority of cost-outcome studies in Thailand were subject to bias as they relied on low-quality evidence. The methods applied also varied greatly. This hampers comparisons across studies. The first ever national guideline was developed by experts from different institutes to propose the most practical ways of conducting health technology assessment on the basis of economic principles in the Thai context. This paper also draws lessons from a transparent process involving key stakeholders in selecting technologies to be assessed given time and resources constraints. Finally, it is hoped that these tools and methods will be applicable for Thailand to facilitate comparisons of different studies in order to better inform policy decisions in a transparent manner PMID:19253481

  12. Feasibility of a Novel Functional Sensibility Test as an Assisted Examination for Determining Precision Pinch Performance in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Kuo, Yao-Lung; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Jou, I-Ming; Wu, Po-Ting; Su, Fong-Chin

    2013-01-01

    To understand the feasibility of a novel functional sensibility test for determining precision pinch performance in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, this study investigates the validity, sensitivity and specificity of functional sensibility derived from a pinch-holding-up activity (PHUA) test. Participants include 70 clinically defined carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients with 119 involved hands and 70 age- and gender-matched controls. To examine the discriminating ability of the functional sensibility test, the differences in the ability of pinch force adjustments to the inertial load of handling object between CTS and control subjects are analyzed. The results of functional sensibility are correlated with the severity of CTS to establish concurrent validity. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is constructed to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed test. The functional sensibility score significantly discriminates the patients and control groups (respectively, 12.94±1.72 vs. 11.51±1.15N in peak pinch force (FPPeak), p<0.001; 2.92±0.41 vs. 2.52±0.24 in force ratio, p<0.001) and is moderately correlated (r = 0.42–0.54, p<0.001) with the results of traditional sensibility tests (touch-pressure threshold and two-point discrimination test). In addition, there is a statistical difference in the results of functional sensibility (p<0.001) among the subgroups of CTS severity based on electrophysiological study. The sensitivity and specificity are 0.79 and 0.76, respectively, for the functional sensibility test. The areas under the ROC curve are 0.85 and 0.80 for the force ratio and FPPeak, respectively. In conclusion, the functional sensibility test could be feasibly used as a clinical tool for determining both the sensibility and precision pinch performance of hands for the patients with CTS. PMID:23977209

  13. A comparison of satellite-derived and aircraft-measured regional surface sensible heat fluxes over the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Bernard A.; Overland, James E.; Turet, Philip

    1995-03-01

    Motivated by the importance of quantifying the regional surface heat balance over Arctic sea ice in studying climate processes, Lindsay and Rothrock (1994) developed a methodology for computing regional surface sensible heat fluxes using readily available advanced very high resolution (AVHRR) IR satellite imagery. Their technique is based upon the determination of the pixel-by-pixel sea ice surface temperature from which estimates of sensible heat fluxes are then made. We compare the sensible heat fluxes over the Beaufort Sea computed using their methodology with those measured by a gust probe system on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft on April 18, 1992, during the Leads Experiment. We use an AVHRR image recorded during the P-3 flight at 2303 UTC. We show that individual lead heat fluxes can be large, 115 W m-2 for 1-km average fluxes obtained from flight legs that included a 300-m-wide lead, but that regional values of sensible flux over 50-200 km of sea ice were small and positive, ˜8 W m-2. The sensible heat flux computed from the P-3 showed that a value of CS = 1.1×10-3, where CS is the heat transfer coefficient relative to 10 m, is appropriate for the spring Beaufort Sea. We suggest that more realistic winds derived, for example, from the National Meteorological Center sea level pressure analyses be used instead of the constant value of 5 m s-1 now employed by Lindsay and Rothrock. We also found that the maximum value of ΔT, the difference between air and surface temperature, used in the calculation of sensible heat flux using the Lindsay and Rothrock technique was underestimated by a factor of 1.9 when compared with direct measurements. Use of this ΔT correction factor, synoptic scale winds, and the calculated value of CS gave a good comparison between the AVHRR approach and aircraft fluxes measured over the region. The effective regional momentum drag coefficient CD relative to 10 m was 2.1×10-3, typical of Arctic pack ice.

  14. Controls on sensible heat and latent energy fluxes from a short-hydroperiod Florida Everglades marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schedlbauer, Jessica L.; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Starr, Gregory; Jimenez, Kristine L.

    2011-12-01

    SummaryLittle is known of energy balance in low latitude wetlands where there is a year-round growing season and a climate best defined by wet and dry seasons. The Florida Everglades is a highly managed and extensive subtropical wetland that exerts a substantial influence on the hydrology and climate of the south Florida region. However, the effects of seasonality and active water management on energy balance in the Everglades ecosystem are poorly understood. An eddy covariance and micrometeorological tower was established in a short-hydroperiod Everglades marsh to examine the dominant environmental controls on sensible heat ( H) and latent energy ( LE) fluxes, as well as the effects of seasonality on these parameters. Seasonality differentially affected H and LE fluxes in this marsh, such that H was principally dominant in the dry season and LE was strongly dominant in the wet season. The Bowen ratio was high for much of the dry season (1.5-2.4), but relatively low (<0.7) in the wet season. Net radiation strongly influenced H and LE fluxes across nearly all seasons and years ( Radj2=0.48-0.79). However, the 2009 dry season LE data were not consistent with this relationship ( Radj2=0.08) because of low seasonal variation in LE following a prolonged end to the previous wet season. In addition to net radiation, H and LE fluxes were significantly related to soil volumetric water content (VWC), water depth, air temperature, and occasionally vapor pressure deficit. Given that VWC and water depth were determined in part by water management decisions, it is clear that human actions have the ability to influence the mode of energy dissipation from this ecosystem. Impending modifications to water management under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan may shift the dominant turbulent flux from this ecosystem further toward LE, and this change will likely affect local hydrology and climate.

  15. Assessing Inter-Sensor Variability and Sensible Heat Flux Derivation Accuracy for a Large Aperture Scintillometer

    PubMed Central

    Rambikur, Evan H.; Chávez, José L.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy in determining sensible heat flux (H) of three Kipp and Zonen large aperture scintillometers (LAS) was evaluated with reference to an eddy covariance (EC) system over relatively flat and uniform grassland near Timpas (CO, USA). Other tests have revealed inherent variability between Kipp and Zonen LAS units and bias to overestimate H. Average H fluxes were compared between LAS units and between LAS and EC. Despite good correlation, inter-LAS biases in H were found between 6% and 13% in terms of the linear regression slope. Physical misalignment was observed to result in increased scatter and bias between H solutions of a well-aligned and poorly-aligned LAS unit. Comparison of LAS and EC H showed little bias for one LAS unit, while the other two units overestimated EC H by more than 10%. A detector alignment issue may have caused the inter-LAS variability, supported by the observation in this study of differing power requirements between LAS units. It is possible that the LAS physical misalignment may have caused edge-of-beam signal noise as well as vulnerability to signal noise from wind-induced vibrations, both having an impact on the solution of H. In addition, there were some uncertainties in the solutions of H from the LAS and EC instruments, including lack of energy balance closure with the EC unit. However, the results obtained do not show clear evidence of inherent bias for the Kipp and Zonen LAS to overestimate H as found in other studies. PMID:24473285

  16. Neglect of the foreign invisible: Historiography and the navigation of conflicting sensibilities.

    PubMed

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2015-05-01

    This essay is intended first as a contribution to historiography, and only second as a contribution to the history of developmental psychology. It is therefore a discussion--primarily--of the doing of the history of psychology, rather than of its content. Briefly put: American psychology, including its associated approaches to the history of psychology, is not adequately equipped to benefit fully from the contributions of foreign scholars. To make the resulting argument clear, two archive-driven microhistories are reviewed, contrasted, augmented with new archival research, and synthesized: Yeh Hsueh's (2004) examination of the nomination process at Harvard University that led to the awarding of an honorary doctorate to Jean Piaget in 1936, and Marc Ratcliff and Paloma Borella's (2013) examination-just recently published in French-of a similar process that resulted in Piaget's hiring at Geneva in 1929 and his eventual promotion in 1940. Comparing the authors' different approaches to similar content then affords this article's larger argument: we need to broaden our sensibilities so we can see high-quality foreign contributions for what they are. Several interesting insights result if we do. Among them: although Piaget's theory is today mistakenly criticized for being asocial, and this serves as justification for countering his early works with Vygotsky's posthumous critique, it emerges from these archival studies that Piaget may have in fact chosen to present himself and his work as nonsociological (when this was not the case) for reasons unrelated to his intellectual project. Such examples then broaden the discussion of "neglect of the foreign invisible" to include suppression--even censorship (by self or other)--which in turn reflects the primary problem afforded by internationalization: by what standards are we to judge the contributions of "foreigners" into "our" discipline? PMID:26120918

  17. Sense and Sensibility: The Case for the Nationwide Inclusion of Engineering in the K-12 Curriculum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, Robert E.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Batterson, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The competitive status of the United States is inextricably linked to innovation just as innovation is inseparable from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. To stay competitive in innovation requires that the United States produce a 21st century workforce complete with requisite education, training, skills, and motivation. If we accept a priori that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education are crucial to competitiveness and innovation and that, in terms of innovation, mathematics, science, and engineering are interdependent, why are mathematics and science uniformly ubiquitous in the K-12 curriculum while engineering is conspicuously absent? We are passionate in our belief that the uniform addition of engineering to the K-12 curriculum will help ensure that the nation has "the right" 21st Century workforce. Furthermore, we believe that a nationwide effort, led by a coalition of engineering academics, practitioners, and societies is required to turn this goal into reality. However, accomplishing this goal necessitates, as we are reminded by the title of Jane Austen's timeless novel, "Sense and Sensibility", a workable solution that seeks the "middle ground" between passion and reason. We begin our paper by making two essential points: Engineers are not scientists. Engineering exists separate from science, has its own specialized knowledge community apart from science, and it is largely responsible for many of the most significant advancements and improvements in the quality of our life. Our workable solution requires that K-12 education, nationwide, accommodate the inclusion of engineering as a stand alone curriculum and we offer three reasons to support our position: (1) workforce development, (2) stimulating interest in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) courses and careers, and (3) creating a technologically literate society. We conclude with some thoughts on how this important goal can be accomplished.

  18. Assessing inter-sensor variability and sensible heat flux derivation accuracy for a large aperture scintillometer.

    PubMed

    Rambikur, Evan H; Chávez, José L

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy in determining sensible heat flux (H) of three Kipp and Zonen large aperture scintillometers (LAS) was evaluated with reference to an eddy covariance (EC) system over relatively flat and uniform grassland near Timpas (CO, USA). Other tests have revealed inherent variability between Kipp and Zonen LAS units and bias to overestimate H. Average H fluxes were compared between LAS units and between LAS and EC. Despite good correlation, inter-LAS biases in H were found between 6% and 13% in terms of the linear regression slope. Physical misalignment was observed to result in increased scatter and bias between H solutions of a well-aligned and poorly-aligned LAS unit. Comparison of LAS and EC H showed little bias for one LAS unit, while the other two units overestimated EC H by more than 10%. A detector alignment issue may have caused the inter-LAS variability, supported by the observation in this study of differing power requirements between LAS units. It is possible that the LAS physical misalignment may have caused edge-of-beam signal noise as well as vulnerability to signal noise from wind-induced vibrations, both having an impact on the solution of H. In addition, there were some uncertainties in the solutions of H from the LAS and EC instruments, including lack of energy balance closure with the EC unit. However, the results obtained do not show clear evidence of inherent bias for the Kipp and Zonen LAS to overestimate H as found in other studies. PMID:24473285

  19. Technical approach to finalizing sensible soil cleanup levels at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.; Hertel, B.; Jewett, M.; Janke, R.; Conner, B.

    1996-02-01

    The remedial strategy for addressing contaminated environmental media was recently finalized for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) following almost 10 years of detailed technical analysis. The FEMP represents one of the first major nuclear facilities to successfully complete the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) phase of the environmental restoration process. A critical element of this success was the establishment of sensible cleanup levels for contaminated soil and groundwater both on and off the FEMP property. These cleanup levels were derived based upon a strict application of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations and guidance, coupled with positive input from the regulatory agencies and the local community regarding projected future land uses for the site. The approach for establishing the cleanup levels was based upon a Feasibility Study (FS) strategy that examined a bounding range of viable future land uses for the site. Within each land use, the cost and technical implications of a range of health-protective cleanup levels for the environmental media were analyzed. Technical considerations in driving these cleanup levels included: direct exposure routes to viable human receptors; cross- media impacts to air, surface water, and groundwater; technical practicality of attaining the levels; volume of affected media; impact to sensitive environmental receptors or ecosystems; and cost. This paper will discuss the technical approach used to support the finalization of the cleanup levels for the site. The final cleanup levels provide the last remaining significant piece to the puzzle of establishing a final site-wide remedial strategy for the FEMP, and positions the facility for the expedient completion of site-wide remedial activities.

  20. An Optimal Inverse Method Using Doppler Lidar Measurements to Estimate the Surface Sensible Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, T. M.; Barlow, J. F.; Belcher, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    Inverse methods are widely used in various fields of atmospheric science. However, such methods are not commonly used within the boundary-layer community, where robust observations of surface fluxes are a particular concern. We present a new technique for deriving surface sensible heat fluxes from boundary-layer turbulence observations using an inverse method. Doppler lidar observations of vertical velocity variance are combined with two well-known mixed-layer scaling forward models for a convective boundary layer (CBL). The inverse method is validated using large-eddy simulations of a CBL with increasing wind speed. The majority of the estimated heat fluxes agree within error with the proscribed heat flux, across all wind speeds tested. The method is then applied to Doppler lidar data from the Chilbolton Observatory, UK. Heat fluxes are compared with those from a mast-mounted sonic anemometer. Errors in estimated heat fluxes are on average 18 %, an improvement on previous techniques. However, a significant negative bias is observed (on average ) that is more pronounced in the morning. Results are improved for the fully-developed CBL later in the day, which suggests that the bias is largely related to the choice of forward model, which is kept deliberately simple for this study. Overall, the inverse method provided reasonable flux estimates for the simple case of a CBL. Results shown here demonstrate that this method has promise in utilizing ground-based remote sensing to derive surface fluxes. Extension of the method is relatively straight-forward, and could include more complex forward models, or other measurements.

  1. Impact of precipitation-induced sensible heat on the simulation of land-surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Nan; Dai, Yongjiu; Zhang, Minghua; Zhou, Liming; Ji, Duoying; Zhu, Siguang; Wang, Lili

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation-induced sensible heat (HPR) which is transferred between the land surface and rainwater can be extremely large during a heavy precipitation event. Thus, the local surface temperature can be sharply altered on an hourly to daily timescale. However, HPR is commonly neglected in current land surface models because of its small magnitude on long timescales. As a consequence, the simulated land-surface air temperature (TLSA) may be biased. In this study, we use satellite and reanalysis data sets to estimate HPR on the global scale, and we use CESM1 (with CAM4 physics and the prescribed sea surface temperature) to investigate the effect of HPR on TLSA simulations over the second half of the 20th century. Our results show that the reanalysis-estimated HPR is largest over Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) regions, with seasonal mean values of -0.22 W m-2 (-2.31 to 0.29 W m-2) in DJF and -0.28 W m-2 (-2.89 to 0.24 W m-2) in JJA. These values are consistent with the model-simulated HPR patterns. In DJF, the HPR leads to a weaker equator-pole surface heating difference and therefore, weakens northern stationary waves. The consequent changes of the heat and moisture advection result in noticeable TLSA warming effects (for example, +0.53 K over northern Eurasia and +0.46 K over central North America) and cooling effects (for example, -0.62 K over Alaska and -0.42 K over central Asia) at regional scales. These temperature changes help to reduce the TLSA biases in the model. In JJA, the TLSA changes slightly because of the weak stationary wave responses during the northern summer.

  2. Sensibility analysis of VORIS lava-flow simulations: application to Nyamulagira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syavulisembo, A. M.; Havenith, H.-B.; Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Marti, J.

    2015-03-01

    Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga area in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1-4 years - mostly in the form of lava flows - at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than two years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano, thereby affecting very large areas and having a serious impact on the region of Virunga. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at the Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007), a freely available software (http://www.gvb-csic.es) based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling lava flow propagation. We tested different Digital Elevation Models (DEM) - SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM - to analyze the sensibility of the input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1 in simulation of recent historical lava-flow for which the pre-eruption topography is known. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS model for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management.

  3. On the use of radiative surface temperature to estimate sensible heat flux over sparse shrubs in Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chehbouni, A.; Nichols, W. D.; Qi, J.; Njoku, E. G.; Kerr, Y. H.; Cabot, F.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate partitioning of available energy into sensible and latent heat flux is crucial to the understanding of surface atmosphere interactions. This issue is more complicated in arid and semi arid regions where the relative contribution to surface fluxes from the soil and vegetation may vary significantly throughout the day and throughout the season. A three component model to estimate sensible heat flux over heterogeneous surfaces is presented. The surface was represented with two adjacent compartments. The first compartment is made up of two components, shrubs and shaded soil, the second of open 'illuminated' soil. Data collected at two different sites in Nevada (U.S.) during the Summers of 1991 and 1992 were used to evaluate model performance. The results show that the present model is sufficiently general to yield satisfactory results for both sites.

  4. On the Potential Impact of Daytime Surface Sensible Heat Flux on the Dissipation of Martian Cold Air Outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Arritt, R. W.; Tillman, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    The Martian daytime soil surface temperature is governed primarily by the net irradiance balance and surface soil heat flux. Thus the outbreak of a cold air mass generates increased sensible heat flux that is conducive to daytime dissipation of the cold air mass thermal characteristics. Conceptual and scaling evaluations of this dissipation are provided while comparison is made with similar situations on Earth. It is estimated that sensible heat flux contribution to the dissipation of the original thermal structure of the cold air could be three times larger than the corresponding situation on Earth. Illustrative numerical model simulations provide scaling of the potential impact on the dissipation of cold air masses for various combinations of background wind speed and latitudes.

  5. Evaluation of sensible heat flux from remote sensing and eddy correlation data for two Portuguese cork-oak forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, John; Paço, Teresa A.; Silva, Filipe Costa e.; David, Jorge S.; Pereira, João S.; Rufino, Iana; Galvão, Carlos; Valente, Fernanda

    2015-04-01

    Energy balance is a major determinant of Earth surface temperature and climate. However, the physics of energy balance computations are complex and vary in space and in time. Most of the data available on the energy balance of non-agricultural systems is from local measurements, only representative of the area around the measuring point. To overcome this, remote sensing techniques have been widely used, particularly in studies on the temporal land-cover changes and on their influences on the energy and water balances. Several remote sensors with different spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions have been used to understand these processes. In many applications, the main objective is to understand how landscape's changes over time can influence regional climate. Orbital information enables the analysis of the spatial and temporal features of the Earth's surface, and to understand the interactions between different land-cover types with topography, atmospheric and anthropogenic action. However, to test for accuracy and precision, data from satellite sensors and their derivatives need to be compared with ground-level field data. This study evaluates and tests sensible heat flux data obtained from the SEBAL algorithm using images by Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor aboard Landsat 5 satellite. These sensible heat flux data were compared with those of two ground level experiments, with the Eddy Covariance technique, in Évora and Coruche, Portugal. The footprints of the sensible heat flux measurements were calculated for six scenes of sensor TM, allowing the comparison between satellite data and surface flux data. Results showed a high correlation between sensible heat flux data derived from remote sense and ground-level measurements (R2=0.94). We conclude that the remote sensing technique is useful in estimating this energy balance component and may contribute to the understanding of vegetation dynamics.

  6. Sensibility of a new instrument to assess clinical reasoning in post-graduate orthopaedic manual physical therapy education.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Euson; Woods, Nicole; Dubrowski, Adam; Hodges, Brian; Carnahan, Heather

    2015-04-01

    Sound application of clinical reasoning (CR) by the physical therapist is critical to achieving optimal patient outcomes. As such, it is important for institutions granting certification in orthopaedic manual physical therapy (OMPT) to ensure that the assessment of CR is sufficiently robust. At present, the dearth of validated instruments to assess CR in OMPT presents a serious challenge to certifying institutions. Moreover, the lack of documentation of the development process for instruments that measure CR pose additional challenges. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the sensibility of a newly developed instrument for assessing written responses to a test of CR in OMPT; a 'pilot' phase that examines instrument feasibility and acceptability. Using a sequential mixed-methods approach, Canadian OMPT examiners were recruited to first review and use the instrument. Participants completed a sensibility questionnaire followed by semi-structured interviews, the latter of which were used to elaborate on questionnaire responses regarding feasibility and acceptability. Eleven examiners completed the questionnaire and interviews. Questionnaire results met previously established sensibility criteria, while interview data revealed participants' (dis)comfort with exerting their own judgment and with the rating scale. Quantitative and qualitative data provided valuable insight regarding content validity and issues related to efficiency in assessing CR competence; all of which will ultimately inform further psychometric testing. While results suggest that the new instrument for assessing clinical reasoning in the Canadian certification context is sensible, future research should explore how rater judgment can be utilized effectively and the mental workload associated with appraising clinical reasoning. PMID:25456273

  7. A comparison of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes from aircraft and surface measurements in FIFE 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Robert D.; Smith, Eric A.; Macpherson, J. Ian

    1990-01-01

    Surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat over a tall-grass prairie in central Kansas, as measured by 22 surface stations during FIFE 1987, are compared with values gained indirectly by linear extrapolation of aircraft-measured flux profiles to the surface. The results of 33 such comparisons covering the period 26 June to 13 October 1987 indicate that the sensible heat flux profiles were generally more linear with less scatter in the measurements at each level than were the latent heat flux profiles, the profile extrapolations of sensible heat flux in general underestimate the surface averages by about 30 percent, with slightly better agreement during periods of small flux, and the profile extrapolations of latent heat flux in general underestimate the surface averages by about 15 percent, with overestimates during periods of small fluxes (dry conditions) and overestimates during periods of large fluxes (moist conditions). Possible origins of the differences between the two sets of measurements are discussed, as directions for further research.

  8. A comparison of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes from aircraft and surface measurements in FIFE 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Robert D.; Smith, Eric A.; Macpherson, J. I.

    1992-01-01

    Surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat over a tall-grass prairie in central Kansas, as measured by 22 surface stations during FIFE 1987, are compared with values gained indirectly by linear extrapolation of aircraft-measured flux profiles to the surface. The results of 33 such comparisons covering the period 26 June to 13 October 1987 indicate that the sensible heat flux profiles were generally more linear with less scatter in the measurements at each level than were the latent heat flux profiles, the profile extrapolations of sensible heat flux in general underestimate the surface averages by about 30 percent, with slightly better agreement during periods of small flux, and the profile extrapolations of latent heat flux in general underestimate the surface averages by about 15 percent, with overestimates during periods of small fluxes (dry conditions) and overestimates during periods of large fluxes (moist conditions). Possible origins of the differences between the two sets of measurements are discussed, as directions for further research.

  9. Characterization of Turbulent Latent and Sensible Heat Flux Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Ocean in MERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Clayson, Carol Anne; Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture across the atmosphere-ocean interface are fundamental components of the Earth s energy and water balance. Characterizing both the spatiotemporal variability and the fidelity of these exchanges of heat and moisture is critical to understanding the global water and energy cycle variations, quantifying atmosphere-ocean feedbacks, and improving model predictability. This study examines the veracity of the recently completed NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) product with respect to its representation of the surface turbulent heat fluxes. A validation of MERRA turbulent heat fluxes and near-surface bulk variables at local, high-resolution space and time scales is achieved by making comparisons to a large suite of direct observations. Both in situ and satellite-observed gridded surface heat flux estimates are employed to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the surface fluxes with respect to their annual mean climatologies, their seasonal covariability of near-surface bulk parameters, and their representation of extremes. The impact of data assimilation on the near-surface parameters is assessed through evaluation of incremental analysis update tendencies produced by the assimilation procedure. It is found that MERRA turbulent surface heat fluxes are relatively accurate for typical conditions but have systematically weak vertical gradients in moisture and temperature and have a weaker covariability between the near-surface gradients and wind speed than found in observations. This results in an underestimate of the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes over the western boundary current and storm track regions. The assimilation of observations mostly acts to bring MERRA closer to observational products by increasing moisture and temperature near the surface and decreasing the near-surface wind speeds. The major patterns of spatial and temporal variability of the turbulent heat fluxes produced by MERRA compare favorably to observationally based estimates. However, MERRA is distinct in terms of amplitude. These results suggest that MERRA is likely to be a valuable resource for a number of research applications though, as with all turbulent flux estimates, systematic issues should be taken into account.

  10. Characterization of Turbulent Latent and Sensible Heat Flux Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Ocean in MERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Clayson, Carol Anne; Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture across the atmosphere-ocean interface are fundamental components of the Earth's energy and water balance. Characterizing both the spatiotemporal variability and the fidelity of these exchanges of heat and moisture is critical to understanding the global water and energy cycle variations, quantifying atmosphere-ocean feedbacks, and improving model predictability. This study examines the veracity of the recently completed NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) product with respect to its representation of the surface turbulent heat fluxes. A validation of MERRA turbulent heat fluxes and near-surface bulk variables at local, high-resolution space and time scales is achieved by making comparisons to a large suite of direct observations. Both in situ and satellite-observed gridded surface heat flux estimates are employed to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the surface fluxes with respect to their annual mean climatologies, their seasonal covariability of near-surface bulk parameters, and their representation of extremes. The impact of data assimilation on the near-surface parameters is assessed through evaluation of incremental analysis update tendencies produced by the assimilation procedure. It is found that MERRA turbulent surface heat fluxes are relatively accurate for typical conditions but have systematically weak vertical gradients in moisture and temperature and have a weaker covariability between the near-surface gradients and wind speed than found in observations. This results in an underestimate of the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes over the western boundary current and storm track regions. The assimilation of observations mostly acts to bring MERRA closer to observational products by increasing moisture and temperature near the surface and decreasing the near-surface wind speeds. The major patterns of spatial and temporal variability of the turbulent heat fluxes produced by MERRA compare favorably to observationally based estimates. However, MERRA is distinct in terms of amplitude. These results suggest that MERRA is likely to be a valuable resource for a number of research applications though, as with all turbulent flux estimates, systematic issues should be taken into account

  11. Advances in estimating the climate sensibility of a large lake using scenario simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, M. M.; Schlabing, D.; Frassl, M. A.; Rinke, K.; Bárdossy, A.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical mixing behaviour of large deep lakes as e.g. Lake Constance is reflecting the long-term meteorological conditions and therefore is likely to be sensible to climate change. Today, Lake Constance does not mix completely every year, but only once in 2-3 years, which leads to the typical saw-tooth pattern in the deep water temperature. Whether complete mixing does occur is not only depending on the meteorological conditions in the respective winter period, but also on the thermal conditions in the lake and hence on the meteorological conditions in the preceding years. The lake's response to climate change thus depends on the temperature increase itself as well as on its gradient and on the inter-annual variability of the meteorological variables. Last year we showed first steps towards a model system to evaluate possible effects of climate change on Lake Constance: The Vector-Autoregressive Weathergenerator VG produces time series of meteorological data, which are used as boundary conditions for the 3D hydrodynamic lake model ELCOM (Centre of Water Research, University of Western Australia). As VG gives the opportunity to change mean and variability of selected variables, "What if?" - scenarios for process understanding can be performed. The time scales of variability turned out to be a critical point in the artificial time series for modelling the hydrodynamics of Lake Constance, as the big water body integrates over time and thus the hydrodynamics overlook the variability of air temperature on short time scales. Therefore, VG was developed further, especially with respect to the time scales of variability. While for heat input, the time scale of several days to weeks seems to be more important, wind and, when biology is modelled, short-wave radiation should be given at a sub-daily timestep. Besides producing user-defined scenario time-series, VG can also be used to stochastical downscale output of global climate model IPCC scenarios for lake modelling. The poster " Simulating the effect of meteorological variability on a lake ecosystem" by Marieke Anna Frassl in this session "Lakes and Inland Seas" shows lake model runs focusing on water quality and ecosystem behavior under different climate change scenarios. For further information on VG see "Stochastic Downscaling for Hydrodynamic and Ecological Modeling of Lakes" by Dirk Schlabing in Session "Hydroclimatic stochastics" (HS7.5 / NP8.3).

  12. The responsiveness of sensibility and strength tests in patients undergoing carpal tunnel decompression

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several clinical measures of sensory and motor function are used alongside patient-rated questionnaires to assess outcomes of carpal tunnel decompression. However there is a lack of evidence regarding which clinical tests are most responsive to clinically important change over time. Methods In a prospective cohort study 63 patients undergoing carpal tunnel decompression were assessed using standardised clinician-derived and patient reported outcomes before surgery, at 4 and 8 months follow up. Clinical sensory assessments included: touch threshold with monofilaments (WEST), shape-texture identification (STI™ test), static two-point discrimination (Mackinnon-Dellon Disk-Criminator) and the locognosia test. Motor assessments included: grip and tripod pinch strength using a digital grip analyser (MIE), manual muscle testing of abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis using the Rotterdam Intrinsic Handheld Myometer (RIHM). The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) was used as a patient rated outcome measure. Results Relative responsiveness at 4 months was highest for the BCTQ symptom severity scale with moderate to large effects sizes (ES = -1.43) followed by the BCTQ function scale (ES = -0.71). The WEST and STI™ were the most responsive sensory tests at 4 months showing moderate effect sizes (WEST ES = 0.55, STI ES = 0.52). Grip and pinch strength had a relatively higher responsiveness compared to thenar muscle strength but effect sizes for all motor tests were very small (ES ≤0.10) or negative indicating a decline compared to baseline in some patients. Conclusions For clinical assessment of sensibility touch threshold assessed by monofilaments (WEST) and tactile gnosis measured with the STI™ test are the most responsive tests and are recommended for future studies. The use of handheld myometry (RIHM) for manual muscle testing, despite more specifically targeting thenar muscles, was less responsive than grip or tripod pinch testing using the digital grip analyser (MIE). When assessing power and pinch strength the effect of other concomitant conditions such as degenerative joint disease on strength needs to be considered. PMID:22032626

  13. Some safe and sensible shortcuts for efficiently upscaled updates of existing elevation models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Thomas; Aasbjerg Nielsen, Allan

    2013-04-01

    The Danish national elevation model, DK-DEM, was introduced in 2009 and is based on LiDAR data collected in the time frame 2005-2007. Hence, DK-DEM is aging, and it is time to consider how to integrate new data with the current model in a way that improves the representation of new landscape features, while still preserving the overall (very high) quality of the model. In LiDAR terms, 2005 is equivalent to some time between the palaeolithic and the neolithic. So evidently, when (and if) an update project is launched, we may expect some notable improvements due to the technical and scientific developments from the last half decade. To estimate the magnitude of these potential improvements, and to devise efficient and effective ways of integrating the new and old data, we currently carry out a number of case studies based on comparisons between the current terrain model (with a ground sample distance, GSD, of 1.6 m), and a number of new high resolution point clouds (10-70 points/m2). Not knowing anything about the terms of a potential update project, we consider multiple scenarios ranging from business as usual: A new model with the same GSD, but improved precision, to aggressive upscaling: A new model with 4 times better GSD, i.e. a 16-fold increase in the amount of data. Especially in the latter case speeding up the gridding process is important. Luckily recent results from one of our case studies reveal that for very high resolution data in smooth terrain (which is the common case in Denmark), using local mean (LM) as grid value estimator is only negligibly worse than using the theoretically "best" estimator, i.e. ordinary kriging (OK) with rigorous modelling of the semivariogram. The bias in a leave one out cross validation differs on the micrometer level, while the RMSE differs on the 0.1 mm level. This is fortunate, since a LM estimator can be implemented in plain stream mode, letting the points from the unstructured point cloud (i.e. no TIN generation) stream through the processor, individually contributing to the nearest grid posts in a memory mapped grid file. Algorithmically this is very efficient, but it would be even more efficient if we did not have to handle so much data. Another of our recent case studies focuses on this. The basic idea is to ignore data that does not tell us anything new. We do this by looking at anomalies between the current height model and the new point cloud, then computing a correction grid for the current model. Points with insignificant anomalies are simply removed from the point cloud, and the correction grid is computed using the remaining point anomalies only. Hence, we only compute updates in areas of significant change, speeding up the process, and giving us new insight of the precision of the current model which in turn results in improved metadata for both the current and the new model. Currently we focus on simple approaches for creating a smooth update process for integration of heterogeneous data sets. On the other hand, as years go by and multiple generations of data become available, more advanced approaches will probably become necessary (e.g. a multi campaign bundle adjustment, improving the oldest data using cross-over adjustment with newer campaigns). But to prepare for such approaches, it is important already now to organize and evaluate the ancillary (GPS, INS) and engineering level data for the current data sets. This is essential if future generations of DEM users should be able to benefit from future conceptions of "some safe and sensible shortcuts for efficiently upscaled updates of existing elevation models".

  14. The farming system sensibility of the Normandy in connection with the Climatic Change (2000-2100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouée, Patrick; Cantat, Olivier; Bensaïd, Abdelkrim; Savouret, Edwige

    2010-05-01

    The French agricultural economy is closely connected with weather-climatic conditions. For example, dryness caused by the heat-wave of 2003 seriously affected the vegetation leading to a significant slowdown of photosynthetic activity. This resulted in logical decrease of agricultural production, in particular for arable lands and fodders. The Global warming that has begun at the end of the 19th century and seems to continue and even intensify during the 21st century (GIEC, 2007) arises a question of farming system sensibility when faced with Climate Change in the future. In France, recent studies (Cloppet and al, 2009) have conducted to the probable climate features spatialization on the national territory according to different scenarios. Whatever the scenario considered, it seems that the present Norman climate type is going to disappear by the end of century to be supplanted by a type of weather influenced by raising evapotranspiration, minimal and maximum temperatures as well as a raising speed of wind and solar radiation. Globally, this could emphasize agriculture soil dryness negative impact on large cereal land and pastures production (Butault, 2009, Ruget & Brisson, 2007). However, this climatic evolution could bring some production gain when the available water content of soils allows preventing or strongly limiting the hydrous stress emergence. For the current period and horizon 2100, according to the scenario A1B of the GIEC, the evaluation and the mapping with fine spatial resolution of this pedo-climatic indicator present a capital stake to appreciate the sensitivity of the agriculture of the Normandy in connection with the climatic evolution announced for the end of the 21st century. This exploratory work has been undertaken for the departmental territory of Calvados (5500 km²). For that purpose, it has been necessary beforehand to work out a precise mapping of soils on the basis of 7514 soil boreholes. The treatment of the soil database has allowed to design a map of the available water content of soils for the 1:25,000 scale. Thereafter, the modelling and the mapping of the local evapotranspiration conditions as well as the departmental mapping of rainfalls have permitted to elaborate a calculation algorithm of hydrological balance with fine spatial resolution. The estimate and the cartographic representation of the soil dryness (hydrous deficit) for the current period and 2100 according to the scenario A1B have been obtained then by requests of the pedo-climatic database. For the current period, as far as Calvados is concerned, the results show that, the dryness of the agricultural soils of low intensity concerns a little more than 1100 km², which means one the third of the agricultural area (3500 km²). The soil dryness of strong intensity appears very circumscribed since it extends only on 182 km² (approximately 5% of agricultural area). For 2100, the results are particularly alarming. They testify to a spectacular increase in the agricultural area touched by soil dryness with a strong intensity. These would represent nearly 2500 km², which represents 70% of the agricultural area. If this kind of scenario was to be confirmed, it is all the agricultural economy of Normandy which would be deeply affected.

  15. Airborne flux measurements of CO{sub 2}, sensible, and latent heat over the Hudson Bay lowland

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, R.L.; Hayhoe, H.N.; MacPherson, J.I.; Schuepp, P.H.

    1994-01-20

    This article describes the results of aerial surveys conducted in 1990 over the Hudson Bay Lowland as part of the Northern Wetlands Study by the National Research Council of Ottawa, Canada. Two aerial runs of approximately 100 kilometers in length were completed from James Bay to the Kinosheo Lake area. Atmospheric research aircraft was used to measure the spatial and temporal variations in carbon dioxide, water, and sensible heat fluxes over the wetlands areas. The data collected as part of this study and interpretation of the results are presented in this paper. 27 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations of the fluxes of carbon dioxide and sensible and latent heat over the FIFE site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R. L.; Schuepp, P. H.; Macpherson, J. I.; Buckley, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne measurements of flux densities of carbon dioxide CO2, sensible heat, and latent heat (H2O) obtained over the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) site during three intensive field campaigns in 1987 and one in 1989 are examined to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 and energy transfer processes. These data were collected by the National Research Council Twin Otter using low-level flight patterns, all flown at constant pressure altitude during relatively clear days. The spatial variations are larger in 1989 than in 1987 and a higher correlation is observed between the fluxes and the surface features. The temporal patterns are easier to characterize with the relatively homogeneous situation of 1987. Functional relationships obtained between fluxes of CO2 and latent heat, CO2 fluxes and greenness index, latent heat fluxes and greenness index, and between sensible heat fluxes and surface air temperature differences are presented for one day in 1987 and one in 1989 as an example of the kind of information that can be obtained from grid flights at constant pressure altitude.

  17. Improved estimation of sensible heat flux by a LAS using a Bowen ratio at urban residential area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M. S.; Chae, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A large aperture scintillometer (LAS) data sampled for the period from 1 February to 31 July 2014 at urban residential area in Seoul are modified using the variable Bowen ratio and a net radiation data to determine the space-averaged sensible heat flux (SHF). A LAS system is installed over the rooftop of two buildings with a distance between receiver and transmitter of 535 m, an effective height of 18.4 m, a wind speed sensor at 25.0 m high. The path-averaged building height, roughness length, and displacement length between the receiver and transmitter are 9.2 m, 0.4 m, and 7.1 m, respectively. The Bowen ratio computed at every 30 minute interval by the wind speed and air temperature at 10 and 18 m above the rooftop is found to be well correlated with meteorological variables such as net radiation and mixing ratio. Therefore, it is parameterized as a function of mixing ratio and net radiation. The resulting parameterization is applied to estimate the SHF by LAS. The Monin-Obukhov similarity universal function should be changed according to the atmospheric stability using the sign of net radiation sampled at the same time. It is found that the resulting sensible heat fluxes are available under all atmospheric stability and are much improved compared with those by eddy covariance method.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of the fluxes of carbon dioxide and sensible and latent heat over the FIFE site

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, R.L.; Schuepp, P.H.; Macpherson, J.I.; Buckley, D.J. McGill Univ., Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa Agriculture Canada, Centre for Food and Animal Research, Ottawa )

    1992-11-01

    Airborne measurements of flux densities of carbon dioxide CO2, sensible heat, and latent heat (H2O) obtained over the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) site during three intensive field campaigns in 1987 and one in 1989 are examined to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 and energy transfer processes. These data were collected by the National Research Council Twin Otter using low-level flight patterns, all flown at constant pressure altitude during relatively clear days. The spatial variations are larger in 1989 than in 1987 and a higher correlation is observed between the fluxes and the surface features. The temporal patterns are easier to characterize with the relatively homogeneous situation of 1987. Functional relationships obtained between fluxes of CO2 and latent heat, CO2 fluxes and greenness index, latent heat fluxes and greenness index, and between sensible heat fluxes and surface air temperature differences are presented for one day in 1987 and one in 1989 as an example of the kind of information that can be obtained from grid flights at constant pressure altitude. 20 refs.

  19. A two-concentric-loop iterative method in estimation of displacement height and roughness length for momentum and sensible heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenguang; Qualls, Russell J.; Berliner, Pedro R.

    2008-11-01

    A two-concentric-loop iterative (TCLI) method is proposed to estimate the displacement height and roughness length for momentum and sensible heat by using the measurements of wind speed and air temperature at two heights, sensible heat flux above the crop canopy, and the surface temperature of the canopy. This method is deduced theoretically from existing formulae and equations. The main advantage of this method is that data measured not only under near neutral conditions, but also under unstable and slightly stable conditions can be used to calculate the scaling parameters. Based on the data measured above an Acacia Saligna agroforestry system, the displacement height ( d 0) calculated by the TCLI method and by a conventional method are compared. Under strict neutral conditions, the two methods give almost the same results. Under unstable conditions, d 0 values calculated by the conventional method are systematically lower than those calculated by the TCLI method, with the latter exhibiting only slightly lower values than those seen under strictly neutral conditions. Computation of the average values of the scaling parameters for the agroforestry system showed that the displacement height and roughness length for momentum are 68% and 9.4% of the average height of the tree canopy, respectively, which are similar to percentages found in the literature. The calculated roughness length for sensible heat is 6.4% of the average height of the tree canopy, a little higher than the percentages documented in the literature. When wind direction was aligned within 5 ° of the row direction of the trees, the average displacement height calculated was about 0.6 m lower than when the wind blew across the row direction. This difference was statistically significant at the 0.0005 probability level. This implies that when the wind blows parallel to the row direction, the logarithmic profile of wind speed is shifted lower to the ground, so that, at a given height, the wind speeds are faster than when the wind blows perpendicular to the row direction.

  20. Selective deficits of grip force control during object manipulation in patients with reduced sensibility of the grasping digits.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dennis A; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2003-09-01

    Persons with impaired manual sensibility frequently report problems to use the hand in manipulative tasks, such as using tools or buttoning a shirt. At least two control processes determine grip forces during voluntary object manipulation. Anticipatory force control specifies the motor commands on the basis of predictions about physical object properties and the consequences of our own actions. Feedback sensory information from the grasping digits, representing mechanical events at the skin-object interface, automatically modifies grip force according to the actual loading requirements and updates sensorimotor memories to support anticipatory grip force control. We investigated grip force control in nine patients with moderately impaired tactile sensibility of the grasping digits and in nine sex- and age-matched healthy controls lifting and holding an instrumented object. In healthy controls grip force was adequately scaled to the weight of the object to be lifted. The grip force was programmed to smoothly change in parallel with load force over the entire lifting movement. In particular, the grip force level was regulated in an economical way to be always slightly higher than the minimum required to prevent the object slipping. The temporal coupling between the grip and load force profiles achieved a high precision with the maximum grip and load forces coinciding closely in time. For the temporal regulation of the grip force profile patients with impaired tactile sensibility maintained the close co-ordination between proximal arm muscles, responsible for the lifting movement and the fingers stabilising the grasp. Maximum grip force coincided with maximum acceleration of the lifting movement. However, patients employed greater maximum grip forces and greater grip forces to hold the object unsupported when compared with controls. Our results give further evidence to the suggestion that during manipulation of objects with known physical properties the anticipatory temporal regulation of the grip force profile is centrally processed and less under sensory feedback control. In contrast, sensory afferent information from the grasping fingers plays a dominant role for the efficient scaling of the grip force level according to actual loading requirements. PMID:12941448

  1. A two-concentric-loop iterative method in estimation of displacement height and roughness length for momentum and sensible heat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenguang; Qualls, Russell J; Berliner, Pedro R

    2008-11-01

    A two-concentric-loop iterative (TCLI) method is proposed to estimate the displacement height and roughness length for momentum and sensible heat by using the measurements of wind speed and air temperature at two heights, sensible heat flux above the crop canopy, and the surface temperature of the canopy. This method is deduced theoretically from existing formulae and equations. The main advantage of this method is that data measured not only under near neutral conditions, but also under unstable and slightly stable conditions can be used to calculate the scaling parameters. Based on the data measured above an Acacia Saligna agroforestry system, the displacement height (d0) calculated by the TCLI method and by a conventional method are compared. Under strict neutral conditions, the two methods give almost the same results. Under unstable conditions, d0 values calculated by the conventional method are systematically lower than those calculated by the TCLI method, with the latter exhibiting only slightly lower values than those seen under strictly neutral conditions. Computation of the average values of the scaling parameters for the agroforestry system showed that the displacement height and roughness length for momentum are 68% and 9.4% of the average height of the tree canopy, respectively, which are similar to percentages found in the literature. The calculated roughness length for sensible heat is 6.4% of the average height of the tree canopy, a little higher than the percentages documented in the literature. When wind direction was aligned within 5 degrees of the row direction of the trees, the average displacement height calculated was about 0.6 m lower than when the wind blew across the row direction. This difference was statistically significant at the 0.0005 probability level. This implies that when the wind blows parallel to the row direction, the logarithmic profile of wind speed is shifted lower to the ground, so that, at a given height, the wind speeds are faster than when the wind blows perpendicular to the row direction. PMID:18807076

  2. A 3-year dataset of sensible and latent heat fluxes from the Tibetan Plateau, derived using eddy covariance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Maoshan; Babel, Wolfgang; Chen, Xuelong; Zhang, Lang; Sun, Fanglin; Wang, Binbin; Ma, Yaoming; Hu, Zeyong; Foken, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has become a focus of strong scientific interest due to its role in the global water cycle and its reaction to climate change. Regional flux estimates of sensible and latent heat are important variables for linking the energy and hydrological cycles at the TP's surface. Within this framework, a 3-year dataset (2008-2010) of eddy covariance measured turbulent fluxes was compiled from four stations on the TP into a standardised workflow: corrections and quality tests were applied using an internationally comparable software package. Second, the energy balance closure ( C EB) was determined and two different closure corrections applied. The four stations (Qomolangma, Linzhi, NamCo and Nagqu) represent different locations and typical land surface types on the TP (high altitude alpine steppe with sparse vegetation, a densely vegetated alpine meadow, and bare soil/gravel, respectively). We show that the C EB differs between each surface and undergoes seasonal changes. Typical differences in the turbulent energy fluxes occur between the stations at Qomolangma, Linzhi and NamCo, while Nagqu is quite similar to NamCo. Specific investigation of the pre-monsoon, the Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon, post-monsoon and winter periods within the annual cycle reinforces these findings. The energy flux of the four sites is clearly influenced by the Tibetan Plateau monsoon. In the pre-monsoon period, sensible heat flux is the major energy source delivering heat to the atmosphere, whereas latent heat flux is greater than sensible heat flux during the monsoon season. Other factors affecting surface energy flux are topography and location. Land cover type also affects surface energy flux. The energy balance residuum indicates a typically observed overall non-closure in winter, while closure (or `turbulent over-closure') is achieved during the Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon at the Nagqu site. The latter seems to depend on ground heat flux, which is higher in the wet season, related not only to a larger radiation input but also to a thermal decoupling of dry soils. Heterogeneous landscape modelling using a MODIS product is introduced to explain energy non-closure.

  3. Applying a simple three-dimensional eddy correlation system for latent and sensible heat flux to contrasting forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhofer, Ch.

    1992-06-01

    A simple eddy correlation system is presented that allows on-line calculation of latent and sensible heat fluxes. The system is composed of a three dimensional propeller anemometer, a thermocouple and a capacitance relative humidity sensor. Results from two contrasting sites demonstrate the capability of the system to measure turbulent fluxes under varying conditions. A dry mixed (dominantly coniferous) forest in hilly terrain in Austria is compared to a well irrigated, heavily transpiring, deciduous pecan orchard in the Southwest of the US. The US site shows insufficient closure of the energy balance that is attributed to non-turbulent fluxes under advective conditions in a stable boundary layer (Blanford et al., 1991) while the Austrian site exhibits almost perfect closure with the use of the very same instruments when the boundary layer is convective and advection is negligible.

  4. Field programmable gate array processing for an improved low-light-level imaging system with higher detection sensibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hongying; Yu, Zhengtao

    2014-05-01

    The method which employs the frame accumulation and shaped function is effective in low-light-level imaging. However, it has drawbacks of lower imaging speed and complex operation. To optimize the method, we provide the design of an improved low-light-level imaging system with higher detection sensibility. The design is developed specifically for a faster imaging speed based on field programmable gate arrays. It features the use of least-square algorithm and a saw-tooth wave varied light applied to the image sensor. By manipulation of the video signal in synchronous dynamic random access memory, a low-light-level image which was previously undetectable can be estimated. The design simplifies the imaging process and doubles the imaging speed, and makes the system adapted to long range imaging.

  5. Field programmable gate array processing for an improved low-light-level imaging system with higher detection sensibility.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hongying; Yu, Zhengtao

    2014-05-01

    The method which employs the frame accumulation and shaped function is effective in low-light-level imaging. However, it has drawbacks of lower imaging speed and complex operation. To optimize the method, we provide the design of an improved low-light-level imaging system with higher detection sensibility. The design is developed specifically for a faster imaging speed based on field programmable gate arrays. It features the use of least-square algorithm and a saw-tooth wave varied light applied to the image sensor. By manipulation of the video signal in synchronous dynamic random access memory, a low-light-level image which was previously undetectable can be estimated. The design simplifies the imaging process and doubles the imaging speed, and makes the system adapted to long range imaging. PMID:24880380

  6. Artificial sensibility of the hand based on cortical audiotactile interaction: a study using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Göran; Björkman, Anders; Hansson, Thomas; Nylander, Lotta; Nyman, Torbjörn; Rosén, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of the central nervous system for plastic alterations is the base for our ability to adapt to environmental needs. The crossmodal capacity of the brain makes interaction between senses possible, and deprivation of one sense leads to compensatory changes in other senses. We have recently shown how hearing can substitute for sensation in a transplanted insensitive hand by using a sensor glove equipped with small microphones that pick up the sound of friction, which is elicited by active touch. Here we have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy people to illustrate their capacity for cortical audiotactile interaction with activation of the somatosensory cortex induced by auditory stimuli. The phenomenon occurred only in subjects trained to substitute sensibility by hearing, and no audiotactile interaction was found in untrained subjects. PMID:16298810

  7. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Combined Sensible/Latent Thermal Energy Storage for High-Temperature Applications.

    PubMed

    Geissbühler, Lukas; Zavattoni, Simone; Barbato, Maurizio; Zanganeh, Giw; Haselbacher, Andreas; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Combined sensible/latent heat storage allows the heat-transfer fluid outflow temperature during discharging to be stabilized. A lab-scale combined storage consisting of a packed bed of rocks and steel-encapsulated AlSi(12) was investigated experimentally and numerically. Due to the small tank-to-particle diameter ratio of the lab-scale storage, void-fraction variations were not negligible, leading to channeling effects that cannot be resolved in 1D heat-transfer models. The void-fraction variations and channeling effects can be resolved in 2D models of the flow and heat transfer in the storage. The resulting so-called bypass fraction extracted from the 2D model was used in the 1D model and led to good agreement with experimental measurements. PMID:26842333

  8. The Origins of a Modern Medical Ethics in Enlightenment Scotland: Cheyne, Gregory and Cullen as Practitioners of Sensibility.

    PubMed

    Wild, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The foundations of a modern medical ethics does not appear in Britain until the late-eighteenth century, with the publication of John Gregory's Lectures on the Duties and Qualifications of a Physician in 1772. Focusing on the contemporary Moral Sense philosophical ideas formulated primarily by leading members of the Kirk, and the medical writings of the Scottish physicians, George Cheyne, John Gregory, and William Cullen, this chapter explores the fusion of classical and holistic Christian-based medical ethics. It is argued that it was the convergence of new theories of nervous sensibility, Scottish Enlightenment, Christian-based sentimental moral philosophies, and the rhetoric of the "man of feeling" that created a new modern medical ethics. PMID:27132349

  9. Comparisons of sensible and latent heat fluxes using surface and aircraft data over adjacent wet and dry surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.; Shaw, W.J. ); Baldocchi, D.D.; Crawford, T.L.; Dobosy, R.J.; Meyers, T.J. . Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)

    1992-01-01

    In June 1991, a field study of surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over heterogeneous surfaces was carried out near Boardman, Oregon (Doran et al., 1992). The object of the study was to develop improved methods of extrapolating from local measurements of fluxes to area-averaged values suitable for use in general circulation models (GCMs) applied to climate studies. A grid element in a GCM is likely to encompass regions whose fluxes vary significantly from one surface type to another. The problem of integrating these fluxes into a single, representative value for the whole element is not simple, and describing such a flux in terms of flux-gradient relationships, as is often done, presents additional difficulties.

  10. A comparison of CO2 and sensible heat flux measurements from aircraft and tower-based platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, D. K.; Shepson, P. B.; Jacox, M.; Smith, J.; Hahn, M.; Garrity, S.; Vierling, L.; Schmid, H. P.; Vogel, C.; Zimmerman, J. R.; Wyss, P.; Santini, R.; Stirm, B.

    2006-12-01

    Eddy covariance fluxes of CO2 from a twin-engine Beechcraft Duchess were compared to the Ameriflux tower- based platform over a northern hardwood, deciduous forest between June 21 and July 24, 2006. Vertical wind was measured using a combination of a hemispherical pressure sensor probe and GPS/INS system on the aircraft and a sonic anemometer on the tower. The platforms employed NDIR analyzers to measure CO2 concentrations. Six flight legs, 5km in length, were averaged at heights of 150, 210, and 275m and compared with 30min averaged CO2 and sensible heat fluxes at the top of the 46m flux tower. Aircraft-based flux measurements as a function of altitude allow for assessment of flux divergence. In this paper, we compare the aircraft and tower data sets, and assess the differences in averaged fluxes, based in part on the footprint of the two platforms and flux divergence.

  11. Assessment of the performance of the drag and bulk transfer method in estimating sensible and latent heat fluxes in a tropical station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniyi, Mojisola Oluwayemisi; Ogunsola, Oluseyi E.

    2012-02-01

    The performance of the general bulk formulation in estimating sensible heat flux at Nigerian Micrometeorological Experimental site was assessed. Reliable sensible heat flux was estimated with the use of accurate diurnal values of transfer coefficient of sensible heat. The performances of one α, two β and a modified α formulations in the estimation of latent heat flux were also assessed at the station. The Lee and Pielke ( β), modified Kondo ( α), Jacquemin and Noilhan ( α) and Noilhan and Planton ( β) parameterizations gave good estimation of latent heat flux. The coefficient of determination ( R 2) of the models between measured and estimated values were greater than 0.7. Low diurnal mean absolute error and root mean squared error values were found between measured and estimated fluxes. All the parameterizations gave reliable latent heat flux when diurnal values of transfer coefficients of moisture were used.

  12. Wavelet and Fractal Analysis of Remotely Sensed Surface Temperature with Applications to Estimation of Surface Sensible Heat Flux Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schieldge, John

    2000-01-01

    Wavelet and fractal analyses have been used successfully to analyze one-dimensional data sets such as time series of financial, physical, and biological parameters. These techniques have been applied to two-dimensional problems in some instances, including the analysis of remote sensing imagery. In this respect, these techniques have not been widely used by the remote sensing community, and their overall capabilities as analytical tools for use on satellite and aircraft data sets is not well known. Wavelet and fractal analyses have the potential to provide fresh insight into the characterization of surface properties such as temperature and emissivity distributions, and surface processes such as the heat and water vapor exchange between the surface and the lower atmosphere. In particular, the variation of sensible heat flux density as a function of the change In scale of surface properties Is difficult to estimate, but - in general - wavelets and fractals have proved useful in determining the way a parameter varies with changes in scale. We present the results of a limited study on the relationship between spatial variations in surface temperature distribution and sensible heat flux distribution as determined by separate wavelet and fractal analyses. We analyzed aircraft imagery obtained in the thermal infrared (IR) bands from the multispectral TIMS and hyperspectral MASTER airborne sensors. The thermal IR data allows us to estimate the surface kinetic temperature distribution for a number of sites in the Midwestern and Southwestern United States (viz., San Pedro River Basin, Arizona; El Reno, Oklahoma; Jornada, New Mexico). The ground spatial resolution of the aircraft data varied from 5 to 15 meters. All sites were instrumented with meteorological and hydrological equipment including surface layer flux measuring stations such as Bowen Ratio systems and sonic anemometers. The ground and aircraft data sets provided the inputs for the wavelet and fractal analyses, and the validation of the results.

  13. Estimating sensible heat exchange between screen-covered canopies and the atmosphere using the surface renewal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanny, J.; Mekhmandarov, Y.; Achiman, O.; Pirkner, M.

    2013-12-01

    Screenhouses and screen-covers are widely used in arid and semi-arid agriculture to protect crops from direct solar radiation and high wind speed, and to increase water use efficiency. However, accurate estimation of crop water use under screens is still a challenge. The most reliable method that directly measures evapotranspiration, the Eddy Covariance (EC), is both expensive and complex in data collection and processing. This renders it unfeasible for day to day use by farmers. A simpler alternative is the Surface Renewal (SR) technique which utilizes high frequency temperature readings of low-cost fine-wire thermocouples, to estimate the sensible heat flux. Assuming energy conservation and employing relatively cheap complementary measurements, the evapotranspiration can be estimated. The SR technique uses a structure function mathematical analysis that filters out noise and involves a time lag parameter to provide amplitude and time period of a ramp-like temperature signal. This behavior arises from the detachment of air parcels that have been heated or cooled near the surface and sequentially renewed by air parcels from above. While the SR technique is relatively simple to employ, it requires calibration against direct measurements. The aim of this research is to investigate the applicability of the SR technique in screenhouses in two different climatic regions in Israel. Two field campaigns were carried out: In the first campaign we studied a banana plantation grown in a shading screenhouse in the coastal plane of northern Israel. In the second campaign a pepper plantation cultivated in an insect-proof screenhouse in the Jordan Valley region of eastern Israel was examined. In the two campaigns, SR sensible heat flux estimates were calibrated against simultaneous eddy covariance measurements. To optimize the SR operation, in each campaign fine-wire (50 - 78 μm) exposed T-type thermocouples were placed at several heights. Thermocouple output was continuously recorded at 10 Hz and data analysis was performed at 10, 5, 2 and 1 Hz to examine the validity of low frequency data acquisition. Results for daytime hours revealed temperature ramp amplitudes of up to 2°C. Best linear regressions between EC and SR sensible heat fluxes during validation were obtained for the thermocouples located adjacent to the screen, for both banana and pepper screenhouses. The coefficients of determination were generally higher for the banana than the pepper screenhouses. This was due to the effect of the insect-proof screen which induces a higher resistance to airflow than the light shading screen that covers the banana plantation. At both campaigns, results were better for unstable than for stable boundary layers. At stable conditions, and at unstable conditions above the canopy, low frequency data analysis produced reasonable results, such that 2 Hz analysis performed as good as 10 Hz. Parameters like turbulence intensity, two-point correlation and quadrant analysis illustrate the effect of the two different screenhouses on turbulence characteristics of the flow.

  14. Estimating sensible heat exchange between screen-covered canopies and the atmosphere using the surface renewal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekhmandarov, Yonatan; Achiman, Ori; Pirkner, Moran; Tanny, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Screenhouses and screen-covers are widely used in arid and semi-arid agriculture to protect crops from direct solar radiation and high wind speed, and to increase water use efficiency. However, accurate estimation of crop water use under screens is still a challenge. The most reliable method that directly measures evapotranspiration, the Eddy Covariance (EC), is both expensive and complex in data collection and processing. This renders it unfeasible for day to day use by farmers. A simpler alternative is the Surface Renewal (SR) technique which utilizes high frequency temperature readings of low-cost fine-wire thermocouples, to estimate the sensible heat flux. Assuming energy conservation and employing relatively cheap complementary measurements, the evapotranspiration can be estimated. The SR technique uses a structure function mathematical analysis that filters out noise and involves a time lag parameter to provide amplitude and time period of a ramp-like temperature signal. This behavior arises from the detachment of air parcels that have been heated or cooled near the surface and sequentially renewed by air parcels from above. While the SR technique is relatively simple to employ, it requires calibration against direct measurements. The aim of this research is to investigate the applicability of the SR technique in two different types of commonly used screenhouses in Israel. Two field campaigns were carried out: In the first campaign we studied a banana plantation grown in a shading screenhouse located in the coastal plain of northern Israel. The second campaign was located in the Jordan Valley region of eastern Israel, where a pepper plantation cultivated in an insect-proof screenhouse, with a much denser screen, was examined. In the two campaigns, SR sensible heat flux estimates were calibrated against simultaneous eddy covariance measurements. To optimize the SR operation, in each campaign fine-wire (50-76 μm) exposed T-type thermocouples were placed at several heights. Thermocouple output was continuously recorded at 10 Hz and data analysis was performed at 10, 5, 2 and 1 Hz to examine the validity of low frequency data acquisition. Results for daytime hours revealed temperature ramp amplitudes of up to 2ºC, with ramp periods spanning from several to tens of seconds. Best linear regressions between EC and SR sensible heat fluxes during validation were obtained for the thermocouples located above the screen, 0.1 m above the shading screen and 0.45 m above the insect-proof screen. The coefficients of determination were generally higher for the shading than the insect-proof screenhouses. This was due to the effect of the insect-proof screen which induces a higher resistance to airflow than the more porous shading screen that covers the banana plantation. At both campaigns, results were better for unstable than for stable boundary layers. At unstable conditions and above the canopy, low frequency data analysis produced reasonable results, such that 2 Hz analysis performed as good as 10 Hz. Parameters like turbulence intensity, two-point correlation and quadrant analysis illustrate the effect of the two different screenhouses on turbulence characteristics of the flow.

  15. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON THE CARBON DIOXIDE, WATER, AND SENSIBLE HEAT FLUXES ABOVE A PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION IN THE SIERRA NEVADA, CA. (R826601)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Fluxes of CO2, water vapor, and sensible heat were measured by the eddy covariance method above a young ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (CA) over two growing seasons (1 June10 September 1997 and 1 May&#...

  16. Belonging and "Achieving" in the Free Market of Education: A Study on Students' Sensibilities in an Aotearoa/New Zealand School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko Musha

    School reform in New Zealand in the 1990s greatly affected funding strategies and school social dynamics. This paper investigates the effects of per-pupil funding and the track system on the sensibilities of students in one New Zealand secondary school. Per-pupil funding and the track system are used in an effort to attract parents (consumers) and…

  17. A method for sensible heat flux model parameterization based on radiometric surface temperature and environmental factors without involving the parameter KB-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Qifeng; Wu, Bingfang; Yan, Nana; Zhu, Weiwei; Xing, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Sensible heat flux is a key component of land-atmosphere interaction. In most parameterizations it is calculated with surface-air temperature differences and total aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer (Rae) that is related to the KB-1 parameter. Suitable values are hard to obtain since KB-1 is related both to canopy characteristics and environmental conditions. In this paper, a parameterize method for sensible heat flux over vegetated surfaces (maize field and grass land in the Heihe river basin of northwest China) was proposed based on the radiometric surface temperature, surface resistance (Rs) and vapor pressures (saturated and actual) at the surface and the atmosphere above the canopy. A biophysics-based surface resistance model was revised to compute surface resistance with several environmental factors. The total aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer is directly calculated by combining the biophysics-based surface resistance and vapor pressures. One merit of this method is that the calculation of KB-1 can be avoided. The method provides a new way to estimate sensible heat flux over vegetated surfaces and its performance compares well to the LAS measured sensible heat and other empirical or semi-empirical KB-1 based estimations.

  18. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON THE CARBON DIOXIDE, WATER, AND SENSIBLE HEAT FLUXES ABOVE A PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION IN THE SIERRA NEVADA, CA. (R826601)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Fluxes of CO2, water vapor, and sensible heat were measured by the eddy covariance method above a young ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (CA) over two growing seasons (1 June¯10 September 1997 and 1 May&#...

  19. Thermoregulation during flight: body temperature and sensible heat transfer in free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Reichard, Jonathan D; Fellows, Spenser R; Frank, Alexander J; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    Bat wings are important for thermoregulation, but their role in heat balance during flight is largely unknown. More than 80% of the energy consumed during flight generates heat as a by-product, and thus it is expected that bat wings should dissipate large amounts of heat to prevent hyperthermia. We measured rectal (T(r)) and surface (T(s)) temperatures of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) as they emerged from and returned to their daytime roosts and calculated sensible heat transfer for different body regions (head, body, wings, and tail membrane). Bats' T(r) decreased from 36.8C during emergence flights to 34.4C during returns, and T(s) scaled positively with ambient temperature (T(a)). Total radiative heat loss from bats was significantly greater for a radiative sink to the night sky than for a sink with temperature equal to T(a). We found that free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats, on average, do not dissipate heat from their wings by convection but instead dissipate radiative heat (L) to the cloudless night sky during flight ([Formula: see text] W). However, within the range of T(a) measured in this study, T. brasiliensis experienced net heat loss between evening emergence and return flights. Regional hypothermia reduces heat loss from wings that are exposed to potentially high convective fluxes. Additional research is needed to establish the role of wings in evaporative cooling during flight in bats. PMID:21034204

  20. Variability of sensible heat flux over the Bay of Bengal and its connection to Indian Ocean Dipole events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyriac, Ajitha; Ghoshal, Tarumay; Shaileshbhai, Patel Ramkrushnbhai; Chakraborty, Arun

    2016-03-01

    The Bay of Bengal (BOB) is known to possess complex thermodynamics which show distinct seasonal patterns. Surface heat fluxes in the BOB are very much dependant on upper ocean heat exchanges and wind. Sensible heat flux (SHF) is also one among those fluxes that depends on air-sea temperature difference and wind. However, this study further proves that a strong relationship exists between barrier layer thickness (BLT) and SHF variability that has not been focussed on in earlier literatures. This study also investigates the seasonal as well as inter-annual variability of SHF and its relationship with BLT and sea surface temperature (SST) patterns in more detail with statistical analyses. It is found that both SST and BLT are responsible for the evolution of SHF signal in the BOB although their effects are spatially distributed. During the post monsoon period, freshwater induced enhanced BLT is more related to SHF than the summer time when effect of SST is found to be dominant. During Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) years, the correlation between SHF and BLT in the eastern BOB is more pronounced compared to SHF and SST. The western BOB however is dominated by SST variations for the respective IOD phase which also contribute to SHF signals there. Northernmost BOB shows high standard deviation due to river discharge effects.

  1. Morpholinos: Antisense and Sensibility.

    PubMed

    Blum, Martin; De Robertis, Edward M; Wallingford, John B; Niehrs, Christof

    2015-10-26

    For over 15 years, antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) have allowed developmental biologists to make key discoveries regarding developmental mechanisms in numerous model organisms. Recently, serious concerns have been raised as to the specificity of MO effects, and it has been recommended to discontinue their usage, despite the long experience of the scientific community with the MO tool in thousands of studies. Reviewing the many advantages afforded by MOs, we conclude that adequately controlled MOs should continue to be accepted as generic loss-of-function approach, as otherwise progress in developmental biology will greatly suffer. PMID:26506304

  2. Album of sensible retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    Some practical ideas for successful solar remodeling are presented. Such ideas as constructing a hip-roofed surface, superinsulated cathederal ceilings, trombing the basement walls, and a baby sunspace are discussed.

  3. Biosensors: sense and sensibility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anthony P F

    2013-04-21

    This review is based on the Theophilus Redwood Medal and Award lectures, delivered to Royal Society of Chemistry meetings in the UK and Ireland in 2012, and presents a personal overview of the field of biosensors. The biosensors industry is now worth billions of United States dollars, the topic attracts the attention of national initiatives across the world and tens of thousands of papers have been published in the area. This plethora of information is condensed into a concise account of the key achievements to date. The reasons for success are examined, some of the more exciting emerging technologies are highlighted and the author speculates on the importance of biosensors as a ubiquitous technology of the future for health and the maintenance of wellbeing. PMID:23420144

  4. SENSIBLE SOIL SENSORS WELCOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The idea of automated in-field sensors for assessing soil nutrients is appealing because of the difficulty in obtaining a representative sample with traditional methods. With sensors, many more measurements could be taken than is feasible with soil sampling and lab analysis. In recent years, a senso...

  5. Estimation of turbulent sensible heat and momentum fluxes over a heterogeneous urban area using a large aperture scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jun-Ho; Kim, Bo-Young

    2015-08-01

    The accurate determination of surface-layer turbulent fluxes over urban areas is critical to understanding urban boundary layer (UBL) evolution. In this study, a remote-sensing technique using a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) was investigated to estimate surface-layer turbulent fluxes over a highly heterogeneous urban area. The LAS system, with an optical path length of 2.1 km, was deployed in an urban area characterized by a complicated land-use mix (residential houses, water body, bare ground, etc.). The turbulent sensible heat ( Q H) and momentum fluxes (τ) were estimated from the scintillation measurements obtained from the LAS system during the cold season. Three-dimensional LAS footprint modeling was introduced to identify the source areas ("footprint") of the estimated turbulent fluxes. The analysis results showed that the LAS-derived turbulent fluxes for the highly heterogeneous urban area revealed reasonable temporal variation during daytime on clear days, in comparison to the land-surface process-resolving numerical modeling. A series of sensitivity tests indicated that the overall uncertainty in the LAS-derived daytime Q H was within 20%-30% in terms of the influence of input parameters and the nondimensional similarity function for the temperature structure function parameter, while the estimation errors in τ were less sensitive to the factors of influence, except aerodynamic roughness length. The 3D LAS footprint modeling characterized the source areas of the LAS-derived turbulent fluxes in the heterogeneous urban area, revealing that the representative spatial scales of the LAS system deployed with the 2.1 km optical path distance ranged from 0.2 to 2 km2 (a "micro- a scale"), depending on local meteorological conditions.

  6. On treatments of fetch and stability sensitivity in large-area estimates of sensible heat flux over sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslanik, J. A.; Key, J.

    1995-01-01

    Bulk transfer coefficients estimated as a function of atmospheric stability and sea-ice lead width are combined with Arctic meteorological observations and ice thickness data to calculate the sensitivity of turbulent flux estimates to changes in lead width, wind speed, air temperature, and ice thickness for a high-concentration ice pack. These results are considered in terms of bulk transfer parameterizations that use a fixed transfer coefficient r that address atmospheric stability only. On the basis of the fetch-sensitive parameterizations considered here, differences in lead width for widths up to about 200 m can exert a substantial influence on sensible heat transfer coefficients and heat flux from leads under typical Arctic conditions. Fluxes from an open water lead decrease by 34% if fetch increases from 10 m to 100 m. This effect is greatest for open water leads, decreases considerably as leads refreeze, and is negligible for ice thicker than about 0.3 m. If open or newly refrozen leads make up 2% of the ice cover, than an increase in mean fetch from 10 m to 100 m yields a decrease of about 2 W/sq m in areally averaged flux from the ice pack. Calculations using observed and theoretical lead width distributions suggest that parameterizing lead widths in a sea ice model can be done effectively using a single, representative lead width rather than requiring a full distribution of widths. When coupled to the lowest atmospheric boundary layer using a bulk similarity theory model, this sensitivity of heat transfer to fetch results in substantially higher near-surface air temperatures over narrow leads, with equilibrium air temperatures decreasing by about 50% as fetch increases from 10 to 100 m.

  7. On the performance of surface renewal analysis to estimate sensible heat flux over two growing rice fields under the influence of regional advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellví, F.; Snyder, R. L.

    2009-09-01

    SummaryHigh-frequency temperature data were recorded at one height and they were used in Surface Renewal (SR) analysis to estimate sensible heat flux during the full growing season of two rice fields located north-northeast of Colusa, CA (in the Sacramento Valley). One of the fields was seeded into a flooded paddy and the other was drill seeded before flooding. To minimize fetch requirements, the measurement height was selected to be close to the maximum expected canopy height. The roughness sub-layer depth was estimated to discriminate if the temperature data came from the inertial or roughness sub-layer. The equation to estimate the roughness sub-layer depth was derived by combining simple mixing-length theory, mixing-layer analogy, equations to account for stable atmospheric surface layer conditions, and semi-empirical canopy-architecture relationships. The potential for SR analysis as a method that operates in the full surface boundary layer was tested using data collected over growing vegetation at a site influenced by regional advection of sensible heat flux. The inputs used to estimate the sensible heat fluxes included air temperature sampled at 10 Hz, the mean and variance of the horizontal wind speed, the canopy height, and the plant area index for a given intermediate height of the canopy. Regardless of the stability conditions and measurement height above the canopy, sensible heat flux estimates using SR analysis gave results that were similar to those measured with the eddy covariance method. Under unstable cases, it was shown that the performance was sensitive to estimation of the roughness sub-layer depth. However, an expression was provided to select the crucial scale required for its estimation.

  8. Sensible heat loss from Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) feeding in winter: small calves are not at a thermal disadvantage compared with adult cows.

    PubMed

    Munn, Adam J; Barboza, Perry S; Dehn, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are large (>200 kg adult body mass) mammalian herbivores that overwinter in the polar regions. Calves are around one-third the body mass of mature females and may be expected to suffer greater thermal stresses in winter compared with adults because the ratio of surface area to volume (SA:vol) is much greater for calves than for adults. We found that during feeding bouts, when animals are fully exposed to environmental conditions, calves did lose sensible (dry) heat more readily than adults (W m(-2)) in still air conditions. However, calves and cows lost less than 2%-6% of their estimated daily digestible energy intake as conductive, convective, and radiant heat losses accumulated during feeding bouts. More important, calves did not lose relatively more heat than larger adults in terms of sensible losses as part of their daily energy intake. Coat surface temperatures were only 2 degrees -5 degrees C above ambient even when air temperature fell to -40 degrees C. Body temperatures recorded deep within the ear canal near the tympanum fluctuated in both cows and calves. Muskoxen combine peripheral heterothermy and an exceptional winter coat to minimize sensible heat loss in winter. These mechanisms appear to have circumvented some of the thermal problems normally associated with a high SA:vol ratio in calves, which reflects the strong selection to conserve energy in winter. PMID:19569931

  9. The impact of anthropogenic land-cover change on the Florida Peninsula Sea Breezes and warm season sensible weather

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, C.H.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Steyaert, L.T.; Willard, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    During the twentieth century, the natural landscape of the Florida peninsula was transformed extensively by agriculture, urbanization, and the diversion of surface water features. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical modeling study in which the possible impacts of this transformation on the warm season climate of the region were investigated. For three separate July-August periods (1973, 1989, and 1994), a pair of simulations was performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. Within each pair, the simulations differed only in the specification of land-cover class. The two different classes were specified using highly detailed datasets that were constructed to represent pre-1900 natural land cover and 1993 land-use patterns, thus capturing the landscape transformation within each pair of simulations. When the pre-1900 natural cover was replaced with the 1993 land-use dataset, the simulated spatial patterns of the surface sensible and latent heat flux were altered significantly, resulting in changes in the structure and strength of climatologically persistent, surface-forced mesoscale circulations-particularly the afternoon sea-breeze fronts. This mechanism was associated with marked changes in the spatial distribution of convective rainfall totals over the peninsula. When averaged over the model domain, this redistribution was reflected as an overall decrease in the 2-month precipitation total. In addition, the domain average of the diurnal cycle of 2-m temperature was amplified, with a noted increase in the daytime maximum. These results were consistent among all three simulated periods, and largely unchanged when subjected to a number of model sensitivity factors. Furthermore, the model results are in reasonable agreement with an analysis of observational data that indicates decreasing regional precipitation and increasing daytime maximum temperature during the twentieth century. These results could have important implications for water resource and land-use management issues in south Florida, including efforts to restore and preserve the natural hydroclimate of the Everglades ecosystem. This study also provides more evidence for the need to consider anthropogenic land-cover change when evaluating climate trends. ?? 2004 American Meteorological Society.

  10. Combining the bulk transfer formulation and surface renewal analysis for estimating the sensible heat flux without involving the parameter kB-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellví, F.; Gavilán, P.; González-Dugo, M. P.

    2014-10-01

    The single-source bulk transfer formulation (based on the Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory, MOST) has been used to estimate the sensible heat flux, H, in the framework of remote sensing over homogeneous surfaces (HMOST). The latter involves the canopy parameter, kB-1, which is difficult to parameterize. Over short and dense grass at a site influenced by regional advection of sensible heat flux, HMOST with kB-1 = 2 (i.e., the value recommended) correlated strongly with the H measured using the Eddy Covariance, EC, method, HEC. However, it overestimated HEC by 50% under stable conditions for samples showing a local air temperature gradient larger than the measurement error, 0.4 km-1. Combining MOST and Surface Renewal analysis, three methods of estimating H that avoid kB-1 dependency have been derived. These new expressions explain the variability of H versus u*>(Tc-T>(z>)>), where u* is the friction velocity, Tc is the radiometric surface temperature, and T>(z>) is the air temperature at height, z. At two measurement heights, the three methods performed excellently. One of the methods developed required the same readily/commonly available inputs as HMOST due to the fact that the ratio between >(Tc-T>(z>)>) and the ramp amplitude was found fairly constant under stable and unstable cases. Over homogeneous canopies, at a site influenced by regional advection of sensible heat flux, the methods proposed are an alternative to the traditional bulk transfer method because they are reliable, exempt of calibration against the EC method, and are comparable or identical in cost of application. It is suggested that the methodology may be useful over bare soil and sparse vegetation.

  11. Eddy correlation measurements of sensible and latent heat transfer coefficients over a high altitude glacier snow surface in the Andes Mountains, Bolivia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J.; Wagnon, P.; Sicart, J. E.; Solohub, M.; Lejeune, Y.; Essery, R.

    2004-12-01

    An eddy correlation system was installed at 5100 m elevation on the Zongo Glacier in the Andes Mountains near La Paz, Bolivia in order to evaluate the transfer of sensible and latent heat to ablating snow on the glacier surface. Concomitant measurements of all radiation components, snow surface temperature, vertical gradients of air temperature, humidity and wind speed and of surface melt and sublimation were made. The site was approximately level within several hundred metres, with drainage winds at night and dry conditions prevailed in the austral sub-tropical winter. The results show that in the exceeding dry and thin atmosphere, surface temperatures below freezing are maintained throughout melt with significant cooling of the surface due to sublimation and low longwave radiation input. Turbulent transfer to the snow surface was in the rough flow regime with roughness heights similar to that of seasonal snowcovers. Transfer coefficient of sensible heat and water vapour was enhanced several fold with respect to that for momentum diffusivity, despite frequent stable conditions in the lowest few metres. Over mid-continental seasonal snowcovers, turbulent transfer of latent and sensible heat is usually dampened with respect to momentum transfer; the influence of surrounding melting snowcover on large scale air masses and consequent entrainment is often invoked as the cause. However in the Andes, melting snow on glaciers is surrounded by arid high plateau and mountains which were snowfree at the time of observations. Complex flows over the mountains and drainage winds would permit substantial entrainment of dry, warm air. Cool surface temperatures driven by longwave loss ensured strong temperature gradients. The resulting sublimation rates at the surface exceeded 100 W/m2 latent heat flux at times and were matched by opposing sensible heat fluxes, which are amongst the highest reported for surface snow in the world. These aspects of turbulent transfer help to explain the rapid ablation rates that IRD has observed for tropical glaciers and make important limitations on the water resources that can be derived from the same.

  12. The cosmic child: The artwork of Joseph Cornell and a type of unusual sensibility, or thinking inside the box: the mind that channels infinity.

    PubMed

    Scheftel, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the unique mind of the twentieth- century American artist Joseph Cornell, known for his boxes and collages made with "found" materials. The author interpolates reflections upon Cornell with vignettes from the treatment of a young child, speculating that certain individuals may possess a constellation of vulnerabilities/sensitivities that constitute what is referred to as a "cosmic" sensibility. It is suggested that such an orientation can lead variously to anxieties and separation problems, as well as (or in addition to) intellectual and/or artistic giftedness. The outcome of such dynamics would depend on a complex interplay of temperament, circumstance, and relational attunement. PMID:20578433

  13. Validation of the SEBS-derived sensible heat for FY3A/VIRR and TERRA/MODIS over an alpine grass region using LAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiang; Tang, Shihao

    2013-08-01

    In this study, sensible heat (H) calculation using remote sensing data over an alpine grass landscape is conducted from May to September 2010, and the calculation is validated using LAS (large aperture scintillometers) measurements. Data from two remote sensing sensors (FY3A-VIRR and TERRA-MODIS) are analysed. Remote sensing data, combined with the ground meteorological observations (pressure, temperature, wind speed, humidity) are fed into the SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System) model. Then the VIRR-derived sensible heat (VIRR_SEBS_H) and MODIS-derived sensible heat (MODIS_SEBS_H) are compared with the LAS-estimated H, which are obtained at the respective satellite overpass time. Furthermore, the similarities and differences between the VIRR_SEBS_H and MODIS_SEBS_H values are investigated. The results indicate that VIRR data quality is as good as MODIS data for the purpose of H estimation. The root mean square errors (rmse) of the VIRR_SEBS_H and MODIS_SEBS_H values are 45.1098 W/m2 (n = 64) and 58.4654 W/m2 (n = 71), respectively. The monthly means of the MODIS_SEBS_H are marginally higher than those of VIRR_SEBS_H because the satellite overpass time of the TERRA satellite lags by 25 min to that of the FT3A satellite. Relative evaporation (EFr), which is more time-independent, shows a higher agreement between MODIS and VIRR. Many common features are shared by the VIRR_SEBS_H and the MODIS_SEBS_H, which can be attributed to the SEBS model performance. In May-June, H is over-estimated with more fluctuations and larger rmse, whereas in July-September, H is under-estimated with fewer fluctuations and smaller rmse. Sensitivity analysis shows that potential temperature gradient (delta_T) plays a dominant role in determining the magnitude and fluctuation of H. The largest rmse and over-estimation in H occur in June, which could most likely be attributed to high delta_T, high wind speed, and the complicated thermodynamic state during the transitional period when bare land transforms to dense vegetation cover.

  14. Evaluation of sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and effective aerodynamic roughness at the land surface from a combination of satellite and in-situ data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diak, George R.

    1990-01-01

    A simple method is presented for using the daytime rise of the PBL height, combined with coincident satellite skin temperature measurements, to evaluate sensible heating and the effective surface roughness for heat transfer at synoptic locations. Multiple runs of a combination surface layer-mixed layer model are made in the central U.S., varying the values of surface moisture and roughness length around climatological means, and initializing the model with a set of atmospheric conditions from the synoptic report. The results, shown in figures and tables, are quite reasonable and spatially coherent, and depict well the sharp change in surface moisture and roughness which is known to take place across the central U.S.

  15. A comparison of THI indices leads to a sensible heat-based heat stress index for shaded cattle that aligns temperature and humidity stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, A.; Horovitz, Talia; Kaim, M.; Gacitua, H.

    2016-01-01

    The combined temperature-humidity heat stress is estimated in farm animals by indices derived of an index based on human thermal comfort sensation. The latter index consists of temperature and humidity measures that sum to form the temperature-humidity index (THI). The hitherto unknown relative contribution of temperature and humidity to the THI was examined. A temperature-humidity data set (temperature 20-42 °C and relative humidity 10-70 %) was used to assess by regression procedures the relative weights of temperature and humidity in the variance of THI values produced by six commonly used heat stress indices. The temperature (Ta) effect was predominant (0.82-0.95 of variance) and humidity accounted for only 0.05 to 0.12 of THI variance, half of the variance encountered in animal responses to variable humidity heat stress. Significant difference in THI values was found between indices in the relative weights of temperature and humidity. As in THI indices, temperature and humidity are expressed in different physical units, their sum has no physical attributes, and empirical evaluations assess THI relation to animal responses. A sensible heat THI was created, in which at higher temperatures humidity reaches 0.25 of sensible heat, similarly to evaporative heat loss span in heat stressed animals. It relates to ambient temperature-humidity similarly to present THI; its values are similar to other THI but greater at higher humidity. In warm conditions, mean animal responses are similar in both indices. The higher sensitivity to humidity makes this index preferable for warm-humid conditions.

  16. How To Help Kids Be Sensible, Safe, and Secure. Six Parenting Skills Help Prevent Alcohol/Drug Use and Violence. Good News for Parents Who Worry about Their Kids. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson Inst., Minneapolis, MN.

    To help parents learn the six skills that help children avoid drug abuse and voilence, the Johnson Institute has also developed a video-based package titled "Parenting for Prevention: How To Help Kids Be Sensible, Safe, and Secure." This report draws on the Institute's research on violence by and against children and adolescents to present the six…

  17. Diurnal to annual changes in latent, sensible heat, and CO2 fluxes over a Laurentian Great Lake: A case study in Western Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Changliang; Chen, Jiquan; Stepien, Carol A.; Chu, Housen; Ouyang, Zutao; Bridgeman, Thomas B.; Czajkowski, Kevin P.; Becker, Richard H.; John, Ranjeet

    2015-08-01

    To understand the carbon and energy exchange between the lake surface and the atmosphere, direct measurements of latent, sensible heat, and CO2 fluxes were taken using the eddy covariance (EC) technique in Western Lake Erie during October 2011 to September 2013. We found that the latent heat flux (LE) had a marked one-peak seasonal change in both years that differed from the diurnal course and lacked a sinusoidal dynamic common in terrestrial ecosystems. Daily mean LE was 4.8 ± 0.1 and 4.3 ± 0.2 MJ m-2 d-1 in Year 1 and Year 2, respectively. The sensible heat flux (H) remained much lower than the LE, with a daily mean of 0.9 ± 0.1 and 1.1 ± 0.1 MJ m-2 d-1 in Year 1 and Year 2, respectively. As a result, the Bowen ratio was <1 during most of the 2 year period, with the lowest summer value at 0.14. The vapor pressure deficit explained 35% of the variation in half hourly LE, while the temperature difference between the water surface and air explained 65% of the variation in half hourly H. Western Lake Erie acted as a small carbon sink holding -19.0 ± 5.4 and -40.2 ± 13.3 g C m-2 in the first and second summers (May-September) but as an annual source of 77.7 ± 18.6 and 49.5 ± 17.9 g C m-2 yr-1 in Year 1 and Year 2, respectively. The CO2 flux (FCO2) rate varied from -0.45 g C m-2 d-1 to 0.98 g C m-2 d-1. Similar to LE, FCO2 had noticeable diurnal changes during the months that had high chlorophyll a months but not during other months. A significantly negative correlation (P < 0.05) was found between FCO2 and chlorophyll a on monthly fluxes. Three gap-filling methods, including marginal distribution sampling, mean diurnal variation, and monthly mean, were quantitatively assessed, yielding an uncertainty of 4%, 6%, and 10% in LE, H, and FCO2, respectively.

  18. The Time-lagged Impacts of Spring Sensible Heat over the Tibetan Plateau on the Summer Rainfall Anomaly in East China: Cases Study by Using WRF Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, A.

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the time-lagged impacts of the spring sensible heat (SH) source over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) on summer rainfall anomaly in east China by using the WRF model. Numerical experiments for the 2003 case indicates that spring SH anomaly over the TP can maintains its impact until summer and leads to the overall strong atmospheric heat source, which is characterized by the enhanced both SH over the western TP and condensation latent heat to the east. The wave activity diagnosis revealed that the enhanced TP heating forces a Rossby wave train to the downstream regions. The cyclonic response to the northeast TP brings about the low level northerly anomaly over the northern China, while the anticyclonic response over the western Pacific enhances the subtropical high and the low level southerly in its western flank. As a result, cold and dry airflows from mid-high latitudes and warm and wet airflows from tropical oceans converge around the Huaihe River basin. In addition, warm advection originated from the TP induces vigorous ascending motion over the convergence belt. With such a favourable circulation condition, the eastward propagating vortexes initiated over the TP intensify the torrential rainfall processes over the Huaihe River basin. Another case study of 2001 with weak spring SH over the TP and the overall southward retreat of summer rainfall belt in east China further demonstrates the role of spring SH over the TP in regulating the interannual variability of EASM in terms of wave activity and synoptic disturbance.

  19. Conversation Simulation and Sensible Surprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchens, Jason L.

    I have entered the Loebner Prize five times, winning the "most humanlike program" category in 1996 with a surly ELIZA-clone named HeX, but failed to repeat the performance in subsequent years with more sophisticated techniques. Whether this is indicative of an unanticipated improvement in "conversation simulation" technology, or whether it highlights the strengths of ELIZA-style trickery, is as an exercise for the reader. In 2000, I was invited to assume the role of Chief Scientist at Artificial Intelligence Ltd. (Ai) on a project inspired by the advice given by Alan Turing in the final section of his classic paper - our quest was to build a "child machine" that could learn and use language from scratch. In this chapter, I will discuss both of these experiences, presenting my thoughts regarding the Chinese Room argument and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in between.

  20. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, K.O.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners.

  1. Responsiveness, Sensitivity, and Minimally Detectable Difference of the Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension, Version 1.0.

    PubMed

    Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Beaton, Dorcas; Ahn, Henry; Askes, Heather; Drew, Brian; Curt, Armin; Popovic, Milos R; Wang, Justin; Verrier, Mary C; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    As spinal cord injury (SCI) trials begin to involve subjects with acute cervical SCI, establishing the property of an upper limb outcome measure to detect change over time is critical for its usefulness in clinical trials. The objectives of this study were to define responsiveness, sensitivity, and minimally detectable difference (MDD) of the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension (GRASSP). An observational, longitudinal study was conducted. International Standards of Neurological Classification of SCI (ISNCSCI), GRASSP, Capabilities of Upper Extremity Questionnaire (CUE-Q), and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) were administered 0-10 days, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-injury. Standardized Response Means (SRM) for GRASSP and ISNCSCI measures were calculated. Longitudinal construct validity was calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. Smallest real difference for all subtests was calculated to define the MDD values for all GRASSP subtests. Longitudinal construct validity demonstrated GRASSP and all external measures to be responsive to neurological change for 1 year post-injury. SRM values for the GRASSP subtests ranged from 0.25 to 0.85 units greater than that for ISNCSCI strength and sensation, SCIM-SS, and CUE-Q. MDD values for GRASSP subtests ranged from 2-5 points. GRASSP demonstrates good responsiveness and excellent sensitivity that is superior to ISNCSCI and SCIM III. MDD values are useful in the evaluation of interventions in both clinical and research settings. The responsiveness and sensitivity of GRASSP make it a valuable condition-specific measure in tetraplegia, where changes in upper limb neurological and functional outcomes are essential for evaluating the efficacy of interventions. PMID:26560017

  2. On the parameterisation of oceanic sensible heat loss to the atmosphere and to ice in an ice-covered mixed layer in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudels, Bert; Friedrich, Hans J.; Hainbucher, Dagmar; Lohmann, Gerrit

    1999-06-01

    In high-latitude oceans with seasonal ice cover, the ice and the low-salinity mixed layer form an interacting barrier for the heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. The presence of a less dense surface layer allows ice to form, and the ice cover reduces the heat loss to the atmosphere. The ice formation weakens the stability at the base of the mixed layer, leading to stronger entrainment and larger heat flux from below. This heat transport retards, and perhaps stops, the growth of the ice cover. As much heat is then entrained from below as is lost to the atmosphere. This heat loss further reduces the stability, and unless a net ice melt occurs, the mixed layer convects. Two possibilities exist: (1) A net ice melt, sufficient to retain the stability, will always occur and convection will not take place until all ice is removed. The deep convection will then be thermal, deepening the mixed layer. (2) The ice remains until the stability at the base of the mixed layer disappears. The mixed layer then convects, through haline convection, into the deep ocean. Warm water rises towards the surface and the ice starts to melt, and a new mixed layer is reformed. The present work discusses the interactions between ice cover and entrainment during winter, when heat loss to the atmosphere is present. One crucial hypothesis is introduced: "When ice is present and the ocean loses sensible heat to the atmosphere and to ice melt, the buoyancy input at the sea surface due to ice melt is at a minimum". Using a one-dimensional energy-balance model, applied to the artificial situation, where ice melts directly on warmer water, it is found that this corresponds to a constant fraction of the heat loss going to ice melt. It is postulated that this partitioning holds for the ice cover and the mixed layer in the high-latitude ocean. When a constant fraction of heat goes to ice melt, at least one deep convection event occurs, before the ice cover can be removed by heat entrained from below. After one or several convection events the ice normally disappears and a deep-reaching thermal convection is established. Conditions appropriate for the Weddell Sea and the Greenland Sea are examined and compared with field observations. With realistic initial conditions no convection occurs in the warm regime of the Weddell Sea. A balance between entrained heat and atmospheric heat loss is established and the ice cover remains throughout the winter. At Maud Rise convection may occur, but late in winter and normally no polynya can form before the summer ice melt. In the central Greenland Sea the mixed layer generally convects early in winter and the ice is removed by melting from below as early as February or March. This is in agreement with existing observations.

  3. Observations of the scale-dependent turbulence and evaluation of the flux-gradient relationship for sensible heat for a closed Douglas-fir canopy in very weak wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, D.; Thomas, C. K.

    2014-09-01

    Observations of the scale-dependent turbulent fluxes, variances, and the bulk transfer parameterization for sensible heat above, within, and beneath a tall closed Douglas-fir canopy in very weak winds are examined. The daytime sub-canopy vertical velocity spectra exhibit a double-peak structure with peaks at timescales of 0.8 s and 51.2 s. A double-peak structure is also observed in the daytime sub-canopy heat flux co-spectra. The daytime momentum flux co-spectra in the upper bole space and in the sub-canopy are characterized by a relatively large cross-wind component, likely due to the extremely light and variable winds, such that the definition of a mean wind direction, and subsequent partitioning of the momentum flux into along- and cross-wind components, has little physical meaning. Positive values of both momentum flux components in the sub-canopy contribute to upward transfer of momentum, consistent with the observed sub-canopy secondary wind speed maximum. For the smallest resolved scales in the canopy at nighttime, we find increasing vertical velocity variance with decreasing timescale, consistent with very small eddies possibly generated by wake shedding from the canopy elements that transport momentum, but not heat. Unusually large values of the velocity aspect ratio within the canopy were observed, consistent with enhanced suppression of the horizontal wind components compared to the vertical by the very dense canopy. The flux-gradient approach for sensible heat flux is found to be valid for the sub-canopy and above-canopy layers when considered separately in spite of the very small fluxes on the order of a few W m-2 in the sub-canopy. However, single-source approaches that ignore the canopy fail because they make the heat flux appear to be counter-gradient when in fact it is aligned with the local temperature gradient in both the sub-canopy and above-canopy layers. While sub-canopy Stanton numbers agreed well with values typically reported in the literature, our estimates for the above-canopy Stanton number were much larger, which likely leads to underestimated modeled sensible heat fluxes above dark warm closed canopies.

  4. Observations of the scale-dependent turbulence and evaluation of the flux–gradient relationship for sensible heat for a closed Douglas-fir canopy in very weak wind conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vickers, D.; Thomas, C. K.

    2014-09-16

    Observations of the scale-dependent turbulent fluxes, variances, and the bulk transfer parameterization for sensible heat above, within, and beneath a tall closed Douglas-fir canopy in very weak winds are examined. The daytime sub-canopy vertical velocity spectra exhibit a double-peak structure with peaks at timescales of 0.8 s and 51.2 s. A double-peak structure is also observed in the daytime sub-canopy heat flux co-spectra. The daytime momentum flux co-spectra in the upper bole space and in the sub-canopy are characterized by a relatively large cross-wind component, likely due to the extremely light and variable winds, such that the definition of amore » mean wind direction, and subsequent partitioning of the momentum flux into along- and cross-wind components, has little physical meaning. Positive values of both momentum flux components in the sub-canopy contribute to upward transfer of momentum, consistent with the observed sub-canopy secondary wind speed maximum. For the smallest resolved scales in the canopy at nighttime, we find increasing vertical velocity variance with decreasing timescale, consistent with very small eddies possibly generated by wake shedding from the canopy elements that transport momentum, but not heat. Unusually large values of the velocity aspect ratio within the canopy were observed, consistent with enhanced suppression of the horizontal wind components compared to the vertical by the very dense canopy. The flux–gradient approach for sensible heat flux is found to be valid for the sub-canopy and above-canopy layers when considered separately in spite of the very small fluxes on the order of a few W m−2 in the sub-canopy. However, single-source approaches that ignore the canopy fail because they make the heat flux appear to be counter-gradient when in fact it is aligned with the local temperature gradient in both the sub-canopy and above-canopy layers. While sub-canopy Stanton numbers agreed well with values typically reported in the literature, our estimates for the above-canopy Stanton number were much larger, which likely leads to underestimated modeled sensible heat fluxes above dark warm closed canopies.« less

  5. Observations of the scale-dependent turbulence and evaluation of the flux-gradient relationship for sensible heat for a closed Douglas-Fir canopy in very weak wind conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vickers, D.; Thomas, C.

    2014-05-13

    Observations of the scale-dependent turbulent fluxes and variances above, within and beneath a tall closed Douglas-Fir canopy in very weak winds are examined. The daytime subcanopy vertical velocity spectra exhibit a double-peak structure with peaks at time scales of 0.8 s and 51.2 s. A double-peak structure is also observed in the daytime subcanopy heat flux cospectra. The daytime momentum flux cospectra inside the canopy and in the subcanopy are characterized by a relatively large cross-wind component, likely due to the extremely light and variable winds, such that the definition of a mean wind direction, and subsequent partitioning of themore » momentum flux into along- and cross-wind components, has little physical meaning. Positive values of both momentum flux components in the subcanopy contribute to upward transfer of momentum, consistent with the observed mean wind speed profile. In the canopy at night at the smallest resolved scales, we find relatively large momentum fluxes (compared to at larger scales), and increasing vertical velocity variance with decreasing time scale, consistent with very small eddies likely generated by wake shedding from the canopy elements that transport momentum but not heat. We find unusually large values of the velocity aspect ratio within the canopy, consistent with enhanced suppression of the horizontal wind components compared to the vertical by the canopy. The flux-gradient approach for sensible heat flux is found to be valid for the subcanopy and above-canopy layers when considered separately; however, single source approaches that ignore the canopy fail because they make the heat flux appear to be counter-gradient when in fact it is aligned with the local temperature gradient in both the subcanopy and above-canopy layers. Modeled sensible heat fluxes above dark warm closed canopies are likely underestimated using typical values of the Stanton number.« less

  6. Determination of the Sensibility Factors for TLD-100 Powder on the Energy of X-Ray of 50, 250 kVp; 192Ir, 137Cs and 60Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaiza, Sandra P.; Álvarez, José T.

    2006-09-01

    TLD-100 powder is calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water Dw, using the protocols AAPM TG61, AAPM TG43 and IAEA-TRS 398, for the energy of RX 50, 250 kVp, 137Cs and 60Co respectively. The calibration curves, TLD Response R versus Dw, are fitted by weighted least square by a quadratic polynomials; which are validated with the lack of fit and the Anderson-Darling normality test. The slope of these curves corresponds to the sensibility factor: Fs = R/DW, [Fs] = nC Gy-1. The expanded uncertainties U's for these factors are obtained from the ANOVA tables. Later, the Fs' values are interpolated using the effective energy hvefec for the 192Ir. The SSDL sent a set of capsules with powder TLD-100 for two Hospitals. These irradiated them a nominal dose of Dw = 2 Gy. The results determined at SSDL are: for the Hospital A the Dw is overestimated in order to 4.8% and the Hospital B underestimates it in the range from -1.4% to -17.5%.

  7. Determination of the Sensibility Factors for TLD-100 Powder on the Energy of X-Ray of 50, 250 kVp; 192Ir, 137Cs and 60Co

    SciTech Connect

    Loaiza, Sandra P.; Alvarez, Jose T.

    2006-09-08

    TLD-100 powder is calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water Dw, using the protocols AAPM TG61, AAPM TG43 and IAEA-TRS 398, for the energy of RX 50, 250 kVp, 137Cs and 60Co respectively. The calibration curves, TLD Response R versus Dw, are fitted by weighted least square by a quadratic polynomials; which are validated with the lack of fit and the Anderson-Darling normality test. The slope of these curves corresponds to the sensibility factor: Fs R/DW, [Fs] = nC Gy-1. The expanded uncertainties U's for these factors are obtained from the ANOVA tables. Later, the Fs' values are interpolated using the effective energy hvefec for the 192Ir. The SSDL sent a set of capsules with powder TLD-100 for two Hospitals. These irradiated them a nominal dose of Dw = 2 Gy. The results determined at SSDL are: for the Hospital A the Dw is overestimated in order to 4.8% and the Hospital B underestimates it in the range from -1.4% to -17.5%.

  8. The Reading Problem: Some Sensible Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Kim

    1983-01-01

    Researchers from the Center for the Study of Reading at the University of Illinois assert that inadequate reading textbooks and the failure to teach reading comprehension in the primary grades contribute to reading comprehension problems in the upper grades. Shortcomings of textbooks are specified and methods for teaching reading comprehension are…

  9. A Sensible Approach to Wireless Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, S. Faruq

    2002-01-01

    Discusses radio frequency (R.F.) wireless technology, including industry standards, range (coverage) and throughput (data rate), wireless compared to wired networks, and considerations before embarking on a large-scale wireless project. (EV)

  10. Treatment of bipolar depression: making sensible decisions.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie

    2014-12-01

    A major challenge in the treatment of major depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder is differentiating this illness from major depressive episodes associated with major depressive disorder. Mistaking the former for the latter will lead to incorrect treatment and poor outcomes. None of the classic antidepressants, serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors, or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors have ever received regulatory approval as monotherapies for the treatment of bipolar depression. At present, there are only 3 approved medication treatments for bipolar depression: olanzapine/fluoxetine combination, quetiapine (immediate or extended release), and lurasidone (monotherapy or adjunctive to lithium or valproate). All 3 have similar efficacy profiles, but they differ in terms of tolerability. Number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH) can be used to quantify these similarities and differences. The NNTs for response and remission for each of these interventions vs placebo range from 4 to 7, and 5 to 7, respectively, with overlap in terms of their 95% confidence intervals. NNH values less than 10 (vs placebo) were observed for the spontaneously reported adverse events of weight gain and diarrhea for olanzapine/fluoxetine combination (7 and 9, respectively) and somnolence and dry mouth for quetiapine (3 and 4, respectively). There were no NNH values less than 10 (vs placebo) observed with lurasidone treatment. NNH values vs placebo for weight gain of at least 7% from baseline were 6, 16, 58, and 36, for olanzapine/fluoxetine combination, quetiapine, lurasidone monotherapy, and lurasidone combined with lithium or valproate, respectively. Individualizing treatment decisions will require consideration of the different potential adverse events that are more likely to occur with each medication. The metric of the likelihood to be helped or harmed (LHH) is the ratio of NNH to NNT and can illustrate the tradeoffs inherent in selecting medications. A more favorable LHH was noted for treatment with lurasidone. However, OFC and quetiapine monotherapy may still have utility in high urgency situations, particularly in persons who have demonstrated good outcomes with these interventions in the past, and where a pressing clinical need for efficacy mitigates their potential tolerability shortcomings. In terms of maintenance therapy, adjunctive quetiapine is the only agent where the NNT vs lithium or valproate alone is less than 10 for both the prevention of mania and the prevention of depression. PMID:25407667

  11. Including the nonrational is sensible midwifery.

    PubMed

    Parratt, Jenny A; Fahy, Kathleen M

    2008-03-01

    Since the subordination of midwifery by medicine and nursing in the 19th and 20th centuries the standard approach to childbirth has been dominated by rationality. This approach proceeds by creating dichotomies and then prioritising one half of the dichotomy whilst rejecting the opposite term. Rationality itself is prioritised, for example, by contrasting it with the rejected opposite: irrationality. Expert clinical practice is, however, increasingly identified as being inclusive of more than merely rational ways of knowing and behaving. This paper is based on a post-structural study concerning changes to women's embodied sense of self during childbearing. We expose the limitations of pure rationality in the context of childbirth and use the concept of safety to exemplify the limitations that pure rationality imposes. The paper draws on philosophical and spiritual theory to present an analysis of ideas about mind, body, soul and spirit. The standard rational/irrational dichotomy is critiqued and contrasted with the embodied reality of nonrational experiences that are individual, contextual and 'in-the-moment'. Nonrational experiences are identified to be inclusive of power and knowledge that are both rational and nonrational. This revised conceptualisation provides a theoretical basis that allows for and promotes more possibilities and thus more holistic ways of knowing in midwifery. Our thesis is that midwives and women need to take conscious account of nonrational knowledge and power during the childbearing year. We argue that pure rational thinking limits possibilities by excluding the midwife's embodied ways of knowing along with the ways of knowing embodied by the woman. The inclusion of women's and midwives'nonrational ways of knowing in childbearing situations opens us up to knowledge and power that provides for a more complete, and therefore a more optimal, decision-making process. PMID:18243836

  12. The invasion of non-native grasses into California grasslands has caused a shift in energy partitioning between latent and sensible heat flux, reduced albedo and higher surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koteen, L. E.; Harte, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    In California, native grasses have been largely displaced across millions of acres of grassland habitat by the invasion of non-native grasses from Mediterranean Europe. Although seemingly subtle, this shift in grass species composition has altered the water and energy cycles in these ecosystems due to a shift in life cycle strategy. Native California grasses are perennial and long-lived. To survive California's long summer drought, they possess deep roots to harvest moisture along the full depth of the soil profile. Aboveground, most California perennial grasses are bunchy and dense, covering the ground and restricting soil evaporation. Their growing season extends over most of the year, thus maintaining an unbroken interaction along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, and enabling the plants to draw water from deep soil layers well into the dry summer. In contrast, the now-dominant non-native grasses are annuals. They grow from seed each year when Autumn rains begin, and die with the onset of summer drought. Aboveground, non-native annuals are sparse relative to native perennials, and possess a shallow root system with the large majority of root biomass above 20 cm depth. To determine the impact of this land cover shift on ecosystem water and energy cycles, we measured the components of the surface energy balance at a grassland site in northern coastal California where remnant perennial grasses are found growing alongside regions that have undergone non-native invasion. Specifically, in locations dominated by each grass type, we measured net radiation and ground and canopy heat flux through the surface renewal method. We also measured midday PAR albedo to determine the impact of grassland invasion on energy capture. In three years of measurements, corresponding to average, wet and dry years, we found that energy partitioning during the growing season is similar between grass types. However, once non-native annual grasses senesce in mid to late spring, the ratio of latent to sensible heat flux is higher where native perennial grasses are found, particularly in wet years. Annual sums of total evaporation are likewise higher in native-dominated regions, and soil moisture is lower relative to non-natives in the deep soil. We also found that PAR albedo is lower in native grasslands compared to non-natives during significant portions of the year, and corresponding to the hotter months. In all, our findings indicate that the non-native annual grasses which now dominate California grasslands, promote conditions that support higher surface temperatures relative to native perennial grasses.

  13. Toward a sensible EMF policy: One utility's approach

    SciTech Connect

    Palk, B.V. )

    1991-04-01

    Over the past three years, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed an open, proactive approach to address the electromagnetic fields (EMF) issue. Many things gave impetus to this approach: the public's increasing concern about possible health effects associated with EMF; litigation and other difficulties utilities experience when attempting to construct electric facilities; and media coverage fueling public concern about the issue. For LADWP, management of this issue involves a communications and a policy development effort, both of them significant. As an integral part of managing this issue, LADWP has taken steps to reduce fields associated with new projects on a case-by-case basis where economically justified, and supported EMF research, including support for a national EMF research program. Also, LADWP continues its full support for and participation in the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) EMF research program. In the discussion here, references to EPRI reports, bulletins, and technical papers have intentionally been excluded, since their inclusion would overwhelm the footnotes to this paper. Finally, LADWP has purposefully sought additional guidance from other individuals and public policy agencies, many of whose works are cited here.

  14. Face Generation Using Emotional Regions for Sensibility Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoh, Minori; Kanoh, Masayoshi; Kato, Shohei; Kunitachi, Tsutomu; Itoh, Hidenori

    We think that psychological interaction is necessary for smooth communication between robots and people. One way to psychologically interact with others is through facial expressions. Facial expressions are very important for communication because they show true emotions and feelings. The ``Ifbot'' robot communicates with people by considering its own ``emotions''. Ifbot has many facial expressions to communicate enjoyment. We developed a method for generating facial expressions based on human subjective judgements mapping Ifbot's facial expressions to its emotions. We first created Ifbot's emotional space to map its facial expressions. We applied a five-layer auto-associative neural network to the space. We then subjectively evaluated the emotional space and created emotional regions based on the results. We generated emotive facial expressions using the emotional regions.

  15. A Facial Control Method Using Emotional Parameters in Sensibility Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Hiroshi; Kanoh, Masayoshi; Kato, Shohei; Kunitachi, Tsutomu; Itoh, Hidenori

    The “Ifbot” robot communicates with people by considering its own “emotions”. Ifbot has many facial expressions to communicate enjoyment. These are used to express its internal emotions, purposes, reactions caused by external stimulus, and entertainment such as singing songs. All these facial expressions are developed by designers manually. Using this approach, we must design all facial motions, if we want Ifbot to express them. It, however, is not realistic. We have therefore developed a system which convert Ifbot's emotions to its facial expressions automatically. In this paper, we propose a method for creating Ifbot's facial expressions from parameters, emotional parameters, which handle its internal emotions computationally.

  16. Tiers for Fears: Sensible, Streamlined Sharing of Special Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massie, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    This report presents strategies for providing efficient and affordable interlending of actual physical items from special collections for research purposes, as well as advice on determining if a loan is the most appropriate way to fulfill a particular request. Lending physical items ranks among the most divisive issues in the field of archives and…

  17. Patent foramen ovale closure and migraine: science and sensibility.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Migraine has been associated with patent foramen ovale (PFO), and PFO closure has become the most high-profile nonpharmacologic invasive therapy recommended for the prevention of recurrent migraine attacks, as well as for preventing further attacks in cryptogenic stroke. The results of Migraine Intervention with STARFlex Technology (MIST), a controversial but important recent randomized clinical trial (RCT) of PFO closure for migraine, do not support PFO closure for preventing migraine attacks. All patients with migraine, however, do not have a PFO, and the characteristic periodicity and predictability of migraine cannot be explained on the basis of paradoxical embolism through the PFO. Closure of the PFO or atrial septal defect can aggravate migraine suddenly. PFO increases in size with age, but migraine generally subsides with the passage of years. Serendipity does play a role in some medical discoveries, but in the absence of a logically defensible theoretical basis, chance and statistics can both become misleading. With soft end points, RCTs in migraine patients can generate conflicting and irreconcilable data. RCTs cannot supplant or substitute clinical common sense or justify serendipity. Scientific progress mandates that any serendipitous research must ultimately conform to the principles of the basic sciences surrounding the chance discovery. PFO closure for preventing migraine attacks is an unfortunate, but sobering, chapter in the migraine research saga. PMID:20819012

  18. Lessons of Solitude: The Awakening of Aesthetic Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caranfa, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the contextual value of solitude in learning; in so doing, it attempts to suggest an alternative method of instruction that is based on aesthetics as the reciprocal relationship between emotions and intellect, and between action and contemplation. Such an aesthetic education or method seeks to guide the student towards the…

  19. Synergy and sensibility: a course on entrepreneurship in gerotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen-Huber, Lesa; Allen, Patricia; Kennedy-Armbruster, Carol

    2010-01-01

    "Health, Technology, and Aging" is a course developed to address three significant contemporary trends: aging populations, increasingly ubiquitous technology, and the economic imperative to encourage entrepreneurship. Course content is a blend of gerontology, informatics, and entrepreneurship designed for nonbusiness majors. Six interdisciplinary faculty modeled synergistic teamwork for the student teams. Findings suggest that students appreciated the interdisciplinary approach to teaching and learning and perceived gerotechnology as a promising market for business development. An external panel of judges scored student projects as well described, persuasive, and creative. Two plans of the four projects were judged to have potential for funding. PMID:20509064

  20. Synergy and Sensibility: A Course on Entrepreneurship in Gerotechnologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzen-Huber, Lesa; Allen, Patricia; Kennedy-Armbruster, Carol

    2010-01-01

    "Health, Technology, and Aging" is a course developed to address three significant contemporary trends: aging populations, increasingly ubiquitous technology, and the economic imperative to encourage entrepreneurship. Course content is a blend of gerontology, informatics, and entrepreneurship designed for nonbusiness majors. Six interdisciplinary…

  1. The making of a colposcopist. A safe and sensible approach.

    PubMed

    Feldman, M J; Kent, D R; Linzey, E M; Goldstein, A I

    1976-02-01

    A program was established to determine the accuracy of colposcopy at our institution. Forty-three patients with cytologic or histologic evidence of severe dysplasia or worse underwent diagnostic conization following satisfactory colposcopy. Thirty patients subsequently had either therapeutic conization or hysterectomy preceded by biopsy only. In all 73 cases, the surgical specimen did not reveal a more advanced lesion. However, when the colposcopy was unsatisfactory, the rate of error was 20.8%. It is our opinion that colposcopy is a safe and valuable technique as long as one recognizes the need for training and understands the indications for further diagnostic studies. The use of the colposcope for the evaluation of abnormal cervical cytology has increased steadily over the last few years, and several excellent courses are now offered throughout the United States. Armed with a certificate from such a course, many gynecologists then become self-proclaimed colposcopists in spite of warnings to the contrary by the instructors. In addition, supervision by experienced personnel is not always available. How, then, does one indeed become an accomplished colposcopist to the point that he or she can safely spare the patient the risk, inconvenience and expense of diagnostic cervical conization? Although several recent publications 2,5,6,9,11 document the diagnostic accuracy of colposcopically directly biopsies, we feel each individual should develop and evaluate his or her own skill before altering or abandoning conventional methods of diagnosis and management. The purpose of this report is to present our experience with colposcopy utilizing a program which can perhaps serve as a model to other clinicians. PMID:1255646

  2. The Sensible Book. A Celebration of Your Five Senses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polland, Barbara Kay

    Illustrated by full-page photographs, this book focuses on each of the child's five senses and shows how the senses are interrelated. Activities are suggested to increase the child's sensory awareness. (CS)

  3. The Diaspora Sensibility in Teacher Identity: Locating Self through Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooy, Mary; de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The concept of diaspora describes the dispersal of persons from their traditional homeland, across national and cultural borders. We explore diasporic (dis)location as it disrupts and recreates teacher identity. The nomadic movement across borders in professional development is best understood through narrative; hence we examine the…

  4. Dr. Spock on Parenting: Sensible, Reassuring Advice for Contemporary Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spock, Benjamin

    Compiling essays authored by Benjamin Spock and published in magazines, this book addresses the changing traditional family structure and the challenges faced by contemporary parents. The chapters are: (1) "Anxieties in Our Lives," discussing stressors, decisions regarding work, and late parenting; (2) "Being a Father Today," examining aspects of…

  5. DNA damage sensible engineered promoter for cellular biosensing of cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wada, Ken-Ichi; Hamaguchi, Yu; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2009-04-01

    We have established a cytotoxic sensor cell line by transfecting HepG2 cells with a luciferase protein plasmid derived from the heat shock protein 70B' (HSP70B') promoter, which is induced by cytotoxic reagents. HSP70B genes are up-regulated by a wide-range of cytotoxic stimulators, in particular, those that denature proteins. However, the HSP70B genes do not respond to DNA damage. We used a PCR array to detect marker genes of DNA damage-related cytotoxic stimulation and found the BTG2 gene to be one such gene. Analysis of the BTG2 gene functional promoter region by transfection of various deletion constructs into HepG2 cells indicated that the p53 and NFY biding sites on BTG2 are important for the response to DNA damage. We then constructed HepG2 sensor cells using the functional BTG2 promoter, and found that these sensor cells can specifically detect the cytotoxicity accompanied by DNA strand breaks with high sensitivity. PMID:19031424

  6. The Education of Story Lovers: Do Computers Undermine Narrative Sensibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David; Alexander, Gad

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that computers, at least in their common or prevalent uses, constitute an important undermining influence on people's ability to tell, enjoy listening to, view, and read good stories. We discuss the centrality of narrative in defining our humanity and in educating our children, and justify the emphasis on "good" stories,…

  7. Techno-Anthropological Sensibilities in Health Informatics: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bossen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    What kind of knowledges, skills and competences may be required by Techno-Anthropology engaging with health informatics? If we understand Techno-Anthropology to mean conducting anthropological analyses of the interwoven and mutually shaping relationship between organizing, technologies and actors in healthcare, such engagements and interventions can take many forms: Short-term consultancy work dedicated to achieving specific goals, long-term studies of broad changes in healthcare; management support within hospitals and public healthcare administration; or technology development with vendors of healthcare IT. The opportunities would seem to be manifold. Since the healthcare sector is a heterogeneous mix of interests, political agendas, professions et cetera, there is great merit in having people knowledgeable about this heterogeneity; able to facilitate meetings and processes between the various professions and organizations; and skilled in generating analyses and proposing new solutions. Also, people with insight into how action, technologies and organizing are interwoven and redistribute competences, responsibilities and risks are invaluable: Look at from afar, technologies seem to cause and determine social development, whereas detailed studies reveal that determinants and causes are both technical and social. The challenges include the one of making one's knowledge and skills legitimate and relevant to health informatics. Having a degree from arts or social sciences is not necessarily impressive for people with similar degrees in medicine, computer science, and business administration. Another challenge is to design an engagement with health informatics that will generate insights which often requires time, while also providing quick results for project sponsors or collaborators. The chapter points at three issues that seem to be central foundations for appropriate and quality-driven research and interventions of the 'quick and proper' kind: Modes of engagement; characteristics of the healthcare sector; and medical informatics and work. PMID:26249195

  8. Sensible heat observations reveal soil-water evaporation dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water evaporation is important at scales ranging from microbial ecology to large-scale climate. Yet, routine measurments are unable to capture rapidly shifting near-surface soil heat and water processes involved in soil-water evaporation. The objective of this study was to determine the depth a...

  9. To a Fair and Sensible Policy for Professional School Admission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liacouras, Peter J.

    1978-01-01

    Neither racial minorities nor women should be made the scapegoats for the numbers and admissions crunch. Larger issues of admissions should be reexamined. The assumption that only numerical indices measure "quality" or "merit" or potential for performance in a profession should be questioned. (Author/EB)

  10. Enhancing College Students' Environmental Sensibilities through Online Nature Journaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Gwen

    2012-01-01

    The increasing alienation of today's children from the environment has been termed "nature-deficit disorder". Research suggests this disconnect can adversely impact young people's physical and psychological well-being. This paper explores whether online multimedia journaling about nature can increase the amount of time students spend outdoors,…

  11. Healthful and Sensible School Maintenance (with Related Video)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The school year is back in full swing for millions of students across the nation trying to remember the names of their new teachers, what time lunch is served, and how to navigate the hallways and stairwells to get from one classroom to the next. Meanwhile, those responsible for keeping those education facilities clean, safe and well-maintained…

  12. Analysis of sensible heat exchanges from a thermal manikin.

    PubMed

    Quintela, Divo; Gaspar, Adlio; Borges, Carlos

    2004-09-01

    The present work is dedicated to the analysis of dry heat exchanges as measured by a thermal manikin placed in still air. We believe that the understanding of some fundamental aspects governing fluid flow and heat transfer around three-dimensional bodies such as human beings deserves appropriate attention. This should be of great significance for improving physiological models concerned with thermal exposures. The potential interest of such work can be directed towards quite distinct targets such as working conditions, sports, the military, or healthcare personnel and patients. In the present study, we made use of a climate chamber and an articulated thermal manikin of the Pernille type, with 16 body parts. The most common occidental postures (standing, sitting and lying) were studied. In order to separate heat losses due to radiation and convection, the radiative heat losses of the manikin were significantly reduced by means of a shiny aluminium coating, which was carefully applied to the artificial skin. The air temperature within the test chamber was varied between 13 degrees C and 29 degrees C. The corresponding mean differences between the skin and the operative temperatures changed from 3.8 degrees C up to 15.8 degrees C. The whole-body heat transfer coefficients by radiation and convection for both standing and sitting postures are in good agreement with those in the published literature. The lying posture appears to be more efficient for losing heat by convection. This is confirmed when the heat losses of each individual part are considered. The proposed correlations for the whole body suggest that natural convection is mainly laminar. PMID:15185082

  13. The a-B-C-ds of sensible sun protection.

    PubMed

    Gilchrest, B A

    2008-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a carcinogen that also compromises skin appearance and function. Since the UV action spectra for DNA damage, skin cancer, and vitamin D photosynthesis are identical, and vitamin D is readily available from oral supplements, why has sun protection become controversial? First, the media and, apparently, some researchers are hungry for a new message. They have also drawn attention to the emerging evidence of possible vitamin D benefits other than for bone health. Second, the controversy is fueled by a powerful special interest group: the tanning industry. This industry does not target the frail elderly or inner-city ethnic minorities, which are the groups at greatest risk of vitamin D deficiency, but rather fair-skinned teenagers and young adults, who are at highest risk of UV photodamage. Third, evolution does not keep pace with civilization. When nature gave humans the appealing capacity for cutaneous vitamin D photosynthesis, life expectancy was less than 40 years of age; long-term photodamage was not a concern, and vitamin D deficiency, with its resulting skeletal abnormalities (rickets), was likely to be fatal in early life. This article briefly reviews the pseudo-controversy , as well as the data supporting a revision of the recommendations for vitamin D supplementation. It concludes with a suggested message for patients, many of whom are understandably confused by recent media coverage of the topic. PMID:18648712

  14. EVALUATION RETREAT: A SENSIBLE METHOD FOR PROGRAM’S ASSESSMENT

    PubMed Central

    Rios, R.; Estapé, E.; Díaz, C.; Segarra, B.; Martin, M. San

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The University of Puerto Rico (UPR), Medical Sciences Campus (MSC) post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical and Translational Research (MSc) program aims to train Hispanic post-doctoral candidates to advance their careers and become successful clinical and translational researchers geared to help eliminate health disparities. Its curriculum highlights the use of technology and online resources to maximize time use of time and efforts. As part of the assessment efforts, the program’s Evaluation Committee leads an annual activity, Evaluation Retreat (ER), to evaluate the program’s curriculum, research component, and mentoring experience according to Scholars’ perspective. Results are used by the Program Executive committee for further planning and improvement. This analysis presents the most relevant results from these activities. Design Methods Data collection (from last 5 years), include quantitative (online surveys) and qualitative approaches (a group meeting with Scholars.) Questionnaires request Scholars to rate specific features of the program’s research component, mentoring experience and curriculum. It also includes questions about the program in general (major strengths and challenges, and recommendations for improvement. During the group meeting, Scholars discuss these results and present consensus in a plenary session. Quantitative data are managed and analyzed using the statistical software SPSS. Qualitative data are examined using content analysis. Results Scholars identified as program’s strengths the networking opportunities (local and with U.S. experts), the diversity of peers and faculty, the faculty support, the technical and audiovisual support, the physical facilities and resources, the guest speakers and consultants, and the quality of the curriculum. Challenges vary as cohorts change, but time limitations and the need for technical/statistical support are always highlighted. Recommendations for improvement emphasize the need for a greater pool of experienced mentors, and more hands-on approaches to address particular skills such as, manuscript development, institutional and federal guidelines for proposal submission, and issues related to the research project management. Discussion Evaluation Retreats provide a valuable input to improve a program geared to develop competent clinical researchers. Findings evidence the program’s commitment with providing the foundation for an enhanced mass of clinical researchers. PMID:26985449

  15. Sensibility: A New Focus in Sami Health Care Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nymo, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Colonialism has had significant bodily impacts on Indigenous peoples through medicine. Excluded from the German race, Sami have been burdened by mainstream prejudices which perpetuate myths about Sami having poor genetic material and, as a consequence, having an inferior culture and language. This offensive burden and subsequent humiliation has

  16. Synergy and Sensibility: A Course on Entrepreneurship in Gerotechnologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzen-Huber, Lesa; Allen, Patricia; Kennedy-Armbruster, Carol

    2010-01-01

    "Health, Technology, and Aging" is a course developed to address three significant contemporary trends: aging populations, increasingly ubiquitous technology, and the economic imperative to encourage entrepreneurship. Course content is a blend of gerontology, informatics, and entrepreneurship designed for nonbusiness majors. Six interdisciplinary

  17. Nylon flocked swab severely reduces Hexagon Obti sensibility.

    PubMed

    Frippiat, Christophe; De Roy, Gilbert; Fontaine, Louis-Marie; Dognaux, Sophie; Noel, Fabrice; Heudt, Laeticia; Lepot, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    Hexagon Obti immunological blood test and flocked swab are widely used in forensic laboratories. Nevertheless, up to now, no compatibility tests have been published between sampling with the ethylene oxide treated flocked swab and the Hexagon Obti blood detection strip. In this study, we investigated this compatibility. Our work shows that sampling with ethylene oxide treated flocked swab reduces by a factor of at least 100 the detection threshold of blood using the Hexagon Obti immunological test. PMID:25575014

  18. [Are prism glasses a sensible measure in treatment of dyslexia?].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, C

    1992-05-01

    A short summary of the characteristics of speaking, reading and writing is given, followed by the respective anatomical, physiological and neuropsychological counterparts, which are to be described as the "Hör-Denk-Sprech-Seh-Schreib-Organismus" (H-D-S-S-SCH-O). Various disorders occurring in the H-D-S-S-SCH-O as well as health problems and psychological and/or sociological factors may negatively contribute to the ability of speaking, reading and writing. In each case medical and non-medical specialists should thoroughly assess the cause of the problem in order to select the most effective treatment method. An agreement was made between Dr. Pestalozzi (Olten) and the author, to asses logopedically from 1987 until 1990 at the Speech Therapy Clinic (Abteilung Klinische Logopädie, ORL-Klinik, Universitätsspital Zürich) 20 dyslexic children, aged 7 to 13 years, designated by Dr. Pestalozzi to the wearing of prism-glasses in order to cure their dyslexias. The results of this logopedic study are described and discussed. PMID:1614170

  19. Sense and sensibility: flagellum-mediated gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jennifer K.; Smith, Todd G.; Hoover, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The flagellum, a rotary engine required for motility in many bacteria, plays key roles in gene expression. It has been known for some time that flagellar substructures serve as checkpoints that coordinate flagellar gene expression with assembly. Less well understood, however, are other more global effects on gene expression. For instance, the flagellum acts as a ‘wetness’ sensor in Salmonella typhimurium and as a mechanosensor in other bacteria. Additionally, it has been implicated in a variety of bacterial processes, including biofilm formation, pathogenesis and symbiosis. Although for many of these processes it may be simply that motility is required, for other cases it seems that the flagellum plays an underappreciated role in regulating gene expression. PMID:19942438

  20. Sense and sensibility: flagellum-mediated gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer K; Smith, Todd G; Hoover, Timothy R

    2010-01-01

    The flagellum, a rotary engine required for motility in many bacteria, plays key roles in gene expression. It has been known for some time that flagellar substructures serve as checkpoints that coordinate flagellar gene expression with assembly. Less well understood, however, are other more global effects on gene expression. For instance, the flagellum acts as a 'wetness' sensor in Salmonella typhimurium, and as a mechanosensor in other bacteria. Additionally, it has been implicated in a variety of bacterial processes, including biofilm formation, pathogenesis and symbiosis. Although for many of these processes it might be simply that motility is required, in other cases it seems that the flagellum plays an underappreciated role in regulating gene expression. PMID:19942438

  1. Sensibility: A New Focus in Sami Health Care Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nymo, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Colonialism has had significant bodily impacts on Indigenous peoples through medicine. Excluded from the German race, Sami have been burdened by mainstream prejudices which perpetuate myths about Sami having poor genetic material and, as a consequence, having an inferior culture and language. This offensive burden and subsequent humiliation has…

  2. Dr. Spock on Parenting: Sensible, Reassuring Advice for Contemporary Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spock, Benjamin

    Compiling essays authored by Benjamin Spock and published in magazines, this book addresses the changing traditional family structure and the challenges faced by contemporary parents. The chapters are: (1) "Anxieties in Our Lives," discussing stressors, decisions regarding work, and late parenting; (2) "Being a Father Today," examining aspects of

  3. Investigaciones en la producción orgánica de vegetales en Oklahoma, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nationally recognized standards for certified organic farming were established in 2002 in the United States. This action stimulated increased scientific research on production methods that can be used in certified organic growing. In 2003, a multi-disciplinary scientific team in Oklahoma that cons...

  4. Comprehension from the Ground Up: Simplified, Sensible Instruction for the K-3 Reading Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taberski, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The author cuts through the pressurized, strategy-overloaded, fluency-crazed atmosphere surrounding reading instruction to lay out the reading and writing workshop practices that are most effective in developing readers in the primary grades. She shares the daily how-tos needed to sustain a literacy block that engages children in authentic reading…

  5. The New CETA; A Sensible Approach to Making the Jobs Program Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This booklet describes specific proposed and/or implemented strategies for dealing with some of the problems encountered in the CETA program. These strategies are directed toward four goals: (1) helping those who need help most; (2) creating a jobs program that goes where the jobs are: the private sector; (3) better management, delivering more job…

  6. Senses & Sensibility: Predator-Prey Experiments Reveal How Fish Perceive & Respond to Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jason; Holloway, Barbara; Ketcham, Elizabeth; Long, John

    2008-01-01

    The predator-prey relationship is one of the most recognizable and well-studied animal relationships. One of the more striking aspects of this relationship is the differential natural selection pressure placed on predators and their prey. This differential pressure results from differing costs of failure, the so-called life-dinner principle. If a

  7. Resolution and sensibility increase in CR-39 plastic cosmic ray detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laville, A.; Perez-Peraza, J.; Lopez, D.; Balcazar-Garcia, M.; Lopez, A.

    1987-05-01

    The best resolution and sensitivity thus far achieved in a solid-state nuclear track detector for the registering of cosmic rays have been obtained with a polymer of dietylene glycol bis allyl carbonate. It has been empirically determined that the resolution and sensitivity of these detectors are modified when the material is doped with such additives as dioctyl phthalate. These effects are presently discussed with a view to further enhancements of resolution and sensitivity.

  8. The Singing Teacher's Role in Educating Children's Abilities, Sensibilities and Sensitivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akuno, Emily Achieng'

    2015-01-01

    In the Republic of Kenya, song is widely used to enhance the whole curriculum in lower primary classes. Song is used especially to aid recall and therefore teachers adapt tunes that children already know, inserting relevant words from the subject at hand. Despite this widespread practice, this form of singing in schools is not recognised by the

  9. Riding the dragon: enhancing resilient leadership and sensible self-care in the healthcare executive.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Robert J; Buck, Tina C

    2013-01-01

    With challenges in the healthcare system growing, strengthened leader and organizational resilience is often overlooked as a factor that can support staff morale and sustain performance improvement and quality. Here we examine resilience-building practices related to self-awareness, alone time, mindfulness, and a healthy perspective. A key aspect of management resilience is weighing the costs and benefits to the executive personally and to the organization if the warning signals of impairment are left untended. To that end, we propose a leader self-care protocol, which even the busy healthcare executive can find time to undertake. Ifimplemented, the protocol will allow leaders to lessen their vulnerability to burnout and help teammates whose resilience may be stretched thin. Finally, we present healthy coping skills for daily stressors and for the sudden and overwhelming situations that can negatively affect resilience. PMID:24409599

  10. [Sensibility of rabbits to treatment with ampicillin and gentamycin (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Escoula, L; Camguilhem, R; Larrieu, G; More, J

    1981-01-01

    Ampicillin administered to rabbits (20 mg/kg per day) over a period of three days subsequently provoked a death rate of 40%. No deaths were observed after treatment with gentamycin (10 mg/kg per day) or with a combination of ampicillin and gentamycin. On the fourth day weight loss in the three treated groups was 12%, 11% and 9%, respectively, compared to controls. At the same time food intake in the treated groups was only 15% to 20% of the amount consumed by controls. In the caecum, ampicillin treatment resulted in dominance of a strain of Enterobacter aerogenes. Gentamycin had no effect on bacterial flora, although in combination with ampicillin, the number of caecal bacteria (aerobic and anaerobic) was reduced. Flora modification might be responsible for accumulation of NH3 and an unbalance of free acids. Caecotrophy was inhibited by administration of ampicillin. When administered intramuscularly, ampicillin produced results comparable with those obtained orally, although gentamycin was ineffective. PMID:7342822

  11. Net radiation, sensible and latent heat flux densities on slopes computed by the energy balance method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritschen, Leo; Qian, Ping

    1990-01-01

    Energy balance components obtained over five grass-covered sloping surfaces near Manhattan, KS, using the Bowen ratio energy balance technique with the instruments mounted horizontally were compared with calculated values when the instruments were mounted parallel to the surfaces. Hourly values of the components changed when the instruments were parallel to the surfaces. The changes were larger at low solar angles (spring and fall) and on steeper slopes. An area average of daylight totals, assuming that all aspects were equally represented, changed only 0.1 percent on June 6 and 2.3 percent on October 11. The calculations, extended to steeper slopes, indicated small changes in the daylight totals for slopes of less than 10 deg.

  12. Senses & Sensibility: Predator-Prey Experiments Reveal How Fish Perceive & Respond to Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jason; Holloway, Barbara; Ketcham, Elizabeth; Long, John

    2008-01-01

    The predator-prey relationship is one of the most recognizable and well-studied animal relationships. One of the more striking aspects of this relationship is the differential natural selection pressure placed on predators and their prey. This differential pressure results from differing costs of failure, the so-called life-dinner principle. If a…

  13. CLASH! Superheroic yet Sensible Strategies for Teaching the New Literacies Despite the Status Quo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavra, Sandra, Ed.; Spencer, Sharon L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book offers ideas that secondary teachers, university content faculty, and teacher educators can use to challenge traditional literacy practices and demonstrate creative, innovative ways of incorporating new literacies into the classroom, all within a strong theoretical framework. Teachers are trying to catch up to the new challenges of the

  14. Sex and Sensibility: A Parent's Guide to Talking Sense about Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffman, Deborah M.

    Children who grow up in an atmosphere of openness about sexuality grow up more slowly and more responsibly. This book offers parents a new framework for talking honestly about sex and sexuality with their children. The first part of the book examines new ways of thinking and talking, while the second part addresses concrete ways of raising…

  15. Improvements in the sensibility of MSA-GA tool using COFFEE objective function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, A. R.; Zafalon, G. F. D.; Neves, L. A.; Pinto, A. R.; Valêncio, C. R.; Machado, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The sequence alignment is one of the most important tasks in Bioinformatics, playing an important role in the sequences analysis. There are many strategies to perform sequence alignment, since those use deterministic algorithms, as dynamic programming, until those ones, which use heuristic algorithms, as Progressive, Ant Colony (ACO), Genetic Algorithms (GA), Simulated Annealing (SA), among others. In this work, we have implemented the objective function COFFEE in the MSA-GA tool, in substitution of Weighted Sum-of-Pairs (WSP), to improve the final results. In the tests, we were able to verify the approach using COFFEE function achieved better results in 81% of the lower similarity alignments when compared with WSP approach. Moreover, even in the tests with more similar sets, the approach using COFFEE was better in 43% of the times.

  16. Soil-water evaporation dynamics determined with measurement of sensible heat transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-water evaporation is important in both the hydrologic cycle and the surface energy balance. Yet, routine measurements are unable to capture rapidly shifting near-surface soil heat and water processes involved in evaporation. Recent improvements for fine-scale measurement of soil thermal propert...

  17. Using Research to Make Sensible Literacy Decisions within Current Educational Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goatley, Virginia J.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that literacy educators must take time to advocate for research-informed instructional responses in this age of Common Core State Standards and Race to the Top mandates. To that end, it offers four key ideas regarding: (a) what we know about instruction, (b) the need for long-term, continuously revised planning, (c) literacy in…

  18. The role of coherent flow structures in the sensible heat fluxes of an Alaskan boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkenburg, Derek; Fochesatto, Gilberto J.; Prakash, Anupma; Cristóbal, Jordi; Gens, Rudiger; Kane, Douglas L.

    2013-08-01

    Accelerations in the flow over forests generate coherent structures which locally enhance updrafts and downdrafts, forcing rapid exchanges of energy and matter. Here, observations of the turbulent flow are made in a highly heterogeneous black spruce boreal forest in Fairbanks, Alaska at ~2.6 h (12 m) and ~0.6 h (3 m), where h is the mean canopy height of 4.7 m. Wavelet analysis is used to detect coherent structures. The sonic temperature and wind data cover 864 half-hour periods spanning winter, spring, and summer. When mean global statistics of structures are analyzed at the two levels independently, results are similar to other studies. Specifically, an average of eight structures occurs per period, their mean duration is 85 s, and their mean heat flux contribution is 48%. However, this analysis suggests that 31% of the structures detected at 2.6 h, and 13% at 0.6 h, may be influenced by wave-like flow organization. Remarkably, less than 25% of the structures detected occur synchronously in the subcanopy and above canopy levels, which speaks robustly to the lack of flow interaction within only nine vertical meters of the forest.

  19. Novel exposure units for at-home personalized testing of electromagnetic sensibility.

    PubMed

    Huss, Anke; Murbach, Manuel; van Moorselaar, Imke; Kuster, Niels; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Slottje, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Previous experimental studies on electromagnetic hypersensitivity have been criticized regarding inflexibility of choice of exposure and of study locations. We developed and tested novel portable exposure units that can generate different output levels of various extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF; 50 Hz field plus harmonics) and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Testing was done with a group of healthy volunteers (n = 25 for 5 ELF-MF and n = 25 for 5 RF-EMF signals) to assess if units were indeed able to produce double-blind exposure conditions. Results substantiated that double-blind conditions were met; on average participants scored 50.6% of conditions correct on the ELF-MF, and 50.0% on the RF-EMF unit, which corresponds to guessing probability. No cues as to exposure conditions were reported. We aim to use these units in a future experiment with subjects who wish to test their personal hypothesis of being able to sense or experience when being exposed to EMF. The new units allow for a high degree of flexibility regarding choice of applied electromagnetic signal, output power level and location (at home or another environment of subjects' choosing). Bioelectromagnetics. 37:62-68, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26661464

  20. Sensibility of hydrous ethanol adulteration detection using ultrasonic parameters validated in a metrological base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K-K Figueiredo, Monique; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P. B.; Maggi, Luis E.; Alvarenga, André V.; Romeiro, Gilberto A.

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify possible changes in fuels, in this case hydrous ethanol, through ultrasonic parameters such as attenuation and propagation speed. The system setup and method were implemented at Inmetro's Laboratory of Ultrasound. Experiments and method uncertainties were assessed accordingly to ISO/IEC Guide 98 1:2009 (Uncertainty of measurement - Part 1: Introduction to the expression of uncertainty in measurement). Mixtures of ethanol and water varying from 90% to 94% of alcohol in mass were used as testing samples. Attenuation and propagation speed were accurately measured and uncertainties evaluated. The accordingly to Brazilian biofuel regulations, the concentration of water in hydrous ethanol can be accepted at a maximum concentration of 93.8 and minimum of 92.6 of alcohol in mass. To achieve that figure, a functional combination of tested parameters should be implemented. Those results could be used as a tool to identify adulteration of biofuel, even in analysis performed on site.

  1. Comparing simulated and measured sensible and latent heat fluxes over snow under a pine canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the second year of the NASA Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX) an eddy covariance (EC) system was operated at the local snow observation site (LSOS) from mid-February to June, 2003. The EC system was located beneath a uniform pine canopy where the trees are regularly spaced and are of si...

  2. Do Vertical Scales Lead to Sensible Growth Interpretations? Evidence from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of creating a developmental (i.e., vertical) score scale is to make it possible to compare students in terms of differences in magnitude. In other words, the scale should have interval properties. When this has been accomplished one can claim to measure growth in a sense that is both coherent and meaningful. In this paper I argue…

  3. The Singing Teacher's Role in Educating Children's Abilities, Sensibilities and Sensitivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akuno, Emily Achieng'

    2015-01-01

    In the Republic of Kenya, song is widely used to enhance the whole curriculum in lower primary classes. Song is used especially to aid recall and therefore teachers adapt tunes that children already know, inserting relevant words from the subject at hand. Despite this widespread practice, this form of singing in schools is not recognised by the…

  4. CLASH! Superheroic yet Sensible Strategies for Teaching the New Literacies Despite the Status Quo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavra, Sandra, Ed.; Spencer, Sharon L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book offers ideas that secondary teachers, university content faculty, and teacher educators can use to challenge traditional literacy practices and demonstrate creative, innovative ways of incorporating new literacies into the classroom, all within a strong theoretical framework. Teachers are trying to catch up to the new challenges of the…

  5. Voice over Internet protocol for the orthodontic practice: a sensible switch from plain old telephone service.

    PubMed

    Mupparapu, Muralidhar

    2008-03-01

    Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) is a revolutionary new technology that is causing a stir in the telecommunications industry and threatening the existence of traditional telephone service providers. Based on a simple method of converting analog audio signals into digital data before being transmitted over the Internet, VoIP has gained immense popularity among consumers. The technology is now regarded as an alternative to traditional telephone service for the orthodontic office. When the economics are considered, it is cost-effective, especially for a busy orthodontic practice where the call volumes both in and out are always high. VoIP has the potential to reduce costs, break the barriers between local vs long-distance calling, and make life easier for the office staff. However, deploying VoIP requires a cautious and thought-out process. Users should fully understand the risks and benefits before switching from the public switched telephone network. VoIP customers and service providers are vulnerable to many of the same impersonation-based attacks by those who attempt toll fraud, and identity and information theft. In this article, VoIP is introduced to orthodontic practitioners, who might be unfamiliar with this technology. Internet protocol based private branch exchange systems that are currently marketed as open-source technologies are also reviewed. Additionally, VoIP is compared with the traditional public switched telephone network technology and evaluated for its potential applications in an orthodontic office for both increased efficiency and cost savings. PMID:18331949

  6. Commentary: Sense and sensibility: the role of specialists in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Schwann, Nanette M; Nester, Brian A; McLoughlin, Thomas M

    2012-03-01

    How to redesign the incentives structure in the United States to reward effective coordinated care rather than production volume is a staggering public health policy challenge. In the mind of the public, there is a fine distinction between health care rationing and rational health care. Specialists have a vital but underappreciated role in reining in health care costs, but specific incentives to elicit behavior change with positive social outcomes remain ambiguous. It is imperative, therefore, that redesigning the incentives structure is thoughtfully considered, modeled, and tested prior to implementation, lest an inferior-quality model is inadvertently adopted and costs are only marginally contained. Quality metrics need to be universal and reflect real patient outcomes instead of the degree of investment by the institution in the reporting tools. Still, specialists should take immediate action to implement safe and efficient procedures and to assess their long-term impact on patients' quality of life. Scientific evaluations should guide both the assessment of the appropriateness and the safe delivery of care. Investment in high-quality data architecture and the science of health delivery implementation is an imperative if health care reform is to achieve its goals. Coordination and collaboration between specialists and primary care physicians is essential to this enterprise. Specialists can champion these efforts as they pertain to their areas of expertise by considering their care episodes in the context of the patient as a whole, working closely with generalists, and returning to the mindset of the specialist as a family doctor. PMID:22373614

  7. Beyond the Sensible World: A Discussion of Mark Zuss' The Practice of Theoretical Curiosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellner, Gene; Pitts, Wesley; Zuss, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this article, Gene Fellner reviews Mark Zuss's recently published "The practice of theoretical curiosity" (2012) and provides a synopsis of the book's structure. These two sections are followed by a metalogue in which Mark Zuss, Welsey Pitts, and Fellner discuss curiosity and the conundrum of establishing limits beyond which curiosity should…

  8. Marketing Outputs as Art? Bringing an Aesthetic Sensibility to the Marketing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.; Budeva, Desislava; Chung, Christina; Dzhogleva, Hristina

    2011-01-01

    Can marketing outputs--advertising, packaging, product design, and retail environments--be considered a form of art? This paper explores the potential for incorporating the theories and concepts of aesthetics in the marketing curriculum in order to facilitate students' capacity to interpret marketing outputs and develop effective practical…

  9. The use of antipsychotics in preschoolers: a veto or a sensible last option?

    PubMed

    Memarzia, Jessica; Tracy, Derek; Giaroli, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    Recent reports have illustrated a dramatic rise in the use of antipsychotics in preschool children, medications originally designed and licensed for the treatment of adult psychotic disorders. Within this context, the current usage and the associated diagnoses are reviewed and compared with official guidelines and licensing for such use, highlighting a controversial challenge for clinicians. A review of the evidence base of the relative efficacy of such medications for a range of disorders is given. Associated safety and side effects are discussed, with compelling evidence for increased adverse events associated with use of antipsychotics in preschoolers, and neurodevelopmental hypotheses are used to guide predictions of long-term risk. An apparent gap in the literature and evidence base supporting such use and elucidating the risks and benefits leaves a challenge for clinicians and researchers and hinders the development of appropriate guidelines. Pragmatism in clinical practice, mindful of the limited evidence base that does exist and the propensity for harm, is necessary; far more research is required in this important area. PMID:24451556

  10. Improved wound management at lower cost: a sensible goal for Australia.

    PubMed

    Norman, Rosana E; Gibb, Michelle; Dyer, Anthony; Prentice, Jennifer; Yelland, Stephen; Cheng, Qinglu; Lazzarini, Peter A; Carville, Keryln; Innes-Walker, Karen; Finlayson, Kathleen; Edwards, Helen; Burn, Edward; Graves, Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    Chronic wounds cost the Australian health system at least US$2·85 billion per year. Wound care services in Australia involve a complex mix of treatment options, health care sectors and funding mechanisms. It is clear that implementation of evidence-based wound care coincides with large health improvements and cost savings, yet the majority of Australians with chronic wounds do not receive evidence-based treatment. High initial treatment costs, inadequate reimbursement, poor financial incentives to invest in optimal care and limitations in clinical skills are major barriers to the adoption of evidence-based wound care. Enhanced education and appropriate financial incentives in primary care will improve uptake of evidence-based practice. Secondary-level wound specialty clinics to fill referral gaps in the community, boosted by appropriate credentialing, will improve access to specialist care. In order to secure funding for better services in a competitive environment, evidence of cost-effectiveness is required. Future effort to generate evidence on the cost-effectiveness of wound management interventions should provide evidence that decision makers find easy to interpret. If this happens, and it will require a large effort of health services research, it could be used to inform future policy and decision-making activities, reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes. PMID:26634882

  11. You Can't Do It All! A Sensible Way to Distribute School Leadership Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kise, Jane; Russell, Beth

    2009-01-01

    As the demands on school leaders expand, it's becoming more and more important to lead from one's strengths. The authors' review of literature on essential school leadership responsibilities led them to write "Differentiated School Leadership: Effective Collaboration, Communication and Change through Personality Type," which revealed 26 separate…

  12. BREAKING RECORDS - SENSIBLE MANAGEMENT HELPS ALABAMA'S LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS NET RECORD YIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alabama's Old Rotation Experiment (circa 1896) and the Cullars Rotation Experiment (circa 1911) at Auburn University have set record or near record crop yields for these experiments over the last few years. Researchers contributing to the Old Rotation and Cullars Rotation experiments attribute high...

  13. Problem Solving: A Sensible Approach to Children's Science and Social Studies Learning--and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martha

    2007-01-01

    West outlines the scientific method as a proven problem-solving method for young children across the curriculum and in all areas of life and learning. She emphasizes that doing, thinking, and talking with peers when problem solving are as important as writing conclusions. The article walks readers through a second grade class's experiment in…

  14. Spatial differences in sensible and latent heat losses under a bicycle helmet.

    PubMed

    De Bruyne, Guido; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Van der Perre, Georges; Goffin, Jan; Verpoest, Ignace; Berckmans, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This research aims at quantifying spatial gradients in skin temperature and sweat production under a bicycle helmet. Distribution of sweat production, skin temperature and air temperature was measured at different positions under a bicycle helmet on five male and four female test persons. Effort level was 100 and 150 watt for men (low and high effort level) and 80 and 120 W for women (low and high effort level). Skin temperatures were found to be spatially different (P < 0.05): frontal and lateral region varied 4.6 degrees C at low effort level and 5.3 degrees C at high effort level. Sweat production was found to be not significantly different (P > 0.05). Finally, air temperature variations were found to be spatially different (P < 0.05). Average air temperature differed 2.3 degrees C between lateral and frontal region at high effort level and 2.7 degrees C at low effort level. The results of this research can be used to help designing helmets with better thermal comfort. PMID:18649086

  15. Evaluation of surface sensible heat flux effects on the generation and modification of mesoscale circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.; Mahrer, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Mesoscale thermal-induced circulations generated by horizontal gradients in surface characteristics as well as significant perturbations on land and sea breezes and mountain-valley winds due to substantial modifications in the thermal forcing are introduced. It is suggested that these types of mesoscale situations are generally ignored in forecasting but that they may have important implications in very short range predictions.

  16. Thermal energy storage - overview and specific insight into nitrate salts for sensible and latent heat storage.

    PubMed

    Pfleger, Nicole; Bauer, Thomas; Martin, Claudia; Eck, Markus; Wrner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is capable to reduce the demand of conventional energy sources for two reasons: First, they prevent the mismatch between the energy supply and the power demand when generating electricity from renewable energy sources. Second, utilization of waste heat in industrial processes by thermal energy storage reduces the final energy consumption. This review focuses mainly on material aspects of alkali nitrate salts. They include thermal properties, thermal decomposition processes as well as a new method to develop optimized salt systems. PMID:26199853

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of CO2, sensible and latent heat fluxes over the FIFE site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R. L.; Schuepp, P. H.; Macpherson, J. I.

    1990-01-01

    The temporal and spatial variations of mass and energy exchanges are characterized by data taken from grid flights at a constant pressure altitude. Data from two separate studies are presented to demonstrate that the correlation coefficients increase with improved estimates of the origin of mass and energy exchange. Measurements taken from aircraft can effectively describe relationships between surface processes and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale.

  18. Towards sensible toxicity testing for nanomaterials: proposal for the specification of test design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Weil, Mirco; Meißner, Tobias; Kühnel, Dana

    2015-12-01

    During the last decade, nanomaterials (NM) were extensively tested for potential harmful effects towards humans and environmental organisms. However, a sound hazard assessment was so far hampered by uncertainties and a low comparability of test results. The reason for the low comparability is a high variation in the (1) type of NM tested with regard to raw material, size and shape and (2) procedures before and during the toxicity testing. This calls for tailored, nanomaterial-specific protocols. Here, a structured approach is proposed, intended to lead to test protocols not only tailored to specific types of nanomaterials, but also to respective test system for toxicity testing. There are existing standards on single procedures involving nanomaterials, however, not all relevant procedures are covered by standards. Hence, our approach offers a detailed way of weighting several plausible alternatives for e.g. sample preparation, in order to decide on the procedure most meaningful for a specific nanomaterial and toxicity test. A framework of several decision trees (DT) and flow charts to support testing of NM is proposed as a basis for further refinement and in-depth elaboration. DT and flow charts were drafted for (1) general procedure—physicochemical characterisation, (2) choice of test media, (3) decision on test scenario and application of NM to liquid media, (4) application of NM to the gas phase, (5) application of NM to soil and sediments, (6) dose metrics, (S1) definition of a nanomaterial, and (S2) dissolution. The applicability of the proposed approach was surveyed by using experimental data retrieved from studies on nanoscale CuO. This survey demonstrated the DT and flow charts to be a convenient tool to systematically decide upon test procedures and processes, and hence pose an important step towards harmonisation of NM testing.

  19. Is it sensible to 'deform' dose? 3D experimental validation of dose-warping

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, U. J.; Taylor, M. L.; Supple, J. R.; Smith, R. L.; Dunn, L.; Kron, T.; Franich, R. D.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Strategies for dose accumulation in deforming anatomy are of interest in radiotherapy. Algorithms exist for the deformation of dose based on patient image sets, though these are sometimes contentious because not all such image calculations are constrained by physical laws. While tumor and organ motion has been a key area of study for a considerable amount of time, deformation is of increasing interest. In this work, we demonstrate a full 3D experimental validation of results from a range of dose deformation algorithms available in the public domain. Methods: We recently developed the first tissue-equivalent, full 3D deformable dosimetric phantom-'DEFGEL.' To assess the accuracy of dose-warping based on deformable image registration (DIR), we have measured doses in undeformed and deformed states of the DEFGEL dosimeter and compared these to planned doses and warped doses. In this way we have directly evaluated the accuracy of dose-warping calculations for 11 different algorithms. We have done this for a range of stereotactic irradiation schemes and types and magnitudes of deformation. Results: The original Horn and Schunck algorithm is shown to be the best performing of the 11 algorithms trialled. Comparing measured and dose-warped calculations for this method, it is found that for a 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 mm{sup 2} square field, {gamma}{sub 3%/3mm}= 99.9%; for a 20 Multiplication-Sign 20 mm{sup 2} cross-shaped field, {gamma}{sub 3%/3mm}= 99.1%; and for a multiple dynamic arc (0.413 cm{sup 3} PTV) treatment adapted from a patient treatment plan, {gamma}{sub 3%/3mm}= 95%. In each case, the agreement is comparable to-but consistently {approx}1% less than-comparison between measured and calculated (planned) dose distributions in the absence of deformation. The magnitude of the deformation, as measured by the largest displacement experienced by any voxel in the volume, has the greatest influence on the accuracy of the warped dose distribution. Considering the square field case, the smallest deformation ({approx}9 mm) yields agreement of {gamma}{sub 3%/3mm}= 99.9%, while the most significant deformation ({approx}20 mm) yields agreement of {gamma}{sub 3%/3mm}= 96.7%. Conclusions: We have confirmed that, for a range of mass and density conserving deformations representative of those observable in anatomical targets, DIR-based dose-warping can yield accurate predictions of the dose distribution. Substantial differences can be seen between the results of different algorithms indicating that DIR performance should be scrutinized before application todose-warping. We have demonstrated that the DEFGEL deformable dosimeter can be used to evaluate DIR performance and the accuracy of dose-warping results by direct measurement.

  20. Collaborative Inquiry in a Socially Shared Contextual Frame, Striving toward Sensible Knowledge Creation on Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löytönen, Teija

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The tradition of dance art in Finland is characterized by values such as individuality and uniqueness, and the professional practice is structured by competition and different kinds of hierarchies, which may also add color to the culture of dance teaching. One of the most noticeable elements within the dance education community…

  1. Sense or Sensibility?: How Commitment Mediates the Role of Self-Service Technology on Loyalty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sangeeta; Olsen, Line Lervik

    It has been well documented that employing self-service technology (SST) results in considerable cost savings but few studies have examined its impact on consumers’ behavior. We apply a well-recognized model from the field of services marketing in an SST context. We examine how the established relationships between satisfaction, affective and calculative commitments, and loyalty are affected when the service is provided through a technology interface as opposed to service personnel. We then present two alternative perspectives on the role of SST. The first is based on the predominant assumption that SST is a moderator of the relationship between customer loyalty and its drivers, while the other rests on the assumption that SST is just another context and that its role in affecting customer loyalty is mediated by drivers of loyalty. A cross-sectional study conducted in the banking industry shows that SST does not change everything. The classical model of how customers evaluate services and the predictors of loyalty are replicated in the SST setting. Interestingly, SST does not have a direct influence on loyalty by itself but its effects are mediated by commitment. However, it is the affective commitment that is more important in forming loyalty toward the service provider.

  2. Skin and sensibility: the story of bullae on the human surface.

    PubMed

    Doci, Xhiliola; Holubar, Karl; Vasili, Ermira

    2012-02-01

    This review presents a concise delineation of the historical roots of nomenclature and first reports of entities recognized today as immunoblistering dermatoses. The scope of the perspective of terminology is the time from Hippocrates BC to past mid-twentieth century AD, and pemphigus is the core of the matter. Researchers in this field may find these important historic facts interesting and useful as a quick reference. PMID:22035115

  3. Sensitive solid-state optical sensible materials for photothermal determination of trace metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedosekin, D. A.; Saranchina, N. V.; Mokhova, O. V.; Ageeva, E. V.; Gavrilenko, N. A.; Proskurnin, M. A.; Mokrousov, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Methods of photothermal (thermal-lens) determination of iron and mercury on the basis of solid polymer matrices with immobilized reagents are developed. These methods combine selective and efficient preconcentration of trace elements to be analyzed on a transparent polymer matrix, the sensitivity of determination with the reliable and traceable photometric procedures and highly sensitive thermal-lens detection (enhanced in polymers compared to solutions). The advantage of this approach is in the use of sensitive organic reagents previously developed for spectrophotometry. In this study, transparent polymethacrylate matrices modified with copper dithizonate and 1,10-phenanthroline were applied to the determination of mercury(II) and iron(II), respectively.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of sensible heat flux measurements from a large aperture scintillometer using lysimetric data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The path integrating capabilities of scintillometers over several kilometers make it a potential tool that can bridge the gap between primary point based observations (lysimeters, Bowen ratio, or eddy covariance) and the demand for large-scale spatially averaged surface fluxes. Further, the spatial...

  5. Integrating bevacizumab and radiation treatment of brain metastasis: is there sense and sensibility in this approach?

    PubMed

    Lou, Emil; Sperduto, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of brain metastasis has increased over the past decade. Standard treatment options for brain metastases include whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and surgery for patients with operable lesions and either mass effect or need for histologic confirmation of the diagnosis. Patients are living longer due to improvements in systemic therapeutic approaches, included targeted therapies such as inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab (Bev). A recent phase I trial (REBECA) investigated adding Bev to whole-brain radiation for patients with brain metastasis from solid tumors. In this Perspectives article, we discuss the results of the REBECA trial in context of advancements in radiation and medical oncology in the era of targeted therapies, and discuss pertinent questions of interest in this field. PMID:26889489

  6. Utilization of pre-cleaned greige cotton in nonwovens: a sensible approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cotton – a consumer-preferred, naturally sustainable fiber – has been extensively used in traditional textiles for centuries, its utilization in nonwoven fabrics has been minimal (~2% by weight). A major reason thus far for the cotton not being a preferred fiber for modern nonwovens has be...

  7. Three Dimensional Illustrating--Three-Dimensional Vision and Deception of Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szállassy, Noémi; Gánóczy, Anita; Kriska, György

    2009-01-01

    The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena…

  8. Collaborative Inquiry in a Socially Shared Contextual Frame, Striving toward Sensible Knowledge Creation on Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytnen, Teija

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The tradition of dance art in Finland is characterized by values such as individuality and uniqueness, and the professional practice is structured by competition and different kinds of hierarchies, which may also add color to the culture of dance teaching. One of the most noticeable elements within the dance education community

  9. Touch is a team effort: interplay of submodalities in cutaneous sensibility.

    PubMed

    Saal, Hannes P; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, different classes of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents are ascribed different and largely non-overlapping functional roles (for example texture or motion) stemming from their different response properties. This functional segregation is thought to be reflected in cortex, where each neuron receives input from a single submodality. We summarize work that challenges this notion. First, while it is possible to design artificial stimuli that preferentially excite a single afferent class, most natural stimuli excite all afferents and most tactile percepts are shaped by multiple submodalities. Second, closer inspection of cortical responses reveals that most neurons receive convergent input from multiple afferent classes. We argue that cortical neurons should be grouped based on their function rather than on their submodality composition. PMID:25257208

  10. Temperature sensibility of the birefringence properties in side-hole photonic crystal fiber filled with Indium

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes-Vera, Erick Gómez-Cardona, Nelson D.; Chesini, Giancarlo; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B.; Torres, Pedro

    2014-11-17

    We report on the temperature sensitivity of the birefringence properties of a special kind of photonic crystal fiber containing two side holes filled with Indium metal. The modulation of the fiber birefringence is accomplished through the stress field induced by the expansion of the metal. Although the fiber was made at low gas pressures during the indium infiltration process, the birefringence showed anomalous property at a relatively low temperature value, which is completely different from those reported in conventional-like fibers with two holes filled with metal. By modeling the anisotropic changes induced by the metal expansion to the refractive index within the fiber, we are able to reproduce the experimental results. Our results have practical relevance for the design of devices based on this technology.

  11. "Sensible Girls" and "Silly Boys": What Do Teachers Need to Know about Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Jae; Santoro, Ninetta

    2014-01-01

    Much to the consternation of many feminist researchers, teacher education programs have become largely silent about gender and the influence of gender discourses on teaching and learning. Stereotypical views of males and females can dominate teachers' views of boys and girls, and they can be seen as essentially different--as binary opposites.

  12. Zinc'ing sensibly: controlling zinc homeostasis at the transcriptional level.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sangyong; Bird, Amanda J

    2014-07-01

    Zinc-responsive transcription factors are found in all kingdoms of life and include the transcriptional activators ZntR, SczA, Zap1, bZip19, bZip23, and MTF-1, and transcriptional repressors Zur, AdcR, Loz1, and SmtB. These factors have two defining features; their activity is regulated by zinc and they all play a central role in zinc homeostasis by controlling the expression of genes that directly affect zinc levels or its availability. This review summarizes what is known about the mechanisms by which each of these factors sense changes in intracellular zinc levels and how they control zinc homeostasis through target gene regulation. Other factors that influence zinc ion sensing are also discussed. PMID:24722954

  13. Marketing Outputs as Art? Bringing an Aesthetic Sensibility to the Marketing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.; Budeva, Desislava; Chung, Christina; Dzhogleva, Hristina

    2011-01-01

    Can marketing outputs--advertising, packaging, product design, and retail environments--be considered a form of art? This paper explores the potential for incorporating the theories and concepts of aesthetics in the marketing curriculum in order to facilitate students' capacity to interpret marketing outputs and develop effective practical

  14. "Sensible Girls" and "Silly Boys": What Do Teachers Need to Know about Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Jae; Santoro, Ninetta

    2014-01-01

    Much to the consternation of many feminist researchers, teacher education programs have become largely silent about gender and the influence of gender discourses on teaching and learning. Stereotypical views of males and females can dominate teachers' views of boys and girls, and they can be seen as essentially different--as binary opposites.…

  15. Sensible Treatment of Obesity in Rural Youth (STORY): Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Janicke, David M.; Sallinen, Bethany J.; Perri, Michael G.; Lutes, Lesley D.; Silverstein, Janet H.; Huerta, Milagros G.; Guion, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Project STORY is a 3-arm, randomized, planning and feasibility study assessing the effectiveness of two behavioral weight management interventions in an important and at-risk population, overweight children and their parents in medically underserved rural counties. Participants will include 90 parent-child dyads from rural counties in north central Florida. Families will be randomized to one of three conditions: (a) a Family-Based Behavioral Group Intervention, (b) a Parent-Only Behavioral Group Intervention, and (c) a waitlist control condition. Child and parent participants will be assessed at baseline (month 0), post-treatment (month 4) and follow-up (month 10). Assessment and intervention sessions will be held at Cooperative Extension offices within each local participating county. The primary outcome measure is change in child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Additional key outcome measures include child dietary intake, physical activity, self-esteem, body image, and parent BMI. The goals of the study are to (a) assess the feasibility of recruitment in rural settings, (b) develop and evaluate training protocol for group leaders, (c) determine strategies to increase adherence to monitoring and goal setting protocol, (d) evaluate strategies for participant retention, (e) assess the relative cost-effectiveness of the interventions, (f) assess the acceptability of the intervention to families and Cooperative Extension administrators and personnel, and (g) if successful, estimate the sample size needed for a full scale trial. This research has potential implications for medically underserved rural communities with limited resources and preventive health care services. If successful, a Parent-Only intervention program may provide a cost-effective and practical intervention for families in underserved rural communities. PMID:17588503

  16. Copyright Law and Professors' Photocopied "Anthologies": A Sensible Decision from the Sixth Circuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, Richard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    More and more college professors are constructing their own "anthologies," photocopied compilations of recent articles and book excerpts, that are used as textbook substitutes. Addresses the impact of copyright law on the creation and distribution of customized college-course anthologies. (39 footnotes) (MLF)

  17. A field study of the effects of inhomogeneities of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, J. C.; Barnes, F. J.; Coulter, R. L.; Crawford, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of characterizing turbulent fluxes of heat, momentum, and moisture over inhomogeneous surfaces has received increasing attention. This issue is relevant to the performance of general circulation models (GCMs), in which a single grid element can encompass a variety of surface and topographical features. Although considerable progress has been made in describing the energy balance at a surface partially covered by vegetation, less is known about how to treat adjacent regions of sharply contrasting surface characteristics. One difficulty is the scarcity of suitable data sets with which to study the problem, particularly on scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers.

  18. DNA Damage: A Sensible Mediator of the Differentiation Decision in Hematopoietic Stem Cells and in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Cary N.; Ito, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    In the adult, the source of functionally diverse, mature blood cells are hematopoietic stem cells, a rare population of quiescent cells that reside in the bone marrow niche. Like stem cells in other tissues, hematopoietic stem cells are defined by their ability to self-renew, in order to maintain the stem cell population for the lifetime of the organism, and to differentiate, in order to give rise to the multiple lineages of the hematopoietic system. In recent years, increasing evidence has suggested a role for the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in the decision for hematopoietic stem cells to exit quiescence and to differentiate. In this review, we will examine recent work supporting the idea that detection of cell stressors, such as oxidative and genetic damage, is an important mediator of cell fate decisions in hematopoietic stem cells. We will explore the benefits of such a system in avoiding the development and progression of malignancies, and in avoiding tissue exhaustion and failure. Additionally, we will discuss new work that examines the accumulation of DNA damage and replication stress in aging hematopoietic stem cells and causes us to rethink ideas of genoprotection in the bone marrow niche. PMID:25789504

  19. An experimental and numerical study of boundary layer structure over areas of inhomogeneous sensible heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, S.; Doran, J.C.

    1994-03-01

    In June of 1992 a boundary-layer experiment was carried out near Boardman, Oregon. The campaigns were part of a program of studies under the auspices of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, whose goal is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer, particularly as affected by clouds, in general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate studies. One aspect of this program is concerned with the determination of appropriate lower boundary conditions for such models and the representation of subgrid-scale variability in regions where the surface conditions are not uniform. To study this problem, boundary-layer and surface properties were measured over a region of two sharply contrasting land types: a large, dry, sagebrush steppe area and irrigated farmland that formed the east, northeast, and western borders of the steppe. A combination of surface flux instrumentation, airsondes, sodars, and near-surface wind and temperature sensors was used. Measurements were carried out over the eastern portion of this region, which featured a well-defined boundary between the dry and irrigated areas. In this paper, the authors present some results from those observations and from a set of numerical simulations that address the effects of inhomogeneous surface fluxes on boundary-layer structure.

  20. Pedagogy and the Poetic: Nurturing Ecological Sensibility through Language and Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the context, methodology, and theoretical framework of a research project conducted with coastal Newfoundland children living in communities deeply affected by the collapse of the marine ecosystem. Through a participatory engagement with bioregional poetry, the author investigates how children grow in their…

  1. [Determining health policy for sensible mobile phone use--current world status].

    PubMed

    Sagi, Omer Itzhak; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2011-03-01

    Mobile phones have become the leading communication system, with more than 4.5 billions users around the world. The sharp increase in the number of users, and its penetration to all populations, including children, has raised concern about possible adverse health effects, particularly cancer This article reviews the public health policies introduced in Israel and several other countries regarding mobile phone use in view of the lack of clarity concerning the safety of this new technology. The data show that most countries have adopted the precautionary principle as the leading guideline, recommending the use of simple and low-cost safety measures which could substantially reduce exposure to the brain and other body organs from mobile phones. These include the use of text messages, hands-free kits, and/or the loud-speaker mode of the phone. Accordingly, recommendations, guidelines, standards, and legislation aimed at the general population, drivers, state institutions and the industry have been formulated. For children, who are considered to be more susceptible to cancer development following exposure to carcinogens, there is widespread consensus for a stricter approach. In some countries, measures such as banning use of mobile phones in schools, prohibiting sales/advertisements targeted at young age groups, expanding warnings on phones/ packages, and encouraging educational campaigns have been adopted for this population. Regulations regarding phone use while driving have been instituted in most countries. In conclusion, many public health practitioners have moved from the theoretical level (adoption of the precautionary principle) to an active phase of introducing regulations, with specific emphasis to various populations. PMID:21574350

  2. Towards an understanding of the human resource in the context of change in the NHS: economic sense versus cultural sensibilities?

    PubMed

    Timpson, J

    1996-11-01

    The concepts involved in the process of managing change successfully in respect of the management of human resources are as complex as they are contentious, with arguments and counter-arguments espoused weekly in the seemingly ever-growing plethora of literature available. The following paper attempts to present a critical analysis of the management of change from the perspective of the human resource and to debate the relative merits pertaining to the imperatives of organizational design and culture, in conjunction with a plea to recognize and respect peoples' needs and feelings, in relation to the impact of internal market reform upon management practice within the context of the contemporary National Health Service (NHS). The paper is predicated upon the dual beliefs that people and organizations are dynamic entities being located both temporally and socially, and that any constructed criterions of success must, therefore, be evaluated not only in terms of the specific individual and/or organizational parameters but also in terms of the relative cultural, moral, philosphical and political ethos, and that as the human race largely survives and operates via organization, which in itself has to be managed, controlled and developed, managers are, therefore, a vital element of any successful organization. PMID:9035633

  3. Canine Sense and Sensibility: Tipping Points and Response Latency Variability as an Optimism Index in a Canine Judgement Bias Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Melissa J.; Branson, Nicholas; Cody, Denis; Starling, Timothy R.; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in animal welfare science used judgement bias, a type of cognitive bias, as a means to objectively measure an animal's affective state. It is postulated that animals showing heightened expectation of positive outcomes may be categorised optimistic, while those showing heightened expectations of negative outcomes may be considered pessimistic. This study pioneers the use of a portable, automated apparatus to train and test the judgement bias of dogs. Dogs were trained in a discrimination task in which they learned to touch a target after a tone associated with a lactose-free milk reward and abstain from touching the target after a tone associated with water. Their judgement bias was then probed by presenting tones between those learned in the discrimination task and measuring their latency to respond by touching the target. A Cox's Proportional Hazards model was used to analyse censored response latency data. Dog and Cue both had a highly significant effect on latency and risk of touching a target. This indicates that judgement bias both exists in dogs and differs between dogs. Test number also had a significant effect, indicating that dogs were less likely to touch the target over successive tests. Detailed examination of the response latencies revealed tipping points where average latency increased by 100% or more, giving an indication of where dogs began to treat ambiguous cues as predicting more negative outcomes than positive ones. Variability scores were calculated to provide an index of optimism using average latency and standard deviation at cues after the tipping point. The use of a mathematical approach to assessing judgement bias data in animal studies offers a more detailed interpretation than traditional statistical analyses. This study provides proof of concept for the use of an automated apparatus for measuring cognitive bias in dogs. PMID:25229458

  4. Diurnal and vertical variability of the sensible heat and carbon dioxide budgets in the atmospheric surface layer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casso-Torralba, P.; de Arellano, J. V. -G.; Bosveld, F.; Soler, M.R.; Vermeulen, A.; Werner, C.; Moors, E.

    2008-01-01

    The diurnal and vertical variability of heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmospheric surface layer are studied by analyzing measurements from a 213 in tower in Cabauw (Netherlands). Observations of thermodynamic variables and CO2 mixing ratio as well as vertical profiles of the turbulent fluxes are used to retrieve the contribution of the budget terms in the scalar conservation equation. On the basis of the daytime evolution of turbulent fluxes, we calculate the budget terms by assuming that turbulent fluxes follow a linear profile with height. This assumption is carefully tested and the deviation ftom linearity is quantified. The budget calculation allows us to assess the importance of advection of heat and CO2 during day hours for three selected days. It is found that, under nonadvective conditions, the diurnal variability of temperature and CO2 is well reproduced from the flux divergence measurements. Consequently, the vertical transport due to the turbulent flux plays a major role in the daytime evolution of both scalars and the advection is a relatively small contribution. During the analyzed days with a strong contribution of advection of either heat or carbon dioxide, the flux divergence is still an important contribution to the budget. For heat, the quantification of the advection contribution is in close agreement with results from a numerical model. For carbon dioxide, we qualitatively corroborate the results with a Lagrangian transport model. Our estimation of advection is compared with, traditional estimations based on the Net Ecosystem-atmosphere Exchange (NEE). Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. The Rationale for Subsidy of Higher Education in Hong Kong: A Sensible Decision from an Economic Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Shing Yin Amy

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to draw the statistical data from reports and documents to reveal the rationale for subsidizing the higher education in Hong Kong. There is a discussion made with reference to educational planning interacting with personal choice. The notion of economics has been noted with consideration of allocation of scarce resources…

  6. Realities of weather extremes on daily life in urban India - How quantified impacts infer sensible adaptation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckien, D.

    2012-12-01

    Emerging and developing economies are currently undergoing one of the profoundest socio-spatial transitions in their history, with strong urbanization and weather extremes bringing about changes in the economy, forms of living and living conditions, but also increasing risks and altered social divides. The impacts of heat waves and strong rain events are therefore differently perceived among urban residents. Addressing the social differences of climate change impacts1 and expanding targeted adaptation options have emerged as urgent policy priorities, particularly for developing and emerging economies2. This paper discusses the perceived impacts of weather-related extreme events on different social groups in New Delhi and Hyderabad, India. Using network statistics and scenario analysis on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) as part of a vulnerability analysis, the investigation provides quantitative and qualitative measures to compare impacts and adaptation strategies for different social groups. Impacts of rain events are stronger than those of heat in both cities and affect the lower income classes particularly. Interestingly, the scenario analysis (comparing altered networks in which the alteration represents a possible adaptation measure) shows that investments in the water infrastructure would be most meaningful and more effective than investments in, e.g., the traffic infrastructure, despite the stronger burden from traffic disruptions and the resulting concentration of planning and policy on traffic ease and investments. The method of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping offers a link between perception and modeling, and the possibility to aggregate and analyze the views of a large number of stakeholders. Our research has shown that planners and politicians often know about many of the problems, but are often overwhelmed by the problems in their respective cities and look for a prioritization of adaptation options. FCM provides this need and identifies priority adaptation options when resources are scarce. 1 Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) (2007) Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge New York. 2 TERI (2007) Adaptation to Climate Change in the context of Sustainable Development. Background Paper to the conference ''Climate Change and Sustainable Development: An international workshop to strengthen research and understanding'', 7-8 April 2006, The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi.

  7. Spare the rod and spoil the child. Is this a sensible justification for the use of punishment in child rearing?

    PubMed

    Carey, T A

    1994-12-01

    This paper examines the validity of the well-used proverb Spare the rod and spoil the child. To do this, the original form of the proverb from the Bible is compared with the modern form, and some significant differences are highlighted. The definition of punishment is considered, and the differences between punishment and corporal punishment are examined. Punishment is explored in some detail with attention given to the criteria that need to be satisfied in order for punishment to be effective. Discrepancies in the literature concerning these criteria are pointed out, making punishment a complex issue. The negative effects of punishment are significant with links to social problems such as teenage delinquency and violence. Reference is made to cultures where corporal punishment has been banned and the effects of this action. Given the problems associated with punishment programs, especially those being used in families, alternatives to punishment are discussed. Finally, an alternative form of the proverb to the current adaptation is offered. PMID:7850608

  8. Characteristics of the motions, turbulence intensity, diffusivity, flux of momentum and sensible heat in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, S. K.; Lordi, N. J.

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of the meteorological rocket data obtained from an experiment conducted at 3-hour intervals at 8 western meridional rocket stations are presented. Large variations in the meridional wind contribute substantially to overall turbulence in the tropical stratosphere. The solar semidiurnal component of wind oscillations in the tropics was observed to be much higher than predicted by theory, often exceeding the magnitude of the diurnal amplitude throughout the stratosphere. The observed value of the solar diurnal amplitude in the stratosphere was in line with theoretical prediction. The solar terdiurnal amplitudes for temperature, meridional and zonal winds were non-negligible and must be considered in any harmonic analysis. Phase angle variation with height was rapid for all harmonics; however, there was general agreement between predicted and observed phase angles. Because of large changes in the mean winds in the mesosphere with season, harmonic determinations are difficult. There appear to be large zonal wind changes even within the same season as mentioned previously. Turbulence diffusivity in the upper stratosphere is greater near the equator than in the mid-latitudes.

  9. [The high fermentative capacity of colonic bacteria in the origin of flatulence and its sensibility to bismuth subsalicylate].

    PubMed

    León-Barúa, Raúl; Alvarez De Roig, Maritza; Roig-Arosemena, Javier; Berendson-Seminario, Roberto; Torres-Zevallos, Hernando

    2007-01-01

    Using a previously described technique, "in vitro" determinations were carried out for faecal fermentation (FF): basal faecal fermentation (BFF), i.e, only with faeces, with faeces and lactulose (LFF) and with faeces, lactulose and bismuth subsalicylate (BiLFF) in 34 patients with flatulence. The media+d.s. of the difference between the LFFand BFF levels (LFF-BFF) in patients with flatulence was significant and markedly higher than the respective media +d.s. in 30 normal control patients previously studied (9.1+4.7 vs. 3.9+3.2 ml gas/24 hrs; p<0.000001 respectively). And, although FF was reduced by adding bismuth salicylate in only 24% (70.6%) of the patients with flatulence but not in the remaining 10 (29.4%), in total the media+d.s. of the differences between the levels BiLFF and BFF (BiLFFBFF) was significantly lower that the media+d.s. of the differences between the LFF and BFF levels (LFF-BFF) (6.0+4.2 vs 9.1+4.7 ml gas/24 hrs; p<0.01 respectively). These results confirm that: 1) The fermentative capacity of the colonic bacteriae is most likely to be abnormally intense in peoples with flatulence and 2) Bismuth subsalicylate can be useful in the control of excessive colonic fermentation and flatulence; they raise, furthermore, the interesting possibility that we may have found the way to predict when the use of bismuth subsalicylate could be effective in the treatment of a patient with flatulence. PMID:17431432

  10. Sense and Sensibility in Technical Documentation: How Feminist Interpretation Strategies Can Save Lives in the Nation's Mines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Beverly A.

    This article analyzes post-accident investigation reports from a feminist perspective, showing how a feminist interpretation can change the way technical writers look at expertise and evidence. In comparing formal documentation of mine inspection reports with women's testimony about conditions in the mines, the article shows: (1) how the…

  11. Diurnal and vertical variability of the sensible heat and carbon dioxide budgets in the atmospheric surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casso-Torralba, Pau; Vilã-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; Bosveld, Fred; Soler, Maria Rosa; Vermeulen, Alex; Werner, Cindy; Moors, Eddy

    2008-06-01

    The diurnal and vertical variability of heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmospheric surface layer are studied by analyzing measurements from a 213 m tower in Cabauw (Netherlands). Observations of thermodynamic variables and CO2 mixing ratio as well as vertical profiles of the turbulent fluxes are used to retrieve the contribution of the budget terms in the scalar conservation equation. On the basis of the daytime evolution of turbulent fluxes, we calculate the budget terms by assuming that turbulent fluxes follow a linear profile with height. This assumption is carefully tested and the deviation from linearity is quantified. The budget calculation allows us to assess the importance of advection of heat and CO2 during day hours for three selected days. It is found that, under nonadvective conditions, the diurnal variability of temperature and CO2 is well reproduced from the flux divergence measurements. Consequently, the vertical transport due to the turbulent flux plays a major role in the daytime evolution of both scalars and the advection is a relatively small contribution. During the analyzed days with a strong contribution of advection of either heat or carbon dioxide, the flux divergence is still an important contribution to the budget. For heat, the quantification of the advection contribution is in close agreement with results from a numerical model. For carbon dioxide, we qualitatively corroborate the results with a Lagrangian transport model. Our estimation of advection is compared with traditional estimations based on the Net Ecosystem-atmosphere Exchange (NEE).

  12. Thermal energy storage – overview and specific insight into nitrate salts for sensible and latent heat storage

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Thomas; Martin, Claudia; Eck, Markus; Wörner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Summary Thermal energy storage (TES) is capable to reduce the demand of conventional energy sources for two reasons: First, they prevent the mismatch between the energy supply and the power demand when generating electricity from renewable energy sources. Second, utilization of waste heat in industrial processes by thermal energy storage reduces the final energy consumption. This review focuses mainly on material aspects of alkali nitrate salts. They include thermal properties, thermal decomposition processes as well as a new method to develop optimized salt systems. PMID:26199853

  13. Membrane Dehumidifier: High-Efficiency, On-Line Membrane Air Dehumidifier Enabling Sensible Cooling for Warm and Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: ADMA Products is developing a foil-like membrane for air conditioners that efficiently removes moisture from humid air. ADMA Products’s metal foil-like membrane consists of a paper thin, porous metal sheet coated with a layer of water-loving molecules. This new membrane allows water vapor to permeate across the membrane at high fluxes and at the same time, blocks air penetration efficiently resulting in high selectivity. The high selectivity of the membrane translates to less energy use, while the high permeation fluxes result in a more compact device. The new materials and the flat foil-like nature of the membrane facilitate the mass production of a low-coast compact dehumidification device

  14. General Relativity Without Paradigm of Space-Time Covariance:. Sensible Quantum Gravity and Resolution of the "problem of Time"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Chopin; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2013-12-01

    Covariance of space and time in General Relativity (GR) entails a number of technical and conceptual difficulties. Remarkably, these can be resolved by a paradigm shift from full 4-dimensional general coordinate invariance to invariance only with respect to spatial diffeomorphisms. The framework for a theory of gravity with this paradigm shift, from quantum to classical regimes, is presented; GR is contained as a special case. Appositely formulated as a master constraint, the Hamiltonian constraint now determines only dynamics; and is relieved of its dual role of generating symmetry transformations. The Dirac algebra, in which 4-dimensional diffeomorphism symmetry is only realized on-shell, is replaced by the master constraint algebra which possesses only spatial diffeomorphism gauge symmetry, both on- and off-shell. Decomposition of the spatial metric into unimodular and determinant, q, factors results in mutually commuting pairs of canonical variables. The classical content of GR can be captured with a Hamiltonian constraint linear in the trace of the momentum. This implies a theory of quantum gravity can be described by a Schrodinger equation first order in intrinsic time ln q accompanied with positive semi-definite probability density. The semi-classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation is also first order in intrinsic time, with the implication of being complete; and gauge-invariant physical observables can be constructed from integration constants of its complete integral solution. Classical space-time, with direct correlation of its proper times and intrinsic time intervals, emerges from constructive interference; and the physical content of GR can be regained from a theory with a true Hamiltonian generating intrinsic time translations, but with only spatial diffeomorphism symmetry. The framework also prompts natural extensions towards a well-behaved quantum theory of gravity.

  15. Making the Most of Less: Refurbished Technology Provides a Sensible Way to Deal with Ongoing Budget Woes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikar, Saar

    2005-01-01

    Riddles are time-honored educational tools used to entertain students while teaching them the value of critical thinking. They often require the kind of outside-the-box inductive and deductive reasoning that is so valued in the business world today. Now, those same educators who talk about two coins adding up to 35 cents are being presented with…

  16. Making the Most of Less: Refurbished Technology Provides a Sensible Way to Deal with Ongoing Budget Woes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikar, Saar

    2005-01-01

    Riddles are time-honored educational tools used to entertain students while teaching them the value of critical thinking. They often require the kind of outside-the-box inductive and deductive reasoning that is so valued in the business world today. Now, those same educators who talk about two coins adding up to 35 cents are being presented with

  17. Canine sense and sensibility: tipping points and response latency variability as an optimism index in a canine judgement bias assessment.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Cody, Denis; Starling, Timothy R; McGreevy, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in animal welfare science used judgement bias, a type of cognitive bias, as a means to objectively measure an animal's affective state. It is postulated that animals showing heightened expectation of positive outcomes may be categorised optimistic, while those showing heightened expectations of negative outcomes may be considered pessimistic. This study pioneers the use of a portable, automated apparatus to train and test the judgement bias of dogs. Dogs were trained in a discrimination task in which they learned to touch a target after a tone associated with a lactose-free milk reward and abstain from touching the target after a tone associated with water. Their judgement bias was then probed by presenting tones between those learned in the discrimination task and measuring their latency to respond by touching the target. A Cox's Proportional Hazards model was used to analyse censored response latency data. Dog and Cue both had a highly significant effect on latency and risk of touching a target. This indicates that judgement bias both exists in dogs and differs between dogs. Test number also had a significant effect, indicating that dogs were less likely to touch the target over successive tests. Detailed examination of the response latencies revealed tipping points where average latency increased by 100% or more, giving an indication of where dogs began to treat ambiguous cues as predicting more negative outcomes than positive ones. Variability scores were calculated to provide an index of optimism using average latency and standard deviation at cues after the tipping point. The use of a mathematical approach to assessing judgement bias data in animal studies offers a more detailed interpretation than traditional statistical analyses. This study provides proof of concept for the use of an automated apparatus for measuring cognitive bias in dogs. PMID:25229458

  18. Gut Microbioma Population: An Indicator Really Sensible to Any Change in Age, Diet, Metabolic Syndrome, and Life-Style

    PubMed Central

    Annalisa, Noce; Alessio, Tarantino; Claudette, Tsague Djoutsop; Erald, Vasili; Antonino, De Lorenzo; Nicola, Di Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become a pandemic threat in the latest 30 years. The trend of the prevalence of overweight and obesity has got an overall increase in every part of the world, regardless of ethnicity, life-style and social ties. High food intake, genetic, and sedentary have been related to obesity; it has been also hypothesized that gut microbiota could have an impact on the complex mechanism underlying the weight gain. This review aims to illustrate the actual literature about gut microbiota and its relation with obesity and to analyze the possible implications of factors such as diet and life-style onto the composition of gut microbiota, that can lead to overweight/obesity condition. PMID:24999296

  19. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  20. S.674, The Sensible Advertising and Family Education Act. Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This Congressional hearing discusses legislation that would require health warnings to be included in advertisements of alcoholic beverages. Opening statements are included from Senators Hollings, Burns, Danforth, Thurmond, and Simon, and from Representative Kennedy. Testimony is included from two panels of witnesses, whose members include: (1)…

  1. Overweight and obese adolescent girls: the importance of promoting sensible eating and activity behaviors from the start of the adolescent period.

    PubMed

    Todd, Alwyn S; Street, Steven J; Ziviani, Jenny; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    2015-02-01

    The adolescent period is associated with changes in eating and activity behaviors in girls. Less reliance on parental provision and choice of food, coupled with a decrease in participation in physical activity and sport, can create an energy imbalance, predisposing to weight gain. Physiological alterations to body composition, reduction in insulin sensitivity, and psychological adjustments may further amplify the risk of becoming overweight and maintaining an unhealthy level of body fat into childbearing years. During pregnancy excess body fat is a risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and may predispose an infant to a lifelong heightened risk of being overweight and developing chronic disease. Interventions aimed at preventing the accumulation of body fat in adolescent girls and young women may have far reaching impact and be critically important in reducing intergenerational weight gain. Lifestyle interventions in adolescence have the potential to modify adult obesity risk by switching at-risk individuals from a high to lower obesity risk trajectory. This paper discusses multiple approaches to assist at-risk individuals reduce obesity risk. A key focus is placed on engagement in food preparation and choice, and opportunities for physical activity and sport. Support, education, and opportunity at home and at school, are often associated with the success of lifestyle interventions, and may enable adolescents to make positive choices, and engage in health promoting behaviors during adolescence and childbearing years. PMID:25690003

  2. Nueva opción de tratamiento para mujeres jóvenes con cáncer de seno sensible a las hormonas

    Cancer.gov

    Un fármaco usado para el tratamiento del cáncer de seno (mama), conocido como exemestano, es más eficaz que tamoxifeno, un fármaco preventivo de uso común para el cáncer de seno, en la prevención de la recidiva del cáncer de seno en mujeres jóvenes que ta

  3. Formation of an Oxidant-Sensible Pd(II) Coordination Compound and Its [superscript 1]H NMR Specific Characterization: A Preparative and Analytical Challenge in Current Coordination Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Maria L.; Oppel, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    A three-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of palladium(II) complex starting from a C[subscript 3]-symmetric triaminoguanidinium-based ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of tris-benzylidenetriaminoguanidinium chloride ([H[subscript 6]Br[subscript 3]L]Cl) by an acidic catalyzed 3-fold imine formation reaction of

  4. GP73, a resident Golgi glycoprotein, is sensibility and specificity for hepatocellular carcinoma of diagnosis in a hepatitis B-endemic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jin-song; Wu, De-wu; Liang, Shuo; Miao, Xiong-yin

    2010-06-01

    Golgi protein-73 (GP73) is a newly identified candidate serum marker for HCC, but GP73 study now is lesser in Asian population. The aims of this study were to determine how GP73 is detected in the serum of healthy, hepatitis B, cirrhosis and HCC by western blotting and RT-PCR, and to establish the sensitivity and specificity of serum GP73 protein and RNA for diagnosing HCC. Serum GP73 was detected by western blotting and RT-PCR, and quantified by densitometric analysis. GP73 was measured in serum from 124 patients with various forms of liver. AFP was tested using commercially available electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The median sGP73 in patients with HBV-related HCC was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in healthy individuals and in patients with other diseases. When sGP73 protein was used to detect HBV-related HCC, it had a sensitivity of 77.4% and a specificity of 83.9%, at the optimal cut-off value of 7.4 relative units. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.89. GP73 RNA in patients with HBV-related HCC had a sensitivity of 87.1% and a specificity of 83.9% and AUROC of 0.92. AFP in patients with HCC had a sensitivity of 48.4% and a specificity of 96.8% and AUROC of 0.77. GP73 protein and RNA can be found in the serum of patients with HBV-related HCC obviously higher than of other liver diseases in Asian. GP73 was better than AFP for the diagnosis of HBV-related HCC. RT-PCR is a more sensitive and superior method of quantification than Western blot. Furthermore, our data need to be confirmed in larger cohorts of patients. PMID:19399652

  5. From mad cows to sensible blood transfusion: the risk of prion transmission by labile blood components in the United Kingdom and in France.

    PubMed

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Hewitt, Patricia

    2009-04-01

    Transfusion transmission of the prion, the agent of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), is now established. Subjects infected through food may transmit the disease through blood donations. The two nations most affected to date by this threat are the United Kingdom (UK) and France. The first transfusion cases have been observed in the UK over the past 5 years. In France, a few individuals who developed vCJD had a history of blood donation, leading to a risk of transmission to recipients, some of whom could be incubating the disease. In the absence of a large-scale screening test, it is impossible to establish the prevalence of infection in the blood donor population and transfused patients. This lack of a test also prevents specific screening of blood donations. Thus, prevention of transfusion transmission essentially relies at present on deferral of "at-risk" individuals. Because prions are present in both white blood cells and plasma, leukoreduction is probably insufficient to totally eliminate the transfusion risk. In the absence of a screening test for blood donations, recently developed prion-specific filters could be a solution. Furthermore, while the dietary spread of vCJD seems efficiently controlled, uncertainty remains as to the extent of the spread of prions through blood transfusion and other secondary routes. PMID:19170997

  6. The pH sensibility of actin-bundling LIM proteins is governed by the acidic properties of their C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Moes, Danièle; Hoffmann, Céline; Dieterle, Monika; Moreau, Flora; Neumann, Katrin; Papuga, Jessica; Furtado, Angela Tavares; Steinmetz, André; Thomas, Clément

    2015-08-19

    Actin-bundling Arabidopsis LIM proteins are subdivided into two subfamilies differing in their pH sensitivity. Widely-expressed WLIMs are active under low and high physiologically-relevant pH conditions, whereas pollen-enriched PLIMs are inactivated by pH values above 6.8. By a domain swapping approach we identified the C-terminal (Ct) domain of PLIMs as the domain responsible for pH responsiveness. Remarkably, this domain conferred pH sensitivity to LIM proteins, when provided "in trans" (i.e., as a single, independent, peptide), indicating that it operates through the interaction with another domain. An acidic 6xc-Myc peptide functionally mimicked the Ct domain of PLIMs and efficiently inhibited LIM actin bundling activity under high pH conditions. Together, our data suggest a model where PLIMs are regulated by an intermolecular interaction between their acidic Ct domain and another, yet unidentified, domain. PMID:26226417

  7. Overweight and Obese Adolescent Girls: The Importance of Promoting Sensible Eating and Activity Behaviors from the Start of the Adolescent Period

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Alwyn S.; Street, Steven J.; Ziviani, Jenny; Byrne, Nuala M.; Hills, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The adolescent period is associated with changes in eating and activity behaviors in girls. Less reliance on parental provision and choice of food, coupled with a decrease in participation in physical activity and sport, can create an energy imbalance, predisposing to weight gain. Physiological alterations to body composition, reduction in insulin sensitivity, and psychological adjustments may further amplify the risk of becoming overweight and maintaining an unhealthy level of body fat into childbearing years. During pregnancy excess body fat is a risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and may predispose an infant to a lifelong heightened risk of being overweight and developing chronic disease. Interventions aimed at preventing the accumulation of body fat in adolescent girls and young women may have far reaching impact and be critically important in reducing intergenerational weight gain. Lifestyle interventions in adolescence have the potential to modify adult obesity risk by switching at-risk individuals from a high to lower obesity risk trajectory. This paper discusses multiple approaches to assist at-risk individuals reduce obesity risk. A key focus is placed on engagement in food preparation and choice, and opportunities for physical activity and sport. Support, education, and opportunity at home and at school, are often associated with the success of lifestyle interventions, and may enable adolescents to make positive choices, and engage in health promoting behaviors during adolescence and childbearing years. PMID:25690003

  8. Effect of long-term high-fat diet intake on peripheral insulin sensibility, blood pressure, and renal function in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Roza, Noemi A. V.; Possignolo, Luiz F.; Palanch, Adrianne C.; Gontijo, José A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study determines whether 8-week high-fat diet (HFD) consumption alters insulin sensitivity, kidney function, and blood pressure (BP) in female rats when compared with standard rodent diet (ND) intake in gender- and age-matched rats. Methods The present study investigates, in female Wistar HanUnib rats, the effect of long-term high-fat fed group (HFD) compared with standard chow on BP by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electrosphygmomanometer, insulin and glucose function, and kidney function by creatinine and lithium clearances. Results The current study shows glucose tolerance impairment, as demonstrated by increased fasting blood glucose (ND: 78±2.8 vs. HFD: 87±3.8 mg/dL) associated with reduced insulin secretion (ND: 0.58±0.07 vs. HFD: 0.40±0.03 ng/mL) in 8-week female HFD-treated rats. The incremental area under the curve (AUC, ND: 1,4558.0±536.0 vs. HFD: 1,6507.8±661.9), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and the first-order rate constant for the disappearance of glucose (Kitt) were significantly enhanced in 8-week HFD-treated rats compared with age-matched ND group (respectively, P=0.03, P=0.002, and P<0.0001). The current study also shows a significantly higher systolic BP measured in 5 and 8 weeks posttreatment in HFD (5-week HFD-treated: 155.25±10.54 mmHg and 8-week HFD-treated: 165±5.8 mmHg) (P=0.0001), when compared to BP values in 5-week ND, 137±4.24 mmHg and 8-week ND, 131.75±5.8 mmHg age-matched group. Otherwise, the glomerular filtration rate and renal sodium handling evaluated by FENa, FEPNa and FEPPNa, were unchanged in both groups. Conclusion We may conclude that 8-week female HFD-fed rats compared with ND group stimulate harmful effects, such as BP rise and peripheral glucose intolerance. The increased BP occurs through insulin resistance and supposedly decreased vasodilatation response without any change on renal function. PMID:26880072

  9. Formation of an Oxidant-Sensible Pd(II) Coordination Compound and Its [superscript 1]H NMR Specific Characterization: A Preparative and Analytical Challenge in Current Coordination Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Maria L.; Oppel, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    A three-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of palladium(II) complex starting from a C[subscript 3]-symmetric triaminoguanidinium-based ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of tris-benzylidenetriaminoguanidinium chloride ([H[subscript 6]Br[subscript 3]L]Cl) by an acidic catalyzed 3-fold imine formation reaction of…

  10. "Help Wanted, Inquire Within": Estimation. Activities and Thoughts That Emphasize Dealing Sensibly with Numbers through the Processes of Estimation. (Grades 1-6). Title I Elementary Mathematics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronert, Joie; Marshall, Sally

    Developed for elementary teachers, this activity unit is designed to teach students the importance of estimation in developing quantitative thinking. Nine ways in which estimation is useful to students are listed, and five general guidelines are offered to the teacher for planning estimation activities. Specific guidelines are provided for

  11. "Help Wanted, Inquire Within": Estimation. Activities and Thoughts That Emphasize Dealing Sensibly with Numbers through the Processes of Estimation. (Grades 1-6). Title I Elementary Mathematics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronert, Joie; Marshall, Sally

    Developed for elementary teachers, this activity unit is designed to teach students the importance of estimation in developing quantitative thinking. Nine ways in which estimation is useful to students are listed, and five general guidelines are offered to the teacher for planning estimation activities. Specific guidelines are provided for…

  12. Images reproducibility of an electrical impedance tomography (EIT) prototype. Analysis of the EIT sensibility in rats in pathological in vivo conditions.

    PubMed

    Gaona, A; Aguillon, P; Mendoza, J; Lopez, L; Gonzalez, E

    2004-01-01

    The development of a 16 electrode-electrical impedance tomography (EIT) prototype to be applied in neurological fields such as epilepsy in rats has been previously reported. Approaching residual problems in order to improve its performance, this work reports results about changes made in the system hardware as follows: 1) replacing the current source demultiplexing circuit that could impact on a better spatial localization, and 2) a new current source design that increases the current amplitude up to 5 mA/sub rms/. System was evaluated by means of: a) image reproducibility starting from 4 test elements in homogeneous conditions; and b) spatial localization evaluation in conductivity perturbation conditions; this feature is evaluated too in preliminary acute in vivo experiments where an epileptic seizure is induced, and an impedance increase is expected. Results show a 95% of proper images for a) analysis. Spatial localization reports improvement up to 20% transversely and 5.5% longitudinally with regard to previous results. In vivo results are lack of interpretation due poor changes obtained in images. In order to conclude or not a reliable correlation between the perturbation measured and the seizure activity, a new definition of grey scale or other changes could be proposed. PMID:17272187

  13. L'utilisation de la polarimetrie radar et de la decomposition de Touzi pour la caracterisation et la classification des physionomies vegetales des milieux humides : le cas du lac Saint-Pierre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Gabriel

    Wetlands fill many important ecological functions and contribute to the biodiversity of fauna and flora. Although there is a growing recognition of the importance to protect these areas, it remains that their integrity is still threatened by the pressure of human activities. The inventory and the systematic monitoring of wetlands are a necessity and remote sensing is the only realistic way to achieve this goal. The primary objective of this thesis is to contribute and improve the wetland characterization using satellite polarimetric data acquired in L (ALOS-PALSAR) and C (RADARSAT-2) band. This thesis is based on two hypotheses (Ch. 1). The first hypothesis stipulate that classes of plant physiognomies, based on plant structure, are more appropriate than classes of plant species because they are best adapted to the information content of polarimetric radar data. The second hypothesis states that polarimetric decomposition algorithms allow an optimal extraction of polarimetric information compared to a multi-polarized approach based on the HH, HV and VV channels (Ch. 3). In particular, the contribution of the incoherent Touzi decomposition for the inventory and monitoring of wetlands is examined in detail. This decomposition allows the characterization of the scattering type, its phase, orientation, symmetry, degree of polarization and the backscattered power of a target with a series of parameters extracted from an analysis of the coherency matrix eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The lake Saint-Pierre region was chosen as the study site because of the great diversity of its wetlands that are covering more than 20 000 ha. One of the challenges posed by this thesis is that there is neither a standard system enumerating all the possible physiognomic classes nor an accurate description of their characteristics and dimensions. Special attention was given to the creation of these classes by combining several data sources and more than 50 plant species were grouped into nine physiognomic classes (Ch. 7, 8 and 9). Several analyzes are proposed to validate the hypotheses of this thesis (Ch. 9). Sensitivity analysis using scatter plots are performs to study the characteristics and dispersion of plant physiognomic classes in various features space consisting of polarimetric parameters or polarization channels (Ch. 10 and 12). Time series of made of RADARSAT-2 images are used to deepen the understanding of the seasonal evolution of plant physiognomies (Ch. 12). The transformed divergence algorithm is used to quantify the separability between physiognomic classes and to identify the parameters (s) that contribute the most to their separability (Ch. 11 and 13). Classifications are also proposed and the results compared to an existing map of the lake Saint-Pierre wetlands (Ch. 14). Finally, an analysis of the potential of polarimetric parameters in C and L-band is proposed for the monitoring of peatlands hydrology (Ch. 15 and 16). Sensitivity analyses show that the parameters of the 1st component, relative to the dominant (polarized) part of the signal, are sufficient for a general characterization of plant physiognomies. The parameters of the second and third components are, however, needed for better class separability (Ch. 11 and 13) and a better discrimination between wetlands and uplands (Ch. 14). This thesis shows that it is preferable to consider individually the parameters of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd components rather than their weighted sum by their respective eigenvalues (Ch. 10 and 12). This thesis also examines the complementarity between the structural parameters and those related to the backscattered power, often ignored and normalized by most polarimetric decomposition. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Synthese et utilisation de fibres cellulosiques phosphatees pour la valorisation de la fibre vegetale dans l'amelioration des proprietes de surface du papier et la fabrication de materiaux ignifuges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentsolo Yalli, Gym Clerc

    Dans cette etude, nous souhaitions principalement greffer des groupements phosphates directement sur la cellulose comme materiau modele, et par la suite transposer les conditions optimales du design concu pour la cellulose, determine par modelisation a l'aide de l'outil JMP, sur la pate kraft. Ensuite, evaluer les proprietes physico-chimiques, optiques, d'hydrophilie, thermiques et d'inflammabilite des materiaux fabriques (feuilles ou pastilles fabriquees) a partir des fibres phosphorylees. Pour ce faire, nous avons pretraite la cellulose et la pate kraft dans une solution aqueuse de 10 a 15 % de LiCl a 70°C pendant 7 heures. Par la suite, nous avons procede a la reaction de phosphorylation in situ avec l'acide phosphorique et l'uree, dans des conditions de temperatures et de reactifs decrites par un design experimental, pendant 3 heures. La reaction de phosphorylation s'est realisee avec succes pour l'ensemble des resultats sur la cellulose, avec des taux de greffage variables selon les conditions operatoires. Les degres de substitutions (DSP), determines par ICP-OES, et les degres de polymerisation (DP), determines par viscosimetrie, etaient aussi variables, selon les conditions. L'etude des parametres experimentaux a permis de determiner les conditions optimales transposables sur la pate kraft (DSP = 1,47 et DP = 142,42 pour la cellulose, qui represente un taux de coupure de 38% de la fibre) et les facteurs critiques de la reaction. Les resultats de la reaction sur la fibre ont permis, non seulement de constater que les conditions utilisees pour la cellulose n'etaient directement transposables a la fibre, mais permettaient quand d'obtenir un DSP interessant ≥ a 1 avec un taux de coupure de 50 a 60 %. La structure du produit principal de la reaction (le sel de calcium du pyrophosphate d'ester de cellulose ou de pate kraft) a ete determinee par les analyses FTIR, XPS, RMN-13C et RMN-31P. L'etude de l'effet de la reaction de phosphorylation sur les proprietes physico-chimiques et optiques (blancheur/opacite, rupture, cohesion interne etc.) des feuilles fabriquees a permis de demontrer une diminution generale des proprietes de ces dernieres. De meme, une resistance a la flamme du papier phosphoryle a ete observee dans la phase de decroissance de la combustion, lors des tests de flamme et des analyses par TGA. De plus, l'analyse de l'angle de contact a demontre que le greffage des groupements phosphates augmentait l'hydrophilie de la fibre et son absorption d'eau.

  15. 75 FR 79455 - OPEN GOVERNMENT AND EVIDENCE-BASED REGULATION

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... sensible and pragmatic approaches that are designed to promote entrepreneurship, innovation, job creation... unjustified costs, and to identify approaches that will promote entrepreneurship, innovation, job growth,...

  16. FIRE_AX_PSU_MALBAL

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-24

    ... Rate Sea Surface Temperature Sensible Heat Flux Solar Absorptance Solar Reflectance Solar Transmittance Specific Humidity Surface Stress System Optical Depth Temperature Wind Direction Wind Speed ...

  17. Visit a Farm? Surely Not!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Popular myth has it that visiting a farm can be dangerous, but there are only a few occasions when children have become ill during a school visit to a farm. Simple, sensible precautions, including wearing appropriate clothing, such as trousers and wellington boots (if wet) or sensible shoes, and careful hand-washing, are all that is required. The…

  18. Visit a Farm? Surely Not!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Popular myth has it that visiting a farm can be dangerous, but there are only a few occasions when children have become ill during a school visit to a farm. Simple, sensible precautions, including wearing appropriate clothing, such as trousers and wellington boots (if wet) or sensible shoes, and careful hand-washing, are all that is required. The

  19. Another Look at Aesthetic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sardello, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    We have not learned to experience beauty as an essential, pervasive dimension of our actions. Aesthetic sensibility represents the child in us imbued with spontaneity, imagination, and unity of soul and action. This sensibility makes it possible to reevaluate the world in terms of metaphor, image, fantasy, and dreams. (PP)

  20. Thermocouple frequency response compensation leads to convergence of the surface renewal alpha calibration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensible heat flux measurements are used in conjunction with net radiation and ground heat flux measurements to determine the latent heat flux as the energy balance residual. Surface renewal is a relatively inexpensive technique for sensible heat flux estimation because it requires only a fast-resp...

  1. A Moral Experience Feedback Loop: Modeling a System of Moral Self-Cultivation in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherblom, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    This "systems thinking" model illustrates a common feedback loop by which people engage the moral world and continually reshape their moral sensibility. The model highlights seven processes that collectively form this feedback loop: beginning with (1) one's current moral sensibility which shapes processes of (2) perception, (3)

  2. A Moral Experience Feedback Loop: Modeling a System of Moral Self-Cultivation in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherblom, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    This "systems thinking" model illustrates a common feedback loop by which people engage the moral world and continually reshape their moral sensibility. The model highlights seven processes that collectively form this feedback loop: beginning with (1) one's current moral sensibility which shapes processes of (2) perception, (3)…

  3. Informes de patología

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe el tipo de información que puede aparecer en un informe de patología, el cual contiene los resultados de la examinación visual y microscópica del tejido extirpado durante una biopsia o cirugía.

  4. [Characteristics of surface energy fluxes over a sparse shrubland ecosystem in the farming-pastoral zone of the Loess Plateau, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Gong, Ting-ting; Lei, Hui-min; Jiao, Yang; Yang, Han-bo; Yang, Da-wen

    2015-06-01

    Based on the energy flux and meteorological data during 2011-2012 over a sparse shrubland ecosystem in the farming-pastoral zone of the Loess Plateau, this study investigated the diurnal and seasonal variations of the energy balance components, and discussed the responses of the latent and sensible heat fluxes to different intensities of rainfall events. In addition, we identified the major environmental controlling factors on latent and sensible heat fluxes via correlation analysis. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations of net radiation (Rn), sensible heat flux (H), latent heat flux (LE) and soil heat flux (G) all showed single-peak curves. The annual mean values of Rn, H, LE and G were 78.19, 33.32, 24.91 and 2.65 W · m(-2), respectively. The ratios of energy budget components to net radiation were 43% (H/Rn), 32% (LE/Rn), and 3% (G/Rn), which indicated that sensible heat flux was the major form of energy loss at this site. In the growing season, the ratios of sensible heat flux and latent heat flux to net radiation were nearly the same (36%); while in the non-growing season, sensible heat flux accounted for 54% of net radiation. Latent heat flux increased sharply after heavy and weak rainfall events, while sensible heat flux decreased sharply at the same time. Continuous rainfall events would lead to fluctuations in latent and sensible heat fluxes. There were significant correlations between latent heat flux and net radiation, vapor pressure deficit and vegetation parameter, while remarkable correlations were found between sensible heat flux and net radiation, and air temperature gradient. PMID:26572012

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program facilities newsletter, May 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-06-03

    Eight eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement systems are now deployed throughout the ARM SGP CART site. These systems are used to determine the flux (flow) of sensible heat, the flux of latent heat, and air momentum just above cropland a few hundred feet upwind of the ECOR locations. Sensible heat is energy we feel as warmth. Latent heat is the energy that evaporated water vapor measured in the atmosphere. The ECOR systems actually measure wind velocity and temperature fluctuations, water vapor, and barometric pressure. The surface flux values for sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum are calculated from these measurements.

  6. Validation of Sebal Heat Fluxes with Scintillometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S.; Kleissl, J.; Gomez, J.; Marcy, L.; Moene, A.; Rahn, T.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Falk, U.; Hendrickx, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) is being used worldwide for the estimation of latent heat fluxes from MODIS and Landsat images. Our study objective is to investigate how large aperture scintillometers can be best employed for the validation of SEBAL heat fluxes. In this study, Landsat and MODIS images of the Valles Caldera National Preserve (New Mexico, USA) and North-Eastern Ghana were selected to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes using SEBAL. These fluxes will be compared against direct ground measurements of the heat fluxes using scintillometers for sensible heat flux and eddy covariance systems for sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  7. 24 CFR 3280.511 - Comfort cooling certificate and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... To Calculate Sensible Heat Gain Walls (without windows and doors) U Ceilings and roofs of light color U Ceilings and roofs of dark color U Floors U Air ducts in floor U Air ducts in ceiling U Air...

  8. Eddies in the Mainstream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendor, Benjamin

    1996-01-01

    Two recent court decisions--one from the state of Washington and the other from Indiana--demonstrate that the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act's strong presumption in favor of mainstreaming disabled children has its sensible limits. (MLF)

  9. Developing a wireless infrared thermometer with a narrow field of view

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agricultural applications rely on infrared sensors for remote measurement of surface temperatures for crop status monitoring and estimating sensible and latent heat fluxes. Historically, these applications employed the use of stationary industrial infrared thermometers wired to data loggers. ...

  10. Jet lag prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Jet lag is a sleep disorder that occurs when the body's biological clock does not correspond to ... Here are some tips to help prevent jet lag: Maintain a sensible ... sleeping in order to make yourself tired. Consider going to bed ...

  11. [Acupuncture and Vojta therapy in infantile cerebral palsy--a comparison of the effects].

    PubMed

    Stockert, K

    1998-01-01

    Acupuncture and Vojta therapy are using more or less identical points and identical muscle chains for the treatment of infantile cerebral palsy. Therefore a common utilization seems to be sensible. PMID:10025039

  12. SURFACE HEAT FLUX DERIVED FROM SODAR AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY DATA: A COMPARISON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sensible heat flux measurements were made in an agricultural setting near Champaign, Illinois by using doppler sodar, eddy correlations and profile methods during convective conditions during an experimental study called VOICE, (Vertical Observations Involving Convective Exchange...

  13. LIVE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM FOR OREGON VINEYARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Region 10 has funded the Oregon Winegrape Commission in a project that promotes the LIVE (Low Input Viticulture and Enology) certification program. LIVE is an integrated winegrape production system that promotes ecologically sensible production techniques. For example, cer...

  14. FIRE_AX_ECMWF_SFDIAG

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-24

    ... Point Temperature Evaporation Precipitation Solar Radiation Surface Latent Heat Flux Surface Sensible Heat Flux Surface Stress Temperature Thermal Radiation Wind Speed Order Data:  Search and Order: Earthdata Search ...

  15. Response to "Language, Politics, and Composition: A Conversation with Noam Chomsky."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sledd, James

    1991-01-01

    Responds to the conversation of two eminent compositionists with Noam Chomsky. Discusses the alleged literary crisis, sensible prescriptivism versus linguistic permissiveness, police and thought control, intellectually interesting versus humanly significant topics, and rhetorical theory. (PRA)

  16. Dental Pulp Testing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Eugene; Abbott, Paul V.

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp testing is a useful and essential diagnostic aid in endodontics. Pulp sensibility tests include thermal and electric tests, which extrapolate pulp health from sensory response. Whilst pulp sensibility tests are the most commonly used in clinical practice, they are not without limitations and shortcomings. Pulp vitality tests attempt to examine the presence of pulp blood flow, as this is viewed as a better measure of true health than sensibility. Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse oximetry are examples of vitality tests. Whilst the prospect is promising, there are still many practical issues that need to be addressed before vitality tests can replace sensibility tests as the standard clinical pulp diagnostic test. With all pulp tests, the results need to be carefully interpreted and closely scrutinised as false results can lead to misdiagnosis which can then lead to incorrect, inappropriate, or unnecessary treatment. PMID:20339575

  17. Impurity scattering, quasiparticle localization and Anderson's theorem in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelov, Yu.

    1994-12-01

    It is shown that localized quasiparticle states exist near (non-magnetic) impurity scatterers in a superconductor, accompanied by the local and global gap suppression. However this does not affect sensibly the SC transition temperature, in accordance with Anderson's theorem.

  18. [Effective cleansing and decontamination of the base of an injury; reduction in time for cicatrization].

    PubMed

    González, Juan Antonio Jiménez; Resúa, María Rosa Pérez

    2008-02-01

    The authors evaluate a solution and a gel composed of undecylenate prophyl betaine and polyhexanide recommended for cleansing and decontaminating injuries, without having any cytotoxic, irritating or sensibility effect which favors and stimulates the natural cicatrization process. PMID:18496963

  19. Writers: They Who Know the Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Suzanne

    1993-01-01

    Considers what makes up the sensibilities and personal traits of a writer. Describes how one writer learned to express herself through a particular writing workshop. Outlines the reasons writers write and lists some tricks of the trade. (HB)

  20. Real Gas Effects on the Performance of Hydrocarbon-fueled Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Yungster, Shaye

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results for a single-pulse detonation tube wherein the effects of high temperature dissociation and the subsequent recombination influence the sensible heat release available for providing propulsive thrust. The study involved the use of ethylene and air at equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 1.0. The real gas effects on the sensible heat release were found to be significantly large so as to have an impact on the thrust, impulse and fuel consumption of a PDE.

  1. Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1982-01-01

    Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

  2. Federico Delpino and the foundation of plant biology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In 1867, Federico Delpino, with his seminal work Pensieri sulla Biologia Vegetale (Thoughts on Plant Biology) established plant biology by defining it not in the broad general sense, namely as the science of living beings, but as a branch of natural science dedicated to the study of plant life in relation to the environment. Today, the figure and achievements of this outstanding plant scientist is almost unknown. In the following pages, I will concisely describe the main realizations of Federico Delpino and outline the significance of his work for modern plant science. PMID:21490417

  3. Comparative Analysis of Evapotranspiration Using Eddy Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BAE, H.; Ji, H.; Lee, B.; Nam, K.; Jang, B.; Lee, C.; Jung, H.

    2013-12-01

    The eddy covariance method has been widely used to quantify evapotranspiration. However, independent measurements of energy components such as latent heat flux, sensible heat flux often lead to under-measurements, this is commonly known as a lack of closure of the surface energy balance. In response to this methodological problem, this study is addressed specifically to correction of the latent and heat sensible fluxes. The energy components observed in agricultural and grassland from January 2013 were measured using the eddy covariance method. As a result of the comparison of the available energy (Rn-G) with the sum of the latent and sensible heat fluxes, R-Squared values were 0.72 in the agricultural land, 0.78 in the grassland, indicating that the latent and sensible heat fluxes were under-measured. The obtained latent and sensible heat fluxes were then modified using the Bowen-ratio closure method. After this correction process, the values of the sum of the latent and sensible heat fluxes have increased by 39.7 percent in the agricultural land, 32.2 percent in the grassland respectively. Evapotranspiration will be calculated with both the unmodified and modified latent heat flux values, the results will be then thoroughly compared. The results will be finally verified by comparison with evapotranspiration obtained from energy balance based model.

  4. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  5. Linfedema (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la anatomía, la patofisiología, las manifestaciones clínicas, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del linfedema relacionado con el cáncer, una afección en la que se acumula líquido linfático en los tejidos y causa inflamación..

  6. Estimative of energy budget in Brazilian Savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santanna, F. B.; Arruda, P. H.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.; Nogueira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The main goal of this work was to estimate the sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux using the eddy covariance method in a Cerrado "Campo Sujo" area, basically with herb-shrub physiognomy, sparse woody vegetation and approximately 2m height. The geographical position of the Cerrado, altitude, latitude, longitude, climate and weather conditions are determined by the dynamics of the atmosphere that affects the whole South America and consequently influence the ecological framework of ecosystems. The results shown by the components considered in the energy balance were more significant during the day, which the atmospheric boundary layer extends from the ground to about 50 or 100 meters height, showing greater instability and turbulence (u* > 0.2 m / s), and this turbulence is what justifies the use of the eddy covariance method to estimate the sensible and latent heat flux. The Cerrado presents seasonal difference between the densities estimates of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux. During the rainy season the sensible heat flux (H) was 25% and the latent heat flux (LE) 54%. During the dry season the sensible heat flux (H) was 42% and the latent heat flux (LE) 30% of the energy budget.

  7. Is the comprehension of idiomatic sentences indeed impaired in paranoid Schizophrenia? A window into semantic processing deficits

    PubMed Central

    Pesciarelli, Francesca; Gamberoni, Tania; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Lo Russo, Leo; Pedrazzi, Francesca; Melati, Ermanno; Cacciari, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have been reported to be more impaired in comprehending non-literal than literal language since early studies on proverbs. Preference for literal rather than figurative interpretations continues to be documented. The main aim of this study was to establish whether patients are indeed able to use combinatorial semantic processing to comprehend literal sentences and both combinatorial analysis, and retrieval of pre-stored meanings to comprehend idiomatic sentences. The study employed a sentence continuation task in which subjects were asked to decide whether a target word was a sensible continuation of a previous sentence fragment to investigate idiomatic and literal sentence comprehension in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Patients and healthy controls were faster in accepting sensible continuations than in rejecting non-sensible ones in both literal and idiomatic sentences. Patients were as accurate as controls in comprehending literal and idiomatic sentences, but they were overall slower than controls in all conditions. Once the contribution of cognitive covariates was partialled out, the response times (RTs) to sensible idiomatic continuations of patients did not significantly differ from those of controls. This suggests that the state of residual schizophrenia did not contribute to slower processing of sensible idioms above and beyond the cognitive deficits that are typically associated with schizophrenia. PMID:25346676

  8. Estimation of surface energy balance from radiant surface temperature and NOAA AVHRR sensor reflectances over agricultural and native vegetation. [AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer)

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Xinmei; Lyons, T.J. ); Smith, R.C.G. ); Hacker, J.M.; Schwerdtfeger, P. )

    1993-08-01

    A model is developed to evaluate surface heat flux densities using the radiant surface temperature and red and near-infrared reflectances from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensor. Net radiation is calculated from an empirical formulation and albedo estimated from satellite observations. Infrared surface temperature is corrected to aerodynamic surface temperature in estimating the sensible heat flux and the latent flux is evaluated as the residual of the surface energy balance. When applied to relatively homogeneous agricultural and native vegetation, the model yields realistic estimates of sensible and latent heat flux density in the surface layer for cases where either the sensible or latent flux dominates. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Surface energy and radiation balance systems - General description and improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Simpson, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Surface evaluation of sensible and latent heat flux densities and the components of the radiation balance were desired for various vegetative surfaces during the ASCOT84 experiment to compare with modeled results and to relate these values to drainage winds. Five battery operated data systems equipped with sensors to determine the above values were operated for 105 station days during the ASCOT84 experiment. The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to partition the available energy into the sensible and latent heat flux densities. A description of the sensors and battery operated equipment used to collect and process the data is presented. In addition, improvements and modifications made since the 1984 experiment are given. Details of calculations of soil heat flow at the surface and an alternate method to calculate sensible and latent heat flux densities are provided.

  10. Sampling errors in the vertical fluxes of potential temperature and moisture measured by aircraft during FIFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Robert L.

    1992-11-01

    The First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) was carried out over a 15 × 15 km area in central Kansas [Sellers et al., this issue]. The site size was constrained by land use characteristics, topography, and, importantly, the ability to field a reasonable network of surface observations of plant physiology, soil moisture, and radiative characteristics as well as surface observations of meteorological observations, including vertical fluxes of sensible heat and moisture. As described by Kelly [this issue], aircraft flying within the atmospheric boundary layer over the FIFE site played an important role: they provided direct measurements of the vertical fluxes of sensible heat and moisture above the FIFE site. Potential temperature flux and sensible heat flux differ by the constant ρdcp, where ρd is the dry air density (which is nearly constant in the atmospheric boundary layer) and cp is the specific heat of dry air at constant pressure.

  11. Comparison of ground-derived and satellite-derived surface energy fluxes from a shrub-steppe site

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, R.R.; Gee, G.W.; Fritschen, L.J.

    1994-03-01

    Efforts to measure evapotranspiration (ET) remotely are common in agriculture, and the application of such data to irrigation scheduling is readily apparent. Extending this methodology to arid environments is primarily of use as a mechanism for validation of ET algorithms used in large-scale watershed and global climate change modeling efforts. To facilitate testing of the remote sensing method for ET, measurements of sensible and latent heat flux were made at four sites located on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site using a combination of lysimeter and Bowen Ratio Energy Balance (BREB) stations. The objective was to calibrate an aerodynamic transport equation that relates sensible heat flux to radiant surface temperature, and to map sensible heat flux using Landsat data.

  12. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, José E; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-García, María Inmaculada

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic bacteria resistance to antibiotics is increasing, and even has appeared against the most active of those, like metronidazol and carbapenems. This fact forces to make and periodical sensibility tests -at least in the most aggressive and virulent species, in cases that they are isolated from life locations and in the absence of therapeutic response- to check the local sensibility and to establish suitable empiric therapies, all based on multicentric studies carried out in order to this or well to check the activity of new antibiotics. For the laboratory routine, the easiest sensibility method is the E-test/MIC evaluator. Another alternative is microdilution, that's only normalized for Bacteroides. There are preliminary facts that allow the use of disc diffusion method in some species of Bacteroides and Clostridium. For the temporal and multicentric studies, the procedure is dilution in agar plate, the reference method. PMID:24630580

  13. New beam monitoring tool for radiobiology experiments at the cyclotron ARRONAX.

    PubMed

    Schwob, L; Koumeir, C; Servagent, N; Cherel, M; Guertin, A; Haddad, F; Métivier, V; Michel, N; Poirier, F; Rahmani, A; Varmenot, N

    2015-09-01

    The ARRONAX cyclotron is able to deliver alpha particles at 68 MeV. In the frame of radiological research, a new method is studied to infer in situ the deposited dose: it is based on the online measurement of the bremsstrahlung (>1 keV) produced by the interaction of the incident particle with the medium. Experiments are made using bombarded poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-equivalent water targets in order to characterise this continuous X-ray spectrum. The intensity of the bremsstrahlung spectrum allows for the beam monitoring. A simulation code of the bremsstrahlung has been built, and a good agreement is found with the experimental spectra. With this simulation, it is possible to predict the sensibility of this method: it varies with the target thickness, showing a good sensibility for thin target (<1000 µm) and saturation for thicker ones. Bremsstrahlung spectrum also shows a sensibility on the target's chemical composition. PMID:25897142

  14. Evapotranspiration under advective conditions.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Patricia I; Berliner, Pedro R

    2005-07-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions are heterogeneous landscapes in which irrigated fields are surrounded by arid areas. The advection of sensible heat flux from dry surfaces is a significant source of energy that has to be taken into consideration when evaluating the evaporation from crops growing in these areas. The basic requirement of most of the common methods for estimating evapotranspiration [Bowen ratio, aerodynamic and Penman-Monteith (PM) equation] is that the horizontal fluxes of sensible and latent heat are negligible when compared to the corresponding vertical fluxes. We carried out measurements above an irrigated tomato field in a desert area. Latent and sensible heat fluxes were measured using a four-level Bowen machine with aspirated psychrometers. Our results indicate that under advective conditions only measurements carried out in the lowest layer are satisfactory for the estimation of latent heat fluxes and that the use of the PM equation with an appropriately parameterized canopy resistance may be preferable. PMID:15647907

  15. Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Verma, Shashi B.; Starks, Patrick; Norman, John M.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations to model fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation using routine weather data collected by automated weather stations was tested and the estimated fluxes were compared with fluxes measured over wheat. The model Cupid was used to model the fluxes. Two or more automated weather stations, interrogated by radio frequency and other means, were utilized to examine some of the climatic variability of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) site, to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams from various locations at the site and to compare modeled latent and sensible heat fluxes with measured values. Some bidirectional reflected and emitted radiation data were collected from 23 locations throughout the FIFE site. Analysis of these data along with analysis of the measured sensible and latent heat fluxes is just beginning.

  16. Influence of Leaf Area Index on the Radiometric Resistance to Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Lee, Xuhui; Suyker, Andrew E.; Wen, Xuefa

    2016-01-01

    Sensible heat flux is an important component of the surface energy balance. Land surface models often use the radiative surface temperature instead of the aerodynamic temperature to predict the surface sensible flux, because the former is much easier to observe by remote sensing or to compute from the surface energy balance equation. Here, measurements from 44 FLUXNET sites are used to examine the stability and leaf area index ( LAI) dependence of the radiometric resistance, a resistance that should be included in the bulk transfer method if the radiometric temperature is used for the flux calculation. Results show that the radiometric resistance is much higher under stable conditions than under unstable conditions. In unstable conditions, the radiometric resistance is highly sensitive to LAI, decreasing exponentially as LAI increases. Omission of the radiometric resistance from the bulk transfer method causes a large overestimation in the sensible heat flux, especially for low- LAI surfaces and under unstable conditions.

  17. The effect of increasing the level of atmospheric CO2 on heat and vapour fluxes over vegetated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemankovics, M. H.

    Vegetation plays an important role in the processes of matter and energy flow between the surface and the atmosphere. The Crop Micrometeorological Simulation Model (CMSM) completed with the response function to external CO2 concentration was used to investigate the effects of the doubled amounts of CO2 on the rate of photosynthesis, sensible and latent heat. The output of CMSM with respect to normal and doubled CO2 concentration is different. The rates of photosynthesis and sensible heat are increased and the rate of latent heat is decreased both in C3 and C4 plants due to the doubled CO2 concentration.

  18. Ocean fluxes simulated by the GLAS GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Shukla, J.

    1984-01-01

    A two year run with the GLAS climate model with prescribed but seasonally varying boundary conditions provided mean monthly fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and radiative energy. These fluxes were analyzed to examine the energy exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ice-free ocean. A mean annual plot of monthly zonal fuxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and net radiation was produced. From these, northward transport of heat flux that would follow if the GCM simulated fluxes were consistent with oceanic circulation were produced. These results are compared with observations.

  19. Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    DOEpatents

    Szydlowski, Donald F.; Kuzminskas, Vaidotas; Bittner, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

  20. Parameterization of surface heat fluxes above forest with satellite thermal sensing and boundary-layer soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried; Hsu, A. Y.; Schmugge, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the feasibility of determining the surface flux of sensible heat from forest using surface temperatures measured by a satellite together with soundings of temperature aloft in the unstable atmospheric boundary layer. Consideration is also given to the effect of the spatial scale of the surface temperature measurement on the parameterization by means of the scalar roughness. The latent heat flux is derived from the sensible heat flux by means of the energy budget. The data used in the study have been obtained during the HAPEX-MOBILHY experiment of 1986. The approach is based on turbulence similarity for the unstable atmospheric boundary layer.

  1. Parameterization of surface heat fluxes above a forest with satellite thermal sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried; Hsu, A. Y.; Schmugge, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The authors discuss the feasibility of determining the surface flux of sensible heat from forests with surface temperatures measured by satellites together with temperature soundings in the unstable atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The latent heat flux is derived from the sensible heat flux by means of the energy budget. The study makes use of data collected during HAPEX-MOBILHY (Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment-Modelization du Bilan Hydrique). The methodology is based on turbulence similarity for the unstable ABL. The surface temperature data were derived from measurements by the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) aboard the NOAA-9 satellite; the atmospheric profiles were obtained by radiosondes.

  2. Estimating monthly averaged air-sea transfers of heat and momentum using the bulk aerodynamic method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esbensen, S. K.; Reynolds, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Air-sea transfers of sensible heat, latent heat and momentum are computed from 25 years of middle-latitude and subtropical ocean weather ship data in the North Atlantic and North Pacific using the bulk aerodynamic method. The results show that monthly averaged wind speeds, temperatures and humidities can be used to estimate the monthly averaged sensible and latent heat fluxes from the bulk aerodynamic equations to within a relative error of approximately 10%. The estimates of monthly averaged wind stress under the assumption of neutral stability are shown to be within approximately 5% of the monthly averaged nonneutral values.

  3. Estimating monthly-averaged air-sea transfers of heat and momentum using the bulk aerodynamic method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esbensen, S. K.; Reynolds, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Air-sea transfers of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum are computed from twenty-five years of middle-latitude and subtropical ocean weather ship data in the North Atlantic and North Pacific using the bulk aerodynamic method. The results show that monthly-averaged wind speeds, temperatures, and humidities can be used to estimate the monthly-averaged sensible and latent heat fluxes computed from the bulk aerodynamic equations to within a relative error of approximately 10%. The estimate of monthly-averaged wind stress under the assumption of neutral stability are shown to be within approximately 5% of the monthly-averaged non-neutral values.

  4. Monthly auxiliary cooling estimation for residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, R.D.; Lazarus, G.S.

    1989-04-01

    A procedure to estimate monthly auxiliary sensible and latent cooling is detailed. This procedure includes the effects of internal heat generation; infiltration and ventilation; solar radiation absorbed on the outside of the building and solar radiation transmitted through glazings; and heat gains (or losses) through massive walls, glazings, and perimeters caused by outside/inside temperature differences. The effects of day/night room air temperature swings in massive buildings are also included. In addition to sensible and latent cooling requirements, the monthly average daytime and nighttime room air temperatures are calculated. 8 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. [Experience in performing the medical expert assessment of persons comprising organized contingents taking into account the ecological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Trofimov, A V; Gal'perov, B V; Bogoslova, N S

    1991-03-01

    The testing influence of a magnetic field, which is used as a new variant of a functional trial, may furnish an additional information about the possibilities of the human organism in concrete heliophysical conditions. Positive hypertensive reactions caused by the magnetic signal in 20% of cases show a high sensibility of a human organism to natural and induced magnetic fields. During the formation of crews and teams for actions in extreme heliophysical regions or for works with the sources of radioelectronic emission, the restrictions must be imposed for operators who have a high magnetic sensibility. This method may be used for the purpose of improving the quality of military medical expertise. PMID:1853595

  6. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  7. Feature Extraction on Brain Computer Interfaces using Discrete Dyadic Wavelet Transform: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareis, I.; Gentiletti, G.; Acevedo, R.; Rufiner, L.

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate different feature extraction alternatives to detect the event related evoked potential signal on brain computer interfaces, trying to minimize the time employed and the classification error, in terms of sensibility and specificity of the method, looking for alternatives to coherent averaging. In this context the results obtained performing the feature extraction using discrete dyadic wavelet transform using different mother wavelets are presented. For the classification a single layer perceptron was used. The results obtained with and without the wavelet decomposition were compared; showing an improvement on the classification rate, the specificity and the sensibility for the feature vectors obtained using some mother wavelets.

  8. A Lifetime of Student Debt? Not Likely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the issue of student debt. Despite tales of gargantuan student debt burdens for some college graduates, studies show that most students borrow sensibly, pay it back, and are better off for having gone to college. But for a vocal minority of borrowers, problems with student-loan debt are very real. About 8…

  9. Comparision of estimation methods to determine turbulent fluxes over snow in a mountainous forested environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The turbulent exchange of sensible and latent heat and mass between the snowcover and the atmosphere can represent a significant component of the snowcover energy and mass balance in mountainous environments. These fluxes are computed in land surface and energy balance snowmelt models, though few m...

  10. Teaching More than the Discipline: Modeling Leadership in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura; McDaniel, Larry; Watt, Don

    2008-01-01

    The educational process in higher education is much more than just the presentation of a discipline to a group of learners. Leaders in higher education are responsible to students to conduct themselves as educational leaders. Sensible leadership depends upon a variety of factors such as flexible behavior; an ability to identify specific behaviors…

  11. Multilingualism, Language Policy and Creative Writing in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbithi, Esther K

    2014-01-01

    Language use and creative writing go hand in hand. In the process of exploring language, we also engage in the study of literature. An engagement with literature is, indeed, a continuing process of improving our capacity to use language and refining our sensibility to good language use. In Kenya, there are clearly discernible patterns of creative

  12. Sensitivity of model parameterizations for simulated latent heat flux at the snow surface for complex mountain sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The snowcover energy balance is typically dominated by net radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Validation of the two latter components is rare and often difficult to undertake at complex mountain sites. Latent heat flux, the focus of this paper, is the primary coupling mechanism between...

  13. Image Schemas in Verb-Particle Constructions: Evidence from a Behavioral Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive linguists claim that verb-particle constructions are compositional and analyzable, and that the particles contribute to the overall meaning in the form of image schemas. This article examined this claim with a behavioral experiment, in which participants were asked to judge the sensibility of short sentences primed by image-schematic…

  14. State-Formation, Teaching Techniques, and Globalisation as Aporia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bernadette

    2005-01-01

    This paper conjoins Derrida's analysis of aporia and boderlines with Foucault's genealogical sensibilities to rethink the attribution of recent events in education to globalisation. Three analytical domains are linked to historicise student-teacher interaction: studies of pedagogical techniques, sociological analyses of the state, and…

  15. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  16. Moral Education in a Plural Society: A Singapore Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopinathan, S.

    1980-01-01

    This article examines moral education in the schools of Singapore, a highly complex society with considerable pluralism plus rapid urbanization and industrialization. Analysis of recent government reports indicates an inadequate response to moral education issues--concern for political stability and ethnic sensibilities promote generalizations…

  17. Paying for sex-only for people with disabilities?

    PubMed

    Earp, Brian D; Moen, Ole Martin

    2016-01-01

    Thomsen (2015) argues that people with disabilities should be granted an exception to a general prohibition on paying for sex. In this response, we argue that Thomsen's call for an exception does not withstand careful scrutiny. The concerns that appear to motivate his argument point instead, we argue, to a case for legalization of prostitution, coupled with sensible health and safety regulations. PMID:26543134

  18. Self-Determination Theory in Schools of Education: Can an Empirically Supported Framework also Be Critical and Liberating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Richard M.; Niemiec, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    In many graduate schools of education there is strong resistance to formal theories, especially those that are supported through quantitative empirical methods. In this article we describe how self-determination theory (SDT), a formal and empirically focused framework, shares sensibilities with critical theorists concerning the importance of

  19. Furniture for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Thomas G.

    2001-01-01

    Explains why schools often fail to apply intelligent, sensible, and informed decision-making skills when selecting classroom furniture. Presents the main considerations in determining the best furniture for any particular environment. Explains what sort of system should be set up to insure that the best furniture is purchased for the best price.

  20. "City Blood Is No Better than Country Blood": The Populist Movement and Admissions Policies at Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelber, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on historical admissions policies and offers a more nuanced and more substantial treatment of the relationship between Populism and higher education. Prior accounts of admissions in the late nineteenth century have sensibly focused upon the tension between secondary school leaders who were mindful of their multiple…

  1. 26 CFR 1.922-1 - Requirements that a corporation must satisfy to be a FSC or a small FSC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... its office equipment capable of reading the machine-sensible media. That equipment, however, must be... under section 922(a)(1)(E)? A-19. If the corporation appoints a new member who is a nonresident of the... corporation appoints a new member who is a nonresident of the United States to the board within 30 days...

  2. 26 CFR 1.922-1 - Requirements that a corporation must satisfy to be a FSC or a small FSC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... its office equipment capable of reading the machine-sensible media. That equipment, however, must be... under section 922(a)(1)(E)? A-19. If the corporation appoints a new member who is a nonresident of the... corporation appoints a new member who is a nonresident of the United States to the board within 30 days...

  3. 26 CFR 1.922-1 - Requirements that a corporation must satisfy to be a FSC or a small FSC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... its office equipment capable of reading the machine-sensible media. That equipment, however, must be... under section 922(a)(1)(E)? A-19. If the corporation appoints a new member who is a nonresident of the... corporation appoints a new member who is a nonresident of the United States to the board within 30 days...

  4. 26 CFR 1.922-1 - Requirements that a corporation must satisfy to be a FSC or a small FSC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... its office equipment capable of reading the machine-sensible media. That equipment, however, must be... under section 922(a)(1)(E)? A-19. If the corporation appoints a new member who is a nonresident of the... corporation appoints a new member who is a nonresident of the United States to the board within 30 days...

  5. Field scale spatiotemporal analysis of surface soil moisture for evaluating point-scale in situ networks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture is an intrinsic state variable that varies considerably in space and time. From a hydrologic viewpoint, soil moisture controls runoff, infiltration, storage and drainage. Soil moisture determines the partitioning of the incoming radiation between latent and sensible heat fluxes. Althou...

  6. The Who and the What of Educational Cosmopolitanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    In the educational strand of cosmopolitanism, much attention has been placed on theorizing and describing who is cosmopolitan. It has been argued that cosmopolitan sensibilities negotiate and/or embody such paradoxes as rootedness and rootlessness, local and global concerns, private and public identities. Concurrently, cosmopolitanism has also…

  7. Public/Private Partnerships: A Trojan Horse for Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence; Chiarelott, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Partnering with private industry is presented as a sensible solution to some faculties at institutions of higher education during the current economic downturn. The authors discuss the historic context for increased efficiencies and provide descriptions of how two institutions responded to the prospect of "collaborating" with a corporation. In one…

  8. Using Graphic Texts in Secondary Classrooms: A Tale of Endurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, the author entered the crucible of trying to use graphic novels in her classroom to promote her students' artistic sensibilities. In this article, she discusses benefits and some problems--including access, content, and expense--of teaching graphic novels.

  9. How Much Security Does Your Library Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Kyle

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to keep library systems healthy and functioning by taking sensible security measures. Examines why hackers would target library systems and how library systems are compromised. Describes tools that can help, including: firewalls; antivirus software; alarms; network analysis tools; and encryption. Identifies several strategies for…

  10. Time to End the Bias towards Inclusive Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runswick-Cole, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The UK coalition Government's call to end the "bias" towards inclusion represents a shift in "policy speak" as the new administration attempts to re-narrate special education by putting forward a "reasonable and sensible" solution to the "problem of inclusion". However, implicit in the call is the assumption that there has, in fact, been a "bias

  11. Mediating Third-Wave Feminism: Appropriation as Postmodern Media Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugart, Helene A.; Waggoner, Catherine Egley; Hallstein, D. Lynn O'Brien

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes gendered representations of Alanis Morissette, Kate Moss, and Ally McBeal. Argue that, in each case, the appropriation of third-wave feminist tenets is accomplished via a postmodern aesthetic code of juxtaposition that serves to recontextualize and reinscribe those sensibilities in a way that ultimately functions to reify dominant…

  12. Urban Children and Intellectual Emancipation: Video Narratives of Self and Place in the City of Milwaukee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafi-Prats, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study uses an interdisciplinary framework inspired by Ranciere (1991, 2009, 2010) ideas such as "intellectual equality," "redistribution of the sensible," and "aesthetic heterogenesis" to analyze the production of video-narratives of self and place within a group of Latino eight-year-olds attending public school in Milwaukee. The essay film,…

  13. Different rates of soil drying after rainfall are observed by the SMOS satellite and the South Fork In Situ Soil Moisture Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture affects the spatial variation of land–atmosphere interactions through its in'uence on the balance of latent and sensible heat 'ux. Wetter soils are more prone to 'ooding because a smaller fraction of rainfall can in'ltrate into the soil. The Soil Moisture and Oceanic Salinity (SMOS) sa...

  14. Extended School Year Programs: The Effects on Achievement and Other Phases of Student's Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crim, Roger D.

    Reasons for the present emphasis on all-year operation of schools differ from those prevailing 30-40 years ago. During the depression emphasis was on economy. Recently, a more sensible reason for an extended school year is coming into focus--the year-round school has educational value. It is not just something to be considered in order to save

  15. Evaluation of a wireless infrared thermometer with a narrow field of view

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agricultural applications rely on infrared sensors for remote measurement of surface temperatures, for crop status monitoring, and estimating sensible and latent heat fluxes. Historically, applications for these non-contact thermometers employed the use of hand-held or stationary industrial inf...

  16. 76 FR 30495 - National Safe Boating Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-13167 Filed 5-24-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8680 of May 20, 2011 National Safe Boating Week, 2011 By the President of the... Week is an opportunity to highlight the importance of safety precautions and sensible behavior...

  17. Rising ozone concentrations decrease soybean evapotranspiration and water use efficiency while increasing canopy temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of increasing [O3] on soybean canopy scale fluxes of heat and water vapor as well as water use efficiency (WUE) at the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment (SoyFACE) facility. Micrometeorological measurements were made to determine the net radiation (Rn) sensible hea...

  18. Aerodynamic Temperature Derived from Flux-Profile Measurements and Two-Source Model Predictions over a Cotton Row Crop in an Advective Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface aerodynamic temperature (SAT) is related to the atmospheric forcing conditions (radiation, wind speed and air temperature) and surface conditions. SAT is required in the bulk surface resistance equation to calculate the rate of sensible heat flux exchange. SAT cannot be measured directly...

  19. Becoming a Stepfamily: Patterns of Development in Remarried Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papernow, Patricia L.

    Noting that partners enter into stepfamily relationships with expectations more appropriate to biological families, this book examines the unique and complex dynamics of remarried families. Drawing on interviews with over 100 stepfamily members, current research, a solid theoretical framework, and a clinical sensibility, the book presents a model…

  20. Choice as a Global Language in Local Practice: A Mixed Model of School Choice in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Chin-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses school choice policy as an example to demonstrate how local actors adopt, mediate, translate, and reformulate "choice" as neo-liberal rhetoric informing education reform. Complex processes exist between global policy about school choice and the local practice of school choice. Based on the theoretical sensibility of…

  1. Entering Adulthood: Looking at Body Image and Eating Disorders. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giarratano, Susan

    This module includes six lessons which focus on issues related to body image and self-esteem, eating disorders, and sensible eating habits for adolescents in grades 9-12. In lesson 1, students examine influences on body image, assess their personal traits, and trade assessments with their peers. In lesson 2, students look at pressure and…

  2. Mathematics Suggested by a Logo: Both Rich and Beautiful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We consider here the plethora of mathematical ideas arising from something as apparently banal as an association logo. This example is used to illustrate the fact that a potentially rich task may also have the capacity to appeal, in a powerful way, to learners' aesthetic sensibilities. It is to be hoped that both teachers and lecturers will find

  3. Two-stream instability model with electrons trapped in quadrupoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, P. J.

    2009-08-01

    We formulate the theory of the two-stream instability (e-cloud instability) with electrons trapped in quadrupole magnets. We show that a linear instability theory can be sensibly formulated and analyzed. The growth rates are considerably smaller than the linear growth rates for the two-stream instability in drift spaces and are close to those actually observed.

  4. Views and Voices of the Working Class: Ada and Rosario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, Spanish television audiences saw the debut of the nation's first spinoff, the sitcom "Ada." The show featured the tribulations of its title character and her working-class family in their struggle to "llegar a fin de mes." It seemed to promise a sensibility enacted in the US series "Roseanne," where

  5. Inter-annual comparision of measured turbulent fluxes over snow at a wind-sheltered and wind-exposed site using eddy covariance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes using eddy covariance (EC) instrumentation over snow in complex terrain have become more common in the past decade. Analysis of EC measurements at two sites, wind-exposed and wind-protected, for three consecutive years is presented. The analysis focuse...

  6. Networks of Knowledge, Matters of Learning, and Criticality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara; Edwards, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Higher education in the UK has become preoccupied with debates over the authority of knowledge and of criticality. In this article we argue that approaches to knowledge in higher education might benefit from a network sensibility that foregrounds the negotiated processes through which the material becomes entangled with the social to bring forth…

  7. Empowerment: The Emperor's New Clothes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyris, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Discusses why there has been little growth in empowerment over the past 30 years. Suggests that executives often work against empowerment both consciously and unconsciously and that they often do not seem to want what they say they need. Makes some recommendations that may help executives think more sensibly about empowerment. (JOW)

  8. Beyond Language in Indigenous Language Immersion Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stairs, Arlene; Peters, Margaret; Perkins, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    The Akwesasne Freedom School, on the Akwesasne Mohawk reservation (New York and Canada), is an independent immersion school that preserves not only the Mohawk language but also socialization patterns, styles of interpersonal relations, ethical principles, and aesthetic sensibilities. The curriculum is based on the Iroquoian Thanksgiving Address,…

  9. Latin Holidays: Mexican Americans, Latin Music, and Cultural Identity in Postwar Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macias, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    This essay recreates the exciting Latin music and dance scenes of post-World War II Southern California, showing how Mexican Americans produced and consumed a range of styles and, in the process, articulated their complex cultural sensibilities. By participating in a Spanish-language expressive culture that was sophisticated and cosmopolitan,…

  10. Evaluating Flux-Variance Relationships Under Strongly Advective Conditions During BEAREX08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flux-variance approaches for latent and sensible heat flux using eddy covariance (EC) tower data from the Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing Experiment (BEAREX_08) are evaluated for irrigated and non-irrigated cotton,a pasture grassland surface, a fallow wheat field and a 10 m EC tow...

  11. No minimum threshold for ozone-induced changes in soybean canopy fluxes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations [O3] are increasing at rates that exceed any other pollutant. This highly reactive gas drives reductions in plant productivity and canopy water use while also increasing canopy temperature and sensible heat flux. It is not clear whether a minimum threshold of ozone ...

  12. Doing Better with Less Energy: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, C. William

    1982-01-01

    New energy-responsible buildings will not only use less energy, but will be more comfortable, more closely attuned to nature, and will create a better learning and living environment. The most cost-effective planning decisions have to do with good passive solar design and sensible operations. (MLW)

  13. Does the No Child Left Behind Act Improve Schools and Increase Educational Opportunity? Point of View Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlak, Harold

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the author questions whether the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) achieves its stated purpose: to raise standards of academic achievement. Deeper understanding, subtlety of thought, creativity, critical thinking, perseverance, leadership and sensibility about self and the world cannot be measured by multiple-choice technology. The…

  14. Conceptualizing Learning from the Everyday Activities of Digital Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsi, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the intensified engagement that youth are having with digital technologies and introduces a framework for examining "digital fluency"--the competencies, new representational practises, design sensibilities, ownership, and strategic expertise that a learner gains or demonstrates by using digital tools to gather, design,…

  15. Beautiful Nonsense: Children's Authentic Art-Making and Deleuzian Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grube, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    When we join with another who shares our sensibilities, we have potential for doing good. This article explores how the self-initiated art making of children that happens outside the classroom challenges the child emotionally and intellectually more than teacher-directed school art. Furthermore, authentic collaborative art making creates a site…

  16. Transformational and Transformative Leadership in a Research-Informed Leadership Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Davis, Ann W.; Lashley, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This article describes IMPACT V, a grant-funded preparation partnership among a community of institutions, and then considers whether such a partnership is a viable way to cultivate transformational and transformative sensibilities in building leaders. Methods included content analysis of baseline and summative student artifacts. Findings suggest

  17. Public Relations and Library Weeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Paul; Gray, Caryl

    2005-01-01

    Beginning in 1995, the University Libraries of Virginia Tech embarked on a major shelf-load reduction/storage project. Every effort was made to communicate the scope of the project to the teaching/research faculty of the university. This article presents an overview of the project, with emphasis on ways in which sensible criteria, advance…

  18. EVALUATION OF MOLTEN SCRUBBING FOR FINE PARTICULATE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    One important proposed use of low Btu fuel gas derived from coal gasification processes is the generation of electric power by combustion and expansion of the gas through a gas turbine. Successful operation of such a system is predicated on the conservation of sensible heat of th...

  19. A Rhizomatics of Hearing: Becoming Deaf in the Workplace and Other Affective Spaces of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    This paper stages a corporeal and affective trail through plateaus of "Becoming deaf" in the workplace of academia. The paper aims to display the unfamiliarity of deafness in a profession whose ability to speak and hear the written word is all too commonsense. In this piece, Deleuze and Guattari's "rhizome" acts as sensibility and motif as a body…

  20. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  1. Commentary: Implementation, Sustainability, and Scaling up in School Contexts--Can School Psychology Make the Shift?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pianta, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    In the context of a broader focus on prevention and school psychology, there is no question that Elias, Zins, Graczyk, and Weissberg (2003) raise key issues in the movement toward a sensible approach to creating school and classroom environments that are responsive to children's developmental needs. The Elias et al. article argues convincingly for…

  2. Transformational and Transformative Leadership in a Research-Informed Leadership Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Davis, Ann W.; Lashley, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This article describes IMPACT V, a grant-funded preparation partnership among a community of institutions, and then considers whether such a partnership is a viable way to cultivate transformational and transformative sensibilities in building leaders. Methods included content analysis of baseline and summative student artifacts. Findings suggest…

  3. Initiating "The Methodology of Jacques Ranciere": How Does It All Start?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Duncan P.

    2012-01-01

    Educationalists are currently engaging with Jacques Ranciere's thought on emancipation and equality. The focus of this paper is on what initiates the process that starts emancipation. With reference to teachers the question is: how do teachers become emancipated? This paper discusses how the teacher's life is made "sensible" and how sense is

  4. Teaching a Faulkner Novel Using Research from the Discipline of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel G.

    Students cannot be trained to perceive the complicated richness of literary art, but they may be educated to align their sensibilities with writer's clues when a literary work requires an intuitive reading. For instance, William Faulkner admired Keats's "Ode to a Grecian Urn" and various commentators have noted the urn-like imagery in Faulkner's…

  5. Faulkner's Image of the Black Man in "Go Down, Moses".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denniston, Dorothy L.

    1983-01-01

    In "Go Down, Moses," William Faulkner shows a sensitive understanding of the character and sensibilities of Black people. Faulkner's characterizations and illustrations of relationships between Blacks and Whites imply the hope that understanding between the races can be realized through man's conscious will to return to natural instincts.…

  6. Energy fluxes estimation in a juniper tree area of the Donana biological reserve through TSEB method and Landsat-5TM imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy fluxes computing (actual evapotranspiration, net radiation, sensible heat and soil heat flux) are essential to improve the knowledge of the hydrological cycle, especially in natural vegetation covers. In this paper we present the first results of the energy fluxes modeling by means of the TSE...

  7. ESTIMATION OF BARE-SOIL EVAPORATION USING A CALORIMETRIC APPROACH WITH HEAT FLUX MEASURED AT MULTIPLE DEPTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An assumption in calorimetric methods for soil heat flux is that sensible heat terms can be balanced (i.e., if the heat flux is known at one depth, the heat flux at another depth may be determined by monitoring the change in heat storage). Latent heat from water evaporation is assigned to the energy...

  8. Wide Variation in Understanding about What Constitutes "Binge-Drinking"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Richard; French, David P.; Sniehotta, Falko F.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies investigated undergraduates' knowledge of the UK government recommendations about binge drinking and sensible drinking, and also examined how labelling oneself as a binge drinker is associated with binge drinking perceptions. In Study 1, 325 undergraduates reported how many units constitute binge drinking, and labelled themselves as a…

  9. Budgeting for Technology in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Lawrence O.

    1998-01-01

    When expanding educational technology resources, schools are challenged to purchase equipment with a limited, multiyear lifespan while finding the annual operating funds to maintain and operate the equipment. The revolving fund offers one sensible alternative. Public budgeting's rigidities allow no easy way to budget for ongoing technology costs.…

  10. Encouraging Agitation: Teaching Teacher Candidates to Confront Words that Wound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Jeanine M.

    2010-01-01

    In this analytic conceptual essay, and from her standpoint as an African American woman teacher/researcher, the author presents a rich description of a personal sensibility and promising professional practice for literacy educators and those who prepare Reading/English/Language Arts teacher candidates for service among students who are…

  11. EYE to I: Influences of the Psychology of Perception in the Act of Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittler, Janette Marie

    The act of composition is based on perception, selection, and arrangement in time and space of what is seen. How the world is seen depends on experience, memory, sensibility, discriminative powers, sexual identity, and cultural and historical contexts. Students can learn to understand how their personality affects what they see by maintaining…

  12. Katsushika Hokusai and a Poetics of Nostalgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the activation of aesthetics through the examination of an acute sensitivity to melancholy and time permeating the literary and pictorial arts of Japan. In medieval court circles, this sensitivity was activated through a pervasive sense of aware, a poignant reflection on the pathos of things. This sensibility became the…

  13. Measurements of visual double stars with a 6" reflector and a em-ccd imaging device. (French Title: Mesures d'étoiles doubles avec un télescope de 150mm et une caméra em-ccd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sérot, J.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the measurements of 192 visual double stars obtained between Avr 2010 and Feb 2011 with a 6" reflector telescope and an EM-CCD camera. The sensibility of this kind of imaging device allowed us to obtain reliable measures for systems up to mag 12.

  14. A NAC Gene Regulating Senescence Improves Grain Protein, Zinc, and Iron Content in Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing the nutritional value of food crops is a sensible strategy for improving human nutrition and health. We report here the positional cloning of Gpc-B1, a wheat QTL associated with increased grain protein, Zn and Fe contents. The ancestral wild wheat allele encodes a NAC transcription factor ...

  15. Spirituality in Teacher Training at an Islamic College in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdreich, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at an Islamic teacher training college in Israel in an attempt to understand how religious revival shapes women's understandings of being Muslim women professionals in Israel. The college grew out of Islamic revival in Israel; its teacher training program reflects the sensibilities that Islamic revival hopes to foster in women…

  16. Multilingualism, Language Policy and Creative Writing in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbithi, Esther K

    2014-01-01

    Language use and creative writing go hand in hand. In the process of exploring language, we also engage in the study of literature. An engagement with literature is, indeed, a continuing process of improving our capacity to use language and refining our sensibility to good language use. In Kenya, there are clearly discernible patterns of creative…

  17. Facebook: The New Classroom Commons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Harriet L.

    2010-01-01

    There has been much discussion about the issue of boundaries on Facebook. Some suggest faculty members can resolve potential dilemmas in relation to students by making sensible decisions about what to post and by fine-tuning privacy settings. But the challenges and opportunities run deeper. For those who want to be appropriately accessible to…

  18. When Food Is a Foe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Patricia L.

    1998-01-01

    Although only 5% of the population has severe food allergies, school business officials must be prepared for the worst-case scenario. Banning foods and segregating allergic children are harmful practices. Education and sensible behavior are the best medicine when food allergies and intolerances are involved. Resources are listed. (MLH)

  19. 78 FR 14629 - 10th Anniversary of the United States Department of Homeland Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... and the private sector, DHS has taken action to make our borders and ports more secure, our critical... chart a course toward sensible reform. And in a decade marked by national emergencies and natural.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-05395 Filed 3-5-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3...

  20. Glimpses of Japan through Comics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Caron

    Through Japanses comic strips (called "manga" in Japanese) students can gain an appreciation not only for the different sensibilities of the Japanese but for similarities as well. One unit consists of an essay, a comic strip, frame by frame explanations, and questions for discussion. In total, there are nine units because odd numbers are…

  1. Can Distributional Approximations Give Exact Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some mathematical activities and investigations for the classroom or the lecture theatre can appear rather contrived. This cannot, however, be levelled at the idea given here, since it is based on a perfectly sensible question concerning distributional approximations that was posed by an undergraduate student. Out of this simple question, and

  2. Don't Make Me Laugh: People Are Funny in "Wall-E" and "Tropic Thunder"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The current difficulties of making challenging humor while respecting the legitimate sensibilities of stigmatized people are discussed. Two very different movie comedies include jokes about people. One is received with outrage on behalf of the group that is made the butt of the jokes, people who are "mentally challenged"; the other, about…

  3. Spanish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Construction and Validity among Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usart, Mireia; Romero, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study of "Time Orientation" (TO) has been focused on how to measure this construct and its effects on human behavior. Defined as a fundamental psychological variable, TO is multidimensional, sensible to cultural differences and age. Although its relation to learning, it deserves further study in the different Higher…

  4. Can Distributional Approximations Give Exact Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some mathematical activities and investigations for the classroom or the lecture theatre can appear rather contrived. This cannot, however, be levelled at the idea given here, since it is based on a perfectly sensible question concerning distributional approximations that was posed by an undergraduate student. Out of this simple question, and…

  5. Acquiring Double Images: White Preservice Teachers Locating Themselves in a Raced World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidl, Barbara L.; Hancock, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Barbara Seidl and Stephen Hancock introduce the concept of a double image, which they argue is central to the development of a mature, antiracist identity for White people. Similar in some ways to Dubois's (1903) concept of "double consciousness," a double image is a sensibility or consciousness that gives White people a deeper…

  6. Surface fluxes and water balance of spatially varying vegetation within a small mountainous headwater catchment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the role of ecosystems in modulating energy, water and carbon fluxes is critical to quantifying the variability in energy, carbon, and water balances across landscapes. This study compares and contrasts the seasonal surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat and carbon fluxes measur...

  7. Confessions from the Performatively Confused

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rose

    2007-01-01

    "Confessions" begins with an auto-ethnographic account of my learning-through-movement in a relationship that was intimate, therapeutic, embodied and instructive--with a teacher called Annie. It seems sensible to start with a choreographic teacher of Feldenkrais therapies and theatre-movement to think about the meanings I import from my roles as…

  8. Study of energy flows in Pantanal - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santanna, F. B.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this work was to estimate fluxes using the eddy covariance method in a wetland area, basically with herb-shrub physiognomy, sparse woody vegetation and approximately 4m height. The geographical position of the Pantanal, altitude, latitude, longitude, climate and weather conditions are determined by the dynamics of the atmosphere that affects the whole South America and consequently influence the ecological framework of ecosystems. The results shown by the components considered in the energy balance were more significant during the day, which the atmospheric boundary layer extends from the ground to about 50 or 100 meters height, showing greater instability and turbulence (u* > 0.2 m / s), and this turbulence is what justifies the use of the eddy covariance method to estimate the sensible and latent heat flux. The Pantanal presents seasonal difference between the densities estimates of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux. During the rainy season the sensible heat flux (H) was 30% and the latent heat flux (LE) 58%. During the dry season the sensible heat flux (H) was 46% and the latent heat flux (LE) 40% of the energy budget.

  9. Upscaling and downscaling of land surface fluxes with surface temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key surface boundary condition that is significantly correlated to surface flux partitioning between latent and sensible heat. The spatial and temporal variation in LST is driven by radiation, wind, vegetation cover and roughness as well as soil moisture status ...

  10. Experiencing Change, Encountering the Unknown: An Education in "Negative Capability" in Light of Buddhism and Levinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reading of the philosophies of Emmanuel Levinas and Theravada Buddhism across and through their differences in order to rethink an education that is committed to "negative capability" and the sensibility to uncertainty that this entails. In fleshing this out, I first explore Buddhist ideas of impermanence, suffering…

  11. Remarkable-Tracking, Experiential Education of the Ecological Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Phillip G.

    2010-01-01

    Imagination might be understood as letting our senses, perceptions and sensibilities run free for no apparent reason. Here, for this special edition what might be "remarkable" is the "opening" of our imagination provided orally through storytelling. This opening involves the "placing" of our own and our listeners' embodied selves in the…

  12. Self-Determination Theory in Schools of Education: Can an Empirically Supported Framework also Be Critical and Liberating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Richard M.; Niemiec, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    In many graduate schools of education there is strong resistance to formal theories, especially those that are supported through quantitative empirical methods. In this article we describe how self-determination theory (SDT), a formal and empirically focused framework, shares sensibilities with critical theorists concerning the importance of…

  13. When You Write Your Policy on Grievances: A Primer for the Prudent School Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olfson, Lewy

    1974-01-01

    Boards of education should undertake the process of devising acceptable grievance procedures with great care and with the most expert advice available. A sensible, workable, and fair system is most likely to evolve if the board takes the initiative rather than waiting for demands by the teachers' associations. (WM)

  14. Determining aerodynamic conductance of spar chambers from energy balance measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aerodynamic conductance (gA) of SPAR chambers was determined from measurements of energy balance and canopy temperature over a peanut canopy. gA was calculated from the slope of sensible heat flux (H) versus canopy-to-air temperature difference. H and the canopy-to-air temperature were varied by...

  15. Evaluation of measured and simulated turbulent components of a snow cover energy balance model in order to refine the turbulent transfer algorithm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy balance models use physically based principles to simulate snow cover accumulation and melt. Snobal, a snow cover energy balance model, uses a flux-profile approach to calculating the turbulent flux (sensible and latent heat flux) components of the energy balance. Historically, validation dat...

  16. Identity, Agency and Community: Reconsidering the Pedagogic Responsibilities of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moate, Josephine; Ruohotie-Lyhty, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a model for teacher education based on an ongoing action research project at a Finnish university. This model draws on the educational theory of Dewey and the pedagogical sensibility of Bakhtin to critically consider the concepts of teacher identity and agency and to highlight the role of community in teacher development. Our

  17. Trajan's Rome: The Man, the City, the Empire. A Unit of Study for Grades 6-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen S.; Flanders, Claudia; Landers, David

    The integration of the study of art and history in a broad context of social, cultural, and political meaning cultivates a students' creative, aesthetic, critical and art historical sensibilities. This unit of study explores the time of the Roman Emperor Trajan, the decades from A.D. 98 to 180, a period considered to be the height of civilization.…

  18. Our Greatest Natural Resource: Investing in the Future of Alaska's Children. A Report of the Governor's Interim Commission on Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Office of the Governor, Juneau.

    In 1987, the Governor of Alaska's Interim Commission on Children and Youth was given two tasks: (1) to develop a plan for a first-class child care system for working parents statewide that is workable, fair and sensibly integrates with the public schools; and (2) to produce a comprehensive plan to combat the problems facing Alaskans so they are…

  19. Envisioning the Future: Working toward Sustainability in Fine Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Angela; Hulbert, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Fine art education provides students with opportunities to acquire knowledge and skills to respond creatively to their experience of society and culture. Fostering creative ways of knowing, thinking and doing requires studio learning conditions that promote the exploration of embodied perceptions, material sensibilities and conceptual ideas that…

  20. Faulkner's Image of the Black Man in "Go Down, Moses".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denniston, Dorothy L.

    1983-01-01

    In "Go Down, Moses," William Faulkner shows a sensitive understanding of the character and sensibilities of Black people. Faulkner's characterizations and illustrations of relationships between Blacks and Whites imply the hope that understanding between the races can be realized through man's conscious will to return to natural instincts.

  1. Teaching a Faulkner Novel Using Research from the Discipline of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel G.

    Students cannot be trained to perceive the complicated richness of literary art, but they may be educated to align their sensibilities with writer's clues when a literary work requires an intuitive reading. For instance, William Faulkner admired Keats's "Ode to a Grecian Urn" and various commentators have noted the urn-like imagery in Faulkner's

  2. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applications; rated for sensible coefficient of performance (SCOP) and tested in accordance with 10 CFR 431.96... in Btu/watt-hour. Heat Recovery (in the context of variable refrigerant flow multi-split air conditioners or variable refrigerant flow multi-split heat pumps) means that the air conditioner or heat...

  3. Identities and Social Justice Values of Prospective Teachers of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Vonzell

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study of social justice values among three prospective teachers who identity as being "of color" emphasizes the constellations of social justice sensibilities (perceptions of injustice, concern for the situations of others, socio-political and cultural consciousness, sensitivity regarding the conditions of others) they derived from…

  4. Initiating "The Methodology of Jacques Ranciere": How Does It All Start?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Duncan P.

    2012-01-01

    Educationalists are currently engaging with Jacques Ranciere's thought on emancipation and equality. The focus of this paper is on what initiates the process that starts emancipation. With reference to teachers the question is: how do teachers become emancipated? This paper discusses how the teacher's life is made "sensible" and how sense is…

  5. The Past Is All before Us: The History of Education in Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ken

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author explores these questions--from what position, with what focus, and through what methods can a history be produced that is sensible of the conflicts and passions of its own time, and that can illuminate those of the past?--estimating that the books under review in several ways invite such a demanding reading. Gary…

  6. Airbreathing Pulse Detonation Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Yungster, Shaye

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents performance results for pulse detonation engines (PDE) taking into account the effects of dissociation and recombination. The amount of sensible heat recovered through recombination in the PDE chamber and exhaust process was found to be significant. These results have an impact on the specific thrust, impulse and fuel consumption of the PDE.

  7. Will Playfulness Be Possible in University Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    "Organized anarchies" is how Michael Cohen and James March have described American universities. The lack of rational-deductive organizational characteristics in higher education has encouraged it to be "playful" in a way that is "sensibly foolish." Budgetary pressures will force universities to become more businesslike. (Author/MLW)

  8. A Comparison of Science Performance and Uptake by Fifteen-Year-Old Boys and Girls in Co-Educational and Single-Sex Schools--APU Survey Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the problems involved with the comparison of science performance of pupils attending single-sex and mixed schools, in which the former achieve higher test scores. Concludes that it is not sensible to attribute differences directly to separation of pupils in schools by sex. Suggests that factors such as preselection of students by ability…

  9. Applying a Generic Juvenile Risk Assessment Instrument to a Local Context: Some Practical and Theoretical Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joel; Lin, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    This article examines issues raised by the application of a generic actuarial juvenile risk instrument (the Model Risk Assessment Instrument) to New York City, a context different from the one in which it was developed. It describes practical challenges arising from the constraints of locally available data and local sensibilities and highlights…

  10. Practical Ideas That Really Work for Students with ADHD: Grade 5 through 12. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Kathleen; Ryser, Gail

    2005-01-01

    This book is just what many educators have been looking for: A product that provides teachers with practical and sensible solutions for students' problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; A resource for teachers, behavior specialists, psychologists, counselors, and administrators who must document interventions; A tool for IEP…

  11. Practical Ideas That Really Work for Students with ADHD: Preschool through Grade 4. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Kathleen; Ryser, Gail R.

    2006-01-01

    This book is just what many educators have been looking for: (1) A product that provides teachers with practical and sensible solutions for students' problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; (2) A resource for teachers, behavior specialists, psychologists, counselors, and administrators who must document interventions; (3) A tool…

  12. Communication and Supervision of Alcohol in the Family: Parental Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherriff, Nigel; Cox, Louise; Coleman, Lester; Roker, Debi

    2008-01-01

    It is now well acknowledged that parents can have a central role in supporting sensible alcohol use and reducing alcohol misuse amongst young people. However, little research has considered how communication and supervision in relation to alcohol actually takes place within the family. Drawing upon interviews with the parents of young people aged…

  13. Towards a Politicized Notion of Citizenship for Science Education: Engaging the Social through Dissensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    This theoretical article draws from the political thought of Jacques Rancière to trouble some taken-for-granted conceptions of citizenship education. Rancière's notion of politics and dissensus (as opposed to consensus) can lay the groundwork for a version of citizenship that challenges what is deemed sensible, visible, who is counted in…

  14. Learning To Divide the World: Education at Empire's End.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willinsky, John

    The educational project of postcolonialism in the West is only beginning. Although decolonization began in earnest after World War II, the West is only starting to see beyond divisions generated by the same sensibilities that drove imperial expansion. This book examines one powerful source of those divisions--imperialism's influence on our…

  15. The recycling of magnesium makes ¢ents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riopelle, Lisabeth

    1996-10-01

    Magnesium die castings have been experiencing dramatic growth recently, especially in the automotive market. These die castings are sensible solutions for many applications; the use of refined-recycled magnesium in those applications makes environmental and financial sense. This article discusses the methods used to refine and recyle magnesium and the options for metal-quality determination.

  16. TRANSPORT OF OZONE BY TURBULENCE AND CLOUDS IN AN URBAN BOUNDARY LAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The turbulent fluxes of ozone and latent and sensible heat are computed from fast-response measurements made aboard a NOAA aircraft over downtown Philadelphia and the surrounding suburbs during the afternoon and evening of 22 August 1979. The normalized variances and spectra of v...

  17. A thermal-based remote sensing modeling system for estimating water use of irrigated crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature (LST) from thermal remote sensing is a surface boundary condition that is strongly linked to the partitioning of the available energy between latent (evapotranspiration) and sensible heat flux. Many of the approaches require an accurate LST and air temperature observation b...

  18. ARE SINGLE-SOURCE, REMOTE-SENSING SURFACE-FLUX MODELS TOO SIMPLE?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both one-source and two-source parameterizations of surface sensible heat flux exchange using radiometric surface temperature have been proposed. Although one-source algorithms may provide reliable heat fluxes, they often require field calibration and hence are unable to accommodate the diverse ran...

  19. PARAMETERIZATION OF SUBSURFACE HEATING FOR SOIL AND CONCRETE USING NET RADIATION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The variability of surface sensible heat flux depend strongly on the rate of heating of the underlying surfaces. The variability is expected to be large in urban areas where the surfaces are layered with a variety of man-made materials. Parameterization of the ground heat storage...

  20. A thermal remote sensing modeling system for estimating evapotranspiration ovee complex landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature (LST) from thermal remote sensing is a surface boundary condition that is strongly linked to the partitioning of the available energy between latent (evapotranspiration) and sensible heat flux. Many of the approaches require an accurate LST and air temperature observation b...

  1. EFFECTS OF LEAF AREA PROFILES AND CANOPY STRATIFICATION ON SIMULATED ENERGY FLUXES: THE PROBLEM OF VERTICAL SPATIAL SCALE. (R827676)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the effects of the shape of leaf area profiles and the number of canopy layers on simulated sensible and latent heat fluxes using a gradient diffusion-based biometeorological model. Three research questions were addressed through simulation experiments: (1) Given ...

  2. Global Atmospheric Heat Distributions Observed from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Fan, Tai-Fang

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the observations of global atmospheric heat distributions using satellite measurements. Major heat components such as radiation energy, latent heat and sensible heat are considered. The uncertainties and error sources are assessed. Results show that the atmospheric heat is basically balanced, and the observed patterns of radiation and latent heat from precipitation are clearly related to general circulation.

  3. Experimental heat and mass transfer of the separated and coupled rotating desiccant wheel and heat wheel

    SciTech Connect

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie; Satake, Akira; Yoshie, Ryuichiro; Mitamura, Tiruaki; Baba, Seizo

    2010-07-15

    The experimental evaluation of the separated and coupled rotating desiccant wheel and heat wheel is reported. The study aims to investigate the performance of the desiccant wheel and of the heat wheel both when operated separately and jointly. The performance evaluation of the desiccant wheel is based on its moisture removal capacity (MRC), moisture removal regeneration (MRR), and moisture mass balance (MMB). In addition, the study used the total energy balance (TEB), sensible coefficient of performance (COP{sub Sensible}), latent coefficient of performance (COP{sub Latent}) and, total coefficient of performance (COP{sub Total}). The performance of the heat wheel is based on its effectiveness. The COP{sub Sensible}, COP{sub Latent} and, COP{sub Total} are used in the performance evaluation of the coupled desiccant wheel and heat wheel. The general results of the study show that the MRC, MRR and MMB coupled with the TEB, COP{sub Latent}, COP{sub Sensible} and COP{sub Total} predict adequately the performance of the desiccant wheel. In addition, the coupled operation of the desiccant wheel and heat wheel, contributed to the reduction of the external thermal energy requirement for the regeneration of the desiccant wheel. This study can be applied in other researches seeking evaluation of the desiccant wheel, heat wheel, and their combined operation. Moreover, the data presented here are significant for the desiccant wheel benchmarking and for evaluation of the desiccant wheel models. (author)

  4. Remote sensing of surface turbulence heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The determination of latent heat-flux variability using spaceborne sensors is discussed. Particular attention is given to the microwave sensors which have all weather capability. The retrieval of surface layer humidity, of wind speed and interfacial humidity, and of sensible heat flux are discussed. Both the indirect retrieval and direct retrieval of latent heat flux are considered.

  5. Subtractive Schooling and Betrayal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Angela

    2008-01-01

    To address the theme of this special issue--namely, the major challenges faced by teacher education in an increasing global society--the author finds herself returning to her earlier work. This return-intellectual-migration gives depth and meaning to the experience of immigration and speaks to the sensibilities (or lack thereof) that many teachers…

  6. The Fallow Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Harold

    1972-01-01

    If the Department of Agriculture can pay farmers for permitting part of their land to lie fallow each year to limit the production of grain, why isn't it sensible to pay professors to limit the production and dispersion of ideas? (Author)

  7. Spatio-temporal analysis of surface and subsurface soil moisture for remote sensing applications within the Upper Cedar Creek Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture is an intrinsic state variable that varies considerably in space and time. From a hydrologic viewpoint, soil moisture controls runoff, infiltration, storage and drainage. Soil moisture determines the partitioning of the incoming radiation between latent and sensible heat fluxes. Althou...

  8. Effective and Responsible Teaching: The New Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oser, Fritz K., Ed.; And Others

    This book offers a new paradigm for teaching--one that gives equal weight to both the practical and the moral dimensions of the craft. Contributions from educators around the world show how to combine effective and responsible teaching so that students come away with not just skills and knowledge but values and sensibilities as well. The volume…

  9. Children and Technology: Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on children's use of computers and the Internet, educational benefits of information technology, problems with using technology with young children, and teachers' adoption and use of technology. Identifies Internet sites that provide guidelines for sensible Internet use and lists children-appropriate, instructional, and…

  10. Genre, Power, and Culture in the Televisual World of "Twin Peaks": A Feminist Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafky, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Examines the economic and cultural contexts of the popular television show "Twin Peaks," reading it as reactionary postmodernism. Argues that the show's clever innovations in production, avant-garde techniques, and postmodern sensibilities obscure in-depth or ongoing discussions about its reactionary politics, regressive and misogynistic…

  11. Aumento de la supervivencia en hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico que reciben quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Los hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico sensible a las hormonas que recibieron el fármaco quimioterapéutico docetaxel al inicio de la terapia hormonal convencional vivieron más tiempo que los pacientes que recibieron solo terapia hormonal, de acuer

  12. Sunni Islam: What Students Need to Know. Footnotes. Volume 15, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, John

    2010-01-01

    It is the mark of a great world religion to accommodate different outlooks and sensibilities. Quite often, these differences are manifested in terms of formal divisions within the faith. In Islam, the major split is between Sunni and the various forms of Shiism, though other divisions also exist. This essay, excerpted from the book "Divisions…

  13. Minding the Business of Business: Tools and Models to Design and Measure Wealth Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardez, Mariano L.

    2009-01-01

    What is the business of business? How can planners and investors anticipate the true chances of failure and success of a business idea? This article describes a rationale for developing successful new business on the basis of a simple, sensible idea: the business of any business is to make its clients successful enough to continue purchasing and…

  14. The 'Adventist advantage'. Glendale Adventist Medical Center distinguishes itself.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2002-01-01

    Glendale Adventist Medical Center, Glendale, Calif., adopted an image-building campaign to differentiate the 450-bed hospital from its neighbors. This included the headline "Adventist Advantage," used in a series of sophisticated ads, printed in gold. In all their efforts, marketers consider the sensibilities of the sizable Armenian, Korean, Hispanic and Chinese populations. PMID:12134406

  15. I've Just Seen a Face: Portraits. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    Image has always been important to the powerful. Their portraits have traditionally been designed to impress people with the gravity of the subject, but changing sensibilities and media have tended to introduce more intimacy and spontaneity. Creating visual and literary representations of people has proved to be an enduring human activity. This…

  16. Things My Father Taught Me: A Daughter Reflects on Lessons That Have Guided Her Life and Shaped Her Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud, Lissa Tyler

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the author's father taught her about theatre in their everyday life. Discusses artistic sensibilities such as the use of voice, body, mind, and values. Explains the following theatre specifics: pacing; language; telling the story; relaxation and humor; participation; the audience's job; inflation of titles; history; subtext; and…

  17. Katsushika Hokusai and a Poetics of Nostalgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the activation of aesthetics through the examination of an acute sensitivity to melancholy and time permeating the literary and pictorial arts of Japan. In medieval court circles, this sensitivity was activated through a pervasive sense of aware, a poignant reflection on the pathos of things. This sensibility became the

  18. Growing Everyday Multiculturalism: Practice-Based Learning of Chinese Immigrants through Community Gardens in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Hongxia; Walter, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    While official rhetoric of multiculturalism claims to value cultural diversity, everyday multiculturalism focuses on how people of diverse cultural backgrounds live together in their everyday lives. Research on everyday multiculturalism has documented ways through which people negotiate senses, sensibilities, emotionality, and relationality across

  19. Teaching More than the Discipline: Modeling Leadership in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura; McDaniel, Larry; Watt, Don

    2008-01-01

    The educational process in higher education is much more than just the presentation of a discipline to a group of learners. Leaders in higher education are responsible to students to conduct themselves as educational leaders. Sensible leadership depends upon a variety of factors such as flexible behavior; an ability to identify specific behaviors

  20. ED's Proposed Changes to SFSF Data Collection and Reporting Requirements: DQC's Submitted Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This letter is submitted to comment on the U.S. Department of Education's (ED) proposed revisions to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act's (ARRA) State Fiscal Stabilization Fund (SFSF), as published in the September 23, 2011, Federal Register. Overall, the Data Quality Campaign believes the proposed changes strike a sensible balance: they…